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Sample records for biphasic liquid system

  1. Aqueous biphasic systems involving alkylsulfate-based ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deive, Francisco J. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Rodriguez, Ana [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Marrucho, Isabel M., E-mail: imarrucho@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Rebelo, Luis P.N. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as phase promoter in aqueous solutions of ILs. > Remarkable influence of alkyl-chain length on solubility curves of alkylsulfate-based ILs. > Merchuck correlation was used for describing these systems. > {Delta}S{sub hyd} and Hofmeister series were used to discuss the different salting out effects. - Abstract: The specific effects of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, as high charge-density inorganic salts and thus inducers of the formation of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) containing several ethyl-methylimidazolium alkylsulfate ionic liquids, C{sub 2}MIM C{sub n}SO{sub 4} (n = 2, 4, 6, or 8), have been assessed at T = 298.15 K. The results are analyzed in the light of the Hofmeister series. The influence of different alkyl chain lengths in the anion, together with the ability of the selected inorganic salts to induce the formation of ABS, is discussed. Phase diagrams have been determined through turbidimetry, including tie lines assignments from mass phase ratios according to the lever - arm rule. The Merchuck equation was satisfactorily used to correlate the solubility curve.

  2. Liquid / liquid biphasic electrochemistry in ultra-turrax dispersed acetonitrile / aqueous electrolyte systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, John D.; Amemiya, Fumihiro; Atobe, Mahito; Bulman-Page, Philip C.; Marken, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Unstable acetonitrile | aqueous emulsions generated in situ with ultra-turrax agitation are investigated for applications in dual-phase electrochemistry. Three modes of operation for liquid / liquid aqueous-organic electrochemical processes are demonstrated with no intentionally added electrolyte in the organic phase based on (i) the formation of a water-soluble product in the aqueous phase in the presence of the organic phase, (ii) the formation of a product and ion transfer at the liquid / liquid-electrode triple phase boundary, and (iii) the formation of a water-insoluble product in the aqueous phase which then transfers into the organic phase. A three-electrode electrolysis cell with ultra-turrax agitator is employed and characterised for acetonitrile / aqueous 2 M NaCl two phase electrolyte. Three redox systems are employed in order to quantify the electrolysis cell performance. The one-electron reduction of Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ in the aqueous phase is employed to determine the rate of mass transport towards the electrode surface and the effect of the presence of the acetonitrile phase. The one-electron oxidation of n-butylferrocene in acetonitrile is employed to study triple phase boundary processes. Finally, the one-electron reduction of cobalticenium cations in the aqueous phase is employed to demonstrate the product transfer from the electrode surface into the organic phase. Potential applications in biphasic electrosynthesis are discussed.

  3. Non-conventional solvents in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jiwoo; Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-06-02

    The development of rapid, convenient, and high throughput sample preparation approaches such as liquid phase microextraction techniques have been continuously developed over the last decade. More recently, significant attention has been given to the replacement of conventional organic solvents used in liquid phase microextraction techniques in order to reduce toxic waste and to improve selectivity and/or extraction efficiency. With these objectives, non-conventional solvents have been explored in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems. The utilized non-conventional solvents include ionic liquids, magnetic ionic liquids, and deep eutectic solvents. They have been widely used as extraction solvents or additives in various liquid phase microextraction modes including dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, single-drop microextraction, hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction, as well as in aqueous biphasic systems. This review provides an overview into the use of non-conventional solvents in these microextraction techniques in the past 5 years (2012-2016). Analytical applications of the techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrochemical assessment of water|ionic liquid biphasic systems towards cesium extraction from nuclear waste

    OpenAIRE

    Stockmann, T. Jane; Zhang, Jing; Montgomery, Anne-Marie; Ding, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    A room temperature ionic liquid (IL) composed of a quaternary alkylphosphonium (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium, P66614(+)) and tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl) borate anion (TB) was employed within a water| P66614TB (w|P66614TB or w|IL) biphasic system to evaluate cesium ion extraction in comparison to that with a traditional water|organic solvent (w|o) combination. Cs-137 is a major contributor to the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the reactor, and its extraction efficiency is th...

  5. Extraction of Biomolecules Using Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids + K3PO4 Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louros, Cláudia L. S.; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Pauly, Jérôme; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form ABS with aqueous K3PO4 solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K3PO4 at 298 K, were measured and are reported. The studied phosphonium-based ILs have shown to be more effective in promoting ABS compared to the imidazolium-based counterparts with similar anions. Moreover, the extractive capability of such systems was assessed for distinct biomolecules (including amino acids, food colourants and alkaloids). Densities and viscosities of both aqueous phases, at the mass fraction compositions used for the biomolecules extraction, were also determined. The evaluated IL-based ABS have been shown to be prospective extraction media, particularly for hydrophobic biomolecules, with several advantages over conventional polymer-inorganic salt ABS. PMID:20480041

  6. Electrochemical assessment of water|ionic liquid biphasic systems towards cesium extraction from nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann, T Jane; Zhang, Jing; Montgomery, Anne-Marie; Ding, Zhifeng

    2014-04-22

    A room temperature ionic liquid (IL) composed of a quaternary alkylphosphonium (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium, P66614(+)) and tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion (TB(-)) was employed within a water|P66614TB (w|P66614TB or w|IL) biphasic system to evaluate cesium ion extraction in comparison to that with a traditional water|organic solvent (w|o) combination. (137)Cs is a major contributor to the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the reactor, and its extraction efficiency is therefore of considerable importance. The extraction was facilitated by the ligand octyl(phenyl)-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) used in TRans-Uranium EXtraction processes and investigated through well established liquid|liquid electrochemistry. This study gave access to the metal ion to ligand (1:n) stoichiometry and overall complexation constant, β, of the interfacial complexation reaction which were determined to be 1:3 and 1.6×10(11) at the w|P66614TB interface while the study at w|o elicited an n equal to 1 with β equal to 86.5. Through a straightforward relationship, these complexation constant values were converted to distribution coefficients, δ(α), with the ligand concentrations studied for comparison to other studies present in the literature; the w|o and w|IL systems gave δ(α) of 2 and 8.2×10(7), respectively, indicating a higher overall extraction efficiency for the latter. For the w|o system, the metal ion-ligand stoichiometries were confirmed through isotopic distribution analysis of mass spectra obtained by the direct injection of an emulsified water-organic solvent mixture into an electron spray ionization mass spectrometer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficient asymmetric hydrolysis of styrene oxide catalyzed by Mung bean epoxide hydrolases in ionic liquid-based biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jing; Lou, Wen-Yong; Zong, Min-Hua

    2012-07-01

    The asymmetric hydrolysis of styrene oxide to (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol using Mung bean epoxide hydrolases was, for the first time, successfully conducted in an ionic liquid (IL)-containing biphasic system. Compared to aqueous monophasic system, IL-based biphasic systems could not only dissolve the substrate, but also effectively inhibit the non-enzymatic hydrolysis, and therefore markedly improve the reaction efficiency. Of all the tested ILs, the best results were observed in the biphasic system containing C(4)MIM·PF(6), which exhibited good biocompatibility with the enzyme and was an excellent solvent for the substrate. In the C(4)MIM·PF(6)/buffer biphasic system, it was found that the optimal volume ratio of IL to buffer, reaction temperature, buffer pH and substrate concentration were 1/6, 35°C, 6.5 and 100 mM, respectively, under which the initial reaction rate, the yield and the product e.e. were 18.4 mM/h, 49.4% and 97.0%. The biocatalytic process was shown to be feasible on a 500-mL preparative scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms and rules of anion partition into ionic liquids: phenolate ions in ionic liquid/water biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-19

    It is important to understand the mechanisms and general rules of ion partitioning in hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL)/water biphasic systems in order to predict the extractability of an ionic species with various ILs. In this study, we have investigated the partition of picrate ion (target anion, T(-)) from aqueous sodium picrate solutions into several ILs and the accompanying changes in aqueous concentrations of the IL component cation (C(+)) and anion (A(-)) at 298.2 K. The main ILs examined are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, and 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide. The aqueous concentrations of C(+) and A(-) decreased and increased, respectively, with the extraction of T(-) into the IL phase. From the standpoint of equilibrium, the partition behavior of T(-) can be explained both by the anion exchange with A(-) in the IL phase and by the ion pair extraction with C(+) in the aqueous phase. The aqueous concentrations of C(+) and A(-) are governed by the solubility product of the IL (K(sp)). The distribution ratio of T(-) is expressed as a function of Δ[T(-)](W), namely, the difference between the initial and equilibrium concentrations of T(-) in the aqueous phase; the distribution ratio of T(-) is nearly constant when Δ[T(-)](W) < K(sp)(1/2), but decreases with increasing Δ[T(-)](W) in the larger Δ[T(-)](W) region. The equilibrium constants of the ion pair extraction and the ion exchange extraction have been determined for picrate and other phenolate ions whose partition data were previously reported. The dependences of the extraction constants and extractability on the kinds of IL component ions can be quantitatively explained on the basis of the variations of K(sp).

  9. Phase equilibrium in systems with ionic liquids: An example for the downstream process of the Biphasic Acid Scavenging utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) process. Part I: Experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahandzhieva, Katya; Maurer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase equilibrium for a downstream process in sustainable chemical technology. ► Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) Process. ► SLE, LLE, and SLLE of (NaCl + water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and its ternary subsystems. ► Experimental phase equilibrium data at temperatures between 298 K and 333 K. - Abstract: Experimental results are presented for the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibria occurring in the downstream process of a typical example for the Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL)-processes. In a BASIL process an organic base is used to catalyze a chemical reaction and, at the same time, to scavenge an acid that is an undesired side product of that reaction. The particular example of a BASIL process treated here is the reaction of 1-butanol and acetylchloride to butylacetate and hydrochloric acid, where the acid is scavenged by the organic base 1-methyl imidazole (1-MIM) resulting in the ionic liquid 1-methyl imidazolium chloride. The reaction results in a two-phase system as butylacetate and the ionic liquid reveal a large liquid–liquid miscibility gap. The organic base has to be recovered. This is commonly achieved by treating the ionic liquid–rich liquid phase with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (i.e., converting the ionic liquid to the organic base) and extracting the organic base by an appropriate organic solvent (e.g., 1-propanol). The work presented here deals in experimental work with the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) phase equilibria that are encountered in such extraction processes. Experimental results are reported for temperatures between about 298 K and 333 K: for the solubility of NaCl in several solvents (1-propanol, 1-MIM), (water + 1-MIM), (1-propanol + 1-MIM), (water + 1-propanol), and (water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and for the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium as well as for the (solid + liquid

  10. Aqueous biphasic systems composed of ionic liquids and sodium carbonate as enhanced routes for the extraction of tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carlos F C; Mourão, Teresa; Neves, Catarina M S S; Lima, Alvaro S; Boal-Palheiros, Isabel; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) using ionic liquids (ILs) offer an alternative approach for the extraction, recovery, and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two aqueous liquid phases. In this work, the ability of a wide range of ILs to form ABS with aqueous solutions of Na2 CO3 was evaluated. The ABS formed by IL + water + Na2 CO3 were determined at 25°C, and the respective solubility curves, tie-lines, and tie-line lengths are reported. The studied ILs share the common chloride anion, allowing the IL cation core, the cation isomerism, the presence of functionalized groups, and alkyl side chain length effects to be evaluated. An increase in the cation side alkyl chain length leads to a higher ability for liquid-liquid demixing whereas different positional isomers and the presence of an allyl group have no major influence in the phase diagrams behavior. Quaternary phosphonium- and ammonium-based fluids are more able to form an ABS when compared with imidazolium-, pyridinium-, pyrrolidinium-, and piperidium-based ILs. Moreover, the presence of an aromatic cation core has no major contribution to the formation of ABS when compared to the respective nonaromatic counterparts. Finally, to appraise on the systems applicability in downstream processing, selected systems were used for the partitioning of tetracyclines (neutral and salt forms) - a class of antibiotics produced by bacteria fermentation. Single-step extraction efficiencies for the IL-rich phase were always higher than 99% and confirm the great potential of ILs to be applied in the biotechnological field. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Determination of descriptors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds by chromatographic methods and liquid-liquid partition in totally organic biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasena, Thiloka C; Poole, Colin F

    2014-09-26

    Retention factors on several columns and at various temperatures using gas chromatography and from reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a SunFire C18 column with various mobile phase compositions containing acetonitrile, methanol and tetrahydrofuran as strength adjusting solvents are combined with liquid-liquid partition coefficients in totally organic biphasic systems to calculate descriptors for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eighteen related compounds of environmental interest. The use of a consistent protocol for the above measurements provides descriptors that are more self consistent for the estimation of physicochemical properties (octanol-water, air-octanol, air-water, aqueous solubility, and subcooled liquid vapor pressure). The descriptor in this report tend to have smaller values for the L and E descriptors and random differences in the B and S descriptors compared with literature sources. A simple atom fragment constant model is proposed for the estimation of descriptors from structure for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The new descriptors show no bias in the prediction of the air-water partition coefficient for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons unlike the literature values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W.

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation

  13. Odd-even effect on the formation of aqueous biphasic systems formed by 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids and salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Diana C. V.; Sintra, Tânia E.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Soromenho, Mário R. C.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Rogers, Robin D.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2018-05-01

    This work provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effect of the cation alkyl side chain length of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride series ([CnC1im]Cl, n = 2-14) of ionic liquids (ILs) on their capability to form aqueous biphasic systems (ABSs) with salts and self-aggregation derived properties. The liquid-liquid phase behavior of ternary systems composed of [CnC1im]Cl, water, and K3PO4 or K2CO3 and the respective Setschenow salting-out coefficients (ks), a quantitative measure of the two-phase formation ability, were determined. An odd-even effect in the ks values along the number of methylene groups of the longest IL cation alkyl side chain was identified for the ABS formed by K2CO3, a weaker salting-out agent where the phenomenon is clearly identified. In general, cations with even alkyl side chains, being likely to display higher molar volumes, are more easily salted-out and thus more prone to undergo phase separation. The odd-even effect in the ks values is, however, more significant in ILs up to n = 6, where the nanostructuration/nanosegregation of ILs plays a less relevant role. Still, with the [CnC1im]Cl (n = 7-14) series of ILs, an odd-even effect was also identified in the ILs' ionization degree, molar conductivity, and conductivity at infinite dilution. In summary, it is shown here that the ILs' odd-even effect occurs in IL aqueous solutions and not just in neat ILs, an already well-established phenomenon occurring in a series of ILs' properties described as a result of the orientation of the terminal methyl groups to the imidazolium ring cation and consequent effect in the ILs' cohesive energy.

  14. Hydrogen bond basicity of ionic liquids and molar entropy of hydration of salts as major descriptors in the formation of aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Helena; Dinis, Teresa B V; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2018-05-23

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of ionic liquids (ILs) and conventional salts have been largely investigated and successfully used in separation processes, for which the determination of the corresponding ternary phase diagrams is a prerequisite. However, due the large number of ILs that can be prepared and their high structural versatility, it is impossible to experimentally cover and characterize all possible combinations of ILs and salts that may form ABS. The development of tools for the prediction and design of IL-based ABS is thus a crucial requirement. Based on a large compilation of experimental data, a correlation describing the formation of IL-based ABS is shown here, based on the hydrogen-bonding interaction energies of ILs (EHB) obtained by the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) and the molar entropy of hydration of the salt ions. The ability of the proposed model to predict the formation of novel IL-based ABS is further ascertained.

  15. Generic Model-Based Tailor-Made Design and Analysis of Biphasic Reaction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata

    systems have a broad range of application, such as the manufacture of petroleum based chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agro-bio products. Major considerations in the design and analysis of biphasic reaction systems are physical and chemical equilibria, kinetic mechanisms, and reaction rates. The primary...... contribution of this thesis is the development of a systematic modelling framework for the biphasic reaction system. The developed framework consists of three modules describing phase equilibria, reactions and mass transfer, and material balances of such processes. Correlative and predictive thermodynamic......Biphasic reaction systems are composed of immiscible aqueous and organic liquid phases where reactants, products, and catalysts are partitioned. These biphasic conditions point to novel synthesis paths, higher yields, and faster reactions, as well as facilitate product separation. The biphasic...

  16. Biphasic whole-cell synthesis of R-2-octanol with recycling of the ionic liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Dennewald, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Whole-cell biocatalysis in biphasic systems permits the synthesis of inhibiting chiral alcohols if appropriate non-water miscible ionic liquids are used. Taking the asymmetric reduction of 2-octanone to R-2-octanol by a recombinant Escherichia coli as a model reaction, a detailed characterisation of the biocatalytic reaction was performed with [HMPL][NTF] as ionic liquid. This made the asymmetric synthesis of R-2-octanol in a simple batch at a conversion > 99 % and at an enantiomeric excess >...

  17. Mediated water electrolysis in biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Micheál D; Peljo, Pekka; Rivier, Lucie; Vrubel, Heron; Girault, Hubert H

    2017-08-30

    The concept of efficient electrolysis by linking photoelectrochemical biphasic H 2 evolution and water oxidation processes in the cathodic and anodic compartments of an H-cell, respectively, is introduced. Overpotentials at the cathode and anode are minimised by incorporating light-driven elements into both biphasic reactions. The concepts viability is demonstrated by electrochemical H 2 production from water splitting utilising a polarised water-organic interface in the cathodic compartment of a prototype H-cell. At the cathode the reduction of decamethylferrocenium cations ([Cp 2 *Fe (III) ] + ) to neutral decamethylferrocene (Cp 2 *Fe (II) ) in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) solvent takes place at the solid electrode/oil interface. This electron transfer process induces the ion transfer of a proton across the immiscible water/oil interface to maintain electroneutrality in the oil phase. The oil-solubilised proton immediately reacts with Cp 2 *Fe (II) to form the corresponding hydride species, [Cp 2 *Fe (IV) (H)] + . Subsequently, [Cp 2 *Fe (IV) (H)] + spontaneously undergoes a chemical reaction in the oil phase to evolve hydrogen gas (H 2 ) and regenerate [Cp 2 *Fe (III) ] + , whereupon this catalytic Electrochemical, Chemical, Chemical (ECC') cycle is repeated. During biphasic electrolysis, the stability and recyclability of the [Cp 2 *Fe (III) ] + /Cp 2 *Fe (II) redox couple were confirmed by chronoamperometric measurements and, furthermore, the steady-state concentration of [Cp 2 *Fe (III) ] + monitored in situ by UV/vis spectroscopy. Post-biphasic electrolysis, the presence of H 2 in the headspace of the cathodic compartment was established by sampling with gas chromatography. The rate of the biphasic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was enhanced by redox electrocatalysis in the presence of floating catalytic molybdenum carbide (Mo 2 C) microparticles at the immiscible water/oil interface. The use of a superhydrophobic organic electrolyte salt was critical to

  18. A flow reactor setup for photochemistry of biphasic gas/liquid reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Schachtner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A home-built microreactor system for light-mediated biphasic gas/liquid reactions was assembled from simple commercial components. This paper describes in full detail the nature and function of the required building elements, the assembly of parts, and the tuning and interdependencies of the most important reactor and reaction parameters. Unlike many commercial thin-film and microchannel reactors, the described set-up operates residence times of up to 30 min which cover the typical rates of many organic reactions. The tubular microreactor was successfully applied to the photooxygenation of hydrocarbons (Schenck ene reaction. Major emphasis was laid on the realization of a constant and highly reproducible gas/liquid slug flow and the effective illumination by an appropriate light source. The optimized set of conditions enabled the shortening of reaction times by more than 99% with equal chemoselectivities. The modular home-made flow reactor can serve as a prototype model for the continuous operation of various other reactions at light/liquid/gas interfaces in student, research, and industrial laboratories.

