WorldWideScience

Sample records for biphasic solvent systems

  1. Non-conventional solvents in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jiwoo; Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-06-02

    The development of rapid, convenient, and high throughput sample preparation approaches such as liquid phase microextraction techniques have been continuously developed over the last decade. More recently, significant attention has been given to the replacement of conventional organic solvents used in liquid phase microextraction techniques in order to reduce toxic waste and to improve selectivity and/or extraction efficiency. With these objectives, non-conventional solvents have been explored in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems. The utilized non-conventional solvents include ionic liquids, magnetic ionic liquids, and deep eutectic solvents. They have been widely used as extraction solvents or additives in various liquid phase microextraction modes including dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, single-drop microextraction, hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction, as well as in aqueous biphasic systems. This review provides an overview into the use of non-conventional solvents in these microextraction techniques in the past 5 years (2012-2016). Analytical applications of the techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved levulinic acid production from agri-residue biomass in biphasic solvent system through synergistic catalytic effect of acid and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Kundu, Pranati; Sangwan, Rajender S; Kansal, Sushil K; Runge, Troy M; Elumalai, Sasikumar

    2018-03-01

    In this study, levulinic acid (LA) was produced from rice straw biomass in co-solvent biphasic reactor system consisting of hydrochloric acid and dichloromethane organic solvent. The modified protocol achieved a 15% wt LA yield through the synergistic effect of acid and acidic products (auto-catalysis) and the designed system allowed facile recovery of LA to the organic phase. Further purification of the resulting extractant was achieved through traditional column chromatography, which yielded a high purity LA product while recovering ∼85% wt. Upon charcoal treatment of the resultant fraction generated an industrial grade target molecule of ∼99% purity with ∼95% wt recovery. The system allows the solvent to be easily recovered, in excess of 90%, which was shown to be able to be recycled up to 5 runs without significant loss of final product concentrations. Overall, this system points to a method to significantly reduce manufacturing cost during large-scale LA preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Liquid biphase systems formed in ternary mixtures of two organic solvents and ethylene oxide oligomers or polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Marcos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase equilibrium data were determined for ternary systems containing ethylene oxide oligomers or polymers, heptane and one of three organic solvents (methanol, dichloromethane or chloroform. The effects of temperature, of polymer molecular weight and of the chemical nature of the organic solvent on phase equilibrium were investigated. For all the studied systems, the miscibility region was reduced as temperature decreased, indicating an exothermic phase separation process. For both binary and ternary mixtures, the miscibility also decreased as the macromolecule size increased, although this effect was less significant for the ternary mixtures. These features suggest that phase separation is more influenced by enthalpic than entropic contributions. Regarding the different polar solvents investigated, methanol presented a much smaller miscibility region, in accordance with its inferior solvation ability for PEO. The largest miscibility region was observed with chloroform, not much different from the behaviour observed with dichloromethane. Tie lines were determined for some systems, confirming the strong segregation between polymer and the hydrocarbon solvent.

  4. Applications of ionic liquids in biphasic separation: Aqueous biphasic systems and liquid-liquid equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shashi Kant; Pandey, Shubha; Pandey, Siddharth

    2017-10-10

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving much attention in many fields of analytical chemistry because of their various interesting properties which distinguish them from volatile organic compounds. They offer both directional and non-directional forces towards a solute molecule and therefore act as excellent solvents for a wide range of polar and non-polar compounds. Because of the presence of various possible interactions, ILs easily undergo biphasic separation with water and other less polar/non-polar organic solvents. Their ability to create biphasic splitting makes them a promising candidate for liquid-liquid separation processes, such as aqueous biphasic systems and liquid-liquid equilibria. Various aspects of ILs in these separation methods are discussed in view of the origin of physical forces responsible for the biphasic interactions, the effect of structural components, temperature, pressure, pH and additives. The specific advantages of using ILs in aqueous biphasic systems and liquid-liquid equilibria in binary and ternary systems are discussed with a view to defining their future role in separation processes by giving major emphasis on developing non-toxic ILs with physical and solution properties tailored to the needs of specific sample preparation techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Generic Model-Based Tailor-Made Design and Analysis of Biphasic Reaction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata

    systems have a broad range of application, such as the manufacture of petroleum based chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agro-bio products. Major considerations in the design and analysis of biphasic reaction systems are physical and chemical equilibria, kinetic mechanisms, and reaction rates. The primary...... different organic solvents leading to an improved and innovative design of the system.......Biphasic reaction systems are composed of immiscible aqueous and organic liquid phases where reactants, products, and catalysts are partitioned. These biphasic conditions point to novel synthesis paths, higher yields, and faster reactions, as well as facilitate product separation. The biphasic...

  6. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W.

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation

  7. A Framework for the Modelling of Biphasic Reacting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Sin, Gürkan; O’Connell, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Biphasic reacting systems have a broad application range from organic reactions in pharmaceutical and agro-bio industries to CO 2 capture. However, mathematical modelling of biphasic reacting systems is a formidable challenge due to many phenomena underlying the process such as chemical equilibrium...

  8. Perfluorinated quaternary ammonium salts of polyoxometalate anions: Fluorous biphasic oxidation catalysis with and without fluorous solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayan, Galia; Fish, Richard H.; Neumann, Ronny

    2003-05-28

    Perfluorinated quaternary ammonium cations, [CF{sub 3}(CF{sub 2}){sub 7}(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sub 3}CH{sub 3}N{sup +} (RFN{sup +}), were synthesized and used as counter cations for the [WZnM{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{sup 12-} (M = Mn(II), Zn(II)), polyoxometalate. The (RFN{sup +}){sub 12}[WZnM{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(ZnW9O{sub 34}){sub 2}] compounds were fluorous biphasic catalysts for alcohol and alkenol oxidation, and alkene epoxidation with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. Reaction protocols with or without a fluorous solvent were tested. The catalytic activity and selectivity was affected both by the hydrophobicity of the solvent and the substrate.

  9. Production of levulinic acid, furfural, and gamma valerolactone from C.sub.5 and C.sub.6 carbohydrates in mono- and biphasic systems using gamma-valerolactone as a solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A.; Alonso, David Martin; Gurbuz, Elif I.; Wettstein, Stephanie G.

    2013-03-19

    A method to make levulinic acid (LA), furfural, or gamma-valerolactone (GVL). React cellulose (and/or other C.sub.6 carbohydrates) or xylose (and/or other C.sub.5 carbohydrates) or combinations thereof in a monophasic reaction medium comprising GVL and an acid; or (ii) a biphasic reaction system comprising an organic layer comprising GVL, and a substantially immiscible aqueous layer. At least a portion of the cellulose (and/or other C.sub.6 carbohydrates), if present, is converted to LA and at least a portion of the xylose (and/or other C.sub.5 carbohydrates), if present, is converted into furfural.

  10. Enhancing productivity for cascade biotransformation of styrene to (S)-vicinal diol with biphasic system in hollow fiber membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Wu, Shuke; Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee; Li, Zhi

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation is a green and useful tool for sustainable and selective chemical synthesis. However, it often suffers from the toxicity and inhibition from organic substrates or products. Here, we established a hollow fiber membrane bioreactor (HFMB)-based aqueous/organic biphasic system, for the first time, to enhance the productivity of a cascade biotransformation with strong substrate toxicity and inhibition. The enantioselective trans-dihydroxylation of styrene to (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol, catalyzed by Escherichia coli (SSP1) coexpressing styrene monooxygenase and an epoxide hydrolase, was performed in HFMB with organic solvent in the shell side and aqueous cell suspension in the lumen side. Various organic solvents were investigated, and n-hexadecane was found as the best for the HFMB-based biphasic system. Comparing to other reported biphasic systems assisted by HFMB, our system not only shield much of the substrate toxicity but also deflate the product recovery burden in downstream processing as the majority of styrene stayed in organic phase while the diol product mostly remained in the aqueous phase. The established HFMB-based biphasic system enhanced the production titer to 143 mM, being 16-fold higher than the aqueous system and 1.6-fold higher than the traditional dispersive partitioning biphase system. Furthermore, the combination of biphasic system with HFMB prevents the foaming and emulsification, thus reducing the burden in downstream purification. HFMB-based biphasic system could serve as a suitable platform for enhancing the productivity of single-step or cascade biotransformation with toxic substrates to produce useful and valuable chemicals.

  11. Pickering interfacial catalysis for biphasic systems: from emulsion design to green reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Titus, Marc; Leclercq, Loïc; Clacens, Jean-Marc; De Campo, Floryan; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique

    2015-02-09

    Pickering emulsions are surfactant-free dispersions of two immiscible fluids that are kinetically stabilized by colloidal particles. For ecological reasons, these systems have undergone a resurgence of interest to mitigate the use of synthetic surfactants and solvents. Moreover, the use of colloidal particles as stabilizers provides emulsions with original properties compared to surfactant-stabilized emulsions, microemulsions, and micellar systems. Despite these specific advantages, the application of Pickering emulsions to catalysis has been rarely explored. This Minireview describes very recent examples of hybrid and composite amphiphilic materials for the design of interfacial catalysts in Pickering emulsions with special emphasis on their assets and challenges for industrially relevant biphasic reactions in fine chemistry, biofuel upgrading, and depollution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved ... Mixed solvent systems; electrolyte solutions; dynamic fluorescence measurements; theory. 1. ..... Open and filled triangles represent τs for the other binary mixture in the absence and presence of 1.0 M LiClO4, respectively. exponentially with the mole ...

  13. Aqueous biphasic systems involving alkylsulfate-based ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deive, Francisco J. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Rodriguez, Ana [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Marrucho, Isabel M., E-mail: imarrucho@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Rebelo, Luis P.N. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as phase promoter in aqueous solutions of ILs. > Remarkable influence of alkyl-chain length on solubility curves of alkylsulfate-based ILs. > Merchuck correlation was used for describing these systems. > {Delta}S{sub hyd} and Hofmeister series were used to discuss the different salting out effects. - Abstract: The specific effects of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, as high charge-density inorganic salts and thus inducers of the formation of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) containing several ethyl-methylimidazolium alkylsulfate ionic liquids, C{sub 2}MIM C{sub n}SO{sub 4} (n = 2, 4, 6, or 8), have been assessed at T = 298.15 K. The results are analyzed in the light of the Hofmeister series. The influence of different alkyl chain lengths in the anion, together with the ability of the selected inorganic salts to induce the formation of ABS, is discussed. Phase diagrams have been determined through turbidimetry, including tie lines assignments from mass phase ratios according to the lever - arm rule. The Merchuck equation was satisfactorily used to correlate the solubility curve.

  14. Insight into Aluminum Sulfate-Catalyzed Xylan Conversion into Furfural in a γ-Valerolactone/Water Biphasic Solvent under Microwave Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Zhou, Yi-Han; Zhu, Sheng-Zhen; Pan, Hui; Huang, Yao-Bing

    2017-10-23

    A simple and efficient biphasic system with an earth-abundant metal salt catalyst was used to produce furfural from xylan with a high yield of up to 87.8 % under microwave conditions. Strikingly, the metal salt Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 exhibited excellent catalytic activity for xylan conversion, owing to a combination of Lewis and Brønsted acidity and its ability to promote good phase separation. The critical role of the SO 4 2- anion was first analyzed, which resulted in the aforementioned characteristics when combined with the Al 3+ cation. The mixed solvent system with γ-valerolactone (GVL) as the organic phase provided the highest furfural yield, resulting from its good dielectric properties and dissolving capacity, which facilitated the absorption of microwave energy and promoted mass transfer. Mechanistic studies suggested that the xylan-to-furfural conversion proceeded mainly through a hydrolysis-isomerization-dehydration pathway and the hexa-coordinated Lewis acidic [Al(OH) 2 (aq)] + species were the active sites for xylose-xylulose isomerization. Detailed kinetic studies of the subreaction for the xylan conversion revealed that GVL regulates the reaction rates and pathways by promoting the rates of the key steps involved for furfural production and suppressing the side reactions for humin production. Finally, the Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 catalyst was used for the production of furfural from several lignocellulosic feedstocks, revealing its great potential for other biomass conversions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Electrochemical assessment of water|ionic liquid biphasic systems towards cesium extraction from nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmann, T. Jane; Zhang, Jing; Montgomery, Anne-Marie; Ding, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electroanalytical chemistry was employed to assess cesium ion extraction in biphasic systems. • Water|ionic liquid systems are much more efficient than traditional water|organic ones. • The metal ion to ligand stoichiometry and overall complexation constant were determined. • The stoichiometry was confirmed by mass spectrometry. • The ligand CMPO used in TRUEX processes was found to be effective for the FIT. - Abstract: A room temperature ionic liquid (IL) composed of a quaternary alkylphosphonium (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium, P 66614 + ) and tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion (TB − ) was employed within a water|P 66614 TB (w|P 66614 TB or w|IL) biphasic system to evaluate cesium ion extraction in comparison to that with a traditional water|organic solvent (w|o) combination. 137 Cs is a major contributor to the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the reactor, and its extraction efficiency is therefore of considerable importance. The extraction was facilitated by the ligand octyl(phenyl)-N,N′-diisobutylcarbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) used in TRans-Uranium EXtraction processes and investigated through well established liquid|liquid electrochemistry. This study gave access to the metal ion to ligand (1:n) stoichiometry and overall complexation constant, β, of the interfacial complexation reaction which were determined to be 1:3 and 1.6 × 10 11 at the w|P 66614 TB interface while the study at w|o elicited an n equal to 1 with β equal to 86.5. Through a straightforward relationship, these complexation constant values were converted to distribution coefficients, δ α , with the ligand concentrations studied for comparison to other studies present in the literature; the w|o and w|IL systems gave δ α of 2 and 8.2 × 10 7 , respectively, indicating a higher overall extraction efficiency for the latter. For the w|o system, the metal ion-ligand stoichiometries were confirmed through isotopic distribution analysis of mass

  16. Solvents and solvent effects in organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reichardt, C; Welton, T

    2011-01-01

    .../guest complexation equilibria and reactions in biphasic solvent systems and neoteric solvents, respectively. More than 900 new references have been added, giving preference to review articles, and many older ones have been deleted. New references either replace older ones or are added to the end of the respective reference list of each chapter. Th...

  17. Polyethylene glycol-based aqueous biphasic systems: Inexpensive, nontoxic alternatives for Hanford tank remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, R.D.; Bond, A.H.; Bauer, C.B.; Song, Y.; Zhang, J.; Chomko, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for cleaner, cheaper, safer separations technologies with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems stems from the inexpensive, nontoxic, nonflammable nature, and general availability of the PEG and inorganic salts which form them, and the lack of organic diluent. The authors have demonstrated that simulants of the highly alkaline waste stored at Westinghouse Hanford will induce biphase formation when contacted with aqueous PEG-2000 solutions. They have also demonstrated that the long lived and environmentally mobile radioactive ions 99 TcO 4 - and 129 I - can be partitioned from the salt rich to the PEG-rich phase in these aqueous biphasic systems. In addition, they have shown that Group 1 and 2 cation extraction can be accomplished from highly alkaline systems via addition of an appropriate water-soluble extractant. This paper focuses on the factors affecting the distribution ratios and the work on developing a viable separations process

  18. Recycling nanoparticle catalysts without separation based on a pickering emulsion/organic biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huifang; Zhang, Zhiming; Yang, Hengquan; Cheng, Fangqin; Du, Zhiping

    2014-07-01

    A conceptually novel methodology is explored for in situ recycling of nanoparticle catalysts based on transforming a conventional organic/aqueous biphasic system into a Pickering emulsion/organic biphasic system (PEOBS). The suggested PEOBS exists as two phases, with the nanoparticle catalyst "anchored" in the Pickering emulsion phase, but is "continuous" between the organic phase and the continuous phase of the Pickering emulsion. Aqueous hydrogenations are used to evaluate the reaction performances of PEOBS, and the underlying principles of PEOBS are preliminarily elaborated. The unique properties of PEOBS lead to many intriguing findings, which are unlikely to be achieved in the reported biphasic systems. PEOBS exhibits more than a fourfold enhancement in catalysis efficiency in comparison with a conventional biphasic system. Impressively, PEOBS enables the organic product to be facilely isolated through simple decantation and the nanoparticle catalyst can be recycled in situ without the need for "separation". Its recycling effectiveness is justified by ten reaction cycles without significant catalyst loss. The simple protocol, in conjunction with the stability to simultaneously achieve high catalysis efficiency and excellent catalyst recyclability, makes PEOBS a promising methodology to develop more sustainable nanocatalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Two novel solvent system compositions for protected synthetic peptide purification by centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarouche, Nassima; Giraud, Matthieu; Forni, Luciano; Butte, Alessandro; Edwards, F; Borie, Nicolas; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2014-04-11

    Protected synthetic peptide intermediates are often hydrophobic and not soluble in most common solvents. They are thus difficult to purify by preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), usually used for industrial production. It is then challenging to develop alternative chromatographic purification processes. Support-free liquid-liquid chromatographic techniques, including both hydrostatic (centrifugal partition chromatography or CPC) and hydrodynamic (counter-current chromatography or CCC) devices, are mainly involved in phytochemical studies but have also been applied to synthetic peptide purification. In this framework, two new biphasic solvent system compositions covering a wide range of polarity were developed to overcome solubility problems mentioned above. The new systems composed of heptane/tetrahydrofuran/acetonitrile/dimethylsulfoxide/water and heptane/methyl-tetrahydrofuran/N-methylpyrrolidone/water were efficiently used for the CPC purification of a 39-mer protected exenatide (Byetta®) and a 8-mer protected peptide intermediate of bivalirudin (Angiox®) synthesis. Phase compositions of the different biphasic solvent systems were determined by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. Physico-chemical properties including viscosity, density and interfacial tension of these biphasic systems are also described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the lysis-centrifugation and agitated biphasic blood culture systems for detection of fungemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P R

    1991-01-01

    Although the detection of fungemia has been improved by the use of vented or biphasic blood culture bottles, the best recovery and earliest detection have been reported in the Isolator lysis-centrifugation system. It was recently demonstrated that improved detection of both bacteria and fungi was accomplished by mechanically agitating blood culture bottles for the first 24 h of incubation. In this study the detection of fungemia by use of the Isolator system was compared with that of an agitated biphasic system. A total of 182 fungi were isolated from blood specimens inoculated into both culture systems. No difference in the overall recovery of fungi or individual species of yeasts was observed between the two systems. However, all seven isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum were recovered in the Isolator system only. The time required to detect fungemia with each of the two systems was also compared. No statistically significant difference was observed. From the data collected during this 18-month study, it can be concluded that the overall recovery and time of detection of yeasts are equivalent in the lysis-centrifugation system and the agitated biphasic blood culture system. The lysis-centrifugation system is still superior for the detection of filamentous fungi such as H. capsulatum. PMID:1993772

  1. Aminosilicone solvent recovery methods and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiry, Irina Pavlovna; Perry, Robert James; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Farnum, Rachel Lizabeth; Genovese, Sarah Elizabeth

    2018-02-13

    The present invention is directed to aminosilicone solvent recovery methods and systems. The methods and systems disclosed herein may be used to recover aminosilicone solvent from a carbon dioxide containing vapor stream, for example, a vapor stream that leaves an aminosilicone solvent desorber apparatus. The methods and systems of the invention utilize a first condensation process at a temperature from about 80.degree. C. to about 150.degree. C. and a second condensation process at a temperature from about 5.degree. C. to about 75.degree. C. The first condensation process yields recovered aminosilicone solvent. The second condensation process yields water.

  2. Significant enhancement of (R)-mandelic acid production by relieving substrate inhibition of recombinant nitrilase in toluene-water biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Pan, Jiang; Liu, Jun-Feng; Xu, Jian-He; He, Yu-Cai; Liu, You-Yan

    2011-03-10

    The enantioselective hydrolysis of mandelonitrile with whole cells of a recombinant Escherichia coli expressing nitrilase activity was severely inhibited by the substrate at high concentrations (>300mM), which resulted in a low yield of the target product (R)-(-)-mandelic acid. To relieve the substrate inhibition and to enhance the (R)-(-)-mandelic acid productivity, eight water-organic solvent biphasic systems were attempted in this work. Toluene was found to be the most suitable solvent as the organic phase among the solvents tested. Various parameters were systematically examined and optimized in shake flasks. The phase volume ratio, buffer pH and reaction temperature were shown to be sensitive parameters affecting both the yield and the enantiopurity of product in the biphasic system. Under the optimized conditions, significant enhancement of substrate tolerance from 200mM to 500mM and average productivity from 179.6gl(-1)d(-1) to 352.6gl(-1)d(-1) were achieved. Subsequently, the biocatalytic hydrolysis of mandelonitrile was successfully carried out in a stirred reactor (2-l scale) by repeated use of the calcium alginate entrapped cells for 5 batches, affording 110.7g (R)-(-)-mandelic acid in 98.0% ee (enantiomeric excess) and a specific production of 13.8g (mandelic acid) g(-1) (cell), respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ionic-Liquid-Based Acidic Aqueous Biphasic Systems for Simultaneous Leaching and Extraction of Metallic Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Matthieu; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Schaeffer, Nicolas; Chainet, Eric; Tedjar, Farouk; Coutinho, Joao A P; Billard, Isabelle

    2018-02-05

    The first instance of an acidic aqueous biphasic system (AcABS) based on tributyltetradecyl phosphonium chloride ([P 44414 ][Cl]) and an acid is here reported. This AcABS exhibits pronounced thermomorphic behavior and is shown to be applicable to the extraction of metal ions from concentrated acidic solutions. Metal ions such as cobalt(II), iron(III), platinum(IV) and nickel(II) are found to partition preferentially to one of the phases of the acidic aqueous biphasic system and it is here shown that it successfully allows the difficult separation of Co II from Ni II , here studied at 24 and 50 °C. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Development of Modified-Release Tablets of Zolpidem Tartrate by Biphasic Quick/Slow Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N. H.; Murthy, P. N.

    2014-01-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium s...

  5. A hybrid composite system of biphasic calcium phosphate granules loaded with hyaluronic acid-gelatin hydrogel for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruq, Omar; Kim, Boram; Padalhin, Andrew R; Lee, Gun Hee; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2017-10-01

    An ideal bone substitute should be made of biocompatible materials that mimic the structure, characteristics, and functions of natural bone. Many researchers have worked on the fabrication of different bone scaffold systems including ceramic-polymer hybrid system. In the present study, we incorporated hyaluronic acid-gelatin hydrogel to micro-channeled biphasic calcium phosphate granules as a carrier to improve cell attachment and proliferation through highly interconnected porous structure. This hybrid system is composed of ceramic biphasic calcium phosphate granules measuring 1 mm in diameter with seven holes and hyaluronic acid-gelatin hydrogel. This combination of biphasic calcium phosphate and hyaluronic acid-gelatin retained suitable characteristics for bone regeneration. The resulting scaffold had a porosity of 56% with a suitable pore sizes. The mechanical strength of biphasic calcium phosphate granule increased after loading hyaluronic acid-gelatin from 4.26 ± 0.43 to 6.57 ± 0.25 MPa, which is highly recommended for cancellous bone substitution. Swelling and degradation rates decreased in the hybrid scaffold compared to hydrogel due to the presence of granules in hybrid scaffold. In vitro cytocompatibility studies were observed by preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cell line and the result revealed that biphasic calcium phosphate/hyaluronic acid-gelatin significantly increased cell growth and proliferation compared to biphasic calcium phosphate granules. Analysis of micro-computed tomography data and stained tissue sections from the implanted samples showed that the hybrid scaffold had good osseointegration and better bone formation in the scaffold one and two months postimplantation. Histological section confirmed the formation of dense collagenous tissue and new bone in biphasic calcium phosphate/hyaluronic acid-gelatin scaffolds at two months. Our study demonstrated that such hybrid biphasic calcium phosphate/hyaluronic acid-gelatin scaffold is a

  6. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  7. Solvent Handbook Database System user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Industrial solvents and cleaners are used in maintenance facilities to remove wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold release, and various other contaminants from parts, and to prepare the surface of various metals. However, because of growing environmental and worker-safety concerns, government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals and have restricted the use of halogenated hydrocarbons because they affect the ozone layer and may cause cancer. The Solvent Handbook Database System lets you view information on solvents and cleaners, including test results on cleaning performance, air emissions, recycling and recovery, corrosion, and non-metals compatibility. Company and product safety information is also available

  8. Investigation of the salting-out of polyethylene glycol-2000 in aqueous biphasic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodziak, E.; Zhang, J.; Rogers, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the potential for the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems in the separation of metal ions in such diverse fields as nuclear medicine, nuclear waste, and hydrometallurgy. PEG-based ABS may provide cheaper, cleaner, safer separation technologies. In order to realize this potential, we need to expand the number of known phase-forming salts and investigate their interactions with PEG. Phase diagrams are an invaluable tool for this purpose. In this presentation, systematic investigation of the salting-out ability of several phase-forming salts will be presented and their behavior discussed

  9. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branham-Haar, K.A.; Twitchell, K.E.

    1993-07-01

    Concern for the environment, in addition to Federal regulation, mandate the replacement of hazardous solvents with safer cleaning agents. Manufacturers are working to produce these replacement solvents. As these products are developed, potential users need to be informed of their availability. To promote the use of these new products instead of traditional solvents, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS). The HSSDS provides a comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects, and it makes that information available to solvent users, industrial hygienists, and process engineers. The HSSDS uses TOPIC reg-sign, a text retrieval system produced by Verity, Inc., to allow a user to search for information on a particular subject. TOPIC reg-sign produces a listing of the retrieved documents and allows the use to examine the documents individually and to use the information contained in them. This reference manual does not replace the comprehensive TOPIC reg-sign user documentation (available from Verity, Inc.), or the HSSDS Tutorial (available from the INEL). The purpose of this reference manual is to provide enough instruction on TOPIC reg-sign so the user may begin accessing the data contained in the HSSDS

  10. Mass transfer studies in miniature Rotating Disc Contactor (RDC) with 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramonian, S.; Sivakumar, D.; Kumar, Shekhar; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2014-01-01

    The rotating disc contactor is the widely used liquid-liquid extraction equipment for its high throughput and efficiency. In this work mass transfer performance of the miniature RDC column for the 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system was studied in terms of the operating variables such as rotor speed and flow rate of the aqueous and organic phase. The RDC column used in the experiments was shown. The column shell is made up of thick glass having diameter of 10.5 cm and height 100 cm. The rotor diameter is 5.3 cm and stator opening diameter is 6.3 cm. Totally 25 number of rotor discs were welded in the rotating shaft. This shaft was aligned in such a way that each rotor was placed in the centre of the compartment formed in between the two stator rings. The experiments were carried out to study the effect of rotor speed and superficial velocity of the dispersed and continuous phase on mass transfer efficiency. The organic solvent was made as the continuous phase and O/A ratio was set as 4 in both the continuous to dispersed phase(c-d) and dispersed to continuous phase (d-c) mass transfer experiments. The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) was estimated based on the solvent phase. The graphical representation of NTU was shown. The NTU value was observed as 4 and 3 respectively for extraction and stripping at the combined through put of 60 L/h and the rotor speed of 1000 rpm. This corresponds to the Height of Transfer Unit (HTU) value of 15 cm and 20 cm respectively for d-c and c-d mass transfer. The estimated overall mass transfer coefficient was increasing with rotor speed and superficial velocity of the liquid phases. The overall mass transfer coefficient also increases with increase in hold up

  11. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twitchell, K.E.; Skinner, N.L.

    1993-07-01

    This manual is the tutorial for the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS), an online, comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects. The HSSDS data base contains product information, material safety data sheets, toxicity reports, usage reports, biodegradable data, product chemical element lists, and background information on solvents. HSSDS use TOPIC{reg_sign} to search for information based on a query defined by the user. TOPIC provides a full text retrieval of unstructured source documents. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most queries performed with HSSDS. Instructions are provided for both window-based and character-based applications.

  12. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.; Skinner, N.L.

    1993-07-01

    This manual is the tutorial for the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS), an online, comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects. The HSSDS data base contains product information, material safety data sheets, toxicity reports, usage reports, biodegradable data, product chemical element lists, and background information on solvents. HSSDS use TOPIC reg-sign to search for information based on a query defined by the user. TOPIC provides a full text retrieval of unstructured source documents. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most queries performed with HSSDS. Instructions are provided for both window-based and character-based applications

  13. Dual lifetime referencing enables pH-control for oxidoreductions in hydrogel-stabilized biphasic reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begemann, Jens; Spiess, Antje C

    2015-09-01

    pH-shifts are a serious challenge in cofactor dependent biocatalytic oxidoreductions. Therefore, a pH control strategy was developed for reaction systems, where the pH value is not directly measurable. Such a reaction system is the biphasic aqueous-organic reaction system, where the oxidoreduction of hydrophobic substrates in organic solvents is catalysed by hydrogel-immobilized enzymes, and enzyme-coupled cofactor regeneration is accomplished via formate dehydrogenase, leading to a pH-shift. Dual lifetime referencing (DLR), a fluorescence spectroscopic method, was applied for online-monitoring of the pH-value within the immobilizates during the reaction, allowing for a controlled dosage of formic acid. It could be shown that by applying trisodium 8-hydroxypyrene-1, 3, 6-trisulfonate as pH indicator and Ru(II) tris(4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenantroline) (Ru[dpp]) as a reference luminophore the control of the pH-value in a macroscopic gel-bead-stabilized aqueous/organic two phase system in a range of pH 6.5 to 8.0 is possible. An experimental proof of concept could maintain a stable pH of 7.5 ± 0.15 during the reaction for at least 105 h. With these results, it could be shown that DLR is a powerful tool for pH-control within reaction systems with no direct access for conventional pH-measurement. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Production of Phytotoxic Metabolite Using Biphasic Fermentation System from Strain C1136 of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, a Potential Bioherbicidal Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oluwaseun ADETUNJI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of effective and environmental friendly bioherbicides depends on the type of fermentation medium used for the production of phytotoxic metabolites. The effect of biomass, colony forming unit and the phytotoxic metabolite produced from the biphasic fermentation was carried out, while the phytotoxic metabolite was tested in vivo and in-vitro on Echinochola crus-galli and dicotyledonous Chromolaena odorata. The mutant strain of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 (Lp90 produced the highest amount of conidia and the largest necrotic area on the two tested weeds when compared to its wild strain in the different biphasic media combinations. The study revealed that the biphasic system containing PDB + rice produced the highest bioherbicidal activities. Therefore, the phytotoxic metabolites from strain C1136 are suggested for large scale production of bioherbicides for the management of weeds in conventional farming to improve yield and enhance food security.

  15. Controlling Actinide Hydration in Mixed Solvent Systems: Towards Tunable Solvent Systems to Close the Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Sue B.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project has been to define the extent of hydration the f-elements and other cations in mixed solvent electrolyte systems. Methanol-water and other mixed solvent systems have been studied, where the solvent dielectric constant was varied systematically. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies provide details concerning the energetics of complexation and other reactions of these cations. This information has also been used to advance new understanding of the behavior of these cations in a variety of systems, ranging from environmental studies, chromatographic approaches, and ionization processes for mass spectrometry.

  16. Controlling Actinide Hydration in Mixed Solvent Systems: Towards Tunable Solvent Systems to Close the Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Sue B. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-10-31

    The goal of this project has been to define the extent of hydration the f-elements and other cations in mixed solvent electrolyte systems. Methanol-water and other mixed solvent systems have been studied, where the solvent dielectric constant was varied systematically. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies provide details concerning the energetics of complexation and other reactions of these cations. This information has also been used to advance new understanding of the behavior of these cations in a variety of systems, ranging from environmental studies, chromatographic approaches, and ionization processes for mass spectrometry.

  17. Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    eral studies7–19 that investigated the solvation and rota- tional dynamics either in electrolyte solutions in a sin- gle polar solvent or in binary mixtures in the absence of any electrolyte, similar studies for electrolyte solutions. £For correspondence ..... vent rotation being much faster than the ion translation provides some ...

  18. Application of the e-KT-UNIFAC Model for the Improved and Innovative Design of Biphasic Reacting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Kim, Sun H.; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Biphasic reacting systems contain effectively immiscible aqueous and organic liquid phases in which reactants, products, and catalysts can partition. These conditions allow novel synthesis paths, higher yields, and faster reactions, as well as facilitate product(s) separation. A systematic modeli...... of epoxidation of palm oil and production of furan derivatives....

  19. Kinetic studies on the Rhizomucor miehei lipase catalyzed esterification reaction of oleic acid with 1-butanol in a biphasic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, G.N.; Winkelman, J.G.M.; de Vries, Johannes; Heeres, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics of the esterification of oleic acid with 1 -butanol catalyzed by free Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic system was studied in a batch reactor. The reaction appeared to proceed via a Ping Pong bi-bi mechanism with I -butanol inhibition. The kinetic constants of the model were

  20. New technetium-99m generator technologies utilizing polyethylene glycol-based aqueous biphasic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; Bond, A.H.; Zhang, Jianhua [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Horwitz, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Two new schemes for TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}/MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} separations from OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} media using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) have been developed. The two most important salt solutions in current {sup 99m}Tc-generator technologies, OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, also salt out PEG to form ABS. In liquid/liquid PEG- ABS, pertechnetate can be separated from molybdate with separation factors as high as 10,000. Stripping is accomplished by reduction of the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and back extraction into a salt solution. the strip solution can be the salt of an imaging agent (e.g., Na{sub 4}HEDPA) and thus may, under the appropriate conditions, be injected directly into the human body. {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} can also be concentrated from a dilute load solution of {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} in NaOH using an aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic technique (ABEC). A rinse with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} assures that all {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} is removed from the column and this is confirmed by a rapid drop in {sup 99}Mo activity by the fourth free column volume (fcv) of rinse. The {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} is then eluted with water. This chromatographic separation affords 94% of the {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} activity in 5 fcv, with the y spectrum showing less than 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of the original {sup 99}Mo activity.

  1. Ligand modification for mono- and biphasic oxosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerter, P.; Herrmann, W.A.; Baskakov, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. Chemie

    2006-07-01

    The use of aqueous/organic biphasic systems has attracted huge interest in catalytic reactions by transition metal complexes. [1,2,3] The biphasic systems have benefits in catalyst separation and recycling, and the reduction or elimination of organic solvents is also advantageous for the development of economical and environmentally friendly processes. The key for such biphasic catalysis is the use of water soluble phosphines as ligands. Since the launch of the commercial propylene hydroformylation process by Ruhrchemie/Rhone-Poulenc, sulfonated ligands such as TPPTS (1), and BINAS (2) have been widely used as ligands in hydroformylation, hydrogenation and related reactions catalyzed by transition metals. One of the draw backs of ligands 1 and 2 are corrosive production conditions and therefore unfavorable costs. With the synthesis of aminoacid based trishydroxymethylphosphine derivatives (THMP-aminoacid) we introduce to our knowledge a new group of water soluble and cheap to produce ligands [8]. The properties of catalysts based on these compounds in the hydroformylation reaction of propene are discussed in comparison to normally used catalyst systems. In a second part the performance of catalysts containing NHC-ligands in the hydroformylation of 1-octene is discussed [9]. These investigations show, that the activity can be influenced by the electron donating ability of the NHC ligand. Sterical variations on the NHC ligands have no effect on the selectivity performance of the the catalysts. (orig.)

  2. Improved extraction of fluoroquinolones with recyclable ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Hugo F D; Freire, Mara G; Marrucho, Isabel M

    2016-05-07

    In the past few years, the improvement of advanced analytical tools allowed to confirm the presence of trace amounts of metabolized and unchanged active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in freshwater surfaces. It is known that the continuous contact with APIs, even at very low concentrations (ng L -1 -μg L -1 ), leads to serious human health problems. In this context, this work shows the feasibility of using ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) in the extraction of quinolones present in aqueous media. In particular, ABS composed of imidazolium- and phosphonium-based ILs and aluminium-based salts (already used in water treatment plants) were evaluated in one-step extractions of six fluoroquinolones (FQs), namely ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and sarafloxacin, and extraction efficiencies up to 98% were obtained. Despite the large interest devoted to IL-based ABS as extractive systems of outstanding performance, their recyclability/reusability has seldomly been studied. An efficient extraction/cleaning process of the IL-rich phase is here proposed by FQs induced precipitation. The recycling of the IL and its further reuse without losses in the ABS extractive performance for FQs were established, as confirmed by the four consecutive removal/extraction cycles evaluated. This novel recycling strategy supports IL-based ABS as sustainable and cost-efficient extraction platforms.

  3. Kinetic resolution of racemic styrene oxide at a high concentration by recombinant Aspergillus usamii epoxide hydrolase in an n-hexanol/buffer biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Die; Wang, Rui; Shi, Xiao-Ling; Ye, Hui-Hua; Wu, Qin; Wu, Min-Chen; Chu, Jian-Jun

    2016-10-20

    Using the cell-free extract of engineered E. coli/Aueh2, expressing the recombinant Aspergillus usamii epoxide hydrolase (reAuEH2), as a biocatalyst, the kinetic resolution technique of racemic styrene oxide (rac-SO) was examined. In a phosphate buffer system (50mM, pH 7.0), 200mM rac-SO was efficiently resolved, obtaining (S)-SO with 98.1% enantiomeric excess (e.e.), whereas (S)-SO only with 45.2% e.e. was obtained from 750mM rac-SO. The analytical results verified that reAuEH2 shows tolerance towards high substrate concentration but is inactivated at a product concentration of 300mM. To produce (S)-SO with the high concentration, e.e. and volumetric productivity, n-hexanol was selected from a variety of water-miscible and water-immiscible organic solvents to construct an n-hexanol/buffer biphasic system. The optimal phase volume ratio, substrate over enzyme ratio and temperature were 1:1 (v/v), 6:1 (w/w) and 25°C, respectively. In an optimized biocatalytic system, a gram-scale resolution of rac-SO at a high concentration of 1M (120g/L) was performed at 25°C for 2h, obtaining (S)-SO with 98.2% e.e., 34.3% yield (maximum yield of 50%). The substrate concentration and volumetric productivity (1M, 20.6g/L/h) in a biphasic system significantly increased compared with those (0.2M, 3.1g/L/h) in a phosphate buffer system. The efficient resolution of rac-SO at a high concentration in a biphasic system makes it a promising technique for preparing a highly value-added enantiopure (S)-SO with high volumetric productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modulating the Partitioning of Microparticles in a Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-Dextran (DEX Aqueous Biphasic System by Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Kyu Byun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs or aqueous biphasic systems are useful for biological separation/preparation and cell micropatterning. Specifically, aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs are not harmful to cells or biomaterials; therefore, they have been used to partition and isolate these materials from others. In this study, we suggest chemically modifying the surface of target materials (micro/nanoparticles, for example with polymers, such as polyethylene glycol and dextran, which are the same polymer solutes as those in the ATPS. As a simple model, we chemically coated polyethylene glycol or dextran to the surface of polystyrene magnetic particles and observed selective partitioning of the surface modified particles to the phase in which the same polymer solutes are dominant. This approach follows the principle “like dissolves like” and can be expanded to other aqueous biphasic or multiphasic systems while consuming fewer chemicals than the conventional modulation of hydrophobicities of solute polymers to control partitioning in aqueous biphasic or multiphasic systems.

  5. Liquid / liquid biphasic electrochemistry in ultra-turrax dispersed acetonitrile / aqueous electrolyte systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, John D.; Amemiya, Fumihiro; Atobe, Mahito; Bulman-Page, Philip C.; Marken, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Unstable acetonitrile | aqueous emulsions generated in situ with ultra-turrax agitation are investigated for applications in dual-phase electrochemistry. Three modes of operation for liquid / liquid aqueous-organic electrochemical processes are demonstrated with no intentionally added electrolyte in the organic phase based on (i) the formation of a water-soluble product in the aqueous phase in the presence of the organic phase, (ii) the formation of a product and ion transfer at the liquid / liquid-electrode triple phase boundary, and (iii) the formation of a water-insoluble product in the aqueous phase which then transfers into the organic phase. A three-electrode electrolysis cell with ultra-turrax agitator is employed and characterised for acetonitrile / aqueous 2 M NaCl two phase electrolyte. Three redox systems are employed in order to quantify the electrolysis cell performance. The one-electron reduction of Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ in the aqueous phase is employed to determine the rate of mass transport towards the electrode surface and the effect of the presence of the acetonitrile phase. The one-electron oxidation of n-butylferrocene in acetonitrile is employed to study triple phase boundary processes. Finally, the one-electron reduction of cobalticenium cations in the aqueous phase is employed to demonstrate the product transfer from the electrode surface into the organic phase. Potential applications in biphasic electrosynthesis are discussed.

  6. Development of modified-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate by biphasic quick/slow delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N H; Murthy, P N

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium starch glycolate acts as a superdisintegrant in immediate-release part and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a release retarding agent in extended-release core. Tablets were prepared by direct compression. Both the core and the coat contained the drug. The pre-compression blends were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, and compressibility index. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation test, friability, and in vitro release studies. No interaction was observed between zolpidem tartrate and excipients from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results of all the formulations prepared were compared with reference product Stilnoct®. Optimized formulations showed release patterns that match the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines for zolpidem tartrate extended-release tablets. The mechanism of drug release was studied using different mathematical models, and the optimized formulation has shown Fickian diffusion. Accelerated stability studies were performed on the optimized formulation.

  7. Non-Aqueous Biocatalysis in Homogeneous Solvent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are highly specific catalysts that typically function in aqueous solvents. However, many enzymes retain their catalytic activities at high concentrations in non- aqueous environments, including neat hydrophilic organic solvents. In fact, enzymes can be used to carry out reactions in organic solvents that are not possible in aqueous systems. Therefore, biocatalysis in homogenous non-aqueous solvents offers possibilities for producing useful chemicals and several synthetic reactions have already been developed using this type of system. The current review discusses factors that influence enzyme catalysis in non-aqueous solvents such us water content, solvent concentration, interaction of solvent with protein structure, stability and activity. Also, new strategies for non-conventional biocatalysis using extremophiles and ionic solvents are mentioned.

  8. Single-Step Purification of Ovalbumin from Egg White Using Aqueous Biphasic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Matheus M; Cruz, Rafaela A P; Almeida, Mafalda R; Lima, Álvaro S; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-06-01

    The ability of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of polyethylene glycols of different molecular weights (PEG 400, 600 and 1000) and buffered aqueous solutions of potassium citrate/citric acid (pH = 5.0 - 8.0) to selectively extract ovalbumin from egg white was here investigated. Phase diagrams, tie-lines and tie-line lengths were determined at 25ºC and the partitioning of ovalbumin in these systems was then evaluated. Aiming at optimizing the selective extraction of ovalbumin in the studied ABS, factors such as pH, PEG molecular weight and amount of the phase-forming components were initially investigated with pure commercial ovalbumin. In almost all ABS, it was observed a preferential partitioning of ovalbumin to the polymer-rich phase, with extraction efficiencies higher than 90%. The best ABS were then applied in the purification of ovalbumin from the real egg white matrix. In order to ascertain on the ovalbumin purity and yield, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) analyses were conducted, confirming that the isolation/purification of ovalbumin from egg white was completely achieved in a single-step with a recovery yield of 65%. The results obtained show that polymer-salt-based ABS allow the selective extraction of ovalbumin from egg white with a simpler approach and better performance than previously reported. Finally, it is shown that ovalbumin can be completely recovered from the PEG-rich phase by an induced precipitation using an inexpensive and sustainable separation platform which can be easily applied on an industrial scale.

  9. Alternative (Potentially Green) Separations Media: Aqueous Biphasic and Related Systems Extending the Frontier Final Report For Period September 1, 2002 January 31, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Robin D

    2007-06-25

    Through the current DoE-BES funding, we have extended our fundamental understanding of the critical phase separation of aqueous polymer solutions at the molecular level, and have developed a similar understanding of their application as novel solvent systems. Our principal aims included mode of delivery of the aqueous biphasic system (ABS) solvent system and the application of this system to problems of reactive extraction. In the former case we have developed novel solid phase analogues, in the form of cross-linked polyethylene glycol hydrogels, and in the latter case we have examined the role that ABS might play in reaction engineering, with a view to greener, simpler, and safer processes. We have also developed a new salt/salt ABS and have extended our understanding of this system as well. The major outcomes are as follows: (1) Through the use of variable temperature phase diagrams, coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the phases, a better understanding of the thermodynamics of phase formation was obtained. Evidence to the existence and role of an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or lower critical solution temperature (LCST) (or both) in these systems was gained. With variable temperature solute partitioning, thermodynamic parameters were calculated, and inter-system comparisons were made. Through the use of Abraham's linear solvation energy regression (LSER) the solvent-solute properties of liquid/liquid ABS were examined. We have shown that ABS are indeed very tunable and LSERs have been used as a tool to compare these systems to traditional organic/water and other liquid/liquid systems. (2) We have successfully shown the development of novel reaction media for chemical synthesis and reaction; Aqueous Biphasic Reactive Extraction (ABRE). As a proof of concept, we have shown the synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene in an ABS, which represents an important development in the exploitation of this technology

  10. Biphasic thermoelectric materials derived from the half-Heusler/full-Heusler system Ti-Ni-Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jason Everett

    Among the possible avenues for increasing the efficiency of global energy usage, thermoelectrics are an exciting, solid-state option. Thermoelectric materials, which convert an internal temperature gradient into a voltage and vice versa, have found applications in refrigeration as well as power generation from waste heat. TiNiSn, a semiconductor of the half-Heusler (hH) crystal structure, is of particular interest due to its very favorable electronic transport properties, conductivity (sigma) and Seebeck coefficient ( S), at relevant temperature regimes (between 600 K and 900 K). Unfortunately, its overall efficiency is hampered by a comparatively high thermal conductivity (kappa). In the design of thermoelectric materials, a number of approaches have been taken to increase the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT = ( S2sigma/kappa)T, where T is temperature. In this work we examine how microstructure can be used to alter these thermoelectric propertiesin a biphasic Ti-Ni-Sn materials containing full-Heusler (fH) TiNi2Sn embedded within hH thermoelectric TiNiSn. We explored a wide range of Ni compositions in TiNi1+xSn--from stoichiometric TiNiSn to high Heusler volume fraction, TiNi1.25Sn--materials prepared by levitation induction melting followed by annealing. Phase distributions and microstructure were characterized using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and optical and electron microscopy. In a sample of the nominal composition TiNi1.15Sn, a significant decrease in thermal conductivity (about 30%) is observed for the biphasic material despite the metallic second-phase particles existing at the micrometer scale; a 50% increase in the electrical conductivity is also measured. These result in a maximum figure of merit, ZT, of 0.44 at 800 K, which is 25% greater than is observed for the x = 0 sample. Density functional theory calculations using hybrid functionals were performed to determine band alignments between the half- and full-Heusler compounds, as well as

  11. Design and hydraulic characteristics of a field-scale bi-phasic bioretention rain garden system for storm water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Florence, D C; McCoy, E L; Dick, W A; Grewal, P S

    2009-01-01

    A field-scale bioretention rain garden system was constructed using a novel bi-phasic (i.e. sequence of anaerobic to aerobic) concept for improving retention and removal of storm water runoff pollutants. Hydraulic tests with bromide tracer and simulated runoff pollutants (nitrate-N, phosphate-P, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were performed in the system under a simulated continuous rainfall. The objectives of the tests were (1) to determine hydraulic characteristics of the system, and (2) to evaluate the movement of runoff pollutants through the system. For the 180 mm/24 h rainfall, the bi-phasic bioretention system effectively reduced both peak flow (approximately 70%) and runoff volume (approximately 42%). The breakthrough curves (BTCs) of bromide tracer suggest that the transport pattern of the system is similar to dispersed plug flow under this large runoff event. The BTCs of bromide showed mean 10% and 90% breakthrough times of 5.7 h and 12.5 h, respectively. Under the continuous rainfall, a significantly different transport pattern was found between each runoff pollutant. Nitrate-N was easily transported through the system with potential leaching risk from the initial soil medium, whereas phosphate-P and metals were significantly retained indicating sorption-mediated transport. These findings support the importance of hydraulics, in combination with the soil medium, when creating bioretention systems for bioremediation that are effective for various rainfall sizes and intervals.

  12. Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

  13. Aqueous Biphasic Systems for the Synthesis of Formates by Catalytic CO2 Hydrogenation: Integrated Reaction and Catalyst Separation for CO2‐Scrubbing Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Martin; Blas Molinos, Beatriz; Westhues, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aqueous biphasic systems were investigated for the production of formate–amine adducts by metal‐catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation, including typical scrubbing solutions as feedstocks. Different hydrophobic organic solvents and ionic liquids could be employed as the stationary phase for cis‐[Ru(dppm)2Cl2] (dppm=bis‐diphenylphosphinomethane) as prototypical catalyst without any modification or tagging of the complex. The amines were found to partition between the two phases depending on their structure, whereas the formate–amine adducts were nearly quantitatively extracted into the aqueous phase, providing a favorable phase behavior for the envisaged integrated reaction/separation sequence. The solvent pair of methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) and water led to the most practical and productive system and repeated use of the catalyst phase was demonstrated. The highest single batch activity with a TOFav of approximately 35 000 h−1 and an initial TOF of approximately 180 000 h−1 was achieved in the presence of NEt3. Owing to higher stability, the highest productivities were obtained with methyl diethanolamine (Aminosol CST 115) and monoethanolamine (MEA), which are used in commercial scale CO2‐scrubbing processes. Saturated aqueous solutions (CO2 overpressure 5–10 bar) of MEA could be converted into the corresponding formate adducts with average turnover frequencies up to 14×103 h−1 with an overall yield of 70 % based on the amine, corresponding to a total turnover number of 150 000 over eleven recycling experiments. This opens the possibility for integrated approaches to carbon capture and utilization. PMID:28103428

  14. Aqueous Biphasic Systems for the Synthesis of Formates by Catalytic CO2Hydrogenation: Integrated Reaction and Catalyst Separation for CO2-Scrubbing Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Martin; Blas Molinos, Beatriz; Westhues, Christian; Franciò, Giancarlo; Leitner, Walter

    2017-03-22

    Aqueous biphasic systems were investigated for the production of formate-amine adducts by metal-catalyzed CO 2 hydrogenation, including typical scrubbing solutions as feedstocks. Different hydrophobic organic solvents and ionic liquids could be employed as the stationary phase for cis-[Ru(dppm) 2 Cl 2 ] (dppm=bis-diphenylphosphinomethane) as prototypical catalyst without any modification or tagging of the complex. The amines were found to partition between the two phases depending on their structure, whereas the formate-amine adducts were nearly quantitatively extracted into the aqueous phase, providing a favorable phase behavior for the envisaged integrated reaction/separation sequence. The solvent pair of methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) and water led to the most practical and productive system and repeated use of the catalyst phase was demonstrated. The highest single batch activity with a TOF av of approximately 35 000 h -1 and an initial TOF of approximately 180 000 h -1 was achieved in the presence of NEt 3 . Owing to higher stability, the highest productivities were obtained with methyl diethanolamine (Aminosol CST 115) and monoethanolamine (MEA), which are used in commercial scale CO 2 -scrubbing processes. Saturated aqueous solutions (CO 2 overpressure 5-10 bar) of MEA could be converted into the corresponding formate adducts with average turnover frequencies up to 14×10 3  h -1 with an overall yield of 70 % based on the amine, corresponding to a total turnover number of 150 000 over eleven recycling experiments. This opens the possibility for integrated approaches to carbon capture and utilization. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Effect of Organic Solvent on the Enzyme Bleaching Agent System

    OpenAIRE

    コマツ, エミコ; モリタ, ミユキ; Emiko, KOMATSU; Miyuki, MORITA

    2002-01-01

    The Orange n decoloration reaction in the presence of various organic solvents with the HRP-H_2O_2 system was examined. In 5% organic solvent mixing aqueous solutions, the decoloration rates of Orange n were about 0.9-0.5 times of those in the aqueous solutions. Decoloration rate of Orange II decreased, as the concentration of organic solvent increases. The reaction of Orange n decoloration stopped at the 60% dimethyl sulfoxide concentration.

  16. Polyethylene glycol: A recyclable solvent system for the synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    22 as green solvent has also been documented, but ionic liquids safety is still debated and the reactions in water do not give good yields because of the hydrophobic nature of the organic reactants. Recently, polyethylene glycol is found to be an interesting recyclable and eco-friendly solvent system in synthetic chemistry for ...

  17. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VO{sub X}/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, J. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Chen, L.F., E-mail: lchen@ipn.mx [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Wang, J.A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J. [Dirección de Investigación, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Lázaro Cárdenas 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras, J.L. [Laboratorio de Catálisis y Polímeros, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-A, Av. San Pablo No. 180, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel was tested in a biphasic system. • ODS activity was proportional to the V{sup 5+}/(V{sup 4+} + V{sup 5+}) values of the catalysts. • Lewis acidity was related to vanadium content and catalytic activity. • 99.9% DBT was oxidized using 25%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ti-MCM-41 at 60 °C within 60 min. - Abstract: A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V{sup 5+}/(V{sup 4+} + V{sup 5+}) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  18. Enhanced extraction of bovine serum albumin with aqueous biphasic systems of phosphonium- and ammonium-based ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Matheus M.; Pedro, Sónia N.; Quental, Maria V.; Lima, Álvaro S.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    Novel aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of phosphonium- or ammonium-based ionic liquids (ILs), combined with a buffered aqueous solution of potassium citrate/citric acid (pH=7.0), were investigated for the extraction of proteins. For that purpose, the phase diagrams, tie-lines and tie-line lengths were determined at 25ºC, and the performance of these ABS for the extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was then evaluated. The obtained results reveal that, with the exception of the more hydrophobic ILs, most of the systems investigated allow the complete extraction of BSA for the IL-rich phase in a single-step. These remarkable extraction efficiencies are far superior to those afforded by more conventional extraction systems previously reported. The composition of the biphasic systems, i.e., the amount of phase-forming components, was also investigated aiming at reducing the overall costs of the process without losing efficiency on the protein extraction. It is shown that the extraction efficiencies of BSA are maintained at 100% up to high protein concentrations (at least up to 10 g.L-1). The recovery of the BSA from the IL-rich phase by dialysis is also shown in addition to the demonstration of the IL recyclability and reusability, at least for 3 times. In the sequential three-step extractions (BSA recovery/IL reusability), the extraction efficiencies of BSA for the IL-rich phase were maintained at 100%. For the improved ABS, the preservation of the protein native conformation was confirmed by Size Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (used also as the quantification method) and by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy. According to the results herein reported, ABS composed of phosphonium- or ammonium-based ILs and a biodegradable organic salt represent an alternative and remarkable platform for the extraction of BSA and may be extended to other proteins of interest. PMID:25865275

  19. Kinetic studies on the transesterification of sunflower oil with 1-butanol catalyzed by Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of sunflower oil transesterification with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system were studied in a stirred batch reactor set-up. An initial screening study was performed to optimize relevant process conditions (enzyme

  20. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System reference manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branham-Haar, K.A.; Twitchell, K.E.

    1993-07-01

    Concern for the environment, in addition to Federal regulation, mandate the replacement of hazardous solvents with safer cleaning agents. Manufacturers are working to produce these replacement solvents. As these products are developed, potential users need to be informed of their availability. To promote the use of these new products instead of traditional solvents, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS). The HSSDS provides a comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects, and it makes that information available to solvent users, industrial hygienists, and process engineers. The HSSDS uses TOPIC{reg_sign}, a text retrieval system produced by Verity, Inc., to allow a user to search for information on a particular subject. TOPIC{reg_sign} produces a listing of the retrieved documents and allows the use to examine the documents individually and to use the information contained in them. This reference manual does not replace the comprehensive TOPIC{reg_sign} user documentation (available from Verity, Inc.), or the HSSDS Tutorial (available from the INEL). The purpose of this reference manual is to provide enough instruction on TOPIC{reg_sign} so the user may begin accessing the data contained in the HSSDS.

  1. Improving the extraction and purification of immunoglobulin G by the use of ionic liquids as adjuvants in aqueous biphasic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Dibyendu; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2017-01-01

    Immunoglobulins G (IgG) could become widespread biopharmaceuticals if cost-efficient processes for their extraction and purification are available. In this work, aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of polyethylene glycols and a buffered salt, and with ionic liquids (ILs) as adjuvants, have been studied as alternative extraction and purification platforms of IgG from a rabbit serum source. Eleven ILs were investigated to provide insights on the chemical features which maximize the IgG partitioning. It is shown that in polymer-salt systems pure IgG preferentially partitions to the polymer-rich phase; yet, the complete extraction was never attained. Remarkably, after the addition of 5 wt% of adequate ILs to polymer-salt ABS, the complete extraction of pure IgG in a single-step was accomplished. The best systems and conditions were then applied to the extraction and purification of IgG directly from rabbit serum samples. The complete extraction of IgG in a single-step was maintained while its purity in the polymer-rich phase was enhanced by ca. 37% as compared to the IL-free ABS. The antibody stability was also evaluated revealing that appropriate ILs are able to maintain the IgG stability and can be used as phase-forming components of ABS when envisaging the purification of high-cost biopharmaceuticals. PMID:27568168

  2. Pseudo-biphasic extraction and liquid membrane transport of ionic solutes using micelle-based processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondre, Ch.

    1995-01-01

    Different aspects between micellar extraction and solvent extraction were discussed. One way of using micellar systems to perform metal ion extraction consists in solubilizing lipophilic complexing agents in the hydrophobic core of the micelles, similarly to their solubilization in the organic phase in classical biphasic extraction. Metal ions dissolved in the continuous phase will be complexed or not, depending on their affinity for the micelle-solubilized extractant, the microscopic micelle/water interface playing a part analogous to the macroscopic organic/water interface in biphasic extraction. The yields of extraction (after ultrafiltration of the micellar pseudo-phase) when parameters such as the extractant/metal ratio or the extractant hydrophobicity are changed, show similar trends as those reported in the case of solvent extraction, but only diluted solutions can be treated that way. 14 refs

  3. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  4. Solvents in Organic Synthesis: Replacement and Multi-step Reaction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Gómez, Paola Arenas; Folic, Milica

    2008-01-01

    with the principles of green chemistry, highlight the need to minimize and optimize the use of organic solvents as much as possible. One important step in optimizing organic solvent use is the identification of suitable ‘greener' solvents that can help to minimize the environmental, health and safety concerns during...... solvent screening problem, several solvent replacement problems and a multi-stage reaction system. In each example a list of solvent candidates is generated so they may be further investigated experimentally....

  5. Polyethylene glycol: A recyclable solvent system for the synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) efficiently catalysed the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives from -phenylenediamine and aldehydes in PEG. This method provides a novel route for the synthesis of benzimidazoles in good yields with little catalyst loading. The recovery and the successful reutilization of the solvent system ...

  6. Pd(II-dissolved in ionic liquids: a recyclable catalytic system for the selective biphasic hydrogenation of dienes to monoenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupont Jairton

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Palladium acetylacetonate dissolved in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid catalyses the selective two-phase hydrogenation of conjugated and non-conjugated (functionalized and non-functionalized dienes into the respective monoenes. The system does not require the use of organic solvents, the products are removed by simple decantation or distillation and the recovered ionic catalytic solution can be reused several times without any significant changes in its catalytic activity and selectivity.

  7. User's manual of BISHOP. A Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen system, chemical equilibrium calculation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2001-07-01

    In an event of sodium leakage in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium flows out of piping, and droplet combustion might occur under a certain environmental condition. The combustion heat and reaction products should be evaluated in the sodium fire analysis codes for investigating the influence of the sodium leak age and fire incident. In order to analyze the reaction heat and products, the multi-phase chemical equilibrium calculation program for a sodium, oxygen and hydrogen system has been developed. The developed numerical program is named BISHOP, which denotes 'Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen, Chemical Equilibrium Calculation Program'. The Gibbs free energy minimization method is used because of the following advantages. Chemical species are easily added and changed. A variety of thermodynamic states, such as isothermal and isentropic changes, can be dealt with in addition to constant temperature and pressure processes. In applying the free energy minimization method to solve the multi-phase sodium reaction system, three new numerical calculation techniques are developed. One is theoretical simplification of phase description in equation system, the other is to extend the Gibbs free energy minimization method to a multi-phase system, and the last is to establish the efficient search for the minimum value. The reaction heat and products at the equilibrium state can be evaluated from the initial conditions, such as temperature, pressure and reactants, using BISHOP. This report describes the thermochemical basis of chemical equilibrium calculations, the system of equations, simplification models, and the procedure to prepare input data and usage of BISHOP. (author)

  8. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts in the chemo selective bioreduction of (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadien-3-one in biphasic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Cesar A.; Silva, Vanessa D.; Nascimento, Maria da G., E-mail: maria.nascimento@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis-SC (Brazil); Stambuk, Boris U. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis-SC (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    This work describes the chemoselective bioreduction of (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)- 1,4-pentadien-3-one (1) mediated by baker's yeast (BY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells) in an aqueous/organic solvent biphasic system. The biotransformation of this compound was chemoselective and formed only the corresponding saturated ketone 1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)- 3-pentanone (2). The influence of various factors which may alter the bioreduction of 1, such as the type and percentage of co-solvents, use of six different S. cerevisiae yeast samples (four commercial and two industrial), variations in the substrate and yeast concentrations, temperature, pH and volume of aqueous and organic phases, was investigated. The best reaction conditions were 66.7 g L{sup -1} of Fleischmann BY, 8.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mol L{sup -1} of substrate, pH 6.5 at 35 deg C in the presence of 2.5% (v/v) of N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as an additive and a V{sub aq}/V{sub org} ratio of 70/30. Under these conditions, the product 2 was recovered in conversions of 82% in 5 h reaction. (author)

  9. Simulation of equilibrium distribution data in a solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, S.; Giriyalkar, A.B.; Singh, A.K.; Singh, D.K.; Hubli, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    In hydrometallurgy, solvent extraction has been proved to be the purification method to recover metal in high-pure form from impure solution. Any solvent extraction process is complex and based on some operating parameters which always lure the scientists to model them. Operating parameters like aqueous to organic volume ratio and concentration of feed are related to required number of stages for a product with specific recovery. So to determine final feed concentration or aqueous to organic volume ratio for a specific extractant concentration, one needs to carry out a number of extraction experiments tediously supported by analysis. Here an attempt is being made to model the distribution of solute between organic and aqueous phases with minimum analytical and experimental support for any system. The model can predict the effect on solvent extraction for a change in the aqueous to organic volume ratio i.e. slope of operating line, percentage loading of solvent, feed concentration, solvent concentration, number of stages and in the process it can help in optimizing conditions for the best result from a solvent extraction system. Uranium-7% TBP in dodecane system was taken up to validate the model. The predicted values of the model was tallied against uranium distribution between aqueous and organic phases in a running mixer settler. The equation for operating line i.e. straight line is derived from O/A=1.5 and considering barren organic contains 2 ppm uranium: y 1 = 0.667x 0 - .002. The extraction isotherm i.e. parabola equation came as : x 1 = 0.003y 0 2 + 0.723y 0 considering three points i.e. (0,0), (13,16.7) (uranium analysis for first stage of mixer-settler) and (25, 30.69) (feed concentration, loading capacity of solvent). Using these two equations the results that were obtained, predicted the solute distribution across different stages exactly as it is in the running mixer settler. Individual isotherms could also be drawn with the predicted results from the

  10. Role of apparent pKa of carboxylic acids in lipase-catalyzed esterifications in biphasic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez de Maria, Pablo; Fernandez-Alvaro, Elena; ten Kate, Antoon; Bargeman, Gerrald

    2009-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed esterifications in biphasic media (heptane–water, 1:1) were conducted by using Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) as biocatalyst. Different carboxylic acids (from acetic to lauric) were thus esterified with 1-butanol at different pH values (2–10). For all carboxylic acids tested,

  11. The Biphasic Effect of Vitamin D on the Musculoskeletal and Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes beneficial and harmful vitamin D effects on the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system. Special attention is paid to the dose-response relationship of vitamin D with clinical outcomes. In infants and adults, the risk of musculoskeletal diseases is highest at circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations below 25 nmol/L and is low if 40–60 nmol/L are achieved. However, evidence is also accumulating that in elderly people the risk of falls and fractures increases again at circulating 25OHD levels > 100 nmol/L. Cohort studies report a progressive increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) events at 25OHD levels  100 nmol/L, but the threshold may be influenced by the level of physical activity. In conclusion, dose-response relationships indicate deleterious effects on the musculoskeletal system and probably on the cardiovascular system at circulating 25OHD levels 100 nmol/L. Future studies should focus on populations with 25OHD levels  100 nmol/L. PMID:28912809

  12. Production of Beauveria bassiana Air Conidia by Means of Optimization of Biphasic System Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gouli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Air conidia production of Beauveria bassiana, strain CA-603 was studied based on modified diphasic system. The biomass yield obtained in the first phase based on submerged cultivation of fungus was processed using methodology providing different contact with air space. Our study indicated that productivity of the second stage of diphasic system is had inversely proportional dependence on depth of liquid fungal biomass. Increase of biomass depth is significantly decreased production of air conidia. Two methodology of biomass processing extending contact biomass with air space including distribution of fungal material on surface of hygroscopic paper and starch packaging peanuts were investigated. The novel substrates provided optimal contact between the submerged fungal biomass and the air, and overall, conidial production was directly proportional to the total area of air-to-fungal surface. Technologies based on the starch peanuts and hygroscopic paper were the most productive in comparison to the common technology where the submerged culture was transferred to flat containers. The advantages and disadvantages of these different production methods are discussed.

  13. Third generation capture system: precipitating amino acid solvent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Fernandez, E.; Misiak, K.; Ham, L. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    This work summarises the results of the design of novel separation processes for CO2 removal from flue gas based on precipitating amino acid solvents. The processes here described (DECAB, DECAB Plus and pH-swing) use a combination of enhanced CO2 absorption (based on the Le Chatelier’s principle)

  14. Unimolecular Solvolyses in Ionic Liquid: Alcohol Dual Solvent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D. Kochly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken of the solvolysis of pivaloyl triflate in a variety of ionic liquid:alcohol solvent mixtures. The solvolysis is a kΔ process (i.e., a process in which ionization occurs with rearrangement, and the resulting rearranged carbocation intermediate reacts with the alcohol cosolvent via two competing pathways: nucleophilic attack or elimination of a proton. Five different ionic liquids and three different alcohol cosolvents were investigated to give a total of fifteen dual solvent systems. 1H-NMR analysis was used to determine relative amounts of elimination and substitution products. It was found, not surprisingly, that increasing the bulkiness of alcohol cosolvent led to increased elimination product. The change in the amount of elimination product with increasing ionic liquid concentration, however, varied greatly between ionic liquids. These differences correlate strongly, though not completely, to the Kamlet–Taft solvatochromic parameters of the hydrogen bond donating and accepting ability of the solvent systems. An additional factor playing into these differences is the bulkiness of the ionic liquid anion.

  15. Partition of lead in milk-pectin aqueous biphasic system with complexation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, P.; Macasek, F.; Gerhart, P.

    1997-01-01

    In present work, decontamination of raw cow milk from lead was investigated using the 'membraneless dialysis'. The 4% w/w solutions of apple pectin, degree of esterification 70%, containing various complexing agents were used for experiments at the initial volume ration pectin : milk = 3:7 which changed to 8:2 at equilibration. Radioactive indicator 212 Pb was prepared from 228 Th emanator. After dissolution in Jennes-Koops buffer with 10 -5 M Pb 2+ carrier, milk was spiked with the indicator for 100 minutes. Distribution equilibrium of water and lead was achieved after next 100 minutes but yield of lead extraction into pectin phase was less then 2.3% in the case of raw milk, and less then 3.0% in the case of pasteurized milk. Due to denaturation of raw milk, there are strongly limited possibilities to influence the radionuclide partition in the systems. Various non-toxic complexation agents (glycine, alanine, histidine, cysteine, Edtacal) were applied to improve extraction of lead to pectin phase. Glycine and histidine have not influence on lead extraction yields but there was observed an increased yield, 3,8% for alanine and even 25% for 0.002 M cysteine. As the most interesting appeared application of Edtacal, calcium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA by which the recovery of lead with with pectin phase reached about 80% at concentration of EDTA in initial pectin phase 0.001 M. The retention of Pb 2+ cation in milk phase is extraordinary high as compared with strontium and corresponds to behavior of trivalent ions what is attributed to specific interactions with thiol groups of milk components

  16. Cu(II)-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate via a strategy of thermo-regulated phase-separable catalysis in a liquid/liquid biphasic system: homogeneous catalysis, facile heterogeneous separation, and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinlong; Zhang, Bingjie; Jiang, Xiaowu; Zhang, Lifen; Cheng, Zhenping; Zhu, Xiulin

    2014-09-01

    A strategy of thermo-regulated phase-separable catalysis (TPSC) is applied to the Cu(II)-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in a p-xylene/PEG-200 biphasic system. Initiators for continuous activator regeneration ATRP (ICAR ATRP) are used to establish the TPSC-based ICAR ATRP system using water-soluble TPMA as a ligand, EBPA as an initiator, CuBr2 as a catalyst, and AIBN as a reducing agent. By heating to 70 °C, unlimited miscibility of both solvents is achieved and the polymerization can be carried out under homogeneous conditions; then on cooling to 25 °C, the mixture separates into two phases again. As a result, the catalyst complex remains in the PEG-200 phase while the obtained polymers stay in the p-xylene phase. The catalyst can therefore be removed from the resultant polymers by easily separating the two different layers and can be reused again. It is important that well-defined PMMA with a controlled molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution could be obtained using this TPSC-based ICAR ATRP system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Direct delamination of graphite ore into defect-free graphene using a biphasic solvent system under pressurized ultrasound.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, H.; Donato, R. K.; Ecorchard, Petra; Popelková, Daniela; Pavlová, E.; Schelonka, Darina; Pop-Georgievski, O.; Schrekker, H. S.; Štengl, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 8 (2016), s. 6008-6015 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : graphite ore * graphene * high-pressure ultrasound Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  18. Direct delamination of graphite ore into defect-free graphene using a biphasic solvent system under pressurized ultrasound

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Hynek; Donato, R. K.; Ecorchard, P.; Popelková, Daniela; Pavlová, Eva; Schelonka, D.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Schrekker, H. S.; Štengl, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 8 (2016), s. 6008-6015 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : graphite ore * graphene * high-pressure ultrasound Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  19. Prednisolone multicomponent nanoparticle preparation by aerosol solvent extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Fukino, Mika; Tozuka, Yuichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2009-10-01

    Prednisolone nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer and a surfactant by the aerosol solvent extraction system (ASES). A ternary mixture of prednisolone, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dissolved in methanol was sprayed through a nozzle into the reaction vessel filled with supercritical carbon dioxide. After the ASES process was repeated, precipitates of the ternary components were obtained by depressurizing the reaction vessel. When a methanolic solution of prednisolone/PEG 4000/SDS at a weight ratio of 1:6:2 was sprayed under the optimized ASES conditions, the mean particle size of prednisolone obtained after dispersing the precipitates in water was observed to be ca. 230 nm. Prednisolone nanoparticles were not obtained by the binary ASES process for prednisolone, in the presence of either PEG or SDS. Furthermore, ternary cryogenic cogrinding, as well as solvent evaporation, was not effective for the preparation of prednisolone nanoparticles. As the ASES process can be conducted under moderate temperature conditions, the ASES process that was applied to the ternary system appeared to be one of the most promising methods for the preparation of drug nanoparticles using the multicomponent system.

  20. A carbohydrate-anion recognition system in aprotic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bo; Dong, Hai; Ramström, Olof

    2014-05-01

    A carbohydrate-anion recognition system in nonpolar solvents is reported, in which complexes form at the B-faces of β-D-pyranosides with H1-, H3-, and H5-cis patterns similar to carbohydrate-π interactions. The complexation effect was evaluated for a range of carbohydrate structures; it resulted in either 1:1 carbohydrate-anion complexes, or 1:2 complex formation depending on the protection pattern of the carbohydrate. The interaction was also evaluated with different anions and solvents. In both cases it resulted in significant binding differences. The results indicate that complexation originates from van der Waals interactions or weak CH⋅⋅⋅A(-) hydrogen bonds between the binding partners and is related to electron-withdrawing groups of the carbohydrates as well as increased hydrogen-bond-accepting capability of the anions. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  1. Estimation of phase separation temperatures for polyethersulfone/solvent/non-solvent systems in RTIPS and membrane properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Min; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2018-01-01

    and the mean pore size of membranes prepared with the RTIPS process decreased in line with an increase of PES molecular weight. When the membrane formation mechanism was the RTIPS process, the mechanical properties were better than those of the corresponding membranes prepared with the NIPS process.......Phase separation temperature estimations, based on Hansen solubility parameters for poly(ethersulfone) (PES)/solvent/non-solvent systems, were carried out to study the control of phase separation temperature in a reverse thermally induced phase separation (RTIPS) process. Four membrane...

  2. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  3. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems

  4. Evaluation of the Capability of Ionic Liquid-Amino Acid Aqueous Systems for the Formation of Aqueous Biphasic Systems and Their Applications in Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshadi, Sajjad; Sadeghi, Rahmat

    2017-03-30

    To obtain further experimental evidence for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the soluting-out effect phenomena in ternary systems composed of an ionic liquid (IL), amino acid, and water, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid equilibrium behavior of aqueous solutions of several ILs were carried out in the presence of a range of amino acids. Water activities for binary and ternary aqueous solutions containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C 4 mim]Cl, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C 6 mim]Cl, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [C 4 mim][CF 3 SO 3 ], l-Ser, Gly, Ala, and l-Pro were measured using both vapor pressure osmometry and isopiestic methods. All of the ternary IL + amino acid + water systems show negative deviations from semi-ideal behavior and therefore soluting-out effects have been observed in these systems. In the case of the [C 4 mim][CF 3 SO 3 ] + amino acids aqueous systems, the IL is soluted-out by the amino acids and the soluting-out effect appears by aqueous biphasic system formation. For these systems, the phase diagram and partition coefficient of caffeine were measured at 298.15 K. However, for the [C 4 mim]Cl and [C 6 mim]Cl containing systems, the amino acids are soluted-out by the ILs and the soluting-out effect appears by precipitation of the amino acids from the solution, and the solubilities of the amino acids in the aqueous solutions decrease in the presence of [C 4 mim]Cl and [C 6 mim]Cl.

  5. Quantitative infrared spectroscopy of lipids in solution: II. Novel polar solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, P; Steiner, R N

    1975-01-01

    In the second part of this series, previous solvent limitations in infrared studies are discussed and novel polar solvent systems for the analysis of nonpolar and polar lipids described. Limitation of potassium bromide windows for infrared cells are discussed. The use of calcium fluoride cells with crude lipids is discussed. Problems related to hydrogen bonding of lipid solutes in various solvent systems are discussed as well as hydrogen-deuterium exchange in biologically important lipids.

  6. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases and components of the endocannabinoid system in the knee joint are associated with biphasic pain progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajak A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Agnieszka Pajak, Magdalena Kostrzewa, Natalia Malek, Michal Korostynski, Katarzyna Starowicz Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are considered important in articular cartilage breakdown during osteoarthritis (OA. Similarly, the endocannabinoid system (ECS is implicated in joint function and modulation of nociceptive processing. Functional interplay between ECS and MMPs has been recently indicated. Here, we tested if changes in the expression of selected MMPs and major ECS elements temporally correlate with the intensity of OA-related pain. Knee OA was induced in male Wistar rats by intra-articular sodium monoiodoacetate injection. OA-like pain behavior was tested using the dynamic weight bearing. Joint tissue samples at different time points after OA induction were subjected to gene (quantitative polymerase chain reaction and protein (Western blot expression analyses. Monoiodoacetate-induced nocifensive responses in rats showed a biphasic progression pattern. The alterations in expression of selected MMPs elegantly corresponded to the two-stage development of OA pain. The most substantial changes in the expression of the ECS system were revealed at a later stage of OA progression. Alterations within ECS are involved in the process of adaptation to persistent painful stimuli. The accumulation of MMPs in osteoarthritic cartilage may have a role in the biphasic progression of OA-related pain. Temporal association of changes in ECS and MMPs expression shows a potential therapeutic approach that utilizes the concept of combining indirect ECS-mediated MMP inhibition and ECS modulation of pain transduction. Keywords: osteoarthritis, monoiodoacetate, pain, matrix metalloproteinases, endocannabinoid system

  7. Chiral separation of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid enantiomers by high-speed counter-current chromatography with biphasic recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shengqiang

    2010-01-01

    This work concentrates on a novel chiral separation technology named biphasic recognition applied to resolution of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid enantiomers by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The biphasic chiral recognition HSCCC was performed by adding lipophilic (−)-2-ethylhexyl tartrate in the organic stationary phase and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in the aqueous mobile phase, which preferentially recognized the (−)-enantiomer and (+)-enantiomer, respectively. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methyl tert-butyl ether-water (9:1:10, v/v/v) with the above chiral selectors was selected according to the partition coefficient and separation factor of the target enantiomers. Various parameters involved in the chiral separation were investigated, namely the types of the chiral selector (CS); the concentration of each chiral selector; pH of the mobile phase; and the separation temperature. The mechanism involved in this biphasic recognition chiral separation by HSCCC was discussed. Langmuirian isotherm was employed to estimate the loading limits for each chiral selector. The overall experimental results show that the HSCCC separation of enantiomer based on biphasic recognition is much more efficient than the traditional monophasic recognition chiral separation, since it utilizes the cooperation of both lipophilic and hydrophilic chiral selectors. PMID:20303497

  8. Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

  9. Assessment of Solvent-Induced Nitrogen Shielding Variations of Triazole Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witanowski, M.; Sicinska, W.; Biedrzycka, Z.; Grabowski, Z.; Webb, G. A.

    High-precision 14N NMR shieldings are reported for all of the possible N-methyl triazoles in a variety of solvents. A large difference is observed in the effects of solvent on the shieldings of the pyrrole-type and pyridine-type nitrogen atoms in such systems. This difference largely arises from solvent-to-solute hydrogen-bonding effects for the latter type of nitrogen atom. For these two types of nitrogen atoms in triazoles, solvent polarity effects induce changes in the shieldings in opposite directions: this is corroborated by shielding calculations using the solvaton model. Solvent-to-solute hydrogen-bonding effects are larger than those due to solvent polarity and permit the assessment of the basicities of nonequivalent nitrogenous sites; these appear to parallel the analogous basicities with respect to protonation.

  10. Dynamic materials accounting for solvent-extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, D.D.; Ostenak, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for estimating nuclear materials inventories in solvent-extraction contactors are being developed. These methods employ chemical models and available process measurements. Comparisons of model calculations and experimental data for mixer-settlers and pulsed columns indicate that this approach should be adequate for effective near-real-time materials accounting in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants.

  11. Dynamic materials accounting for solvent-extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Ostenak, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for estimating nuclear materials inventories in solvent-extraction contactors are being developed. These methods employ chemical models and available process measurements. Comparisons of model calculations and experimental data for mixer-settlers and pulsed columns indicate that this approach should be adequate for effective near-real-time materials accounting in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants

  12. Anion exchange in mixed solvent systems Part 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    1976-01-01

    The diffusion of chlorocomplexes of some corrosion and fission products in anion exchange beads has been studied in mixed solvent media. The effects of variables on the kinetics of the exchange process by the batch and flow technique were examined. The strongly basic anion exchanger Dowex 2x8 in its Cl - form was used in organic solvent-water-hydrochloric acid solutions. The dependence of the exchange rate on temperature, the viscosity of the solution, the mean resin particle diameter and the composition of the solution was studied. Film and particle diffusion coefficients were calculated from the experimental data. The results provide valuable data for the design of separation procedures. The most perspective parameters affecting substantially the kinetics of ion exchange and the dynamic behaviour of ionic species in chromatographic column seem to be temperature temperature, viscosity of solution, resin particle diameter and the quantity of organic solvent in mixed solution. The results of the kinetics of chlorocomplexes of trace radionuclides of corrosion and fission products provide valuable data for the design of separation procedures from mixed solvents. (T.G.)

  13. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  14. Solvent system selectivities in countercurrent chromatography using Salicornia gaudichaudiana metabolites as practical example with off-line electrospray mass-spectrometry injection profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda das Neves; Jerz, Gerold; Figueiredo, Fabiana de Souza; Winterhalter, Peter; Leitão, Gilda Guimarães

    2015-03-13

    For the development of an efficient two-stage isolation process for high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) with focus on principal metabolites from the ethyl acetate extract of the halophyte plant Salicornia gaudichaudiana, separation selectivities of two different biphasic solvent systems with similar polarities were evaluated using the elution and extrusion approach. Efficiency in isolation of target compounds is determined by the solvent system selectivity and their chronological use in multiple separation steps. The system n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (0.5:6:0.5:6, v/v/v/v) resulted in a comprehensive separation of polyphenolic glycosides. The system n-hexane-n-butanol-water (1:1:2, v/v/v) was less universal but was highly efficient in the fractionation of positional isomers such as di-substituted cinnamic acid quinic acid derivatives. Multiple metabolite detection performed on recovered HSCCC tube fractions was done with rapid mass-spectrometry profiling by sequential off-line injections to electrospray mass-spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Selective ion traces of metabolites delivered reconstituted preparative HSCCC runs. Molecular weight distribution of target compounds in single HSCCC tube fractions and MS/MS fragment data were available. Chromatographic areas with strong co-elution effects and fractions of pure recoverable compounds were visualized. In total 11 metabolites have been identified and monitored. Result of this approach was a fast isolation protocol for S. gaudichaudiana metabolites using two solvent systems in a strategic sequence. The process could easily be scaled-up to larger lab-scale or industrial recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The solvent efflux system of Pseudomonas putida S12 is not involved in antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isken, S; De Bont, J A

    2000-11-01

    The active efflux system contributing to the solvent tolerance of Pseudomonas putida S12 was characterized physiologically. The mutant P. putida JK1, which lacks the active efflux system, was compared with the wild-type organism. None of 20 known substrates of common multi-drug-resistant pumps had a stronger growth-inhibiting effect on the mutant than on the wild type. The amount of [14C]toluene accumulating in P. putida S12 increased in the presence of the solvent xylene and in the presence of uncouplers. The effect of uncouplers confirms the proton dependency of the efflux system in P. putida S12. Other compounds, potential substrates for the solvent pump, did not affect the accumulation of [14C]toluene. These results show that the efflux system in P. putida S12 is specific for organic solvents and does not export antibiotics or other known substrates of multi-drug-resistant pumps.

  16. Sonolytic and Silent Polymerization of Methacrlyic Acid Butyl Ester Catalyzed by a New Onium Salt with bis-Active Sites in a Biphasic System — A Comparative Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumberkandgai A. Vivekanand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, ingenious new analytical and process experimental techniques which are environmentally benign techniques, viz., ultrasound irradiation, have become immensely popular in promoting various reactions. In this work, a novel soluble multi-site phase transfer catalyst (PTC viz., 1,4-bis-(propylmethyleneammounium chloridebenzene (BPMACB was synthesized and its catalytic efficiency was assessed by observing the kinetics of sonolytic polymerization of methacrylic acid butyl ester (MABE using potassium persulphate (PPS as an initiator. The ultrasound–multi-site phase transfer catalysis (US-MPTC-assisted polymerization reaction was compared with the silent (non-ultrasonic polymerization reaction. The effects of the catalyst and various reaction parameters on the catalytic performance were in detail investigated by following the kinetics of polymerization of MABE in an ethyl acetate-water biphasic system. From the detailed kinetic investigation we propose a plausible mechanism. Further the kinetic results demonstrate clearly that ultrasound-assisted phase-transfer catalysis significantly increased the reaction rate when compared to silent reactions. Notably, this environmentally benign and cost-effective process has great potential to be applied in various polymer industries.

  17. Probing effect of solvent concentration on glass transition and sub-Tg structural relaxation in polymer solvent mixtures: The case of polystyrene-toluene system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierleoni, Davide; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Minelli, Matteo; Mensitieri, Giuseppe; Doghieri, Ferruccio

    2016-05-01

    A novel experimental method for the analysis of volume relaxation induced by solvents in glassy polymers is presented. A gravimetric technique is used to evaluate the isothermal solvent mass uptake at controlled increasing/decreasing solvent pressure at constant rate. Fundamental properties of the solvent/polymer system can be obtained directly, and models can be applied, combining both nonequilibrium thermodynamics and mechanics of volume relaxation contribution. The fundamental case of polystyrene and toluene mixtures are thus accounted for, and various experimental conditions have been explored, varying the temperature, and spanning over different pressure increase/decrease rates. The results obtained allowed to evaluate the isothermal second order transition induced by solvent sorption, as well as the determination of the effect of the pressure rate. Therefore, this work proposes a new standard for the characterization and the understanding of the relaxational behavior of glassy polymers.

  18. Solvent selection for biocatalysis in mainly organic systems: predictions of effects on equilibrium position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, P J

    1990-03-25

    Predictions may be made for the influence of solvent choice on the equilibrium position of biocatalyzed reactions, based on data for the liquid-liquid distribution of the reactants. The most reliable predictions are probably for dilute systems, based on partition coefficients or correlations derived from them. The effective equilibrium constant for esterification reactions is predicted to alter by more than four orders of magnitude on changing between different water-immiscible solvents. The equilibrium constant correlates well with the solubility of water in the solvent, and is most favorable for synthesis in the least polar solvents (aliphatic hydrocarbons). Similar effects seem to apply for other reactions, including oxidation of alcohols and hydrolysis of chlorides. Predictions can be made for nondilute systems using the UNIFAC system of group contributions, but the reliability of these is more questionable.

  19. Host-Guest Inclusion Complexes between Amlodipine Enantiomers in Biphasic Recognition Chiral Extraction System using Tartaric Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Positive Confirmation Using of their Enantioselective Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    AZZAM, Khaldun; ABDALLAH, Hassan; HALIM, Hairul; AHMAD, Maizatul; SHAIBAH, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports an extended theoretical study from our previous experimental work for the enantioselective extraction of amlodipine enantiomers in a biphasic recognition chiral extraction system (BRCES) consisting of hydrophobic D-diisopropyl tartrate dissolved in organic phase (n-decanol) and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) in aqueous phase (acetate buffer) which preferentially recognize the R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer, respectively. The calculations were simula...

  20. Central nervous system effects of chronic solvent abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Shin-ichi; Yamanouchi, Naoto; Kodama, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Tadashi; Sato, Toshio; Hirai, Shinji; Uchida, Yoshitaka.

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen organic solvent abusers (13 men and 2 women) were examined by magnetic resonace imaging (MRI) and singl photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Three patients had neurological findings, such as ataxia of the upper extremities and walking disorder, and 2 of these had localized signal abnormality on MRI. T2-weighted imaging showed high signal intensities in the cerebral white matter, endocyst posterior shank, pars ventralis, and cerebellar white matter. These seemed to be attributable to demyelination. Two patients who showed locally abnormal MRI findings had begun to abuse organic solvents. There was a significant correlation between the age at the time of beginning inhalation and behavioral IQ (r=0.84). This suggested the importance of age at the time of beginning inhalation. When SPECT images were visually interpreted in 11 patients, 5 patients had a decreased blood flow in the bilateral frontal lobes (n=2), the right frontal lobe (n=2), and the bilateral cerebellar hemisphere (n=2). In the other 6 patients, blood flow was normal. There was a negative correlation between blood flow in the left frontal lobe and the score for the third Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) item. (N.K.)

  1. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  2. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ekman Schenberg

    Full Text Available Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  3. Odd-even effect on the formation of aqueous biphasic systems formed by 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids and salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Diana C. V.; Sintra, Tânia E.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Soromenho, Mário R. C.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Rogers, Robin D.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2018-05-01

    This work provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effect of the cation alkyl side chain length of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride series ([CnC1im]Cl, n = 2-14) of ionic liquids (ILs) on their capability to form aqueous biphasic systems (ABSs) with salts and self-aggregation derived properties. The liquid-liquid phase behavior of ternary systems composed of [CnC1im]Cl, water, and K3PO4 or K2CO3 and the respective Setschenow salting-out coefficients (ks), a quantitative measure of the two-phase formation ability, were determined. An odd-even effect in the ks values along the number of methylene groups of the longest IL cation alkyl side chain was identified for the ABS formed by K2CO3, a weaker salting-out agent where the phenomenon is clearly identified. In general, cations with even alkyl side chains, being likely to display higher molar volumes, are more easily salted-out and thus more prone to undergo phase separation. The odd-even effect in the ks values is, however, more significant in ILs up to n = 6, where the nanostructuration/nanosegregation of ILs plays a less relevant role. Still, with the [CnC1im]Cl (n = 7-14) series of ILs, an odd-even effect was also identified in the ILs' ionization degree, molar conductivity, and conductivity at infinite dilution. In summary, it is shown here that the ILs' odd-even effect occurs in IL aqueous solutions and not just in neat ILs, an already well-established phenomenon occurring in a series of ILs' properties described as a result of the orientation of the terminal methyl groups to the imidazolium ring cation and consequent effect in the ILs' cohesive energy.

  4. Reverse Schreinemakers Method for Experimental Analysis of Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2009-01-01

    from determining the composition of salt mixtures by pH titration are discussed, and the derived method significantly improves the obtained result from titration. Furthermore, the method reduces the required experimental work needed for analysis of phase composition. The method is applicable to multi......A method based on Schreinemakers's tie-line theory of 1893 is derived for determining the composition and phase amounts in solubility experiments for multi-solvent electrolyte systems. The method uses the lever rule in reverse compared to Schreinemakers's wet residue method, and is therefore called...... the reverse Schreinemakers (RS) method. The method is based on simple mass balance principles similar to the wet residues method. It allows for accurate determination of the mixed-solvent phase composition even though part of the solvent may precipitate as complexes between solvent and salt. Discrepancies...

  5. Primary intrathoracic biphasic synovial sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Yilmaz; Koc, Mehmet; Kocak, Husnu; Kaya, Yusuf

    2012-05-01

    Synovial sarcomas are most frequently observed in the extremities. Although synovial sarcomas are the third most common histological type of soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities, primary mediastinal synovial sarcoma is extremely rare. Monophasic synovial sarcoma is the most commonly observed subtype. whereas the biphasic subtype is less common. We present our case which was diagnosed as biphasic synovial sarcoma located in the anterior mediastinum, which is considered to be a rare entity. The patient underwent surgical resection together with multimodal adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  6. Irradiation of Oil / Water Biphasic Systems: the Importance of Interfacial Surface Area on the Production of Hydrogen and Other Deleterious Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, Patrick-W.; Stuart, Craig-R.

    2012-09-01

    -water interfacial surface area, control of headspace gas composition, and removal of sample aliquots. Results highlight the importance of interfacial surface area in affecting the radiolytic degradation of the studied hydrocarbons. In particular, experiments having higher oil-water interfacial surface areas generate greater quantities of oil degradation products as compared with lower surface area samples. As expected, one notable result from these irradiations was the formation of significant quantities of hydrogen, which was found to be dependent on the interfacial surface area. Presented here is a review of the radiolytic degradation of insoluble organic material in aqueous systems, a summary of experimental results focusing on biphasic systems and a description of a strategy to mitigate the effects of insoluble organic material ingress and to aid in developing station-appropriate responses. (authors)

  7. Solvent resistance pumps of Pseudomonas putida S12: Applications in 1-naphthol production and biocatalyst engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhan Garikipati, S V B; Peeples, Tonya L

    2015-09-20

    The solvent resistance capacity of Pseudomonas putida S12 was applied by using the organism as a host for biocatalysis and through cloning and expressing solvent resistant pump genes into Escherichia coli. P. putida S12 expressing toluene ortho mononooxygenase (TOM-Green) was used for 1-naphthol production in a water-organic solvent biphasic system. Application of P. putida S12 improved 1-naphthol production per gram cell dry weight by approximately 42% compared to E. coli. Moreover, P. putida S12 enabled the use of a less expensive solvent, decanol, for 1-naphthol production. The solvent resistant pump (srpABC) genes of P. putida S12 were cloned into a solvent sensitive E. coli strain to transfer solvent tolerance. Recombinant strains bearing srpABC genes in either a low-copy number or a high-copy number plasmid grew in the presence of saturated concentration of toluene. Both of the recombinant strains were more tolerant to 1% v/v of toxic solvents, decanol and hexane, reaching similar cell density as the no-solvent control. Reverse-transcriptase analysis revealed that the srpABC genes were transcribed in engineered strains. The results demonstrate successful transfer of the proton-dependent solvent resistance mechanism and suggest that the engineered strain could serve as more robust biocatalysts in media with organic solvents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The laws governing ionic liquid extraction of cations: partition of 1-ethylpyridinium monocation and paraquat dication in ionic liquid/water biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Takuya; Okai, Miho; Katsuta, Shoichi

    2015-05-21

    To find the laws governing the extraction of cations from aqueous solutions into hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs), we investigated the partition of 1-ethylpyridinium monocation and paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) dication in various IL/water biphasic systems. Ten different ILs of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based or bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide-based salts were used. The distribution ratio of the target cations (T(n+)) was dependent on the initial concentration in the aqueous phase and also very sensitive to the kind of IL. The behavior was quantitatively explained on the basis of a model in which the extraction goes through both the ion exchange and ion pair transfer processes, while keeping the product of the aqueous concentrations of the IL constituent ions a constant value (solubility product, Ksp). The distribution ratio of T(n+) is expressed as a function of the difference between the initial and equilibrium concentrations of T(n+) in the aqueous phase (Δ[T(n+)]W), the aqueous solubility of IL (Ksp(1/2)), and the cation valence n. The distribution ratio is a nearly constant value (D0) when Δ[T(n+)]W ≪ Ksp(1/2)/n and decreases inversely proportional to the nth power of Δ[T(n+)]W when Δ[T(n+)]W ≫ Ksp(1/2)/n. The log D0 versus log Ksp(1/2) plot gives a linear relationship with a slope of +n for the ILs with the same anion but different cations and that with a slope of nearly -n for the ILs with the same cation but different anions. This means that the extractability dependence on the kinds of IL constituent ions is greater for the divalent cation than for the monovalent one.

  9. Physicochemical studies of the carbamate-CO2-solvent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prencipe, M.; Ishida, T.

    1977-08-01

    The formation of carbamate from CO 2 and the various amine solutions has been investigated for the purpose of elucidating the structure of the species generated in the reaction. The amine solutions used were 1 and 2 molar solutions of di-n-butylamine (DNBA) in triethylamine (TEA), pure DNBA and pure TEA. It has been found that the nonaqueous solvent participates in the formation of carbamate in 1 and 2M-DNBA/TEA solutions as a proton acceptor in DNBA-carbamate formation. However, due to the high concentration of the solutions and the basicities of the amines, a significant amount of DNBA which does not form the DNBA-carbamate anion is also found to be participating as a proton acceptor. Pure TEA absorbs only 1 / 60 of the absorption by pure DNBA. The extent of TEA participation in the CO 2 -absorption process other than as a proton acceptor in DNBA-carbamate is negligible. The formation of carbamic acid and zwitterion have been found unlikely. 7 tables, 15 figs

  10. Structure and properties of polycaprolactone/chitosan nonwovens tailored by solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Olga; Sajkiewicz, Paweł; Pierini, Filippo; Czerkies, Maciej; Kołbuk, Dorota

    2017-02-03

    Electrospinning of chitosan blends is a reasonable idea to prepare fibre mats for biomedical applications. Synthetic and natural components provide, for example, appropriate mechanical strength and biocompatibility, respectively. However, solvent characteristics and the polyelectrolyte nature of chitosan influence the spinnability of these blends. In order to compare the effect of solvent on polycaprolactone/chitosan fibres, two types of the most commonly used solvent systems were chosen, namely 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) and acetic acid (AA)/formic acid (FA). Results obtained by various experimental methods clearly indicated the effect of the solvent system on the structure and properties of electrospun polycaprolactone/chitosan fibres. Viscosity measurements confirmed different polymer-solvent interactions. Various molecular interactions resulting in different macromolecular conformations of chitosan influenced its spinnability and properties. HFIP enabled fibres to be obtained whose average diameter was less than 250 nm while maintaining the brittle and hydrophilic character of the nonwoven, typical for the chitosan component. Spectroscopy studies revealed the formation of chitosan salts in the case of the AA/FA solvent system. Chitosan salts visibly influenced the structure and properties of the prepared fibre mats. The use of AA/FA caused a reduction of Young's modulus and wettability of the proposed blends. It was confirmed that wettability, mechanical properties and the antibacterial effect of polycaprolactone/chitosan fibres may be tailored by selecting an appropriate solvent system. The MTT cell proliferation assay revealed an increase of cytotoxicity to mouse fibroblasts in the case of 25% w/w of chitosan in electrospun nonwovens.

  11. Characterization and antioxidant activity of bovine serum albumin and sulforaphane complex in different solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xueyan; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Hao, E-mail: h200521@cau.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    Modes and influencing factors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sulforaphane (SFN) interaction will help us understand the interaction mechanisms and functional changes of bioactive small molecule and biomacromolecule. This study investigated interaction mechanisms of BSA and SFN and associated antioxidant activity in three solvent systems of deionized water (dH{sub 2}O), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH), using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The results revealed that SFN had ability to quench BSA's fluorescence in static modes, and to interact with BSA at both tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) residues, while the Trp residues were highly sensitive, which was demonstrated by fluorescence at 340 nm. Hydrophobic forces, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions were all involved in BSA and SFN interaction, which were not significantly changed by three solvents. The binding constant values and binding site numbers were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. The values of free energy change were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH, which indicated that the binding forces were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. There was no significant difference in antioxidant activity between SFN and BSA–SFN. Moreover, three solvents had not significant influence on antioxidant activity of SFN and BSA–SFN. -- Highlights: • We report interaction mechanisms of BSA and sulforaphane in three solvent systems. • We report antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane complex in three solvent systems. • Decreasing the solvent polarity will decrease the binding of BSA and sulforaphane. • Three solvents had not influence on antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane.

  12. Speciation of native cations and added radionuclides in raw bovine milk. I. membraneless dialysis in aqueous biphasic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.; Gerhart, P.; Malovikova, A.; Celkova, A.

    1996-01-01

    Partition of native sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and radioisotopes of cesium, strontium and europium was investigated in the aqueous liquid-liquid systems formed after agitation of fresh pasteurized skim bovine milk with 4% w/w water solution of pectin of various degree of esterification (60-93%). The partition of the ions in the 'membraneless dialysis' was described by Donnan equilibria and ion-exchange in the macro-and microheterogenous systems and, within uncertainty of results, does not depend on the degree of esterification. Strong negative non-ideality of Sr and Eu in milk phase is attributed to binding with proteins, casein particles in particular, and complexation with low molecular ligands. Separation factor α = D(Sr)/D(Ca) is 0.70 ±0.06, in favor of strontium concentration in pectin phase. While>96% of cesium is diffusible to pectin phase, only 43-56% (depending on physico-chemical model of dialysis) of strontium behaves in that way, and in original milk phase the percent of strontium cationic from may be as low as 13%. (author). 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Combining random walk and regression models to understand solvation in multi-component solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Ella M; Johns, Marcus A; Wirawan, Remigius H; Scott, Janet L

    2017-07-21

    Polysaccharides, such as cellulose, are often processed by dissolution in solvent mixtures, e.g. an ionic liquid (IL) combined with a dipolar aprotic co-solvent (CS) that the polymer does not dissolve in. A multi-walker, discrete-time, discrete-space 1-dimensional random walk can be applied to model solvation of a polymer in a multi-component solvent mixture. The number of IL pairs in a solvent mixture and the number of solvent shells formable, x, is associated with n, the model time-step, and N, the number of random walkers. The mean number of distinct sites visited is proportional to the amount of polymer soluble in a solution. By also fitting a polynomial regression model to the data, we can associate the random walk terms with chemical interactions between components and probe where the system deviates from a 1-D random walk. The 'frustration' between solvents shells is given as ln x in the random walk model and as a negative IL:IL interaction term in the regression model. This frustration appears in regime II of the random walk model (high volume fractions of IL) where walkers interfere with each other, and the system tends to its limiting behaviour. In the low concentration regime, (regime I) the solvent shells do not interact, and the system depends only on IL and CS terms. In both models (and both regimes), the system is almost entirely controlled by the volume available to solvation shells, and thus is a counting/space-filling problem, where the molar volume of the CS is important. Small deviations are observed when there is an IL-CS interaction. The use of two models, built on separate approaches, confirm these findings, demonstrating that this is a real effect and offering a route to identifying such systems. Specifically, the majority of CSs - such as dimethylformide - follow the random walk model, whilst 1-methylimidazole, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone and tetramethylurea offer a CS-mediated improvement and propylene carbonate

  14. Dual Alkali Solvent System for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, H Paul; Liao, Chang-Yu; Zhao, Xinglei; Hsiung, Tung-Li; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chang, Shih-Ger

    2017-08-01

    A novel two-aqueous-phase CO 2 capture system, namely the dual alkali solvent (DAS) system, has been developed. Unlike traditional solvent-based CO 2 capture systems in which the same solvent is used for both CO 2 absorption and stripping, the solvent of the DAS system consists of two aqueous phases. The upper phase, which contains an organic alkali 1-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine (HEP), is used for CO 2 absorption. The lower phase, which consists of a mixture of K 2 CO 3 /KHCO 3 aqueous solution and KHCO 3 precipitate, is used for CO 2 stripping. Only a certain kind of amine (such as HEP) is able to ensure the phase separation, satisfactory absorption efficiency, effective CO 2 transfer from the upper phase to the lower phase, and regeneration of the upper phase. In the meantime, due to the presence of K 2 CO 3 /KHCO 3 in the lower phase, HEP in the upper phase is capable of being regenerated from its sulfite/sulfate heat stable salt, which enables the simultaneous absorption of CO 2 and SO 2 /SO 3 from the flue gas. Preliminary experiments and simulations indicate that the implementation of the DAS system can lead to 24.0% stripping energy savings compared to the Econamine process, without significantly lowering the CO 2 absorption efficiency (∼90%).

  15. A mixed solvent system for preparation of spherically agglomerated crystals of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fuzheng; Zhou, Yaru; Liu, Yan; Fu, Jinping; Jing, Qiufang; Ren, Guobin

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a novel solvent system to prepare spherically agglomerated crystals (SAC) of ascorbic acid with improved flowability for direct compression. A spherical agglomeration method was developed by selecting the mixed solvents (n-butyl and ethyl acetate) as a poor solvent and the process was further optimized by using triangular phase diagram and particle vision measurement. Physiochemical properties of SAC were characterized and compared with original drug crystals. It showed that amount of poor solvent, ratio of solvent mixture, and drug concentration are critical for preparation of SAC with desirable properties. The solid state of SAC was same as original crystals according to DSC, XRD, and FT-IR results. There was no significant difference in solubility and dissolution rate of drug between SAC and original crystals. The flowability and packability of SAC as well as the tensile strength and elastic recovery of tablets made from SAC were all significantly improved when compared with original crystals and tablets from crystals. It is concluded that the present method was suitable to prepare SAC of ascorbic acid for direct compression.

  16. Biphasic Catalysis with Disaccharide Phosphorylases: Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of alpha-D-Glucosides Using Sucrose Phosphorylase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Winter, K.; Desmet, T.; Devlamynck, T.; Van Renterghem, L.; Verhaeghe, T.; Pelantová, Helena; Křen, Vladimír; Soetaert, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2014), s. 781-787 ISSN 1083-6160 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11011 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : biphasic systems * pyrogallol * biphasic catalysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.528, year: 2014

  17. Solvent activities of the fluorinated solid polymer electrolyte/water system in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Bae, Young Chan

    We modified the lattice fluid equation-of-state by the introducing Debye-Hückel equation. A thermodynamic model taking into account the specific interaction and ionic strength between the polymer and the solvent is proposed. The proposed model successfully predicts the vapor/liquid equilibria (VLE) of solvents and the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). A generalized lattice fluid model is modified to describe the change of water activity in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE)/water systems. The calculated activity curves using the proposed model agree remarkably well with the experimental data.

  18. Vapour–Liquid Equilibria in the Polystyrene + Toluene System at Higher Concentrations of Solvent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Jan; Bogdanić, Grozdana; Wichterle, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-4 ISSN 0352-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19542S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : polymer-solvent system * vapor-liquid equilibrium * correlation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.675, year: 2015

  19. Solubility of Meloxicam in Mixed Solvent Systems | Babu | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solubility of meloxicam is higher in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) compared to water, probably due to ionization of the drug. The solubility of meloxicam is marginally enhanced in surfactant systems (Tween 80 and Brij 35) at concentrations higher than cmc, proving the micellar solubilization. Meloxicam solubility studies in ...

  20. Study of equivalent retention among different polymer-solvent systems in thermal field-flow fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Suk; Park, Young Hun; Lee, Dai Woon; Moon, Myeong Hee; Yu, Euy Kyung

    1998-01-01

    An equivalent retention has been experimentally observed in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFF) for different polymer-solvent systems. It is shown that iso-retention between two sets of polymer-solvent systems can be obtained by adjusting the temperature difference (ΔT) according to the difference in the ration of ordinary diffusion coefficient to thermal diffusion coefficient. This method uses a compensation of field strength (ΔT) in ThFFF at a fixed condition of cold wall temperature. It is applied for the calculation of molecular weight of polymers based on a calibration run of different standards obtained at an adjusted ΔT. The polymer standards used in this study are polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF). Three carrier solvents, tetrahydrofuran (THF), methylethylketone (MEK) and ethylacetate (ETAc) were employed. Though the accuracy in the calculation of molecular weight is dependent on the difference in the slope of log λ vs. log M which is related to Mark-Houwink constant a, it shows reasonable agreement within about 6% of relative error in molecular weight calculation for the polymer-solvent systems having similar a value

  1. Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tochetto, Tania Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. Objective: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. Method: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individuals. The procedures used on the evaluation were audiological anamnesis, Transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES and research for the suppressive effect of TEOAES. A group control (GC compounded by 23 individuals was compared to individuals exposed and non-exposed individuals. The data collection has been done in the room of Speech Therapy of Workers Health Reference Center of Santa Maria. Results: The TEOAES presence was major in the left ear in both groups; the average relation of TEOAES signal/noise in both ears was greater in GE; the TEOAES suppressive effect in the right ear was higher in the individual of GE (62,5% and in the left ear was superior in GC (86,96%, with statistically significant difference. The median sign/noise ratio of TEOAES, according to the frequency range, it was higher in GC in three frequencies ranges in the right ear and one in the left ear. Conclusion: It was not found signs of alteration on the outer hair cells neither on the olivocochlear medial system in the individuals exposed to organic solvents.

  2. THE DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS OF ACETIC ACID BETWEEN WATER AND SOLVENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribution coefficients of acetic acid between aqueous phase and solvents (water-C6-C10 alcohols, butyl acetate, ether and benzene were studied. Synergetic effect was obtained for alcohol and ester systems. A slightly positive deviation was obtained for benzene–ester mixtures. The best distribution coefficient was obtained for hexanol-butyl acetate systems. The coefficients of Redlisch-Kister equation were obtained for the deviations.

  3. Toward a semisynthetic stress response system to engineer microbial solvent tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingaro, Kyle A; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios Terry

    2012-01-01

    Strain tolerance to toxic metabolites is an important trait for many biotechnological applications, such as the production of solvents as biofuels or commodity chemicals. Engineering a complex cellular phenotype, such as solvent tolerance, requires the coordinated and tuned expression of several genes. Using combinations of heat shock proteins (HSPs), we engineered a semisynthetic stress response system in Escherichia coli capable of tolerating high levels of toxic solvents. Simultaneous overexpression of the HSPs GrpE and GroESL resulted in a 2-fold increase in viable cells (CFU) after exposure to 5% (vol/vol) ethanol for 24 h. Co-overexpression of GroESL and ClpB on coexisting plasmids resulted in 1,130%, 78%, and 25% increases in CFU after 24 h in 5% ethanol, 1% n-butanol, and 1% i-butanol, respectively. Co-overexpression of GrpE, GroESL, and ClpB on a single plasmid produced 200%, 390%, and 78% increases in CFU after 24 h in 7% ethanol, 1% n-butanol, or 25% 1,2,4-butanetriol, respectively. Overexpression of other autologous HSPs (DnaK, DnaJ, IbpA, and IbpB) alone or in combinations failed to improve tolerance. Expression levels of HSP genes, tuned through inducible promoters and the plasmid copy number, affected the effectiveness of the engineered stress response system. Taken together, these data demonstrate that tuned co-overexpression of GroES, GroEL, ClpB, and GrpE can be engaged to engineer a semisynthetic stress response system capable of greatly increasing the tolerance of E. coli to solvents and provides a starting platform for engineering customized tolerance to a wide variety of toxic chemicals. Microbial production of useful chemicals is often limited by the toxicity of desired products, feedstock impurities, and undesired side products. Improving tolerance is an essential step in the development of practical platform organisms for production of a wide range of chemicals. By overexpressing autologous heat shock proteins in Escherichia coli, we have

  4. Evaluation of solvent systems for optimized extractables studies of single use bioprocessing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorival-García, Noemí; Bones, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Despite their advantages, there is concern that single-use systems used in biopharmaceutical manufacture might release potentially toxic substances during standard unit operations that negatively impact cell growth. Characterization of the extractables profile for single-use systems is necessary to know which compounds potentially become leachables under operational cell culture conditions. A key issue in the design of extractables studies is the composition of the model solvent, in particular its pH and polarity. In this study, a new approach, based on design of experiments (DoE), has been applied to determine the composition of the model solvent for extractable profiling of single-use bags (SUBs). Particular focus was placed on the determination of the degradation products of the antioxidant Irgafos 168 ® , due to evidence that some of these degradation products have cytotoxic effects on CHO cells. Results indicated that 2-propanol:water is the most appropriate solvent for the extraction of highly hydrophobic compounds with polar groups and/or acid-base properties from SUBs. The described DoE approach simplifies the number of experiments, evaluates all possible solvent water mixtures to select the best extraction solvent based on polarity, establishes the influence of each variable and provides information about variable interaction, which represents an important improvement over current best practice. The developed approach was applied to seven SUBs from different vendors and production dates facilitating the identification of potentially non-satisfactory films for cultivation of CHO cell lines under process conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The early indicators of financial failure: a study of bankrupt and solvent health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; Singh, Sher G

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of pertinent predictors of financial failure based on analysis of solvent and bankrupt health systems to identify which financial measures show the clearest distinction between success and failure. Early warning signals are evident from the longitudinal analysis as early as five years before bankruptcy. The data source includes seven years of annual statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by 13 health systems before they filed bankruptcy. Comparative data were compiled from five solvent health systems for the same seven-year period. Seven financial solvency ratios are included in this study, including four cash liquidity measures, two leverage measures, and one efficiency measure. The results show distinct financial trends between solvent and bankrupt health systems, in particular for the operating-cash-flow-related measures, namely Ratio 1: Operating Cash Flow Percentage Change, from prior to current period; Ratio 2: Operating Cash Flow to Net Revenues; and Ratio 4: Cash Flow to Total Liabilities, indicating sensitivity in the hospital industry to cash flow management. The high dependence on credit from third-party payers is cited as a reason for this; thus, there is a great need for cash to fund operations. Five managerial policy implications are provided to help health system managers avoid financial solvency problems in the future.

  6. Replacement of HCFC-225 Solvent for Cleaning NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of HCFC-225, a Class II ODS, was prohibited by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, leveraging resources from both the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Program and the Defense Logistics Agency - Aviation Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a replacement for HCFC-225 that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. Candidate solvents were selected and a test plan was developed following the guidelines of ASTM G127, Standard Guide for the Selection of Cleaning Agents for Oxygen Systems. Solvents were evaluated for materials compatibility, oxygen compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and suitability for use in cleanliness verification and field cleaning operations. Two solvents were determined to be acceptable for cleaning oxygen systems and one was chosen for implementation at NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities. The test program and results are summarized. This project also demonstrated the benefits of cross-agency collaboration in a time of limited resources.

  7. Mass transfer coefficient of slug flow for organic solvent-aqueous system in a microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuek, Ana Jurinjak; Anic, Iva; Kurtanjek, Zelimir; Zelic, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Application of microreactor systems could be the next break-through in the intensification of chemical and biochemical processes. The common flow regime for organic solvent-aqueous phase two-phase systems is a segmented flow. Internal circulations in segments cause high mass transfer and conversion. We analyzed slug flow in seven systems of organic solvents and aqueous phase. To analyze how slug lengths in tested systems depend on linear velocity and physical and chemical properties of used organic solvents, regression models were proposed. It was shown that models based on linearization of approximation by potentials give low correlation for slug length prediction; however, application of an essential nonlinear model of multiple layer perception (MLP) neural network gives high correlation with R 2 =0.9. General sensitivity analysis was applied for the MLP neural network model, which showed that 80% of variance in slug length for the both phases is accounted for the viscosity and density of the organic phases; 10% is accounted by surface tension of the organic phase, while molecular masses and flow rates each account for 5%. For defined geometry of microreactor, mass transfer has been determined by carrying out the neutralization experiment with NaOH where acetic acid diffuses from organic phase (hexane) into aqueous phase. Estimated mass transfer coefficients were in the range k L a=4,652-1,9807 h -1

  8. Mass transfer coefficient of slug flow for organic solvent-aqueous system in a microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuek, Ana Jurinjak; Anic, Iva; Kurtanjek, Zelimir; Zelic, Bruno [University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-06-15

    Application of microreactor systems could be the next break-through in the intensification of chemical and biochemical processes. The common flow regime for organic solvent-aqueous phase two-phase systems is a segmented flow. Internal circulations in segments cause high mass transfer and conversion. We analyzed slug flow in seven systems of organic solvents and aqueous phase. To analyze how slug lengths in tested systems depend on linear velocity and physical and chemical properties of used organic solvents, regression models were proposed. It was shown that models based on linearization of approximation by potentials give low correlation for slug length prediction; however, application of an essential nonlinear model of multiple layer perception (MLP) neural network gives high correlation with R{sup 2}=0.9. General sensitivity analysis was applied for the MLP neural network model, which showed that 80% of variance in slug length for the both phases is accounted for the viscosity and density of the organic phases; 10% is accounted by surface tension of the organic phase, while molecular masses and flow rates each account for 5%. For defined geometry of microreactor, mass transfer has been determined by carrying out the neutralization experiment with NaOH where acetic acid diffuses from organic phase (hexane) into aqueous phase. Estimated mass transfer coefficients were in the range k{sub L}a=4,652-1,9807 h{sup -1}.