  19. Evaluation of parallel milliliter-scale stirred-tank bioreactors for the study of biphasic whole-cell biocatalysis with ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennewald, Danielle; Hortsch, Ralf; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    As clear structure-activity relationships are still rare for ionic liquids, preliminary experiments are necessary for the process development of biphasic whole-cell processes involving these solvents. To reduce the time investment and the material costs, the process development of such biphasic reaction systems would profit from a small-scale high-throughput platform. Exemplarily, the reduction of 2-octanone to (R)-2-octanol by a recombinant Escherichia coli in a biphasic ionic liquid/water system was studied in a miniaturized stirred-tank bioreactor system allowing the parallel operation of up to 48 reactors at the mL-scale. The results were compared to those obtained in a 20-fold larger stirred-tank reactor. The maximum local energy dissipation was evaluated at the larger scale and compared to the data available for the small-scale reactors, to verify if similar mass transfer could be obtained at both scales. Thereafter, the reaction kinetics and final conversions reached in different reactions setups were analysed. The results were in good agreement between both scales for varying ionic liquids and for ionic liquid volume fractions up to 40%. The parallel bioreactor system can thus be used for the process development of the majority of biphasic reaction systems involving ionic liquids, reducing the time and resource investment during the process development of this type of applications. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Determination of the distribution constants of aromatic compounds and steroids in biphasic micellar phosphonium ionic liquid/aqueous buffer systems by capillary electrokinetic chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajová, Jana; Railila, A.; King, A. W. T.; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1308, Sep 20 (2013), s. 144-151 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : critical micelle concentration * electrokinetic chromatography * distribution constant * PeakMaster * phosphonium ionic liquid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.258, year: 2013

  1. Limiting partition coefficients of solutes in biphasic trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride ionic liquid-supercritical CO2 system: measurement and LSER-based correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 26 (2007), s. 7620-7625 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400310504; GA ČR GA203/05/2106; GA ČR GA203/07/0886 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : phosphonium ionic liquid * supercritical carbon dioxide * solute partition coefficient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.086, year: 2007

  2. Integration process of fermentation and liquid biphasic flotation for lipase separation from Burkholderia cepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Revathy; Show, Pau Loke; Lee, Sze Ying; Yap, Yee Jiun; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Liquid Biphasic Flotation (LBF) is an advanced recovery method that has been effectively applied for biomolecules extraction. The objective of this investigation is to incorporate the fermentation and extraction process of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia using flotation system. Initial study was conducted to compare the performance of bacteria growth and lipase production using flotation and shaker system. From the results obtained, bacteria shows quicker growth and high lipase yield via flotation system. Integration process for lipase separation was investigated and the result showed high efficiency reaching 92.29% and yield of 95.73%. Upscaling of the flotation system exhibited consistent result with the lab-scale which are 89.53% efficiency and 93.82% yield. The combination of upstream and downstream processes in a single system enables the acceleration of product formation, improves the product yield and facilitates downstream processing. This integration system demonstrated its potential for biomolecules fermentation and separation that possibly open new opportunities for industrial production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New technetium-99m generator technologies utilizing polyethylene glycol-based aqueous biphasic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; Bond, A.H.; Zhang, Jianhua [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Horwitz, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Two new schemes for TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}/MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} separations from OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} media using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) have been developed. The two most important salt solutions in current {sup 99m}Tc-generator technologies, OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, also salt out PEG to form ABS. In liquid/liquid PEG- ABS, pertechnetate can be separated from molybdate with separation factors as high as 10,000. Stripping is accomplished by reduction of the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and back extraction into a salt solution. the strip solution can be the salt of an imaging agent (e.g., Na{sub 4}HEDPA) and thus may, under the appropriate conditions, be injected directly into the human body. {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} can also be concentrated from a dilute load solution of {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} in NaOH using an aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic technique (ABEC). A rinse with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} assures that all {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} is removed from the column and this is confirmed by a rapid drop in {sup 99}Mo activity by the fourth free column volume (fcv) of rinse. The {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} is then eluted with water. This chromatographic separation affords 94% of the {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} activity in 5 fcv, with the y spectrum showing less than 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of the original {sup 99}Mo activity.

  4. Pretreatment of Eucalyptus in biphasic system for furfural production and accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiudong; Bai, Yuanyuan; Cao, Xuefei; Sun, Runcang

    2017-08-01

    Herein, an efficient biphasic pretreatment process was developed to improve the production of furfural (FF) and glucose from Eucalyptus. The influence of formic acid and NaCl on FF production from xylose in water and various biphasic systems was investigated. Results showed that the addition of formic acid and NaCl significantly promoted the FF yield, and the biphasic system of MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone)/water exhibited the best performance for FF production. Then the Eucalyptus was pretreated in the MIBK/water system, and a maximum FF yield of 82.0% was achieved at 180°C for 60min. Surface of the pretreated Eucalyptus became relatively rough and loose, and its crystallinity index increased obviously due to the removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. The pretreated Eucalyptus samples showed much higher enzymatic hydrolysis rates (26.2-70.7%) than the raw Eucalyptus (14.5%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissolved nutrients and atrazine removal by column-scale monophasic and biphasic rain garden model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hanbae; McCoy, Edward L; Grewal, Parwinder S; Dick, Warren A

    2010-08-01

    Rain gardens are bioretention systems that have the potential to reduce peak runoff flow and improve water quality in a natural and aesthetically pleasing manner. We compared hydraulic performance and removal efficiencies of nutrients and atrazine in a monophasic rain garden design versus a biphasic design at a column-scale using simulated runoff. The biphasic rain garden was designed to increase retention time and removal efficiency of runoff pollutants by creating a sequence of water saturated to unsaturated conditions. We also evaluated the effect of C substrate availability on pollutant removal efficiency in the biphasic rain garden. Five simulated runoff events with various concentrations of runoff pollutants (i.e. nitrate, phosphate, and atrazine) were applied to the monophasic and biphasic rain gardens once every 5d. Hydraulic performance was consistent over the five simulated runoff events. Peak flow was reduced by approximately 56% for the monophasic design and 80% for the biphasic design. Both rain garden systems showed excellent removal efficiency of phosphate (89-100%) and atrazine (84-100%). However, significantly (prain garden (29-39%). Addition of C substrate in the form of glucose increased removal efficiency of nitrate significantly (prain gardens. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the lysis-centrifugation and agitated biphasic blood culture systems for detection of fungemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P R

    1991-01-01

    Although the detection of fungemia has been improved by the use of vented or biphasic blood culture bottles, the best recovery and earliest detection have been reported in the Isolator lysis-centrifugation system. It was recently demonstrated that improved detection of both bacteria and fungi was accomplished by mechanically agitating blood culture bottles for the first 24 h of incubation. In this study the detection of fungemia by use of the Isolator system was compared with that of an agitated biphasic system. A total of 182 fungi were isolated from blood specimens inoculated into both culture systems. No difference in the overall recovery of fungi or individual species of yeasts was observed between the two systems. However, all seven isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum were recovered in the Isolator system only. The time required to detect fungemia with each of the two systems was also compared. No statistically significant difference was observed. From the data collected during this 18-month study, it can be concluded that the overall recovery and time of detection of yeasts are equivalent in the lysis-centrifugation system and the agitated biphasic blood culture system. The lysis-centrifugation system is still superior for the detection of filamentous fungi such as H. capsulatum. PMID:1993772

  7. Anti-prelog reduction of prochiral carbonyl compounds by Oenococcus oeni in a biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Xu, Yan

    2006-07-01

    An aqueous-organic biphasic system was established and used with whole cells of Oenococcus oeni to reduce 2-octanone to (R)-2-octanol. The conversion reached 99% when the Tris/borate buffer was increased from 50 mM to 300 mM in the aqueous phase. In addition, the conversion increased as the log P value of the organic solvent changed from 0.5 to 6.6. Under optimized conditions, the conversion of (R)-2-octanol reached 99% from 0.5 M 2-octanone with an optical purity of 99% e.e. The biphasic system allows the anti-Prelog reduction of aliphatic and aromatic ketones to furnish (R)-configurated alcohols in high optical purity as well.

  8. Development of Modified-Release Tablets of Zolpidem Tartrate by Biphasic Quick/Slow Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N. H.; Murthy, P. N.

    2014-01-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium s...

  9. Application of aqueous biphasic systems as strategy to purify tannase from Aspergillus tamarii URM 7115.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sena, Amanda Reges; Barros Oliveira, Flávio Manoel; Campos Leite, Tonny Cley; Evaristo da Silva Nascimento, Talita Camila; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; de Assis, Sandra Aparecida

    2017-10-21

    The aims of the current study are to assess the influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration, molar mass, pH, and citrate concentrations on aqueous biphasic systems based on 2 4 factorial designs, as well as to check their capacity to purify tannase secreted by Aspergillus tamarii URM 7115. Tannase was produced through submerged fermentation at 26°C for 67 h in Czapeck-Dox modified broth and added with yeast extract and tannic acid. The factorial design was followed to assess the influence of PEG molar mass (M PEG 600; 4,000 and 8,000 g/ mol), and PEG (C PEG 20.0; 22.0 and 24.0% w/w) and citrate concentrations (C CIT 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0%, w/w), as well as of pH (6.0, 7.0, and 8.0) on the response variables; moreover, partition coefficient (K), yield (Y), and purification factor (PF) were analyzed. The most suitable parameters to purify tannase secreted by A. tamarii URM 7115 through a biphasic system were 600 (g/mol) M PEG , 24% (w/w) C PEG , 15% (w/w) C CIT at pH 6.0 and they resulted in 6.33 enzyme partition, 131.25% yield, 19.80 purification factor and 195.08 selectivity. Tannase secreted by A. tamarii URM 7115 purified through aqueous biphasic systems composed of PEG/citrate can be used for industrial purposes, since it presents suitable purification factor and yield.

  10. Furfural production in biphasic media using an acidic ionic liquid as a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Parajó, Juan C

    2016-11-20

    Ionic liquids are valuable tools for biorefineries. This study provides an experimental assessment on the utilization of an acidic ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) as a catalyst for furfural production in water/solvent media. The substrates employed in experiments were commercial xylose (employed as a reference compound) or hemicellulosic saccharides obtained by hydrothermal processing of Eucalyptus globulus wood (which were employed as produced, after membrane concentration or after freeze-drying). A variety of reaction conditions (defined by temperature, reaction time and type of organic solvent) were considered. The possibility of recycling the catalyst was assessed in selected experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Chloromethylfurfural (CMF from Carbohydrates in Mild Biphasic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris S. Argyropoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 5-Halomethylfurfurals can be considered as platform chemicals of high reactivity making them useful for the preparation of a variety of important compounds. In this study, a one-pot route for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-chloromethylfurfural (CMF in a simple and efficient (HCl-H3PO4/CHCl3 biphasic system has been investigated. Monosaccharides such as D-fructose, D-glucose and sorbose, disaccharides such as sucrose and cellobiose and polysaccharides such as cellulose were successfully converted into CMF in satisfactory yields under mild conditions. Our data shows that when using D-fructose the optimum yield of CMF was about 47%. This understanding allowed us to extent our work to biomaterials, such as wood powder and wood pulps with yields of CMF obtained being comparable to those seen with some of the enumerated mono and disaccharides. Overall, the proposed (HCl-H3PO4/CHCl3 optimized biphasic system provides a simple, mild, and cost-effective means to prepare CMF from renewable resources.

  12. Recent developments in biocatalysis in multiphasic ionic liquid reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lars-Erik; von Langermann, Jan; Kragl, Udo

    2018-06-01

    Ionic liquids are well known and frequently used 'designer solvents' for biocatalytic reactions. This review highlights recent achievements in the field of multiphasic ionic liquid-based reaction concepts. It covers classical biphasic systems including supported ionic liquid phases, thermo-regulated multi-component solvent systems (TMS) and polymerized ionic liquids. These powerful concepts combine unique reaction conditions with a high potential for future applications on a laboratory and industrial scale. The presence of a multiphasic system simplifies downstream processing due to the distribution of the catalyst and reactants in different phases.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF AQUEOUS BIPHASIC SYSTEMS FOR THE SEPARATIONS OF LIGNINS FROM CELLULOSE IN THE PAPER PULPING PROCESS. (R826732)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In efforts to apply a polymer-based aqueous biphasic system (ABS) extraction to the paper pulping process, the study of the distribution of various lignin and cellulosic fractions in ABS and the effects of temperature on system composition and solute partitioning have been inv...

  14. Production of Phytotoxic Metabolite Using Biphasic Fermentation System from Strain C1136 of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, a Potential Bioherbicidal Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oluwaseun ADETUNJI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of effective and environmental friendly bioherbicides depends on the type of fermentation medium used for the production of phytotoxic metabolites. The effect of biomass, colony forming unit and the phytotoxic metabolite produced from the biphasic fermentation was carried out, while the phytotoxic metabolite was tested in vivo and in-vitro on Echinochola crus-galli and dicotyledonous Chromolaena odorata. The mutant strain of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 (Lp90 produced the highest amount of conidia and the largest necrotic area on the two tested weeds when compared to its wild strain in the different biphasic media combinations. The study revealed that the biphasic system containing PDB + rice produced the highest bioherbicidal activities. Therefore, the phytotoxic metabolites from strain C1136 are suggested for large scale production of bioherbicides for the management of weeds in conventional farming to improve yield and enhance food security.

  15. Pickering interfacial catalysis for biphasic systems: from emulsion design to green reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Titus, Marc; Leclercq, Loïc; Clacens, Jean-Marc; De Campo, Floryan; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique

    2015-02-09

    Pickering emulsions are surfactant-free dispersions of two immiscible fluids that are kinetically stabilized by colloidal particles. For ecological reasons, these systems have undergone a resurgence of interest to mitigate the use of synthetic surfactants and solvents. Moreover, the use of colloidal particles as stabilizers provides emulsions with original properties compared to surfactant-stabilized emulsions, microemulsions, and micellar systems. Despite these specific advantages, the application of Pickering emulsions to catalysis has been rarely explored. This Minireview describes very recent examples of hybrid and composite amphiphilic materials for the design of interfacial catalysts in Pickering emulsions with special emphasis on their assets and challenges for industrially relevant biphasic reactions in fine chemistry, biofuel upgrading, and depollution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. User's manual of BISHOP. A Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen system, chemical equilibrium calculation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2001-07-01

    In an event of sodium leakage in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium flows out of piping, and droplet combustion might occur under a certain environmental condition. The combustion heat and reaction products should be evaluated in the sodium fire analysis codes for investigating the influence of the sodium leak age and fire incident. In order to analyze the reaction heat and products, the multi-phase chemical equilibrium calculation program for a sodium, oxygen and hydrogen system has been developed. The developed numerical program is named BISHOP, which denotes 'Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen, Chemical Equilibrium Calculation Program'. The Gibbs free energy minimization method is used because of the following advantages. Chemical species are easily added and changed. A variety of thermodynamic states, such as isothermal and isentropic changes, can be dealt with in addition to constant temperature and pressure processes. In applying the free energy minimization method to solve the multi-phase sodium reaction system, three new numerical calculation techniques are developed. One is theoretical simplification of phase description in equation system, the other is to extend the Gibbs free energy minimization method to a multi-phase system, and the last is to establish the efficient search for the minimum value. The reaction heat and products at the equilibrium state can be evaluated from the initial conditions, such as temperature, pressure and reactants, using BISHOP. This report describes the thermochemical basis of chemical equilibrium calculations, the system of equations, simplification models, and the procedure to prepare input data and usage of BISHOP. (author)

  17. Mass transfer studies in miniature Rotating Disc Contactor (RDC) with 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramonian, S.; Sivakumar, D.; Kumar, Shekhar; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2014-01-01

    The rotating disc contactor is the widely used liquid-liquid extraction equipment for its high throughput and efficiency. In this work mass transfer performance of the miniature RDC column for the 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system was studied in terms of the operating variables such as rotor speed and flow rate of the aqueous and organic phase. The RDC column used in the experiments was shown. The column shell is made up of thick glass having diameter of 10.5 cm and height 100 cm. The rotor diameter is 5.3 cm and stator opening diameter is 6.3 cm. Totally 25 number of rotor discs were welded in the rotating shaft. This shaft was aligned in such a way that each rotor was placed in the centre of the compartment formed in between the two stator rings. The experiments were carried out to study the effect of rotor speed and superficial velocity of the dispersed and continuous phase on mass transfer efficiency. The organic solvent was made as the continuous phase and O/A ratio was set as 4 in both the continuous to dispersed phase(c-d) and dispersed to continuous phase (d-c) mass transfer experiments. The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) was estimated based on the solvent phase. The graphical representation of NTU was shown. The NTU value was observed as 4 and 3 respectively for extraction and stripping at the combined through put of 60 L/h and the rotor speed of 1000 rpm. This corresponds to the Height of Transfer Unit (HTU) value of 15 cm and 20 cm respectively for d-c and c-d mass transfer. The estimated overall mass transfer coefficient was increasing with rotor speed and superficial velocity of the liquid phases. The overall mass transfer coefficient also increases with increase in hold up

  18. New biphasic solvent system based on cyclopentyl methyl ether for the purification of a non-polar synthetic peptide by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarouche, Nassima; Boudesocque, Leslie; Borie, Nicolas; Giraud, Matthieu; Forni, Luciano; Butte, Alessandro; Edwards, Florence; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2014-06-01

    A new type 1 ternary biphasic system composed of cyclopentyl methyl ether, dimethylformamide and water was developed, characterized and successfully used for the purification of a lipophilic, protected peptide by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography. The protected peptide is an 8-mer, key intermediate in bivalirudin (Angiomax®) synthesis and shows a very low solubility in the solvents usually used in liquid chromatography. All ionic groups, except the N-terminal end of the peptide, are protected by a benzyl group. The purification of this peptide was achieved with a purity of about 99.04% and a recovery of 94% using the new ternary biphasic system cyclopentyl methyl ether/dimethylformamide/water (49:40:11, v/v) in the descending pH-zone refining mode with triethylamine (28 mM) as the retainer and methanesulfonic acid (18 mM) as the eluter. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Catalytic conversion of corncob and corncob pretreatment hydrolysate to furfural in a biphasic system with addition of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Linlin; Wan, Yilun; Xu, Youqing; Ji, Huilong; Gao, Xiaohang; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic conversion of corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob into furfural in a modified biphasic system by SO 4 2- /SnO 2 - MMT solid catalyst has been developed. The influence of the organic solvent type, organic to water phase ratio, sodium chloride concentration, reaction temperature and time on the furfural production were comparatively evaluated. The results showed that furfural yields of 81.7% and 66.1% were achieved at 190°C for 15mins and 190°C for 20mins, respectively, for corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob by this solid catalyst. The solid catalyst used in this study exhibited good stability and high efficiency applied in the modified biphasic system in addition to excellent recyclability. The proposed catalytic system displayed high performance for catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into important platform chemicals and has great potential in industrial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. First calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Leigh R.; Zalupski, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR and D level 2 milestone M21SW050201, 'Complete the first calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system'. This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR and D work package. To complement previous work undertaken under this work package we have extended out heat of extraction studies by di-2-ethyl-hexyl-phosphoric acid to curium. This report also details the heat of extraction of samarium in the same system. This work was performed to not only test the methodology but also to check for consistency with the heats of extraction obtained with those in the prior literature. The heat of extraction for samarium that was obtained in this study was -9.6 kJ mol-1, which is in reasonable agreement with the previously obtained value of -10.9 kJ mol-1. The curium heat of extraction was performed under two sets of conditions and the obtained heats of extraction were in reasonable agreement with each other at -16.0 ± 1.1 and -16.8 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1.

  1. Development of modified-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate by biphasic quick/slow delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N H; Murthy, P N

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium starch glycolate acts as a superdisintegrant in immediate-release part and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a release retarding agent in extended-release core. Tablets were prepared by direct compression. Both the core and the coat contained the drug. The pre-compression blends were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, and compressibility index. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation test, friability, and in vitro release studies. No interaction was observed between zolpidem tartrate and excipients from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results of all the formulations prepared were compared with reference product Stilnoct®. Optimized formulations showed release patterns that match the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines for zolpidem tartrate extended-release tablets. The mechanism of drug release was studied using different mathematical models, and the optimized formulation has shown Fickian diffusion. Accelerated stability studies were performed on the optimized formulation.

  2. Species dependent radiotracer study of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) using an aqueous biphasic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, K.; Lahiri, S. [Chemical Sciences Div., Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2008-07-01

    The speciation study of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was carried out using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) based aqueous biphasic extraction system (ABS). Neutron activated Cr(III) and Cr(VI) salts were assayed in a HPGe detector before and after employing aqueous biphasic extraction. Different salts of various salting out abilities were taken as the salt rich phase. The best condition for extraction of Cr(VI) and the maximum differential attitude of ABS to Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was observed when 2 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and PEG 4000 (50% w/w) solutions were used. Cr(III) can also be extracted by the PEG with prior complexation with diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone). The chromium dithizonate complex is quantitatively extracted by the PEG rich phase. (orig.)

  3. SOME NOVEL LIQUID PARTITIONING SYSTEMS: WATER-IONIC LIQUIDS AND AQUEOUS BIPHASIC SYSTEMS. (R828257)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. PEP liquid level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1981-03-01

    A liquid level system has been installed in the accelerator housing of the PEP storage ring. This instrument spans the entire 2.2 km circumference of the PEP project, and over one hundred readouts provide reference elevations which are used for the accurate alignment of accelerator components. The liquid level has proven to be extremely precise (+-0.10 mm) and quick to use, and it has contributed to the accurate alignment of PEP before beam turn-on. Since the liquid level readouts are rigidly attached to the accelerator housing, the liquid level has been a convenient means to monitor the settling of the accelerator housing

  5. Microwave irradiation for the facile synthesis of transition-metal nanoparticles (NPs) in ionic liquids (ILs) from metal-carbonyl precursors and Ru-, Rh-, and Ir-NP/IL dispersions as biphasic liquid-liquid hydrogenation nanocatalysts for cyclohexene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Christian; Redel, Engelbert; Abu-Shandi, Khalid; Thomann, Ralf; Manyar, Haresh; Hardacre, Christopher; Janiak, Christoph

    2010-03-22

    Stable chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, rhenium, ruthenium, osmium, cobalt, rhodium, and iridium metal nanoparticles (M-NPs) have been reproducibly obtained by facile, rapid (3 min), and energy-saving 10 W microwave irradiation (MWI) under an argon atmosphere from their metal-carbonyl precursors [M(x)(CO)(y)] in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF(4)]). This MWI synthesis is compared to UV-photolytic (1000 W, 15 min) or conventional thermal decomposition (180-250 degrees C, 6-12 h) of [M(x)(CO)(y)] in ILs. The MWI-obtained nanoparticles have a very small (TED), and dynamic light scattering (DLS)). The ruthenium, rhodium, or iridium nanoparticle/IL dispersions are highly active and easily recyclable catalysts for the biphasic liquid-liquid hydrogenation of cyclohexene to cyclohexane with activities of up to 522 (mol product) (mol Ru)(-1) h(-1) and 884 (mol product) (mol Rh)(-1) h(-1) and give almost quantitative conversion within 2 h at 10 bar H(2) and 90 degrees C. Catalyst poisoning experiments with CS(2) (0.05 equiv per Ru) suggest a heterogeneous surface catalysis of Ru-NPs.

  6. Direct transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural via SnCl₄ catalysts in aqueous and biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenju; Ren, Junli; Li, Huiling; Deng, Aojie; Sun, Runcang

    2015-05-01

    Direct catalytic transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural in the aqueous system and the biphasic system were comparatively investigated under mild conditions. Screening of several promising chlorides for conversion of beech xylan in the aqueous system revealed the Lewis acid SnCl4 was the most effective catalyst. Comparing to the single aqueous system, the bio-based 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF)/H2O biphasic system was more conducive to the synthesis of furfural, in which the highest furfural yield of 78.1% was achieved by using SnCl4 as catalysts under the optimized reaction conditions (150°C, 120 min). Additionally, the influences of xylan-type hemicelluloses with different chemical and structural features from beech, corncob and bagasse on the furfural production were studied. It was found that furfural yield to some extent was determined by the xylose content in hemicelluloses and also had relationships with the molecular weight of hemicelluloses and the degree of crystallization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Liquid Level Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  8. Alternative (Potentially Green) Separations Media: Aqueous Biphasic and Related Systems Extending the Frontier Final Report For Period September 1, 2002 January 31, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Robin D

    2007-06-25

    Through the current DoE-BES funding, we have extended our fundamental understanding of the critical phase separation of aqueous polymer solutions at the molecular level, and have developed a similar understanding of their application as novel solvent systems. Our principal aims included mode of delivery of the aqueous biphasic system (ABS) solvent system and the application of this system to problems of reactive extraction. In the former case we have developed novel solid phase analogues, in the form of cross-linked polyethylene glycol hydrogels, and in the latter case we have examined the role that ABS might play in reaction engineering, with a view to greener, simpler, and safer processes. We have also developed a new salt/salt ABS and have extended our understanding of this system as well. The major outcomes are as follows: (1) Through the use of variable temperature phase diagrams, coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the phases, a better understanding of the thermodynamics of phase formation was obtained. Evidence to the existence and role of an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or lower critical solution temperature (LCST) (or both) in these systems was gained. With variable temperature solute partitioning, thermodynamic parameters were calculated, and inter-system comparisons were made. Through the use of Abraham's linear solvation energy regression (LSER) the solvent-solute properties of liquid/liquid ABS were examined. We have shown that ABS are indeed very tunable and LSERs have been used as a tool to compare these systems to traditional organic/water and other liquid/liquid systems. (2) We have successfully shown the development of novel reaction media for chemical synthesis and reaction; Aqueous Biphasic Reactive Extraction (ABRE). As a proof of concept, we have shown the synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene in an ABS, which represents an important development in the exploitation of this technology

  9. Kinetic studies on the transesterification of sunflower oil with 1-butanol catalyzed by Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of sunflower oil transesterification with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system were studied in a stirred batch reactor set-up. An initial screening study was performed to optimize relevant process conditions (enzyme

  10. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VOX/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, J.; Chen, L.F.; Wang, J.A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R.; Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J.; Contreras, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel was tested in a biphasic system. • ODS activity was proportional to the V 5+ /(V 4+ + V 5+ ) values of the catalysts. • Lewis acidity was related to vanadium content and catalytic activity. • 99.9% DBT was oxidized using 25%V 2 O 5 /Ti-MCM-41 at 60 °C within 60 min. - Abstract: A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H 2 O 2 as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V 5+ /(V 4+ + V 5+ ) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V 2 O 5 ) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V 2 O 5 /Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  11. A feasible process for furfural production from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of corncob via biochar catalysts in a new biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Aojie; Lin, Qixuan; Yan, Yuhuan; Li, Huiling; Ren, Junli; Liu, Chuanfu; Sun, Runcang

    2016-09-01

    A feasible approach was developed to produce furfural from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of corncob via biochar catalysts as the solid acid catalyst in a new biphasic system with dichloromethane (DCM) as the organic phase and the concentrated pre-hydrolysis liquor (CPHL) containing NaCl as the aqueous phase. The biochar catalyst possessing many acidity groups (SO3H, COOH and phenolic OH groups) was prepared by the carbonization and sulfonation process of the corncob hydrolyzed residue. The influence of the catalytic condition on furfural yield and selectivity was comparatively studied. It was found that 81.14% furfural yield and 83.0% furfural selectivity were obtained from CPHL containing 5wt% xylose using this biochar catalyst in the CPHL-NaCl/DCM biphasic system at 170°C for 60min. In addition, with the regeneration process, this catalyst displayed the high performance and excellent recyclability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aqueous biphasic systems containing PEG-based deep eutectic solvents for high-performance partitioning of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yuzhi; Zhou, Yigang; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian; Yang, Qin

    2017-08-01

    In this work, 16 kinds of novel deep eutectic solvents (DESs) composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and quaternary ammonium salts, were coupled with Aqueous Biphasic Systems (ABSs) to extract RNA. The phase forming ability of ABSs were comprehensively evaluated, involving the effects of various proportions of DESs' components, carbon chain length and anions species of quaternary ammonium salts, average molecular weights of PEG and inorganic salts nature. Then the systems were applied in RNA extraction, and the results revealed that the extraction efficiency values were distinctly enhanced by relatively lower PEG content in DESs, smaller PEG molecular weights, longer carbon chain of quaternary ammonium salts and more hydrophobic inorganic salts. Then the systems composed of [TBAB][PEG600] and Na 2 SO 4 were utilized in the influence factor experiments, proving that the electrostatic interaction was the dominant force for RNA extraction. Therefore, back-extraction efficiency values ranging between 85.19% and 90.78% were obtained by adjusting the ionic strength. Besides, the selective separation of RNA and tryptophane (Trp) was successfully accomplished. It was found that 86.19% RNA was distributed in the bottom phase, while 72.02% Trp was enriched in the top phase in the novel ABSs. Finally, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to further investigate the extraction mechanism. The proposed method reveals the outstanding feasibility of the newly developed ABSs formed by PEG-based DESs and inorganic salts for the green extraction of RNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  14. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VOX/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J.; Chen, L. F.; Wang, J. A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R.; Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J.; Contreras, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H2O2 as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V5+/(V4+ + V5+) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V2O5) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V2O5/Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  15. The Biphasic Effect of Vitamin D on the Musculoskeletal and Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Zittermann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This narrative review summarizes beneficial and harmful vitamin D effects on the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system. Special attention is paid to the dose-response relationship of vitamin D with clinical outcomes. In infants and adults, the risk of musculoskeletal diseases is highest at circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD concentrations below 25 nmol/L and is low if 40–60 nmol/L are achieved. However, evidence is also accumulating that in elderly people the risk of falls and fractures increases again at circulating 25OHD levels > 100 nmol/L. Cohort studies report a progressive increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD events at 25OHD levels  100 nmol/L, but the threshold may be influenced by the level of physical activity. In conclusion, dose-response relationships indicate deleterious effects on the musculoskeletal system and probably on the cardiovascular system at circulating 25OHD levels 100 nmol/L. Future studies should focus on populations with 25OHD levels  100 nmol/L.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION OF 5-HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL FROM GLUCOSE IN A WATER: ACETONE BIPHASIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. M. Mendonça

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF is considered to be an important building block for biorefineries and has a high potential for the production of chemicals and fuels. Production of HMF from glucose was studied using phosphoric acid as catalyst, in a water:acetone system with volume ratio of 1:2 and NaCl. An experimental design was applied to examine the influence of temperature, time and concentration of catalyst on the HMF yield. HMF yields of more than 50 % were obtained when using 200 ºC, 8.4 min and 0.8% of catalyst. The temperature is the main factor influencing the HMF yield.

  17. Partition of lead in milk-pectin aqueous biphasic system with complexation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, P.; Macasek, F.; Gerhart, P.

    1997-01-01

    In present work, decontamination of raw cow milk from lead was investigated using the 'membraneless dialysis'. The 4% w/w solutions of apple pectin, degree of esterification 70%, containing various complexing agents were used for experiments at the initial volume ration pectin : milk = 3:7 which changed to 8:2 at equilibration. Radioactive indicator 212 Pb was prepared from 228 Th emanator. After dissolution in Jennes-Koops buffer with 10 -5 M Pb 2+ carrier, milk was spiked with the indicator for 100 minutes. Distribution equilibrium of water and lead was achieved after next 100 minutes but yield of lead extraction into pectin phase was less then 2.3% in the case of raw milk, and less then 3.0% in the case of pasteurized milk. Due to denaturation of raw milk, there are strongly limited possibilities to influence the radionuclide partition in the systems. Various non-toxic complexation agents (glycine, alanine, histidine, cysteine, Edtacal) were applied to improve extraction of lead to pectin phase. Glycine and histidine have not influence on lead extraction yields but there was observed an increased yield, 3,8% for alanine and even 25% for 0.002 M cysteine. As the most interesting appeared application of Edtacal, calcium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA by which the recovery of lead with with pectin phase reached about 80% at concentration of EDTA in initial pectin phase 0.001 M. The retention of Pb 2+ cation in milk phase is extraordinary high as compared with strontium and corresponds to behavior of trivalent ions what is attributed to specific interactions with thiol groups of milk components

  18. Production of Phytotoxic Metabolite Using Biphasic Fermentation System from Strain C1136 of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, a Potential Bioherbicidal Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Oluwaseun ADETUNJI; Julius Kola OLOKE; Gandham PRASAD; Moses ABALAKA; Emenike Onyebum IROKANULO

    2017-01-01

    Formulation of effective and environmental friendly bioherbicides depends on the type of fermentation medium used for the production of phytotoxic metabolites. The effect of biomass, colony forming unit and the phytotoxic metabolite produced from the biphasic fermentation was carried out, while the phytotoxic metabolite was tested in vivo and in-vitro on Echinochola crus-galli and dicotyledonous Chromolaena odorata. The mutant strain of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 (Lp90) produced th...

  19. Ferrofluids in liquid crystalline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo Neto, A.M.; Liebert, L.

    1989-08-01

    It is a well-known fact that intermediate or mesomorphic phase may exist between the crystalline and the isotropic liquid phases. The symmetry properties of these mesophases are intermediate between those of a crystal and a liquid. In this paper, some aspects of the use of ferrofluids in thermotropic and lyotropic systems are studied both the experimental difficulties as well as the fundamental phypical phenomena involved. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  20. Synthesis and Cell Seeding Assessment of Novel Biphasic Nano Powder in the CaO–MgO–SiO2 System for Bone Implant Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Marzban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: CaO–MgO–SiO2 system bioceramics possess good characteristics for hard tissue engineering applications. The aim of the study was to synthesize the nano powder by using a sol-gel method and evaluate of bioactivity in the cells culture. Methods: To characterize of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and to evaluate the bioactivity sample cell seeding and methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay were performed. Results: X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis showed that the biphasic powder was obtained at 1300°C for 2 h by using a sol-gel method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM image showed that powder particle size was about 45 nm. Besides, cell culture results indicated that the percentage of viability values was increased by the extension of period. Conclusions: found that the sample is cytocompatible and has cell proliferation potential in culture medium. The present study demonstrates that, the biphasic CaO–MgO–SiO2 system can be used to achieve novel bioactive materials for bone implant application.

  1. Speciation of native cations and added radionuclides in raw bovine milk. I. membraneless dialysis in aqueous biphasic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.; Gerhart, P.; Malovikova, A.; Celkova, A.

    1996-01-01

    Partition of native sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and radioisotopes of cesium, strontium and europium was investigated in the aqueous liquid-liquid systems formed after agitation of fresh pasteurized skim bovine milk with 4% w/w water solution of pectin of various degree of esterification (60-93%). The partition of the ions in the 'membraneless dialysis' was described by Donnan equilibria and ion-exchange in the macro-and microheterogenous systems and, within uncertainty of results, does not depend on the degree of esterification. Strong negative non-ideality of Sr and Eu in milk phase is attributed to binding with proteins, casein particles in particular, and complexation with low molecular ligands. Separation factor α = D(Sr)/D(Ca) is 0.70 ±0.06, in favor of strontium concentration in pectin phase. While>96% of cesium is diffusible to pectin phase, only 43-56% (depending on physico-chemical model of dialysis) of strontium behaves in that way, and in original milk phase the percent of strontium cationic from may be as low as 13%. (author). 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Radioactive liquid waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Tetsuya; Kuramitsu, Kiminori; Ishii, Tomoharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a system for processing radioactive liquid wastes containing laundry liquid wastes, shower drains or radioactive liquid wastes containing chemical oxygen demand (COD) ingredients and oil content generated from a nuclear power plant. Namely, a collecting tank collects radioactive liquid wastes. A filtering device is connected to the exit of the collective tank. A sump tank is connected to the exit of the filtering device. A powdery active carbon supplying device is connected to the collecting tank. A chemical fluid tank is connected to the collecting tank and the filtering device by way of chemical fluid injection lines. Backwarding pipelines connect a filtered water flowing exit of the filtering device and the collecting tank. The chemical solution is stored in the chemical solution tank. Then, radioactive materials in radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant are removed by the filtering device. The water quality standard specified in environmental influence reports can be satisfied. In the filtering device, when the filtering flow rate is reduced, the chemical fluid is supplied from the chemical fluid tank to the filtering device to recover the filtering flow rate. (I.S.)