  9. Lipase-catalysed ester synthesis in solvent-free oil system: is it esterification or transesterification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingcan; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2013-12-01

    Ester synthesis was carried out in a solvent-free system of lipase, coconut oil and ethanol or fusel alcohols to ascertain the reaction mechanism. During ester formation, octanoic and decanoic acids increased initially and then decreased gradually, indicating that ester production was a two-step reaction consisting of hydrolysis and esterification, rather than alcoholysis. With ethanol as the alcohol substrate, added butyric acid inhibited ester synthesis. However, when fusel alcohols were used as the alcohol substrate, no significant inhibitory effect by butyric acid was observed. Added octanoic acid did not show any adverse effect on the synthesis of corresponding esters. The results suggest that polarity of the reactants determines lipase activity. This study provides the first evidence on the mechanism of immobilised lipase-catalysed ester synthesis in a solvent-free system involving both hydrolysis and esterification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cinnamyl acetate synthesis by lipase-catalyzed transesterification in a solvent-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Wang, Mengfan; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamyl acetate was synthesized using immobilized lipase through transesterification between ethyl acetate and cinnamyl alcohol. In the solvent-free system, ethyl acetate acted as not only the acyl donor but also as the solvent of cinnamyl alcohol. Conversion (90.06%) was achieved after 3 H when transesterification was carried out at ethyl acetate/cinnamyl alcohol 15:1, 2.67 g L of lipase (Novozym 435) loading, and 40°C. Excellent stability and reusability of the enzyme resulted from the moderate reaction system. Kinetic studies showed that the Michaelis constants for ethyl acetate and cinnamyl alcohol and the inhibition constant of cinnamyl alcohol were 2.241, 206.82, and 0.461 mmol L⁻¹, respectively, which indicated that the reaction complied with the Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism, with the inhibition of cinnamyl alcohol on lipase. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Crown ethers as size-selective synergists in solvent extraction systems: a new selectivity parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinard, W.F.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Mixtures of macrocyclic polyethers (crown ethers) and organic-phase-soluble liquid cation exchangers have been found to produce a synergistic effect in the extraction of metal ions. The synergistic effect is size selective; that is, it tends to be greatest for those ions that best fit the crown ether cavity. The mixtures of a liquid cation exchanger and a crown ether also allow metal ion extraction from common mineral-acid anion systems (NO 3 - , Cl - , SO 4 2- ) that would be impossible with the crown ether alone, because of the difficulty of solubilizing those anions in nonpolar solvents. This cooperation makes the use of crown ethers as size-selective coordinators available for process applications. Size selectivity of compounds such as crown ethers may thus become a useful new parameter in designing selective solvent extraction systems. Results are reported for alkali (including Cs) and alkaline earth (including Sr) extraction by HDEHP mixed with various crown ethers. (author)

  12. Equilibrium solubility of carbon dioxide in the amine solvent system of (triethanolamine + piperazine + water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, P.-Y.; Soriano, Allan N.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Li, M.-H.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a new set of data for the equilibrium solubility of carbon dioxide in the amine solvent system that consists of triethanolamine (TEA), piperazine (PZ), and water is presented. Equilibrium solubility values were obtained at T = (313.2, 333.2, and 353.2) K and pressures up to 153 kPa using the vapour-recirculation equilibrium cell. The TEA concentrations in the considered ternary (solvent) mixture were (2 and 3) kmol . m -3 and those of PZ's were (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) kmol . m -3 . The solubility data (CO 2 loading in the amine solution) obtained were correlated as a function of CO 2 partial pressure, system temperature, and amine composition via the modified Kent-Eisenberg model. Results showed that the model applied is generally satisfactory in representing the CO 2 absorption into mixed aqueous solutions of TEA and PZ.

  13. A parametric study on biphasic medium conditions for the enantioselective production of naproxen by Candida rugosa lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaç, Serpil; Mutlu, Deniz

    2007-04-01

    A parametric study to increase the enantioselectivity of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) toward S-Naproxen production by the hydrolysis of racemic Naproxen methyl ester in an aqueous-organic biphasic batch system was carried out. Effects of organic solvent type, aqueous phase/organic solvent volume ratio, agitation rate, concentrations of the substrate and the enzyme, pH of the aqueous phase, and temperature on the enantiomeric excess for the product (eep), on the enantiomeric ratio (E) and on the conversion (x) were evaluated. Employing isooctane as the solvent resulted in higher eep, E, and x than those obtained in hexane, cyclohexane, and toluene. The higher the volume ratio of aqueous phase/organic solvent employed, the higher the conversion and enantioselectivity achieved. The increase in agitation rate increased the hydrolysis rate. Higher concentration of racemic Naproxen methyl ester than 10 mg/mL decreased both the conversion and enantioselectivity. The increase in crude CRL concentration resulted in enhancement of x, but the decrease of eep and E. Acidic pH led to higher conversion and enantioselectivity than the medium and alkaline pH values. A further increase in temperature to over 45 degrees C decreased the conversion and enantioselectivity. The highest enantiomeric ratio achieved in the S-Naproxen production was E = 171.1, with x = 49.8% and eep = 95.7%.

  14. Is occupational exposure to solvents associated with an increased risk for developing systemic scleroderma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drexler Hans

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study was aimed to investigate in a German collective if there are any hints for an increased occupational or environmental risk to develop systemic sclerosis, especially, focussing on work-related exposure to solvents. Moreover, we tried to evaluate the feasibility of a sampling method addressing support groups. Methods A standardised questionnaire was published in two journals subscribed by members of two different support groups and all members were asked to complete the questionnaire and to return it anonymously. The subjects were not informed on the scientific hypotheses, nor did they know who of them belonged to the case group (scleroderma or to the control group (multiple sclerosis. Results 175 questionnaires could be included in the statistical analysis. As expected, a female predominance was in our collective. In the male subpopulation, the occupational exposure to solvents was higher in the case group than in the control-group (70% versus 45.8%. Based only on the male subgroup, a tendency for an association between occupational exposure to solvents and the risk to develop systemic sclerosis was found. Conclusion According to our experience in this case-control-study exposure misclassification, qualitative or quantitative, was an eminent problem. Within such a setting, it is generally very difficult to establish an exact dose-response relationship due to incomplete, imprecise or missing data concerning duration of exposure, frequency of use and kind of solvent. Additionally, a well-known problem in studies based on self-reported questionnaires is the so-called volunteer bias. Unfortunately, but similar to other studies assessing epidemiologic factors in such a rare disease, our study was of limited power, especially in the subgroups defined by gender.

  15. A comprehensive classification of solvent systems used for natural product purifications in countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Garrard, Ian

    2015-11-01

    Using both library paper copies and modern electronic copies, every known, published, English-language journal paper that employs either countercurrent or centrifugal partition chromatography solvent systems for natural product purifications has been studied and the solvent systems classified in a comprehensive database. Papers were studied from the earliest found examples containing natural product separations in 1984 until the end of 2014. In total, 2594 solvent systems have been classified, of which 272 are gradient systems. To observe any trends or patterns in the data, the natural product solutes were divided into 21 classes and the solvent systems into 7 different types. The complete database, sorted according to natural product class, is available for download to assist separation scientists in future liquid-liquid chromatography purifications.

  16. Solvent-Dependent Dual Fluorescence of the Push-Pull System 2-Diethylamino-7-Nitrofluorene

    KAUST Repository

    Larsen, Martin A. B.

    2018-01-31

    The solvent-dependent excited state behavior of the molecular push-pull system 2-diethylamino-7-nitrofluorene has been explored using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory calculations. Several excited state minima have been identified computationally, all possessing significant intramolecular charge transfer character. The experimentally observed dual fluorescence is suggested to arise from a planar excited state minimum and another minimum reached by twisting of the aryl-nitrogen bond of the amino group. The majority of the excited state population, however, undergo non-radiative transitions and potential excited deactivation pathways are assessed in the computational investigation. A third excited state conformer, characterized by twisting around the aryl-nitrogen bond of the nitro group, is reasoned to be responsible for the majority of the non-radiative decays and a crossing between the excited state and ground state is localized. Additionally, ultrafast intersystem crossing is observed in the apolar solvent cyclohexane and rationalized to occur via an El-Sayed assisted transition from one of the identified excited state minima. The solvent thus determines more than just the fluorescence lifetime and shapes the potential energy landscape, thereby dictating the available excited state pathways.

  17. System Model of Heat and Mass Transfer Process for Mobile Solvent Vapor Phase Drying Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent vapor phase drying process is one of the most important processes during the production and maintenance for large oil-immersed power transformer. In this paper, the working principle, system composition, and technological process of mobile solvent vapor phase drying (MVPD equipment for transformer are introduced in detail. On the basis of necessary simplification and assumption for MVPD equipment and process, a heat and mass transfer mathematical model including 40 mathematical equations is established, which represents completely thermodynamics laws of phase change and transport process of solvent, water, and air in MVPD technological processes and describes in detail the quantitative relationship among important physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, and flux in key equipment units and process. Taking a practical field drying process of 500 KV/750 MVA power transformer as an example, the simulation calculation of a complete technological process is carried out by programming with MATLAB software and some relation curves of key process parameters changing with time are obtained such as body temperature, tank pressure, and water yield. The change trend of theoretical simulation results is very consistent with the actual production record data which verifies the correctness of mathematical model established.

  18. Rapid Prototyping of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Microfluidic Systems Using Solvent Imprinting and Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuhua; Peeni, Bridget A.; Yang, Weichun; Becerril, Hector A.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a method for rapid prototyping of hard polymer microfluidic systems using solvent imprinting and bonding. We investigated the applicability of patterned SU-8 photoresist on glass as an easily fabricated template for solvent imprinting. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) exposed to acetonitrile for 2 min then had an SU-8 template pressed into the surface for 10 min, which provided appropriately imprinted channels and a suitable surface for bonding. After a PMMA cover plate had also been exposed to acetonitrile for 2 min, the imprinted and top PMMA pieces could be bonded together at room temperature with appropriate pressure. The total fabrication time was less than 15 min. Under the optimized fabrication conditions, nearly 30 PMMA chips could be replicated using a single patterned SU-8 master with high chip-to-chip reproducibility. Relative standard deviations were 2.3% and 5.4% for the widths and depths of the replicated channels, respectively. Fluorescently labeled amino acid and peptide mixtures were baseline separated using these PMMA microchips in <15 s. Theoretical plate numbers in excess of 5000 were obtained for a ~3 cm separation distance, and the migration time relative standard deviation for an amino acid peak was 1.5% for intra-day and 2.2% for inter-day analysis. This new solvent imprinting and bonding approach significantly simplifies the process for fabricating microfluidic structures in hard polymers such as PMMA. PMID:17466320

  19. Modeling the vapor-liquid equilibria of polymer-solvent mixtures: Systems with complex hydrogen bonding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The vapor–liquid equilibria of binary polymer–solvent systems was modeled using the Non-Random Hydrogen Bonding (NRHB) model. Mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol), poly(propylene glycol), poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl acetate) with various solvents were investigated, while emphasis was put...... on hydrogen bonding systems, in which functional groups of the polymer chain can self-associate or cross-associate with the solvent molecules. Effort has been made to explicitly account for all hydrogen bonding interactions. The results reveal that the NRHB model offers a flexible approach to account...

  20. Solvents and solvent effects in organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reichardt, C; Welton, T

    2011-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solute-Solvent Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solutions...

  1. Effect of solvent type and content on monomer conversion of a model resin system as a thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert G; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Callan, Richard S; Caughman, Frank; Chan, Daniel C N; Pashley, David H; Looney, Stephen W

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of solvent concentration on the degree of conversion of a model photo-activated resin formulation when placed as a thin film in ambient air. A photo-activated co-monomer mixture (ethoxylated bis-GMA/TEGDMA) (Bisco Inc.) was diluted into six concentrations (from 1.0 to 13.0M) with either acetone or ethanol. A controlled volume of diluted, uncured resin was placed on the horizontal surface of an attenuated reflectance unit and the infrared (IR) spectrum obtained. A light emitting diode light-curing source (Bluephase, Ivoclar/Vivadent) then immediately irradiated the specimen for 10s (n=5). Five minutes after exposure, IR spectra of the cured material were obtained, and monomer conversions were calculated using standard methods that monitored changes in aliphatic-to-aromatic CC absorbance ratios in the uncured and cured states. In the acetone/model resin system, maximum conversion occurred with 2.5-5.0M solvent. In the ethanol/model resin system, conversion peaked at 2.5M solvent. Above 5.0M solvent, conversion values declined rapidly for both solvents. A 13.0-M solution resulted in near 0% conversion for both solvents. At 2.5 and 5.0M acetone, conversions exceeded those of equivalent concentrations of the ethanol-based system. For both an acetone- and ethanol-solvated model resin system, conversion did not immediately decrease with addition of solvent, but instead increased over that of the model resin alone. At higher solvent content (greater than 2.5M ethanol and 5.0M acetone), conversion rapidly declined, with ethanol causing less conversion at equal-molar solvent concentrations.

  2. Ru-Catalyzed Estragole Isomerization under Homogeneous and Ionic Liquid Biphasic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The isomerization of estragole to trans-anethole is an important reaction and is industrially performed using an excess of NaOH or KOH in ethanol at high temperatures with very low selectivity. Simple Ru-based transition-metal complexes, under homogeneous, ionic liquid (IL)-supported (biphasic) and “solventless” conditions, can be used for this reaction. The selectivity of this reaction is more sensitive to the solvent/support used than the ligands associated with the metal catalyst. Thus, under the optimized reaction conditions, 100% conversion can be achieved in the estragole isomerization, using as little as 4 × 10–3 mol % (40 ppm) of [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] in toluene, reflecting a total turnover number (TON) of 25 000 and turnover frequencies (TOFs) of up to 500 min–1 at 80 °C. Using a dimeric Ru precursor, [RuCl(μ-Cl)(η3:η3-C10H16)]2, in ethanol associated with P(OEt)3, a TON of 10 000 and a TOF of 125 min–1 are obtained with 100% conversion and 99% selectivity. These two Ru catalytic systems can be transposed to biphasic IL systems by using ionic-tagged P-ligands such as 1-(3-(diphenylphosphanyl)propyl)-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide immobilized in 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide with up to 99% selectivity and almost complete estragole conversion. However, the reaction is much slower than that performed under solventless or homogeneous conditions. The use of ionic-tagged ligands significantly reduces the Ru leaching to the organic phase, compared to that in reactions performed under homogeneous conditions, where the catalytic system loses catalytic performance after the second recycling. Detailed kinetic investigations of the reaction catalyzed by [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] indicate that a simplified kinetic model (a monomolecular reversible first-order reaction) is adequate for fitting the homogeneous reaction at 80 °C and under biphasic conditions. However, the kinetics of

  3. [Study of Lavoisier morphine chlorhydrate stability in different active perfusion systems after reconstitution in different solvents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelle-Hugon, B; Tourrette, G; Couineaux, B; Gache-Charrette, C

    1997-01-01

    The stability of morphine chlorhydrate injectable solutions with no preservative used for drug delivery system (PCA) was investigated. Many concentrations of morphine chlorhydrate were prepared using different solvents and in several containers: PCA cartridges and plastic syringes stored at 37 degrees C. Assays of drug substance and of degradation products were determined at different time within 14 days. In such conditions, morphine chlorhydrate solutions were stable: degradation products were quantitated less than the usual normal i.e. 2% of the theoric concentration of the drug.

  4. Method to produce biomass-derived compounds using a co-solvent system containing gamma-valerolactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A.; Motagamwala, Ali Hussain

    2017-06-27

    A method to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates containing C5- and/or C6-sugar-containing oligomers and/or C5- and/or C6-sugar monomers in which biomass or a biomass-derived reactant is reacted with a solvent system having an organic solvent, and organic co-solvent, and water, in the presence of an acid. The method produces the desired product, while a substantial portion of any lignin present in the reactant appears as a precipitate in the product mixture.

  5. "Solvent-in-salt" systems for design of new materials in chemistry, biology and energy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azov, Vladimir A; Egorova, Ksenia S; Seitkalieva, Marina M; Kashin, Alexey S; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2018-02-21

    Inorganic and organic "solvent-in-salt" (SIS) systems have been known for decades but have attracted significant attention only recently. Molten salt hydrates/solvates have been successfully employed as non-flammable, benign electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries leading to a revolution in battery development and design. SIS with organic components (for example, ionic liquids containing small amounts of water) demonstrate remarkable thermal stability and tunability, and present a class of admittedly safer electrolytes, in comparison with traditional organic solvents. Water molecules tend to form nano- and microstructures (droplets and channel networks) in ionic media impacting their heterogeneity. Such microscale domains can be employed as microreactors for chemical and enzymatic synthesis. In this review, we address known SIS systems and discuss their composition, structure, properties and dynamics. Special attention is paid to the current and potential applications of inorganic and organic SIS systems in energy research, chemistry and biochemistry. A separate section of this review is dedicated to experimental methods of SIS investigation, which is crucial for the development of this field.

  6. A simple method to optimize the HSCCC two-phase solvent system by predicting the partition coefficient for target compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Quan-Bin; Wong, Lina; Yang, Nian-Yun; Song, Jing-Zheng; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Yiu, Hillary; Ito, Yoichiro; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2008-04-01

    A simple method was developed to optimize the solvent ratio of the two-phase solvent system used in the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) separation. Some mathematic equations, such as the exponential and the power equations, were established to describe the relationship between the solvent ratio and the partition coefficient. Using this new method, the two-phase solvent system was easily optimized to obtain a proper partition coefficient for the CCC separation of the target compound. Furthermore, this method was satisfactorily applied in determining the two-phase solvent system for the HSCCC preparation of pseudolaric acid B from the Chinese herb Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon (Pinaceae). The two-phase solvent system of n-hexane/EtOAc/MeOH/H(2)O (5:5:5:5 by volume) was used with a good partition coefficient K = 1.08. As a result, 232.05 mg of pseudolaric acid B was yielded from 0.5 g of the crude extract with a purity of 97.26% by HPLC analysis.

  7. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE ACETIC ACID-WATER-MIXED SOLVENT (CYCLOHEXYL ACETATE-CYCLOHEXANOL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Çehreli

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of cyclohexyl acetate and cyclohexanol were used as a mixed solvent to study liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE of the acetic acid-water-cyclohexanol-cyclohexyl acetate quaternary system. The solubility diagram and tie-line data were determined at 298±0.20 K and atmospheric pressure, using various compositions of mixed solvent. Reliability of the data was ascertained by making Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots.

  8. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE ACETIC ACID-WATER-MIXED SOLVENT (CYCLOHEXYL ACETATE-CYCLOHEXANOL) SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Çehreli S.

    2002-01-01

    Mixtures of cyclohexyl acetate and cyclohexanol were used as a mixed solvent to study liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) of the acetic acid-water-cyclohexanol-cyclohexyl acetate quaternary system. The solubility diagram and tie-line data were determined at 298±0.20 K and atmospheric pressure, using various compositions of mixed solvent. Reliability of the data was ascertained by making Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots.

  9. Assessment of Purex solvent cleanup methods using a mixer-settler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-11-01

    A test system consisting of three mixer-settlers in series has been used to determine the usefulness of several possible aqueous scrub solutions for cleanup of TBP solvent in fuel reprocessing plants. The simulated solvent that was treated was nominally 0.1 mM zirconium, 0.2 mM uranium, 0.4 mM dibutyl phosphate, and 0.3 mM HNO 3 . Five aqueous scrub solutions - sodium carbonate/tartrate, hydroxylamine/tartaric acid, hydroxylamine/citric acid, hydrazine/oxalic acid, and LiOH/sucrose - were evaluated. The order of effectiveness of these solutions for removal of contaminants was: sodium carbonate/tartrate, hydrazine/oxalic acid, LiOH/sucrose, and the two hydroxylamine solutions. Interfacial crud, which was related to the presence of zirconium and DBP, was observed in all cases except the LiOH/sucrose solution. The recommended system would use sodium carbonate/tartrate. If sodium usage must be minimized, a hydroxylamine-containing scrub followed by a sodium carbonate/tartrate scrub is recommended. 13 references, 11 figures, 21 tables

  10. Lipase Mediated Isoamyl Acetate Synthesis in Solvent-Free System Using Vinyl Acetate as Acyl Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of isoamyl acetate, a flavour ester extensively used in food industry, has been carried out in a solvent-free system. In the present study, an attempt has been made to enhance the isoamyl acetate synthesis yield by transesterification of isoamyl alcohol with vinyl acetate using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 3562 lipase. In the present synthesis, substrates had no inhibitory effect on immobilized lipase. The effects of various reaction parameters on isoamyl acetate synthesis were studied and maximum conversion was achieved at 16 % (by mass per volume of immobilized lipase, 40 °C and 200 rpm. Under these conditions, 8-hour reaction time was sufficient to reach a high ester conversion of 95 % with 0.5 mol/L of isoamyl alcohol. The structure of the transesterified product was confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies. Immobilized lipase had Km and vmax values of 306.53 mmol/L and 99 µmol/(h·g respectively, for isoamyl acetate synthesis in a solvent-free system.

  11. Extraction of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides from Californium Campaign Rework Solution Using TODGA-based Solvent Extraction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dryman, Joshua Cory [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report presents the studies carried out to demonstrate the possibility of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides and lanthanides from highly acidic solutions using a neutral ligand-based solvent extraction system. These studies stemmed from the perceived advantage of such systems over cationexchange- based solvent extraction systems that require an extensive feed adjustment to make a low-acid feed. The targeted feed solutions are highly acidic aqueous phases obtained after the dissolution of curium targets during a californium (Cf) campaign. Results obtained with actual Cf campaign solutions, but highly diluted to be manageable in a glove box, are presented, followed by results of tests run in the hot cells with Cf campaign rework solutions. It was demonstrated that a solvent extraction system based on the tetraoctyl diglycolamide molecule is capable of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides from highly acidic solutions. This system was validated using actual feeds from a Cf campaign.

  12. Phase relationships and thermodynamic interactions of isotactic poly(1-butene) and organic solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Kozłowska, Marta Karolina

    2005-01-07

    Isotactic crystalline low-molecular-weight poly(1-butene), iPBu-1, was synthesised by using a metallocene catalyst. The molecular weight was determined by GPC. The chemical structure of iPBu-1 was verified by using high-temperature (13)C NMR spectroscopy and the thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The (solid+liquid) equilibria, SLE, of iPBu-1 with different hydrocarbons (n-hexadecane, 1-heptene, 1-heptyne, cyclopentane, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, cyclooctane, benzene and propylbenzene) were studied by a dynamic method. By performing these experiments over a large concentration range, the temperature-mole fraction phase diagrams of the polymer-solvent systems could be constructed. From these diagrams it was found that iPBu-1 had the highest solubility in small-ring cycloalkanes and the lowest in n-hexadecane, 1-heptyne and benzene in the mole fraction range measured. The excess Gibbs energy models were used to describe the nonideal behaviour of the liquid phase and to estimate the solubility of iPBu-1 in the whole mole fraction range. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of polymer and solvent were determined from the solubility measurements and were predicted by using the UNIFAC FV model and molecular Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less

  14. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  15. Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of ±11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater

  16. a Molecular Approach to Electrolyte Solutions: Predicting Phase Behavior and Thermodynamic Properties of Single and Binary-Solvent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin Leslie

    A molecular formulation based on modern liquid state theory is applied to the properties and phase behavior of electrolyte systems containing volatile species. An electrolyte model based on the exponential modification of the Mean Spherical Approximation (EXP-MSA) is used to describe the cation-cation, cation-anion, and anion-anion distributions of the ionic species. This theory represents an improvement over the nonmodified MSA approach, and goes beyond the usual Debye-Huckel theory and Pitzer correlation for treating concentrated solutions. Electrolyte solutions such as water-salt, ammonia-salt, mixed salts, and mixed -solvent systems are investigated over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and compositions. The usual salt properties, such as osmotic and mean activity coefficients and other thermodynamic properties (enthalpies), are calculated. The predictions are accurate to saturation limits. In addition, an iterative method is presented that is used to predict vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) and thermodynamic properties of single-salt multisolvent electrolytes of the form solvent-cosolvent-salt. In this method, a local composition model (LCM) and EXP-MSA theory are combined with traditional phase equilibria relations to estimate the pressures and compositions of a vapor phase in equilibrium with a binary-solvent electrolyte. Also, a pseudo-solvent model is proposed as a means of obtaining a variety of averaged liquid phase electrolyte properties. To predict preferential solvation in mixed solvents, a general framework is developed that is based on predicted solvation numbers of each solvent. Preferential solvation will be shown to influence VLE. Results show that phase equilibria is accurately predicted by the above iterative method. Three mixed-solvent electrolyte systems are investigated: water -ethylene glycol-LiBr, ammonia-water-LiBr, and methanol -water-LiCl. Finally, the above electrolyte model is utilized in predicting design criteria for a single

  17. Active efflux systems in the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieboom, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to study the molecular mechanisms of organic solvent tolerance in Pseudomonas putida S12. This bacterium is capable of growth at saturated solvent concentrations, which are lethal to normal bacteria. Organic

  18. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified

  19. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling

  20. Production of low-density poly (4-methyl-1-pentene) foam via phase inversion from binary solvent/nonsovent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simandl, R.F.; Robinson, D.N.; Bolinger, W.L.; Davis, W.E.

    1991-11-01

    Phase inversion from durene/naphthalene, durene/tmpdo, and durene/hexadecanol binary solvent/nonsolvent systems produced well interconnected, radiographically homogeneous, open-celled poly (4- methyl-1-pentene) or pmp foams. These foams ranged in density from 5 to 50 mg/cm{sup 2}. Foam homogeneity and casting efficiency were dependent on casting scheme, durene quality, solvent-to-nonsolvent ratio, and quench temperature. Foam density tracked linearly with dissolved-polymer content. Homogeneous, ultralow-density (5 to 6 mg/cm{sup 3}) foams were produced by using a 49/51 durene/naphthalene solvent eutectic. Foam hardness or firmness tracked somewhat linearly with foam density. Foams with densities above 20 mg/cm{sup 3} were too fragile to handle without damage.

  1. System Development from Organic Solvents to Ionic Liquids for Synthesiz-ing Ascorbyl Esters with Conjugated Linoleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Schultz, Lise; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to screen suitable reaction systems for the modification of antioxidants through enzy-matic synthesis. Enzymatic esterification of ascorbic acid with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was investigated as a mod-el. Four organic solvents and five different enzymes were evaluat...

  2. Vapour–Liquid Equilibria in the Polymer + Solvent System Containing Lower Concentrations of Solute at Normal or Reduced Pressures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Jan; Bogdanić, Grozdana; Wichterle, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 358, 25 NOV (2013), s. 301-303 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : vapour–liquid equilibrium * experimental data * polymer-solvent system Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.241, year: 2013

  3. Ionization and thermodynamic constants of 6-methylquinoline by potentiometry in aqueous and mixed organic-water solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, A; Indhar, B.; Khanzada, A.W.K.

    2000-01-01

    The ionization constant pKa and Gibbs's free energy DG of 6-methylquinoline are determined in aqueous solution at different temperatures and in three mixed organic-water solvent systems at 25 deg. C. It is observed that dissociation constant of 6-methylquinoline in aqueous system decreases with the increase of temperature. The curve is a parabolic. It is noted that pKa values of this compound are higher than those of quinoline and 8-methylquinoline. In case of mixed organic-water solvent systems, the influence of these solvents on the ionization equilibria of NH/sub 2/ group has been observed. The pK M/A and pK T/A values versus percent composition decrease gradually with increase in percent of organic solvents The curve of the pK/sub a/ versus percent composition is a distorted parabola. The data have been obtained potentiometrically by titrating 6-methylquinoline solutions with HCl. The values of dissociation constant were obtained from these data by a computer program written in GW-BASIC. From pKa values Gibbs's free energies DG for the respective pKa values have also been calculated. (author)

  4. In vitro dissolution of curium oxide using a phagolysosomal simulant solvent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfinstine, S.Y.; Guilmette, R.A.; Schlapper, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed study of actinide oxide behavior in alveolar macrophages (AM) in vitro is limited because of the short life span of these cells in culture. We created an in vitro dissolution system that could mimic the acidic phagolysosomal environment for the actinide and be maintained for an indefinite period so that dissolution of more insoluble materials could be measured. The dissolution system for this investigation, consisting of nine different solutions of HCl and the chelating agent diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) in distilled water, is called the phagolysosomal simulant solvent (PSS). In this system, both the pH and the amount of DTPA were varied. We could observe the effect of altering pH within a range of 4.0-6.0 (similar to that of the phagolysosome) and the effect of the molar ratio of DTPA to curium at 1000: 1, 100;1, or 10:1. We chose curium sesquioxide ( 244 Cm 2 O 3 ) to validate the PSS for actinide dissolution versus that occurring in AM in vitro because it dissolves significantly in less than 1 week. The polydisperse 244 Cm 2 O 3 aerosol was generated, collected on filters, resuspended, and added to the PSS solutions and to cultured canine AM. By comparing dissolution in the two systems directly, we hoped to arrive at an optimum PSS for future dissolution studies. PSS and cell culture samples were taken daily for 7 days after exposure and tested for the solubilized curium. The amount of soluble material was determined by ultracentrifugation to separate the insoluble CM 2 O 3 from the soluble curium in the PSS solutions and filtration for the cell-containing material. After separating the soluble and insoluble fractions, the samples were analyzed using alpha liquid scintillation counting. Time-dependent dissolution measurements from the PSS/AM showed that the CM 2 O 3 dissolution was similar for both the PSS solutions and the cultured AM. 13 refs., 4 tabs

  5. A Monitoring system for the Copper Solvent Extraction-Electrowinning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Suontaka, Ville; Saloheimo, Kari; Marttila, Tom; Jämsä-Jounela, Sirkka-Liisa

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the current status of the modeling, simulation and control of the copper-leaching, solvent-extraction and electrowinning process (LX/SX/EW) is investigated. No implementations of advanced process control in the copper LX/SX/EW process have so far been reported. However, model-based control has been successfully applied to solvent extraction processes in the chemical industry, as well as to some other electrowinning processes. A prototype of a process monitoring application based...

  6. Rational Design of Molecular Gelator - Solvent Systems Guided by Solubility Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yaqi

    Self-assembled architectures, such as molecular gels, have attracted wide interest among chemists, physicists and engineers during the past decade. However, the mechanism behind self-assembly remains largely unknown and no capability exists to predict a priori whether a small molecule will gelate a specific solvent or not. The process of self-assembly, in molecular gels, is intricate and must balance parameters influencing solubility and those contrasting forces that govern epitaxial growth into axially symmetric elongated aggregates. Although the gelator-gelator interactions are of paramount importance in understanding gelation, the solvent-gelator specific (i.e., H-bonding) and nonspecific (dipole-dipole, dipole-induced and instantaneous dipole induced forces) intermolecular interactions are equally important. Solvent properties mediate the self-assembly of molecular gelators into their self-assembled fibrillar networks. Herein, solubility parameters of solvents, ranging from partition coefficients (logP), to Henry's law constants (HLC), to solvatochromic ET(30) parameters, to Kamlet-Taft parameters (beta, alpha and pi), to Hansen solubility parameters (deltap, deltad, deltah), etc., are correlated with the gelation ability of numerous classes of molecular gelators. Advanced solvent clustering techniques have led to the development of a priori tools that can identify the solvents that will be gelled and not gelled by molecular gelators. These tools will greatly aid in the development of novel gelators without solely relying on serendipitous discoveries.

  7. Antigenic properties of the envelope of influenza virus rendered soluble by surfactant-solvent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, N. M.; Gallimore, P. H.

    1971-01-01

    Dissociating chemical treatments employing surfactant-solvent systems were applied to purified influenza A and B viruses to obtain viral preparations possessing a significantly higher or lower haemagglutinating activity than the intact virus. All preparations, whether with high or low haemagglutinating activity, with the exception of envelope protein solubilized by Triton X-100, were significantly lacking in the ability to excite the formation of haemagglutination-inhibiting and virus-neutralizing antibodies in inoculated ferrets. In contrast to other treatments, Triton X-100 treatment of virus significantly enhanced the antigenicity of viral protein as judged by virus neutralization and haemagglutination inhibition tests. Yet the haemagglutinating activity of the envelope protein solubilized with Triton X-100 was about 1% that of the intact virus. Results suggest that the correlation assumed to exist between the haemagglutinating activity of influenza virus and its ability to excite the formation of humoral antibodies is coincidental. Another important point is that the specific antigenicity of viral protein may be lost or enhanced owing to effects, other than solubilization, by surface-active agents. PMID:5291750

  8. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Host-Guest Inclusion Complexes between Amlodipine Enantiomers in the Biphasic Recognition Chiral Extraction System using Tartaric Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Positive Confirmation by using their Enantioselective Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azzam, Khaldun M; Abdallah, Hassan H; Halim, Hairul N Abdul; Ahmad, Maizatul Akmam; Shaibah, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports an extended theoretical study from our previous experimental work for the enantioselective extraction of amlodipine enantiomers in a biphasic recognition chiral extraction system (BRCES) consisting of hydrophobic D-diisopropyl tartrate dissolved in organic phase (n-decanol) and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) in aqueous phase (acetate buffer) which preferentially recognize the R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer, respectively. The calculations were simulated using a semi-empirical PM3 method as a part of the Gaussian09 software package and were used to optimize the structures of the hosts, guests, and host-guest complexes in the gas phase without any restrictions. It was found that HP-β-CD has the strongest recognition ability among the three β-CD derivatives studied, namely HP-β-CD, hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin (HE-β-CD), and methylated-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD), due to the large interaction energies (Ecomp = -14.3025 kcal/ mol), while D-diisopropyl tartrate has the strongest ability among the four tartaric acid derivatives studied namely; L-diisopropyl tartrate, D-diisopropyl tartrate, L-diethyl tartrate, and D-diethyl tartrate (Ecomp = -5.9964 kcal/ mol). The computational calculations for the enantioselective partitioning of amlodipine enantiomers rationalized the reasons for the different behaviors for this extraction. The present theoretical results may be informative to scientists who are devoting themselves to developing models for their experimental parts or for enhancing the hydrophobic drug solubility in drug delivery systems.

  10. Host-Guest Inclusion Complexes between Amlodipine Enantiomers in the Biphasic Recognition Chiral Extraction System using Tartaric Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Positive Confirmation by using their Enantioselective Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azzam, Khaldun M.; Abdallah, Hassan H.; Halim, Hairul N. Abdul; Ahmad, Maizatul Akmam; Shaibah, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports an extended theoretical study from our previous experimental work for the enantioselective extraction of amlodipine enantiomers in a biphasic recognition chiral extraction system (BRCES) consisting of hydrophobic D-diisopropyl tartrate dissolved in organic phase (n-decanol) and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) in aqueous phase (acetate buffer) which preferentially recognize the R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer, respectively. The calculations were simulated using a semi-empirical PM3 method as a part of the Gaussian09 software package and were used to optimize the structures of the hosts, guests, and host-guest complexes in the gas phase without any restrictions. It was found that HP-β-CD has the strongest recognition ability among the three β-CD derivatives studied, namely HP-β-CD, hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin (HE-β-CD), and methylated-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD), due to the large interaction energies (Ecomp = −14.3025 kcal/ mol), while D-diisopropyl tartrate has the strongest ability among the four tartaric acid derivatives studied namely; L-diisopropyl tartrate, D-diisopropyl tartrate, L-diethyl tartrate, and D-diethyl tartrate (Ecomp = −5.9964 kcal/ mol). The computational calculations for the enantioselective partitioning of amlodipine enantiomers rationalized the reasons for the different behaviors for this extraction. The present theoretical results may be informative to scientists who are devoting themselves to developing models for their experimental parts or for enhancing the hydrophobic drug solubility in drug delivery systems. PMID:26839848

  11. Micrometer-scale mixing with Pickering emulsions: biphasic reactions without stirring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Fu, Luman; Yang, Hengquan

    2014-02-01

    A general strategy that avoids stirring for organic/aqueous reactions involving solid catalysts is reported. The strategy involves converting a conventional biphasic system into a Pickering emulsion phase with micrometer-scale droplets ensuring good mixing. In test reactions, nitrotoluene reduction and epoxidation of allylic alcohols, the reaction efficiency is comparable to conventional stirrer-driven biphasic catalysis reaction systems. Short diffusion distances, arising from the compartmentalization of densely packed droplets, play an important role in boosting the reaction efficiency. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Deasphalting solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, J. A; Caceres, J; Vela, G; Bueno, H

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how the deasphalted oil (DMO) or demetalized oil (DMO) quality (CCR, Ni, V end asphaltenes contents) changes with: DAO or DMO yield, solvent/feed ratio, type of vacuum reside (from paraffinic to blends with vis breaking bottoms), extraction temperature and extraction solvent (propane, propylene, n-butane and I butane)

  13. Phase equilibrium data for systems composed of oregano essential oil compounds and hydroalcoholic solvents at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capellini, Maria C.; Carvalho, Fernanda H.; Koshima, Cristina C.; Aracava, Keila K.; Gonçalves, Cintia B.; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for p-cymene, thymol, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, ethanol and water were determined. • Complete second order models were fitted to the experimental data. • Distribution coefficients of thymol, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol in pure and mixed solute were evaluated. • Mass fractions of oxygenated compounds and water influenced the distribution coefficients of the essential oil components. • NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models satisfactorily describe the partition of components and solvent selectivity. - Abstract: The deterpenation process of essential oils consists of terpene removal and a consequent concentration of oxygenated compounds, which increases the sensorial quality, the aromatic potential and the oxidative stability of the oil. Deterpenation of oregano (Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae) essential oil, which has been used extensively as a popular medication and as an antimicrobial, antifungal, antimutagenic and a powerful antioxidant agent, can be performed by (liquid + liquid) extraction using hydroalcoholic solvents. This research presents (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for model systems composed of p-cymene, thymol, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, some of the main components of oregano essential oil, using hydrous ethanol as the solvent with the water mass fraction ranging from 0.28 to 0.41 at T = (298.2 ± 0.1) K. The results show that an increase in the hydration of the alcoholic solvent causes a negative influence on the values of the distribution coefficient for the three oxygenated compounds (thymol, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol), with an increase in solvent selectivity. An increase in the content of oxygenated compounds in the terpene-rich phase reduces their distribution coefficients and the selectivity values. In addition, binary interaction parameters were estimated correlating the experimental data using the NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models, and the global deviations were

  14. Novel Solvent System for Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Alfred; Brown, Nathan

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the performance of ION’s lead solvent and determine if ION’s solvent candidate could potentially meet DOE’s target of achieving 90% CO{sub 2} Capture from a 550 MWe Pulverized Coal Plant without resulting in an increase in COE greater than 35%. In this project, ION’s lead solvent demonstrated a 65% reduction in regeneration energy and a simultaneous 35% reduction in liquid to gas ratio (L/G) in comparison to aqMEA at 90% CO{sub 2} capture using actual flue gas at 0.2 MWe. Results have clearly demonstrated that the ION technology is in line with DOE performance expectations and has the potential to meet DOE’s performance targets in larger scale testing environments.

  15. Effect of Nd:YAG laser on the solvent evaporation of adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Graziela Ribeiro; Barcellos, Daphne Câmara; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Damião, Álvaro José; de Oliveira, Hueder Paulo Moisés; de Paiva Gonçalves, Sérgio Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of Nd:YAG laser on the evaporation degree (ED) of the solvent components in total-etch and self-etch adhesives. The ED of Gluma Comfort Bond (Heraeus-Kulzer) one-step self-etch adhesive, and Adper Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE), and XP Bond (Dentsply) total-etch adhesives was determined by weight alterations using two techniques: Control--spontaneous evaporation of the solvent for 5 min; Experimental--Nd:YAG laser irradiation for 1 min, followed by spontaneous evaporation for 4 min. The weight loss due to evaporation of the volatile components was measured at baseline and after 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, 40 s, 50 s, 60 s, 70 s, 80 s, 90 s, 100 s, 110 s, 2 min, 3 min, 4 min, and 5 min. Evaporation of solvent components significantly increased with Nd:YAG laser irradiation for all adhesives investigated. Gluma Comfort Bond showed significantly higher evaporation of solvent components than Adper Single Bond 2 and XP Bond. All the adhesives lost weight quickly during the first min of Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The application of Nd:YAG laser on adhesives before light curing had a significant effect on the evaporation of the solvent components, and the ED of Gluma Comfort Bond one-step self-etch adhesive was significantly higher than with Adper Single Bond 2 and XP Bond total-etch adhesives. The use of the Nd:YAG laser on the uncured adhesive technique can promote a greater ED of solvents, optimizing the longevity of the adhesive restorations.

  16. A new kinetic biphasic approach applied to biodiesel process intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, V.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Many different papers have been published on the kinetics of the transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol, in the presence of alkaline catalysts to produce biodiesel. All the proposed approaches are based on the assumption of a pseudo-monophasic system. The consequence of these approaches is that some experimental aspects cannot be described. For the reaction performed in batch conditions, for example, the monophasic approach is not able to reproduce the different plateau obtained by using different amount of catalyst or the induction time observed at low stirring rates. Moreover, it has been observed by operating in continuous reactors that micromixing has a dramatic effect on the reaction rate. At this purpose, we have recently observed that is possible to obtain a complete conversion to biodiesel in less than 10 seconds of reaction time. This observation is confirmed also by other authors using different types of reactors like: static mixers, micro-reactors, oscillatory flow reactors, cavitational reactors, microwave reactors or centrifugal contactors. In this work we will show that a recently proposed biphasic kinetic approach is able to describe all the aspects before mentioned that cannot be described by the monophasic kinetic model. In particular, we will show that the biphasic kinetic model can describe both the induction time observed in the batch reactors, at low stirring rate, and the very high conversions obtainable in a micro-channel reactor. The adopted biphasic kinetic model is based on a reliable reaction mechanism that will be validated by the experimental evidences reported in this work. (orig.)

  17. Computational Evaluation of Mixtures of Hydrofluorocarbons and Deep Eutectic Solvents for Absorption Refrigeration Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedin, Rubaiyet; Heidarian, Sharareh; Flake, John C; Hung, Francisco R

    2017-10-24

    We used computational tools to evaluate three working fluid mixtures for single-effect absorption refrigeration systems, where the generator (desorber) is powered by waste or solar heat. The mixtures studied here resulted from combining a widely used hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant, R134a, with three common deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by mixing choline chloride (hydrogen bond acceptor, HBA) with urea, glycerol, or ethylene glycol as the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) species. The COSMOtherm/TmoleX software package was used in combination with refrigerant data from NIST/REFPROP, to perform a thermodynamic evaluation of absorption refrigeration cycles using the proposed working fluid mixtures. Afterward, classical MD simulations of the three mixtures were performed to gain insight on these systems at the molecular level. Larger cycle efficiencies are obtained when R134a is combined with choline chloride and ethylene glycol, followed by the system where glycerol is the HBD, and finally that where the HBD is urea. MD simulations indicate that the local density profiles of all species exhibit very sharp variations in systems containing glycerol or urea; furthermore, the Henry's law constants of R134a in these two systems are larger than those observed for the HFC in choline chloride and ethylene glycol, indicating that R134a is more soluble in the latter DES. Interaction energies indicate that the R134a-R134a interactions are weaker in the system where ethylene glycol is the HBD, as compared to in the other DES. Radial distribution functions confirm that in all systems, the DES species do not form strong directional interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonds) with the R134a molecules. Relatively strong interactions are observed between the Cl anions and the hydrogen atoms in R134a; however, the atom-atom interactions between R134a and the cation and HBD species are weaker and do not play a significant role in the solvation of the refrigerant. In all systems, R134a has

  18. Degree of conversion of simplified contemporary adhesive systems as influenced by extended air-activated or passive solvent volatilization modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Boniek C D; Souza-Junior, Eduardo Jose; Brandt, William C; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Montes, Marcos A J R; Puppin-Rontani, Regina M; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of five methods of solvent volatilization on the degree of conversion (DC) of nine one-bottle adhesive systems using Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance (FTIR/ATR) analysis. Nine adhesives were tested: Adper Single Bond 2 (SB), Adper Easy One (EO), One Up Bond F Plus (OUP), One Coat Bond SL (OC), XP Bond (XP), Ambar (AM), Natural Bond (NB), GO, and Stae. The adhesive systems were applied to a zinc-selenide pellet and 1) cured without solvent volatilization, 2) left undisturbed for 10 seconds before curing, 3) left undisturbed for 60 seconds before curing, 4) air-dried with an air stream for 10 seconds before curing, and 5) air-dried with an air stream for 60 seconds before curing. FTIR/ATR spectra were obtained, and the DC was calculated by comparing the aliphatic bonds/reference peaks before and after light activation for 10 seconds (FlashLite 1401). The DC means of each material were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test (pStae adhesive systems was not affected by the five evaporation conditions. Air-drying for 60 seconds before curing yielded the highest DC for SB, EO, and OC. Extended solvent volatilization time (60 seconds) either with or without air-drying before curing provided the highest DC for AM, NB, XP, and OUP. Thus, the monomer conversion of adhesive systems was material dependent. In general, the 60-second passive or active air-drying modes to volatilize solvents before curing enhanced the degree of conversion for the one-bottle simplified adhesive systems.

  19. Production, Purification, and Identification of Cholest-4-en-3-one Produced by Cholesterol Oxidase from sp. in Aqueous/Organic Biphasic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholest-4-en-3-one has positive uses against obesity, liver disease, and keratinization. It can be applied in the synthesis of steroid drugs as well. Most related studies are focused on preparation of cholest-4-en-3-one by using whole cells as catalysts, but production of high-quality cholest-4-en-3-one directly from cholesterol oxidase (COD using an aqueous/organic two-phase system has been rarely explored. This study set up an enzymatic reaction system to produce cholest-4-en-3-one. We developed and optimized the enzymatic reaction system using COD from COX5-6 (a strain of Rhodococcus instead of whole-cell biocatalyst. This not only simplifies and accelerates the production but also benefits the subsequent separation and purification process. Through extraction, washing, evaporation, column chromatography, and recrystallization, we got cholest-4-en-3-one with purity of 99.78%, which was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. In addition, this optimized process of cholest-4-en-3-one production and purification can be easily scaled up for industrial production, which can largely decrease the cost and guarantee the purity of the product.

  20. Phase equilibria for ternary liquid systems of (water + tetrahydrofuran + nonprotic aromatic solvent) at T = 298.2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senol, Aynur [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: senol@istanbul.edu.tr; Sevgili, Lutfullah [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-05-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data of the solubility curves and tie-line end compositions are presented for mixtures of {l_brace}water (1) + tetrahydrofuran (2) + xylene or chlorobenzene or benzyl ether (3){r_brace} at T = 298.2 K and P = (101.3 {+-} 0.7) kPa. Among the studied C6 ring-containing aromatic solvents, xylene gives the largest distribution ratio and separation factors for extraction of tetrahydrofuran. A solvation energy relation (SERLAS) has been used to estimate the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of associated systems containing a nonprotic solvent. The tie-lines were also predicted using the UNIFAC-original model. The reliability of both models has been analyzed against the LLE data with respect to the distribution ratio and separation factor. SERLAS matches LLE data accurately, yielding a mean error of 9.9% for all the systems considered.

  1. The effect of solvents and hydrophilic additive on stable coating and controllable sirolimus release system for drug-eluting stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Min; Park, Sung-Bin; Bedair, Tarek M; Kim, Man-Ho; Park, Bang Ju; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2017-09-01

    Various drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been developed to prevent restenosis after stent implantation. However, DES still needs to improve the drug-in-polymer coating stability and control of drug release for effective clinical treatment. In this study, the cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy surface was coated with biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and sirolimus (SRL) mixed with hydrophilic Pluronic F127 additive by using ultrasonic spray coating system in order to achieve a stable coating surface and control SRL release. The degradation of PDLLA/SRL coating was studied under physiological solution. It was found that adding F127 reduced the degradation of PDLLA and improved the coating stability during 60days. The effects of organic solvent such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF) on the coating uniformity were also examined. It was revealed that THF produced a very smooth and uniform coating compared to chloroform. The patterns of in vitro drug release according to the type of organic solvent and hydrophilic additive proposed the possibility of controllable drug release design in DES. It was found that using F127 the drug release was sustained regardless of the organic solvent used. In addition, THF was able to get faster and controlled release profile when compared to chloroform. The structure of SRL molecules in different organic solvents was investigated using ultra-small angle neutron scattering. Furthermore, the structure of SRL is concentration-dependent in chloroform with tight nature under high concentration, but concentration-independent in THF. These results strongly demonstrated that coating stability and drug release patterns can be changed by physicochemical properties of various parameters such as organic solvents, additive, and coating strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of two rotary retreatment systems in removing Gutta-percha and sealer during endodontic retreatment with or without solvent: A comparativein vitrostudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavaldas, Moushmi Chalakkarayil; Diwan, Abhinav; Kusumvalli, S; Pasha, Shiraz; Devale, Madhuri; Chava, Deepak Chowdary

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of two retreatment rotary systems in the removal of Gutta-percha (GP) and sealer from the root canal walls with or without solvent. Forty-eight extracted human mandibular first premolars were prepared and obturated with GP and AH Plus sealer. Samples were then randomly divided into four groups. Group I was retreated with MtwoR rotary system without solvent, Group II was retreated with MtwoR rotary system with Endosolv R as the solvent, Group III with D-RaCe rotary system without solvent, and Group IV with D-RaCe rotary system and Endosolv R solvent. The cleanliness of canal walls was determined by stereomicroscope (×20) and AutoCAD software. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare the data. Results showed that none of the retreatment systems used in this study was able to completely remove the root canal filling material. D-RaCe with or without solvent showed significantly ( P > 0.05) less filling material at all levels compared to MtwoR with/without solvent. Within the limitation of the current study, D-RaCe rotary retreatment system is more effective in removing filling material from root canal walls when compared to MtwoR rotary retreatment system.

  3. Biphase sinusoidal oscillator based on negative resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Jean

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a biphase sinusoidal generator which provides two signals: v(ref)=V(M) sin(omegat) and v(out)=V(M) sin(omegat+DeltaPhi), where DeltaPhi is in the range 0, pi/2 or -pi/2, 0 and is not dependent on the frequency value. It is based on a negative resistor and it requires very few components. SPICE simulations and measurements on an experimental setup confirm the theoretical analysis.

  4. Solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general ''Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated

  5. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  6. X-ray studies of interfacial strontium-extractant complexes in a model solvent extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Mihaylov, Miroslav; Amoanu, Daniel; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Soderholm, L; Schlossman, Mark L

    2014-10-30

    The interfacial behavior of a model solvent extraction liquid-liquid system, consisting of solutions of dihexadecyl phosphate (DHDP) in dodecane and SrCl2 in water, was studied to determine the structure of the interfacial ion-extractant complex and its variation with pH. Previous experiments on a similar extraction system with ErCl3 demonstrated that the kinetics of the extraction process could be greatly retarded by cooling through an adsorption transition, thus providing a method to immobilize ion-extractant complexes at the interface and further characterize them with X-ray interface-sensitive techniques. Here, we use this same method to study the SrCl2 system. X-ray reflectivity and fluorescence near total reflection measured the molecular-scale interfacial structure above and below the adsorption transition for a range of pH. Below the transition, DHDP molecules form a homogeneous monolayer at the interface with Sr(2+) coverage increasing from zero to saturation (one Sr(2+) per two DHDP) within a narrow range of pH. Experimental values of Sr(2+) interfacial density determined from fluorescence measurements are larger than those from reflectivity measurements. Although both techniques probe Sr(2+) bound to DHDP, only the fluorescence provides adequate sensitivity to Sr(2+) in the diffuse double layer. A Stern equation determines the Sr(2+) binding constant from the reflectivity measurements and the additional Sr(2+) measured in the diffuse double layer is accounted for by Gouy-Chapman theory. Above the transition temperature, a dilute concentration of DHDP-Sr complexes resides at the interface, even for temperatures far above the transition. A comparison is made of the structure of the interfacial ion-extractant complex for this divalent metal ion to recent results on trivalent Er(3+) metal ions, which provides insight into the role of metal ion charge on the structure of interfacial ion-extractant complexes, as well as implications for extraction of these two

  7. High-throughput determination of quantitative structure-property relationships using a resonant multisensor system: solvent resistance of bisphenol a polycarbonate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; McCloskey, Patrick J; Wroczynski, Ronald J; Morris, William G

    2006-05-01

    Polymers are important materials for sensor, microfluidic, and other demanding applications. High-throughput screening methodology has been applied for the evaluation of the solvent resistance of a family of polycarbonate copolymers prepared from the reaction of bisphenol A (BPA), hydroquinone (HQ), and resorcinol (RS) in different solvents of practical importance, such as chloroform, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). We employed a 24-channel acoustic-wave sensor system that provided previously unavailable capabilities for parallel evaluation of polymer solvent resistance. This high-throughput polymer evaluation approach assisted in construction of detailed solvent-resistance maps of polycarbonate copolymers and in determination of quantitative structure-property relationships. The best absolute solvent resistance of all studied copolymers was achieved in MEK, followed by chloroform and THF. A D-optimal mixture design was employed to explore the relationship between the copolymer compositions and their solvent resistance. The applied special cubic model for each solvent took into account the primary mixture terms such as BPA, HQ, and RS; binary interaction terms such as BPA-HQ, BPA-RS, and HQ-RS; and a ternary interaction term BPA-HQ-RS. A combination of the normal distribution of the model residuals and the very high values of adjusted R2 (0.97-0.99) demonstrated a good quality of the model. At a HQ concentration of 40 mol %, the solvent resistance was the highest for all tested solvents, and different concentrations of BPA (40 and 60 mol %) and RS (0 and 20 mol %) did not affect the solvent resistance. Without HQ, solvent resistance was decreasing with an increase of RS and decrease of BPA. Overall, with an increase of HQ concentration from 0 to 40 mol %, the solvent resistance of BPA-HQ-RS copolymers was improved by up to 3 times in THF, by 21 times in chloroform, and by 32 times in MEK.

  8. The biphasic effects of moderate alcohol consumption with a meal on ambiance-induced mood and autonomic nervous system balance: a randomized crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse C Schrieks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. METHODS: In a crossover design 28 women (age 18-45 y, BMI 18.5-27 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. RESULTS: Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. CONCLUSION: Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022.

  9. The biphasic effects of moderate alcohol consumption with a meal on ambiance-induced mood and autonomic nervous system balance: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Kallen, Victor L; Grootjen, Marc; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2014-01-01

    The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. In a crossover design 28 women (age 18-45 y, BMI 18.5-27 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire) at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022.

  10. The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C.; Stafleu, Annette; Kallen, Victor L.; Grootjen, Marc; Witkamp, Renger F.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. Methods In a crossover design 28 women (age 18–45 y, BMI 18.5–27 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire) at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. Results Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. Conclusion Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022. PMID:24465955

  11. Fractionation of lemon essential oil by solvent extraction: Phase equilibrium for model systems at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshima, Cristina C.; Capellini, Maria C.; Geremias, Ivana M.; Aracava, Keila K.; Gonçalves, Cintia B.; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deterpenation of lemon oil by solvent extraction using hydrous ethanol. ► Limonene, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, and citral were used to simulate the oil. ► Citral shows a higher distribution coefficient than the hydrocarbons. ► Terpenic hydrocarbons exhibit very similar phase separation behaviour. ► NRTL and UNIQUAC models provided a good description of the phase equilibrium. - Abstract: The fractioning of lemon essential oil can be performed by liquid–liquid extraction using hydrous ethanol as a solvent. A quaternary mixture composed of limonene, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, and citral was used to simulate lemon essential oil. In this paper, we present (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data that were experimentally determined for systems containing essential oil compounds, ethanol, and water at T = 298.2 K. The experimental data were correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models, and the mean deviations between calculated and experimental data were less than 0.0053 in all systems, indicating the accuracy of these molecular models in describing our systems. The results show that as the water content in the solvent phase increased, the values of the distribution coefficients decreased, regardless of the type of compound studied. However, the oxygenated compound always showed the highest distribution coefficient among the components of the essential oil, thus making deterpenation of the lemon essential oil a feasible process.

  12. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hao; Jiang, Heyuan; Liu, Huan; Chen, Fangjuan; Du, Qizhen

    2014-09-12

    High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reactivity of the biphasic trichloroacetonitrile-CH2Cl2/H2O2 system in the epoxidation of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinelli, Márcia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the epoxidation of soybean oil by the trichloroacetonitrile -CH2Cl2/H2O2 byphasic system. The reaction was carried out at room temperature and, most importantly, in non acid conditions which prevent the opening of the oxirane ring. The epoxidized soybean oil was characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR. A maximum conversion of 81 % was achieved in two hours with 86% of selectivity in epoxy groupsEn el presente trabajo informamos sobre la epoxidación de aceite de soja mediante el sistema bifásico tricloroacetonitrilo-CH2Cl2/H2O2. La reacción fue realizada bajo condiciones de temperatura ambiente y, lo más importante, en condición no ácida, lo que evita la apertura del anillo oxirano. El aceite de soja fue caracterizado por infrarrojo y RMN de 1H and 13C. En dos horas se alcanzó una conversión máxima del 81 % obteniéndose una selectividad del 86 % en grupos epóxidos

  14. Study of the anti-inflammatory effects of low-dose radiation. The contribution of biphasic regulation of the antioxidative system in endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, Martin; Hehlgans, Stephanie; Reichert, Sebastian; Roedel, Claus; Roedel, Franz [Goethe University Frankfurt, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gaipl, Udo S. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Fournier, Claudia [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); Weiss, Christian [Goethe University Frankfurt, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Klinikum Darmstadt, Institute for Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    We examined (a) the expression of the antioxidative factor glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) following low-dose X-irradiation in endothelial cells (ECs) and (b) the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Nrf2 on functional properties of ECs to gain further knowledge about the anti-inflammatory mode of action of low doses of ionizing radiation. EA.hy926 ECs and primary human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVEC) were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 20 ng/ml) 4 h before irradiation with single doses ranging from 0.3 to 3 Gy. The expression and activity of GPx and Nrf2 were analyzed by flow cytometry, colorimetric assays, and real-time PCR. The impact of ROS and Nrf2 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) adhesion was assayed in the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and Nrf2 activator AI-1. Following a low-dose exposure, we observed in EA.hy926 EC and HMVECs a discontinuous expression and enzymatic activity of GPx concomitant with a lowered expression and DNA binding activity of Nrf2 that was most pronounced at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Scavenging of ROS by NAC and activation of Nrf2 by AI-1 significantly diminished a lowered adhesion of PBMC to EC at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Low-dose irradiation resulted in a nonlinear expression and activity of major compounds of the antioxidative system that might contribute to anti-inflammatory effects in stimulated ECs. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war die Untersuchung der Expression des antioxidativen Enzyms Glutathionperoxidase (GPx) und des Transkriptionsfaktors ''nuclear factor E2-related factor 2'' (Nrf2) in Endothelzellen nach niedrigdosierter Roentgenbestrahlung. Des Weiteren wurde der Einfluss von reaktiven Sauerstoffmetaboliten (ROS) und von Nrf2 auf funktionelle Eigenschaften von Endothelzellen analysiert, um weitere Erkenntnisse ueber die antientzuendliche Wirkung von niedrigdosierten Roentgenstrahlen

  15. Analysis of the Cybotactic Region of Two Renewable Lactone-Water Mixed-Solvent Systems that Exhibit Synergistic Kamlet-Taft Basicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duereh, Alif; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Richard Lee; Inomata, Hiroshi

    2016-05-19

    Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic parameters (polarity, basicity, acidity) of hydrogen bond donor (HBD)/acceptor (HBA) mixed-solvent systems, water (H2O)-γ-valerolactone (GVL), methanol (MeOH)-GVL, ethanol (EtOH)-GVL, H2O-γ-butyrolactone (GBL), MeOH-GBL, and EtOH-GBL, were measured over their entire composition region at 25 °C using UV-vis spectroscopy. Basicity of H2O-GVL and H2O-GBL systems exhibited positive deviation from ideality and synergism in the Kamlet-Taft basicity values. The cybotactic region around each indicator in the mixed-solvent systems was analyzed with the preferential solvation model. Both H2O-GVL and H2O-GBL mixed-solvent systems were found to be completely saturated with mutual complex molecules and to have higher basicity than pure water because water prefers to interact with GVL or GBL molecules rather than with itself. Formation of H2O-GVL and H2O-GBL complex molecules via specific hydrogen bond donor-acceptor interactions were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. In MeOH-GVL or MeOH-GBL mixed-solvent systems, MeOH molecules prefer self-interaction over that with GVL or GBL so that synergistic basicity was not observed. Synergistic basicity and basicity increase for various functional groups of ten mixed-solvent (water-HBA solvent) systems can be quantitatively explained by considering electrostatic basicity and a ratio of the partial excess HBA solvent basicity with the HBA solvent molar volume that correlate linearly with the preferential solvation model complex molecular parameter (f12/1). Analysis of the cybotactic region of indicators in aqueous mixtures with the preferential solvation model allows one to estimate the trends of mixed-solvent basicity.

  16. Temperature dependence of microwave absorption phenomena in single and biphase soft magnetic microwires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    El Kammouni, R.; Vázquez, M.; Lezama, L.; Kurlyandskaya, G.; Kraus, Luděk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 368, Nov (2014), 126-132 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic microwire * ferromagnetic resonance * microwave absorption * biphase magnetic system Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2014

  17. Solvent Oligomerization during SEI Formation on Model Systems for Li-Ion Battery Anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassol, Hadi; Buthker, Joseph W.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) measurements along with detailed calculations examining the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on battery anode electrodes. EQCM analysis of Au and Sn surfaces in propylene carbonate (PC) and a 1:1 mixture of ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate (EC:DMC) showed major irreversible mass uptake by the electrode surface especially during the first five cycles between +2 and 0.1 V vs. Li/Li+. MALDI-MS on emersed electrodes showed that long chain (m/z = 3000 on PC) oligomerized species were present on Au surfaces in PC and EC:DMC solvents, where oligomerized species formed in PC solutions showed higher mass ratios. The repeating units of the oligomer, visible as oscillations in the MALDI-MS, vary with the type of the solvent and electrode material. Sn surfaces initially showed formation of long chain polymers, but this material was not in evidence on electrode emersed after five cycles, which likely arises as a consequence of the catalytic involvement of Sn in decomposition of initially formed species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of cyclic solvent molecules suggested a radical initiated polymerization mechanism and predict oligomer subunits consistent with the experimental results.

  18. Some regularities in formation and solvent extraction of complexes in metal-salicylic acid or its derivative- organic base systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimarin, I.P.; Fadeeva, V.I.; Tikhomirova, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of concentrations of the reagents, pH and solvent on the conditions for the formation and extraction of Sc, Ti, Zr, Hf, Th complexes has been examined in salicylic acid (H 2 Sal)-heterocyclic amine systems. The extraction chemism and factors, which affect the reactions between the metal ions and the ligands, are discussed. It has been shown that Zr, Hf, Ti form species of ion associate type, Sc and Th form different-ligand complexes under conditions for interphase equilibrium in a Me-H 2 Sal-heterocyclic amine system

  19. Enzymatic Synthesis of Glucose-Based Fatty Acid Esters in Bisolvent Systems Containing Ionic Liquids or Deep Eutectic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hua Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugar fatty acid esters (SFAEs are biocompatible nonionic surfactants with broad applications in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They can be synthesized enzymatically with many advantages over their chemical synthesis. In this study, SFAE synthesis was investigated by using two reactions: (1 transesterification of glucose with fatty acid vinyl esters and (2 esterification of methyl glucoside with fatty acids, catalyzed by Lipozyme TLIM and Novozym 435 respectively. Fourteen ionic liquids (ILs and 14 deep eutectic solvents (DESs were screened as solvents, and the bisolvent system composed of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethylsulfonate ([HMIm][TfO] and 2-methyl-2-butanol (2M2B was the best for both reactions, yielding optimal productivities (769.6 and 397.5 µmol/h/g, respectively which are superior to those reported in the literature. Impacts of different reaction conditions were studied for both reactions. Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the transesterification reaction. Results also demonstrated that as co-substrate, methyl glucoside yielded higher conversions than glucose, and that conversions increased with an increase in the chain length of the fatty acid moieties. DESs were poor solvents for the above reactions presumably due to their high viscosity and high polarity.

  20. A low viscosity, low boiling point, clean solvent system for the rapid crystallisation of highly specular perovskite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Nakita K.; Habisreutinger, Severin N.; Wenger, Bernard; Klug, Matthew T.; Hörantner, Maximilian T.; Johnston, Michael B.; Nicholas, Robin J.; Moore, David T.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite-based photovoltaics have, in recent years, become poised to revolutionise the solar industry. While there have been many approaches taken to the deposition of this material, one-step spin-coating remains the simplest and most widely used method in research laboratories. Although spin-coating is not recognised as the ideal manufacturing methodology, it represents a starting point from which more scalable deposition methods, such as slot-dye coating or ink-jet printing can be developed. Here, we introduce a new, low-boiling point, low viscosity solvent system that enables rapid, room temperature crystallisation of methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite films, without the use of strongly coordinating aprotic solvents. Through the use of this solvent, we produce dense, pinhole free films with uniform coverage, high specularity, and enhanced optoelectronic properties. We fabricate devices and achieve stabilised power conversion efficiencies of over 18% for films which have been annealed at 100 degrees C, and over 17% for films which have been dried under vacuum and have undergone no thermal processing. This deposition technique allows uniform coating on substrate areas of up to 125 cm2, showing tremendous promise for the fabrication of large area, high efficiency, solution processed devices, and represents a critical step towards industrial upscaling and large area printing of perovskite solar cells.

  1. An Improved Apparatus for Vapour-Liquid Equilibria Measurement in Polymer + Solvent Systems at Higher Temperatures: a Study of the Water + Poly(ethylene glycol) System.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Jan; Bogdanić, Grozdana; Wichterle, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 454, 25 DEC (2017), s. 111-115 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19542S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : correlation * experimental data * polymer-solvent system Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  2. Solvent substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evanoff, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and industrial hygiene regulations promulgated since 1980, most notably the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, have brought about an increased emphasis on user exposure, hazardous waste generation, and air emissions. As a result, industry is performing a fundamental reassessment of cleaning solvents, processes, and procedures. The more progressive organizations have made their goal the elimination of solvents that may pose significant potential human health and environmental hazards. This chapter discusses solvent cleaning in metal-finishing, metal-manufacturing, and industrial maintenance applications; precision cleaning; and electronics manufacturing. Nonmetallic cleaning, adhesives, coatings, inks, and aerosols also will be addressed, but in a more cursory manner

  3. Photodegradation of bifenthrin and deltamethrin-effect of copper amendment and solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Saadia Rashid; Ahmed, Dildar; Farooq, Amna; Rasheed, Sonia; Mansoor, Mubarkah

    2017-02-01

    The photodegradation of bifenthrin and deltamethrin was studied in the presence of Cu salts and two different solvents, methanol and acetonitrile. Results of the study showed that in the absence of any metal salt, the two pesticides degraded more rapidly in acetonitrile than in methanol. After 24 h of UV irradiation, 70% of deltamethrin had degraded in acetonitrile, while only 41% bifenthrin degraded in this solvent. In methanol, bifenthrin degraded at a much enhanced rate than in acetonitrile while the rate of degradation of deltamethrin was comparable to that in acetonitrile. The photodegradation was further enhanced by the addition of copper to the solution of bifenthrin and deltamethrin in acetonitrile. The rate of photodegradation of deltamethrin increased from 2.4 × 10 -2 to 3.5 × 10 -2  h -1 in acetonitrile and 2.5 × 10 -2 to 3.4 × 10 -2  h -1 in methanol after the addition of copper. Similarly, the rate of photodegradation of bifenthrin was increased from 5.0 × 10 -3 to 9.0 × 10 -3  h -1 in acetonitrile and 7.0 × 10 -3 to 9.05 × 10 -3  h -1 in methanol with the addition of copper. Thus, copper has the potential to enhance the photodegradation of bifenthrin and deltamethrin in both the solvents.

  4. Optimization and modeling of extraction equilibria of the type 2 ternary systems containing (water + isovaleric acid + solvent)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senol, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LLE of water + isovaleric acid + solvent (type 2 system) were determined. • Several optimization factors were proposed for prediction of optimum extraction. • A derivative variation method was executed to identify the optimum point. • SERLAS model involving six descriptors and UNIFAC model were performed. • The observed optimum conditions were predicted through six-parameter two models. - Abstract: The extraction equilibria of the type 2 ternary systems containing (water + isovaleric acid + solvent) have been investigated at T = (298.2 ± 0.1) K and P = (101.3 ± 0.7) kPa. Aromatic solvents xylene, chlorobenzene and benzyl ether give the largest distribution ratios and separation factors, as compared to 1-phenyl ethanol, cyclohexanol and 1-decanol. The distribution data have been subjected to formulation of an optimization structure for an effective acid separation. The optimization approach uses a derivative variation method to efficiently identify the optimization range through analyzing the first order derivatives of the optimized quantity and the non-linear deviation profile of the derivative value. Some aspects of selection of an appropriate criterion for designing optimum extraction are discussed. Modeling efforts based on the LSER (linear solvation energy relation) principles have shown considerable success. The proposed SERLAS model using six physical descriptors of the components has provided relatively reliable fits with a mean relative error of 10.1% and satisfies have established limiting behavior of the physical event. As well, the tie-lines of relevant systems have been predicted by the UNIFAC-original model.

  5. Biphasic activity of a jumping spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Toshinori

    2011-01-01

    Individual variation is a ubiquitous and important factor that affects ecological dynamics. This study examined individual variation in the nest-use pattern of the jumping spider Phidippus audax. Although the jumping spider is a diurnal species, field observations in this study revealed that the majority of individuals remained in their nests during the day. An accompanying examination of the hunger level of the spiders revealed that spiders that remained in nests were more starved than those observed outside nests. If spiders actively forage when they are starved, as has been suggested by previous studies, one would expect to see the opposite trend (i.e., spiders that remained in nests are more satiated). Thus, the pattern observed in the field contradicts the known behavioral pattern of the spiders. An individual-based model was used to investigate the behavioral mechanism of the spider and the discrepancy found in the observations. A basic assumption of the model is that spiders possess distinct inactive and active phases (biphasic activity pattern), and transitions between the two phases are regulated by the hunger level of the spider. Data from a laboratory experiment were used to examine the assumptions of the model partially. The model was able to capture patterns observed in the data, suggesting that the pattern of transitions in biphasic activity is an important trait of the foraging behavior of the jumping spider.

  6. Continuous flow solvent extraction system for the determination of trace amounts of uranium in nuclear waste reprocessing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atallah, R.H.; Christian, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    A system is described for the continuous flow solvent extraction of uranium using isobutyl methyl ketone (IBMK) in the presence of a salting-out solution. This is used as a pre-step to spectrophotometric determination with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino)phenol (Br-PADAP) in methanol. The method utilises an on-line solvent extraction unit, interfaced to a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis (FIA) detection system. The extraction unit can be operated in two ways. In the first, 0.6 ml of a sample was loaded (injected) and then the separated organic phase was mixed directly with the reagent. This permits the handling of 20 samples per hour and a limit of determination of 0.2 p.p.m. of uranium. In the second method, a continuously pumped sample was brought into contact with a fixed volume of the organic phase, which was recirculated in a closed loop. Recirculation results in the extraction of more analyte with the same volume of the organic phase present in the loop. For a sample loading volume of 3 ml, an enrichment factor of 4 was obtained. The determination of uranium at the 50 p.p.b. level can be achieved using this automated liquid - liquid extraction system. Lower concentrations of uranium can also be measured by further increasing the sample volume. This method was tested on a synthetic nuclear waste solution. (author)

  7. Comparison of solvent/derivatization agent systems for determination of extractable toluene diisocyanate from flexible polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangronsveld, Erik; Berckmans, Steven; Spence, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Flexible polyurethane foam (FPF) is produced from the reaction of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and polyols. Limited and conflicting results exist in the literature concerning the presence of unreacted TDI remaining in FPF as determined by various solvent extraction and analysis techniques. This study reports investigations into the effect of several solvent/derivatization agent combinations on extractable TDI results and suggests a preferred method. The suggested preferred method employs a syringe-based multiple extraction of foam samples with a toluene solution of 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazine. Extracts are analyzed by liquid chromatography using an ion trap mass spectrometry detection technique. Detection limits of the method are ~10ng TDI g(-1) foam (10 ppb, w/w) for each TDI isomer (i.e. 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI). The method was evaluated by a three-laboratory interlaboratory comparison using two representative foam samples. The total extractable TDI results found by the three labs for the two foams were in good agreement (relative standard deviation of the mean of 30-40%). The method has utility as a basis for comparing FPFs, but the interpretation of extractable TDI results using any solvent as the true value for 'free' or 'unreacted' TDI in the foam is problematic, as demonstrated by the difference in the extracted TDI results from the different extraction systems studied. Further, a consideration of polyurethane foam chemistry raises the possibility that extractable TDI may result from decomposition of parts of the foam structure (e.g. dimers, biurets, and allophanates) by the extraction system.

  8. Effect of different gutta-percha solvents on the microtensile bond strength of various adhesive systems to pulp chamber dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demırbuga, Sezer; Pala, Kanşad; Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Çayabatmaz, Muhammed; Topçuoğlu, Gamze; Uçar, Ebru Nur

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different endodontic solvents on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of various adhesives to pulp chamber dentin. A total of 120 human third molars were selected. Canals were prepared with the ProTaper Universal system and obturated. The access cavities were then restored with resin composite. After 1 week, a retreatment procedure was applied as follows: control, no solvent was applied to the pulp chamber and experimental groups, three different solvents (chloroform, eucalyptol, and orange oil) were applied to the pulp chamber for 2 min. The canal filling was removed and calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH] 2 ) was placed into the canals. After 7 days, the Ca(OH) 2 was removed from the canals and the canals were re-obturated. Teeth were then divided into three subgroups according to the adhesive used. The samples were restored with a nanohybrid resin composite using three different adhesives: Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), Adper Easy One (AEO), and Single Bond 2 (SB2). The samples were aged with thermocycling. Teeth were sectioned, and a total of 20 dentin sticks were obtained for each subgroup. μTBS testing was then performed. The debonded surfaces were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. Chloroform showed statistically lower mean μTBS values (14 ± 7.2 MPa) than control group did (19.2 ± 6.1 MPa) (p  0.05). Chloroform showed significantly lower bond strength for all adhesives (p adhesive systems significantly (p > 0.05), eucalyptol reduced the μTBS values of all the groups, but the results were only statistically significant for SB2 (p  0.05). According to the SEM analysis of the debonded surfaces, adhesive failures were the most common type in all the groups, followed by mixed failures. While chloroform reduced the mean bond strength of the adhesive resins, orange oil did not affect the bond strength of the

  9. A functional biphasic biomaterial homing mesenchymal stem cells for in vivo cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongjie; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Xiaoqing; Shao, Zhenxing; Zhu, Jingxian; Dai, Linghui; Man, Zhentao; Yuan, Lan; Chen, Haifeng; Zhou, Chunyan; Ao, Yingfang

    2014-12-01

    Cartilage regeneration after trauma is still a great challenge for clinicians and researchers due to many reasons, such as joint load-bearing, synovial movement and the paucity of endogenous repair cells. To overcome these limitations, we constructed a functional biomaterial using a biphasic scaffold platform and a bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-specific affinity peptide. The biphasic scaffold platform retains more cells homogeneously within the sol-gel transition of chitosan and provides sufficient solid matrix strength. This biphasic scaffold platform is functionalized with an affinity peptide targeting a cell source of interest, BMSCs. The presence of conjugated peptide gives this system a biological functionality towards BMSC-specific homing both in vitro and in vivo. The functional biomaterial can stimulate stem cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation during in vitro culture. Six months after in vivo implantation, compared with routine surgery or control scaffolds, the functional biomaterials induced superior cartilage repair without complications, as indicated by histological observations, magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical properties. Beyond cartilage repair, this functional biphasic scaffold may provide a biomaterial framework for one-step tissue engineering strategy by homing endogenous cells to stimulate tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atomically abrupt silicon-germanium axial heterostructure nanowires synthesized in a solvent vapor growth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaney, Hugh; Mullane, Emma; Ramasse, Quentin M; Ryan, Kevin M

    2013-04-10

    The growth of Si/Ge axial heterostructure nanowires in high yield using a versatile wet chemical approach is reported. Heterostructure growth is achieved using the vapor zone of a high boiling point solvent as a reaction medium with an evaporated tin layer as the catalyst. The low solubility of Si and Ge within the Sn catalyst allows the formation of extremely abrupt heterojunctions of the order of just 1-2 atomic planes between the Si and Ge nanowire segments. The compositional abruptness was confirmed using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic level electron energy loss spectroscopy. Additional analysis focused on the role of crystallographic defects in determining interfacial abruptness and the preferential incorporation of metal catalyst atoms near twin defects in the nanowires.

  11. Synthesis of LiMnPO4 porous structures under mixed solvents system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhenzhao; Zhang, Xia; Gao, Xiang

    2013-04-01

    Porous structure LiMnPO4 with pore size from 4 to 9 nm was successfully synthesized in mixed solvents. By changing ratios of glycerol to distilled water and stirring time, LiMnPO4 morphologies were adjusted. Shuttles with different sizes and porous structure of LiMnPO4 were formed in sequence. Ratio of glycerol to distilled water influences the solubility of LiMnPO4 and solutions viscosity. This factor and stirring time are both causes influencing the nucleation rate and diffusion rate of the initial formed particles of final products. Through adjusting these factors, chemicals with specific morphology can be obtained. The phase composition was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the microstructure was verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This synthetic method provides us a new idea to obtain new structure materials.

  12. Morphogenesis and Optoelectronic Properties of Supramolecular Assemblies of Chiral Perylene Diimides in a Binary Solvent System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaobo; Song, Inho; Ohtsu, Hiroyoshi; Tong, Jiaqi; Zhang, Haoke; Oh, Joon Hak

    2017-07-14

    Chiral supramolecular structures are attracting great attention due to their specific properties and high potential in chiral sensing and separation. Herein, supramolecular assembling behaviors of chiral perylene diimides have been systematically investigated in a mixed solution of tetrahydrofuran and water. They exhibit remarkably different morphologies and chiral aggregation behaviors depending on the mixing ratio of the solvents, i.e., the fraction of water. The morphogenesis and optoelectronic properties of chiral supramolecular structures have been thoroughly studied using a range of experimental and theoretical methods to investigate the morphological effects of chiral supramolecular assemblies on the electrical performances and photogenerated charge-carrier behaviors. In addition, chiral perylene diimides have been discriminated by combining vibrational circular dichroism with theoretical calculations, for the first time. The chiral supramolecular nanostructures developed herein strongly absorb visible spectral region and exhibit high photoresponsivity and detectivity, opening up new opportunities for practical applications in optoelectronics.

  13. Comparison of defibrillation efficacy using biphasic waveforms delivered from various capacitances/pulse widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J H; Stotts, L J; Rosborough, J P; Frederick, H

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of the biphasic waveform shock for the defibrillation of the ventricular myocardium has been reported by researchers and physicians. Although many authors have suggested that biphasic waveforms delivered from lower capacitances and shorter pulse widths could result in the reduction of the energy required for successful defibrillation, no report has described the smallest capacitance and pulse width yielding the lowest DFT. In this study, we compared efficacies of the biphasic waveform shocks and DFT safety margins among five different capacitances (175 mu f, 125 mu f. 100 mu f. 75 mu f, and 50 mu f) combined with 1-3 pulse widths. These experiments performed in six dogs used an endocardial lead/subcutaneous patch defibrillation electrode system. The average DFTs at E50 for 175 mu f (6.5/3.5 ms), 125 mu f (6.5/3.5 ms), 100 mu f (6.0/3.0 ms), 75 mu f (4.0/2.0) ms, and 50 mu f (3.0/2.0 ms) were 8.5, 10.0, 11.0, 14.0, and 16.5), respectively. These results indicate that a biphasic waveform delivered from a larger capacitance with a proper pulse width could achieve a higher defibrillation efficacy. All DFTs at E50 for all waveforms were compared to their deliverable energies and maximum stored energies. This comparison indicated a narrow DFT safety margin with capacitances below 100 mu f. Therefore, it is concluded that higher energy and higher leading edge voltage are required for a biphasic waveform delivered from a smaller capacitance with a shorter pulse width. Since the current capacitor technology provides a maximum voltage of 750 V using two capacitors in series, with the electrode impedance system used in this study, smaller capacitors appear to have a decreased probability of defibrillation success at a given energy.

  14. Rational approach to solvent system selection for liquid-liquid extraction-assisted sample pretreatment in counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Gu, Dongyu; Wang, Miao; Guo, Xinfeng; Li, Haoquan; Dong, Yue; Guo, Hong; Wang, Yi; Fan, Mengqi; Yang, Yi

    2017-05-15

    A rational liquid-liquid extraction approach was established to pre-treat samples for high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:5:4:5, v/v) and (1:5:1:5, v/v) were selected as solvent systems for liquid-liquid extraction by systematically screening K of target compounds to remove low- and high-polarity impurities in the sample, respectively. After liquid-liquid extraction was performed, 1.4g of crude sample II was obtained from 18.5g of crude sample I which was extracted from the flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L., and then separated with HSCCC by using a solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:2:1:2, v/v). As a result, 31mg of robinin and 37mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside were isolated from 200mg of crude sample II in a single run of HSCCC. A scale-up separation was also performed, and 160mg of robinin with 95% purity and 188mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside with 97% purity were produced from 1.2g of crude sample II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data of (water + phosphoric acid + solvents) systems at T = (308.2 and 318.2) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, H.; Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Shekarsaraee, S.; Uslu, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase equilibria of the (water + PA + solvents) systems were investigated. ► Experimental LLE data were correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC models. ► Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated. - Abstract: Ternary equilibrium data for the mixtures of {water + phosphoric acid + organic solvent (cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, and toluene)} were determined at T = (308.2 and 318.2) K and atmospheric pressure. Solubility data were determined by the cloud-point titration method. In order to obtain the tie-line data, the concentration of each phase was determined by acidimetric titration, the Karl–Fischer technique, and refractive index measurements. The experimental tie-line data were correlated using the UNIQUAC and NRTL models. The reliability of the experimental data was determined through the Othmer–Tobias and Hand plots. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated over the immiscibility regions. The Katritzky LSER model was applied to correlate distribution coefficients and separation factors in these ternary systems.

  16. Solvent extraction technology of 90Mo-sup(99m)Tc system: design and operational considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, O.P.D.; Sewatkar, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The design features of 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc solvent extraction system have been reviewed. An improved semi-automated system has been improvised using the basic equipment of an indigenous unit along with other accessories, and with an added element of radiation protection to handle daily about 300-600 millicurie amounts of reactor-produced very low specific activity 99 Mo. The system has been used routinely for obtaining sup(99m)TcO 4 - - required for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine for the last twelve years. The performance characteristics of this unit with respect to yield and purity of 99 TcO 4 - - consistency of the process, the radiation dose to personnel and related health physics aspects have been evaluated. (author)

  17. Introducing a standard method for experimental determination of the solvent response in laser pump, x-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Kehres, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In time-resolved laser pump, X-ray probe wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution the structural response of the system is accompanied by a solvent response. The solvent response is caused by reorganization of the bulk solvent following the laser pump event, and in order...... response-the solvent term-experimentally when applying laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering. The solvent term describes difference scattering arising from the structural response of the solvent to changes in the hydrodynamic parameters: pressure, temperature and density. We...... is demonstrated to exhibit first order behaviour with respect to the amount of energy deposited in the solution. We introduce a standardized method for recording solvent responses in laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved X-ray wide-angle scattering experiments by using dye mediated solvent heating. Furthermore...

  18. Replacement of Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) -225 Solvent for Cleaning and Verification Sampling of NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems Hardware, Ground Support Equipment, and Associated Test Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of HCFC-225, a Class II ODS, was prohibited by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, leveraging resources from both the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Program and the Defense Logistics Agency - Aviation Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a replacement for HCFC-225 that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. Candidate solvents were selected and a test plan was developed following the guidelines of ASTM G127, Standard Guide for the Selection of Cleaning Agents for Oxygen Systems. Solvents were evaluated for materials compatibility, oxygen compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and suitability for use in cleanliness verification and field cleaning operations. Two solvents were determined to be acceptable for cleaning oxygen systems and one was chosen for implementation at NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities. The test program and results are summarized. This project also demonstrated the benefits of cross-agency collaboration in a time of limited resources.

  19. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Rigo, E.C.S.; Fraga, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  20. Evaluation of various solvent systems for lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and its effects on primary metabolites of lipid-extracted biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Guldhe, Abhishek; Rawat, Ismail; Bux, Faizal

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae have tremendous potential to grow rapidly, synthesize, and accumulate lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The effects of solvent extraction of lipids on other metabolites such as proteins and carbohydrates in lipid-extracted algal (LEA) biomass are crucial aspects of algal biorefinery approach. An effective and economically feasible algae-based oil industry will depend on the selection of suitable solvent/s for lipid extraction, which has minimal effect on metabolites in lipid-extracted algae. In current study, six solvent systems were employed to extract lipids from dry and wet biomass of Scenedesmus obliquus. To explore the biorefinery concept, dichloromethane/methanol (2:1 v/v) was a suitable solvent for dry biomass; it gave 18.75% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 32.79% proteins, and 24.73% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. In the case of wet biomass, in order to exploit all three metabolites, isopropanol/hexane (2:1 v/v) is an appropriate solvent system which gave 7.8% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 20.97% proteins, and 22.87% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. Graphical abstract: Lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and biorefianry approach.

  1. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    % after implementations of this method in March 2000. However, failures of instrumentation and control system components led to additional plant down time and damage to the bearings and seals. The enthalpy and pressure of well 103 declined substantially from the inception of the project. When the project was started the wellhead pressure and enthalpy were 760 psig and 882 Btu/lb respectively. At the time the plant was placed in standby the corresponding values were only 525 psig and 658 Btu/lb. This reduced the available plant power to only 400 kWe making the project economically unfeasible. However, replacement of the existing rotor with the Dual Pressure Rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals will enable the existing Biphase turbine to produce 1190 kWe at the present well conditions without the backpressure steam turbine. Operation with the present staff can then be sustained by selling power under the existing Agreement with CFE. Implementation of this option is recommended with operation of the facility to continue as a demonstration plant. Biphase turbine theory, design and performance are reported herein. The construction of the Biphase turbine and power plant and operational experience are detailed. Improvements in the Biphase turbine are indicated and analyzed. The impact of Biphase techonology on geothermal power production is discussed and recommendations made.

  2. Calculation of liquid-liquid phase separation in a ternary system of a polymer in a mixture of a solvent and a nonsolvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, Frank W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical method for the calculation of the binodal of liquid-liquid phase separation in a ternary system is described. The Flory-Huggins theory for three-component systems is used. Binodals are calculated for polymer/solvent/nonsolvent systems which are used in the preparation of asymmetric

  3. Phase equilibria for ternary liquid systems of (water + levulinic acid + cyclic solvent) at T = 298.2 K: Thermodynamic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senol, Aynur [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: senol@istanbul.edu.tr

    2005-10-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data of the solubility curves and tie-line end compositions are presented for mixtures of {l_brace}water (1) + levulinic acid (2) + methylcyclohexanol, or cyclohexanone, or cyclohexyl acetate (3){r_brace} at T = 298.2 K and P = (101.3 {+-} 0.7) kPa. Among the studied C6 ring-containing cyclic solvents, methylcyclohexanol and cyclohexyl acetate give the largest distribution ratio and separation factors for extraction of levulinic acid. A solvation energy relation (SERLAS) has been used to estimate the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of associated systems containing components capable of a physical interaction through hydrogen bonding. The tie-lines were also predicted using the UNIFAC-original model. The reliability of both models has been analyzed against the LLE data with respect to the distribution ratio and separation factor. SERLAS matches LLE data quite accurately, yielding a mean error of 3.6% for all the systems considered.

  4. Organic high ionic strength aqueous two-phase solvent system series for separation of ultra-polar compounds by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yun; Liu, Gang; Ma, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Existing two-phase solvent systems for high-speed countercurrent chromatography cover the separation of hydrophobic to moderately polar compounds, but often fail to provide suitable partition coefficient values for highly polar compounds such as sulfonic acids, catecholamines and zwitter ions. The present paper introduces a new solvent series which can be applied for the separation of these polar compounds. It is composed of 1-butanol, ethanol, saturated ammonium sulfate and water at various volume ratios and consists of a series of 10 steps which are arranged according to the polarity of the solvent system so that the two-phase solvent system with suitable K values for the target compound(s) can be found in a few steps. Each solvent system gives proper volume ratio and high density difference between the two phases to provide a satisfactory level of retention of the stationary phase in the spiral column assembly. The method is validated by partition coefficient measurement of four typical polar compounds including methyl green (basic dye), tartrazine (sulfonic acid), tyrosine (zwitter ion) and epinephrine (a catecholamine), all of which show low partition coefficient values in the polar 1-butanol-water system. The capability of the method is demonstrated by separation of three catecholamines. PMID:22033108

  5. Physicochemical studies of the carbamate-CO/sub 2/-solvent system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prencipe, M.; Ishida, T.

    1977-08-01

    The formation of carbamate from CO/sub 2/ and the various amine solutions has been investigated for the purpose of elucidating the structure of the species generated in the reaction. The amine solutions used were 1 and 2 molar solutions of di-n-butylamine (DNBA) in triethylamine (TEA), pure DNBA and pure TEA. It has been found that the nonaqueous solvent participates in the formation of carbamate in 1 and 2M-DNBA/TEA solutions as a proton acceptor in DNBA-carbamate formation. However, due to the high concentration of the solutions and the basicities of the amines, a significant amount of DNBA which does not form the DNBA-carbamate anion is also found to be participating as a proton acceptor. Pure TEA absorbs only /sup 1///sub 60/ of the absorption by pure DNBA. The extent of TEA participation in the CO/sub 2/-absorption process other than as a proton acceptor in DNBA-carbamate is negligible. The formation of carbamic acid and zwitterion have been found unlikely. 7 tables, 15 figs.

  6. Improvement of Anion Transport Systems by Modulation of Chalcogen Interactions: The influence of solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sanz, Goar; Trujillo, Cristina

    2018-02-08

    A series of potential anion transporters, dithieno[3,2-b;2',3'-d]thiophenes (DTT), involving anion-chalcogen interactions have been studied by analyzing the interaction energy, geometry, and charge transfer. It was found that gas phase calculations show very negative interaction energies with short anion-chalcogen distances, but when solvent effects are considered, the interaction energy values decreased drastically concomitantly with an elongation on the interatomic distances. To enhance the chalcogen interaction between the DTT derivatives and the anion, increasing the anion transporter capacity, bisisothioazole moiety was considered; i.e., the σ-hole of the chalcogen atom was modulated by substitution of the adjacent carbon by a nitrogen atom in the S-C axis, increasing the depth of the σ-hole and therefore the interaction between the chalcogen and anion. Finally, different anions were analyzed within the complexes, finding that F - and NO 3 - would be the best candidates to form complexes and possibly displace other anions such as Cl - or Br - .

  7. Influence of Biphasic Stimulation on Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Neuroprosthetic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Rachelle Therese Hassarati; Leslie John Foster; Rylie Adelle Green; Rylie Adelle Green

    2016-01-01

    The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), i...

  8. Development of a New Binary Solvent System Using Ionic Liquids as Additives to Improve Rotenone Extraction Yield from Malaysia Derris sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetty Shafiqa Othman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotenone is one of the prominent insecticidal isoflavonoid compounds which can be isolated from the extract of Derris sp. plant. Despite being an effective compound in exterminating pests in a minute concentration, procuring a significant amount of rotenone in the extracts for commercialized biopesticides purposes is a challenge to be attained. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the best ionic liquid (IL which gives the highest yield of rotenone. The normal soaking extraction (NSE method was carried out for 24 hrs using five different types of binary solvent systems comprising a combination of acetone and five respective ionic liquids (ILs of (1 [BMIM] Cl; (2 [BMIM] OAc; (3 [BMIM] NTf2; (4 [BMIM] OTf; and (5 [BMPy] Cl. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w, and its concentration (mg/mL in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC and TLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems (P<0.05. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 2.69 ± 0.21% (w/w (4.04 ± 0.34 mg/mL at 14 hrs of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the ILs with a selective organic solvent has been proven to increase a significant amount of bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  9. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  10. Thermodynamics of solvent extraction on (C8H17)3N-C6H5CH3-UO2Cl2-HCl system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yigui Li; Jiufang Lu; Xunan Zhou; Teng Teng

    1988-01-01

    Solvent extraction thermodynamics in the system n-trioctylamine-toluene-UO 2 CL 2 -HCl-water was considered. Pitzer equation and improved Frank-Thompson equation were used to calculate coefficients of electrolyte activity in aqueous phase. Activity coefficients of all components in organic phase were measured or calculated. Thermodynamic equilibrium constants of studied system were obtained

  11. Bioproduction of vanillin using an organic solvent-tolerant Brevibacillus agri 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangrangsimagul, Nuttawat; Klinsakul, Kunticha; Vangnai, Alisa S; Wongkongkatep, Jirarut; Inprakhon, Pranee; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohtake, Hisao; Kato, Junichi; Pongtharangkul, Thunyarat

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, majority of vanillin supplied to the world market is chemically synthesized from a petroleum-based raw material, raising a concern among the consumers regarding the product safety. In this study, an organic solvent-tolerant Brevibacillus agri 13 previously reported for a strong predilectic property was utilized as a whole-cell biocatalyst for bioproduction of vanillin from isoeugenol (IG). B. agri 13 is the first biocatalyst reported for bioproduction of vanillin at a temperature as high as 45°C. Both pH and temperature were found to affect vanillin production significantly. An extreme level of organic solvent tolerance of B. agri 13 allowed us to utilize it in a biphasic system using organic solvents generally considered as highly toxic to most bacteria. With an addition of butyl acetate at 30% (v/v) as an organic second phase, toxicity of IG exerted onto the biocatalyst was reduced dramatically while faster and more efficient vanillin production was obtained (1.7 g/L after 48 h with 27.8% molar conversion).

  12. Biphasic Scaffolds from Marine Collagens for Regeneration of Osteochondral Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bernhardt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Collagens of marine origin are applied increasingly as alternatives to mammalian collagens in tissue engineering. The aim of the present study was to develop a biphasic scaffold from exclusively marine collagens supporting both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation and to find a suitable setup for in vitro chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stroma cells (hMSC. Methods: Biphasic scaffolds from biomimetically mineralized salmon collagen and fibrillized jellyfish collagen were fabricated by joint freeze-drying and crosslinking. Different experiments were performed to analyze the influence of cell density and TGF-β on osteogenic differentiation of the cells in the scaffolds. Gene expression analysis and analysis of cartilage extracellular matrix components were performed and activity of alkaline phosphatase was determined. Furthermore, histological sections of differentiated cells in the biphasic scaffolds were analyzed. Results: Stable biphasic scaffolds from two different marine collagens were prepared. An in vitro setup for osteochondral differentiation was developed involving (1 different seeding densities in the phases; (2 additional application of alginate hydrogel in the chondral part; (3 pre-differentiation and sequential seeding of the scaffolds and (4 osteochondral medium. Spatially separated osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSC was achieved in this setup, while osteochondral medium in combination with the biphasic scaffolds alone was not sufficient to reach this ambition. Conclusions: Biphasic, but monolithic scaffolds from exclusively marine collagens are suitable for the development of osteochondral constructs.

  13. A potentiometric study of molecular heteroconjugation equilibria in (n-butylamine+acetic acid) systems in binary (acetonitrile +1,4-dioxane) solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaja, Malgorzata; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech

    2006-01-01

    By using the potentiometric method the following quantities have been determined: acidity constants of molecular acid, K a (HA), of cationic acid, K a (BH + ), anionic and cationic homoconjugation constants, K AHA - and K BHB + , respectively, as well as molecular heteroconjugation constants, K AHB , in (n-butylamine+acetic acid) systems without proton transfer in binary (acetonitrile+1,4-dioxane), AN+D, solvent mixtures. The results of these measurements have shown that the magnitudes of the molecular heteroconjugation constants do not depend on the 1,4-dioxane content in the mixed solvent, i.e., on solvent polarity. It has also been found that in the (acid+base) systems without proton transfer, the manner of carrying out the titration (direct B+HA vs. reverse HA+B) does not affect the magnitudes of the molecular heteroconjugation constants

  14. A potentiometric study of molecular heteroconjugation equilibria in (n-butylamine+acetic acid) systems in binary (acetonitrile +1,4-dioxane) solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaja, Malgorzata [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Makowski, Mariusz [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Chmurzynski, Lech [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: lech@chem.univ.gda.pl

    2006-05-15

    By using the potentiometric method the following quantities have been determined: acidity constants of molecular acid, K{sub a}(HA), of cationic acid, K{sub a}(BH{sup +}), anionic and cationic homoconjugation constants, K{sub AHA{sup -}} and K{sub BHB{sup +}}, respectively, as well as molecular heteroconjugation constants, K{sub AHB}, in (n-butylamine+acetic acid) systems without proton transfer in binary (acetonitrile+1,4-dioxane), AN+D, solvent mixtures. The results of these measurements have shown that the magnitudes of the molecular heteroconjugation constants do not depend on the 1,4-dioxane content in the mixed solvent, i.e., on solvent polarity. It has also been found that in the (acid+base) systems without proton transfer, the manner of carrying out the titration (direct B+HA vs. reverse HA+B) does not affect the magnitudes of the molecular heteroconjugation constants.

  15. A novel method for determining the solubility of small molecules in aqueous media and polymer solvent systems using solution calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Hala M; Chen, Xin; Aburub, Aktham; Mishra, Dinesh; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2014-07-01

    To explore the application of solution calorimetry for measuring drug solubility in experimentally challenging situations while providing additional information on the physical properties of the solute material. A semi-adiabatic solution calorimeter was used to measure the heat of dissolution of prednisolone and chlorpropamide in aqueous solvents and of griseofulvin and ritonavir in viscous solutions containing polyvinylpyrrolidone and N-ethylpyrrolidone. Dissolution end point was clearly ascertained when heat generation stopped. The heat of solution was a linear function of dissolved mass for all drugs (solution of 9.8 ± 0.8, 28.8 ± 0.6, 45.7 ± 1.6 and 159.8 ± 20.1 J/g were obtained for griseofulvin, ritonavir, prednisolone and chlorpropamide, respectively. Saturation was identifiable by a plateau in the heat signal and the crossing of the two linear segments corresponds to the solubility limit. The solubilities of prednisolone and chlopropamide in water by the calorimetric method were 0.23 and 0.158 mg/mL, respectively, in agreement with the shake-flask/HPLC-UV determined values of 0.212 ± 0.013 and 0.169 ± 0.015 mg/mL, respectively. For the higher solubility and high viscosity systems of griseofulvin and ritonavir in NEP/PVP mixtures, respectively, solubility values of 65 and 594 mg/g, respectively, were obtained. Solution calorimetry offers a reliable method for measuring drug solubility in organic and aqueous solvents. The approach is complementary to the traditional shake-flask method, providing information on the solid properties of the solute. For highly viscous solutions, the calorimetric approach is advantageous.

  16. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  17. Biphasic catalysis using amphiphilic polyphenols-chelated noble metals as highly active and selective catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hui; Yu, Hong; Chen, Jing; Liao, Xuepin

    2013-01-01

    In the field of catalysis, it is highly desired to develop novel catalysts that combine the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Here we disclose that the use of plant pholyphenol as amphiphilic large molecule ligand/stabilizer allows for the preparation of noble metal complex and noble metal nanoparticle catalysts. These catalysts are found to be highly selective and active in aqueous-organic biphasic catalysis of cinnamaldehyde and quinoline, and can be reused at least 3 times without significant loss of activity. Moreover, the catalytic activity and reusability of the catalysts can be rationally controlled by simply adjusting the content of polyphenols in the catalysts. Our strategy may be extended to design a wide range of aqueous-organic biphasic catalysis system. PMID:23863916

  18. Biphasic catalysis using amphiphilic polyphenols-chelated noble metals as highly active and selective catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hui; Yu, Hong; Chen, Jing; Liao, Xuepin

    2013-01-01

    In the field of catalysis, it is highly desired to develop novel catalysts that combine the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Here we disclose that the use of plant polyphenol as amphiphilic large molecule ligand/stabilizer allows for the preparation of noble metal complex and noble metal nanoparticle catalysts. These catalysts are found to be highly selective and active in aqueous-organic biphasic catalysis of cinnamaldehyde and quinoline, and can be reused at least 3 times without significant loss of activity. Moreover, the catalytic activity and reusability of the catalysts can be rationally controlled by simply adjusting the content of polyphenols in the catalysts. Our strategy may be extended to design a wide range of aqueous-organic biphasic catalysis system.

  19. Generalized equation for calculation of fractional recoveries and presentation of data for solvent extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawajfeh, M. K.; Al-Matar, A.

    2000-01-01

    A generalized equation relating equilibrium data, phase ratio and fractional recovery is developed. The use of this equation reduces the presentation of these data to a single dimensionless curve independent of the system and the operating conditions. The validity of this equation is tested using experimental data for different liquid - liquid systems at various condition. a reasonable agreement between experimental results and predicated ones was obtained. The use of this equation in investigating the effect of phase ratio on the fractional recovery is illustrated. (authors). 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Potentiometric investigations of (acid+base) equilibria in (n-butylamine+acetic acid) systems in binary (acetone+cyclohexane) solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaja, MaIgorzata; Kozak, Anna; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech

    2005-01-01

    By using the potentiometric titration method, standard equilibrium constants have been determined of acid dissociation of molecular acid, K a (HA), cationic acid, K a (BH + ), of anionic and cationic homoconjugation, K AHA - andK BHB + , respectively, and of molecular heteroconjugation, K AHB (K BHA ), in (acid+base) systems without proton transfer consisting of n-butylamine and acetic acid in binary (acetone+cyclohexane) solvent mixtures. The results have shown that both the pK a (HA) and pK a (BH + ), as well as lgK AHA - values change non-linearly as a function of composition of the solvent mixture. On the other hand, standard molecular heteroconjugation constants without proton transfer do not depend on the cyclohexane content in the mixture, i.e. on solvent polarity

  1. Potentiometric investigations of (acid+base) equilibria in (n-butylamine+acetic acid) systems in binary (acetone+cyclohexane) solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaja, MaIgorzata [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Kozak, Anna [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Makowski, Mariusz [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Chmurzynski, Lech [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: lech@chem.univ.gda.pl

    2005-08-15

    By using the potentiometric titration method, standard equilibrium constants have been determined of acid dissociation of molecular acid, K{sub a}(HA), cationic acid, K{sub a}(BH{sup +}), of anionic and cationic homoconjugation, K{sub AHA{sup -}}andK{sub BHB{sup +}}, respectively, and of molecular heteroconjugation, K{sub AHB} (K{sub BHA}), in (acid+base) systems without proton transfer consisting of n-butylamine and acetic acid in binary (acetone+cyclohexane) solvent mixtures. The results have shown that both the pK{sub a}(HA) and pK{sub a}(BH{sup +}), as well as lgK{sub AHA{sup -}} values change non-linearly as a function of composition of the solvent mixture. On the other hand, standard molecular heteroconjugation constants without proton transfer do not depend on the cyclohexane content in the mixture, i.e. on solvent polarity.

  2. H 2 O 2-HBr: A metal-free and organic solvent-free reagent system ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel, practical and environmentally benign approach has been developed for the oxidation of methylarenes using H2O2-HBr system in water. Arylaldehydes containing electon-withdrawing groups are isolated in good to high yields. Methylarenes containing electon-donating groups, in contrast, are transformed into ...

  3. SAGE SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS FOR SELECTING INDUSTRIAL SURFACE CLEANING ALTERNATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes computer software, called SAGE, that can provide not only cleaning recommendations but also general information on various surface cleaning options. In short, it is an advisory system which can provide users with vital information on the cleaning process optio...

  4. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  5. Stoichiometric implications of a biphasic life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Scott D; Berven, Keith A; Carmack, Douglas J; Capps, Krista A

    2016-03-01

    Animals mediate flows of elements and energy in ecosystems through processes such as nutrient sequestration in body tissues, and mineralization through excretion. For taxa with biphasic life cycles, the dramatic shifts in anatomy and physiology that occur during ontogeny are expected to be accompanied by changes in body and excreta stoichiometry, but remain little-explored, especially in vertebrates. Here we tested stoichiometric hypotheses related to the bodies and excreta of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) across life stages and during larval development. Per-capita rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion varied widely during larval ontogeny, followed unimodal patterns, and peaked midway through development (Taylor-Kollros stages XV and XII, respectively). Larval mass did not increase steadily during development but peaked at stage XVII and declined until the termination of the experiment at stage XXII. Mass-specific N and P excretion rates of the larvae decreased exponentially during development. When coupled with population-biomass estimates, population-level excretion rates were greatest at stages VIII-X. Percent carbon (C), N, and C:N of body tissue showed weak trends across major life stages; body P and C:P, however, increased sixfold during development from egg to adult. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific ontogenic changes in nutrient contents of excretion and body tissues can be significant, and that N and P are not always excreted proportionally throughout life cycles. These results highlight the dynamic roles that species play in ecosystems, and how the morphological and physiological changes that accompany ontogeny can influence ecosystem-level processes.

  6. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015; we plan to develop a new solvent or solvent...

  7. Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems: PNNL FY 2014 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pence, Natasha K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The overall objective of this project is to develop predictive modeling capabilities for advanced fuel cycle separation processes by gaining a fundamental quantitative understanding of non-ideality effects and speciation in relevant aqueous and organic solutions. Aqueous solutions containing actinides and lanthanides encountered during nuclear fuel reprocessing have high ionic strength and do not behave as ideal solutions. Activity coefficients must be calculated to take into account the deviation from ideality and predict their behavior. In FY 2012-2013, a convenient method for determining activity effects in aqueous electrolyte solutions was developed. Our initial experiments demonstrated that water activity and osmotic coefficients of the electrolyte solutions can be accurately measured by the combination of two techniques, a Water Activity Meter and Vapor Pressure Osmometry (VPO). The water activity measurements have been conducted for binary lanthanide solutions in wide concentration range for all lanthanides (La-Lu with the exception of Pm). The osmotic coefficients and Pitzer parameters for each binary system were obtained by the least squares fitting of the water activity data. However, application of Pitzer model for the quantitative evaluation of the activity effects in the multicomponent mixtures is difficult due to the large number of the required interaction parameters. In FY 2014, the applicability of the Bromley model for the determination of the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients was evaluated. The new Bromley parameters for the binary Ln(NO3)3 electrolytes were obtained based on the available literature and our experimental data. This allowed for the accurate prediction of the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients for the binary Ln(NO3)3 electrolytes. This model was then successfully implemented for the determination of the Ln(NO3)3 activity

  8. Nitric oxide interacts with salicylate to regulate biphasic ethylene production during the hypersensitive response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mur, Luis A J; Laarhoven, Lucas J J; Harren, Frans J M; Hall, Michael A; Smith, Aileen R

    2008-11-01

    C(2)H(4) is associated with plant defense, but its role during the hypersensitive response (HR) remains largely uncharacterized. C(2)H(4) production in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) following inoculation with HR-eliciting Pseudomonas syringae pathovars measured by laser photoacoustic detection was biphasic. A first transient rise (C(2)H(4)-I) occurred 1 to 4 h following inoculation with HR-eliciting, disease-forming, and nonpathogenic strains and also with flagellin (flg22). A second (avirulence-dependent) rise, at approximately 6 h (C(2)H(4)-II), was only seen with HR-eliciting strains. Tobacco leaves treated with the C(2)H(4) biosynthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine, suggested that C(2)H(4) influenced the kinetics of a HR. Challenging salicylate hydroxylase-expressing tobacco lines and tissues exhibiting systemic acquired resistance suggested that C(2)H(4) production was influenced by salicylic acid (SA). Disrupted expression of a C(2)H(4) biosynthesis gene in salicylate hydroxylase tobacco plants implicated transcriptional control as a mechanism through which SA regulates C(2)H(4) production. Treating leaves to increase oxidative stress or injecting with SA initiated monophasic C(2)H(4) generation, but the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside initiated biphasic rises. To test whether NO influenced biphasic C(2)H(4) production during the HR, the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester was coinoculated with the avirulent strain of P. syringae pv phaseolicola into tobacco leaves. The first transient C(2)H(4) rise appeared to be unaffected by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, but the second rise was reduced. These data suggest that NO and SA are required to generate the biphasic pattern of C(2)H(4) production during the HR and may influence the kinetics of HR formation.

  9. Large change in voltage at phase reversal improves biphasic defibrillation thresholds. Parallel-series mode switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Y; Mowrey, K A; Nadzam, G R; Hills, D G; Kroll, M W; Brewer, J E; Donohoo, A M; Wilkoff, B L; Tchou, P J

    1996-10-01

    Multiple factors contribute to an improved defibrillation threshold of biphasic shocks. The leading-edge voltage of the second phase may be an important factor in reducing the defibrillation threshold. We tested two experimental biphasic waveforms with large voltage changes at phase reversal. The phase 2 leading-edge voltage was twice the phase 1 trailing-edge voltage. This large voltage change was achieved by switching two capacitors from parallel to series mode at phase reversal. Two capacitors were tested (60/15 microfarads [microF] and 90/22.5 microF) and compared with two control biphasic waveforms for which the phase 1 trailing-edge voltage equaled the phase 2 leading-edge voltage. The control waveforms were incorporated into clinical (135/135 microF) or investigational devices (90/90 microF). Defibrillation threshold parameters were evaluated in eight anesthetized pigs by use of a nonthoracotomy transvenous lead to a can electrode system. The stored energy at the defibrillation threshold (ion joules) was 8.2 +/- 1.5 for 60/15 microF (P voltage changes at phase reversal caused by parallel-series mode switching appeared to improve the ventricular defibrillation threshold in a pig model compared with a currently available biphasic waveform. The 60/15-microF capacitor performed as well as the 90/ 22.5-microF capacitor in the experimental waveform. Thus, smaller capacitors may allow reduction in device size without sacrificing defibrillation threshold energy requirements.

  10. Liquid heat capacity of the solvent system (piperazine + n-methyldiethanolamine + water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-R.; Caparanga, Alvin R.; Soriano, Allan N.; Li, M.-H.

    2010-01-01

    A new set of values for the heat capacity of aqueous mixtures of piperazine (PZ) and n-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) at different concentrations and temperatures are reported in this paper. The differential scanning calorimetry technique was used to measure the property over the range T = 303.2 K to T = 353.2 K for mixtures containing 0.60 to 0.90 mole fraction water with 15 different concentrations of the system (PZ + MDEA + H 2 O). Heat capacity for four concentrations of the binary system (PZ + MDEA) was also measured. A Redlich-Kister-type equation was adopted to estimate the excess molar heat capacity, which was used to predict the value of the molar heat capacity at a particular concentration and temperature, which would then be compared against the measured value. A total of 165 data points fit into the model resulted in a low overall average absolute deviation of 4.6% and 0.3% for the excess molar heat capacity and molar heat capacity, respectively. Thus, the results presented here are of acceptable accuracy for use in engineering process design.

  11. Determination of Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships of Solvent Resistance of Polycarbonate Copolymers Using a Resonant Multisensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Wroczynski, Ronald J.; McCloskey, Patrick J.; Morris, William G.

    In sensor and microfluidic applications, the need is to have an adequate solvent resistance of polymers to prevent degradation of the substrate surface upon deposition of sensor formilations, to prevent contamination of the solvent-containing sensor formulations or contamination of organic liquid reactions in microfluidic channels. Unfortunately, no comprehensive quantitative reference solubility data of unstressed copolymers is available to date. In this study, we evaluate solvent-resistance of several polycarbonate copolymers prepared from the reaction of hydroquinone (HQ), resorcinol (RS), and bisphenol A (BPA). Our high-throughput polymer evaluation approach permitted the construction of detailed solvent-resistance maps, the development of quantitative structure-property relationships for BPA-HQ-RS copolymers and provided new knowledge for the further development of the polymeric sensor and microfluidic components.

  12. Monoglycerides and Diglycerides Synthesis in a Solvent-Free System by Lipase-Catalyzed Glycerolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregolente, Patricia Bogalhos Lucente; Fregolente, Leonardo Vasconcelos; Pinto, Gláucia Maria F.; Batistella, Benedito César; Wolf-Maciel, Maria Regina; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    Five lipases were screened (Thermomyces lanuginosus free and immobilized forms, Candida antarctica B, Candida rugosa, Aspergillus niger, and Rhizomucor miehei) to study their ability to produce monoglycerides (MG) and diglycerides (DG) through enzymatic glycerolysis of soybean oil. Lipase from C. antarctica was further studied to verify the enzyme load (wt% of oil mass), the molar ratio glycerol/oil, and the water content (wt% of glycerol) on the glycerolysis reaction. The best DG and MG productions were in the range 45-48% and 28-30% (w/w, based on the total oil), respectively. Using immobilized lipases, the amount of free fatty acids (FFA) produced was about 5%. However, the amount of FFA produced when using free lipases, with 3.5% extra water in the system, is equivalent to the MG yield, about 23%. The extra water content provides a competition between hydrolysis and glycerolysis reactions, increasing the FFA production.

  13. Factors influencing phase-disengagement rates in solvent-extraction systems employing tertiary amine extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of amine size and structure on phase disengagement. Nine commercial tertiary amines were tested together with four laboratory-quality amines for uranium extraction and both organic-continuous (OC) and aqueous-continuous (AC) phase disengagement under Amex-type conditions. Synthetic acid sulfate solutions with and without added colloidal silica and actual ore leach solutions were used as the aqueous phases. Phase disengagement results were correlated with amine size and branching and solution wetting behavior on a silicate (glass) surface. The results suggest that the performance of some Amex systems may be improved by using branched chain tertiary amine extractants of higher molecular weight than are now normally used

  14. New Organic Solvent Free Three-Component Waterproof Epoxy-Polyamine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. LACNJEVAC

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The unmodified GY epoxy resin (Vantico AG was crosslinked by the aliphatic and cycloaliphatic EH polyamine adduct (Solutia-Vianova in the different stoichiometric ratio. The optimal time of total crosslinking was determined by indirect measuring of the film hardness. The degree of the epoxy resin crosslinking and the quantity of unreacted epoxy groups have been monitored by the spectroscopic FT-IR method. The content and intensity changes of hydroxy group were correlated to the extent of epoxy reaction and crosslinking degree. By the parameters correlation and a period of resins application, optimal resin/hardeners stoichiometric ratio was defined. It was prerequisite for three-component epoxy system forming which is comparatively more elastic, adhesion and waterproof.