  3. Validation of a closed bi-phasic extraction system and of the pancake probe as instruments to radiopharmaceutical quality control procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, F.L.N.; Okamoto, M.R.Y.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ferraro, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Quality control of radiopharmaceuticals is not a common practice in Nuclear Medicine Services in Brazil. One frequent limitation is that the well counter, used to radioactivity measurement of chromatographic strips, is not available in most services. On the other hand, it's mandatory that all services have a pancake probe to control contaminations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the quality control (QC) of technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceuticals using a pancake probe, including chromatography of 99m Tc-MDP, 99m Tc-DMSA, 99m Tc-DMSA-V, 99m Tc-Pyp, 99m Tc-ECD, 99m Tc-Dextran, 99m Tc-colloid. Also, we had available a solvent extraction methods using a multi-use closed bi-phasic system to 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-MIBI, to replace the classical single-use open bi-phasic system. Material and Methods: Classical chromatographic well counter reading and solvent extraction radiochemical controls were used as standards. To variant radiation reading method, pancake probe was covered with a lead disk 3 mm thick, with a 40x10 mm slit; the activity on chromatographic strips (80x10 mm) was read over the slit. The multi-use closed bi-phasic system was done closing the extremities of a 5 or 10 mL glass pipette using flame in the point side, and rubber septa in the other side. The pipette was filled with 2.5 or 3 mL, both organic solvent and aqueous NaCl 0.9 %; then two or three drops of the sample were applied and the tube shook during 30 seconds. Two minutes after, the activity was measured over each phase using the pancake detector. The same solvent mixture was used 3 times, with 48 h interval to allow radioactivity decay. Results: Radiochemical purity determined by the classical or the modified procedures showed Pearson's correlation of 0.973 (n=17) to chromatography; 0.993 to ECD (n=14) extraction and 0.919 to MIBI (n=21) extraction. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the pancake can be used as a detection instrument in 99m Tc

  4. Liquid waste treatment system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) involved three distinct processing operations: decontamination of liquid HLW in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS); volume reduction of decontaminated liquid in the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS); and encapsulation of resulting concentrates into an approved cement waste form in the Cement Solidification System (CSS). Together, these systems and operations made up the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS)

  5. Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. spores production in biphasic process utilizing different liquid media/ Produção de esporos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. num processo bifásico utilizando diferentes meios líquidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Zorzetti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic production techniques are developed with the objective of increasing productivity and reducing costs of the process. The objective of this study was to evaluate Beauveria bassiana biomass production in liquid media and conidiogenesis in a biphasic process. The liquid media were: CF (crysalid flour, PD (potato dextrose and CFPD (crysalid flour+potato+dextrose. The evaluation periods for biomass production were: 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours. For production by biphasic process different quantities of liquid media (5, 10, 15 and 20 mL with different incubation periods (24, 48 and 72 hours, were added on the pre-cooked rice (200 g with conidia production evaluation after 10 days. CFPD media was the most productive biomass in all evaluated periods. In the biphasic process, bigger conidia production were attained when it was utilized fungi biomass produced in CF and CFPD (2.7 x 1012 and 2.8 x 1012 conidia/g of rice for rice inoculation. The quantities of 5, 15, 20 mL of liquid media, inoculated on the rice were not statistically different. The incubation periods of 24 and 48 hours of the fungus in the liquid media, gave bigger cionidiogenesis then 72 hours. The data show the necessity of carbon and nitrogen for biomass production in the liquid media and for conidiogenesis in the solid media. Also with these informations it was possible to optimize the biphasic process, adding 5 mL of the liquid media CFPD on the rice (200 g with 24 hours of incubation.Técnicas de produção de fungos entomopatogênicos são desenvolvidas buscando aumentar a produtividade desses patógenos e reduzir custos do processo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biomassa de Beauveria bassiana em meios líquidos e a conidiogênese no processo bifásico. Os meios líquidos testados foram: FC (farinha de crisálida, BD (batata+dextrose e FCBD (farinha de crisálida+batata+dextrose. Os períodos de avaliação da produção de biomassa foram

  6. Biphasic solid and liquid gastric emptying in normal control subjects and diabetic patients with continuous acquisition in the left anterior oblique view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Herring, C.D.; Deschner, W.K.; Collen, M.J.; Vigersky, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports solid and liquid gastric emptying (GE) studied in 10 normal controls and 20 diabetics with symptoms of gastroparesis. After the ingestion of a Tc-99m SC egg sandwich and In-lll DTPA in water, 90 1-minute frames were acquired in the left anterior oblique view. Solid GE had a lag phase in all cases and then emptied linearly. Compared with normal controls, diabetics had delayed GE and delayed lag phase (P< .05). Liquid GE was exponential with no lag phase. Biexponential liquid emptying with an early fast component followed by a second slower one was seen in 60% of normal controls and 70% of diabetics. The slower component of liquid GE correlated with the solid GE rate (normal controls, r= .826; diabetics, r = .885)

  7. Ionic Liquid-Liquid Chromatography: A New General Purpose Separation Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Leslie; Earle, Martyn J; Gilea, Manuela; Plechkova, Natalia V; Seddon, Kenneth R

    2017-01-01

    Ionic liquids can form biphasic solvent systems with many organic solvents and water, and these solvent systems can be used in liquid-liquid separations and countercurrent chromatography. The wide range of ionic liquids that can by synthesised, with specifically tailored properties, represents a new philosophy for the separation of organic, inorganic and bio-based materials. A customised countercurrent chromatograph has been designed and constructed specifically to allow the more viscous char...

  8. Liquid metal MHD generator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyamurthy, P.; Dixit, N.S.; Venkataramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Liquid Metal MHD (LMMHD) Generator Systems are becoming increasingly important in space and terrestrial applications due to their compactness and versatility. This report gives the current status and economic viability of LMMHD generators coupled to solar collectors, fast breeder reactors, low grade heat sources and conventional high grade heat sources. The various thermodynamic cycles in the temperatures range of 100degC-2000degC have been examined. The report also discusses the present understanding of various loss mechanisms inherent in LMMHD systems and the techniques for overcoming these losses. A small mercury-air LMMHD experimental facility being set up in Plasma Physics Division along with proposals for future development of this new technology is also presented in this report. (author)

  9. Optical sensor platform based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) - 4'-(hexyloxy)-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (HOBC) bi-phase nematic liquid crystal composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Moliria V; Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Barud, Hernane S; Napoli, Mariana; Nalin, Marcelo; Ribeiro, Sidney J L

    2017-07-15

    The preparation of composite materials has gained tremendous attention due to the potential synergy of the combined materials. Here we fabricate novel thermal/electrical responsive photonic composite films combining cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) with a low molecular weight nematic liquid crystal (NLC), 4'-(hexyloxy)-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (HOBC). The obtained composite material combines both intense structural coloration of photonic cellulose and thermal and conductive properties of NLC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results confirmed that liquid crystals coated CNC films maintain chiral nematic structure characteristic of CNC film and simultaneously, transversal cross-section scanning electron microscopy images indicated penetration of liquid crystals through the CNC layers. Investigated composite film maintain NLC optical properties being switchable as a function of temperature during heating/cooling cycles. The relationship between the morphology and thermoresponsive in the micro/nanostructured materials was investigated by using transmission optical microscopy (TOM). Conductive response of the composite films was proved by Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) measurement. Designed thermo- and electro-responsive materials open novel simple pathway of fabrication of CNC-based materials with tunable properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Liquid level control system for vapour generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.

    1984-01-01

    A system for regulating the liquid level in a vapor generator, in which the incoming flow of feed liquid is regulated in response to the difference between the measured liquid level and a reference level, the difference between the exiting vapor mass flow rate and the incoming liquid mass flow rate, and a function of the measured incoming liquid temperature. The temperature function produces a gain value, which increases in response to decreasing incoming liquid temperature. The purpose of the temperature function is to stabilize the level control under transient conditions (e.g. sudden lose of load). (author)

  11. Binary, ternary and quaternary liquid-liquid equilibria in 1-butanol, oleic acid, water and n-heptane mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkelman, J. G. M.; Kraai, G. N.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on liquid-liquid equilibria in the system 1-butanol, oleic acid, water and n-heptane used for biphasic, lipase catalysed esterifications. The literature was studied on the mutual solubility in binary systems of water and each of the organic components. Experimental results were

  12. Liquidity policies and systemic risk

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian, Tobias; Boyarchenko, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The growth of wholesale-funded credit intermediation has motivated liquidity regulations. We analyze a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model in which liquidity and capital regulations interact with the supply of risk-free assets. In the model, the endogenously time-varying tightness of liquidity and capital constraints generates intermediaries’ leverage cycle, influencing the pricing of risk and the level of risk in the economy. Our analysis focuses on liquidity policies’ implications ...

  13. Limiting partition coefficients of sulfur-containing aromatics in a biphasic [bmim][MeSO4]-supercritical CO(2) system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Šťavíková, Lenka; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2011), s. 527-531 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1465 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ionic liquid * supercritical carbon dioxide * solute partitioning Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2011

  14. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VO{sub X}/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, J. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Chen, L.F., E-mail: lchen@ipn.mx [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Wang, J.A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J. [Dirección de Investigación, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Lázaro Cárdenas 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras, J.L. [Laboratorio de Catálisis y Polímeros, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-A, Av. San Pablo No. 180, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel was tested in a biphasic system. • ODS activity was proportional to the V{sup 5+}/(V{sup 4+} + V{sup 5+}) values of the catalysts. • Lewis acidity was related to vanadium content and catalytic activity. • 99.9% DBT was oxidized using 25%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ti-MCM-41 at 60 °C within 60 min. - Abstract: A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V{sup 5+}/(V{sup 4+} + V{sup 5+}) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  15. Distribution of organic solutes in biphasic 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate-supercritical CO2 system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 28 (2009), s. 9520-9526 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0886; GA ČR GA203/08/1465; GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ionic liquid * supercritical fluid * organic solute Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.471, year: 2009

  16. Sonolytic and Silent Polymerization of Methacrlyic Acid Butyl Ester Catalyzed by a New Onium Salt with bis-Active Sites in a Biphasic System — A Comparative Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumberkandgai A. Vivekanand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, ingenious new analytical and process experimental techniques which are environmentally benign techniques, viz., ultrasound irradiation, have become immensely popular in promoting various reactions. In this work, a novel soluble multi-site phase transfer catalyst (PTC viz., 1,4-bis-(propylmethyleneammounium chloridebenzene (BPMACB was synthesized and its catalytic efficiency was assessed by observing the kinetics of sonolytic polymerization of methacrylic acid butyl ester (MABE using potassium persulphate (PPS as an initiator. The ultrasound–multi-site phase transfer catalysis (US-MPTC-assisted polymerization reaction was compared with the silent (non-ultrasonic polymerization reaction. The effects of the catalyst and various reaction parameters on the catalytic performance were in detail investigated by following the kinetics of polymerization of MABE in an ethyl acetate-water biphasic system. From the detailed kinetic investigation we propose a plausible mechanism. Further the kinetic results demonstrate clearly that ultrasound-assisted phase-transfer catalysis significantly increased the reaction rate when compared to silent reactions. Notably, this environmentally benign and cost-effective process has great potential to be applied in various polymer industries.

  17. Host-Guest Inclusion Complexes between Amlodipine Enantiomers in Biphasic Recognition Chiral Extraction System using Tartaric Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Positive Confirmation Using of their Enantioselective Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    AZZAM, Khaldun; ABDALLAH, Hassan; HALIM, Hairul; AHMAD, Maizatul; SHAIBAH, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports an extended theoretical study from our previous experimental work for the enantioselective extraction of amlodipine enantiomers in a biphasic recognition chiral extraction system (BRCES) consisting of hydrophobic D-diisopropyl tartrate dissolved in organic phase (n-decanol) and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) in aqueous phase (acetate buffer) which preferentially recognize the R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer, respectively. The calculations were simula...

  18. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  19. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ekman Schenberg

    Full Text Available Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  20. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, D.D.

    A chromatographic system is described that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a nontransparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extreme low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  1. Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Systems Containing Butanol and Ionic Liquids – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubiczek Artur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs are a moderately new class of liquid substances that are characterized by a great variety of possible anion-cation combinations giving each of them different properties. For this reason, they have been termed as designer solvents and, as such, they are particularly promising for liquid-liquid extraction, which has been quite intensely studied over the last decade. This paper concentrates on the recent liquid-liquid extraction studies involving ionic liquids, yet focusing strictly on the separation of n-butanol from model aqueous solutions. Such research is undertaken mainly with the intention of facilitating biological butanol production, which is usually carried out through the ABE fermentation process. So far, various sorts of RTILs have been tested for this purpose while mostly ternary liquid-liquid systems have been investigated. The industrial design of liquid-liquid extraction requires prior knowledge of the state of thermodynamic equilibrium and its relation to the process parameters. Such knowledge can be obtained by performing a series of extraction experiments and employing a certain mathematical model to approximate the equilibrium. There are at least a few models available but this paper concentrates primarily on the NRTL equation, which has proven to be one of the most accurate tools for correlating experimental equilibrium data. Thus, all the presented studies have been selected based on the accepted modeling method. The reader is also shown how the NRTL equation can be used to model liquid-liquid systems containing more than three components as it has been the authors’ recent area of expertise.

  2. Plasma-liquid system with rotational gliding discharge with liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Solomenko, O.V; Martysh, E.V.; Fedirchuk, I.I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-liquid system based on rotational gliding discharge with one liquid electrode was developed. Emission spectra of plasma of rotational gliding discharge with one liquid electrode were investigated. Discovered effective mechanism of controlling non-isothermal level of plasma in dynamic plasma-liquid systems. Major mechanism of expulsion of metal anode material from plasma-liquid systems with rotational discharges was shown.

  3. Experimental data and thermodynamic modeling of ternary aqueous biphasic systems of EO/PO polymers–Na2SO4–H2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milosevic, M.; Staal, K.J.J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid–liquid extraction using thermoresponsive polymers as solvents in aqueous two phase systems followed by induced phase separation to recover the polymers is a potential technology for water–salt separations. Here we report for seven polymers on their ternary systems containing water, sodium

  4. Irradiation of Oil / Water Biphasic Systems: the Importance of Interfacial Surface Area on the Production of Hydrogen and Other Deleterious Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, Patrick-W.; Stuart, Craig-R.

    2012-09-01

    -water interfacial surface area, control of headspace gas composition, and removal of sample aliquots. Results highlight the importance of interfacial surface area in affecting the radiolytic degradation of the studied hydrocarbons. In particular, experiments having higher oil-water interfacial surface areas generate greater quantities of oil degradation products as compared with lower surface area samples. As expected, one notable result from these irradiations was the formation of significant quantities of hydrogen, which was found to be dependent on the interfacial surface area. Presented here is a review of the radiolytic degradation of insoluble organic material in aqueous systems, a summary of experimental results focusing on biphasic systems and a description of a strategy to mitigate the effects of insoluble organic material ingress and to aid in developing station-appropriate responses. (authors)

  5. Radioactive liquid waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inakuma, Masahiko; Takahara, Nobuaki; Hara, Satomi.

    1996-01-01

    Laundry liquid wastes and shower drains containing radioactive materials generated in a nuclear power plant are removed with radioactive materials by a fiber filtration device and an activated carbon filtration device to satisfy standers of water quality described in the environmental effect investigation report. Spent activated carbon is dehydrated together with the back-wash liquid from the fiber filtration device and the activated carbon filtration device using a Nutsche-type filtration dryer. With such procedures, the scale of the facility is minimized, space for devices, maintenance for equipments and radiation dose rate are reduced. (T.M.)

  6. New Principles for Interfacial Engineering and Superstabilization of Biphase Systems by Using Particles with Engineered Structure and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-27

    found in nature and accounts for ~ 1.5 x 1012 tons of annual biomass production. 10 As a result of its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and...would also be available to sterically stabilize the disperse (air) phase. As in most particle stabilized systems, HP-55 particles will form a shell ...particle-aggregates forming a shell around the bubbles in a secondary adsorption step. As the concentration of HP-55 is increased in the test

  7. Application of the e-KT-UNIFAC Model for the Improved and Innovative Design of Biphasic Reacting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Kim, Sun H.; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    framework of three modules has been developed to describe phase equilibria, reactions, mass transfer, and material balances of such processes. The recently developed group-contribution electrolyte model, e-KT-UNIFAC, is used to predict the-partitioning and equilibria of electrolyte and nonelectrolyte...... to a minimum of time-dependent data. In addition to describing the behavior of such systems, predictions can be made of the effectiveness in rates and ultimate amounts of product formation using different organic solvents. The present paper briefly describes the framework and applies it to the cases...

  8. Excimer fluorescence of liquid crystalline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, Tamara V.; Khakhel, Oleg A.; Barashkov, Nikolay N.; Korotkova, Irina V.

    1996-04-01

    The method of synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy shows a presence of dimers of pyrene in a polymeric matrix. The results suggest that excimer formation takes place with dimers in liquid crystalline systems.

  9. Cryogenic system for liquid hydrogen polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitami, T.; Chiba, M.; Hirabayashi, H.; Ishii, T.; Kato, S.