  15. Formation of zinc-peptide spherical microparticles during lyophilization from tert-butyl alcohol/water co-solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Ni, Nina; Chen, Jia-Wen; Desikan, Sridhar; Naringrekar, Vijay; Hussain, Munir A; Barbour, Nancy P; Smith, Ronald L

    2008-12-01

    To understand the mechanism of spherical microparticle formation during lyophilizing a tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA)/water solution of a zinc peptide adduct. A small peptide, PC-1, as well as zinc PC-1 at (3:2) and (3:1) ratios, were dissolved in 44% (wt.%) of TBA/water, gradually frozen to -50 degrees C over 2 h ("typical freezing step"), annealed at -20 degrees C for 6 h ("annealing step"), and subsequently lyophilized with primary and secondary drying. Zinc peptide (3:1) lyophile was also prepared with quench cooling instead of the typical freezing step, or without the annealing step. Other TBA concentrations, i.e., 25%, 35%, 54% and 65%, were used to make the zinc peptide (3:1) adduct lyophile with the typical freezing and annealing steps. The obtained lyophile was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The zinc peptide solutions in TBA/water were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The surface tension of the TBA/water co-solvent system was measured by a pendant drop shape method. With typical freezing and annealing steps, the free peptide lyophile showed porous network-like structure that is commonly seen in lyophilized products. However, with increasing the zinc to peptide ratio, uniform particles were gradually evolved. Zinc peptide (3:1) adduct lyophiles obtained from 25%, 35% and 44% TBA exhibit a distinctive morphology of uniform and spherical microparticles with diameters of approximately 3-4 microm, and the spherical zinc peptide particles are more predominant when the TBA level approaches 20%. Adopting quench cooling in the lyophilization cycle leads to irregular shape fine powders, and eliminating the annealing step causes rough particles surface. When TBA concentration increases above 54%, the lyophiles demonstrate primarily irregular shape particles. A proposed mechanism of spherical particle formation of the 3:1 zinc peptide encompasses the freezing of a TBA/water solution (20-70% TBA) causing the formation of a TBA hydrate

  16. Pickering Interfacial Catalysts for solvent-free biomass transformation: physicochemical behavior of non-aqueous emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhaoyu; Tay, Astrid; Pera-Titus, Marc; Zhou, Wen-Juan; Benhabbari, Samy; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Malcouronne, Guillaume; Bonneviot, Laurent; De Campo, Floryan; Wang, Limin; Clacens, Jean-Marc

    2014-08-01

    A key challenge in biomass conversion is how to achieve valuable molecules with optimal reactivity in the presence of immiscible reactants. This issue is usually tackled using either organic solvents or surfactants to promote emulsification, making industrial processes expensive and not environmentally friendly. As an alternative, Pickering emulsions using solid particles with tailored designed surface properties can promote phase contact within intrinsically biphasic systems. Here we show that amphiphilic silica nanoparticles bearing a proper combination of alkyl and strong acidic surface groups can generate stable Pickering emulsions of the glycerol/dodecanol system in the temperature range of 35-130°C. We also show that such particles can perform as Pickering Interfacial Catalysts for the acid-catalyzed etherification of glycerol with dodecanol at 150°C. Our findings shed light on some key parameters governing emulsion stability and catalytic activity of Pickering interfacial catalytic systems. This understanding is critical to pave the way toward technological solutions for biomass upgrading able to promote eco-efficient reactions between immiscible organic reagents with neither use of solvents nor surfactants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinetic study of lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis of palm olein using Lipozyme TLIM in solvent-free system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Shean Yaw Choong

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol (DAG and monoacylglycerol (MAG are two natural occurring minor components found in most edible fats and oils. These compounds have gained increasing market demand owing to their unique physicochemical properties. Enzymatic glycerolysis in solvent-free system might be a promising approach in producing DAG and MAG-enriched oil. Understanding on glycerolysis mechanism is therefore of great importance for process simulation and optimization. In this study, a commercial immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TL IM was used to catalyze the glycerolysis reaction. The kinetics of enzymatic glycerolysis reaction between triacylglycerol (TAG and glycerol (G were modeled using rate equation with unsteady-state assumption. Ternary complex, ping-pong bi-bi and complex ping-pong bi-bi models were proposed and compared in this study. The reaction rate constants were determined using non-linear regression and sum of square errors (SSE were minimized. Present work revealed satisfactory agreement between experimental data and the result generated by complex ping-pong bi-bi model as compared to other models. The proposed kinetic model would facilitate understanding on enzymatic glycerolysis for DAG and MAG production and design optimization of a pilot-scale reactor.

  18. Optimization and application of homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction in preconcentration of copper (II) in a ternary solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Bahram, Morteza; Zorita, Saioa; Mehr, Behzad Ghorbani

    2009-01-30

    In this study a homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction based on the Ph-dependent phase-separation process was investigated using a ternary solvent system (water-acetic acid-chloroform) for the preconcentration of Cu(2+) ions. 8-Hydroxy quinoline was used as the chelating agent prior to its extraction. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using acetylene-air flame was used for the quantitation of analyte after preconcentration. The effect of various experimental parameters in extraction step was investigated using two optimization methods, one variable at a time and central composite design. The experimental design was done at five levels of operating parameters. Nearly the same optimized results were obtained using both methods: sample size, 5 mL; volume of NaOH 10 M, 2 mL; chloroform volume, 300 microL; 8-hydroxy quinoline concentration more than 0.01 M and salt amount did not affect the extraction significantly. Under the optimum conditions the calibration graph was linear over the range 10-2000 microg L(-1). The relative standard deviation was 7.6% for six repeated determinations (C = 500 microg L(-1)). Furthermore, the limit of detection (S/N=3) and limit of quantification (S/N=10) of the method were obtained as 1.74 and 6 microg L(-1), respectively.

  19. A computer code for calculation of solvent-extraction separation in a multicomponent system with reference to nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carassiti, F.; Liuzzo, G.; Morelli, A.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear technology development pointed out the need for a new assessment of the fuel cycle back-end. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes arising from nuclear fuel reprocessing is known as one of the problems not yet satisfactorily solved, together with separation process of uranium and plutonium from fission products in highly irradiated fuels. Aim of this work is to present an improvement of the computer code for solvent extraction process calculation previously designed by the authors. The modeling of the extraction system has been modified by introducing a new method for calculating the distribution coefficients. The new correlations were based on deriving empirical functions for not only the apparent equilibrium constants, but also the solvation number. The mathematical model derived for calculating separation performance has been then tested for up to ten components and twelve theoretical stages with minor modifications to the convergence criteria. Suitable correlations for the calculation of the distribution coefficients of Uranium, Plutonium, Nitric Acid and fission products were constructed and used to successfully simulate several experimental conditions. (Author)

  20. Green and Sustainable Solvents in Chemical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Coby J; Tu, Wei-Chien; Levers, Oliver; Bröhl, Andreas; Hallett, Jason P

    2018-01-24

    Sustainable solvents are a topic of growing interest in both the research community and the chemical industry due to a growing awareness of the impact of solvents on pollution, energy usage, and contributions to air quality and climate change. Solvent losses represent a major portion of organic pollution, and solvent removal represents a large proportion of process energy consumption. To counter these issues, a range of greener or more sustainable solvents have been proposed and developed over the past three decades. Much of the focus has been on the environmental credentials of the solvent itself, although how a substance is deployed is as important to sustainability as what it is made from. In this Review, we consider several aspects of the most prominent sustainable organic solvents in use today, ionic liquids, deep eutectic solvents, supercritical fluids, switchable solvents, liquid polymers, and renewable solvents. We examine not only the performance of each class of solvent within the context of the reactions or extractions for which it is employed, but also give consideration to the wider context of the process and system within which the solvent is deployed. A wide range of technical, economic, and environmental factors are considered, giving a more complete picture of the current status of sustainable solvent research and development.

  1. Temperature and humidity compensation in the determination of solvent vapors with a microsensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Zellers, E T

    2000-10-01

    Accounting for changes in temperature and ambient humidity is critical to the development of practical field vapor-monitoring instrumentation employing microfabricated sensor arrays. In this study, responses to six organic vapors were collected from two prototype field instruments over a range of ambient temperatures and relative humidities (RH). Each instrument contains an array of three unthermostated polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators, a thermally desorbed adsorbent preconcentrator bed, a reversible pump and a small scrubber cartridge. Negligible changes in the vapor sensitivities with atmospheric RH were observed owing, in large part, to the temporal separation of co-adsorbed water from the organic vapor analytes upon thermal desorption of preconcentrated air samples. As a result, calibrations performed at one RH level could be used to determine vapors at any other RH without corrections using standard pattern recognition methods. Negative exponential temperature dependences that agreed reasonably well with those predicted from theory were observed for many of the vapor-sensor combinations. It was possible to select a subset of sensors with structurally diverse polymer coatings whose sensitivities to all six test vapors and selected binary vapor mixtures had similar temperature dependences. Thus, vapor recognition could be rendered independent of temperature and vapor quantification could be corrected for temperature with sufficient accuracy for most applications. The results indicate that active temperature control is not necessary and that temperature and RH compensation is achievable with a relatively simple microsensor system.

  2. Solution processing of chalcogenide materials using thiol-amine "alkahest" solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Carrie L; Brutchey, Richard L

    2017-05-02

    Macroelectronics is a major focus in electronics research and is driven by large area applications such as flat panel displays and thin film solar cells. Innovations for these technologies, such as flexible substrates and mass production, will require efficient and affordable semiconductor processing. Low-temperature solution processing offers mild deposition methods, inexpensive processing equipment, and the possibility of high-throughput processing. In recent years, the discovery that binary "alkahest" mixtures of ethylenediamine and short chain thiols possess the ability to dissolve bulk inorganic materials to yield molecular inks has lead to the wide study of such systems and the straightforward recovery of phase pure crystalline chalcogenide thin films upon solution processing and mild annealing of the inks. In this review, we recount the work that has been done toward elucidating the scope of this method for the solution processing of inorganic materials for use in applications such as photovoltaic devices, electrocatalysts, photodetectors, thermoelectrics, and nanocrystal ligand exchange. We also take stock of the wide range of bulk materials that can be used as soluble precursors, and discuss the work that has been done to reveal the nature of the dissolved species. This method has provided a vast toolbox of over 65 bulk precursors, which can be utilized to develop new routes to functional chalcogenide materials. Future studies in this area should work toward a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the dissolution and recovery of bulk materials, as well as broadening the scope of soluble precursors and recoverable functional materials for innovative applications.

  3. Development of novel solvent extraction system by utilizing the metal ions excitation with ultraviolet pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Morihisa; Sasaki, Yuji; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Novel liquid-liquid extraction technique was developed using ultraviolet pulse laser. The liquid-liquid system was composed of pure water and the 1-octanol solution of EuCl 3 and TODGA (TODGA = N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-diglycolamide). The Eu 3+ ion, which was formed to be the Eu 3+ (TODGA) n complex in 1-octanol, was reduced to Eu 2+ by irradiation of fourth harmonic of Nd:YAG laser (266 nm). The Eu 2+ ion was stabilized by addition of 15-Crown-5 (15C5). The observation by in-situ emission spectroscopy showed that the Eu 2+ ion reduced by the 266 nm-laser irradiation resulted in back-extraction of Eu from the 1-octanol solution to the water. The emission spectrum observed in 1-octanol suggested the change from the Eu 3+ (TODGA) n to the Eu 2+ (15C5) m complex after the reduction by the 266 nm laser. Time dependence of the concentration of Eu 2+ (15C5) m was investigated at the aqueous phase, the organic one and their interface. The results suggest that (1) rapid formation of Eu 2+ (15C5) m in 1-octanol after the irradiation of the 266 nm laser, (2) slow diffusion of Eu 2+ (15C5) m in 1-octanol, and (3) existence of time-lag between the formation of Eu 2+ (15C5) m in 1-octanol and its back-extraction to the water. (author)

  4. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  5. Acetone-based cellulose solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; Heinze, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Acetone containing tetraalkylammonium chloride is found to be an efficient solvent for cellulose. The addition of an amount of 10 mol% (based on acetone) of well-soluble salt triethyloctylammonium chloride (Et3 OctN Cl) adjusts the solvent's properties (increases the polarity) to promote cellulose dissolution. Cellulose solutions in acetone/Et3 OctN Cl have the lowest viscosity reported for comparable aprotic solutions making it a promising system for shaping processes and homogeneous chemical modification of the biopolymer. Recovery of the polymer and recycling of the solvent components can be easily achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Solvent-assisted multistage nonequilibrium electron transfer in rigid supramolecular systems: Diabatic free energy surfaces and algorithms for numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feskov, Serguei V.; Ivanov, Anatoly I.

    2018-03-01

    An approach to the construction of diabatic free energy surfaces (FESs) for ultrafast electron transfer (ET) in a supramolecule with an arbitrary number of electron localization centers (redox sites) is developed, supposing that the reorganization energies for the charge transfers and shifts between all these centers are known. Dimensionality of the coordinate space required for the description of multistage ET in this supramolecular system is shown to be equal to N - 1, where N is the number of the molecular centers involved in the reaction. The proposed algorithm of FES construction employs metric properties of the coordinate space, namely, relation between the solvent reorganization energy and the distance between the two FES minima. In this space, the ET reaction coordinate zn n' associated with electron transfer between the nth and n'th centers is calculated through the projection to the direction, connecting the FES minima. The energy-gap reaction coordinates zn n' corresponding to different ET processes are not in general orthogonal so that ET between two molecular centers can create nonequilibrium distribution, not only along its own reaction coordinate but along other reaction coordinates too. This results in the influence of the preceding ET steps on the kinetics of the ensuing ET. It is important for the ensuing reaction to be ultrafast to proceed in parallel with relaxation along the ET reaction coordinates. Efficient algorithms for numerical simulation of multistage ET within the stochastic point-transition model are developed. The algorithms are based on the Brownian simulation technique with the recrossing-event detection procedure. The main advantages of the numerical method are (i) its computational complexity is linear with respect to the number of electronic states involved and (ii) calculations can be naturally parallelized up to the level of individual trajectories. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated for a model

  7. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Benjamin Gleason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma, with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid, supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma.

  8. Comprehensive separation of secondary metabolites in natural products by high-speed counter-current chromatography using a three-phase solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Akio; Yamakawa, Yutaka; Noji, Ryoko; Oda, Ako; Shindo, Heisaburo; Ito, Yoichiro; Shibusawa, Yoichi

    2007-06-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) using the three-phase solvent system n-hexane-methyl acetate-acetonitrile-water at a volume ratio of 4:4:3:4 was applied to the comprehensive separation of secondary metabolites in several natural product extracts. A wide variety of secondary metabolites in each natural product was effectively extracted with the three-phase solvent system, and the filtered extract was directly submitted to the HSCCC separation using the same three-phase system. In the HSCCC profiles of crude natural drugs listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, several physiologically active compounds were clearly separated from other components in the extracts. The HSCCC profiles of several tea products, each manufactured by a different process, clearly showed their compositional difference in main compounds such as catechins, caffeine, and pigments. These HSCCC profiles also provide useful information about hydrophobic diversity of whole components present in each natural product.

  9. Physicochemical properties of ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents and their electrochemical evaluation using organometallic reference redox systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadori, Laleh; Chakrabarti, Mohammed Harun; Mjalli, Farouq Sabri; AlNashef, Inas Muen; Manan, Ninie Suhana Abdul; Hashim, Mohd Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Physicochemical properties of seven deep eutectic solvents as electrolytes measured. • Walden plot showed ideal ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents. • Potential windows of all deep eutectic solvents determined. • Diffusion coefficients and rate constants of organometallic redox couples measured. • Rate constants of deep eutectic solvents were lower than those of ionic liquids. -- Abstract: Seven deep eutectic solvents (DESs) containing ammonium based salts are prepared by means of hydrogen bonding with acid, amine, amide and nitrate based compounds. The major physicochemical properties of the DESs in terms of density, viscosity, electrical conductivity, molar conductivity and pH are investigated prior to ascertaining their electrochemical characteristics by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Nitrate based DESs exhibit higher conductivities but lower viscosities than other DESs, whereas the amide based DES displays the widest electrochemical potential window. Diffusion coefficient, D, of two organometallic redox couples, Fc/Fc + (ferrocene/ferrocenium) and Cc/Cc + (cobaltocene/cobaltocenium) is found to be of the order of 10 −9 to 10 −8 cm 2 s −1 in all studied DESs while the heterogeneous rate constant for electron transfer across the electrode/DES interface is of the order of 10 −4 cm s −1 . The Stokes–Einstein products of Fc and Cc + in the DESs have also been determined

  10. Small-Molecule Organic Photovoltaic Modules Fabricated via Halogen-Free Solvent System with Roll-to-Roll Compatible Scalable Printing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Youn-Jung; Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sehyun; Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Donmin; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2017-11-15

    For the first time, the photovoltaic modules composed of small molecule were successfully fabricated by using roll-to-roll compatible printing techniques. In this study, blend films of small molecules, BTR and PC 71 BM were slot-die coated using a halogen-free solvent system. As a result, high efficiencies of 7.46% and 6.56% were achieved from time-consuming solvent vapor annealing (SVA) treatment and roll-to-roll compatible solvent additive approaches, respectively. After successful verification of our roll-to-roll compatible method on small-area devices, we further fabricated large-area photovoltaic modules with a total active area of 10 cm 2 , achieving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.83%. This demonstration of large-area photovoltaic modules through roll-to-roll compatible printing methods, even based on a halogen-free solvent, suggests the great potential for the industrial-scale production of organic solar cells (OSCs).

  11. 16-Channel biphasic current-mode programmable charge balanced neural stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoran; Zhong, Shunan; Morizio, James

    2017-08-14

    Neural stimulation is an important method used to activate or inhibit action potentials of the neuronal anatomical targets found in the brain, central nerve and peripheral nerve. The neural stimulator system produces biphasic pulses that deliver balanced charge into tissue from single or multichannel electrodes. The timing and amplitude of these biphasic pulses are precisely controlled by the neural stimulator software or imbedded algorithms. Amplitude mismatch between the anodic current and cathodic current of the biphasic pulse will cause permanently damage for the neural tissues. The main goal of our circuit and layout design is to implement a 16-channel biphasic current mode programmable neural stimulator with calibration to minimize the current mismatch caused by inherent complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing processes. This paper presents a 16-channel constant current mode neural stimulator chip. Each channel consists of a 7-bit controllable current DAC used as sink and source current driver. To reduce the LSB quantization error and the current mismatch, an automatic calibration circuit and flow diagram is presented in this paper. There are two modes of operation of the stimulator chip-namely, stimulation mode and calibration mode. The chip also includes a digital interface used to control the stimulator parameters and calibration levels specific for each individual channel. This stimulator Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is designed and fabricated in a 0.18 μm High-Voltage CMOS technology that allows for ±20 V power supply. The full-scale stimulation current was designed to be at 1 mA per channel. The output current was shown to be constant throughout the timing cycles over a wide range of electrode load impedances. The calibration circuit was also designed to reduce the effect of CMOS process variation of the P-channel metal oxide semiconductor (PMOS) and N-channel metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) devices that will

  12. In vitro study on biomineralization of biphasic calcium phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this study, we report the preparation of a bone graft material, having cylindrical shape, containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), gelatin (G), chitosan (C) and Terminalia chebula (TC) extract. TC extract was used as a crosslinker that gives stability to bone graft when it is placed in SBF. The graft was stable in ...

  13. Biphasic Clinical Course Among Kenyan Children With Cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biphasic Clinical Course Among Kenyan Children With Cerebral Malaria. ... African Journal of Neurological Sciences ... Method We undertook a retrospective study of children admitted to Kilifi District Hospital with a history of impaired consciousness and Falciparum infection between January 1994 and December 2004.

  14. Biphasic Clinical Course Among Kenyan Children With Cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of Falciparum malaria. It is associated with a significant risk of death and neurological sequelae. A biphasic clinical picture is associated with an even greater risk of neurological sequelae. Objective To examine the incidence and clinical ...

  15. In vitro study on biomineralization of biphasic calcium phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we report the preparation of a bone graft material, having cylindrical shape, containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), gelatin (G), chitosan (C) and Terminalia chebula (TC) extract. TC extract was used as a crosslinker that gives stability to bone graft when it is placed in SBF. The graft was stable in the SBF ...

  16. Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy of self complementary hydrogen-bonded supramolecular systems: dimers, polymers and solvent effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embrechts, A.

    2011-01-01

    The work described in this Thesis aimed at a better understanding of the structure-property relationships of supramolecular assemblies with a specific focus on hydrogen-bond dimers and polymers. The hydrogen-bond strength of (supra)molecular complexes in different solvents is usually determined by

  17. Investigation of an inventory calculation model for a solvent extraction system and the development of its computer programme - SEPHIS-J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Hideo; Ikawa, Koji; Ido, Masaru.

    1986-11-01

    In order to improve the applicability of near-real-time materials accountancy (N.R.T.MA) to a reprocessing plant, it is necessary to develop an estimation method for the nuclear material inventory at a solvent extraction system under operation. For designing the solvent extraction system, such computer codes as SEPHIS, SOLVEX and TRANSIENTS had been used. Accuracy of these codes in tracing operations and predicting inventories in the extraction system had been discussed. Then, much better codes, e.g., SEPHIS Mod4 and PUBG, were developed. Unfortunately, SEPHIS Mod4 was not available in countries other than the USA and PUBG was not suitable for use with a mini-computer which would be practical as a field computer because of quite a lot of computing time needed. The authors investigated an inventory estimation model compatible with PUBG in functions and developed the corresponding computer programme, SEPHIS-J, based on the SEPHIS Mod3 code, resulting in a third of computing time compared with PUBG. They also validated the programme by calculating a static state as well as a dynamic one of the solvent extraction process and by comparing them among the programme, SEPHIS Mod3 and PUBG. Using the programme, it was shown that the inventory changes due to changes of feed flow and concentration were not so small that they might be neglected although the changes of feed flow and concentration were within measurement errors. (author)

  18. Selective Single-Step Separation of a Mixture of Three Metal Ions by a Triphasic Ionic-Liquid-Water-Ionic-Liquid Solvent Extraction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Blockx, Jonas; De Coster, Hendrik; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-08-10

    In a conventional solvent extraction system, metal ions are distributed between two immiscible phases, typically an aqueous and an organic phase. In this paper, the proof-of-principle is given for the distribution of metal ions between three immiscible phases, two ionic liquid phases with an aqueous phase in between them. Three-liquid-phase solvent extraction allows separation of a mixture of three metal ions in a single step, whereas at least two steps are required to separate three metals in the case of two-liquid-phase solvent extraction. In the triphasic system, the lower organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid betainium- or choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, whereas the upper organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The triphasic system was used for the separation of a mixture of tin(II), yttrium(III), and scandium(III) ions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Density and vapour pressure of mixed-solvent desiccant systems (propylene glycol or dipropylene glycol or tripropylene glycol + magnesium chloride + water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang-Yi; Soriano, Allan N.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Li, Meng-Hui

    2014-01-01

    In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapour pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {40 wt% glycol (propylene or dipropylene or tripropylene) + (4 or 9 or 16 wt%) magnesium chloride salt + water} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The density and vapour pressure data obtained are presented as a function of temperature and composition. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the density values. A model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the vapour pressure as a function of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapour pressure calculations

  20. Densities and vapor pressures of mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {l_brace}glycol (diethylene, or triethylene, or tetraethylene glycol) + salt (magnesium chloride) + water{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shangyi [R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Soriano, Allan N. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila 1002 (Philippines); Li Menghui, E-mail: mhli@cycu.edu.t [R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-15

    In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapor pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {l_brace}(40.0 wt%) glycol + salt + water{r_brace} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The considered glycols were diethylene, triethylene, and tetraethylene glycol; and the salt is magnesium chloride (wt% = 4.0, 9.0, and 16.0). The density and vapor pressure were presented as functions of temperature and compositions. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the present density data and a model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the measured vapor pressure as functions of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapor pressure calculations.

  1. Fabrication of porous ethyl cellulose microspheres based on the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system: Controlling porosity via the solvent-removal mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Watanabe, Chie; Kurumado, Yu; Takama, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    Porous ethyl cellulose (EC) microspheres were prepared from the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system using an oil/water (O/W)-type emulsion solvent extraction method. The O/ W type emulsion was prepared using acetone dissolved ethyl cellulose as an oil phase and aqueous glycerin as a water phase. The effects of the different solvent extraction modes on the porosity of the microspheres were investigated. The specific surface area of the porous EC microspheres was estimated by the gas adsorption method. When the solvent was extracted rapidly by mixing the emulsion with water instantaneously, porous EC microspheres with a maximum specific surface area of 40.7±2.1 m2/g were obtained. On the other hand, when water was added gradually to the emulsion, the specific surface area of the fabricated microspheres decreased rapidly with an increase in the infusion period, with the area being 25-45% of the maximum value. The results of an analysis of the ternary phase diagram of the system suggested that the penetration of water and glycerin from the continuous phase to the dispersed phase before solidification affected the porosity of the fabricated EC microspheres.

  2. On-line micro-volume introduction system developed for lower density than water extraction solvent and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Mitani, Constantina; Balkatzopoulou, Paschalia; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D

    2012-07-06

    A simple and fast preconcentration/separation dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (DLLME) method for metal determination based on the use of extraction solvent with lower density than water has been developed. For this purpose a novel micro-volume introduction system was developed enabling the on-line injection of the organic solvent into flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed system were demonstrated for lead and copper preconcentration in environmental water samples using di-isobutyl ketone (DBIK) as extraction solvent. Under the optimum conditions the enhancement factor for lead and copper was 187 and 310 respectively. For a sample volume of 10 mL, the detection limit (3 s) and the relative standard deviation were 1.2 μg L(-1) and 3.3% for lead and 0.12 μg L(-1) and 2.9% for copper respectively. The developed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference material and it was applied successfully to the analysis of environmental water samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stepwise elution of a three-phase solvent system in centrifugal partition extraction: a new strategy for the fractionation and phytochemical screening of a crude bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Reynaud, Romain; Hubert, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Tree bark represents an interesting source of bioactive molecules for the discovery of new pharmaceutical agents. However, the detailed screening of secondary metabolites in crude bark extracts is often hampered by the presence of tannins, which are difficult to separate from other plant constituents. In the present study, a new centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) method was developed in order to fractionate a crude bark extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae). A three-phase solvent system composed of n-heptane, methyl tert-butyl ether, acetonitrile and water was optimised for the stepwise elution at 20 mL/min of different phytochemical classes according to their hydrophobicity. Onedimensional and two-dimensional NMR analyses of the simplified fractions were then performed in order to characterise potentially interesting metabolites. In one step, 5 g of the initial crude extract were efficiently fractionated to yield highly simplified fractions that contained triterpenes, ellagic acid derivatives, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. All undesired compounds, that is, the highly abundant water-soluble tannins (78.8%), were totally removed and each run was rapidly achieved in 90 min on a the multi-gram scale and with low solvent volumes. Centrifugal partition extraction in the elution mode using a three-phase solvent system can thus be proposed as an efficient and cost-effective alternative for a rapid fractionation of crude bark extracts and for an effective screening of potentially active secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effect of changing capacitors between phases of a biphasic defibrillation shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, G P; Rollins, D L; Smith, W M; Ideker, R E

    1996-06-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of changing capacitor values between phases of a biphasic waveform with the goal of lowering leading edge voltage (LEV), total delivered energy (TDE), and total stored energy (TSE). Defibrillation thresholds were determined in 18 open-chest swine using epicardial patch electrodes. In part I, three combinations of capacitors were tested: 150:150 microF; 150:300 microF; and 300:150 microF. Waveform durations were 6/0, 6/2, 6/4, 6/6, and 6/8 ms. In part II, phase 1 capacitance was 150 microF. Three phase 2 capacitance values were used: 150 microF; 75 microF; and 37.5 microF. Phase 2 LEV was a multiple of phase 1 trailing edge voltage: x 0.5; x 0.75; x 1; x 2; x 3; and x 4. A 3.5/2.0 ms biphasic waveform was used. In part III, thresholds were determined for two sets of capacitor values, which can be created by switching a pair of capacitors from in parallel to in series, 150:37.5 microF and 300:75 microF, and nine waveform durations, 4/0, 4/2, 4/4, 6/0, 6/3, 6/6, 8/0, 8/4 and 8/8 ms. In part I, the 300:150 microF system defibrillated with the lowest LEV, TDE and TSE were not different for any of the biphasic waveforms tested except for the 6/8 ms, which was higher. In part II, there was no difference in LEV among any of the three phase 2 capacitor values. LEV was lowest for the x 2, x 3, x 4 multipliers. Peak voltage was lowest for the x 1 and x 2 multipliers. TDE was lowest for the x 0.5, x 0.75, x 1, and x 2 multipliers. In part III, the 300:75 microF system defibrillated at a lower LEV than did the 150:37.5 microF system. The 150:37.5 microF system defibrillated at a lower total delivered energy than did the 300:75 microF. These results suggest that defibrillation can be accomplished with lower LEV, TDE, and TSE if two capacitors are switched from a parallel configuration to a series configuration between phases of the biphasic waveform.

  5. Biphasic catalytic conversion of fructose by continuous hydrogenation of HMF over a hydrophobic ruthenium catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanliang; Du, Zhongtian; Ma, Jiping; Lu, Fang; Zhang, Junjie; Xu, Jie

    2014-05-01

    The production of chemicals directly from sugars is an important step in biomass conversion. Herein, tetrahydro-2,5-furandimethanol (THFDM), obtained from fructose, is formed by using a combination of acid and hydrophobic Ru/SiO2 in a water/cyclohexane biphasic system. Two key factors enable the high selectivity towards THFDM: modifying the hydrogenation catalyst so that it has hydrophobic properties, and the continuous hydrogenation of generated 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural in the cyclohexane phase. Moreover, the selectivity towards THFDM is found to depend strongly on the acid catalyst used. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Predictive Modelling of Phase-Transfer Catalyst Systems for Improved and Innovative Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Hyung Kim, Sun; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    increasing attention as a novel organic synthesis option due to its flexible and easier operation, higher production yield, and ability to eliminate expensive solvents, although, not eliminating the use of solvents. New mathematical models of the PTC system, which includes physical and chemical equilibrium......, reaction mechanism and unit operation has been developed. In the developed model, the PTC system is divided into four sub-systems of aqueous-organic solvent partition, inorganic salt in aqueous phase, PTC in aqueous phase, and PTC in aqueous phase. Each subsystem requires an appropriate thermodynamic model...... significantly widened, making it feasible to identify new and innovative biphasic reaction options. In this paper, the predictive qualities of the new model together with the improvements in the predicted design and operation of reaction with PTC systems are highlighted. Also, applications of problem...

  7. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  8. Review of biphasic insulin aspart in the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Raja-Khan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nazia Raja-Khan, Sarah S Warehime, Robert A GabbayDivision of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Penn State Institute for Diabetes and Obesity, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USABackground: Insulin is an effective treatment for achieving glycemic control and preventing complications in patients with diabetes. In order to make insulin therapy more acceptable to patients, newer formulations of insulin have been developed, such as biphasic insulins. Biphasic insulins conveniently provide both prandial and basal insulin in a single injection. One of the most well-studied biphasic insulins is biphasic insulin aspart 70/30.Objective: Our goal was to review the current literature on the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted using the terms “biphasic insulin aspart” to identify clinical studies and reviews.Results: Biphasic insulin aspart more effectively reduces post-prandial glucose compared to other biphasic insulins and basal insulins. Compared to biphasic insulin aspart, fasting glucose levels are lower with NPH, similar with glargine, and similar or lower with biphasic human insulin. Treat-to-target trials have shown that a goal HbA1c below 6.5 or 7% can be achieved with biphasic insulin aspart. The risk of hypoglycemia is similar to or less than that seen with other biphasic insulins or NPH insulin.Conclusion: Biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with diabetes.Keywords: biphasic insulin aspart, insulin, diabetes

  9. Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of successive solvent extracts of leaves of Indigofera caerulea Roxb using various in vitro antioxidant assay systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponmari Guruvaiah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of successive solvent extracts of Indigofera caerulea Roxb using various in vitro antioxidant assay systems. Methods: Total phenol and antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of Indigofera caerulea Roxb leaves were investigated. Extraction was done sequentially in soxhlet apparatus using various solvents (Petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate and Methanol. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay and Total ion reducing power assay. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were also measured. Results: Methanolic extract had more total phenol content and more antioxidant activities, confirming to the hypothesis that phenol content and antioxidant activity has a direct correlation. Conclusions: All the results of the in vitro antioxidant assays revealed that the methanolic extract of Indigofera caerulea Roxb leaves had notable antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. The results obtained appeared to confirm the antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of Indigofera caerulea Roxb.

  10. The effect of pressure, isotopic (H/D) substitution, and other variables on miscibility in polymer-solvent systems. The nature of the demixing process; dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hook, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    A research program examining the effects of pressure, isotope substitution and other variables on miscibility in polymer solvent systems is described. The techniques employed included phase equilibrium measurements and dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering

  11. A Lagrange multiplier mixed finite element formulation for three-dimensional contact of biphasic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taiseung; Spilker, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) contact finite element formulation has been developed for biological soft tissue-to-tissue contact analysis. The linear biphasic theory of Mow, Holmes, and Lai (1984, J. Biomech., 17(5), pp. 377-394) based on continuum mixture theory, is adopted to describe the hydrated soft tissue as a continuum of solid and fluid phases. Four contact continuity conditions derived for biphasic mixtures by Hou et al. (1989, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 111(1), pp. 78-87) are introduced on the assumed contact surface, and a weighted residual method has been used to derive a mixed velocity-pressure finite element contact formulation. The Lagrange multiplier method is used to enforce two of the four contact continuity conditions, while the other two conditions are introduced directly into the weighted residual statement. Alternate formulations are possible, which differ in the choice of continuity conditions that are enforced with Lagrange multipliers. Primary attention is focused on a formulation that enforces the normal solid traction and relative fluid flow continuity conditions on the contact surface using Lagrange multipliers. An alternate approach, in which the multipliers enforce normal solid traction and pressure continuity conditions, is also discussed. The contact nonlinearity is treated with an iterative algorithm, where the assumed area is either extended or reduced based on the validity of the solution relative to contact conditions. The resulting first-order system of equations is solved in time using the generalized finite difference scheme. The formulation is validated by a series of increasingly complex canonical problems, including the confined and unconfined compression, the Hertz contact problem, and two biphasic indentation tests. As a clinical demonstration of the capability of the contact analysis, the gleno-humeral joint contact of human shoulders is analyzed using an idealized 3D geometry. In the joint, both glenoid and humeral head

  12. Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering with Natural Extracellular Matrix-Derived Biphasic Composite Scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Xu

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has provided an alternative therapeutic possibility for degenerative disc diseases. However, we lack an ideal scaffold for IVD tissue engineering. The goal of this study is to fabricate a novel biomimetic biphasic scaffold for IVD tissue engineering and evaluate the feasibility of developing tissue-engineered IVD in vitro and in vivo. In present study we developed a novel integrated biphasic IVD scaffold using a simple freeze-drying and cross-linking technique of pig bone matrix gelatin (BMG for the outer annulus fibrosus (AF phase and pig acellular cartilage ECM (ACECM for the inner nucleus pulposus (NP phase. Histology and SEM results indicated no residual cells remaining in the scaffold that featured an interconnected porous microstructure (pore size of AF and NP phase 401.4 ± 13.1 μm and 231.6 ± 57.2 μm, respectively. PKH26-labeled AF and NP cells were seeded into the scaffold and cultured in vitro. SEM confirmed that seeded cells could anchor onto the scaffold. Live/dead staining showed that live cells (green fluorescence were distributed in the scaffold, with no dead cells (red fluorescence being found. The cell-scaffold constructs were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice and cultured for 6 weeks in vivo. IVD-like tissue formed in nude mice as confirmed by histology. Cells in hybrid constructs originated from PKH26-labeled cells, as confirmed by in vivo fluorescence imaging system. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the feasibility of developing a tissue-engineered IVD in vivo with a BMG- and ACECM-derived integrated AF-NP biphasic scaffold. As well, PKH26 fluorescent labeling with in vivo fluorescent imaging can be used to track cells and analyse cell--scaffold constructs in vivo.

  13. Biphasic liquid interface derived magnetite nanocrystals: synthesis, properties and growth mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yue; Hou, Chuanxin; Fan, Yuqi; Dang, Feng; Li, Bao-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanocubes were synthesized from a water-toluene biphasic liquid system. The Fe3O4 nuclei generated in aqueous phase were transferred into the toluene solution by modifying oleic acid (OLA) at the organic–inorganic interface. Well-dispersed Fe3O4 nanocubes with a size of 20 nm were prepared in this process. Octylamine was found to play a dominant role in controlling the dispersibility, morphology and particle size of nanocubes. Only alkylamine with proper chain length had effects on the morphology control in the biphasic liquid synthesis system. The remanence (7.04 emu g‑1) and coercivity (170 Oe) of the nanocubes were 3 times higher than those (the remanence and coercivity value were 2.03 emu g‑1 and 68 Oe) of irregular particles. Magnetite (Fe3O4) iron oxide nanoparticles can be used in various fields, including developing biomarker detection systems for disease diagnosis, ferrofluids, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), energy storage, sensing, etc.

  14. CO2-Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration Full Technology Feasibility Study B1 - Solvent-based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David J

    2014-08-31

    PNNL, Fluor Corporation and Queens University (Kingston, ON) successfully completed a three year comprehensive study of the CO2BOL water-lean solvent platform with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study encompassed solvent synthesis, characterization, environmental toxicology, physical, thermodynamic and kinetic property measurements, Aspen Plus™ modeling and bench-scale testing of a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule. Key Program Findings The key program findings are summarized as follows: • PSAR favorably reduced stripper duties and reboiler temperatures with little/no impact to absorption column • >90% CO2 capture was achievable at reasonable liquid-gas ratios in the absorber • High rich solvent viscosities (up to 600 cP) were successfully demonstrated in the bench-scale system. However, the projected impacts of high viscosity to capital cost and operational limits compromised the other levelized cost of electricity benefits. • Low thermal conductivity of organics significantly increased the required cross exchanger surface area, and potentially other heat exchange surfaces. • CO2BOL had low evaporative losses during bench-scale testing • There was no evidence of foaming during bench scale testing • Current CO2BOL formulation costs project to be $35/kg • Ecotoxicity (Water Daphnia) was comparable between CO2BOL and MEA (169.47 versus 103.63 mg/L) • Full dehydration of the flue gas was determined to not be economically feasible. However, modest refrigeration (13 MW for the 550 MW reference system) was determined to be potentially economically feasible, and still produce a water-lean condition for the CO2BOLs (5 wt% steady-state water loading). • CO2BOLs testing with 5 wt% water loading did not compromise anhydrous performance behavior, and showed actual enhancement of CO2 capture performance. • Mass transfer of CO2BOLs was not greatly impeded by viscosity • Facile separation of antisolvent from lean CO2BOL was

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Apatitic Biphasic Calcium Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin Thin Nwe; Kyaw Naing; Khin Mar Tun; Nyunt Wynn

    2005-09-01

    The apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate (ABcp) consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and -tricalcium phosphate ( -Tcp) has been prepared by precipitation technique using slaked lime and orthophosphoric acid. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the product I (hydroxyapatite) revealed that ABcp was partially crystalline state. However, on heating at 800 C for 8 hrs, XRD pattern indicated a perfectly crystalline form of ABcp. This observation was supported by FT-IR measurement. The change in morphology regarding in the functional nature was infered by the shift in the FT-IR frequency. The optimization of the apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate was done by the variation of disodium hydrogen phosphate concentration, setting time, hardening time as well as compressive strength. The perpared cement may be used as an artificial substitution bone

  16. Predicting the Solubility of Pharmaceutical Cocrystals in Solvent/Anti-Solvent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lange

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the solubilities of pharmaceutical cocrystals in solvent/anti-solvent systems were predicted using PC-SAFT in order to increase the efficiency of cocrystal formation processes. Modeling results and experimental data were compared for the cocrystal system nicotinamide/succinic acid (2:1 in the solvent/anti-solvent mixtures ethanol/water, ethanol/acetonitrile and ethanol/ethyl acetate at 298.15 K and in the ethanol/ethyl acetate mixture also at 310.15 K. The solubility of the investigated cocrystal slightly increased when adding small amounts of anti-solvent to the solvent, but drastically decreased for high anti-solvent amounts. Furthermore, the solubilities of nicotinamide, succinic acid and the cocrystal in the considered solvent/anti-solvent mixtures showed strong deviations from ideal-solution behavior. However, by accounting for the thermodynamic non-ideality of the components, PC-SAFT is able to predict the solubilities in all above-mentioned solvent/anti-solvent systems in good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Development of an anhydrotetracycline-inducible gene expression system for solvent-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum: A useful tool for strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongjun; Tao, Wenwen; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is an important solvent (acetone-butanol-ethanol) producing bacterium. However, a stringent, effective, and convenient-to-use inducible gene expression system that can be used for regulating the gene expression strength in C. acetobutylicum is currently not available. Here, we report an anhydrotetracycline-inducible gene expression system for solvent-producing bacterium C. acetobutylicum. This system consists of a functional chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene promoter containing tet operators (tetO), Pthl promoter (thiolase gene promoter from C. acetobutylicum) controlling TetR repressor expression cassette, and the chemical inducer anhydrotetracycline (aTc). The optimized system, designated as pGusA2-2tetO1, allows gene regulation in an inducer aTc concentration-dependent way, with an inducibility of over two orders of magnitude. The stringency of TetR repression supports the introduction of the genes encoding counterselective marker into C. acetobutylicum, which can be used to increase the mutant screening efficiency. This aTc-inducible gene expression system will thus increase the genetic manipulation capability for engineering C. acetobutylicum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Solvent recycle/recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  19. The chemistry of nonaqueous solvents v.4 solution phenomena and aprotic solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Lagowski, J J

    1976-01-01

    The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents, Volume IV: Solution Phenomena and Aprotic Solvents focuses on the chemistry of nonaqueous solvents, with emphasis on solution phenomena and aprotic solvents such as tetramethylurea, inorganic acid chlorides, cyclic carbonates, and sulfolane. This book is organized into seven chapters and begins with an overview of the theory of electrical conductivity and elementary experimental considerations, along with some of the interesting research on nonaqueous solvents. It then turns to a discussion on hydrogen bonding phenomena in nonaqueous systems as probed

  20. Comb polymer architecture and particle size effects on the behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks for direct-write assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Jun

    the repulsive particle size. Additionally, we find that biphasic suspensions composed of both identical and different mean particle sizes exhibit larger φ-scaling exponents for compressive yield stress than shear yield stress, indicating that such systems become more resistant to compression with increasing φ. This observation suggests that the biphasic suspensions flowing through fine nozzles are more resistant to filter pressing. Our findings provide new insights into controlling rheological properties of suspensions, which are applicable to a broad range of colloidal processing techniques. Finally, the printing behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks is investigated as a function of attractive-to-repulsive volume fraction and particle size ratio. Ink flow behavior is characterized by extrusion measurements, which reveals that the suspension viscosity, and, hence, pressure drop within micronozzles decrease as either the fraction or size of repulsive particles increases. We find that the shape retention of spanning filaments is improved by having a larger fraction of repulsive particles of smaller mean size, since this enhances the initial modulus recovery immediately after shear deformation. Biphasic inks composed of both identical and different mean particle sizes exhibit excellent flowability through fine nozzles compared to purely attractive inks, enabling fine-scale printing. These observations provide guidelines for optimizing the composition of biphasic inks for direct-write assembly of fine-scale, 3D structures.

  1. Influence of molar mass of polymer on the solvent activity for binary system of poly N-vinylcaprolactam and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foruotan, Masumeh [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Collage of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: foroutan@khayam.ut.ac.ir; Zarrabi, Mona [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Collage of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    The water activity in aqueous solution of poly N-vinyl caprolactam with different molecular weights is measured by isopiestic method at T = 308.15 K. The results show that water activity and vapour pressure of poly N-vinylcaprolactam solution increases with increasing the molecular weight. The Flory-Huggins model, the modified Flory-Huggins model and Freed Flory-Huggins equation + NRTL model are used for correlation of the experimental solvent activity. It is found that the Freed Flory-Huggins + NRTL model is better than the others.

  2. Influence of molar mass of polymer on the solvent activity for binary system of poly N-vinylcaprolactam and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foruotan, Masumeh; Zarrabi, Mona

    2009-01-01

    The water activity in aqueous solution of poly N-vinyl caprolactam with different molecular weights is measured by isopiestic method at T = 308.15 K. The results show that water activity and vapour pressure of poly N-vinylcaprolactam solution increases with increasing the molecular weight. The Flory-Huggins model, the modified Flory-Huggins model and Freed Flory-Huggins equation + NRTL model are used for correlation of the experimental solvent activity. It is found that the Freed Flory-Huggins + NRTL model is better than the others

  3. Behaviour of europium (III) and its hydroxo and carbonate complexes in a solvent extraction system with HDBM in 2 M NaCl at 303 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Inst. Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Dept. de Quimica, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Area de Electroquimica, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Solache-Rios, M. [Inst. Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Dept. de Quimica, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Rojas-Hernandez, A. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Area de Electroquimica, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The behaviour of europium in the solvent extraction system Eu{sup 3+}-water-2 M NaCl-HDBM-benzene was studied, taking into account the pC{sub H} and the carbonate ion concentration in the solutions. The stability constants for the hydrolysis and carbonate complexes of europium were determined at 303 K in the same medium by pH titration followed by a computational refinement. The obtained data were: log {beta}{sub Eu,H} = -8.29 {+-} 0.02, log {beta}{sub Eu,2H} = -16.37 {+-} 0.02, log {beta}{sub Eu,3H} = -24.54 {+-} 0.11, log {beta}{sub Eu,4H} = -34.91 {+-} 0.26, log {beta}{sub CO{sub 2}{sup 2-},H} = 9.30 {+-} 0.05, log {beta}{sub Eu,CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}} = 5.96 {+-} 0.03, log {beta}{sub Eu,CO{sub 3}{sup 2-},H} = -1.24 {+-} 0.05 and log {beta}{sub Eu,CO{sub 3}{sup 2-},2H} = -11.39 {+-} 0.11. Log K{sub W} was -13.78 {+-} 0.06. The behaviour of europium in this solvent extraction system was simulated, taking into account the hydrolysis and carbonate complexes plus the formation of Eu(DBM){sub 3}(OH){sup 1-} and Eu(DBM){sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sup 2-} in the aqueous phase. The only europium species considered in the organic phase was Eu(DBM){sub 3}. The first hydrolysis constant of europium was also determined by using this solvent extraction system under the same conditions. A good conformity was found with the results obtained by both techniques. (orig.)

  4. Biphasic products of dicalcium phosphate-rich cement with injectability and nondispersibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chia-Ling; Chen, Jian-Chih; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Tien, Yin-Chun; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a calcium phosphate cement was developed using tetracalcium phosphate and surface-modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). This developed injectable bone graft substitute can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ through the piping system that has an adequate mechanical strength, non-dispersibility, and biocompatibility. The materials were based on the modified DCPA compositions of calcium phosphate cement (CPC), where the phase ratio of the surface-modified DCPA is higher than that of the conventional CPC for forming dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-rich cement. The composition and morphology of several calcium phosphate cement specimens during setting were analyzed via X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system. The compressive strength of DCP-rich CPCs was greater than 30 MPa after 24 h of immersion in vitro. The reaction of the CPCs produced steady final biphasic products of DCPs with apatite. The composites of calcium phosphate cements derived from tetracalcium phosphate mixed with surface-modified DCPA exhibited excellent mechanical properties, injectability, and interlocking forces between particles, and they also featured nondispersive behavior when immersed in a physiological solution. - Highlights: • Bone cement precursor with nanocrystals is characterized. • DCP-rich CPCs with nanocrystals exhibited biphasic product phases. • Nanocrystals in cement significantly affected the interlocking ability. • Nanocrystals in cement exhibited higher strength and anti-dispersion. • DCP-rich CPCs increase the potential of bioresorption after reaction

  5. Biphasic products of dicalcium phosphate-rich cement with injectability and nondispersibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Chia-Ling [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, Taichung, 407, Taiwan (China); Dental Medical Devices and Materials Research Center, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jian-Chih [Department of Orthopaedics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Orthopaedics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Jen-Chyan [Dental Medical Devices and Materials Research Center, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Tien, Yin-Chun [Department of Orthopaedics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Orthopaedics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wencchen@fcu.edu.tw [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, Taichung, 407, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a calcium phosphate cement was developed using tetracalcium phosphate and surface-modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). This developed injectable bone graft substitute can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ through the piping system that has an adequate mechanical strength, non-dispersibility, and biocompatibility. The materials were based on the modified DCPA compositions of calcium phosphate cement (CPC), where the phase ratio of the surface-modified DCPA is higher than that of the conventional CPC for forming dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-rich cement. The composition and morphology of several calcium phosphate cement specimens during setting were analyzed via X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system. The compressive strength of DCP-rich CPCs was greater than 30 MPa after 24 h of immersion in vitro. The reaction of the CPCs produced steady final biphasic products of DCPs with apatite. The composites of calcium phosphate cements derived from tetracalcium phosphate mixed with surface-modified DCPA exhibited excellent mechanical properties, injectability, and interlocking forces between particles, and they also featured nondispersive behavior when immersed in a physiological solution. - Highlights: • Bone cement precursor with nanocrystals is characterized. • DCP-rich CPCs with nanocrystals exhibited biphasic product phases. • Nanocrystals in cement significantly affected the interlocking ability. • Nanocrystals in cement exhibited higher strength and anti-dispersion. • DCP-rich CPCs increase the potential of bioresorption after reaction.

  6. Influence of Biphasic Stimulation on Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Neuroprosthetic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassarati, Rachelle T; Foster, L John R; Green, Rylie A

    2016-01-01

    The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH) coated electrodes. The CH utilized in this study was a biosynthetic hydrogel consisting of methacrylated poly(vinyl-alcohol) (PVA), heparin and gelatin through which poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was electropolymerised. OECs cultured on Pt and CH surfaces were subjected to biphasic ES. Image-based cytometry yielded little significant difference between the viability and cell cycle of OECs cultured on the stimulated and passive samples. The significantly lower voltages measured across the CH electrodes (147 ± 3 mV) compared to the Pt (317 ± 5 mV), had shown to influence a higher percentage of viable cells on CH (91-93%) compared to Pt (78-81%). To determine the functionality of these cells following electrical stimulation, OECs co-cultured with PC12 cells were found to support neural cell differentiation (an indirect measure of neurotrophic factor production) following ES.

  7. Influence of Biphasic Stimulation on Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Neuroprosthetic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle Therese Hassarati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES, inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH coated electrodes. The CH utilised in this study was a biosynthetic hydrogel consisting of methacrylated poly(vinyl-alcohol (PVA, heparin and gelatin through which poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT was electropolymerised. OECs cultured on Pt and CH surfaces were subjected to biphasic ES. Image-based cytometry yielded little significant difference between the viability and cell cycle of OECs cultured on the stimulated and passive samples. The significantly lower voltages measured across the CH electrodes (147 ± 3 mV compared to the Pt (317 ± 5 mV, had shown to influence a higher percentage of viable cells on CH (91 - 93 % compared to Pt (78 - 81 %. To determine the functionality of these cells following electrical stimulation, OECs co-cultured with PC12 cells were found to support neural cell differentiation (an indirect measure of neurotrophic factor production following ES.

  8. Modeling of the Mixed Solvent Electrolyte System CO2-Na2CO3-NaHCO3-Monoethylene Glycol-Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2009-01-01

    The extended UNIQUAC electrolyte activity coefficient model has been correlated to 751 experimental solid−liquid equilibrium (SLE), vapor−liquid equilibrium (VLE), and excess enthalpy data for the mixed solvent CO2−NaHCO3−Na2CO3−monoethylene glycol(MEG)−H2O electrolyte system. The model...... was validated by predicting the excess heat capacity. The model is consistent, and one set of binary interaction parameters are used for calculating all the properties between −50 and 90 °C. The model is compared to experimental data of infinite dilution activity coefficient measurements of MEG and may be used...

  9. Biphasic-to-monophasic successive Co-assembly approach to yolk-shell structured mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Meng; Teng, Zhaogang; Su, Xiaodan; Tao, Jun; Hao, Qing; Ma, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yunlei; Li, Yanjiao; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Junjie; Lu, Guangming; Wang, Lianhui

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we report a facile biphasic-to-monophasic successive co-assembly approach to synthesize yolk-shell structured mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MONs). The yolk-shell structured MONs possess ethane-bridged frameworks, high surface area (1023m 2 g -1 ), radially oriented mesochannels (3.8nm), large pore volume (0.99cm 3 g -1 ), and tunable diameter (147-324nm) and shell thickness (23-53nm). The biphasic-to-monophasic successive co-assembly method is intrinsically simple and requires neither sacrificial templates nor multistep coating processes. The key of the method is that the interiors of the mesostructured organosilica nanospheres grown in the biphasic system have a lower condensation degree and Si-C-C-Si species content than the outer shells formed in the monophasic system. Thus, the interior layer is attracted by OH -1 anions and dissolved in the monophasic system, forming the yolk-shell structures. In vitro cytotoxicity and haemolysis assays demonstrate that the ethane-bridged yolk-shell MONs possess excellent biocompatibility. Furthermore, the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) is loaded into the yolk-shell MONs to kill drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR human breast cancer cells. Compared with free DOX and DOX-loaded typical MONs, the DOX-loaded yolk-shell MONs have higher chemotherapeutic efficacy against MCF-7/ADR cells, suggesting the great potential of yolk-shell MONs synthesized via the biphasic-to-monophasic successive co-assembly approach in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-tilt monophasic and biphasic waveforms compared with standard biphasic waveforms in the transvenous defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Johan R; Darragh, Karen M; Walsh, Simon J; Allen, Desmond J; Scott, Michael; Stevenson, Michael; Adgey, Jennifer A A; Anderson, John M C J; Manoharan, Ganesh

    2014-03-01

    Commercially available implantable defibrillators utilize a high-tilt waveform. Studies in atrial fibrillation and transthoracic defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation (VF) have shown improved defibrillation efficacy using low-tilt (LT) waveforms. We investigated the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a LT waveform in the transvenous defibrillation of VF and hypothesized that it would be more efficacious than standard tilted biphasic (STB) waveforms. The investigation was performed in four phases in a porcine model: an efficacy study of LT monophasic waveforms (n = 9), an efficacy study of LT biphasic waveforms (n = 9), a comparison study between the most successful LT waveforms and clinically available STB waveforms (n = 15), and a safety study (n = 9). A total of 1,056 shocks were delivered (phase 1: 288, phase 2: 288, phase 3: 480). The LT biphasic 8/4-ms waveform was significantly more likely to successfully defibrillate than the LT monophasic and STB waveforms with an odds ratio of 122.3 (95% confidence interval: 32.5, 460.2, P defibrillation threshold (E50) for the LT 8/4-ms waveform was 12.7 J compared to 43.5 J and 45.5 J for STB waveforms 6/6 ms and 8/4 ms, respectively, and 47.7 J for LT 12-ms waveform. The LT 8/4-ms waveform had no lasting detrimental effect on cardiac function, and any transient hemodynamical or biochemical changes observed were comparable to those observed with STB waveforms. LT waveforms are effective and appear safe in transvenous defibrillation in a porcine model of VF. The LT biphasic 8/4-ms waveform is more efficacious than conventional waveforms. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Protein sequence analysis using Hewlett-Packard biphasic sequencing cartridges in an applied biosystems 473A protein sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S; Mozdzanowski, J; Anumula, K R

    1999-01-01

    Protein sequence analysis using an adsorptive biphasic sequencing cartridge, a set of two coupled columns introduced by Hewlett-Packard for protein sequencing by Edman degradation, in an Applied Biosystems 473A protein sequencer has been demonstrated. Samples containing salts, detergents, excipients, etc. (e.g., formulated protein drugs) can be easily analyzed using the ABI sequencer. Simple modifications to the ABI sequencer to accommodate the cartridge extend its utility in the analysis of difficult samples. The ABI sequencer solvents and reagents were compatible with the HP cartridge for sequencing. Sequence information up to ten residues can be easily generated by this nonoptimized procedure, and it is sufficient for identifying proteins by database search and for preparing a DNA probe for cloning novel proteins.

  12. Grubbs–Hoveyda type catalysts bearing a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene for biphasic olefin metathesis reactions in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Koy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The novel dicationic metathesis catalyst [(RuCl2(H2ITapMe2(=CH–2-(2-PrO-C6H42+ (OTf−2] (Ru-2, H2ITapMe2 = 1,3-bis(2’,6’-dimethyl-4’-trimethylammoniumphenyl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, OTf− = CF3SO3− based on a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligand was prepared. The reactivity was tested in ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP under biphasic conditions using a nonpolar organic solvent (toluene and the ionic liquid (IL 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM+][BF4−]. The structure of Ru-2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis.

  13. Grubbs-Hoveyda type catalysts bearing a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene for biphasic olefin metathesis reactions in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koy, Maximilian; Altmann, Hagen J; Autenrieth, Benjamin; Frey, Wolfgang; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    The novel dicationic metathesis catalyst [(RuCl2(H2ITapMe2)(=CH-2-(2-PrO)-C6H4))(2+) (OTf(-))2] (Ru-2, H2ITapMe2 = 1,3-bis(2',6'-dimethyl-4'-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, OTf(-) = CF3SO3 (-)) based on a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand was prepared. The reactivity was tested in ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) under biphasic conditions using a nonpolar organic solvent (toluene) and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM(+)][BF4 (-)]. The structure of Ru-2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis.

  14. The separation of flavonoids from Pongamia pinnata using combination columns in high-speed counter-current chromatography with a three-phase solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Zhang, Si; Long, Lijuan; Yin, Hang; Tian, Xinpeng; Luo, Xiongming; Nan, Haihan; He, Sha

    2013-11-08

    The mangrove plant Pongamia pinnata (Leguminosae) is well known as a plant pesticide. Previous studies have indicated that the flavonoids are responsible of the biological activities of the plant. A new high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method for the separation of three flavonoids, karanjin (1), pinnatin (2), and pongaflavone (3), from P. pinnata was developed in the present study. The lower and intermediate phase (LP and IP) of a new three-phase solvent system, n-hexane-acetonitrile-dichloromethane-water, at a volume ratio of 5:5:1:5, were used as the stationary phases, while the upper phase (UP) was used as the mobile phase, and the volume ratio between the stationary phases in the CCC column could be tuned by varying the initial pumped volume ratio of the stationary phases. The CCC columns containing all three phases of the solvent system were considered combination columns. According to the theories of combination column, it is possible to optimize the retention time of the target compounds by varying the volume ratio of the stationary phases in the HSCCC combination columns, as well as the suitable volume ratios of the stationary phases for the separation of the target compounds were predicted from the partition coefficients of the compounds in the three-phase solvent system. Then, three HSCCC separations using the combination columns with initial pumped LP:IP volume ratios of 1:0, 0.9:0.1, and 0.7:0.3 were performed separately based on the prediction. Three target compounds were prepared with high purity when the initial pumped volume ratio of the stationary phases was 0.9:0.1. The baseline separation of compounds 2 and 3 was achieved on the combination column with an initial pumped volume ratio of 0.7:0.3. Furthermore, the three experiments clearly demonstrated that the retentions and resolutions of the target compounds increased with an increasing volume ratio of IP, which is consistent with the prediction for the retention times for the

  15. Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling of Mixed Solvent Solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of activity coefficients is employed for estimating dilute solubilities of 11 solid pharmaceutical solutes in nearly 70 mixed aqueous and nonaqueous solvent systems. The solvent mixtures range from ne...

  16. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided

  17. Biphasic electrical currents stimulation promotes both proliferation and differentiation of fetal neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-A Chang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells has attracted researchers from multiple disciplines, including the engineering and the biomedical fields. No doubt, growth factor based methods are still the most dominant of achieving some level of proliferation and differentiation control--however, chemical based methods are still limited by the quality, source, and amount of the utilized reagents. Well-defined non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells allow stem cell scientists to control stem cell biology by precisely administering the pre-defined parameters, whether they are structural cues, substrate stiffness, or in the form of current flow. We have developed a culture system that allows normal stem cell growth and the option of applying continuous and defined levels of electric current to alter the cell biology of growing cells. This biphasic current stimulator chip employing ITO electrodes generates both positive and negative currents in the same culture chamber without affecting surface chemistry. We found that biphasic electrical currents (BECs significantly increased the proliferation of fetal neural stem cells (NSCs. Furthermore, BECs also promoted the differentiation of fetal NSCs into neuronal cells, as assessed using immunocytochemistry. Our results clearly show that BECs promote both the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of fetal NSCs. It may apply to the development of strategies that employ NSCs in the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  18. Optimized FIR filters for digital pulse compression of biphase codes with low sidelobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, M.; Kuloor, R.; Sagayaraj, M. J.

    In miniaturized radars where power, real estate, speed and low cost are tight constraints and Doppler tolerance is not a major concern biphase codes are popular and FIR filter is used for digital pulse compression (DPC) implementation to achieve required range resolution. Disadvantage of low peak to sidelobe ratio (PSR) of biphase codes can be overcome by linear programming for either single stage mismatched filter or two stage approach i.e. matched filter followed by sidelobe suppression filter (SSF) filter. Linear programming (LP) calls for longer filter lengths to obtain desirable PSR. Longer the filter length greater will be the number of multipliers, hence more will be the requirement of logic resources used in the FPGAs and many time becomes design challenge for system on chip (SoC) requirement. This requirement of multipliers can be brought down by clustering the tap weights of the filter by kmeans clustering algorithm at the cost of few dB deterioration in PSR. The cluster centroid as tap weight reduces logic used in FPGA for FIR filters to a great extent by reducing number of weight multipliers. Since k-means clustering is an iterative algorithm, centroid for weights cluster is different in different iterations and causes different clusters. This causes difference in clustering of weights and sometimes even it may happen that lesser number of multiplier and lesser length of filter provide better PSR.

  19. MDCT urography: experience with a bi-phasic excretory phase examination protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Degenhart, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L.

    2007-01-01

    The benefit of multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) for visualising early and late excretory phase (EP) upper urinary tract (UUT) opacification has been studied. UUT opacification was retrospectively evaluated in 45 bi-phasic four-row MDCTU examinations. The UUT was divided into intrarenal collecting system (IRCS), proximal, middle and distal ureter. Two independent readers rated opacification: 1, none; 2, partial; 3, complete. Numbers of segments and percentages of UUTs at each score were calculated for each EP and two EPs combined. Results of a single EP and of combined EPs were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks. IRCS and proximal ureter were at least partially opacified in each EP in >95%. The middle ureter was at least partially opacified in the early and late EP in 85% and 93%, respectively. The distal ureter was opacified in 65% (49/75) in the early EP and in 78% (59/75) in the late EP. Combining two EPs, non-opacified distal segments decreased to 9% (7/75). Significant improvement between a single EP and combining two EPs were found for the middle and distal ureter (P < 0.03). Bi-phasic MDCTU substantially improved opacification of the middle and distal ureter. IRCS and proximal ureter are reliably opacified with one EP. (orig.)

  20. MDCT urography: experience with a bi-phasic excretory phase examination protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Degenhart, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G. [University Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L. [University Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The benefit of multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) for visualising early and late excretory phase (EP) upper urinary tract (UUT) opacification has been studied. UUT opacification was retrospectively evaluated in 45 bi-phasic four-row MDCTU examinations. The UUT was divided into intrarenal collecting system (IRCS), proximal, middle and distal ureter. Two independent readers rated opacification: 1, none; 2, partial; 3, complete. Numbers of segments and percentages of UUTs at each score were calculated for each EP and two EPs combined. Results of a single EP and of combined EPs were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks. IRCS and proximal ureter were at least partially opacified in each EP in >95%. The middle ureter was at least partially opacified in the early and late EP in 85% and 93%, respectively. The distal ureter was opacified in 65% (49/75) in the early EP and in 78% (59/75) in the late EP. Combining two EPs, non-opacified distal segments decreased to 9% (7/75). Significant improvement between a single EP and combining two EPs were found for the middle and distal ureter (P < 0.03). Bi-phasic MDCTU substantially improved opacification of the middle and distal ureter. IRCS and proximal ureter are reliably opacified with one EP. (orig.)

  1. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  2. First and second dissociation constants and related thermodynamic functions of adipic acid in various binary methanol/solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, G A

    1998-11-01

    The First and second dissociation constants of adipic acid were determined by EMF measurements in water/methanol mixtures with 0, 30, 50 and 70 wt% organic cosolvent. Measurements were made at four different temperatures (ranging from 30 to 60 degrees C) using the cell: glass electrode/HCL (m(1)), H(2)L (m(2)), Na(2)CO(3) (m(3))/AgCl ((S)), Ag. The computations of these dissociation constants were based on the method of successive approximation by means of basic programmes. The thermodynamic properties (DeltaG degrees , DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees ) for first and second dissociation reactions of the acid under study, were computed, analyzed and discussed in terms of solute-solvent interactions.

  3. The use of solvent extractions and solubility theory to discern hydrocarbon associations in coal, with application to the coal-supercritical CO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Samples of three high volatile bituminous coals were subjected to parallel sets of extractions involving solvents dichloromethane (DCM), carbon disulfide (CS2), and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) (40 °C, 100 bar) to study processes affecting coal–solvent interactions. Recoveries of perdeuterated surrogate compounds, n-hexadecane-d34 and four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), added as a spike prior to extraction, provided further insight into these processes. Soxhlet-DCM and Soxhlet-CS2 extractions yielded similar amounts of extractable organic matter (EOM) and distributions of individual hydrocarbons. Supercritical CO2 extractions (40 °C, 100 bar) yielded approximately an order of magnitude less EOM. Hydrocarbon distributions in supercritical CO2 extracts generally mimicked distributions from the other solvent extracts, albeit at lower concentrations. This disparity increased with increasing molecular weight of target hydrocarbons. Five- and six-ring ring PAHs generally were not detected and no asphaltenes were recovered in supercritical CO2 extractions conducted at 40 °C and 100 bar. Supercritical CO2 extraction at elevated temperature (115 °C) enhanced recovery of four-ring and five-ring PAHs, dibenzothiophene (DBT), and perdeuterated PAH surrogate compounds. These results are only partially explained through comparison with previous measurements of hydrocarbon solubility in supercritical CO2. Similarly, an evaluation of extraction results in conjunction with solubility theory (Hildebrand and Hansen solubility parameters) does not fully account for the hydrocarbon distributions observed among the solvent extracts. Coal composition (maceral content) did not appear to affect surrogate recovery during CS2 and DCM extractions but might affect supercritical CO2 extractions, which revealed substantive uptake (partitioning) of PAH surrogates into the coal samples. This uptake was greatest in the sample (IN-1) with the highest vitrinite content. These

  4. The effect of white or grey PVC pipe and its joint solvents (primer and cement) on odour problems in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenthal, K E; Suffet, I H

    2007-01-01

    A study of the production of odour-causing compounds was conducted from the leaching of polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and its joints, primer and cement, into drinking water distribution systems. Flavour Profile Analysis (FPA), closed-loop stripping analysis--gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (CLSA-GC/MS) and sensory-GC analysis of white or grey PVC alone found no odour-causing compounds produced during the leaching experiments. FPA analysis of the PVC's primer and cement leached alone and/or when applied to grey or white PVC pipes produced a glue/varnish odour. A sweet/phenolic odour replaced the glue/varnish odour after the leached media were diluted with Milli-Q water to threshold odour intensity. Three compounds were responsible for the sweet/phenolic odour and were observed by sensoryGC analysis. The leaching study of the PVC pipe with its joint solvents (primer and cement) concluded that the original solvent compounds, and their reaction products that formed during the bonding process on the PVC pipe, were a primary source of the glue/varnish odour. The original compounds of the PVC primer and cement were not detected by CLSA-GC/MS, due to their high volatility during the CLSA extraction method and/or these compounds appeared in a solvent peak of the GC/MS analysis. However, the original primer and cement chemicals (acetone, tetrahydrofuran, methyl ethyl ketone, and cyclohexanone) had a glue/varnish odour. A total of nine odorous GC peaks were produced as reaction products from leaching of primer in water and white or grey PVC pipe with primer and cement, and white or grey PVC with primer only. None of these compounds were among the chemical ingredients in the original primer or cement. Four GC peaks with a sweet/phenolic odour were present due to the reaction products of the cement leached with white or grey PVC. None of these compounds were positively identified.

  5. Molecular and supramolecular speciations of solvent extraction systems based on malonamide and/or dialkyl-phosphoric acids for An(III)/Ln(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannaz, B.

    2006-06-01

    The solvent extraction system used in the DIAMEX-SANEX process, developed for the actinide(III)/lanthanide(III) separation, is based on the use of mixtures of the malonamide DMDOHEMA and a dialkyl-phosphoric acid (HDEHP or HDHP), in hydrogenated tetra-propylene. The complexity of these systems urges on a novel approach to improve the conventional methods (thermodynamics, solvent extraction) which hardly explain the macroscopic behaviors observed (3. phase, over-stoichiometry). This approach combines studies on both supramolecular (VPO, SANS, SAXS) and molecular (liquid-liquid extraction, ESI-MS, IR, EXAFS) speciations of single extractant systems (DMDOHEMA or HDHP in in n-dodecane) and their mixture. In spite of safety constraints due to the handling of radio-material, they were used in the studies as much as possible, like for SAXS measurements on americium-containing samples, a worldwide first-time. In each of the investigated systems, actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) are extracted to the organic phase in polar cores of reversed micelles, the inner and outer-sphere compositions of which are proposed. Thus, the 4f and 5f cations are extracted by reversed micelles such as [(DMDOHEMA) 2 M(NO 3 ) 3 ] inn (DMDOHEMA) x (HNO 3 ) z (H 2 O) w ] out and M(DHP) 3 (HDHP) y-3 (H 2 O) w with y = 3 to 6, for the single extractant systems. In the case of the two extractants system, the less concentrated one acts like a co-surfactant regarding the mixed aggregate formation [(DMDOHEMA) 2 M(NO 3 ) 3-v (DHP) v ] inn [(DMDOFIEMA) x (HDHP) y (HNO 3 )z(H 2 O) w ] out . (author)

  6. Evaluation of a Unique Defibrillation Unit with Dual-Vector Biphasic Waveform Capabilities: Towards a Miniaturized Defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Hideo; Desimone, Christopher V; Killu, Ammar M; Gilles, Emily J; Tri, Jason; Asirvatham, Roshini; Ladewig, Dejae J; Suddendorf, Scott H; Powers, Joanne M; Wood-Wentz, Christina M; Gray, Peter D; Raymond, Douglas M; Savage, Shelley J; Savage, Walter T; Bruce, Charles J; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Friedman, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Automated external defibrillators can provide life-saving therapies to treat ventricular fibrillation. We developed a prototype unit that can deliver a unique shock waveform produced by four independent capacitors that is delivered through two shock vectors, with the rationale of providing more robust shock pathways during emergent defibrillation. We describe the initial testing and feasibility of this unique defibrillation unit, features of which may enable downsizing of current defibrillator devices. We tested our defibrillation unit in four large animal models (two canine and two swine) under general anesthesia. Experimental defibrillation thresholds (DFT) were obtained by delivery of a unique waveform shock pulse via a dual-vector pathway with four defibrillation pads (placed across the chest). DFTs were measured and compared with those of a commercially available biphasic defibrillator (Zoll M series, Zoll Medical, Chelmsford, MA, USA) tested in two different vectors. Shocks were delivered after 10 seconds of stable ventricular fibrillation and the output characteristics and shock outcome recorded. Each defibrillation series used a step-down to failure protocol to define the defibrillation threshold. A total of 96 shocks were delivered during ventricular fibrillation in four large animals. In comparison to the Zoll M series, which delivered a single-vector, biphasic shock, the energy required for successful defibrillation using the unique dual-vector biphasic waveform did not differ significantly (P = 0.65). Our early findings support the feasibility of a unique external defibrillation unit using a dual-vector biphasic waveform approach. This warrants further study to leverage this unique concept and work toward a miniaturized, portable shock delivery system. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Biphasic Insulin Analogues in Type 2 Diabetes: Expert Panel Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Akalın

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has reached pandemic levels all over the world, and the problem is still growing. Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease, in which insulin resistance and decrease in beta cell function accompany obesity. Early disorder, which ensues in clinical progression of the disease, is the defect of early phase insulin secretion. Patients have already lost approximately half of their beta cell reserve at the time of diagnosis. Aims of type 2 diabetes treatment are to eliminate hyperglycemia caused by insufficient insulin secretion and/or insulin resistance, to slow down beta cell destruction/depletion, to improve concomitant metabolic problems and to prevent complications. In treatment algorithms, insulin is evaluated as a replacement therapy at the following stage after life style changes (medical nutrition therapy, exercise and oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs options. Since beta cell depletion is present at initial stages of the disease, it transforms insulin therapy into an earlier approach in treatment stages. Premixed insulin forms are one of the proposed treatment options in patients with hyperglycemia that is not controlled by OADs. These types of insulins are developed to meet both basal and postprandial insulin requirements of patients. Currently, premixed human insulin forms are replaced by analogue insulin forms, which can mimic the physiological secretion in more acceptable manner. Biphasic analogue insulin is one of the readily available pre-mixed analogue insulin forms, an example of this, Biphasic Insulin aspart 30 which is the one of the premixed analoge insulin forms, contains 30% insulin aspart and 70% protaminated insulin aspart. Consensus recommending the individualized approach in insulin therapy implies that physicians should have more detailed information about the use of different insulin forms. Although a global consensus report about initiation, titration and intensification and the use

  8. The Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-1 displays a biphasic expression pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella De Angelis

    Full Text Available The Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-1 is encoded by pilus islet 1 (PI-1, which has three clonal variants (clade I, II and III and is present in about 30% of clinical pneumococcal isolates. In vitro and in vivo assays have demonstrated that pilus-1 is involved in attachment to epithelial cells and virulence, as well as protection in mouse models of infection. Several reports suggest that pilus-1 expression is tightly regulated and involves the interplay of numerous genetic regulators, including the PI-1 positive regulator RlrA. In this report we provide evidence that pilus expression, when analyzed at the single-cell level in PI-1 positive strains, is biphasic. In fact, the strains present two phenotypically different sub-populations of bacteria, one that expresses the pilus, while the other does not. The proportions of these two phenotypes are variable among the strains tested and are not influenced by genotype, serotype, growth conditions, colony morphology or by the presence of antibodies directed toward the pilus components. Two sub-populations, enriched in pilus expressing or not expressing bacteria were obtained by means of colony selection and immuno-detection methods for five strains. PI-1 sequencing in the two sub-populations revealed the absence of mutations, thus indicating that the biphasic expression observed is not due to a genetic modification within PI-1. Microarray expression profile and western blot analyses on whole bacterial lysates performed comparing the two enriched sub-populations, revealed that pilus expression is regulated at the transcriptional level (on/off regulation, and that there are no other genes, in addition to those encoded by PI-1, concurrently regulated across the strains tested. Finally, we provide evidence that the over-expression of the RrlA positive regulator is sufficient to induce pilus expression in pilus-1 negative bacteria. Overall, the data presented here suggest that the observed biphasic pilus

  9. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF Production from Hexoses: Limits of Heterogeneous Catalysis in Hydrothermal Conditions and Potential of Concentrated Aqueous Organic Acids as Reactive Solvent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Essayem

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF is an important bio-sourced intermediate, formed from carbohydrates such as glucose or fructose. The treatment at 150–250 °C of glucose or fructose in pure water and batch conditions, with catalytic amounts of most of the usual acid-basic solid catalysts, gave limited yields in 5-HMF, due mainly to the fast formation of soluble oligomers. Niobic acid, which possesses both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites, gave the highest 5-HMF yield, 28%, when high catalyst/glucose ratio is used. By contrast, we disclose in this work that the reaction of fructose in concentrated aqueous solutions of carboxylic acids, formic, acetic or lactic acids, used as reactive solvent media, leads to the selective dehydration of fructose in 5-HMF with yields up to 64% after 2 hours at 150 °C. This shows the potential of such solvent systems for the clean and easy production of 5-HMF from carbohydrates. The influence of adding solid catalysts to the carboxylic acid media was also reported, starting from glucose.

  10. Synthesis of an O-acyl isopeptide by using native chemical ligation in an aqueous solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Kuruma, Tomomi; Yamashita, Masayuki; Sohma, Youhei; Akaji, Kenichi

    2014-05-01

    O-Acyl isopeptides, in which the N-acyl linkage on the hydroxyamino acid residue (e.g. Ser and Thr) is replaced by an O-acyl linkage, generally suppress unfavorable aggregation properties derived from the corresponding parent peptides. Here, we report the synthesis of an O-acyl isopeptide of 34-mer pyroGlu-ADan (2), a component of amyloid deposits in hereditary familial Danish dementia, by using native chemical ligation. Native chemical ligation of pyroGlu(1) -ADan(1-21)-SCH2 CH2 SO3 (-) Na(+) (3) and Cys(22) -O-acyl isopeptide (4), in which the amino group of the Ser(29) residue at the isopeptide moiety was protected by an allyloxycarbonyl group, proceeded well in an aqueous solvent to yield a ligated O-acyl isopeptide (5). Subsequent disulfide bond formation and deprotection of the allyloxycarbonyl group followed by HPLC purification gave 2 with a reasonable overall yield. 2 was converted to the parent peptide 1 via an O-to-N acyl migration reaction. The sequential method, namely (i) native chemical ligation of the O-acyl isopeptide, (ii) HPLC purification as the O-acyl isopeptide form, and (iii) O-to-N acyl migration into the desired polypeptide, would be helpful to solve problems with HPLC purification of hydrophobic polypeptides in the process of chemical protein synthesis. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Efficient cellulose solvent: quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; El Seoud, Omar A; Heinze, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Pure quaternary tetraalkylammonium chlorides with one long alkyl chain dissolved in various organic solvents constitute a new class of cellulose solvents. The electrolytes are prepared in high yields and purity by Menshutkin quaternization, an inexpensive and easy synthesis route. The pure molten tetraalkylammonium chlorides dissolve up to 15 wt% of cellulose. Cosolvents, including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), may be added in large excess, leading to a system of decreased viscosity. Contrary to the well-established solvent DMA/LiCl, cellulose dissolves in DMA/quaternary ammonium chlorides without any pretreatment. Thus, the use of the new solvent avoids some disadvantages of DMA/LiCl and ionic liquids, the most extensively employed solvents for homogeneous cellulose chemistry. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Development and Characterization of Biphasic Hydroxyapatite/β-TCP Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinetti, Sara; Canal, Cristina; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Ferreira, J

    2014-04-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have relevant properties as synthetic bone grafts, such as tunable resorption, bioactivity, and intrinsic osteoinduction. However, they have some limitations associated to their condition of high-temperature ceramics. In this work self-setting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cements (BCPCs) with different HA/β-TCP ratios were obtained from self-setting α-TCP/β-TCP pastes. The strategy used allowed synthesizing BCPCs with modulated composition, compressive strength, and specific surface area. Due to its higher solubility, α-TCP was fully hydrolyzed to a calcium-deficient HA (CDHA), whereas β-TCP remained unreacted and completely embedded in the CDHA matrix. Increasing amounts of the non-reacting β-TCP phase resulted in a linear decrease of the compressive strength, in association to the decreasing amount of precipitated HA crystals, which are responsible for the mechanical consolidation of apatitic cements. Ca 2+ release and degradation in acidic medium was similar in all the BCPCs within the timeframe studied, although differences might be expected in longer term studies once β-TCP, the more soluble phase was exposed to the surrounding media.

  13. Method for Predicting Solubilities of Solids in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O'Connell, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    are made for a single parameter characterizing solute/solvent interactions. Comparisons with available data show that the method is successful in describing a variety of observed mixed solvent solubility behavior, including nearly ideal systems with small excess solubilities, systems with solute......-independent excess solubilities, and systems deviating from these simple rules. Successful predictions for new solvent mixtures cat? be made using limited data from other mixtures.......A method is presented for predicting solubilities of solid solutes in mixed solvents, based on excess Henry's law constants. The basis is statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of solute/solvent infinite dilution activity coefficients. Suitable approximations...

  14. Damage to the central nervous system caused by heterogeneous solvent mixtures. Schaedigung des zentralen Nervensystems durch heterogene Loesungsmittelgemische

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, H.; Weber, E.; Buchter, A.; Jablonski, M. (Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Inst. fuer Arbeitsmedizin); Omlor, A.; Haass, A. (Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Universitaets-Nervenklinik); Steigerwald, F. (Universitaetskliniken des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Medizinische und Klinische Psychologie)

    1991-09-01

    Eight male patients and one female patient were given exhaustive clinical examinations following one- to fourteen-your-long exposure to, above all, the solvents dichloromethane, trichlorofluormethane und diphenylmethane-4, 4-diisocyanate, gasolines, 1.1.1-trichloroethane. The patients complained almost without exception of disturbances of concentration, memory, and emotion. In more than half of the cases there were corresponding symptoms with regard to gastrointestinal disorders, headaches or head congestion, dizziness, hyperhidrosis, sleep disturbances, loss of interest, lack of drive, tendency toward social withdrawal, alcohol intolerance, tremors, and hearing loss. The internal medical examination disclosed high blood pressure and an increase in radiological patterns in the lower parts of the lungs where six of the patients were concerned. Laboratory chemical tests showed increased plasma viscosity values in over 50% of the cases. In the area of neurology, two-thirds of the patients evidenced an at times laterally accentuated tremor, primarily of the proximal extremities. Impaired coordination was present in over 50% of the cases and perception disorders were noted in nearly 50% of the cases. The spin and computerized tomograhy showed unmistakeable signs of brain in eight of the nine patients. Psycho-pathological peculiarities were present in all patients with regard to emotional disturbances. Mnesic disturbances, drive disturbances, and a slowing of thought processes impressed in over 50% of the cases. The psychometric test procedures delivered telling, positive results with regard to acquired cerebro-organic decreases in functional capacity and personality changes. The results of ECGs, pulmonary function tests, EMG, nerve conduction velocity, VEP, and SEP were without significant pathological findings. (orig./MG).

  15. Bi-phasic hitting with constraints on impact velocity and temporal precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caljouw, S.R.; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to investigate how bi-phasic hitting movements are organized to comply with both impact and temporal precision constraints. 'Bi-phasic' refers to a sequential movement with a preparatory movement away from the interception location followed by a strike phase. The

  16. Stability and selectivity of alkaline proteases in hydrophilic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haastrup; Ritthitham, Sinthuwat; Pleissner, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Hydrophilic, organic solvents can be used as co-solvents with water to produce one phase systems sustaining optimal mass transfer of substrates and products of mixed polarity in biocatalysed processes. At concentrations below 50 % hydrophilic solvents can even have a stabilising effect on alkalin...

  17. Computer-aided solvent screening for biocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abildskov, J.; Leeuwen, van M.B.; Boeriu, C.G.; Broek, van den L.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    A computer-aidedsolventscreening methodology is described and tested for biocatalytic systems composed of enzyme, essential water and substrates/products dissolved in a solvent medium, without cells. The methodology is computationally simple, using group contribution methods for calculating

  18. Facile and rapid synthesis of divers xanthene derivatives using lanthanum(III chloride/chloroacetic acid as an efficient and reusable catalytic system under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouramiri Behjat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available LaCl3/ClCH2COOH was used as an efficient, and recyclable catalytic system for synthesis of 11H-benzo[a]xanthene-11-one, hexahydro-1H-xanthene- 1,8(2H-dione and 11-aryl-10H-diindeno[1,2-b:2′,1′-e]pyran-10,12(11H-dione derivatives via a one-pot three-component reaction of aldehydes, 2-naphthol, and cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds. The reactions proceeded rapidly at 70°C under solvent-free conditions and the desired products were obtained in good to excellent yields.

  19. Effect of Organic Solvents on the Yield of Solvent-Tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isken, Sonja; Derks, Antoine; Wolffs, Petra F. G.; de Bont, Jan A. M.

    1999-01-01

    Solvent-tolerant microorganisms are useful in biotransformations with whole cells in two-phase solvent-water systems. The results presented here describe the effects that organic solvents have on the growth of these organisms. The maximal growth rate of Pseudomonas putida S12, 0.8 h−1, was not affected by toluene in batch cultures, but in chemostat cultures the solvent decreased the maximal growth rate by nearly 50%. Toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, xylene, hexane, and cyclohexane reduced the biomass yield, and this effect depended on the concentration of the solvent in the bacterial membrane and not on its chemical structure. The dose response to solvents in terms of yield was linear up to an approximately 200 mM concentration of solvent in the bacterial membrane, both in the wild type and in a mutant lacking an active efflux system for toluene. Above this critical concentration the yield of the wild type remained constant at 0.2 g of protein/g of glucose with increasing concentrations of toluene. The reduction of the yield in the presence of solvents is due to a maintenance higher by a factor of three or four as well as to a decrease of the maximum growth yield by 33%. Therefore, energy-consuming adaptation processes as well as the uncoupling effect of the solvents reduce the yield of the tolerant cells. PMID:10347053

  20. Comparison of ambient solvent extraction methods for the analysis of fatty acids in non-starch lipids of flour and starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Yonekura, Lina; Linforth, Robert; Carvalho da Silva, Margarida; Hill, Sandra; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Fisk, Ian Denis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipids are minor components of flours, but are major determinants of baking properties and end-product quality. To the best of our knowledge, there is no single solvent system currently known that efficiently extracts all non-starch lipids from all flours without the risk of chemical, mechanical or thermal damage. This paper compares nine ambient solvent systems (monophasic and biphasic) with varying polarities: Bligh and Dyer (BD); modified Bligh and Dyer using HCl (BDHCL); modified BD using NaCl (BDNaCl); methanol–chloroform–hexane (3:2:1, v/v); Hara and Radin (hexane–isopropanol, 3:2, v/v); water-saturated n-butanol; chloroform; methanol and hexane for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids (separated by lipid classes) from wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.). Seven ambient extraction protocols were further compared for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids from three alternative samples: barley flour (Hordeum vulgare L.), maize starch (Zea mays L.) and tapioca starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz). RESULTS For wheat flour the original BD method and those containing HCl or NaCl tended to extract the maximum lipid and a significant correlation between lipid extraction yield (especially the glycolipids and phospholipids) and the polarity of the solvent was observed. For the wider range of samples BD and BD HCl repeatedly offered the maximum extraction yield and using pooled standardized (by sample) data from all flours, total non-starch lipid extraction yield was positively correlated with solvent polarity (r = 0.5682, P starches when compared to the flour samples, which is due to the differences in lipid profiles between the two sample types (flours and starches). PMID:24132804

  1. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  2. Cobalt Hydroformylation of Olefins in a Biphasic System Using Ionic Liquids – Development and Reaction Optimization by a Design Experiment Approach Hydroformylation des oléfines par le cobalt en milieu liquide ionique – Développement et optimisation de la réaction par plans d’expériences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magna L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the use of experimental designs (DoE in association with high throughput experimentation devices for the optimization of cobalt hydroformylation of olefins in a biphasic system using ionic liquids. The main goal of the study was to gain insight into the various factors ([Co]NAIL, L/Co, Phorg/PhNAIL, pressure and temperature and how they interact and influence the activity and selec-tivity of the catalyst. On the basis of a D-Optimal design, the study pointed out that temperature and to a less extend “Phaseorga/PhaseNAIL” ratio are the most critical parameters. These conclusions confirm to a certain extend, the initial hypothesis formulated to describe the process operation. Furthermore, this strategy in association with high throughput experimentation devices, allows to predict catalytic results in the major part of a cubic space (representing the experimental domain giving us the opportunity to determine the most suitable catalysts composition and optimal reaction conditions. Ce document décrit l’utilisation des plans d’expériences en association avec des équipements d’expérimentation haut débit, pour le développement et l’optimisation de la réaction d’hydroformylation des oléfines par le cobalt en milieu liquide ionique. L’objectif principal de ce travail était d’identifier la manière dont les différents paramètres de réaction ([Co]Li, L/Co, Phorg/PhNAIL, pression et température interagissent les uns avec les autres et d’évaluer leur influence sur l’activité et la sélectivité du catalyseur. Sur la base d’un plan d’expériences D-Optimal, cette étude fait ressortir la température et dans une moindre mesure le ratio “Phaseorga/PhaseNAIL” comme étant les paramètres critiques du procédé. Ces conclusions confirment dans une certaine mesure, les hypothèses formulées initialement pour décrire le principe de fonctionnement du procédé mis en oeuvre. Cette strat

  3. Reduction of solvent emissions from vapor degreasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresh, P.

    1989-12-31

    Hutchinson Tehnology, Inc. (HTI) implemented a number of low cost, low technology procedures to reduce emissions and prevent solvent loss from two open-top freon (CFC-113) vapor degreasers (Branson No. 1 and No. 2). HTI is a computer components manufacturer that uses freon vapor degreasing systems to remove fluxes and other residues remaining on the flexible printed circuits from the soldering process. With relatively minor changes in operation, solvent emissions were reduced by an average of 2.8 gallons per day (GDP) for both degreasers combined. It is anticipated that HTI will follow through with installation of an automatic cover, which can result in further solvent emissions reduction.

  4. Systems analysis of solvent tolerance mechanisms in Pseudomonas putida S12 - Importance of energy metabolism and functional identification of the TrgI regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, R.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophobic organic solvents, like benzene and toluene, are mainly toxic for bacteria because of their accumulation in the membranes of the cells. The accumulation of solvent molecules in a membrane lowers its rigidity and increases its fluidity and permeability, resulting in an increased rate of

  5. H2 O2 –HBr: A metal-free and organic solvent-free reagent system ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    environmental impact. 32. The development of waste-free, non-polluting benign systems and more sustainable strategies is one of the main themes of contemporary organic synthe- sis. 33. So far, our investigations on the oxidation of methylarenes to arylaldehydes consisted in using. Br2/DMSO as a mild catalytic system in ...

  6. Biphasic 201thallium scintgraphy after dipyridamole in mitral valve diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoliner, R.; Dudczak, R.; Kronik, G.; Moesslacher, H.; Kletter, K.; Frischauf, H.

    1980-01-01

    The results of biphasic 201 thallium scintigraphy after dipyridamole i.v. could neither prove nor exclude the presence of small focal lesions in the myocardium of 17 patients with mitral valve diseases. The frequent finding of a decrease in activity in the anterolateral myocardium is probably due to a relative increase in activity in the region of the inferior wall with superimposed areas of the papillary muscle and right ventricular myocardium. If the right ventricle is visualized in stress- or redistribution images, an increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure can be accepted. According to Cohen's criteria, a grade 2 or 3 virtually proves the existence of pulmonary hypertension, a grade 1 makes this finding rather probable. The possibility of pulmonary hypertension can not be excluded if the right ventricular myocardium is not visualized. (orig.) [de

  7. Solvent Optimization for Efficient Enzymatic Monoacylglycerol Production Based on a Glycerolysis Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, Marianne; Jensen, Tine; Sparsø, Flemming V.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed at screening solvent systems of varying polarities to identify suitable solvents for efficient and practical enzymatic glycerolysis. Several pure solvents and solvent mixtures were screened in a batch reaction system consisting of glycerol, sunflower oil, and Novozymo (R) 435...

  8. Use of Respiratory Support in the Biphase Ventilation Airway Mode in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Koval

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP (also known as DuoPAP, BiLevel, BiVent, PCV+, SPAP is a mode of ventilation with cycling variations between two continuous positive airway pressure levels. It is a mixture of pressure controlled ventilation and spontaneous breathing, which is unrestricted in each phase of the respiratory cycle. The volume displacement caused by the difference between Phigh and Plow airway pressure level. The phase time ratio (PTR — the BIPAP frequency is calculated as the ratio between the durations of the two pressure phases, a PTR greater than 1:1 is called APRV (airway pressure release ventilation. In patients with ARDS maintained spontaneous breathing with BIPAP resulted in lower venous admixture and better arterial blood oxygenation as compared with A/C. Only a few studies with BIPAP have been performed in newborn and infants until now. We studied the use of BIPAP in newborn (body mass > 3kg and randomised 40 patients with respiratory failure for ventilation with BIPAP (n=20 or conventional mechanical ventilatory support (assist-control A/C — synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV (n=20. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality score (PRISM were collected for each patient. Fentanyl, diazepam, GABA were used as sedatives and adjusted in accordance with the Cook scale. We compared ventilatory parameters, information pertaining to pulmonary function and oxygen delivery, cardiac output, additional descriptors of organ system functions, duration and complications of ventilation and number and dosages of sedatives administered. All the patients that we intended to ventilate with BIPAP were successfully ventilated, we can conclude that biphasic ventilatory support suitable mode of ventilation for newborn with a decreased need of analgetics and sedatives than A/C. Finally, BIPAP is an a effective safe, and easy to use for personal mode of mechanical ventilatory support in newborn. 

  9. Charge-burping theory correctly predicts optimal ratios of phase duration for biphasic defibrillation waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, C D; Fan, W; Brewer, J E

    1996-11-01

    For biphasic waveforms, it is accepted that the ratio of the duration of phase 2 to the duration of phase 1 (phase-duration ratio) should be theory postulates that the beneficial effects of phase 2 are maximal when it completely removes the charge delivered by phase 1. It predicts that the phase-duration ratio should be defibrillation system (tau s) exceeds the time constant of the cell membrane (tau m) but > 1 when tau s defibrillator capacitance and pathway resistance). In a canine model of transvenous defibrillation (n = 8), we determined stored-energy defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) for biphasic waveforms from conventional capacitors (140 microF. tau s = 7.1 +/- 0.8 ms) and very small capacitors (40 microF. tau s = 2.0 +/- 0.2 ms). Each capacitance was tested with phase-duration ratios of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3. The duration of phase 1 approximated the optimal monophasic waveform, 6.3 +/- 0.7 ms for 140-microF waveforms and 2.8 +/- 0.2 ms for 40-microF waveforms. For 140-microF waveforms, the DFT was lower for phase-duration ratios 1 (P = .0003). The reverse was true for 40-microF capacitors (P = .0008). There was a significant interaction between the effects of capacitance and phase-duration ratio on DFT (P = .0002). The lowest DFT for 40-microF waveforms was less than the lowest DFT for 140-microF waveforms (4.9 +/- 2.5 versus 6.4 +/- 2.4 J, P 1 for small capacitors. This supports the predictions of the charge-burping theory.

  10. A comparative evaluation of efficacy of protaper universal rotary retreatment system for gutta-percha removal with or without a solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sita Ram Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system with or without solvent and stainless steel hand files for endodontic filling removal from root canals and also to compare retreatment time for each system. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted mandibular premolars with single straight canals were endodontically treated. Teeth were divided into three major groups, having 10 specimens each. Removal of obturating material in group 1 by stainless steel hand files with RC Solve, group 2 by ProTaper Universal retreatment instruments and group 3 by ProTaper Universal retreatment instruments along with RC solve was done. Retreatment was considered complete for all groups when no filling material was observed on the instruments. The retreatment time was recorded for each tooth. All specimens were grooved longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The split halves were examined under a stereomicroscope and images were captured and analyzed. The remaining filling debris area ratios were considered for statistical analysis. Results: With ANOVA test, statistical analysis showed that there was statistically no significant difference regarding the amount of filling remnants between the groups (P < 0.05. Differences between the means of groups are statistically significant regarding the retreatment time. Conclusion: Irrespective of the technique used, all the specimens had some remnants on the root canal wall. ProTaper Universal retreatment system files alone proved to be faster than the other experimental groups.

  11. Organic Solvent Tolerant Lipases and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivika Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are a group of enzymes naturally endowed with the property of performing reactions in aqueous as well as organic solvents. The esterification reactions using lipase(s could be performed in water-restricted organic media as organic solvent(s not only improve(s the solubility of substrate and reactant in reaction mixture but also permit(s the reaction in the reverse direction, and often it is easy to recover the product in organic phase in two-phase equilibrium systems. The use of organic solvent tolerant lipase in organic media has exhibited many advantages: increased activity and stability, regiospecificity and stereoselectivity, higher solubility of substrate, ease of products recovery, and ability to shift the reaction equilibrium toward synthetic direction. Therefore the search for organic solvent tolerant enzymes has been an extensive area of research. A variety of fatty acid esters are now being produced commercially using immobilized lipase in nonaqueous solvents. This review describes the organic tolerance and industrial application of lipases. The main emphasis is to study the nature of organic solvent tolerant lipases. Also, the potential industrial applications that make lipases the biocatalysts of choice for the present and future have been presented.

  12. Purex process solvent: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables

  13. Magnetic nanoparticles and high-speed countercurrent chromatography coupled in-line and using the same solvent system for separation of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, luteoloside and astragalin from a Mikania micrantha extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juanqiang; Geng, Shan; Wang, Binghai; Shao, Qian; Fang, Yingtong; Wei, Yun

    2017-07-28

    A new in-line method of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coupled with high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) using a same solvent system during the whole separation process was established to achieve the rapid separation of flavonoids from Mikania micrantha. The adsorption and desorption capacities of five different MNPs for flavonoid standards and Mikania micrantha crude extract were compared and the most suitable magnetic nanoparticle Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @DIH@EMIMLpro was selected as the in-line MNP column. An in-line separation system was established by combining this MNP column with HSCCC through a six-way valve. The comparison between two solvent systems n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:5:3:5, v/v) and ethyl acetate-methanol-water (25:1:25, v/v) showed that the latter solvent system was more suitable for simultaneously in-line separating three flavonoids quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, luteoloside and astragalin from Mikania micrantha. The purities of these three compounds with the ethyl acetate-methanol-water solvent system were 95.13%, 98.54% and 98.19% respectively. Results showed the established in-line separation system of MNP-HSCCC was efficient, recyclable and served to isolate potential flavonoids with similar polarities from natural complex mixtures. The in-line combination of magnetic nanoparticles with high-speed countercurrent chromatography eluting with the same solvent system during the whole separation process was established for the first time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phase equilibria study of the binary systems (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate ionic liquid + water, or organic solvent)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Krolikowski, Marek

    2010-01-01

    (Solid + liquid) phase equilibria (SLE) and (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria (LLE) for the binary systems: ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolim tosylate (p-toluenesulfonate) {[BMIM][TOS] + water, an alcohol (ethanol, or 1-butanol, or 1-hexanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol), or n-hexane, or an aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, or toluene, or ethylbenzene, or propylbenzene, or thiophene)} have been determined at ambient pressure. A dynamic method was used over a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from (230 to 340) K. For the binary systems containing water, or an alcohol, simple eutectic diagrams were observed with complete miscibility in the liquid phase. As usual, with increasing chain length of the alcohol the solubility decreases. In the case of mixtures {IL + n-hexane, or benzene, or alkylbenzene, or thiophene} the eutectic systems with mutual immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) were detected. The basic thermal properties of the pure IL, i.e. melting and glass-transition temperatures, as well as the enthalpy of fusion have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Density at high temperatures was determined and extrapolated to 298.15 K. Well-known UNIQUAC, Wilson and NRTL equations have been used to correlate experimental SLE data sets for alcohols and water. For the systems containing immiscibility gaps {IL + n-hexane, or benzene, or alkylbenzene, or thiophene}, parameters of the LLE correlation equation have been derived using only the NRTL equation.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Oxicams as Multi-donor Ligand Systems: pH- and Solvent-Dependent Coordination Modes of Meloxicam and Piroxicam to Ru and Os.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Farhana; Hanif, Muhammad; Kubanik, Mario; Ashraf, Adnan; Söhnel, Tilo; Jamieson, Stephen M F; Siddiqui, Waseeq Ahmad; Hartinger, Christian G

    2017-04-06

    The nitrogen- and sulfur-containing 1,2-benzothiazines meloxicam and piroxicam are widely used as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Intrigued by the presence of multiple donor atoms and therefore potentially rich coordination chemistry, we prepared a series of organometallic Ru and Os compounds with meloxicam and piroxicam featuring either as mono- or bidentate ligand systems. The choice of the solvent and the pH value was identified as the critical parameter to achieve selectively mono- or bidentate coordination. The coordination modes were confirmed experimentally by NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Using DFT calculations, it was established that complexes in which meloxicam acts as a bidentate N,O donor are energetically more favorable than coordination as O,O and S,O donor systems. Since meloxicam and piroxicam derivatives have shown anticancer activity in the past, we aimed to compare the complexes with mono- and bidentate ligands on their in vitro anticancer activity. However, stability studies revealed that only the latter complexes were stable in [D 6 ]DMSO/D 2 O (5:95) and therefore no direct comparisons could be made. The meloxicam complexes 1 and 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity, whereas the piroxicam derivatives 5 and 6 were hardly active against the utilized cell lines. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Optimization of the production of biodiesel by a commercial immobilized lipase in a solvent-free system using a response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORICA KNEZEVIC

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used for the evaluation of the effects of various factors on the synthesis of biodiesel catalyzed with immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei in a solvent-free system. The production of biodiesel was optimized and model response equations were obtained, enabling the prediction of biodiesel production from the values of the four main factors. It would seem that the reaction temperature and the amount of water predominantly determined the conversion process while the methanol/oil molar ratio had no significant influence on the reaction rate. The temperature and amount of water showed negative interactive effects on the observed reaction rate per amount of enzyme. However, there were no significant interactions among the other variables according to the test of statistical significance. The highest yield of 10.15 mol kg-1 enzyme was observed at 45 °C with a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio and with no added water in the system.

  17. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Development of Non-Polluting, Solvent-Free, Liquid Resin Coating Systems For Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    coatings (Formulas No. 1 and No. 6 in Polyurethane Systems, Section 3.3.2, of this report) were successfully sprayed with Graco equipment. During the same...was found to be capable of reaching maximum line pressures of only about 2000 psi, compared to the much high pressure obtainable with the Graco Hydra...not applied at Graco because time did” not permit readjusting the equipment for a 2 to 1 feed ratio. Five-gallon quantities of two different pigmented

  18. Separation by solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jr., Charles H.

    1976-04-06

    17. A process for separating fission product values from uranium and plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution, comprising adding an oxidizing agent to said solution to secure uranium and plutonium in their hexavalent state; contacting said aqueous solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent while agitating and maintaining the temperature at from -1.degree. to -2.degree. C. until the major part of the water present is frozen; continuously separating a solid ice phase as it is formed; separating a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing plutonium and uranium values from each other; melting at least the last obtained part of said ice phase and adding it to said separated liquid phase; and treating the resulting liquid with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of uranium and plutonium.

  19. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  20. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    in pharmaceutical processes as well as new solvent swap alternatives. The method takes into account process considerations such as batch distillation and crystallization to achieve the swap task. Rigorous model based simulations of the swap operation are performed to evaluate and compare the performance......A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference......, volatility difference, VLE phase diagram analysis, and azeotropic information that are particularly important for the solvent swap task. The method employs a solvent-swap database together with calculation tools for properties–functions of solvents. The database contains solvents that are commonly used...

  1. Influence of an intermolecular charge-transfer state on excited-state relaxation dynamics: solvent effect on the methylnaphthalene-oxygen system and its significance for singlet oxygen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Poul-Gudmund; Arnbjerg, Jacob; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Toftegaard, Rasmus; Ogilby, Peter R

    2009-09-17

    The extent to which an intermolecular charge-transfer (CT) state can influence excited-state relaxation dynamics is examined for the system wherein 1-methylnaphthalene (MN) interacts with molecular oxygen. The MN-O2 system is ideally suited for such a study because excited states can be independently accessed by (i) irradiation into the discrete MN-O2 CT absorption band, (ii) direct irradiation of MN, and (iii) the photosensitized production of triplet state MN. Changing the solvent in which the MN-O2 system is dissolved influences the MN-dependent photoinduced production of singlet oxygen, O2(a1Delta(g)), which, in turn, yields information about fundamental concepts of state mixing. Results of experiments conducted in the polar solvent acetonitrile differ substantially from those obtained from the nonpolar solvent cyclohexane. The data reflect differences in the energy and behavior of the solvent-equilibrated MN-O2 CT state, CT(SE), and the extent to which this state couples to other states of the MN-O2 system. In particular, the data are consistent with a model where both the MN triplet state and the MN-O2 CT(SE) state are immediate precursors of O2(a1Delta(g)). Although the work reported herein is of direct and practical significance for the wide variety of systems in which O2(a1Delta(g)) can be produced upon irradiation, it also serves as an accessible model for a study of general issues pertinent to state mixing and the solvent-dependent dynamics of CT-mediated excited-state relaxation.

  2. An Efficient Strategy Based on Liquid-Liquid Extraction with Three-Phase Solvent System and High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography for Rapid Enrichment and Separation of Epimers of Minor Bufadienolide from Toad Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Denglang; Zhu, Xuelin; Zhang, Fan; Du, Yurong; Ma, Jianbin; Jiang, Renwang

    2018-01-31

    This study presents an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction with three-phase solvent system and high speed counter-current chromatography for rapid enrichment and separation of epimers of minor bufadienolide from toad meat. The reflux extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology first, and a novel three-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/methyl acetate/acetonitrile/water (3:6:5:5, v/v) was developed for liquid-liquid extraction of the crude extract. This integrative extraction process could enrich minor bufadienolide from complex matrix efficiently and minimize the loss of minor targets induced by repeated extraction with different kinds of organic solvents occurring in the classical liquid two-phase extraction. As a result, four epimers of minor bufadienolide were greatly enriched in the middle phase and total content of these epimers of minor bufadienolide was increased from 3.25% to 46.23%. Then, the enriched four epimers were separated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform/methanol/water (4:2:2, v/v) successfully. Furthermore, we tested Na + ,K + -ATPase (NKA) inhibitory effect of the four epimers. 3β-Isomers of bufadienolide showed stronger (>8-fold) inhibitory activity than 3α-isomers. The characterization of minor bufadienolide in toad meat and their significant difference of inhibitory effect on NKA would promote the further quantitative analysis and safety evaluation of toad meat as a food source.

  3. Long-Term Survival of Leptospira in a Biphasic Culture Medium Containing Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donald M.; Varela-Díaz, Victor M.; Siniuk, Alicia A.

    1973-01-01

    A comparison was made of the survival of 28 leptospiral serotypes in Fletcher semisolid medium and in the same medium containing a basal layer of Fletcher medium plus 0.7% of agar and 0.5% of activated animal charcoal. A year after culture, more motile leptospires were observed by microscope examination in the biphasic medium. Two years after culture, 4 serotypes grown in the biphasic medium and 11 in Fletcher medium did not show motile cells. Nineteen of the serotypes maintained in Fletcher medium and 25 in the biphasic medium for 2 years grew on subculture into Fletcher medium. Subcultures from the biphasic medium showed the characteristic leptospiral ring growth earlier during the incubation period. PMID:4735486

  4. Biphasic cuirass ventilation is better than bag-valve mask ventilation for resuscitation following organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Gur

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The noninvasive, easy-to-operate Biphasic Cuirass Ventilation device was effective in reducing OP-induced mortality and might be advantageous in an organophosphate mass casualty event. This finding should be validated in further investigations.

  5. Development of a biphasic dissolution test for Deferasirox dispersible tablets and its application in establishing an in vitro-in vivo correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Durdunji, Amal; AlKhatib, Hatim S; Al-Ghazawi, Mutasim

    2016-05-01

    In a biphasic dissolution medium, the integration of the in vitro dissolution of a drug in an aqueous phase and its subsequent partitioning into an organic phase is hypothesized to simulate the in vivo drug absorption. Such a methodology is expected to improve the probability of achieving a successful in vitro-in vivo correlation. Dissolution of Dispersible tablets of Deferasirox, a biopharmaceutics classification system type II compound, was studied in a biphasic dissolution medium using a flow-through dissolution apparatus coupled to a paddle apparatus. The experimental parameters associated with dissolution were optimized to discriminate between Deferasirox dispersible tablets of different formulations. The dissolution profiles obtained from this system were subsequently used to construct a level A in vitro-in vivo correlation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chuai, Manli [Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao [Stem Cell and Regeneration Thematic Research Programme, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Fetal-Preterm Labor Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-11-15

    increased in mesenchymal cell mass treated by low concentration of Dex. Mmp-13 expression was obviously up-regulated by Dex in both mesenchymal cells and primary chondrocyte cultures. And Col10a1 expression was also increased by Dex exposure in chondrocyte. In summary, we have revealed that different concentrations of Dex exposure during early gestation could exert a biphasic effect on vertebrate skeletal development. - Highlights: • Chick embryos occurred shortening of the long bone following Dex exposure. • Dex suppressed chondrocytes proliferation and promoted apoptosis. • Dex exposure decreased ALP production and up-regulated Runx-2 and Mmp-13. • Dex exhibited biphasic effects on chondrogenic proliferation and nodule formation. • The hypertrophy and ossification were accelerated by Dex both in vivo and in vitro.

  7. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    in mesenchymal cell mass treated by low concentration of Dex. Mmp-13 expression was obviously up-regulated by Dex in both mesenchymal cells and primary chondrocyte cultures. And Col10a1 expression was also increased by Dex exposure in chondrocyte. In summary, we have revealed that different concentrations of Dex exposure during early gestation could exert a biphasic effect on vertebrate skeletal development. - Highlights: • Chick embryos occurred shortening of the long bone following Dex exposure. • Dex suppressed chondrocytes proliferation and promoted apoptosis. • Dex exposure decreased ALP production and up-regulated Runx-2 and Mmp-13. • Dex exhibited biphasic effects on chondrogenic proliferation and nodule formation. • The hypertrophy and ossification were accelerated by Dex both in vivo and in vitro

  8. Guessing unknown and disordered solvent molecules with squeeze in the structure validation platon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the assignment of the nature and number of solvent molecules in the refinement of several solvated crystal structures without a prior knowledge of the solvent system used for crystallization for the cases when the solvent molecule cannot be properly modeled. The solvent molecules can be assigned even for twinned crystal structures. (author)

  9. Immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase on hydrophobic supports and application in biodiesel synthesis by transesterification of vegetable oils in solvent-free systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lionete N; Oliveira, Gladson C; Rojas, Mayerlenis J; Castro, Heizir F; Da Rós, Patrícia C M; Mendes, Adriano A; Giordano, Raquel L C; Tardioli, Paulo W

    2015-04-01

    This work describes the preparation of biocatalysts for ethanolysis of soybean and babassu oils in solvent-free systems. Polystyrene, Amberlite (XAD-7HP), and octyl-silica were tested as supports for the immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase (PFL). The use of octyl-silica resulted in a biocatalyst with high values of hydrolytic activity (650.0 ± 15.5 IU/g), immobilization yield (91.3 ± 0.3 %), and recovered activity (82.1 ± 1.5 %). PFL immobilized on octyl-silica was around 12-fold more stable than soluble PFL, at 45 °C and pH 8.0, in the presence of ethanol at 36 % (v/v). The biocatalyst provided high vegetable oil transesterification yields of around 97.5 % after 24 h of reaction using babassu oil and around 80 % after 48 h of reaction using soybean oil. The PFL-octyl-silica biocatalyst retained around 90 % of its initial activity after five cycles of transesterification of soybean oil. Octyl-silica is a promising support that can be used to immobilize PFL for subsequent application in biodiesel synthesis.

  10. Homogeneous Crystallization of Micro-DispensedTIPS-Pentacene Using a Two-Solvent System toEnable Printed Inverters on Foil Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Bose

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a micro-dispensing system for 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene to enable homogenous crystallization and uniform filmmorphology of the dispensed droplets using a two-solvent mixture along with the use of aninsulating binder. This solution composition results in a controlled evaporation of the dropletin ambient air such that the Marangoni flow counteracts the outward convective flow toenable uniform radial crystal growth from the edge towards the center of the drops.The consequence of this process is the high degree of uniformity in the crystallization of thedrops, which results in a reduction in the performance spread of the organic field effecttransistors (OFET created using this process. The addition of the insulating binder furtherimproves the reduction in the spread of the results as a trade-off to the reduction in mobilityof the transistors. The transfer curves of the OFETs show a tight grouping due to thecontrolled self-alignment of the TIPS-pentacene crystals; this repeatability was furtherhighlighted by fabricating p-type inverters with driver to load ratios of 8:1, wherein theoutput inverter curves were also grouped tightly while exhibiting a gain of greater than 4 inthe switching region. Therefore, the reliability and repeatability of this process justifies itsuse to enable large area solution-processed printed circuits at the cost of reduced mobility.

  11. Performance of an enzymatic packed bed reactor running on babassu oil to yield fatty ethyl esters (FAEE in a solvent-free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Simões

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification reaction of babassu oil with ethanol mediated by Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized on SiO2-PVA composite was assessed in a packed bed reactor running in the continuous mode. Experiments were performed in a solvent-free system at 50 °C. The performance of the reactor (14 mm ×210 mm was evaluated using babassu oil and ethanol at two molar ratios of 1:7 and 1:12, respectively, and operational limits in terms of substrate flow rate were determined. The system’s performance was quantified for different flow rates corresponding to space times between 7 and 13 h. Under each condition, the impact of the space time on the ethyl esters formation, the transesterification yield and productivity were determined. The oil to ethanol molar ratio was found as a critical parameter in the conversion of babassu oil into the correspondent ethyl esters. The highest transesterification yield of 96.0 ± 0.9% and productivity of 41.1 ± 1.6 mgester gcatalyst-1h-1 were achieved at the oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:12 and for space times equal or higher than 11 h. Moreover, the immobilized lipase was found stable with respect to its catalytic characteristics, exhibiting a half-life of 32 d.

  12. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel

  13. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  14. Effect of concentration of the height of a transfer unit in a liquid/liquid solvent-extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, D.B.

    1981-05-01

    Pulsed, sieve-plate extraction columns were used to examine the effect of solute concentration on extraction efficiency. Cerium was extracted from an aqueous coprocessing solution, simulating reprocessing wastes produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The organic extractant used in this process was dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate. Subsequently, cerium was stripped from the organic phase with 0.05 M nitric acid. The Heights of a Transfer Unit were calculated from the extraction and stripping column operating data. Both interstage and overall transfer units were calculated. Nine extraction and nine stripping tests were performed. Three extraction feed concentrations, each repeated at three different pulse frequencies were used to study the affect of concentration on height of a transfer unit. The stripping column was operated simultaneously with the extraction column. Both columns were operated at pulse amplitudes of 2.5 cm. Data based upon the overall extraction column showed a slight decrease in the height of a transfer unit as the solute concentration decreased. Based upon the overall stripping column data, a decrease in solute concentration resulted in a very slight increase in the height of a transfer unit. However, interstage transfer unit calculations for both columns indicated solute concentration had no significant effect on the height of a transfer unit. Based on the experimental tests, it was concluded that solute concentration caused only slight changes in extraction efficiency for the concentration range studied. Other factors such as pulse frequency, aqueous/organic flow ratio, and possibly the dispersed phase bubble size had a much greater effect on the extraction efficiency for the system studied

  15. Solvent extraction studies on cadmium Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; El-Kot, A.; Badran, A.; El-Bassiouny, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    An extraction study was performed on tracer concentrations of cadmium halides in absence and presence of sulphuric acid. Inert solvents, nitrobenzene, a long chain amine (Amberlite LA-2) and organophosphorus solvents (TBP and HDEHP) have been investigated. The comparative stability of cadmium chloride and bromide TBP solvates were determined. The presence of sulphuric acid was found to enhance considerably the extraction of cadmium halides by nitrobenzene, Amberlite LA-2 and TBP. The mechanism of extraction has been discussed in light of the obtained results. The systems studied involved halide ions (Cl, Br and I), sulphuric and phosphoric acids. In these systems extraction was negligible for all nonpolar solvents, considerable for nitrobenzene and very high for Amberlite LA-2 and TBP. Work has been carried out for both micro and macro scales in case of sulphuric acid system, and only for the microscale in case of phosphoric acid system, because of the limited solubility of cadmium phosphate in aqueous solutions. (T.G.)