    1979-01-01

    A cryogenic system has been constructed for a liquid hydrogen polarimeter in order to measure polarization of high energy proton at the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron of Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. The system principally consists of a cryogenerator with a cryogenic transfer line, a liquid hydrogen cryostat, and a 14.5 l target container of thin aluminum alloy where liquid hydrogen is served for the experiment. The refrigeration capacity is about 54 W at 20.4 K without a target container. (author)

  10. Aqueous biphasic systems formed by deep eutectic solvent and new-type salts for the high-performance extraction of pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yuzhi; Zhou, Yigang; Chen, Jing; Wei, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Panli

    2018-05-01

    Deep eutectic solvent (DES) composed of polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG 400) and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) was combined with a series of new-type salts such as quaternary ammonium salts, amino acid and polyols to form Aqueous Biphasic Systems (ABSs). Phase-forming ability of the salts was investigated firstly. The results showed that polyols had a relatively weak power to produce phases within studied scopes. And the shorter of carbon chain length of salts, the easier to obtain phase-splitting. Then partitioning of three pigments in PPG 400/betaine-based ABSs was addressed to investigate the effect of pigments' hydrophobicity on extraction efficiency. It was found that an increase in hydrophobicity contributed to the migration of pigments in the DES-rich phase. On the other hand, with a decline in phase-forming ability of salts, the extraction efficiency of the whole systems started to go down gradually. Based on the results, selective separation experiment was conducted successfully in the PPG 400/betaine-based systems, including more than 93.00% Sudan Ⅲ in the top phase and about 80.00% sunset yellow FCF/amaranth in the bottom phase. Additionally, ABSs constructed by DES/betaine for partitioning amaranth were further utilized to explore the performances of influence factors and back extraction. It can be concluded that after the optimization above 98.00% amaranth was transferred into the top phase. And 67.98% amaranth can be transferred into the bottom phase in back-extraction experiment. At last, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were applied to probe into extraction mechanism. The results demonstrated that hydrophobicity played an important role in the separation process of pigments. Through combining with new-type DES, this work was devoted to introducing plentiful salts as novel compositions of ABSs and providing an eco-friendly extraction way for partitioning pigments, which boosted development of ABSs in the

  11. Ionic Liquid-Liquid Chromatography: A New General Purpose Separation Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Leslie; Earle, Martyn J; Gîlea, Manuela A; Plechkova, Natalia V; Seddon, Kenneth R

    2017-08-10

    Ionic liquids can form biphasic solvent systems with many organic solvents and water, and these solvent systems can be used in liquid-liquid separations and countercurrent chromatography. The wide range of ionic liquids that can by synthesised, with specifically tailored properties, represents a new philosophy for the separation of organic, inorganic and bio-based materials. A customised countercurrent chromatograph has been designed and constructed specifically to allow the more viscous character of ionic liquid-based solvent systems to be used in a wide variety of separations (including transition metal salts, arenes, alkenes, alkanes, bio-oils and sugars).

  12. (Liquid + liquid) phase behavior for systems containing (aromatic + TBA + methylcyclohexane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadzadeh, H.; Ghanadzadeh, A.

    2004-01-01

    The determination region of solubility of TBA (tert-butanol) with representative compounds of the gasoline was investigated experimentally at temperature of 298.2 K. Type 1 (liquid + liquid) phase diagrams were obtained for (methylcyclohexane + TBA + aromatic compounds). These results were correlated simultaneously by the UNIQUAC model. The values of the interaction parameters between each pair of components in the systems were obtained for the UNIQUAC model using the experimental result. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the observed and calculated mole percents was 1.88 for (methylcyclohexane + TBA + benzene), 2.45 for (methylcyclohexane + TBA + toluene) and 2.86 for (methylcyclohexane + TBA + ethylbenzene). The mutual solubility of methylcyclohexane and aromatic compounds (e.g., benzene toluene and ethylbenzene (BTE)) was also investigated by the addition of TBA at temperature of 298.2 K

  13. The Bevatron liquid nitrogen circulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, D.; Stover, G.

    1987-03-01

    A nitrogen liquefier and computer controlled valving system have been added to the Bevatron cryoliner vacuum system to cut operating costs by reducing liquid nitrogen consumption. The computer and interface electronic systems, which control the temperatures of twenty-eight liquid nitrogen circuits, have been chosen and designed to operate in the Bevatron's pulsating magnetic field. The nitrogen exhaust is routed back to a liquefier, of about five kilowatt capacity, liquefied, and rerouted through the cooling circuits. A description of the system and operating results are presented

  14. Systemic Liquidity Crisis with Dynamic Haircuts

    OpenAIRE

    Sever, Can

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, using network tools, I analyse systemic impacts of liquidity shocks in interbank market in case of endogenous haircuts. Gai, Haldane and Kapadia (2011) introduce a benchmark for liquidity crisis following haircut shocks, and Gorton and Metrick (2010) reveal the evidence from 2007-09 crisis for increasing haircuts with banking panic. In the benchmark model, I endogenize and update haircuts dynamically during the period of stress. The results significantly differ from...

  15. Production of levulinic acid, furfural, and gamma valerolactone from C.sub.5 and C.sub.6 carbohydrates in mono- and biphasic systems using gamma-valerolactone as a solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A.; Alonso, David Martin; Gurbuz, Elif I.; Wettstein, Stephanie G.

    2013-03-19

    A method to make levulinic acid (LA), furfural, or gamma-valerolactone (GVL). React cellulose (and/or other C.sub.6 carbohydrates) or xylose (and/or other C.sub.5 carbohydrates) or combinations thereof in a monophasic reaction medium comprising GVL and an acid; or (ii) a biphasic reaction system comprising an organic layer comprising GVL, and a substantially immiscible aqueous layer. At least a portion of the cellulose (and/or other C.sub.6 carbohydrates), if present, is converted to LA and at least a portion of the xylose (and/or other C.sub.5 carbohydrates), if present, is converted into furfural.

  16. Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Haumann, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Applications of ionic liquids to replace conventional solvents in homogeneous transition-metal catalysis have increased significantly during the last decade. Biphasic ionic liquid/organic liquid systems offer advantages with regard to product separation, catalyst stability, and recycling...... but utilise in the case of fast chemical reactions only a small amount of expensive ionic liquid and catalyst. The novel Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) catalysis concept overcomes these drawbacks and allows the use of fixed-bed reactors for continuous reactions. In this Microreview the SILP catalysis...

  17. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with flame...

  18. Generation of useful energy from process fluids using the biphase turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, N. L.

    1981-01-01

    The six largest energy consuming industries in the United States were surveyed to determine the energy savings that could result from applying the Biphase turbine to industrial process streams. A national potential energy savings of 58 million barrels of oil per year (technical market) was identified. This energy is recoverable from flashing gas liquid process streams and is separate and distinct from exhaust gas waste heat recovery. The industries surveyed in this program were the petroleum chemical, primary metals, paper and pulp, stone-clay-glass, and food. It was required to determine the applicability of the Biphase turbine to flashing operations connected with process streams, to determine the energy changes associated with these flashes if carried out in a Biphase turbine, and to determine the suitability (technical and economical feasibility) of applying the Biphase turbine to these processes.

  19. Bireactor Electronuclear Systems with Liquid Cadmium Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Zhamkochyan, V M; ASosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Khudaverdyan, A H

    2002-01-01

    Three main types of bireactor electronuclear systems are discussed. From the point of view of assuring high level of functional characteristics and safety bireactor electronuclear systems with booster using enriched uranium (20 %) and with a liquid cadmium valve appears to be the most effective. It is shown by means of Monte-Carlo modeling that such operation conditions can be achieved which lead to the destruction of the intermediate cadmium layer making the systems supercritical (k_{eff}>1). One can avoid the problem by using a special design of the liquid cadmium valve. In comparison with other nuclear systems (critical reactors, one-reactor electronuclear systems) cascade electronuclear systems have essential advantages allowing the decrease of the proton beam current by one order of magnitude and providing at same time the necessary level of power generation and neutron flux. Availability of both the thermal and fast cones allows one to transmute not only transuranics but also the fission products - cesi...

  20. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  1. The Liquid Annular Reactor System (LARS) propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Ludewig, H.; Horn, F.; Lenard, R.

    1990-01-01

    A concept for very high specific impulse (greater than 2000 seconds) direct nuclear propulsion is described. The concept, termed the liquid annular reactor system (LARS), uses liquid nuclear fuel elements to heat hydrogen propellant to very high temperatures (approximately 6000 K). Operating pressure is moderate (approximately 10 atm), with the result that the outlet hydrogen is virtually 100 percent dissociated to monatomic H. The molten fuel is contained in a solid container of its own material, which is rotated to stabilize the liquid layer by centripetal force. LARS reactor designs are described, together with neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses. Power levels are on the order of 200 megawatts. Typically, LARS designs use seven rotating fuel elements, are beryllium moderated, and have critical radii of approximately 100 cm (core L/D approximately equal to 1.5)

  2. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  3. Advanced liquid metal reactor plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.; Zizzo, D.; Carroll, D.

    1993-01-01

    The modular Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) power plant is controlled by an advanced state-of-the-art control system designed to facilitate plant operation, optimize availability, and protect plant investment. The control system features a high degree of automatic control and extensive amount of on-line diagnostics and operator aids. It can be built with today's control technology, and has the flexibility of adding new features that benefit plant operation and reduce O ampersand M costs as the technology matures

  4. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  5. Data liquidity in health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Institute of Medicine report Crossing the Quality Chasm and the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics report Information for Health were released, and they provided the context for the development of information systems used to support health-supporting processes. Both had as their goals, implicit or explicit, to ensure the right data are provided to the right person at the right time, which is one definition of "data liquidity." This concept has had some traction in recent years as a shorthand way to express a system property for health information technology, but there is not a well-defined characterization of what properties of a system or of its components give it better or worse data liquidity. This article looks at some recent work that help to identify those properties and perhaps can help to ground the concept with metrics that are assessable.

  6. Novel Measurements of Aerosol Particle Interfaces Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, A. R.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remains large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. These aerosol interfaces can profoundly affect the fate of condensable organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere by altering the way in which organic vapors interact with the ambient aerosol. Aerosol interfaces affect particle internal structure, species uptake, equilibrium partitioning, activation to cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and optical properties. For example, organic thin films can shield the core of the aerosol from the ambient environment, which may disrupt equilibrium partitioning and mass transfer. To improve our ability to accurately predict the fate of SOA in the atmosphere, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Few technologies exist to accurately probe aerosol interfaces at atmospherically-relevant conditions. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred. Chemical compositions of the liquid phases studied here span a range of viscosities and include electrolyte and water soluble organic acid species often observed in the atmosphere, such as mixtures

  7. Algorithm design of liquid lens inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lu-Lin; Wang, Chun-Chieh

    2008-08-01

    In mobile lens domain, the glass lens is often to be applied in high-resolution requirement situation; but the glass zoom lens needs to be collocated with movable machinery and voice-coil motor, which usually arises some space limits in minimum design. In high level molding component technology development, the appearance of liquid lens has become the focus of mobile phone and digital camera companies. The liquid lens sets with solid optical lens and driving circuit has replaced the original components. As a result, the volume requirement is decreased to merely 50% of the original design. Besides, with the high focus adjusting speed, low energy requirement, high durability, and low-cost manufacturing process, the liquid lens shows advantages in the competitive market. In the past, authors only need to inspect the scrape defect made by external force for the glass lens. As to the liquid lens, authors need to inspect the state of four different structural layers due to the different design and structure. In this paper, authors apply machine vision and digital image processing technology to administer inspections in the particular layer according to the needs of users. According to our experiment results, the algorithm proposed can automatically delete non-focus background, extract the region of interest, find out and analyze the defects efficiently in the particular layer. In the future, authors will combine the algorithm of the system with automatic-focus technology to implement the inside inspection based on the product inspective demands.

  8. Systems and methods for monitoring a solid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Nathan G; Lewis, Monte A.; Clark, Roger F

    2013-06-11

    Systems and methods are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface during a casting process. The systems and methods enable determination of the location of a solid-liquid interface during the casting process.

  9. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  10. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  11. Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Systems Containing Butanol and Ionic Liquids – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kubiczek Artur; Kamiński Władysław

    2017-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a moderately new class of liquid substances that are characterized by a great variety of possible anion-cation combinations giving each of them different properties. For this reason, they have been termed as designer solvents and, as such, they are particularly promising for liquid-liquid extraction, which has been quite intensely studied over the last decade. This paper concentrates on the recent liquid-liquid extraction studies involving ionic liqu...

  12. Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.

    2004-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

  13. Upgradation of automatic liquid scintillation counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sadhana; Behere, Anita; Sonalkar, S.Y.; Vaidya, P.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the upgradation of Microprocessor based Automatic Liquid Scintillation Counting systems (MLSC). This system was developed in 1980's and subsequently many systems were manufactured and supplied to Environment Survey labs at various Nuclear Power Plants. Recently this system has been upgraded to a more sophisticated one by using PC add-on hardware and developing Windows based software. The software implements more intuitive graphical user interface and also enhances the features making it comparable with commercially available systems. It implements data processing using full spectrum analysis as against channel ratio method adopted earlier, improving the accuracy of the results. Also it facilitates qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of the β-spectrum. It is possible to analyze a sample containing an unknown β-source. (author)

  14. Spillage detector for liquid chromatography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M. J.; Fulton, D. S. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A spillage detector device for use in conjunction with fractionation of liquid chromatography systems which includes a spillage recieving enclosure beneath the fractionation area is described. A sensing device having a plurality of electrodes of alternating polarity is mounted within the spillage recieving enclosure. Detection circuitry, responsive to conductivity between electrodes, is operatively connected to the sensing device. The detection circuitry feeds into the output circuitry. The output circuit has relaying and switching circuitry directed to a solenoid, an alarm system and a pump. The solenoid is connected to the pliable conduit of the chromatography system. The alarm system comprises an audio alarm and a visual signal. A 115-volt power system interconnected with the pump, the solenoid, the sensing device, and the detection and output circuitry.

  15. CONTROLLING THE AQUEOUS MISCIBILITY OF IONIC LIQUIDS: A NOVEL AQUEOUS BIPHASIC SYSTEM FROM WATER-MISCIBLE IONIC LIQUID AND A WATER-STRUCTURING SALT. (R828257)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. Liquid-liquid phase transition and glass transition in a monoatomic model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-01-01

    We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.

  17. Liquidity in Retirement Savings Systems: An International Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Beshears, John Leonard; Choi, James J.; Hurwitz, Joshua Bayard; Laibson, David I.; Madrian, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    What is the socially optimal level of liquidity in a retirement savings system? Liquid retirement savings are desirable because liquidity enables agents to flexibly respond to pre-retirement events that raise the marginal utility of consumption. On the other hand, pre-retirement liquidity is undesirable when it leads to under-saving arising from, for example, planning mistakes or self-control problems. This paper compares the liquidity that six developed economies have built into their employ...

  18. Kinetics of glycoalkaloid hydrolysis and solanidine extraction in liquid-liquid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mihajlo Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of glycoalkaloid hydrolysis and solanidine extraction in Analyzed in this study. obtained from dried and milled potato haulm to to which hydrochlotic acid was added is the first liquid phase, while chloroform trichloroethylene or carbon tetrachlondeisthe second organic, liquid phase. The purpose of this paper was to combine the processes of glycoalkaloid hydrolysis to solanidine and solanidine extraction into one step, and to find the optimal liquid-liquid system for such a process.

  19. (Liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid), and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibria of systems containing cyclic ether (tetrahydrofuran or 1,3-dioxolane), water, and a biological buffer MOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altway, Saidah; Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MOPS buffer induced liquid phase splitting for mixtures of water with THF or 1,3-dioxolane. • Phase boundaries of LLE, SLE, and SLLE were determined experimentally. • Tie-lines at LLE and at SLLE were also measured. • Phase diagrams of MOPS + water + THF or 1,3-dioxolane are prepared. • LLE tie-line data are correlated satisfactorily with the NRTL model. - Abstract: Two liquid phases were formed as the addition of a certain amount of biological buffer 3-(N-morpholino)propane sulfonic acid (MOPS) in the aqueous solutions of tetrahydrofuran (THF) or 1,3-dioxolane. To evaluate the feasibility of recovering the cyclic ethers from their aqueous solutions with the aid of MOPS, we determined experimentally the phase diagrams of the ternary systems of {cyclic ether (THF or 1,3-dioxolane) + water + MOPS} at T = 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure. In this study, the solubility data of MOPS in water and in the mixed solvents of water/cyclic ethers were obtained from the results of a series of density measurements, while the (liquid + liquid) and the (solid + liquid + liquid) phase boundaries were determined by visually inspection. Additionally, the tie-line results for (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and for (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibrium (SLLE) were measured using an analytical method. The reliability of the experimental LLE tie-line results data was validated by using the Othmer–Tobias correlation. These LLE tie-line values were correlated well with the NRTL model. The phase diagrams obtained from this study reveal that MOPS is a feasible green auxiliary agent to recover the cyclic ethers from their aqueous solutions, especially for 1,3-dioxolane

  20. Systems and methods for analyzing liquids under vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Li; Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.; Zhu, Zihua

    2013-10-15

    Systems and methods for supporting a liquid against a vacuum pressure in a chamber can enable analysis of the liquid surface using vacuum-based chemical analysis instruments. No electrical or fluid connections are required to pass through the chamber walls. The systems can include a reservoir, a pump, and a liquid flow path. The reservoir contains a liquid-phase sample. The pump drives flow of the sample from the reservoir, through the liquid flow path, and back to the reservoir. The flow of the sample is not substantially driven by a differential between pressures inside and outside of the liquid flow path. An aperture in the liquid flow path exposes a stable portion of the liquid-phase sample to the vacuum pressure within the chamber. The radius, or size, of the aperture is less than or equal to a critical value required to support a meniscus of the liquid-phase sample by surface tension.

  1. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium of (NaNO{sub 3} + PEG 4000 + H{sub 2}O) ternary system at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Yecid P. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Antofagasta, CICITEM (Chile); Galleguillos, Hector R., E-mail: hgalleguillos@uantof.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Antofagasta, CICITEM (Chile)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > LLE data for the ATPS NaNO{sub 3} + PEG 4000 were determined at T = (288.15 and 308.15) K. > The experimental data shown that the temperature increases as STL and biphasic area increase. > The Chen-NRTL, modified Wilson and UNIQUAC models were used to correlate the experimental tie-line data. > The results show that the quality of fitting is better with the UNIQUAC model. - Abstract: Phase diagram and (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the (NaNO{sub 3} + polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) + H{sub 2}O) system have been determined experimentally at T = (288.15 and 308.15) K. The effects of temperature on the binodal curves and tie-lines have been studied and it was found that an increasing in temperature caused the expansion of two-phase region. The Chen-NRTL, modified Wilson and UNIQUAC models were used to correlate the experimental tie-line data. The results show that the quality of fitting is better with the UNIQUAC model.

  2. Radianttrademark Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Litvack, F.

    1998-01-01

    RADIANTtrademark is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid β-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid β-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO 4 ), Rhenium-188 is primarily a β-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the β-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Championtrademark over-the-wire, and TNTtrademark rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors

  3. The H1 liquid argon calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, B.; Babayev, A.; Ban, J.

    1993-06-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter of the H1 detector presently taking data at the HERA ep - collider at DESY, Hamburg, is described here. The main physics requirements and the most salient design features relevant to this calorimeter are given. The aim to have smooth and hermetic calorimetric coverage over the polar angular range 4 ≤ θ ≤ 154 is achieved by a single liquid argon cryostat containing calorimeter stacks structured in wheels and octants for easy handling. The absorber materials used are lead in the electromagnetic part and stainless steel in the hadronic part. The read-out system is pipelined to reduce the dead time induced by the high trigger rate expected at the HERA collider where consecutive bunches are separated in time by 96 ns. The main elements of the calorimeter, such as the cryostat, with its associated cryogenics, the stack modules, the read-out, calibration and trigger electronics as well as the data acquisition system are described. Performance results from data taken in calibration runs with full size H1 calorimeter stacks at a CERN test beam, as well as results from data collected with the complete H1 detector using cosmic rays during the initial phase of ep operations are presented. The observed energy resolutions and linearities are well in agreement with the requirements. (orig.)