  16. Organic Carbonates: Efficient Extraction Solvents for the Synthesis of HMF in Aqueous Media with Cerium Phosphates as Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibenedetto, Angela; Aresta, Michele; di Bitonto, Luigi; Pastore, Carlo

    2016-01-08

    We describe a process for the selective conversion of C6 -polyols into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in biphasic systems of organic carbonate/water (OC/W), with cerium(IV) phosphates as catalysts. Different reaction parameters such as the OC/W ratio, catalyst loading, reaction time, and temperature, were investigated for the dehydration of fructose. Under the best reaction conditions, a yield of 67.7 % with a selectivity of 93.2 % was achieved at 423 K after 6 h of reaction using [(Ce(PO4)1.5 (H2 O)(H3 O)0.5 (H2 O)0.5)] as the catalyst. A maximum yield of 70 % with the same selectivity was achieved after 12 h. At the end of the reaction, the catalyst was removed by centrifugation, the organic phase was separated from water and evaporated in vacuo (with solvent recovery), and solid 5-HMF was isolated (purity >99 %). The recovery and reuse of the catalyst and the relationship between the structure of the OC and the efficiency of the extraction are discussed. The OC/W system influences the lifetime of the catalysts positively compared to only water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf H Bremmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2 to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb and hemichrome (HC. The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain can be used for age determination of bloodstains. In this study, we further analyze the conversion of HbO(2 to met-Hb and HC, and determine the effect of temperature and humidity on the conversion rates. METHODOLOGY: The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain, as determined by quantitative analysis of optical reflectance spectra (450-800 nm, were measured as function of age, temperature and humidity. Additionally, Optical Coherence Tomography around 1300 nm was used to confirm quantitative spectral analysis approach. CONCLUSIONS: The oxidation rate of HbO(2 in bloodstains is biphasic. At first, the oxidation of HbO(2 is rapid, but slows down after a few hours. These oxidation rates are strongly temperature dependent. However, the oxidation of HbO(2 seems to be independent of humidity, whereas the transition of met-Hb into HC strongly depends on humidity. Knowledge of these decay rates is indispensable for translating laboratory results into forensic practice, and to enable bloodstain age determination on the crime scene.

  18. A biphasic model for bleeding in soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Jui; Chong, Kwitae; Eldredge, Jeff D.; Teran, Joseph; Benharash, Peyman; Dutson, Erik

    2017-11-01

    The modeling of blood passing through soft tissues in the body is important for medical applications. The current study aims to capture the effect of tissue swelling and the transport of blood under bleeding or hemorrhaging conditions. The soft tissue is considered as a non-static poro-hyperelastic material with liquid-filled voids. A biphasic formulation effectively, a generalization of Darcy's law-is utilized, treating the phases as occupying fractions of the same volume. The interaction between phases is captured through a Stokes-like friction force on their relative velocities and a pressure that penalizes deviations from volume fractions summing to unity. The soft tissue is modeled as a hyperelastic material with a typical J-shaped stress-strain curve, while blood is considered as a Newtonian fluid. The method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics is used to discretize the conservation equations based on the ease of treating free surfaces in the liquid. Simulations of swelling under acute hemorrhage and of draining under gravity and compression will be demonstrated. Ongoing progress in modeling of organ tissues under injuries and surgical conditions will be discussed.

  19. Evolution of the optimum bidirectional (+/- biphasic) wave for defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, L A; Havel, W

    2000-01-01

    Introduction of the asymmetric bidirectional (+/- biphasic) current waveform has made it possible to achieve ventricular defibrillation with less energy and current than are needed with a unidirectional (monophasic) waveform. The symmetrical bidirectional (sinusoidal) waveform was used for the first human-heart defibrillation. Subsequent studies employed the underdamped and overdamped sine waves, then the trapezoidal (monophasic) wave. Studies were then undertaken to investigate the benefit of adding a second identical and inverted wave; little success rewarded these efforts until it was discovered that the second inverted wave needed to be much less in amplitude to lower the threshold for defibrillation. However, there is no physiologic theory that explains the mechanism of action of the bidirectional wave, nor does any theory predict the optimum amplitude and time dimensions for the second inverted wave. The authors analyze the research that shows that the threshold defibrillation energy is lowest when the charge in the second, inverted phase is slightly more than a third of that in the first phase. An ion-flux, spatial-K+ summation hypothesis is presented that shows the effect on myocardial cells of adding the second inverted current pulse.

  20. Functional properties of the isomorphic biphasic algal life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornber, Carol S

    2006-10-01

    Many species of marine algae have life cycles that involve multiple separate, free-living phases that frequently differ in ploidy levels. These complex life cycles have received increasing scientific attention over the past few decades, due to their usefulness for both ecological and evolutionary studies. I present a synthesis of our current knowledge of the ecological functioning and evolutionary implications of the isomorphic, biphasic life cycles commonly found in many species of marine algae. There are both costs and benefits to life cycles with 2 morphologically similar but separate, free-living phases that differ in ploidy levels (haploids and diploids). Evolutionary theory predicts that the existence of subtle yet important differences between the phases may be what allows these life cycles to be maintained. Different phases of the same species can vary in abundance, in demographic parameters such as mortality and fecundity, in their physiology, and in their resistance to herbivory. Some taxonomic groups within the red algae have received significant attention toward these issues, while our knowledge of these properties for brown and green algae remains limited.

  1. Comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for biphasic contact problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingen; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Wilcox, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    Articular cartilage plays an important role in the function of diarthrodial joints. Computational methods have been used to study the biphasic mechanics of cartilage, and Abaqus has been one of the most widely used commercial software packages for this purpose. A newly developed open-source finite element solver, FEBio, has been developed specifically for biomechanical applications. The aim of this study was to undertake a direct comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for some practical contact problems involving cartilage. Three model types, representing a porous flat-ended indentation test, a spherical-ended indentation test, and a conceptual natural joint contact model, were compared. In addition, a parameter sensitivity study was also performed for the spherical-ended indentation test to investigate the effects of changes in the input material properties on the model outputs, using both FEBio and Abaqus. Excellent agreement was found between FEBio and Abaqus for all of the model types and across the range of material properties that were investigated.

  2. A systems biology approach to investigate the effect of pH-induced gene regulation on solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic bacterium which is known for its solvent-producing capabilities, namely regarding the bulk chemicals acetone and butanol, the latter being a highly efficient biofuel. For butanol production by C. acetobutylicum to be optimized and exploited on an industrial scale, the effect of pH-induced gene regulation on solvent production by C. acetobutylicum in continuous culture must be understood as fully as possible. Results We present an ordinary differential equation model combining the metabolic network governing solvent production with regulation at the genetic level of the enzymes required for this process. Parameterizing the model with experimental data from continuous culture, we demonstrate the influence of pH upon fermentation products: at high pH (pH 5.7 acids are the dominant product while at low pH (pH 4.5 this switches to solvents. Through steady-state analyses of the model we focus our investigations on how alteration in gene expression of C. acetobutylicum could be exploited to increase butanol yield in a continuous culture fermentation. Conclusions Incorporating gene regulation into the model of solvent production by C. acetobutylicum enables an accurate representation of the pH-induced switch to solvent production to be obtained and theoretical investigations of possible synthetic-biology approaches to be pursued. Steady-state analyses suggest that, to increase butanol yield, alterations in the expression of single solvent-associated genes are insufficient; a more complex approach targeting two or more genes is required.

  3. Effect of Entrapped Solvent on the Evolution of Lateral Order in Self-Assembled P(S-r-MMA)/PS-b-PMMA Systems with Different Thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammaria, Tommaso Jacopo; Ferrarese Lupi, Federico; Seguini, Gabriele; Sparnacci, Katia; Antonioli, Diego; Gianotti, Valentina; Laus, Michele; Perego, Michele

    2017-09-20

    Block copolymers (BCPs) are emerging as a cost-effective nanofabrication tool to complement conventional optical lithography because they self-assemble in highly ordered polymeric templates with well-defined sub-20-nm periodic features. In this context, cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) BCPs are revealed as an interesting material of choice because the orientation of the nanostructures with respect to the underlying substrate can be effectively controlled by a poly(styrene-random-methyl methacrylate) random copolymer (RCP) brush layer grafted to the substrate prior to BCP deposition. In this work, we investigate the self-assembly process and lateral order evolution in RCP + BCP systems consisting of cylinder-forming PS-b-PMMA (67 kg mol -1 , PS fraction of ∼70%) films with thicknesses of 30, 70, 100, and 130 nm deposited on RCP brush layers having thicknesses ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The self-assembly process is promoted by a rapid thermal processing machine operating at 250 °C for 300 s. The level of lateral order is determined by measuring the correlation length (ξ) in the self-assembled BCP films. Moreover, the amount of solvent (Φ) retained in the RCP + BCP systems is measured as a function of the thicknesses of the RCP and BCP layers, respectively. In the 30-nm-thick BCP films, an increase in Φ as a function of the thickness of the RCP brush layer significantly affects the self-assembly kinetics and the final extent of the lateral order in the BCP films. Conversely, no significant variations of ξ are observed in the 70-, 100-, and 130-nm-thick BCP films with increasing Φ.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Quantitative Characterization of Some Phenolic Compounds in Selected Herbs and Spices in Different Solvent Extraction Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sepahpour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of various organic solvents (80% acetone, 80% ethanol, 80% methanol and distilled water for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass extracts. They were analyzed regarding the total phenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and concentration of some phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. All the extracts possessed antioxidant activity, however, the different solvents showed different efficiencies in the extraction of phenolic compounds. Turmeric showed the highest DPPH values (67.83–13.78% and FRAP (84.9–2.3 mg quercetin/g freeze-dried crude extract, followed by curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass. While 80% acetone was shown to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of total phenolic compounds from turmeric, torch ginger and lemon grass (221.68, 98.10 and 28.19 mg GA/g freeze dried crude extract, respectively, for the recovery of phenolic compounds from curry leaf (92.23 mg GA/g freeze-dried crude extract, 80% ethanol was the most appropriate solvent. Results of HPLC revealed that the amount of phenolic compounds varied depending on the types of solvents used.

  5. Sawtooth first phase biphasic defibrillation waveform: a comparison with standard waveform in clinical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Y; Brewer, J E; Mowrey, K A; Kroll, M W; Donohoo, A M; Wilkoff, B L; Tchou, P J

    1997-05-01

    A major limitation in a conventional truncated exponential waveform is the rapid drop in current that results in short duration of high current or longer duration with a lower average current. We hypothesized that increasing the first phase average current by boosting the decaying waveform prior to phase reversal may improve defibrillation efficacy. To better simulate a "rectangular" waveform during the first phase, a "sawtooth" defibrillation waveform was constructed using "parallel-series" switching of capacitances (each 30 microF) during the first phase. This permitted a boost in the voltage late in the first phase. This sawtooth biphasic waveform (sawtooth) was compared to two clinical waveforms: a 135-microF capacitance (control-1) and a 90-microF capacitance (control-2) waveform. Defibrillation threshold (DFT) parameters were evaluated in 13 anesthetized pig models using a system consisting of a transvenous right ventricular apex lead (anode) and a left pectoral "hot can" electrode (cathode) system. DFT was determined by a "down-up down-up" protocol. The stored energy for sawtooth, control-1, and control-2 was 10.5 +/- 2.8 J, 12.3 +/- 3.7 J*, and 12.2 +/- 2.8 J*, respectively (*P series" switching system of smaller capacitors can improve defibrillation efficacy. A higher average current in the first phase generated by such a waveform may contribute to more efficient defibrillation by facilitating myocyte capture.

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of mixed solvent electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, P.T.; O'Connell, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    In the original proposal to study mixed solvent electrolyte solutions, four major goals were formulated: fundamental modeling of mixed solvent electrolytes using numerically solved integral equation approximation theories; evaluation of intermolecular pair potential models by computer simulation of selected systems for comparison with experiment and the numerical integral equation studies; development of fundamentally based correlations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed solvent electrolyte solutions using analytically solvable statistical mechanical models; and extension of experimental database on mixed solvent electrolytes by performing vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements on selected systems. This paper discusses the progress on these goals

  7. Method for Selection of Solvents for Promotion of Organic Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Jiménez-González, Concepción; Constable, David J.C.

    2005-01-01

    estimates of thermodynamic properties to generate a knowledge base of reaction, solvent and environment related properties that directly or indirectly influence the rate and/or conversion of a given reaction. Solvents are selected using a rules-based procedure where the estimated reaction-solvent properties...... is to produce, for a given reaction, a short list of chemicals that could be considered as potential solvents, to evaluate their performance in the reacting system, and, based on this, to rank them according to a scoring system. Several examples of application are given to illustrate the main features and steps...

  8. Solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.; Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)

  9. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is 'What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?'You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product's constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace

  10. SAGE 2.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives Guide) software system, version 2.O. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating a personal computer under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). AGE recommends solvent repl...

  11. SAGE 2.1: SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives GuidE) software system, version 2.1. SAGE recommends solvent replacements in cleaning and degreasing operations. It leads the user through a question-and-answer session. The user's responses allow the system ...

  12. Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens Are Biphasic Mixed Microbial Bioreactors That Convert Plant Biomass to Polyols with Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somera, Alexandre F.; Lima, Adriel M.; dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J.; Lanças, Fernando M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. PMID:25911490

  13. Influence of different water-ethanol solvent systems on the spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of the macrocyclic compounds pheophytin and chlorophyll a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Leonardo M.; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Oliveira, Hueder P. M. de; Lima, Adriana; Soares, Rafael R. S.; Batistela, Vagner R.; Gerola, Adriana P.; Hioka, Noboru; Severino, Divinomar; Baptista, Mauricio S.; Machado, Antonio Eduardo da Hora

    2010-01-01

    This work focus on the influence of solvent on the photophysical properties of chlorophyll a and pheophytin. Both compounds are related to the photosynthesis process and are considered prototypes of photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy. Fluorescence measurements were developed using water/ethanol mixtures at different compositions, since both solvents could be employed in biological applications. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds undergo profound changes depending on water content in the ethanol due to auto-aggregation processes. The major hydrophobicity and the lower dielectric constant of ethanol when compared with water precluded significantly the auto-aggregation process of these compounds. (author)

  14. Optimisation and Characterisation of Lipase-Catalysed Synthesis of a Kojic Monooleate Ester in a Solvent-Free System by Response Surface Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairulazhar Jumbri

    Full Text Available Kojic acid is widely used to inhibit the browning effect of tyrosinase in cosmetic and food industries. In this work, synthesis of kojic monooleate ester (KMO was carried out using lipase-catalysed esterification of kojic acid and oleic acid in a solvent-free system. Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD was used to optimise the main important reaction variables, such as enzyme amount, reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio, and reaction time along with immobilised lipase from Candida Antarctica (Novozym 435 as a biocatalyst. The RSM data indicated that the reaction temperature was less significant in comparison to other factors for the production of a KMO ester. By using this statistical analysis, a quadratic model was developed in order to correlate the preparation variable to the response (reaction yield. The optimum conditions for the enzymatic synthesis of KMO were as follows: an enzyme amount of 2.0 wt%, reaction temperature of 83.69°C, substrate molar ratio of 1:2.37 (mmole kojic acid:oleic acid and a reaction time of 300.0 min. Under these conditions, the actual yield percentage obtained was 42.09%, which is comparably well with the maximum predicted value of 44.46%. Under the optimal conditions, Novozym 435 could be reused for 5 cycles for KMO production percentage yield of at least 40%. The results demonstrated that statistical analysis using RSM can be used efficiently to optimise the production of a KMO ester. Moreover, the optimum conditions obtained can be applied to scale-up the process and minimise the cost.

  15. Determination and thermodynamic modeling of solid–liquid phase equilibrium for 3,5-dichloroaniline in pure solvents and ternary 3,5-dichloroaniline + 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene + toluene system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rongrong; Du, Cunbin; Meng, Long; Han, Shuo; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Hongkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of 3,5-dichloroaniline in seven organic solvents were determined. • Solid–liquid phase equilibrium for ternary system was measured. • The binary and ternary phase diagrams were constructed. • The phase diagrams were correlated with thermodynamic models. - Abstract: The solid–liquid phase equilibrium data for 3,5-dichloroaniline in n-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, isobutanol, toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone at (283.15 to 308.15) K were determined experimentally by gas chromatography under 101.3 kPa. The solubility of 3,5-dichloroaniline in these solvents decreased according to the following order: ethyl acetate > (acetone, toluene) for the solvents of ethyl acetate, acetone, and toluene; and for the other solvents, (isopropanol, n-butanol) > n-propanol > isobutanol. According to the solubility of 3,5-dichloroaniline in pure solvents, the solid–liquid phase equilibrium for the ternary mixture of 3,5-dichloroaniline + 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene + toluene were measured by using an isothermal saturation method at three temperatures of 283.15, 293.15, and 303.15 K under 101.3 kPa, and the corresponding isothermal phase diagrams were constructed. Two pure solids were formed in the ternary system at a fixed temperature, which were pure 3,5-dichloroaniline and pure 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and were identified by Schreinemakers’ method of wet residue. The temperature dependence of 3,5-dichloroaniline solubility in pure solvents was correlated by the modified Apelblat equation, λh equation, Wilson model and NRTL model; and the ternary solid–liquid phase equilibrium of 3,5-dichloroaniline + 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene + toluene were described by the Wilson model and NRTL model. Results showed that calculated solubility values with these models agreed well with the experimental ones for the studied binary and ternary systems. The solid–liquid equilibrium and the thermodynamic models for the binary and ternary systems can offer the

  16. Design and evaluation of lornoxicam bilayered tablets for biphasic release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songa Ambedkar Sunil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to develop bilayered tablets of lornoxicam to achieve biphasic release pattern. A bilayered tablet, consisting of an immediate and controlled release layer, was prepared by direct compression technique. The controlled release effect was achieved by using various hydrophilic natural, semi synthetic and synthetic controlled release polymers such as xanthan gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and polyethylene oxide (PEO to modulate the release of the drug. The in vitro drug release profiles showed the biphasic release behavior in which the immediate release (IR layer containing the lornoxicam was released within 15 minutes, whereas the controlled release (CR layer controlled the drug release for up to 24 h. All the bilayered tablets formulated have followed the zero order release with non-Fickian diffusion controlled release mechanism after the initial burst release. FTIR studies revealed that there was no interaction between the drug and polymers used in the study. Statistical analysis (ANOVA showed no significant difference in the cumulative amount of drug release after 15 min, but significant difference (p O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver comprimidos bicamada de lornoxicam para atingir padrão de liberação bifásica. Preparou-se, por compressão direta, comprimido bicamada, consistindo de uma camada de liberação imediata e uma de liberação controlada. A liberação controlada foi obtida pelo uso de vários polímeros naturais hidrofílicos, semi-sintéticos e sintéticos, tais como goma xantana, hidroxipropilmetil celulose (HPMC e óxido de polietileno (PEO para modular a liberação do fármaco. Os perfis de liberação in vitro mostraram comportamento bifásico em que a camada de liberação imediata (IR contendo lornoxicam foi liberada em 15 minutos, enquanto a camada de liberação controlada (CR liberou o fármaco em mais de 24 horas, Todos os comprimidos bicamada

  17. Solvent distillation studies for a purex reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, C.; Guillaume, B.

    1990-01-01

    A distillation system has been developed for regeneration of Purex solvent and will be implemented for the first time in a reprocessing plant. The results are described and analyzed, with emphasis on laboratory experiments which were made with a radioactive plant solvent. Particularly the distillation provides a good separation of solvent degradation products, which was verified by measurements of interfacial tension and plutonium or ruthenium retention. 16 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Biphasic Peptide Amphiphile Nanomatrix Embedded with Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Stimulated Osteoinductive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel M.; Patterson, Jessica L.; Vines, Jeremy B.; Javed, Amjad; Gilbert, Shawn R.; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Formation of the native bone extracellular matrix (ECM) provides an attractive template for bone tissue engineering. The structural support and biological complexity of bone ECM are provided within a composite microenvironment that consists of an organic fibrous network reinforced by inorganic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. Recreating this biphasic assembly, a bone ECM analogous scaffold comprised of self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers and interspersed HA nanoparticles was investigated. PAs were endowed with biomolecular ligand signaling using a synthetically inscribed peptide sequence (i.e. RGDS) and integrated with HA nanoparticles to form a biphasic nanomatrix hydrogel. It was hypothesized the biphasic hydrogel would induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and improve bone healing as mediated by RGDS ligand signaling within PA nanofibers and embedded HA mineralization source. Viscoelastic stability of the biphasic PA hydrogels was evaluated with different weight concentrations of HA for improved gelation. After demonstrating initial viability, long-term cellularity and osteoinduction of encapsulated hMSCs in different PA hydrogels were studied in vitro. Temporal progression of osteogenic maturation was assessed by gene expression of key markers. A preliminary animal study demonstrated bone healing capacity of the biphasic PA nanomatrix under physiological conditions using a critical size femoral defect rat model. The combination of RGDS ligand signaling and HA nanoparticles within the biphasic PA nanomatrix hydrogel demonstrated the most effective osteoinduction and comparative bone healing response. Therefore, the biphasic PA nanomatrix establishes a well-organized scaffold with increased similarity to natural bone ECM with the prospect for improved bone tissue regeneration. PMID:22077993

  19. Biphasic functions for the GDNF-Ret signaling pathway in chemosensory neuron development and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Christopher R; Shah, Amol A; Mistretta, Charlotte M; Bradley, Robert M; Pierchala, Brian A

    2018-01-16

    The development of the taste system relies on the coordinated regulation of cues that direct the simultaneous development of both peripheral taste organs and innervating sensory ganglia, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we describe a novel, biphasic function for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the development and subsequent diversification of chemosensory neurons within the geniculate ganglion (GG). GDNF, acting through the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret, regulates the expression of the chemosensory fate determinant Phox2b early in GG development. Ret -/- mice, but not Ret fx/fx ; Phox2b -Cre mice, display a profound loss of Phox2b expression with subsequent chemosensory innervation deficits, indicating that Ret is required for the initial amplification of Phox2b expression but not its maintenance. Ret expression is extinguished perinatally but reemerges postnatally in a subpopulation of large-diameter GG neurons expressing the mechanoreceptor marker NF200 and the GDNF coreceptor GFRα1. Intriguingly, we observed that ablation of these neurons in adult Ret -Cre/ER T2 ; Rosa26 LSL-DTA mice caused a specific loss of tactile, but not chemical or thermal, electrophysiological responses. Overall, the GDNF-Ret pathway exerts two critical and distinct functions in the peripheral taste system: embryonic chemosensory cell fate determination and the specification of lingual mechanoreceptors. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  20. Inverted supercritical carbon dioxide/aqueous biphasic media for rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeister, Katja; Franciò, Giancarlo; Gego, Volker H; Greiner, Lasse; Hugl, Herbert; Leitner, Walter

    2007-01-01

    An inverted supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2))/aqueous biphasic system has been used as reaction media for Rh-catalysed hydrogenation of polar substrates. Chiral and achiral CO(2)-philic catalysts were efficiently immobilised in scCO(2) as the stationary phase, while the polar substrates and products were contained in water as the mobile phase. Notably, product separation and catalyst recycling were conducted without depressurisation of the autoclave. The catalyst phase was reused several times with high conversion and product recovery of more than 85 %. Loss of rhodium and phosphorus by leaching were found to be below the detection limit after the first two cycles in the majority of repetitive experiments. The reaction conditions were optimised with a minimum of experiments by using a simplex algorithm in a sequential optimisation. Total turnover numbers (TTNs) of up to 1600, turnover frequencies (TOFs) of up to 340 h(-1) and ee's up to 99 % were obtained in repetitive batch operations. The scope of the devised catalytic system has been investigated and a semicontinuous reaction setup has been implemented. The chiral ligand (R,S)-3-H(2)F(6)-BINAPHOS allowed highly enantioselective hydrogenation of itaconic acid and methyl-2-acetamidoacrylate combined with a considerable catalyst stability in these reaction media.

  1. Core-shell nanoreactors for efficient aqueous biphasic catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Cardozo, Andrés F; Chen, Si; Zhang, Wenjing; Julcour, Carine; Lansalot, Muriel; Blanco, Jean-François; Gayet, Florence; Delmas, Henri; Charleux, Bernadette; Manoury, Eric; D'Agosto, Franck; Poli, Rinaldo

    2014-11-17

    Water-borne phosphine-functionalized core-cross-linked micelles (CCM) consisting of a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic shell were obtained as stable latexes by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) in water in a one-pot, three-step process. Initial homogeneous aqueous-phase copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate (PEOMA) is followed by copolymerization of styrene (S) and 4-diphenylphosphinostyrene (DPPS), yielding P(MAA-co-PEOMA)-b-P(S-co-DPPS) amphiphilic block copolymer micelles (M) by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA), and final micellar cross-linking with a mixture of S and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The CCM were characterized by dynamic light scattering and NMR spectroscopy to evaluate size, dispersity, stability, and the swelling ability of various organic substrates. Coordination of [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ] (acac=acetylacetonate) to the core-confined phosphine groups was rapid and quantitative. The CCM and M latexes were then used, in combination with [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ], to catalyze the aqueous biphasic hydroformylation of 1-octene, in which they showed high activity, recyclability, protection of the activated Rh center by the polymer scaffold, and low Rh leaching. The CCM latex gave slightly lower catalytic activity but significantly less Rh leaching than the M latex. A control experiment conducted in the presence of the sulfoxantphos ligand pointed to the action of the CCM as catalytic nanoreactors with substrate and product transport into and out of the polymer core, rather than as a surfactant in interfacial catalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Ascending-ramp biphasic waveform has a lower defibrillation threshold and releases less troponin I than a truncated exponential biphasic waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P; Ruse, Richard B; Bohanan, Scott J; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2012-09-11

    We tested the hypothesis that the shape of the shock waveform affects not only the defibrillation threshold but also the amount of cardiac damage. Defibrillation thresholds were determined for 11 waveforms-3 ascending-ramp waveforms, 3 descending-ramp waveforms, 3 rectilinear first-phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated exponential biphasic waveform-in 6 pigs with electrodes in the right ventricular apex and superior vena cava. The ascending, descending, and rectilinear waveforms had 4-, 8-, and 16-millisecond first phases and a 3.5-millisecond rectilinear second phase that was half the voltage of the first phase. The exponential biphasic waveform had a 60% first-phase and a 50% second-phase tilt. In a second study, we attempted to defibrillate after 10 seconds of ventricular fibrillation with a single ≈30-J shock (6 pigs successfully defibrillated with 8-millisecond ascending, 8-millisecond rectilinear, and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms). Troponin I blood levels were determined before and 2 to 10 hours after the shock. The lowest-energy defibrillation threshold was for the 8-milliseconds ascending ramp (14.6±7.3 J [mean±SD]), which was significantly less than for the truncated exponential (19.6±6.3 J). Six hours after shock, troponin I was significantly less for the ascending-ramp waveform (0.80±0.54 ng/mL) than for the truncated exponential (1.92±0.47 ng/mL) or the rectilinear waveform (1.17±0.45 ng/mL). The ascending ramp has a significantly lower defibrillation threshold and at ≈30 J causes 58% less troponin I release than the truncated exponential biphasic shock. Therefore, the shock waveform affects both the defibrillation threshold and the amount of cardiac damage.

  3. An Ascending Ramp Biphasic Waveform Has a Lower Defibrillation Threshold and Releases Less Troponin I Than a Truncated Exponential Biphasic Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P.; Ruse, Richard B.; Bohanan, Scott J.; Killingsworth, Cheryl R.; Ideker, Raymond E.

    2014-01-01

    Background We tested the hypothesis that the shape of the shock waveform affects not only the defibrillation threshold (DFT), but also the amount of cardiac damage. Methods and Results DFTs were determined for 11 waveforms: 3 ascending ramp, 3 descending ramp, and 3 rectilinear first phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated exponential biphasic waveform in 6 pigs with electrodes in the RV apex and SVC. The ascending, descending and rectilinear waveforms had 4, 8 and 16 ms 1st phases and a 3.5 ms 2nd rectilinear phase half the voltage of the 1st phase. The exponential biphasic waveform had a 60% 1st phase and a 50% 2nd phase tilt. In a second study, we attempted to defibrillate after 10 s of VF with a single ≈ 30 J shock (6 pigs successfully defibrillated with 8 ms ascending, 8 ms rectilinear wave and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms). Troponin I blood levels were determined before and 2 to 10 hrs after the shock. The lowest energy DFT was for the 8 ms ascending ramp (14.6±7.3 SD J), which was significantly less than for the truncated exponential (19.6±6.3 J). Six hours postshock, troponin I in ng/ml was significantly less for the ascending ramp (0.80±0.54) than for the truncated exponential (1.92±0.47) or the rectilinear waveform (1.17 ±0.45). Conclusions The ascending ramp has a significantly lower DFT, and at ≈ 30 J causes 58% less troponin I release than the truncated exponential biphasic shock. Therefore, the shock waveform affects both the DFT and the amount of cardiac damage. PMID:22865891

  4. Ions, solutes and solvents, oh my!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Daniel David [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Modern methods in ab initio quantum mechanics have become efficient and accurate enough to study many gas-phase systems. However, chemists often work in the solution phase. The presence of solvent molecules has been shown to affect reaction mechanisms1, lower reaction energy barriers2, participate in energy transfer with the solute3 and change the physical properties of the solute4. These effects would be overlooked in simple gas phase calculations. Careful study of specific solvents and solutes must be done in order to fully understand the chemistry of the solution phase. Water is a key solvent in chemical and biological applications. The properties of an individual water molecule (a monomer) and the behavior of thousands of molecules (bulk solution) are well known for many solvents. Much is also understood about aqueous microsolvation (small clusters containing ten water molecules or fewer) and the solvation characteristics when bulk water is chosen to solvate a solute. However, much less is known about how these properties behave as the cluster size transitions from the microsolvated cluster size to the bulk. This thesis will focus on species solvated with water clusters that are large enough to exhibit the properties of the bulk but small enough to consist of fewer than one hundred solvent molecules. New methods to study such systems will also be presented.

  5. Structure and dynamics of diblock copolymers in selective incompatible solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanek, Petr

    2004-03-01

    When a diblock copolymer A-B is dissolved in a partially miscible mixture of two solvents, where one solvent is selective for block A and the other solvent is selective for block B, periodic multilayered anisotropic nanostructures are formed consisting of periodically arranged domains of the two solvents, stabilized by the block copolymer. We studied diblock copolymers where one block is polystyrene and the second is a polydiene or aliphatic chain, in mixtures of dimethylformamide (DMF), a selectively good solvent for polystyrene, and cyclohexane, a selectively good solvent for the other block. The coexistence curve of the solvent mixture has an upper critical temperature at 48 ^oC. We found that the copolymers formed macroscopically homogeneous, ordered or disordered solutions in a wide range of solvent compositions (2-40 concentrations (up to 20 We have investigated these systems using small angle neutron scattering, dynamic light scattering and pulsed-field gradient NMR. Depending on the composition of the mixed solvent the ordered phases formed below the coexistence curve of the neat solvents had a hexagonal or cubic structure. For selected systems validity of dilution laws has been examined. Analysis of the scattered intensity at large wave vectors q shows that the chains at the interface of the two solvents are not stretched. The dynamics of the ordered systems can be followed over 10 orders of magnitude and include these processes: solvent diffusion, internal relaxations, cooperative diffusion, self-diffusion, and viscoelastic relaxation. We acknowledge support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (203/01/536).

  6. UV-Vis spectroscopic study and DFT calculation on the solvent effect of trimethoprim in neat solvents and aqueous mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, M C; Sancho, M I; Duchowicz, P R; Blanco, S E

    2014-08-14

    The solvatochromic behavior of trimethoprim (TMP) was analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and DFT methods in neat and binary aqueous solvent mixtures. The effects of solvent dipolarity/polarizability and solvent-solute hydrogen bonding interactions on the absorption maxima were evaluated by means of the linear solvation energy relationship concept of Kamlet and Taft. This analysis indicated that both interactions play an important role in the position of the absorption maxima in neat solvents. The simulated absorption spectra of TMP and TMP:(solvent)n complexes in ACN and H2O using TD-DFT methods were in agreement with the experimental ones. Binary aqueous mixtures containing as co-solvents DMSO, ACN and EtOH were studied. Preferential solvation was detected as a nonideal behavior of the wavenumber curve respective to the analytical mole fraction of co-solvent in all binary systems. TMP molecules were preferentially solvated by the organic solvent over the whole composition range. Index of preferential solvation, as well as the influence of solvent parameters were calculated as a function of solvent composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the finite element software ABAQUS for biomechanical modelling of biphasic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J Z; Herzog, W; Epstein, M

    1998-02-01

    The biphasic cartilage model proposed by Mow et al. (1980) has proven successful to capture the essential mechanical features of articular cartilage. In order to analyse the joint contact mechanics in real, anatomical joints, the cartilage model needs to be implemented into a suitable finite element code to approximate the irregular surface geometries of such joints. However, systematic and extensive evaluation of the capacity of commercial software for modelling the contact mechanics with biphasic cartilage layers has not been made. This research was aimed at evaluating the commercial finite element software ABAQUS for analysing biphasic soft tissues. The solutions obtained using ABAQUS were compared with those obtained using other finite element models and analytical solutions for three numerical tests: an unconfined indentation test, a test with the contact of a spherical cartilage surface with a rigid plate, and an axi-symmetric joint contact test. It was concluded that the biphasic cartilage model can be implemented into the commercial finite element software ABAQUS to analyse practical joint contact problems with biphasic articular cartilage layers.

  8. Recovery of acid-degraded tributyl phosphate by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.C.; Holladay, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    During nuclear fuel reprocessing the organic solvent becomes loaded with various acidic degradation products, which can be effectively removed through solvent extraction. Studies have been made with a small bench-scale solvent extraction system to optimize such parameters as pH of aqueous phase, phase ratio, residence time, flow rates, and temperature. The necessary decontamination factors have been obtained for various degradation products during continuous solvent extraction in one stage, with the aqueous phase being recycled. The aqueous phase contains compounds that can be degraded to gases to minimize waste disposal problems

  9. A flow reactor setup for photochemistry of biphasic gas/liquid reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Schachtner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A home-built microreactor system for light-mediated biphasic gas/liquid reactions was assembled from simple commercial components. This paper describes in full detail the nature and function of the required building elements, the assembly of parts, and the tuning and interdependencies of the most important reactor and reaction parameters. Unlike many commercial thin-film and microchannel reactors, the described set-up operates residence times of up to 30 min which cover the typical rates of many organic reactions. The tubular microreactor was successfully applied to the photooxygenation of hydrocarbons (Schenck ene reaction. Major emphasis was laid on the realization of a constant and highly reproducible gas/liquid slug flow and the effective illumination by an appropriate light source. The optimized set of conditions enabled the shortening of reaction times by more than 99% with equal chemoselectivities. The modular home-made flow reactor can serve as a prototype model for the continuous operation of various other reactions at light/liquid/gas interfaces in student, research, and industrial laboratories.

  10. Interfacial Tensions of Aged Organic Aerosol Particle Mimics Using a Biphasic Microfluidic Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Andrew R; Boyer, Hallie C; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-02-02

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are a major component of atmospheric particulate matter, yet their formation processes and ambient properties are not well understood. These complex particles often contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous- and organic-phase partitioning. Aerosol interfaces can profoundly affect the fate of condensable organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere by altering the way in which ambient organic vapors interact with suspended particles. To accurately predict the evolution of SOA in the atmosphere, we must improve our understanding of aerosol interfaces. In this work, biphasic microscale flows are used to measure interfacial tension of reacting methylglyoxal, formaldehyde, and ammonium sulfate aqueous mixtures with a surrounding oil phase. Our experiments show a suppression of interfacial tension as a function of organic content that remains constant with reaction time for methylglyoxal-ammonium sulfate systems. We also reveal an unexpected time dependence of interfacial tension over a period of 48 h for ternary solutions of both methylglyoxal and formaldehyde in aqueous ammonium sulfate, indicating a more complicated behavior of surface activity where there is competition among dissolved organics. From these interfacial tension measurements, the morphology of aged atmospheric aerosols with internal liquid-liquid phase separation is inferred.

  11. Study of volume fractions on biphasic stratified regime using gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, William L.; Brandão, Luis E.B., E-mail: william.otero@hotmail.com, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the oil industries, interconnected pipelines are used to carry large quantities of petroleum and its byproducts. This modal has an advantage because they are more economical, eliminate a need for stocks and, in addition, great safety in operation minimizing a possibility of loss or theft when transported another way. In many cases, especially in the petrochemical industry, the same pipeline is used to carry more than one type of product. They are called poliduct. In the operation of a poliduct there is a sequence of products to be transported and during the exchange of the product, there are still fractions of the previous product and this generates contamination. It is therefore important to identify precisely this region in order to reduce the costs of reprocessing and treatment of discarded products. In this way, this work presents a methodology to evaluate the sensitivity of the gamma densitometry technique in a study of the calculation of volume fractions in biphasic systems, submitted to the stratified flow regime. Using computational simulations using the Monte Carlo Method with the MCNPX code measurement geometry was proposed that presented a higher sensitivity for the calculation of volume fractions. The relevant technical data to perform a simulation of the scintillator detectors were based on information obtained from the gammagraphy technique. The study had a theoretical validation through analytical equations, and the results show that it is possible to identify volume fractions equivalent to 3%. (author)

  12. A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Brockman, Kenneth L; Clark, Tyson A; Boitano, Matthew; Power, Peter M; Jen, Freda E-C; McEwan, Alastair G; Grimmond, Sean M; Smith, Arnold L; Barenkamp, Stephen J; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-07-28

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N(6)-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system.

  13. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  14. Biphasic Synergistic Gel Materials with Switchable Mechanics and Self-Healing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziguang; Liu, Yuxia; Zhang, Kangjun; Zhuo, Shuyun; Fang, Ruochen; Zhang, Jianqi; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Mingjie

    2017-10-16

    A fabrication strategy for biphasic gels is reported, which incorporates high-internal-phase emulsions. Closely packed micro-inclusions within the elastic hydrogel matrix greatly improve the mechanical properties of the materials. The materials exhibit excellent switchable mechanics and shape-memory performance because of the switchable micro- inclusions that are incorporated into the hydrogel matrix. The produced materials demonstrated a self-healing capacity that originates from the noncovalent effect of the biphasic heteronetwork. The aforementioned characteristics suggest that the biphasic gels may serve as ideal composite gel materials with validity in a variety of applications, such as soft actuators, flexible devices, and biological materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Active efflux of toluene in a solvent-resistant bacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Isken, S; de Bont, J A

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms behind the organic-solvent resistance of the solvent-tolerant strain Pseudomonas putida S12. By use of 14C-labeled toluene, we obtained evidence that an energy-dependent export system may be responsible for this resistance to toluene.

  16. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    A bioremediation system for the removal of chlorinated solvents from ground water and sediments is described. The system involves the the in-situ injection of natural gas (as a microbial nutrient) through an innovative configuration of horizontal wells

  17. A Structurally and Functionally Biomimetic Biphasic Scaffold for Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Andrew Tsz Hang; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering offers high hopes for the treatment of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Whereas scaffolds of the disc nucleus and annulus have been extensively studied, a truly biomimetic and mechanically functional biphasic scaffold using naturally occurring extracellular matrix is yet to be developed. Here, a biphasic scaffold was fabricated with collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), two of the most abundant extracellular matrix components in the IVD. Following fabrication, the scaffold was characterized and benchmarked against native disc. The biphasic scaffold was composed of a collagen-GAG co-precipitate making up the nucleus pulposus-like core, and this was encapsulated in multiple lamellae of photochemically crosslinked collagen membranes comprising the annulus fibrosus-like lamellae. On mechanical testing, the height of our engineered disc recovered by ~82-89% in an annulus-independent manner, when compared with the 99% recovery exhibited by native disc. The annulus-independent nature of disc height recovery suggests that the fluid replacement function of the engineered nucleus pulposus core might mimic this hitherto unique feature of native disc. Biphasic scaffolds comprised of 10 annulus fibrosus-like lamellae had the best overall mechanical performance among the various designs owing to their similarity to native disc in most aspects, including elastic compliance during creep and recovery, and viscous compliance during recovery. However, the dynamic mechanical performance (including dynamic stiffness and damping factor) of all the biphasic scaffolds was similar to that of the native discs. This study contributes to the rationalized design and development of a biomimetic and mechanically viable biphasic scaffold for IVD tissue engineering. PMID:26115332

  18. Solution thermodynamics of creatine monohydrate in binary (water + ethanol) solvent systems at T = (278.15 to 328.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Liangcheng; Wei, Lihua; Si, Tao; Guo, Huai; Yang, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubilities of creatine monohydrate in (ethanol + water) mixtures were investigated. • The solubility data were well correlated by Jouyban–Acree model. • Solution thermodynamic properties were calculated. • The dissolving process of creatine monohydrate in was endothermic and entropy-driven. - Abstract: In order to optimize the crystallization process of creatine monohydrate, the solubility of creatine monohydrate in the binary (water + ethanol) mixture was measured at temperatures ranging from 278.15 K to 328.15 K using the laser monitoring technique. The solubility increased with both the temperature and the mole fraction of water in the solvent mixture. The experimental solubility was well correlated by the Jouyban–Acree model, which generated a sensitive solubility surface for creatine monohydrate. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters of this dissolution process were also estimated. The results showed that the dissolution process of creatine monohydrate in each solvent mixture was endothermic and entropy-driven, and that the dissolution of creatine monohydrate became much easier when the mole fraction of water in the solvent mixture increased.

  19. Biodiesel production from ethanolysis of palm oil using deep eutectic solvent (DES) as co-solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, R.; Winarta, A.; Taslim; Indra, L.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel produced from ethanolysis is more renewable and have better properties (higher oxidation stability, lower cloud and pour point) compared to methanolysis, but it has a disadvantage such as complicated purification. To improve ethanolysis process, deep eutectic solvent (DES) can be prepared from choline chloride and glycerol and used as co-solvent in ethanolysis. The deep eutectic solvent is formed from a quaternary ammonium salt (choline chloride) and a hydrogen bond donor (Glycerol), it is a non-toxic, biodegradable solvent compared to a conventional volatile organic solvent such as hexane. The deep eutectic solvent is prepared by mixing choline chloride and glycerol with molar ratio 1:2 at temperature 80 °C, stirring speed 300 rpm for 1 hour. The DES is characterized by its density and viscosity. The ethanolysis is performed at a reaction temperature of 70 °C, ethanol to oil molar ratio of 9:1, potassium hydroxide as catalyst concentration of 1.2 wt. DES as co-solvent with concentration 0.5 to 3 wt. stirring speed 400 rpm, and a reaction time 1 hour. The obtained biodiesel is then characterized by its density, viscosity, and ester content. The oil - ethanol phase condition is observed in the reaction tube. The oil - ethanol phase with DES tends to form meniscus compared to without DES, showed that oil and ethanol become more slightly miscible, which favors the reaction. Using DES as co-solvent in ethanolysis showed increasing in yield and easier purification. The esters properties meet the international standards ASTM D6751, with the highest yield achieved 83,67 with 99,77 conversion at DES concentration 2 . Increasing DES concentration above 2 in ethanolysis decrease the conversion and yield, because of the excessive glycerol in the systems makes the reaction equilibrium moves to the reactant side.

  20. The standard biphasic-contrast examination of the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op den Orth, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    A standard examination has been developed, called biphasic, because it combines the advantages of positive-contrast and double-contrast techniques. The theoretical background and technique of this examination are described and the basic interpretation of double-contrast studies stated. General remarks on the results and on the complementary role of radiological examination and endoscopy are included. A quantitative study of standard biphasic-contrast examinations in patients over a period of 3 years is presented. Finally a radiological atlas of common lesions of the stomach and duodenum is given. (C.F.)

  1. Paired associative stimulation targeting the tibialis anterior muscle using either mono or biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocols induce plastic changes within the motor cortex. The objectives of this study were to investigate PAS effects targeting the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle using a biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse form and, to determine whether...... a reduced intensity of this pulse would lead to significant changes as has been reported for hand muscles using a monophasic TMS pulse. Three interventions were investigated: (1) suprathreshold PAbi-PAS (n = 11); (2) suprathreshold PAmono-PAS (n = 11) where PAS was applied using a biphasic or monophasic...

  2. Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oil by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the potential techniques. The advantages of solvent extraction technique practically offers from environmental and economic points of view have received due attention. In this paper selection of composite solvent and technique to upgrade the used lubricant oil into base oil has been made. The composite solvent 2-propanol, 1-butanol and butanone have two alcohols that make a binary system reasonably effective. This work also attempts to study the performance of the composite solvent in the extraction process for recovering waste lubricating oil. The key parameters considered were vacuum pressure, temperature and the weight ratio of solvent to waste lubricating oil. The performance was investigated on the PSR (Percentage Sludge Removal and POL (Percent Oil Loss. The best results were obtained using composite solvent 25% 2-propanol, 37% 1-butanol and 38% butanone by a solvent to oil ratio of 6:1 at vacuum pressure 600mmHg and distillation temperature 250oC. The vacuum distilled oil pretreated with the composite solvents was matched to the standard base oil 500N and 150N, found in close agreement and could be used for similar purpose.

  3. Biphasic defibrillation using a single capacitor with large capacitance: reduction of peak voltages and ICD device size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, M; Hammel, D; Böcker, D; Borggrefe, M; Budde, T; Isbruch, F; Scheld, H H; Breithardt, G

    1996-02-01

    The volume of current implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) is not convenient for pectoral implantation. One way to reduce the size of the pulse generator is to find a more effective defibrillation pulse waveform generated from smaller volume capacitors. In a prospective randomized crossover study we compared the step-down defibrillation threshold (DFT) of a standard biphasic waveform (STD), delivered by two 250-microF capacitors connected in series with an 80% tilt, to an experimental biphasic waveform delivered by a single 450-microF capacitor with a 60% tilt. The experimental waveform delivered the same energy with a lower peak voltage and a longer duration (LVLD). Intraoperatively, in 25 patients receiving endocardial (n = 12) or endocardial-subcutaneous array (n = 13) defibrillation leads, the DFT was determined for both waveforms. Energy requirements did not differ at DFT for the STD and LVLD waveforms with the low impedance (32 +/- 4 omega) endocardial-subcutaneous array defibrillation lead system (6.4 +/- 4.4 J and 5.9 +/- 4.2 J, respectively) or increased slightly (P = 0.06) with the higher impedance (42 +/- 4 omega) endocardial lead system (10.4 +/- 4.6 J and 12.7 +/- 5.7 J, respectively). However, the voltage needed at DFT was one-third lower with the LVLD waveform than with the STD waveform for both lead systems (256 +/- 85 V vs 154 +/- 51 V and 348 +/- 76 V vs 232 +/- 54 V, respectively). Thus, a single capacitor with a large capacitance can generate a defibrillation pulse with a substantial lower peak voltage requirement without significantly increasing the energy requirements. The volume reduction in using a single capacitor can decrease ICD device size.

  4. Solvents level dipole moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenkel; Li, Xiaosong; Dalton, Larry R; Robinson, Bruce H; Eichinger, Bruce E

    2011-11-03

    The dipole moments of highly polar molecules measured in solution are usually smaller than the molecular dipole moments that are calculated with reaction field methods, whereas vacuum values are routinely calculated in good agreement with available vapor phase data. Whether from Onsager's theory (or variations thereof) or from quantum mechanical methods, the calculated molecular dipoles in solution are found to be larger than those measured. The reason, of course, is that experiments measure the net dipole moment of solute together with the polarized (perturbed) solvent "cloud" surrounding it. Here we show that the reaction field charges that are generated in the quantum mechanical self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method give a good estimate of the net dipole moment of the solute molecule together with the moment arising from the reaction field charges. This net dipole is a better description of experimental data than the vacuum dipole moment and certainly better than the bare dipole moment of the polarized solute molecule.

  5. Diluent effects in solvent extraction. The Effects of Diluents in Solvent Extraction - a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefstroem-Engdahl, Elin; Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Skarnemark, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    The fact that the choice of organic diluent is important for a solvent extraction process goes without saying. Several factors, such as e.g. price, flash point, viscosity, polarity etc. each have their place in the planning of a solvent extraction system. This high number of variables makes the lack of compilations concerning diluent effects to an interesting topic. Often the interest for the research concerning a specific extraction system focuses on the extractant used and the complexes built up during an extraction. The diluents used are often classical ones, even if it has been shown that choice of diluent can affect extraction as well as separation in an extraction system. An attempt to point out important steps in the understanding of diluent effects in solvent extraction is here presented. This large field is, of course, not summarized in this article, but an attempt is made to present important steps in the understanding of diluents effects in solvent extraction. Trying to make the information concerning diluent effects and applications more easily accessible this review offers a selected summarizing of literature concerning diluents effects in solvent extraction. (authors)

  6. Preparation of novel cross-linked and octylated caseinates using a biphasic enzymatic procedure and their functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Niu, Yuge; Yao, Fangyi; Dai, Bona; Wang, Qin; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-08-27

    A novel microbial transglutaminase-catalyzed aqueous-organic biphasic reaction system was successfully developed to prepare caseinate derivatives by cross-linking and incorporating nonpolar octyl tails for the first time. SDS-PAGE and (1)H NMR analysis confirmed that cross-linking and octyl conjugation occurred simultaneously. The octyl substitution degree (SD) was measured by (1)H NMR and used as an index to determine a suitable reaction condition. It was found that at the condition of 0.125% (w/v) protein concentration and 6 h of reaction time, the modified caseinate had the highest SD of 28.96%. The modified caseinate also had an increased surface hydrophobicity, better emulsifying activity, and improved thermal and salt stabilities. However, its emulsion stability or in vitro enzymatic digestibility was slightly lower than that of the native caseinate.

  7. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Hunt, Andrew J; Sherwood, James

    2015-07-28

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  8. Direct 3D powder printing of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for substitution of complex bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Miguel; Moseke, Claus; Ewald, Andrea; Gbureck, Uwe; Groll, Jürgen; Pires, Inês; Teßmar, Jörg; Vorndran, Elke

    2014-03-01

    The 3D printing technique based on cement powders is an excellent method for the fabrication of individual and complex bone substitutes even in the case of large defects. The outstanding bone remodeling capacity of biphasic calcium phosphates (BCPs) containing hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in varying ratios makes the adaption of powder systems resulting in BCP materials to this fabrication technique a desirable aim. This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel powder system for the 3D printing process, intended for the production of complexly shaped BCP scaffolds by a hydraulic setting reaction of calcium carbonate and TCP with phosphoric acid. The HA/TCP ratio in the specimens could be tailored by the calcium/phosphate ratio of the starting powder. The scaffolds could be fabricated with a dimensional accuracy of >96.5% and a minimal macro pore size of 300 µm. Independent of the phase composition the printed specimens showed a microporosity of approximately 68%, while the compressive strength strongly depended on the chemical composition and increased with rising TCP content in the scaffolds to a maximum of 1.81 MPa. Post-treatment of the scaffolds with a polylactic-co-glycolic acid-solution enhanced the mechanical properties by a factor of 8. In vitro studies showed that all BCP scaffolds were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell viability as well as the cell proliferation, as compared with pure TCP. Cell proliferation is even better on BCP when compared to HA and cell viability is in a similar range on these materials.

  9. Solvent-free and time-efficient Suzuki-Miyaura reaction in a ball mill: the solid reagent system KF-Al(2)O(3) under inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Franziska; Trotzki, Ronald; Szuppa, Tony; Stolle, Achim; Ondruschka, Bernd

    2010-01-22

    Although a plethora of synthetic procedures mediated by KF-loaded aluminas is available in the literature, there is almost no data concerning the influence of parameters such as alumina modification or KF-loading on experimental results. Hence, the Pd-catalyzed, solvent-free Suzuki-Miyaura reaction was chosen as model reaction to investigate the effect of the above mentioned parameters on the results of coupling reactions. The results from ball milling experiments led to the conclusion that self-prepared and commercially available KF-Al₂O ₃differ in water content. The higher the residual water content, the higher are the product yields.

  10. Modeling Biphasic Environmental Decay of Pathogens and Implications for Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Andrew F; Eisenberg, Marisa C; Remais, Justin V; Collender, Philip A; Meza, Rafael; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2017-02-21

    As the appreciation for the importance of the environment in infectious disease transmission has grown, so too has interest in pathogen fate and transport. Fate has been traditionally described by simple exponential decay, but there is increasing recognition that some pathogens demonstrate a biphasic pattern of decay-fast followed by slow. While many have attributed this behavior to population heterogeneity, we demonstrate that biphasic dynamics can arise through a number of plausible mechanisms. We examine the identifiability of a general model encompassing three such mechanisms: population heterogeneity, hardening off, and the existence of viable-but-not-culturable states. Although the models are not fully identifiable from longitudinal sampling studies of pathogen concentrations, we use a differential algebra approach to determine identifiable parameter combinations. Through case studies using Cryptosporidium and Escherichia coli, we show that failure to consider biphasic pathogen dynamics can lead to substantial under- or overestimation of disease risks and pathogen concentrations, depending on the context. More reliable models for environmental hazards and human health risks are possible with an improved understanding of the conditions in which biphasic die-off is expected. Understanding the mechanisms of pathogen decay will ultimately enhance our control efforts to mitigate exposure to environmental contamination.

  11. Occurrence of amylose-lipid complexes in teff and maize starch biphasic pastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wokadala, OC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of amylose–lipid complexes was determined in maize and teff starch biphasic pastes i.e. peak viscosity pastes at short and prolonged pasting times. Maize and teff starches were pasted for 11.5 and 130 min with or without added stearic...

  12. A New Type of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cement as a Gentamicin Carrier for Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis therapy is a long-term and inconvenient procedure for a patient. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are both a complementary and alternative treatment option to intravenous antibiotic therapy for the treatment of osteomyelitis. In the current study, the biphasic calcium phosphate cement (CPC, called α-TCP/HAP (α-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite biphasic cement, was prepared as an antibiotics carrier for osteomyelitis. The developed biphasic cement with a microstructure of α-TCP surrounding the HAP has a fast setting time which will fulfill the clinical demand. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analyses showed the final phase to be HAP, the basic bone mineral, after setting for a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous structure with particle sizes of a few micrometers. The addition of gentamicin in α-TCP/HAP would delay the transition of α-TCP but would not change the final-phase HAP. The gentamicin-loaded α-TCP/HAP supplies high doses of the antibiotic during the initial 24 hours when they are soaked in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. Thereafter, a slower drug release is produced, supplying minimum inhibitory concentration until the end of the experiment (30 days. Studies of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in culture indicated that gentamicin released after 30 days from α-TCP/HAP biphasic cement retained antibacterial activity.

  13. A pilot trial of square biphasic pulse deep brain stimulation for dystonia: The BIP dystonia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leonardo; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Ahmed, Bilal; Deeb, Wissam; Jesus, Sol De; Skinner, Jared; Terza, Matthew J; Akbar, Umer; Raike, Robert S; Hass, Chris J; Okun, Michael S

    2017-04-01

    Dystonia often has inconsistent benefits and requires more energy-demanding DBS settings. Studies suggest that squared biphasic pulses could provide significant clinical benefit; however, dystonia patients have not been explored. To assess safety and tolerability of square biphasic DBS in dystonia patients. This study included primary generalized or cervical dystonia patients with bilateral GPi DBS. Square biphasic pulses were implemented and patients were assessed at baseline, immediately postwashout, post-30-minute washout, 1 hour post- and 2 hours postinitiation of investigational settings. Ten participants completed the study. There were no patient-reported or clinician-observed side effects. There was improvement across time on the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (χ 2  = 10.7; P = 0.031). Similar improvement was detected in objective gait measurements. Square biphasic stimulation appears safe and feasible in dystonia patients with GPi DBS. Further studies are needed to evaluate possible effectiveness particularly in cervical and gait features. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Preparation of highly infective Leishmania promastigotes by cultivation on SNB-9 biphasic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekov, Igor; Svobodová, Milena; Nohýnková, Eva; Lipoldová, Marie

    2011-12-01

    Protozoan hemoflagellates Leishmania are causative agents of leishmaniases and an important biological model for study of host-pathogen interaction. A wide range of methods of Leishmania cultivation on both biphasic and liquid media is available. Biphasic media are considered to be superior for initial isolation of the parasites and obtaining high promastigote infectivity; however, liquid media are more suitable for large-scale experiments. The aim of the present study was the adaptation and optimization of the cultivation of Leishmania promastigotes on a biphasic SNB-9 (saline-neopeptone-blood 9) medium that was originally developed for Trypanosoma cultivation and combines the advantages of biphasic and liquid media. SNB-9 medium is characterized with a large volume of the liquid phase, which facilitates the manipulation with the culture and provides parasite yields comparable to parasite yields on such liquid medium as Schneider's Insect Medium. We demonstrate that SNB-9 very considerably surpasses Schneider's Insect Medium in in vitro infectivity of the parasites. Additionally, we show that the ratio of apoptotic parasites, which are important for the infectivity of the inoculum, in Leishmania culture in SNB-9 is higher than in Leishmania culture in Schneider's Insect Medium. Thus, we demonstrate that the cultivation of Leishmania on SNB-9 reliably yields highly infective promastigotes suitable for experimental infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Solvent extraction of Zn and metals in Zn ores by nonphosphorous solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchapt, J.M.; Tostain, Jacqueline.