  4. Optics study of liquid scintillation counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran Ramiro, M. T.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    2005-01-01

    Optics is a key issue in the development of any liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system. Light emission in the scintillating solution, transmission through the vial and reflector design are some aspects that need to be considered in detail. This paper describes measurements and calculations carried out to optimise these factors for the design of a new family of LSC counters. Measurements of the light distribution emitted by a scintillation vial were done by autoradiographs of cylindrical vials made of various materials and results were compared to those obtained by direct measurements of the light distribution made by scanning the vial with a photomultiplier tube. Calculations were also carried out to study the light transmission in the vial and the optimal design of the reflector for a system with one photomultiplier tube. (Author)

  5. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less

  6. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  7. Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Formamide-Acetophenone System.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevská, I.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Řehák, K.; Vrbka, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 71, 9 (2006) , s. 1350-1358 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : solid-liquid equilibria * liquid-liquid equilibria * metastable Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2006

  8. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  9. Detection based on rainbow refractometry of droplet sphericity in liquid-liquid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, H; Lehmann, P; Bauckhage, K

    1999-03-01

    The shape of droplets in liquid-liquid systems influences their mass and momentum transfer processes. The deviation from sphericity of rising droplets in liquid-liquid systems was investigated for different droplet sizes. Rainbow refractometry permits one to test, in this case, whether the use of laser-optical particle sizing will be correct or faulty. Since the assumption of spherical particle geometry is a general basis of laser-optical particle-sizing techniques such as rainbow refractometry or phase Doppler anemometry, deviation from the spherical shape results in a measuring error. A sphericity check based on rainbow refractometry is introduced.

  10. Thermal properties of ionic systems near the liquid-liquid critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Castro, Pablo; Troncoso, Jacobo; Pérez-Sánchez, Germán; Peleteiro, José; Romaní, Luis

    2011-12-07

    Isobaric heat capacity per unit volume, C(p), and excess molar enthalpy, h(E), were determined in the vicinity of the critical point for a set of binary systems formed by an ionic liquid and a molecular solvent. Moreover, and, since critical composition had to be accurately determined, liquid-liquid equilibrium curves were also obtained using a calorimetric method. The systems were selected with a view on representing, near room temperature, examples from clearly solvophobic to clearly coulombic behavior, which traditionally was related with the electric permittivity of the solvent. The chosen molecular compounds are: ethanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1,3-dichloropropane, and diethylcarbonate, whereas ionic liquids are formed by imidazolium-based cations and tetrafluoroborate or bis-(trifluromethylsulfonyl)amide anions. The results reveal that solvophobic critical behavior-systems with molecular solvents of high dielectric permittivity-is very similar to that found for molecular binary systems. However, coulombic systems-those with low permittivity molecular solvents-show strong deviations from the results usually found for these magnitudes near the liquid-liquid phase transition. They present an extremely small critical anomaly in C(p)-several orders of magnitude lower than those typically obtained for binary mixtures-and extremely low h(E)-for one system even negative, fact not observed, up to date, for any liquid-liquid transition in the nearness of an upper critical solution temperature. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  11. A system extinguishing a fire by insulating a liquid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colome, Jacques; Duchene, Alain; Regnier, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    The invention refers to a system for quickly extinguishing a liquid fuel body on fire by insulating it completely from the ambient air. It applies particularly to the case of a high temperature liquid sodium sheet flowing accidentally from a circuit belonging to a fast neutron reactor. The system in question includes a lower receptacle for collecting the liquid fuel and a top cover shutting off the receptacle. This cover has inclined channels to take the liquid fuel flow and openings to allow this liquid through at the bottom end of the channels. These openings are closed by retractable shutters moving away under the pressure of the liquid in the channels and closing automatically after the liquid has flowed into the receptacle [fr

  12. Biphasic calcium phosphate–casein bone graft fortified with Cassia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biphasic calcium phosphate; bone graft; Cassia occidentalis; simulated body fluid; SaOS-2 cell line. ... The study investigates the efficacy of CO extract incorporated biphasic calcium phosphate as an osteoinductive material. ... Current Issue

  13. Thermophysical properties of biodiesel and related systems: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for castor oil biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazutti, Marcio A.; Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Corazza, Marcos L.; Lanza, Marcelo; Priamo, Wagner L.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for multicomponent castor oil FAME and FAEE castor oil. ► Tie-lines and solubility curves (binodal) by cloud-point method for FAME and FAEE systems. ► Experimental data correlated using the UNIQUAC model. -- Abstract: This work reports new liquid–liquid solubility values (binodal curves) as well as (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for, ternary and quaternary systems containing fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from castor oil, water, glycerol, methanol and anhydrous ethanol at T = (303.15, 318.15, and 333.15) K. Solubility curves (binodal) were also obtained by the cloud-point method for binary systems containing FAME, FAEE, water, or glycerol. All results obtained can be considered of good quality. The experimental values were correlated using the UNIQUAC model, whose results presented good performance and satisfactory fitting of equilibrium values

  14. Systemic liquidity risk: a European approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2011-01-01

    How should financial regulators address problems stemming from liquidity risk? This column argues that the liquidity coverage and net funding ratios proposed for Basel III are economically and politically impractical. It recommends using those ratios as long-term targets while imposing ‘prudential

  15. Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition and Glass Transition in a Monoatomic Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Giovambattista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.

  16. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts in the chemo selective bioreduction of (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadien-3-one in biphasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Cesar A.; Silva, Vanessa D.; Nascimento, Maria da G.; Stambuk, Boris U.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the chemoselective bioreduction of (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)- 1,4-pentadien-3-one (1) mediated by baker’s yeast (BY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells) in an aqueous/organic solvent biphasic system. The biotransformation of this compound was chemoselective and formed only the corresponding saturated ketone 1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)- 3-pentanone (2). The influence of various factors which may alter the bioreduction of 1, such as the type and percentage of co-solvents, use of six different S. cerevisiae yeast samples (four commercial and two industrial), variations in the substrate and yeast concentrations, temperature, pH and volume of aqueous and organic phases, was investigated. The best reaction conditions were 66.7 g L −1 of Fleischmann BY, 8.3 × 10 −3 mol L −1 of substrate, pH 6.5 at 35 deg C in the presence of 2.5% (v/v) of N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as an additive and a V aq /V org ratio of 70/30. Under these conditions, the product 2 was recovered in conversions of 82% in 5 h reaction. (author)

  17. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts in the chemo selective bioreduction of (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadien-3-one in biphasic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Cesar A.; Silva, Vanessa D.; Nascimento, Maria da G., E-mail: maria.nascimento@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis-SC (Brazil); Stambuk, Boris U. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis-SC (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    This work describes the chemoselective bioreduction of (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)- 1,4-pentadien-3-one (1) mediated by baker's yeast (BY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells) in an aqueous/organic solvent biphasic system. The biotransformation of this compound was chemoselective and formed only the corresponding saturated ketone 1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)- 3-pentanone (2). The influence of various factors which may alter the bioreduction of 1, such as the type and percentage of co-solvents, use of six different S. cerevisiae yeast samples (four commercial and two industrial), variations in the substrate and yeast concentrations, temperature, pH and volume of aqueous and organic phases, was investigated. The best reaction conditions were 66.7 g L{sup -1} of Fleischmann BY, 8.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mol L{sup -1} of substrate, pH 6.5 at 35 deg C in the presence of 2.5% (v/v) of N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as an additive and a V{sub aq}/V{sub org} ratio of 70/30. Under these conditions, the product 2 was recovered in conversions of 82% in 5 h reaction. (author)

  18. Liquidity Risk and its Management in Lithuanian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bareikaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the main part of financial sector in each economy and strength of banking system becomes vital for ensuringfavourable economic stability and growth. Recent failure of two commercial banks in Lithuania showed that managershaven’t evaluated liquidity risk or haven’t dealt with it properly. The tasks of the paper are to investigate Lithuanian banksposition towards liquidity risk, analyse what kind of management tools banks use for ensuring favourable position towardsliquidity and to explore the liquidity influence to profitability in Lithuanian banking sector. The article examines liquidity andits management processes in Lithuanian banking sector. Description of liquidity importance is presented. Liquidity risk and itsmeasurement as well as the ways of managing the above mentioned risk is analysed in the article. In order to analyse the relationshipbetween liquidity risk and profitability of banks, analysis of scientific literature, research synthesis and generalizationshave been made.

  19. Air liquide's space pulse tube cryocooler systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Buquet, J.; Ravex, A.

    2017-11-01

    Thanks to important development efforts completed with ESA funding, Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division (AL/DTA), is now in position to propose two Pulse Tube cooler systems in the 40-80K temperature range for coming Earth Observation missions such as Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), SIFTI, etc… The Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) is lifting up to 2.47W@80K with 50W compressor input power and 10°C rejection temperature. The weight is 2.8 kg. The Large Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) is providing 2.3W@50K for 160W input power and 10°C rejection temperature. This product is weighing 5.1 kg. The two pulse tube coolers thermo-mechanical units are qualified against environmental constraints as per ECSS-E-30. They are both using dual opposed pistons flexure bearing compressor with moving magnet linear motors in order to ensure very high lifetime. The associated Cooler Drive Electronics is also an important aspect specifically regarding the active control of the cooler thermo-mechanical unit during the launch phase and the active reduction of the vibrations induced by the compressor (partly supported by the French Agency CNES). This paper details the presentation of the two Pulse Tube Coolers together with the Cooler Drive Electronics aspects.

  20. Boiling water reactor liquid radioactive waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The standard sets forth minimum design, construction and performance requirements with due consideration for operation of the liquid radioactive waste processing system for boiling water reactor plants for routine operation including design basis fuel leakage and design basis occurrences. For the purpose of this standard, the liquid radioactive waste processing system begins at the interfaces with the reactor coolant pressure boundary, at the interface valve(s) in lines from other systems and at those sumps and floor drains provided for liquid waste with the potential of containing radioactive material. The system terminates at the point of controlled discharge to the environment, at the point of interface with the waste solidification system and at the point of recycle back to storage for reuse. The standard does not include the reactor coolant clean-up system, fuel pool clean-up system, sanitary waste system, any nonaqueous liquid system or controlled area storm drains

  1. Acidic ionic liquids for n-alkane isomerization in a liquid-liquid or slurry-phase reaction mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.; Hager, V.; Geburtig, D.; Kohr, C.; Wasserscheid, P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Chemische Reaktionstechnik; Haumann, M. [Chemical Reaction Engineering, FAU Busan Campus, Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highly acidic ionic liquid (IL) catalysts offer the opportunity to convert n-alkanes at very low reaction temperatures. The results of IL catalyzed isomerization and cracking reactions of pure n-octane are presented. Influence of IL composition, [C{sub 4}C{sub 1}Im]Cl / AlCl{sub 3} / H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and [C{sub 4}C{sub 1}Im]Cl / AlCl{sub 3} / 1-chlorooctane, on catalyst activity and selectivities to branched alkanes was investigated. Acidic chloroaluminate IL catalysts form liquid-liquid biphasic systems with unpolar organic product mixtures. Thus, recycling of the acidic IL is enabled by simple phase separation in the liquid-liquid biphasic reaction mode or the IL can be immobilized on an inorganic support with a large specific surface area. These supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts offer the advantage to get a macroscopically heterogeneous system while still preserving all benefits of the homogeneous catalyst which can be used for the slurry-phase n-alkane isomerization. The interaction of the solid support and acidic IL influences strongly the catalytic activity. (orig.)

  2. Pneumatically Modulated Liquid Delivery System for Nebulizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    passing a high-velocity sheath gas over the orifice of a liquid filled capillary. Due to the Venturi effect , liquid is pulled from the capillary orifice... pump , or through self-aspiration. Each nebulizer is calibrated to a specific gas flow for self-aspiration, eliminating the need for an external pump ...the components in a single box. Flow rates with less than 0.5% relative standard deviation are possible, and results are compared with a syringe pump

  3. An Integrated Approach Using Liquid Culture System Can it Make ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These automated liquid culture systems, when combined with commercial molecular ... Culture System. Can it Make an Impact for Clinical Diagnosis of ... affected by this disease. .... Tuberculosis in non‑UK‑born persons, England and Wales ...

  4. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

    2014-01-14

    A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

  5. Host-Guest Inclusion Complexes between Amlodipine Enantiomers in the Biphasic Recognition Chiral Extraction System using Tartaric Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Positive Confirmation by using their Enantioselective Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azzam, Khaldun M; Abdallah, Hassan H; Halim, Hairul N Abdul; Ahmad, Maizatul Akmam; Shaibah, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports an extended theoretical study from our previous experimental work for the enantioselective extraction of amlodipine enantiomers in a biphasic recognition chiral extraction system (BRCES) consisting of hydrophobic D-diisopropyl tartrate dissolved in organic phase (n-decanol) and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) in aqueous phase (acetate buffer) which preferentially recognize the R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer, respectively. The calculations were simulated using a semi-empirical PM3 method as a part of the Gaussian09 software package and were used to optimize the structures of the hosts, guests, and host-guest complexes in the gas phase without any restrictions. It was found that HP-β-CD has the strongest recognition ability among the three β-CD derivatives studied, namely HP-β-CD, hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin (HE-β-CD), and methylated-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD), due to the large interaction energies (Ecomp = -14.3025 kcal/ mol), while D-diisopropyl tartrate has the strongest ability among the four tartaric acid derivatives studied namely; L-diisopropyl tartrate, D-diisopropyl tartrate, L-diethyl tartrate, and D-diethyl tartrate (Ecomp = -5.9964 kcal/ mol). The computational calculations for the enantioselective partitioning of amlodipine enantiomers rationalized the reasons for the different behaviors for this extraction. The present theoretical results may be informative to scientists who are devoting themselves to developing models for their experimental parts or for enhancing the hydrophobic drug solubility in drug delivery systems.

  6. Host-Guest Inclusion Complexes between Amlodipine Enantiomers in the Biphasic Recognition Chiral Extraction System using Tartaric Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Positive Confirmation by using their Enantioselective Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azzam, Khaldun M.; Abdallah, Hassan H.; Halim, Hairul N. Abdul; Ahmad, Maizatul Akmam; Shaibah, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports an extended theoretical study from our previous experimental work for the enantioselective extraction of amlodipine enantiomers in a biphasic recognition chiral extraction system (BRCES) consisting of hydrophobic D-diisopropyl tartrate dissolved in organic phase (n-decanol) and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) in aqueous phase (acetate buffer) which preferentially recognize the R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer, respectively. The calculations were simulated using a semi-empirical PM3 method as a part of the Gaussian09 software package and were used to optimize the structures of the hosts, guests, and host-guest complexes in the gas phase without any restrictions. It was found that HP-β-CD has the strongest recognition ability among the three β-CD derivatives studied, namely HP-β-CD, hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin (HE-β-CD), and methylated-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD), due to the large interaction energies (Ecomp = −14.3025 kcal/ mol), while D-diisopropyl tartrate has the strongest ability among the four tartaric acid derivatives studied namely; L-diisopropyl tartrate, D-diisopropyl tartrate, L-diethyl tartrate, and D-diethyl tartrate (Ecomp = −5.9964 kcal/ mol). The computational calculations for the enantioselective partitioning of amlodipine enantiomers rationalized the reasons for the different behaviors for this extraction. The present theoretical results may be informative to scientists who are devoting themselves to developing models for their experimental parts or for enhancing the hydrophobic drug solubility in drug delivery systems. PMID:26839848

  7. The automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for GDA detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Abstract. An indigenously developed automatic liquid nitrogen (LN2) filling system has been installed in gamma detector array (GDA) facility at Nuclear Science Centre. Electro-pneumatic valves are used for filling the liquid nitrogen into the ...

  8. Liquid hydrogen transfer pipes and level regulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, M.; Prugne, P.; Roubeau, P.

    1961-01-01

    Describes: 1) Transfer pipes - Plunging rods in liquid hydrogen Dewars; transfer pipes: knee-joint system for quick and accurate positioning of plunging Dewar rods; system's rods: combined valve and rod; valves are activated either by a bulb pressure or by a solenoid automatically or hand controlled. The latter allows intermittent filling. 2) Level regulating systems: Level bulbs: accurate to 1 or 4 m; maximum and minimum level bulbs: automatic control of the liquid hydrogen valve. (author) [fr

  9. Thermophysical properties of biodiesel and related systems: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for Jatropha curcas biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Juliana R.F.; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Corazza, Marcos L.; Lanza, Marcelo; Priamo, Wagner L.; Vladimir Oliveira, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for multicomponent Jatropha curcas FAME and FAEE. ► Tie-lines, solubility curves (binodal curves) with low deviations from mass balance. ► Experimental data correlated with the UNIQUAC model. -- Abstract: Reported in this study are (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for binary, ternary, and quaternary systems formed by fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) of Jatropha curcas oil, water, glycerol, methanol, and ethanol at temperatures of (303.15, 318.15, and 333.15) K. In general, all the systems investigated resulted in good agreement between phase compositions of crunodes of tie-lines, solubility curves (binodal curves) and overall compositions, hence indicating low deviations from mass balance. Experimental results were correlated with the UNIQUAC model, showing low deviations among experimental and calculated values

  10. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of ternary systems with ionic liquids using headspace gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtarani, Babak; Gmehling, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for the ternary systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), (benzene + cyclohexane), and (ethanol + water) with an ionic liquid as entrainer for extractive distillation were measured by headspace gas chromatography. As ionic liquids, 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [HMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [OMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [OMIM][OTF], and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [BMIM][OTF] were used. The experimental data show that the ionic liquids investigated have a great influence on the separation factors of the systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), and (benzene + cyclohexane). The experimental data were compared with the predicted results using mod. UNIFAC (Do). The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of ternary systems with ionic liquids using headspace gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtarani, Babak [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, P.O. Box 14335-186, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gmehling, Juergen, E-mail: gmehling@tech.chem.uni-oldenburg.d [Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Technische Chemie, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for the ternary systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), (benzene + cyclohexane), and (ethanol + water) with an ionic liquid as entrainer for extractive distillation were measured by headspace gas chromatography. As ionic liquids, 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [HMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [OMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [OMIM][OTF], and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [BMIM][OTF] were used. The experimental data show that the ionic liquids investigated have a great influence on the separation factors of the systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), and (benzene + cyclohexane). The experimental data were compared with the predicted results using mod. UNIFAC (Do). The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. System and method of liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapkin, E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of liquid scintillation counting utilizing a combustion step to overcome quenching effects comprises novel features of automatic sequential introduction of samples into a combustion zone and automatic sequential collection and delivery of combustion products into a counting zone. 37 claims, 13 figures

  13. A new kinetic biphasic approach applied to biodiesel process intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, V.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Many different papers have been published on the kinetics of the transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol, in the presence of alkaline catalysts to produce biodiesel. All the proposed approaches are based on the assumption of a pseudo-monophasic system. The consequence of these approaches is that some experimental aspects cannot be described. For the reaction performed in batch conditions, for example, the monophasic approach is not able to reproduce the different plateau obtained by using different amount of catalyst or the induction time observed at low stirring rates. Moreover, it has been observed by operating in continuous reactors that micromixing has a dramatic effect on the reaction rate. At this purpose, we have recently observed that is possible to obtain a complete conversion to biodiesel in less than 10 seconds of reaction time. This observation is confirmed also by other authors using different types of reactors like: static mixers, micro-reactors, oscillatory flow reactors, cavitational reactors, microwave reactors or centrifugal contactors. In this work we will show that a recently proposed biphasic kinetic approach is able to describe all the aspects before mentioned that cannot be described by the monophasic kinetic model. In particular, we will show that the biphasic kinetic model can describe both the induction time observed in the batch reactors, at low stirring rate, and the very high conversions obtainable in a micro-channel reactor. The adopted biphasic kinetic model is based on a reliable reaction mechanism that will be validated by the experimental evidences reported in this work. (orig.)