    1975-07-01

    This bibliography follows a first work on Zn solvent extraction by organo-phosphorous compounds. The other solvents used in Zn extraction, are studied: oxygenated nonphosphorous solvents (ketones, alcohols, carboxylic acids, sulfonates), nitrogenous solvents and hydrocarbons [fr

  16. [Vapor-liquid equilibria for multicomponent organic solvents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishidao, Toru; Ishimatsu, Sumiyo; Hori, Hajime

    2004-09-01

    Most organic solvents used in the workplace are mixed solvents consisting of several components. It is therefore very important to know the equilibrated vapor concentrations in order to control the work environment. In this study, the vapor-liquid equilibrium for multicomponent organic solvents is estimated by introducing the activity coefficients, which are calculated with the UNIFAC (Universal Quasichemical Functional Group Activity Coefficient) model. For two-component solvents, that is, the toluene-methanol and o-xylene-methanol systems, the calculated values of the vapor fraction and the equilibrated vapor concentrations are in good agreement with the reference ones. For three- or four-component solvents that are used as thinners, the calculated values are also generally in good agreement with the reference ones.

  17. Leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens are biphasic mixed microbial bioreactors that convert plant biomass to polyols with biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somera, Alexandre F; Lima, Adriel M; Dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Lanças, Fernando M; Bacci, Maurício

    2015-07-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  19. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  20. NOVEL POLYMERIC MEMBRANE FOR DEHYDRATION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a critical role...

  1. Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent+ electrolyte) systems: Time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, measured average solvation times become slower and rotation times faster for the above change in the mixture composition. A semi-molecular theory based on solution density fluctuations has been developed and found to successfully capture the essential features of the measured Stokes shift dynamics of ...

  2. Mathematical modelling of simultaneous solvent evaporation and chemical curing in thermoset coatings: A parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model, describing the curing behaviour of a two-component, solvent-based, thermoset coating, is used to conduct a parameter study. The model includes curing reactions, solvent intra-film diffusion and evaporation, film gelation, vitrification, and crosslinking. A case study...... concentration of solvent. Simulations of solvent evaporation are compared to experimental data from a previous investigation. As part of the parameter study, mechanisms of this complex coating system are discussed....

  3. Handbook of organic solvent properties

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The properties of 72 of the most commonly used solvents are given, tabulated in the most convenient way, making this book a joy for industrial chemists to use as a desk reference. The properties covered are those which answer the basic questions of: Will it do the job? Will it harm the user? Will it pollute the air? Is it easy to handle? Will it pollute the water? Can it be recovered or incinerated? These are all factors that need to be considered at the early stages of choosing a solvent for a new product or process.A collection of the physical properties of most commonly used solvents, their

  4. Conversion of the gas purification system to BASF aMDEA solvent at PT. Badak NGL; Conversion du systeme de purification du gaz: emploi du solvant aMDEA de BASF chez PT. Badak NGL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volker, Schuda [BASF Aktiengesellschaft (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The solvent swap at the world's largest LNG-plant to BASF's aMDEA was a complete success in solving earlier corrosion and scaling problems. After two years of operation the iron content in the aMDEA-solvent for the CO{sub 2}-removal kept below 10 ppm and the plant reliability could be increased by more than 10 % while the production costs dropped due to a significantly lower maintenance requirement. (author)

  5. Enzymatic Synthesis of Esculin Ester in Ionic Liquids Buffered with Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yifan; Guo, Zheng; Lue, Bena-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The enzymatic esterification of esculin catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) was carried out in ionic liquid (IL)-organic solvent mixed systems in comparison with individual systems. The reaction behaviors in IL-organic solvents were systemically evaluated using acetone as a model...... acquired in this work gives a better understanding of multiple interactions in IL-organic solvent systems, which provide guidance for system design and optimization....

  6. Measurement and prediction of dabigatran etexilate mesylate Form II solubility in mono-solvents and mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Yan; Wang, Jingkang; Wang, Ting; Ouyang, Jinbo; Huang, Xin; Hao, Hongxun; Bao, Ying; Fang, Wen; Yin, Qiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of DEM Form II in mono-solvents and binary solvent mixtures was measured. • Regressed UNIFAC model was used to predict the solubility in solvent mixtures. • The experimental solubility data were correlated by different models. - Abstract: UV spectrometer method was used to measure the solubility data of dabigatran etexilate mesylate (DEM) Form II in five mono-solvents (methanol, ethanol, ethane-1,2-diol, DMF, DMAC) and binary solvent mixtures of methanol and ethanol in the temperature range from 287.37 K to 323.39 K. The experimental solubility data in mono-solvents were correlated with modified Apelblat equation, van’t Hoff equation and λh equation. GSM model and Modified Jouyban-Acree model were employed to correlate the solubility data in mixed solvent systems. And Regressed UNIFAC model was used to predict the solubility of DEM Form II in the binary solvent mixtures. Results showed that the predicted data were consistent with the experimental data.

  7. ACTIVE EFFLUX OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS BY PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA S12 IS INDUCED BY SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of the membrane-associated organic solvent efflux system SrpABC of Pseudomonas putida S12 was examined by cloning a 312-bp DNA fragment, containing the srp promoter, in the broad-host-range reporter vector pKRZ-1. Compounds that are capable of inducing expression of the...

  8. Biphasic versus monophasic waveforms for transthoracic defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddy, Steven C; Jennings, Paul A

    2016-02-10

    Transthoracic defibrillation is a potentially life-saving treatment for people with ventricular fibrillation (VF) and haemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT). In recent years, biphasic waveforms have become more commonly used for defibrillation than monophasic waveforms. Clinical trials of internal defibrillation and transthoracic defibrillation of short-duration arrhythmias of up to 30 seconds have demonstrated the superiority of biphasic waveforms over monophasic waveforms. However, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) involves a duration of VF/VT of several minutes before defibrillation is attempted. To determine the efficacy and safety of biphasic defibrillation waveforms, compared to monophasic, for resuscitation of people experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We searched the following electronic databases for potentially relevant studies up to 10 September 2014: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. Also we checked the bibliographies of relevant studies and review articles, contacted authors of published reviews and reviewed webpages (including those of device manufacturers) relevant to the review topic. We handsearched the abstracts of conference proceedings for the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, European Society of Cardiology, European Resuscitation Council, Society of Critical Care Medicine and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Regarding language restrictions, we did not apply any. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared biphasic and monophasic waveform defibrillation in adults with OHCA. Two review authors independently screened the literature search results. Two review authors independently extracted data from the included trials and performed 'Risk of bias' assessments. We resolved any disagreements by discussion and consensus. The primary outcome was the risk of failure to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC

  9. Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    COVERED (From - To) Mar 2005- Mar 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER WP 200520 5b...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Torres, Tom; Hoffard, Theresa 5d. PROJECT NUMBER WP 200520 Lagerquist, Jenny 5e. TASK...nonhazardous and can be landfarmed, composted , or captured in a filter press and landfilled. Most industrial biological treatment systems will also require

  10. A novel aqueous two phase system composed of a thermo-separating polymer and an organic solvent for purification of thermo-acidic amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Zohdi, Nor Khanani

    2014-05-22

    The purification of thermo-acidic amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel for the first time was investigated using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of a thermo-separating copolymer and an organic solvent. The effectiveness of different parameters such as molecular weight of the thermo-separating ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) copolymer and type and concentration of organic solvent on the partitioning behavior of amylase was investigated. In addition, the effects of phase components, volume ratio (VR), pH and crude load of purification factor and yield of amylase were evaluated to achieve the optimum partition conditions of the enzyme. In the novel ATPS method, the enzyme was satisfactorily partitioned into the polymer-rich top phase in the system composed of 30% (w/w) EOPO 2500 and 15% (w/w) 2-propanol, at a volume ratio of 1.94 and with a crude load scale of 25% (w/w) at pH 5.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step of the ATPS process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 96.6% and copolymer was also recovered and recycled at a rate above 97%, making the method was more economical than the traditional ATPS method.

  11. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of a Thermo-Separating Polymer and an Organic Solvent for Purification of Thermo-Acidic Amylase Enzyme from Red Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purification of thermo-acidic amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus peel for the first time was investigated using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS consisting of a thermo-separating copolymer and an organic solvent. The effectiveness of different parameters such as molecular weight of the thermo-separating ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO copolymer and type and concentration of organic solvent on the partitioning behavior of amylase was investigated. In addition, the effects of phase components, volume ratio (VR, pH and crude load of purification factor and yield of amylase were evaluated to achieve the optimum partition conditions of the enzyme. In the novel ATPS method, the enzyme was satisfactorily partitioned into the polymer-rich top phase in the system composed of 30% (w/w EOPO 2500 and 15% (w/w 2-propanol, at a volume ratio of 1.94 and with a crude load scale of 25% (w/w at pH 5.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step of the ATPS process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 96.6% and copolymer was also recovered and recycled at a rate above 97%, making the method was more economical than the traditional ATPS method.

  12. Environmental analysis of the life cycle emissions of 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran solvent manufactured from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C Stewart; Savelski, Mariano J; Hitchcock, David; Cavanagh, Eduardo J

    2016-01-01

    An environmental analysis has been conducted to determine the cradle to gate life cycle emissions to manufacture the green solvent, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran. The solvent is considered a greener chemical since it can be manufactured from renewable resources with a lower life cycle footprint. Analyses have been performed using different methods to show greenness in both its production and industrial use. This solvent can potentially be substituted for other ether and chlorinated solvents commonly used in organometallic and biphasic reactions steps in pharmaceutical and fine chemical syntheses. The 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran made from renewable agricultural by-products is marketed by Penn A Kem under the name ecoMeTHF™. The starting material, 2-furfuraldehyde (furfural), is produced from corn cob waste by converting the available pentosans by acid hydrolysis. An evaluation of each step in the process was necessary to determine the overall life cycle and specific CO2 emissions for each raw material/intermediate produced. Allocation of credits for CO2 from the incineration of solvents made from renewable feedstocks significantly reduced the overall carbon footprint. Using this approach, the overall life cycle emissions for production of 1 kg of ecoMeTHF™ were determined to be 0.191 kg, including 0.150 kg of CO2. Life cycle emissions generated from raw material manufacture represents the majority of the overall environmental impact. Our evaluation shows that using 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran in an industrial scenario results in a 97% reduction in emissions, when compared to typically used solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, made through a conventional chemical route.

  13. Oxidation of Cyclohexene to "trans"-1,2-Cyclohexanediol Promoted by "p"-Toluenesulfonic Acid without Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosatella, Andreia A.; Afonso, Carlos A. M.; Branco, Lus C.

    2011-01-01

    This experiment describes a method for cyclohexene oxidation to "trans"-1,2-cyclohexanediol using "p"-toluenesulfonic acid ("p"-TsOH) as promoter and hydrogen peroxide as oxidant in a biphasic system. This method allows conversions up to 97.9% (monitored by [superscript 1]H NMR). "trans"-1,2-Cyclohexanediol was not easily separated from the…

  14. The Combination of GIS and Biphasic to Better Predict In Vivo Dissolution of BCS Class IIb Drugs, Ketoconazole and Raloxifene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Igawa, Naoto; Drelich, Adam J; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2018-01-01

    The formulation developments and the in vivo assessment of Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drugs are challenging due to their low solubility and high permeability in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Since the GI environment influences the drug dissolution of BCS class II drugs, the human GI characteristics should be incorporated into the in vitro dissolution system to predict bioperformance of BCS class II drugs. An absorptive compartment may be important in dissolution apparatus for BCS class II drugs, especially for bases (BCS IIb) because of high permeability, precipitation, and supersaturation. Thus, the in vitro dissolution system with an absorptive compartment may help predicting the in vivo phenomena of BCS class II drugs better than compendial dissolution apparatuses. In this study, an absorptive compartment (a biphasic device) was introduced to a gastrointestinal simulator. This addition was evaluated if this in vitro system could improve the prediction of in vivo dissolution for BCS class IIb drugs, ketoconazole and raloxifene, and subsequent absorption. The gastrointestinal simulator is a practical in vivo predictive tool and exhibited an improved in vivo prediction utilizing the biphasic format and thus a better tool for evaluating the bioperformance of BCS class IIb drugs than compendial apparatuses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Bi-phasic growth of Listeria monocytogenes in chemically defined medium at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrovouzis, Nikolaos A; Angelidis, Apostolos S; Stoforos, Nikolaos G

    2014-09-01

    The present work reports a novel observation regarding the growth of L. monocytogenes in modified Welshimer's broth (MWB) at low temperatures. Specifically, the direct monitoring of the growth of L. monocytogenes Scott A using plate count data revealed that the pathogen displays a bi-phasic growth pattern in MWB at 7 °C. This bi-phasic growth pattern is masked (not observed) when optical density (OD) measurements are used to monitor growth due to the inability of OD readings to detect L. monocytogenes population density increases up to 10(7) CFU/mL. This bi-phasic growth phenomenon was further investigated as a function of growth temperature (4 °C, 7 °C, 10 °C, 14 °C and 18 °C), medium composition (by altering the MWB composition by ten-fold increases in different sets of medium constituents), inoculum level (10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), and 10(7) CFU/mL) and L. monocytogenes strain (10 strains). The growth of L. monocytogenes Scott A in MWB at 7 °C, 10 °C and 14 °C was consistently bi-phasic and independent of growth rate; at 18 °C, growth was consistently mono-phasic (single-phase, typical sigmoid growth curves), whereas no growth was observed at 4 °C. The tested modifications in the composition of MWB did not influence the bi-phasic nature of L. monocytogenes Scott A growth at 7 °C, and, overall, we could not point out any strain-, or serotype-specific effects. On the other hand, the initial inoculum level appears to affect the form of the growth curve, as there was a shift towards mono-phasic growth in trials with increasing initial inocula. A mathematical model, based on a stepwise response and described through two sequential sigmoid curves, was used to describe bi-phasic growth and estimate the kinetic parameters of L. monocytogenes growth. An alternative hypothesis, based on the assumption of the existence of two subpopulations, possessing different growth kinetics, materialized under the stress imposed on L. monocytogenes cells due to the

  16. The Solvent Selection framework: solvents for organic synthesis, separation processes and ionic-organic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sansonetti, Sascha; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic integrated framework for solvent selection and solvent design. The framework is divided into several modules, which can tackle specific problems in various solvent-based applications. In particular, three modules corresponding to the following solvent selection...... problems are presented: 1) solvent selection and design for organic synthesis, 2) solvent screening and design of solvent mixtures for pharmaceutical applications and 3) ionic liquids selection and design as solvents. The application of the framework is highlighted successfully through case studies...... focusing on solvent replacement problem in organic synthesis and solvent mixture design for ibuprofen respectively....

  17. Leaching and solvent extraction at Mary Kathleen Uranium Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    Mary Kathleen Uranium Ltd. recommenced operations in early 1976 following a twelve year period of care and maintenance. Several sections of the plant were modified or completely changed for the second operation. The most important change was the replacement of ion exchange with solvent extraction as the means of purifying and upgrading uranium rich solutions. Most of the problems experienced in the solvent extraction system originate from the leach liquor which has a strong tendency to form stable emulsions. This has been countered by some careful control of leaching conditions and by closer observation of operations in the solvent extraction area. Most problems have now been resolved and plant recoveries are quite satisfactory

  18. Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering To Make Microsphere Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Cato T.; Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    A solvent/non-solvent sintering technique has been devised for joining polymeric microspheres to make porous matrices for use as drug-delivery devices or scaffolds that could be seeded with cells for growing tissues. Unlike traditional sintering at elevated temperature and pressure, this technique is practiced at room temperature and pressure and, therefore, does not cause thermal degradation of any drug, protein, or other biochemical with which the microspheres might be loaded to impart properties desired in a specific application. Also, properties of scaffolds made by this technique are more reproducible than are properties of comparable scaffolds made by traditional sintering. The technique involves the use of two miscible organic liquids: one that is and one that is not a solvent for the affected polymer. The polymeric microspheres are placed in a mold having the size and shape of the desired scaffold, then the solvent/non-solvent mixture is poured into the mold to fill the void volume between the microspheres, then the liquid mixture is allowed to evaporate. Some of the properties of the resulting scaffold can be tailored through choice of the proportions of the liquids and the diameter of the microspheres.

  19. The disposal of radioactive solvent waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, B.; Baker, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    As the use of radioisotope techniques increases, laboratories are faced with the problem of disposing of considerable quantities of organic solvent and aqueous liquid wastes. Incineration or collection by a waste contractor both raise problems. Since most of the radiochemicals are preferentially water soluble, an apparatus for washing the radiochemicals out into water and discharging into the normal drainage system in a high diluted form is described. Despite the disadvantages (low efficiency, high water usuage, loss of solvent in presence of surface active agents, precipitation of phosphors from dioxan based liquids) it is felt that the method has some merit if a suitably improved apparatus can be designed at reasonable cost. (U.K.)

  20. High performance hydrophobic solvent, carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulwala, Hunaid; Luebke, David

    2017-05-09

    Methods and compositions useful, for example, for physical solvent carbon capture. A method comprising: contacting at least one first composition comprising carbon dioxide with at least one second composition to at least partially dissolve the carbon dioxide of the first composition in the second composition, wherein the second composition comprises at least one siloxane compound which is covalently modified with at least one non-siloxane group comprising at least one heteroatom. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials and ethylene-glycol based materials have high carbon dioxide solubility but suffer from various problems. PDMS is hydrophobic but suffers from low selectivity. Ethylene-glycol based systems have good solubility and selectivity, but suffer from high affinity to water. Solvents were developed which keep the desired combinations of properties, and result in a simplified, overall process for carbon dioxide removal from a mixed gas stream.

  1. Multicompartment retinal ganglion cells response to high frequency bi-phasic pulse train stimulation: Simulation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Matias I; Grayden, David B; Burkitt, Anthony N; Meffin, Hamish; Kameneva, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the sole output neurons of the retina that carry information about a visual scene to the brain. By stimulating RGCs with electrical stimulation, it is possible to elicit a sensation of light for people with macular degeneration or retinitis pigmentosa. To investigate the responses of RGCs to high frequency bi-phasic pulse train stimulation, we use previously constrained models of multi-compartment OFF RGCs. The morphologies of mouse RGCs are taken from the Chalupa set of the NeuroMorpho database. The cell models are divided into compartments representing the dendrites, soma and axon that vary between the cells. A total of 132 cells are simulated in the NEURON environment. Results show that the cell morphology plays an important role in the response characteristics of the cell to high frequency bi-phasic pulse train stimulation.

  2. Validation of a heterogeneous elastic-biphasic model for the numerical simulation of the PDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favino, Marco; Gross, Christian; Drolshagen, Marcel; Keilig, Ludger; Deschner, James; Bourauel, Christoph; Krause, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    An elastic-biphasic model for the simulation of the periodontal ligament (PDL) and the adjacent tooth is presented and investigated. The PDL is modelled as a biphasic material following the work of Ehlers and Markert (2001 ), whereas the tooth is modelled as a linear elastic body. A spatial discretisation scheme is proposed based on mixed finite elements for the spatial discretisation. Due to nonlinearity in the model, a predictor-corrector scheme is employed as a temporal discretisation scheme. In order to validate the PDL model, in vitro measurements are compared with numerical simulations. The numerical simulations are performed using geometries resulting from micro-CT scanner of the same porcine tooth, which was employed for the in vitro measurements.

  3. Biphasic and boundary lubrication mechanisms in artificial hydrogel cartilage: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Teruo; Yarimitsu, Seido; Nakashima, Kazuhiro; Sakai, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Sawae, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Various studies on the application of artificial hydrogel cartilage to cartilage substitutes and artificial joints have been conducted. It is expected in clinical application of artificial hydrogel cartilage that not only soft-elastohydrodynamic lubrication but biphasic, hydration, gel-film and boundary lubrication mechanisms will be effective to sustain extremely low friction and minimal wear in daily activities similar to healthy natural synovial joints with adaptive multimode lubrication. In this review article, the effectiveness of biphasic lubrication and boundary lubrication in hydrogels in thin film condition is focused in relation to the structures and properties of hydrogels. As examples, the tribological behaviors in three kinds of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels with high water content are compared, and the importance of lubrication mechanism in biomimetic artificial hydrogel cartilage is discussed to extend the durability of cartilage substitute. © IMechE 2015.

  4. Efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart and biphasic insulin lispro mix in patients with type 2 diabetes: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D represents an escalating burden worldwide, particularly in China and India. Compared with Caucasians, Asian people with diabetes have lower body mass index, increased visceral adiposity, and postprandial glucose (PPG/insulin resistance. Since postprandial hyperglycemia contributes significantly to total glycemic burden and is associated with heightened cardiovascular risk, targeting PPG early in T2D is paramount. Premixed insulin regimens are widely used in Asia due to their convenience and effectiveness. Data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30 with biphasic insulin lispro mix (LM 25/50 and versus other insulin therapies or oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs in T2D demonstrated that BIAsp 30 and LM 25/50 were associated with similar or greater improvements in glycemic control versus comparator regimens, such as basal–bolus insulin, in insulin-naÏve, and prior insulin users. Studies directly comparing BIAsp 30 and LM 25 provided conflicting glycemic control results. Safety data generally showed increased hypoglycemia and weight gain with premixed insulins versus basal–bolus insulin or OADs. However, large observational trials documented improvements in glycated hemoglobin, PPG, and hypoglycemia with BIAsp 30 in multi-ethnic patient populations. In summary, this literature review demonstrates that premixed insulin regimens are an appropriate and effective treatment choice in T2D.

  5. Method to convert biomass to 5-(hydroxymethyl)-furfural (HMF) and furfural using lactones, furans, and pyrans as solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A.; Ribeiro Gallo, Jean Marcel; Alonso, David

    2014-07-08

    Described is a process to produce hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) from biomass-derived sugars. The process includes the steps of reacting a C5 and/or C6 sugar-containing reactant derived from biomass in a monophasic or biphasic reaction solution comprising water and a co-solvent. The co-solvent can be beta-, gamma-, and/or delta-lactones derived from biomass, tetrahydrofuran (THF) derived from biomass, and/or methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF) derived from biomass. The reaction takes place in the presence of an acid catalyst and a dehydration catalyst for a time and under conditions such that at least a portion of glucose or fructose present in the reactant is converted to HMF.

  6. Preparation of highly infective Leishmania promastigotes by cultivation on SNB-9 biphasic medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grekov, Igor; Svobodová, M.; Nohýnková, E.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 3 (2011), s. 273-277 ISSN 0167-7012 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GA310/08/1697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Leishmania * SNB-9 * biphasic culture medium * parasite infectivity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.086, year: 2011

  7. Use of Respiratory Support in the Biphase Ventilation Airway Mode in the Newborn

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Koval; A. Ye. Kulagin

    2006-01-01

    Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) (also known as DuoPAP, BiLevel, BiVent, PCV+, SPAP) is a mode of ventilation with cycling variations between two continuous positive airway pressure levels. It is a mixture of pressure controlled ventilation and spontaneous breathing, which is unrestricted in each phase of the respiratory cycle. The volume displacement caused by the difference between Phigh and Plow airway pressure level. The phase time ratio (PTR — the BIPAP frequency) is calculated ...

  8. A simulation study of the reaction of human heart to biphasic electrical shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seemann Gunnar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article presents a study, which examines the effects of biphasic electrical shocks on human ventricular tissue. The effects of this type of shock are not yet fully understood. Animal experiments showed the superiority of biphasic shocks over monophasic ones in defibrillation. A mathematical computer simulation can increase the knowledge of human heart behavior. Methods The research presented in this article was done with different models representing a three-dimensional wedge of ventricular myocardium. The electrophysiology was described with Priebe-Beuckelmann model. The realistic fiber twist, which is specific to human myocardium was included. Planar electrodes were placed at the ends of the longest side of the virtual cardiac wedge, in a bath medium. They were sources of electrical shocks, which varied in magnitude from 0.1 to 5 V. In a second arrangement ring electrodes were placed directly on myocardium for getting a better view on secondary electrical sources. The electrical reaction of the tissue was generated with a bidomain model. Results The reaction of the tissue to the electrical shock was specific to the initial imposed characteristics. Depolarization appeared in the first 5 ms in different locations. A further study of the cardiac tissue behavior revealed, which features influence the response of the considered muscle. It was shown that the time needed by the tissue to be totally depolarized is much shorter when a biphasic shock is applied. Each simulation ended only after complete repolarization was achieved. This created the possibility of gathering information from all states corresponding to one cycle of the cardiac rhythm. Conclusions The differences between the reaction of the homogeneous tissue and a tissue, which contains cleavage planes, reveals important aspects of superiority of biphasic pulses. ...

  9. Psychomotor Effects of Mixed Organic Solvents on Rubber Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Aminian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to organic solvents is common among workers. Objective: To assess neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to organic solvents among rubber workers in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted on 223 employees of a rubber industry. The participants completed a data collection sheet on their occupational and medical history, and demographic characteristics including age, work experience, education level; they performed 6 psychiatric tests on the neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB that measure simple reaction time, short-term memory (digit span, Benton, eye-hand coordination (Purdue pegboard, pursuit aiming, and perceptual speed (digit symbol. Results: Workers exposed and not exposed to organic solvents had similar age and education distribution. The mean work experience of the exposed and non-exposed workers was 5.9 and 4.4 years, respectively. The exposed workers had a lower performance compared to non-exposed workers in all psychomotor tests. After controlling for the confounders by logistic regression analysis, it was found that exposure to organic solvents had a significant effect on the results of digit symbols, digit span, Benton, aiming, and simple reaction time tests. No significant effect was observed in pegboard test. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to organic solvent can induce subtle neurobehavioral changes among workers exposed to organic solvents; therefore, periodical evaluation of the central nervous system by objective psychomotor tests is recommended among those who are chronically exposed to organic solvents.

  10. Solvent effects on lasing characteristics for Rh B laser dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Jaison, E-mail: jaison.peter@gmail.com [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Department of Applied Chemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India); Ananad, V.R.; Saleem, Rasool; Sebastian, Ananthu; Radhakrishnan, P.; Nampoori, V.P.N.; Vallabhan, C.P.G. [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India); Prabhu, Radhakrishna [School of Engineering, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen AB10 1FR, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kailasnath, M. [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India)

    2016-01-15

    We demonstrate pulsed, photopumped multimode laser emission in the visible spectral range from rhodamine B dye dissolved in various solvents. The laser emission is characterized by a well-defined, low threshold pump power at which the emission spectral intensity dramatically increases and collapsed into several dominant laser modes with reduced mode spacing and spectral width. The modes were found to originate from the subcavities formed by the plane-parallel walls of the cuvette containing the gain medium. The cavity lasing spectral structure and the numbers of longitudinal modes were easily controlled by changing the solvents. A shift in the emission spectra has been also observed by changing the solvents will allow a limited range of tuning of laser emission wavelength. We also determined the gain coefficient and stimulated emission cross-section for the Rh B dye dissolved liquid laser system. A detailed discussion of the solvent effect in the lasing characteristics of Rh B in different solution is explained along with the computational data. - Highlights: • Report multimode laser emission from rhodamine B dye dissolved in various solvents. • Modes are originated from the plane-parallel walls of the cuvette. • Spectral range and the number of modes can be controlled by changing the solvents. • Changing solvents also allows a limited range of tuning of laser emission.

  11. Low-High and High-Low Biphasic Injection Forms in Computed Tomography Examinations of the Upper Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti-Bonmati, L.; Arana, E.; Tobarra, E.; Sierra, C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the influence of different biphasic and monophasic injection rate protocols in abdominal computed tomography (CT). Material and Methods: A randomized, consecutive, parallel group study was designed and conducted in 60 patients studied with the same CT helical protocol. Patients were randomly distributed into three groups: (A) monophasic (120 ml at 2.5 ml/s); (B) low-high biphasic (120 ml, first 60 ml at a rate of 2 ml/s, the other 60 ml at 2.5 ml/s); and (C) high-low biphasic (120 ml, first 60 ml at a rate of 2.5 ml/s, the other 60 ml at 2 ml/s). All patients were injected with 300 mg I/ml non-ionic contrast media at a fixed delay time of 55 s. Contrast enhancement efficacy was evaluated by attenuation coefficient measurements. Results: Although non-significant, monophasic protocol enhancements were higher than biphasic protocol enhancements in all measurements except aortic bifurcation (p = 0.003). At this level, biphasic protocols obtained an increased mean enhancement from 7.6% to 2.5% compared to monophasic protocols. Conclusion: Monophasic contrast agent injection in helical CT of the upper abdomen produces a higher enhancement of parenchymal and venous structures. No significant difference was observed between low-high and high-low biphasic protocols

  12. Synchronized oscillations of dimers in biphasic charged fd-virus suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K; Piao, S H; Choi, H J

    2016-08-01

    Micron-sized colloidal spheres that are dispersed in an isotropic-nematic biphasic host suspension of charged rods (fd-virus particles) are shown to spontaneously form dimers, which exhibit a synchronized oscillatory motion. Dimer formation is not observed in the monophase of isotropic and nematic suspensions. The synchronized oscillations of dimers are connected to the inhomogeneous state of the host suspension of charged rods (fd viruses) where nematic domains are in coexistence with isotropic regions. The synchronization of oscillations occurs in bulk states, in the absence of an external field. With a low field strength of an applied electric field, the synchronization is rather reduced, but it recovers again when the field is turned off. In this Rapid Communication, we report this observation as an example of the strange attractor, occurring in the mixture of PS (polystyrene) dimers in an isotropic-nematic coexistence biphasic fd-virus network. Furthermore, we highlight that the synchronization of PS-dimer oscillations is the result of a global bifurcation diagram, driven by a delicate balance between the short-attractive "twisted" interaction of PS dimers and long-ranged electrostatic repulsive interactions of charged fd rods. The interest is then in the local enhancement of "twist-nematic" elasticity in reorientation of the dimer oscillations. An analysis of image-time correlations is provided with the data movies and Fourier transforms of averaged orientations for the synchronized oscillations of dimers in the biphasic I-N coexistence concentration of charged fd-virus suspensions.

  13. Alternative Solvents and Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Hintze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning solvents for aerospace components and oxygen fuel systems, including currently used Vertrel-MCA, have a negative environmental legacy, high global warming potential, and have polluted cleaning sites. Thus, alternative solvents and technologies are being investigated with the aim of achieving precision contamination levels of less than 1 mg/sq ft. The technologies being evaluated are ultrasonic bath cleaning, plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide cleaning.

  14. Stochastic level-set variational implicit-solvent approach to solute-solvent interfacial fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shenggao, E-mail: sgzhou@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bli@math.ucsd.edu [Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Center for Interdiscipline Research, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Jiangsu, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Hui; Cheng, Li-Tien [Department of Mathematics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); Dzubiella, Joachim [Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin, Germany and Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Li, Bo, E-mail: sgzhou@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bli@math.ucsd.edu [Department of Mathematics and Quantitative Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); McCammon, J. Andrew [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    Recent years have seen the initial success of a variational implicit-solvent model (VISM), implemented with a robust level-set method, in capturing efficiently different hydration states and providing quantitatively good estimation of solvation free energies of biomolecules. The level-set minimization of the VISM solvation free-energy functional of all possible solute-solvent interfaces or dielectric boundaries predicts an equilibrium biomolecular conformation that is often close to an initial guess. In this work, we develop a theory in the form of Langevin geometrical flow to incorporate solute-solvent interfacial fluctuations into the VISM. Such fluctuations are crucial to biomolecular conformational changes and binding process. We also develop a stochastic level-set method to numerically implement such a theory. We describe the interfacial fluctuation through the “normal velocity” that is the solute-solvent interfacial force, derive the corresponding stochastic level-set equation in the sense of Stratonovich so that the surface representation is independent of the choice of implicit function, and develop numerical techniques for solving such an equation and processing the numerical data. We apply our computational method to study the dewetting transition in the system of two hydrophobic plates and a hydrophobic cavity of a synthetic host molecule cucurbit[7]uril. Numerical simulations demonstrate that our approach can describe an underlying system jumping out of a local minimum of the free-energy functional and can capture dewetting transitions of hydrophobic systems. In the case of two hydrophobic plates, we find that the wavelength of interfacial fluctuations has a strong influence to the dewetting transition. In addition, we find that the estimated energy barrier of the dewetting transition scales quadratically with the inter-plate distance, agreeing well with existing studies of molecular dynamics simulations. Our work is a first step toward the

  15. Solvents interactions with thermochromic print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Rožić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interactions between different solvents (benzene, acetone, cyclohexanone, various alcohols and water and thermochromic printing ink were investigated. Thermochromic printing ink was printed on metal surface. Components of thermochromic printing inks are polymeric microcapsules and classic yellow offset printing ink. Below its activation temperature, dye and developer within the microcapsules form a blue coloured complex. Therefore, thermochromic print is green. By heating above the activation temperature, blue colour of the complex turns into the leuco dye colourless state and the green colour of the prints turns into the yellow colour of the classic offset pigment. The results of the interaction with various solvents show that the thermochromic print is stable in all tested solvents except in ethanol, acetone and cyclohexanone. In ethanol, the green colour of the print becomes yellow. SEM analysis shows that microcapsules are dissolved. In acetone and cyclohexanone, the green colour of the print turns into blue, and the microcapsules become significantly more visible. Thus, the yellow pigment interacts with examined ketones. Based on the obtained interactions it can be concluded that the microcapsules have more polar nature than the classical pigment particles. Solvent-thermocromic print interactions were analysed using Hansen solubility parameters that rank the solvents based on their estimated interaction capabilities.

  16. Enzymes from solvent-tolerant microbes: useful biocatalysts for non-aqueous enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anshu; Khare, S K

    2009-01-01

    Solvent-tolerant microbes are a newly emerging class that possesses the unique ability to thrive in the presence of organic solvents. Their enzymes adapted to mediate cellular and metabolic processes in a solvent-rich environment and are logically stable in the presence of organic solvents. Enzyme catalysis in non-aqueous/low-water media is finding increasing applications for the synthesis of industrially important products, namely peptides, esters, and other trans-esterification products. Solvent stability, however, remains a prerequisite for employing enzymes in non-aqueous systems. Enzymes, in general, get inactivated or give very low rates of reaction in non-aqueous media. Thus, early efforts, and even some recent ones, have aimed at stabilization of enzymes in organic media by immobilization, surface modifications, mutagenesis, and protein engineering. Enzymes from solvent-tolerant microbes appear to be the choicest source for studying solvent-stable enzymes because of their unique ability to survive in the presence of a range of organic solvents. These bacteria circumvent the solvent's toxic effects by virtue of various adaptations, e.g. at the level of the cytoplasmic membrane, by degradation and transformation of solvents, and by active excretion of solvents. The recent screening of these exotic microbes has generated some naturally solvent-stable proteases, lipases, cholesterol oxidase, cholesterol esterase, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, and other important enzymes. The unique properties of these novel biocatalysts have great potential for applications in non-aqueous enzymology for a range of industrial processes.

  17. Molecular microenvironments: Solvent interactions with nucleic acid bases and ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Pohorille, A.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of reconstructing plausible sequences of events in prebiotic molecular evolution is limited by the lack of fossil remains. However, with hindsight, one goal of molecular evolution was obvious: the development of molecular systems that became constituents of living systems. By understanding the interactions among molecules that are likely to have been present in the prebiotic environment, and that could have served as components in protobiotic molecular systems, plausible evolutionary sequences can be suggested. When stable aggregations of molecules form, a net decrease in free energy is observed in the system. Such changes occur when solvent molecules interact among themselves, as well as when they interact with organic species. A significant decrease in free energy, in systems of solvent and organic molecules, is due to entropy changes in the solvent. Entropy-driven interactioins played a major role in the organization of prebiotic systems, and understanding the energetics of them is essential to understanding molecular evolution.

  18. Dynamics of solvent-free grafted nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Chremos, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    The diffusivity and structural relaxation characteristics of oligomer-grafted nanoparticles have been investigated with simulations of a previously proposed coarse-grained model at atmospheric pressure. Solvent-free, polymer-grafted nanoparticles as well as grafted nanoparticles in a melt were compared to a reference system of bare (ungrafted) particles in a melt. Whereas longer chains lead to a larger hydrodynamic radius and lower relative diffusivity for grafted particles in a melt, bulk solvent-free nanoparticles with longer chains have higher relative diffusivities than their short chain counterparts. Solvent-free nanoparticles with short chains undergo a glass transition as indicated by a vanishing diffusivity, diverging structural relaxation time and the formation of body-centered-cubic-like order. Nanoparticles with longer chains exhibit a more gradual increase in the structural relaxation time with decreasing temperature and concomitantly increasing particle volume fraction. The diffusivity of the long chain nanoparticles exhibits a minimum at an intermediate temperature and volume fraction where the polymer brushes of neighboring particles overlap, but must stretch to fill the interparticle space. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIGUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Pak, D.; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.; Caldwell, T.

    2011-11-29

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive is used to improve stripping performance and to mitigate the effects of any surfactants present in the feed stream. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008.

  1. Influence of solvent on micellar morphologies of semifluorinated block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Sang Jae; Jeong, Yeon Tae; Kim, Joo Hyun; Gal, Yeong-Soon; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2009-12-01

    The influence of solvents on micellar architectures of block copolymers composed of poly(1H,1H-dihydroperfluorooctyl methacrylate) and poly(ethylene oxide) was investigated. In this study, binary solvents with desired proportions were chosen, which had remarkable influence on the morphology of the resulting micelles. With simple adjusting the composition of the binary solvent of chloroform and trichlorofluoromethane, interesting shapes of micelle-like aggregates, such as core-shell, cylinder, worm-like and inverted micelles were formed with sizes of 15, 70, 30 and 250 nm, respectively. In the case of methanol/water system, core-shell spheres and vesicles were produced by varying the proportion of the contents. The morphologies were also tuned to honeycomb-like and bowl-shaped micelles as well as large planar lamellae with holes in DMF and water binary solvent.

  2. Supersaturation, nucleation, and crystal growth during single- and biphasic dissolution of amorphous solid dispersions: polymer effects and implications for oral bioavailability enhancement of poorly water soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Ashish L; Wang, Peng; Obara, Sakae; Worthen, David R

    2014-04-01

    The influence of polymers on the dissolution, supersaturation, crystallization, and partitioning of poorly water soluble compounds in biphasic media was evaluated. Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) containing felodipine (FLD) and itraconazole (ITZ) were prepared by hot melt mixing (HMM) using various polymers. The ASDs were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and HPLC. Amorphous drug conversion was confirmed using DSC and PXRD, and drug stability by HPLC. Single- and biphasic dissolution studies of the ASDs with concurrent dynamic light scattering (DLS) and polarized light microscopic (PLM) analysis of precipitated drugs were performed. HPLC revealed no HMM-induced drug degradation. Maximum partitioning into the organic phase was dependent upon the degree of supersaturation. Although the highest supersaturation of FLD was attained using Eudragit® EPO and AQOAT® AS-LF with better nucleation and crystal growth inhibition using the latter, higher partitioning of the drug into the organic phase was achieved using Pharmacoat® 603 and Kollidon® VA-64 by maintaining supersaturation below critical nucleation. Critical supersaturation for ITZ was surpassed using all of the polymers, and partitioning was dependent upon nucleation and crystal growth inhibition in the order of Pharmacoat® 603>Eudragit® L-100-55>AQOAT® AS-LF. HMM drug-polymer systems that prevent drug nucleation by staying below critical supersaturation are more effective for partitioning than those that achieve the highest supersaturation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk assessment for halogenated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    A recent development in the cancer risk area is the advent of biologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. These models allow for the incorporation of biological and mechanistic data into the risk assessment process. These advances will not only improve the risk assessment process for halogenated solvents but will stimulate and guide basic research in the biological area

  4. Improved Purex solvent scrubbing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of hydrazine and hydroxylamine salts as solvent scrubbing agents that can be decomposed into gases are summarized. Results from testing of countercurrent scrubbers and solid sorber columns that produce lesser amounts of permanent salts are reported. The status of studies of the acid-degradation of paraffin diluent and the options for removal of long-chain organic acids is given

  5. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from...

  6. Control of Chemical Equilibrium by Solvent: A Basis for Teaching Physical Chemistry of Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezhdo, Oleg V.; Craig, Colleen F.; Fialkov, Yuriy; Prezhdo, Victor V.

    2007-01-01

    The study demonstrates that the solvent present in a system can highly alter and control the chemical equilibrium of a system. The results show that the dipole moment and polarizibility of a system can be highly altered by using different mixed solvents.

  7. Switching from biphasic human insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30 in type 2 diabetes: results from the ASEAN subgroup of the A₁chieve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Zanariah; Lim-Abrahan, Mary Anne; Jain, Anand B; Goh, Su Yen; Soewondo, Pradana

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in ASEAN type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients switched from biphasic human insulin (BHI) in the non-interventional 24-week A₁chieve study. Indonesian, Malaysian, Filipino and Singaporean patients switched from BHI to BIAsp 30 at their physicians' discretion were included. The incidence of serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs), including major hypoglycaemia was the primary endpoint. Changes in hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG), lipids, body weight and systolic blood pressure were also evaluated. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire. For the 465 patients included (mean ± SD age: 56 ± 10.3 years, diabetes duration: 9.7 ± 7.1 years, baseline HbA1c: 9.4 ± 1.8%), the mean pre-study BHI dose was 0.62 ± 0.28 IU/kg and 63.4% were dosing BHI twice daily (bid). The mean baseline BIAsp 30 dose was 0.65 ± 0.27 U/kg, titrated up to 0.71 ± 0.28 U/kg over 24 weeks, and most patients continued bid dosing. No SADRs or major hypoglycaemic episodes were reported. The proportion of patients reporting overall hypoglycaemia decreased significantly from 10.8% at baseline to 3.4% at Week 24 (p ASEAN subgroup poorly controlled on BHI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Basic models in transitory analysis in biphasic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez S, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    The two-phase flow but studied and possibly the more complex, is the one integrated by gas-liquid mixtures. These flows are with frequency inside systems and equipment related with the chemical industry, that of the petroleum and in the one dedicated to the electric energy generation, being inside this last, in particular in the nuclear and of geothermal areas, those that but have motivated to the detailed and complete analysis of the behavior of the two-phase flows. The present report, it tries to analyze inside the nuclear reactor area, the emergence of some abnormal operation situations, related exclusively with the two-phase flow in gas-liquid mixtures. (Author)

  9. Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Linda K.; Hatton, T. Alan; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2001-05-15

    Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

  10. STABILITY OF A CYLINDRICAL SOLUTE-SOLVENT INTERFACE: EFFECT OF GEOMETRY, ELECTROSTATICS, AND HYDRODYNAMICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B O; Sun, Hui; Zhou, Shenggao

    The solute-solvent interface that separates biological molecules from their surrounding aqueous solvent characterizes the conformation and dynamics of such molecules. In this work, we construct a solvent fluid dielectric boundary model for the solvation of charged molecules and apply it to study the stability of a model cylindrical solute-solvent interface. The motion of the solute-solvent interface is defined to be the same as that of solvent fluid at the interface. The solvent fluid is assumed to be incompressible and is described by the Stokes equation. The solute is modeled simply by the ideal-gas law. All the viscous force, hydrostatic pressure, solute-solvent van der Waals interaction, surface tension, and electrostatic force are balanced at the solute-solvent interface. We model the electrostatics by Poisson's equation in which the solute-solvent interface is treated as a dielectric boundary that separates the low-dielectric solute from the high-dielectric solvent. For a cylindrical geometry, we find multiple cylindrically shaped equilibrium interfaces that describe polymodal (e.g., dry and wet) states of hydration of an underlying molecular system. These steady-state solutions exhibit bifurcation behavior with respect to the charge density. For their linearized systems, we use the projection method to solve the fluid equation and find the dispersion relation. Our asymptotic analysis shows that, for large wavenumbers, the decay rate is proportional to wavenumber with the proportionality half of the ratio of surface tension to solvent viscosity, indicating that the solvent viscosity does affect the stability of a solute-solvent interface. Consequences of our analysis in the context of biomolecular interactions are discussed.

  11. Swelling of Lalpha-phases by matching the refractive index of the water-glycerol mixed solvent and that of the bilayers in the block copolymer system of (EO)15-(PDMS)15-(EO)15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yun; Hoffmann, Heinz; Makarsky, Alona; Richter, Walter; Talmon, Yeshayahu

    2007-06-14

    The swelling of Lalpha-phases from the block copolymer polyethylenoxide-b-polydimethylsiloxane-polyethylenoxide (EO)15-(PDMS)15-(EO)15 in water/glycerol mixtures is reported. At low and medium polymer concentrations (block copolymer forms a turbid vesicular dispersion in water. With time, the small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) and the large multilamellar vesicles (MLV) separate into a two phase L1/Lalpha-system. The turbid dispersions of the Lalpha-phase below 60% of the compound become more and more transparent with increasing glycerol and at 60% of glycerol become completely clear. Replacement of water by the solvent glycerol thus lowers the turbidity of the dispersion and swells the interlamellar distance between the bilayers. A 20% aqueous L1/Lalpha-dispersion can thus be transformed into a single birefringent transparent Lalpha-phase. The swelling of the Lalpha-phase in water and the decrease of the turbidity of the dispersion by the addition of glycerol is explained by the matching of the refractive index of the solvent to the refractive index of the bilayers of the block copolymer. The matching of a refractive index lowers the Hamaker constant in the DLVO theory between the bilayers and therefore decreases the attraction between the bilayers what allows them to swell to a larger separation. The microstructures in the phases were determined by cryo- and FFR-TEM. The interlamellar distance between the bilayers was determined by SAXS measurements. The viscous properties of the Lalpha-phases were determined by oscillatory rheological measurements. In comparison to other Lalpha-phases from normal surfactants, the Lalpha-phases from the block copolymer (EO)15-(PDMS)15-(EO)15 have low shear moduli. This is probably due to the high flexibility of the poly dimethylsiloxane block in the bilayers what can be recognized on the non-spherical shapes of the SUV's.

  12. Biphasic poly-dispersions modelling with applications in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    Many technological, scientific and environmental areas require of the understanding of multiple-phase, polydisperse systems.Particularly, in nuclear safety area, under hypothetical severe accident conditions, the fission products are released as gases and airborne particles.In the present thesis a contribution to the modeling of confined polydisperse systems (aerosols and liquid-gas) is presented. A family of one and two dimensional models was developed, describing the impact of the particles size on the aerosol evolution, taking into account the transport mechanisms by the carrying media, settling, lift, thermophoresis, diffusion, coagulation and condensation, considering the spatial dependence. The aerosol general dynamic balance equation -no-linear integral-differential equation-, is treated by means of the Moments Method, imposing a prescribed volume size distribution, and obtaining a model based in the first few moments.This yields to a relatively simple convection-diffusion set of coupled equations, that describes the evolution of the parameters that characterize the size distribution, with a low computational cost that allows to deal the heterogeneities of the spatial distribution of the aerosol.A complementary model, based also on the Moments Method, is developed to perform sensitivity analysis due to uncertainties in the constitutive equations and in the input parameters.The Perturbative Method, Differential-formalism, is used to develop a set of sensitivity equations, which are useful for designing experiments and theoretical studies.The model results are compared with exact solutions and numerical and experimental data extracted from the open literature.Various physical phenomena involved in different simulated case are analysed in detail.Particularly, the study is oriented to the analysis of the concentration gradients and the validation of the aerosol well-mixed hypothesis, typically used in present numerical codes.Deviations were observed from the

  13. Equilibrium disorders in workers exposed to mixed solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgianni, Concetto; Tanzariello, Mariagiuseppina; De Pasquale, Domenico; Brecciaroli, Renato; Spatari, Giovanna

    2018-02-06

    Organic solvents cause diseases of the vestibular system. However, little is known regarding the correlation between vestibular damage and exposure to organic solvents below threshold limit values. The best measure by which to evaluate vestibular disorders is static and dynamic posturography. The aim of this study was to evaluate equilibrium disorders via static and dynamic posturography in workers without clear symptoms and exposed to low doses of mixed solvents. 200 subjects were selected. Using an Otometrics device (Madsen, Denmark), all subjects endured static and dynamic posturography testing with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Results were compared with a control group of unexposed individuals. Based on the obtained data, the following results can be drawn: (a) subjects exposed to mixtures of solvents show highly significant differences regarding all static and dynamic posturography parameters in comparison to the control group; (b) posturography testing has proven to be a valid means by which to detect subliminal equilibrium disorders in subjects exposed to solvents. We can confirm that refinery workers exposed to mixtures of solvents can present subliminal equilibrium disorders. Early diagnosis of the latter is made possible by static and dynamic posturography.

  14. Impact of injection solvents on supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Victor; Sandahl, Margareta

    2013-09-06

    Even though there has been a rapid development in instrumentation and applications of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), relatively little is known about retention mechanisms compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Much effort has been made to characterize the influence of injection solvents on chromatographic efficiency in HPLC, however has been left rather uninvestigated in the domain of SFC. In this study properties of different injection solvents have been studied and correlated with properties of seven various analytes on three different columns, a C18, a 2-ethylpyridine and a bare-silica column. Aided by calculations of correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (PCA), the physical properties of injection solvents and the interactions between injection solvent, solute and stationary phase were investigated. The findings of this work shows that interactions capable of masking accessible silanol groups on a C18 column are of importance in order to maximize the plate number. While solvents with dipolar and hydrogen bond interaction properties are associated negatively with chromatographic efficiency using polar columns. Properties such as molar density, vapor pressure and boiling point were related to sharper peaks, mostly likely because of solubility issues of the injection solvent into the methanol-modified carbon dioxide. However, no additional solubility due to hydrogen interactions between the injection solvent and the carbon dioxide in SFC was observed. Surface tension and viscosity was not particularly associated with a decrease in plate numbers. By increasing the injection volume a stronger correlation between solubility related properties and plate numbers were obtained. Additional experiments showed that the resistance in solubility became an issue when performing partial-loop injection where additional washing solvent entered the system, thus providing broadened peaks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Fabrication of multilayer ZrO₂-biphasic calcium phosphate-poly-caprolactone unidirectional channeled scaffold for bone tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Dibakar; So-Ra, Son; Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Min, Young Ki; Yang, Hun Mo; Lee, Byong Taek

    2013-09-01

    We developed a continuously porous scaffold with laminated matrix and bone-like microstructure by a multi-pass extrusion process. In this scaffold, tetragonal ZrO₂, biphasic calcium phosphate and poly-caprolactone layers were arranged in a co-axially laminated unit cell with a channel in the center. The entire matrix phase had a laminated microstructure of alternate lamina of tetragonal ZrO₂, biphasic calcium phosphate and poly-caprolactone--biphasic calcium phosphate with optimized designed thickness and channeled porosity. Each of the continuous pores was coaxially encircled by the poly-caprolactone--biphasic calcium phosphate layer, biphasic calcium phosphate layer and finally tetragonal ZrO₂ layer, one after the other. Before extrusion, 5 vol% graphite powder was mixed with tetragonal ZrO₂ to ensure pores in the outer layer and connectivity among the lamellas. The design strategy is aimed to incorporate a lamellar microstructure like the natural bone in the macro-scaled ceramic body to investigate the strengthening phenomenon and pave the way for fabricating complex microstructure of natural bone could be applied for whole bone replacement. The final fabricated scaffold had a compressive strength of 12.7 MPa and porosity of 78 vol% with excellent cell viability, cell attachment and osteocalcin and collagen expression from cultured MG63 cells on scaffold.

  16. Stepped defibrillation waveform is substantially more efficient than the 50/50% tilt biphasic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Karlheinz; Denman, Russell A; Moulder, J Christopher; Mouchawar, Gabriel; Stoeppler, Christoph; Becker, Torsten; Weise, Udo; Anskey, Emma J; Burnett, Helen E; Kroll, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    Even with biphasic waveforms, patients with high defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) still are seen; thus, improved defibrillation waveforms may be of clinical utility. The stepped waveform has three parts: the first portion is positive with two capacitors in parallel, the second is positive with the capacitors in series, and the last portion is negative, also with the capacitors in series. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of improved defibrillation waveforms. We measured the delivered energy DFT in 20 patients in a dual-site study using the stepped waveform and a 50/50% tilt biphasic truncated exponential as the control. All shocks were delivered using an arbitrary waveform defibrillator, which was programmed to mimic two 220-microF capacitors (110 microF in series and 440 microF in parallel). The peak voltage at DFT was reduced in 19 of the 20 patients. The median peak voltage was reduced by 32.0%, from 472 V to 321 V (P voltage and energy were reduced by 25.3% and 20.2%, respectively. On average, the stepped waveform was able to defibrillate as well as the 50/50% tilt biphasic, with 33% more energy. The benefit was more pronounced in patients with either a lower ejection fraction or a superior vena cava coil. The benefit of the stepped waveform had an inverse quadratic correlation with the resistance (r(2) = 0.47), suggesting that the capacitance values chosen for the stepped waveform were close to optimal for a 35-Omega resistance. The stepped waveform reduced the DFT compared to the 50/50% tilt waveform in this preliminary study.

  17. Development of calcium phosphate/sulfate biphasic cement for vital pulp therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai-Chun; Chang, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Tang; Hsu, Chung-King; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2014-12-01

    Bioactive calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been used widely to repair bone defects because of its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. However, the poor handling properties, low initial mechanical strength, and long setting time of CPC limit its application in vital pulp therapy (VPT). The aim of this study was to synthesize biphasic calcium phosphate/sulfate cements and evaluate the feasibility of applying these cements in VPT. The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of CPC were improved by mixing the cement with various amounts of α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH). The hydration products and crystalline phases of the materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, the physical properties, such as the setting time, compressive strength, viscosity, and pH were determined. Water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 and lactase dehydrogenase were used to evaluate cell viability and cytotoxicity. The developed CPC (CPC/CSH cement), which contains 50wt% CSH cement, exhibited no obvious temperature increase or pH change during setting when it was used as a paste. The initial setting time of the CPC/CSH biphasic cement was substantially shorter than that of CPC, and the initial mechanical strength was 23.7±5.6MPa. The CPC/CSH cement exhibited higher viscosity than CPC and, thus, featured acceptable handling properties. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the relative peak intensity for hydroxyapatite increased, and the intensity for calcium sulfate dehydrate decreased as the amount of CPC was increased. The cell viability and cytotoxicity test results indicated that the CPC/CSH cement did not harm dental pulp cells. The developed CPC/CSH biphasic cement exhibits substantial potential for application in VPT. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How membrane permeation is affected by donor delivery solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Elliott, Russell P

    2012-11-28

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally how the rate and extent of membrane permeation is affected by switching the donor delivery solvent from water to squalane for different permeants and membranes. In a model based on rate-limiting membrane diffusion, we derive explicit equations showing how the permeation extent and rate depend mainly on the membrane-donor and membrane-receiver partition coefficients of the permeant. Permeation results for systems containing all combinations of hydrophilic or hydrophobic donor solvents (aqueous solution or squalane), permeants (caffeine or testosterone) and polymer membranes (cellulose or polydimethylsiloxane) have been measured using a cell with stirred donor and re-circulating receiver compartments and continuous monitoring of the permeant concentration in the receiver phase. Relevant partition coefficients are also determined. Quantitative comparison of model and experimental results for the widely-differing permeation systems successfully enables the systematic elucidation of all possible donor solvent effects in membrane permeation. For the experimental conditions used here, most of the permeation systems are in agreement with the model, demonstrating that the model assumptions are valid. In these cases, the dominant donor solvent effects arise from changes in the relative affinities of the permeant for the donor and receiver solvents and the membrane and are quantitatively predicted using the separately measured partition coefficients. We also show how additional donor solvent effects can arise when switching the donor solvent causes one or more of the model assumptions to be invalid. These effects include a change in rate-limiting step, permeant solution non-ideality and others.

  19. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Zalupski

    2011-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  20. Carbon dioxide-based supercritical fluids as IC manufacturing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Pierce, T.; Tiefert, K.

    1999-05-11

    The production of integrated circuits (IC's) involves a number of discrete steps which utilize hazardous or regulated solvents and generate large waste streams. ES&H considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Research work, conducted at Los Alamos in conjunction with the Hewlett-Packard Company, has lead to the development of a CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid treatment system for the stripping of hard-baked photoresists. This treatment system, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover, or CORR, uses a two-component solvent composed of a nonhazardous, non-regulated compound, dissolved in supercritical CO{sub 2}. The solvent/treatment system has been successfully tested on metallized Si wafers coated with negative and positive photoresist, the latter both before and after ion-implantation. A description of the experimental data will be presented. Based on the initial laboratory results, the project has progressed to the design and construction of prototype, single-wafer photoresist-stripping equipment. The integrated system involves a closed-loop, recirculating cycle which continuously cleans and regenerates the CO{sub 2}, recycles the dissolved solvent, and separates and concentrates the spent resist. The status of the current design and implementation strategy of a treatment system to existing IC fabrication facilities will be discussed. Additional remarks will be made on the use of a SCORR-type system for the cleaning of wafers prior to processing.