  14. Simultaneous extraction and concentration of water pollution tracers using ionic-liquid-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, Teresa B V; Passos, Helena; Lima, Diana L D; Sousa, Ana C A; Coutinho, João A P; Esteves, Valdemar I; Freire, Mara G

    2017-07-29

    Human activities are responsible for the release of innumerous substances into the aquatic environment. Some of these substances can be used as pollution tracers to identify contamination sources and to prioritize monitoring and remediation actions. Thus, their identification and quantification are of high priority. However, due to their presence in complex matrices and at significantly low concentrations, a pre-treatment/concentration step is always required. As an alternative to the currently used pre-treatment methods, mainly based on solid-phase extractions, aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of ionic liquids (ILs) and K 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 are here proposed for the simultaneous extraction and concentration of mixtures of two important pollution tracers, caffeine (CAF) and carbamazepine (CBZ). An initial screening of the IL chemical structure was carried out, with extraction efficiencies of both tracers to the IL-rich phase ranging between 95 and 100%, obtained in a single-step. These systems were then optimized in order to simultaneously concentrate CAF and CBZ from water samples followed by HPLC-UV analysis, for which no interferences of the ABS phase-forming components and other interferents present in a wastewater effluent sample have been found. Based on the saturation solubility data of both pollution tracers in the IL-rich phase, the maximum estimated concentration factors of CAF and CBZ are 28595- and 8259-fold. IL-based ABS can be thus envisioned as effective pre-treatment techniques of environmentally-related aqueous samples for a more accurate monitoring of mixtures of pollution tracers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficient energy storage in liquid desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hublitz, Astrid

    2008-07-18

    Liquid Desiccant Cooling Systems (LDCS) are open loop sorption systems for air conditioning that use a liquid desiccant such as a concentrated salt solution to dehumidify the outside air and cool it by evaporative cooling. Thermochemical energy storage in the concentrated liquid desiccant can bridge power mismatches between demand and supply. Low-flow LDCS provide high energy storage capacities but are not a state-of-the-art technology yet. The key challenge remains the uniform distribution of the liquid desiccant on the heat and mass transfer surfaces. The present research analyzes the factors of influence on the energy storage capacity by simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes and specifies performance goals for the distribution of the process media. Consequently, a distribution device for the liquid desiccant is developed that reliably meets the performance goals. (orig.)

  16. Oligomerization of ethylene catalysed by nickel complexes associated with nitrogen ligands in ionic liquids; Oligomerisation de l'ethylene catalysee par des complexes du nickel associes a des ligands azotes dans les liquides ioniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecocq, V.

    2003-09-01

    We report here the use of a new class of catalytic systems based on a nickel active center associated with nitrogen ligands, such as di-imines, or imino-pyridines, for the oligomerization of ethylene in a biphasic medium using ionic liquids as the catalyst solvent. The nickel catalyst is immobilized in the ionic liquid phase in which the olefinic reaction products are poorly miscible. This biphasic system makes possible an easy separation and recycle of the catalyst. Numerous di-imine and imino-pyridine ligands with different steric and electronic properties have been synthesized and their corresponding nickel complexes isolated and characterized. Different ionic liquids, based on chloro-aluminates or non-chloro-aluminates anions, have also been prepared and characterized. The effect of the nature of the ligand, the ionic liquid, the nickel precursor and its mode of activation have been studied and correlated with the selectivity and activity of the transformation of ethylene. (author)

  17. Biphase sinusoidal oscillator based on negative resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Jean

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a biphase sinusoidal generator which provides two signals: v(ref)=V(M) sin(omegat) and v(out)=V(M) sin(omegat+DeltaPhi), where DeltaPhi is in the range 0, pi/2 or -pi/2, 0 and is not dependent on the frequency value. It is based on a negative resistor and it requires very few components. SPICE simulations and measurements on an experimental setup confirm the theoretical analysis.

  18. Enhanced electroforced sedimentation of various solid- liquid systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... liquid systems. Mohammed S. Jami1* ... significant challenges in wastewater management. ... environmental sludge and biosolids, thereby reducing the volumes to be disposed through landfills, incineration or other means.

  19. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author)

  20. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author).

  1. A smartphone controlled handheld microfluidic liquid handling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baichen; Li, Lin; Guan, Allan; Dong, Quan; Ruan, Kangcheng; Hu, Ronggui; Li, Zhenyu

    2014-10-21

    Microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technologies have made it possible to manipulate small volume liquids with unprecedented resolution, automation and integration. However, most current microfluidic systems still rely on bulky off-chip infrastructures such as compressed pressure sources, syringe pumps and computers to achieve complex liquid manipulation functions. Here, we present a handheld automated microfluidic liquid handling system controlled by a smartphone, which is enabled by combining elastomeric on-chip valves and a compact pneumatic system. As a demonstration, we show that the system can automatically perform all the liquid handling steps of a bead-based HIV1 p24 sandwich immunoassay on a multi-layer PDMS chip without any human intervention. The footprint of the system is 6 × 10.5 × 16.5 cm, and the total weight is 829 g including battery. Powered by a 12.8 V 1500 mAh Li battery, the system consumed 2.2 W on average during the immunoassay and lasted for 8.7 h. This handheld microfluidic liquid handling platform is generally applicable to many biochemical and cell-based assays requiring complex liquid manipulation and sample preparation steps such as FISH, PCR, flow cytometry and nucleic acid sequencing. In particular, the integration of this technology with read-out biosensors may help enable the realization of the long-sought Tricorder-like handheld in vitro diagnostic (IVD) systems.

  2. Production, Purification, and Identification of Cholest-4-en-3-one Produced by Cholesterol Oxidase from Rhodococcus sp. in Aqueous/Organic Biphasic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke; Li, Wei; Song, Jianrui; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Cholest-4-en-3-one has positive uses against obesity, liver disease, and keratinization. It can be applied in the synthesis of steroid drugs as well. Most related studies are focused on preparation of cholest-4-en-3-one by using whole cells as catalysts, but production of high-quality cholest-4-en-3-one directly from cholesterol oxidase (COD) using an aqueous/organic two-phase system has been rarely explored. This study set up an enzymatic reaction system to produce cholest-4-en-3-one. We developed and optimized the enzymatic reaction system using COD from COX5-6 (a strain of Rhodococcus) instead of whole-cell biocatalyst. This not only simplifies and accelerates the production but also benefits the subsequent separation and purification process. Through extraction, washing, evaporation, column chromatography, and recrystallization, we got cholest-4-en-3-one with purity of 99.78%, which was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. In addition, this optimized process of cholest-4-en-3-one production and purification can be easily scaled up for industrial production, which can largely decrease the cost and guarantee the purity of the product.

  3. Production, Purification, and Identification of Cholest-4-en-3-one Produced by Cholesterol Oxidase from sp. in Aqueous/Organic Biphasic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholest-4-en-3-one has positive uses against obesity, liver disease, and keratinization. It can be applied in the synthesis of steroid drugs as well. Most related studies are focused on preparation of cholest-4-en-3-one by using whole cells as catalysts, but production of high-quality cholest-4-en-3-one directly from cholesterol oxidase (COD using an aqueous/organic two-phase system has been rarely explored. This study set up an enzymatic reaction system to produce cholest-4-en-3-one. We developed and optimized the enzymatic reaction system using COD from COX5-6 (a strain of Rhodococcus instead of whole-cell biocatalyst. This not only simplifies and accelerates the production but also benefits the subsequent separation and purification process. Through extraction, washing, evaporation, column chromatography, and recrystallization, we got cholest-4-en-3-one with purity of 99.78%, which was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. In addition, this optimized process of cholest-4-en-3-one production and purification can be easily scaled up for industrial production, which can largely decrease the cost and guarantee the purity of the product.

  4. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium of {water + phenol + (1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or tert-butanol)} systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlich de Oliveira, Leonardo; Aznar, Martin

    2010-01-01

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and binodal curve data were determined for the systems (water + phenol + tert-butanol) at T = 298.15 K, (water + phenol + 2-butanol) and (water + phenol + 1-butanol) at T = 298.15 K and T = 313.15 K by the combined techniques of densimetry and refractometry. Type I curve (for tert-butanol) and Type II curves (for 1- and 2-butanol) were found. The data were correlated with the NRTL model and the parameters estimated present root mean square deviations below 2% for the system with tert-butanol and lower than 0.8% for the other systems.

  5. Development of prototype liquid scintillator system for monitoring liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Uk Won; Seon, Kwang Il; Kong, Kyoung Nam; Kim, Chang Kyu; Lee, Dong Myung; Lee, Sang Kook

    2003-01-01

    A prototype liquid scillatillator system for measurement of multiple beta-labeled mixtures was developed and its characteristic was investigated. The signal processing system consists of two photomultiplier tubes and the coincident count circuit. The characteristic of the system was analyzed using 4 beta-labeled samples ( 3 H, 14 C, 36 Cl and 90 Sr). Beta spectra from the samples were obtained without radiation shielding, and the detection limits for each nuclides were estimated based on the spectra. The estimated detection limits were compared to the legal regulation values. It is found that the liquid radioactive nuclides are detectable well below the legal regulation values

  6. Binary liquid-liquid equilibria of aniline-paraffin and furfural-paraffin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, S.C.; Maity, S.; Ganguli, K.; Ray, P. (Calcutta Univ., (India))

    1991-12-01

    Liquid-liquid-equilibria (L-L-E) of hydrocarbon containing systems are of considerable commercial importance to refineries. But prediction of L-L-E of such systems is extremely difficult owing to the complex nature of the petroleum fluids. For treating such complex mixtures, a continuous component method is appropriate and for representing such liquids, a group contribution model like the UNIFAC is extremely convenient. It is, however, necessary to determine the appropriate group interaction parameters, and also to test the applicability of the UNIFAC method to these cases. Binary liquid-liquid-equilibria data for several aniline-paraffin and furfural-paraffin systems have been taken. These data along with data for other aniline-hydrocarbon and furfural-hydrocarbon systems from literature have been correlated using the UNIFAC model. The UNIFAC group interaction parameters have been found to have a linear temperature dependence. The CH{sub 2} groups in cyclo and non-cyclo paraffins require different interaction parameters. It was also found that a scaling of the combinatorial term is necessary for higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. 13 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Preliminary investigation of liquid phase sintering in ferrous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    1975-04-01

    Liquid phase sintering was utilized to achieve, by a simple compaction and sintering procedure involving short times and moderate temperatures, a virtually full dense high carbon Fe:C alloy and high boron Fe:B alloy. Parameters such as powder characteristics and mixing, compacting pressure, heating program and the liquid phase fraction were found to influence the sintered density. The response of the Fe:C alloy to a heat treatment is reported along with preliminary experiments in the iron base ternary system Fe:W:C. Residual porosities observed in microstructures of certain liquid phase sintered compacts were accounted for by a proposed capillary flow of the liquid phase and a local densification competing against an overall densification. Some general recommendations are made for liquid phase sintering of powder aggregates. 15 fig., 7 tables

  8. Experimental measurement and prediction of (liquid + liquid + liquid) equilibrium for the system (n-hexadecane + water + triacetin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revellame, Emmanuel D.; Holmes, William E.; Hernandez, Rafael; French, W. Todd; Forks, Allison; Ashe, Taylor; Estévez, L. Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase diagram for the system n-hexadecane + water + triacetin was established at T = 296.15 K and atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa). • Both NRTL and UNIQUAC activity coefficient model adequately predicts the LLLE of the ternary system. • The phase equilibrium of the system is predominantly dictated by enthalpic contributions to the activity coefficient. - Abstract: The phase diagram for the ternary system containing (n-hexadecane + water + triacetin) was obtained experimentally at T = 296.15 K and ambient pressure. Results show that this system is of Type 3 according to the Treybal classification of ternary system. NRTL and UNIQUAC interaction parameters were calculated from binary phase equilibrium values and were used to predict the (liquid + liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLLE) region. Results indicated that both NRTL and UNIQUAC could predict the LLLE region of the system with similar precision as indicated by the comparable standard deviations. This indicates that the enthalpic contribution to the activity coefficient is predominant and entropic contributions can be neglected.

  9. Systems engineering implementation plan for the liquid effluents services program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    A graded approach is being taken by the Liquid Effluents Services Program in implementing systems engineering because of the advanced state of the program. The approach is cost-effective and takes credit for related work already completed, yet retains the benefits of systems engineering. This plan describes how the Liquid Effluents Services Program will implement systems engineering so there is a common understanding. Systems engineering work to be performed and the products of that work are identified. The relation to the current planning process and integration with the sitewide systems engineering effort is described

  10. Reactivity of the biphasic trichloroacetonitrile-CH2Cl2/H2O2 system in the epoxidation of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinelli, Márcia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the epoxidation of soybean oil by the trichloroacetonitrile -CH2Cl2/H2O2 byphasic system. The reaction was carried out at room temperature and, most importantly, in non acid conditions which prevent the opening of the oxirane ring. The epoxidized soybean oil was characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR. A maximum conversion of 81 % was achieved in two hours with 86% of selectivity in epoxy groupsEn el presente trabajo informamos sobre la epoxidación de aceite de soja mediante el sistema bifásico tricloroacetonitrilo-CH2Cl2/H2O2. La reacción fue realizada bajo condiciones de temperatura ambiente y, lo más importante, en condición no ácida, lo que evita la apertura del anillo oxirano. El aceite de soja fue caracterizado por infrarrojo y RMN de 1H and 13C. En dos horas se alcanzó una conversión máxima del 81 % obteniéndose una selectividad del 86 % en grupos epóxidos

  11. Liquid Chromatography Applied to Space System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinot, Pauline; Chazalnoel, Pascale; Geffroy, Claude; Sternberg, Robert; Carbonnier, Benjamin

    Searching for signs of past or present life in our Solar System is a real challenge that stirs up the curiosity of scientists. Until now, in situ instrumentation was designed to detect and determine concentrations of a wide number of organic biomarkers. The relevant method which was and still is employed in missions dedicated to the quest of life (from Viking to ExoMars) corresponds to the pyrolysis-GC-MS. Along the missions, this approach has been significantly improved in terms of extraction efficiency and detection with the use of chemical derivative agents (e.g. MTBSTFA, DMF-DMA, TMAH…), and in terms of analysis sensitivity and resolution with the development of in situ high-resolution mass spectrometer (e.g. TOF-MS). Thanks to such an approach, organic compounds such as amino acids, sugars, tholins or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were expected to be found. However, while there’s a consensus that the GC-MS of Viking, Huygens, MSL and MOMA space missions worked the way they had been designed to, pyrolysis is much more in debate (Glavin et al. 2001; Navarro-González et al. 2006). Indeed, (1) it is thought to remove low levels of organics, (2) water and CO2 could interfere with the detection of likely organic pyrolysis products, and (3) only low to mid-molecular weight organic molecules can be detected by this technique. As a result, researchers are now focusing on other in situ techniques which are no longer based on the volatility of the organic matter, but on the liquid phase extraction and analysis. In this line, micro-fluidic systems involving sandwich and/or competitive immunoassays (e.g. LMC, SOLID; Parro et al. 2005; Sims et al. 2012), micro-chip capillary electrophoreses (e.g. MOA; Bada et al. 2008), or nanopore-based analysis (e.g. BOLD; Schulze-Makuch et al. 2012) have been conceived for in situ analysis. Thanks to such approaches, molecular biological polymers (polysaccharides, polypeptides, polynucleotides, phospholipids, glycolipids

  12. Study of the anti-inflammatory effects of low-dose radiation. The contribution of biphasic regulation of the antioxidative system in endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, Martin; Hehlgans, Stephanie; Reichert, Sebastian; Roedel, Claus; Roedel, Franz [Goethe University Frankfurt, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gaipl, Udo S. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Fournier, Claudia [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); Weiss, Christian [Goethe University Frankfurt, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Klinikum Darmstadt, Institute for Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    We examined (a) the expression of the antioxidative factor glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) following low-dose X-irradiation in endothelial cells (ECs) and (b) the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Nrf2 on functional properties of ECs to gain further knowledge about the anti-inflammatory mode of action of low doses of ionizing radiation. EA.hy926 ECs and primary human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVEC) were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 20 ng/ml) 4 h before irradiation with single doses ranging from 0.3 to 3 Gy. The expression and activity of GPx and Nrf2 were analyzed by flow cytometry, colorimetric assays, and real-time PCR. The impact of ROS and Nrf2 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) adhesion was assayed in the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and Nrf2 activator AI-1. Following a low-dose exposure, we observed in EA.hy926 EC and HMVECs a discontinuous expression and enzymatic activity of GPx concomitant with a lowered expression and DNA binding activity of Nrf2 that was most pronounced at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Scavenging of ROS by NAC and activation of Nrf2 by AI-1 significantly diminished a lowered adhesion of PBMC to EC at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Low-dose irradiation resulted in a nonlinear expression and activity of major compounds of the antioxidative system that might contribute to anti-inflammatory effects in stimulated ECs. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war die Untersuchung der Expression des antioxidativen Enzyms Glutathionperoxidase (GPx) und des Transkriptionsfaktors ''nuclear factor E2-related factor 2'' (Nrf2) in Endothelzellen nach niedrigdosierter Roentgenbestrahlung. Des Weiteren wurde der Einfluss von reaktiven Sauerstoffmetaboliten (ROS) und von Nrf2 auf funktionelle Eigenschaften von Endothelzellen analysiert, um weitere Erkenntnisse ueber die antientzuendliche Wirkung von niedrigdosierten Roentgenstrahlen

  13. Study of the anti-inflammatory effects of low-dose radiation. The contribution of biphasic regulation of the antioxidative system in endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, Martin; Hehlgans, Stephanie; Reichert, Sebastian; Roedel, Claus; Roedel, Franz; Gaipl, Udo S.; Fournier, Claudia; Weiss, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We examined (a) the expression of the antioxidative factor glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) following low-dose X-irradiation in endothelial cells (ECs) and (b) the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Nrf2 on functional properties of ECs to gain further knowledge about the anti-inflammatory mode of action of low doses of ionizing radiation. EA.hy926 ECs and primary human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVEC) were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 20 ng/ml) 4 h before irradiation with single doses ranging from 0.3 to 3 Gy. The expression and activity of GPx and Nrf2 were analyzed by flow cytometry, colorimetric assays, and real-time PCR. The impact of ROS and Nrf2 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) adhesion was assayed in the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and Nrf2 activator AI-1. Following a low-dose exposure, we observed in EA.hy926 EC and HMVECs a discontinuous expression and enzymatic activity of GPx concomitant with a lowered expression and DNA binding activity of Nrf2 that was most pronounced at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Scavenging of ROS by NAC and activation of Nrf2 by AI-1 significantly diminished a lowered adhesion of PBMC to EC at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Low-dose irradiation resulted in a nonlinear expression and activity of major compounds of the antioxidative system that might contribute to anti-inflammatory effects in stimulated ECs. (orig.) [de

  14. Application of salting-out effect equation to modelling of liquid-liquid distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitsch, H.K.

    1986-03-01

    Physicochemical interpretation of salting-out is reviewed and effects of the medium on liquid-liquid distribution equilibria are described by two non-specific parameters of salting-out agents: total concentration of species in the aqueous phase and water activity. Thus extraction of a given constituent in various media can be forecasted with few data. Different uranyl and technetium (VII) extraction systems are analyzed to show the potentiality of the method. Coextraction of nitric acid and uranyl nitrate by tributyl phosphate is used to show the possibility of modelling complex distribution systems in industrial conditions [fr

  15. Experimental performance of indirect air–liquid membrane contactors for liquid desiccant cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Rajat Subhra; Jain, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the stringent indoor air quality (IAQ) requirements and high cost of desiccants, one of the major concerns in liquid desiccant technology has been the carryover, which can be eliminated through indirect contact between desiccant and air. Membrane contactors using microporous semipermeable hydrophobic membranes have a great potential in this regard. This communication investigates the performance of semipermeable membrane based indirect contactors as dehumidifiers in liquid desiccant cooling applications. Experiments on different types of membrane contactors are carried out using lithium chloride (LiCl) solution as desiccant. The membrane contactors consist of alternate channels of air and liquid desiccant flowing in cross-flow direction. Hydrophobic membranes form a liquid tight, vapor permeable porous barrier between hygroscopic solution and moist air, thus eliminating carryover of desiccant droplets. In order to provide maximum contact area for air–desiccant interaction, a wicking material is sandwiched between two membranes in the liquid channel. It is observed that vapor flux upto 1300 g/m 2 h can be achieved in a membrane contactor with polypropylene (PP) membranes, although the dehumidification effectiveness remains low. The effect of key parameters on the transmembrane vapor transport is presented in the paper. - Highlights: • Indirect membrane contactors developed to avoid carryover in liquid desiccant system. • Dehumidification effectiveness and vapor flux reported under varying conditions. • Vapor flux upto 1295 g/m 2 h in polypropylene contactor with high area density. • Dehumidification effectiveness with LiCl solution varies within 23% to 45%

  16. A system of hydrogen powered vehicles with liquid organic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.

    1981-07-01

    A motor car system based on the hydrogen produced by nuclear power stations during the night in the summer, and coupled with organic liquid hydride seems to be a feasible system in the near future. Such a system is discussed and the cost is compared with gasoline. (Auth.)

  17. H2T liquid hydrogen delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.

    2002-01-01

    This Power Point presentation provides a preliminary evaluation of the cost of delivering liquid hydrogen produced in Quebec to hydrogen fuelled cars in Germany. The presentation describes the chain of events regarding liquid hydrogen delivery, beginning with the production of hydrogen from an initial source of hydro power. Water passes through an electrolyzer where hydrogen is liquefied and then placed into a container which is transported to market via truck, rail or tanker. Once transported, the hydrogen fuel is made available for consumers at refueling stations. The paper lists the costs related to transportation with reference to safety rules, pure transportation costs, leasing fees for the containers, and permission of customs duties for the import of hydrogen and export of empty containers between Quebec and Germany. A graph depicting a typical refueling station in Germany and the refueling events per hour was presented. For safety reasons, refueling is performed by a refueling robot. A blueprint of safety and protection distances at a refueling station was also presented. tabs., figs

  18. Operating safety requirements for the intermediate level liquid waste system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    The operation of the Intermediate Level Liquid Waste (ILW) System, which is described in the Final Safety Analysis, consists of two types of operations, namely: (1) the operation of a tank farm which involves the storage and transportation through pipelines of various radioactive liquids; and (2) concentration of the radioactive liquids by evaporation including rejection of the decontaminated condensate to the Waste Treatment Plant and retention of the concentrate. The following safety requirements in regard to these operations are presented: safety limits and limiting control settings; limiting conditions for operation; and surveillance requirements. Staffing requirements, reporting requirements, and steps to be taken in the event of an abnormal occurrence are also described

  19. Mobile liquid VR system: a cost effective alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, R.; Harkins, R.; HPD, Inc., Naperville, IL)

    1985-01-01

    The need for cost effective alternatives to treat large volumes of liquid radwaste has never been more evident. As part of a continuing effort to introduce such alternatives, HPD, Inc., and Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., have integrated two proven state-of-the-art technologies to offer a mobile liquid volume reduction system that satisfies nuclear industry requirements, with respect to liquid radwaste handling. This system optimizes proven technology by employing a crystallizer unit to concentrate the waste liquids to 50 weight percent solids, thereby reducing the volume to be solidified by factors of 40, while using only 20 percent of the energy required by conventional evaporative systems. In addition, the system employs a field proven cement solidification process which has been accepted in a Topical Report by the US NRC and which offers the highest waste to container volume ratios for stable waste forms in the industry. This volume reduction-solidification system is able to reduce over 7000 gallons of liquid waste per day to less than 30 cubic feet of 10CFR61 certified stable solidified waste for ultimate disposal or on-site storage. This document describes the GEODE System; its applicability; economics; volume reduction; scope of responsibility and experience. Major benefits include higher VR factors; assurance of continual regulatory compliance; and no capital investment

  20. Temperature dependence of microwave absorption phenomena in single and biphase soft magnetic microwires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    El Kammouni, R.; Vázquez, M.; Lezama, L.; Kurlyandskaya, G.; Kraus, Luděk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 368, Nov (2014), 126-132 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic microwire * ferromagnetic resonance * microwave absorption * biphase magnetic system Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2014

  1. A biphasic model for bleeding in soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Jui; Chong, Kwitae; Eldredge, Jeff D.; Teran, Joseph; Benharash, Peyman; Dutson, Erik

    2017-11-01

    The modeling of blood passing through soft tissues in the body is important for medical applications. The current study aims to capture the effect of tissue swelling and the transport of blood under bleeding or hemorrhaging conditions. The soft tissue is considered as a non-static poro-hyperelastic material with liquid-filled voids. A biphasic formulation effectively, a generalization of Darcy's law-is utilized, treating the phases as occupying fractions of the same volume. The interaction between phases is captured through a Stokes-like friction force on their relative velocities and a pressure that penalizes deviations from volume fractions summing to unity. The soft tissue is modeled as a hyperelastic material with a typical J-shaped stress-strain curve, while blood is considered as a Newtonian fluid. The method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics is used to discretize the conservation equations based on the ease of treating free surfaces in the liquid. Simulations of swelling under acute hemorrhage and of draining under gravity and compression will be demonstrated. Ongoing progress in modeling of organ tissues under injuries and surgical conditions will be discussed.

  2. Liquid nitrogen fire extinguishing system test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beidelman, J.A.

    1972-01-01

    The objective of this test series was to demonstrate the feasibility of using liquid nitrogen as a fire-extinguishing agent for certain types of metal fires. It was intended to provide data and experience appropriate to the design of a second series which will test the applicability of this technique to plutonium fires and which will develop more detailed operating information and permit more precise measurement of test parameters-oxygen depletion rates and equilibrium concentrations, temperature effects, and nitrogen pressures, flow rates, spray methods and patterns, etc. The test series was directed specifically toward extinguishment of metal fires occurring in well-confined areas and was not intended to be representative of any larger classification. Fires of several types were tested, e.g., magnesium, mixed magnesium and zirconium, sodium and cerium

  3. Thermophysical properties of biodiesel and related systems: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for soybean biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazutti, Marcio A.; Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Corazza, Marcos L.; Lanza, Marcelo; Priamo, Wagner L.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the systems of biodiesel production. ► LLE data for multicomponent FAME and FAEE from (303.15 to 333.15) K. ► Experimental data correlated using the UNIQUAC model. -- Abstract: This work reports (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the systems of interest in soybean biodiesel production. Numerical data for LLE were obtained for binary, ternary and quaternary systems comprising fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from soybean oil, water, glycerol, methanol, and ethanol at temperatures of (303.15, 318.15, and 333.15) K. Quantification of compounds in equilibrium in both phases was determined by analytical methods whereas solubility curves (binodal) were obtained by the cloud-point method. For all systems investigated, good alignments were obtained between phase compositions and the initial as well as overall compositions hence indicating low deviations from the mass balance. Experimental results were correlated using the UNIQUAC model with satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory

  4. Ionic Liquid-salt based aqueous biphasic system for quick separation of no-carrier-added 203Pb from proton irradiated natTl2CO3 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Dibyasree; Ghosh, Kaustab; Lahiri, Susanta; Sarkar, Kangkana; Naskar, Nabanita

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, no-carrier-added (NCA) 203 Pb was radiochemically separated from bulk Tl target applying the ABS composing of 4 M K 2 HPO 4 and 0.1 mL of different strengths of IL (bmim)Cl ranging from 40% to 80% (w/v). Bulk Tl was spiked with 200Tl (T 1/2 = 26.1 h). A separation condition was achieved with 70% IL concentration and with 10 min shaking and 10 min settling time, where ∼84% of NCA 203 Pb was extracted into the IL rich phase with ∼10% contamination from bulk Tl. Therefore, further studies, i.e. variation in shaking and settling time were carried out keeping the concentration of IL fixed at 70%

  5. Liquid radioactive waste processing system for pressurized water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Standard sets forth design, construction, and performance requirements, with due consideration for operation, of the Liquid Radioactive Waste Processing System for pressurized water reactor plants for design basis inputs. For the purpose of this Standard, the Liquid Radioactive Waste Processing System begins at the interfaces with the reactor coolant pressure boundary and the interface valve(s) in lines from other systems, or at those sumps and floor drains provided for liquid waste with the potential of containing radioactive material; and it terminates at the point of controlled discharge to the environment, at the point of interface with the waste solidification system, and at the point of recycle back to storage for reuse

  6. Factors influencing the thermodynamic isotope effect of lithium in polyetherlithium liquid-liquid extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Lian; Fang Shengqiang; Yao Zhongqi; Gao Zhichang; Tan Ganzhu

    1989-01-01

    The published data up to now concerning polyether-lithium liquid-liquid extraction systems, can be summarized by the equation, ε p = (α-1)/[1 + 0.46(1-P)], where α denotes the isotope separation factor; P - the ratio of the lithium concentration in the organic phase to the initial concentration of crown ethers; ε p -the enrichment coefficient as P = 100%. Based on the changes in ε p , P, α and D(distribution ratio), the functions of factors such as polyether's structure, polyether's side group, polyether's concentration, organic solvent, negative ion of lithium salt and lithium salt's concentration, are discussed and reported

  7. Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Ternary System Acetic Acid-Propanoic Acid-Formamide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Zuzana; Malijevská, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 261, 1-2 (2007) , s. 129-132 ISSN 0378-3812. [International Conference on Properties and Phase Equilibria for Product and Process Design PPEPPD 2007 /11./. Hersonissos, Crete, 20.05.2007-25.05.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : solid-liquid equilibrium * ternary system * solid adduct Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2007

  8. Explosion hazard in liquid nitrogen cooled fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The explosion hazard associated with the use of liquid nitrogen in a radiation environment in fusion facilities has been investigated. The principal product of irradiating liquid nitrogen is thought to be ozone, resulting from the action of radiation on oxygen impurity. Ozone is a very unstable material, and explosions may occur as it rapidly decomposes to oxygen. Occurrences of this problem in irradiated liquid nitrogen systems are reviewed. An empirical expression, from early experiments, for the yield of ozone in liquid nitrogen-oxygen mixtures exposed to gamma radiation is employed to assess the degree of ozone explosion hazard expected at fusion facilities. The problem is investigated for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) as a particular example. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Operational test report for 2706-T complex liquid transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENZEL, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the Operational Test Report (OTR). It enters the Record Copy of the W-259 Operational Test Procedure (HNF-3610) into the document retrieval system. Additionally, the OTR summarizes significant issues associated with testing the 2706-T waste liquid transfer and storage system

  10. Mechanically assisted liquid lens zoom system for mobile phone cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Schreiber, P.; Bräuer, A.; Berge, B.

    2006-08-01

    Camera systems with small form factor are an integral part of today's mobile phones which recently feature auto focus functionality. Ready to market solutions without moving parts have been developed by using the electrowetting technology. Besides virtually no deterioration, easy control electronics and simple and therefore cost-effective fabrication, this type of liquid lenses enables extremely fast settling times compared to mechanical approaches. As a next evolutionary step mobile phone cameras will be equipped with zoom functionality. We present first order considerations for the optical design of a miniaturized zoom system based on liquid-lenses and compare it to its mechanical counterpart. We propose a design of a zoom lens with a zoom factor of 2.5 considering state-of-the-art commercially available liquid lens products. The lens possesses auto focus capability and is based on liquid lenses and one additional mechanical actuator. The combination of liquid lenses and a single mechanical actuator enables extremely short settling times of about 20ms for the auto focus and a simplified mechanical system design leading to lower production cost and longer life time. The camera system has a mechanical outline of 24mm in length and 8mm in diameter. The lens with f/# 3.5 provides market relevant optical performance and is designed for an image circle of 6.25mm (1/2.8" format sensor).

  11. Efficiency of liquid culture systems over conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common methods of micropropagation involve the proliferation of shoots via a semi solid system. While such semi solid systems have been moderately to highly successful in terms of multiplication yields, it has become increasingly important to improve productivity and reduce the time taken to multiply ...

  12. Study of open systems with molecules in isotropic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yasushi; Matsuzaki, Masayuki

    2018-05-01

    We are interested in dynamics of a system in an environment, or an open system. Such phenomena as crossover from Markovian to non-Markovian relaxation and thermal equilibration are of our interest. Open systems have experimentally been studied with ultra cold atoms, ions in traps, optics, and cold electric circuits because well-isolated systems can be prepared here and thus the effects of environments can be controlled. We point out that some molecules solved in isotropic liquid are well isolated and thus they can also be employed for studying open systems in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments. First, we provide a short review on related phenomena of open systems that helps readers to understand our motivation. We, then, present two experiments as examples of our approach with molecules in isotropic liquids. Crossover from Markovian to non-Markovian relaxation was realized in one NMR experiment, while relaxation-like phenomena were observed in approximately isolated systems in the other.

  13. Advanced liquid radwaste decontamination by using a centrifuge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscheschlok, K.; Szukala, M.

    1999-01-01

    Waste water streams basically include undissolved suspended solids which contain almost the main part of the activated products. The centrifuge system, called LRS (Liquid Radwaste Treatment System), is able to remove these solids from the liquid content and fills the dewatered product into disposal containers. For this purpose a chemical pre-treatment step is often used for selective precipitation of special radionuclides and flocculents to agglomerate smaller sized particles (colloids) to make them separatable with the LRS. The plant arrangement, the process optimization and the collected operational experiences are described. 2 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  14. A magnetic suspension system for measuring liquid density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Centeno González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Density is a derived quantity of mass and length; it is defined as mass per volume unit and its SI unit is kg/m3. National metrology institutes have been designing and building their own magnetic suspension systems during the last 5 decades for making fluid density measurements; this has allowed them to carry out research into liquids and gases’ physical characteristics. This paper was aimed at designing and developing a magnetic suspension system for a magnetic balance used in determining liquid density to be used in CENAM’s metrology density laboratories.

  15. Continuous liquid level monitoring sensor system using fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Dipankar; Kishore, Putha

    2014-01-01

    The design and packaging of simple, small, and low cost sensor heads, used for continuous liquid level measurement using uniformly thinned (etched) optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are proposed. The sensor system consists of only an FBG and a simple detection system. The sensitivity of sensor is found to be 23 pm/cm of water column pressure. A linear optical fiber edge filter is designed and developed for the conversion of Bragg wavelength shift to its equivalent intensity. The result shows that relative power measured by a photo detector is linearly proportional to the liquid level. The obtained sensitivity of the sensor is nearly -15 mV/cm.

  16. A single-chip computer analysis system for liquid fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongming; Wu Ruisheng; Li Bin

    1998-01-01

    The single-chip computer analysis system for liquid fluorescence is an intelligent analytic instrument, which is based on the principle that the liquid containing hydrocarbons can give out several characteristic fluorescences when irradiated by strong light. Besides a single-chip computer, the system makes use of the keyboard and the calculation and printing functions of a CASIO printing calculator. It combines optics, mechanism and electronics into one, and is small, light and practical, so it can be used for surface water sample analysis in oil field and impurity analysis of other materials

  17. Systemic Liquidity Shocks and Banking Sector Liquidity Characteristics on the Eve of Liquidity Coverage Ratio Application - The Case of the Czech Republic1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brůna Karel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of the economic and regulatory concept of bank liquidity in the context of systemic liquidity shock. A formal model analysis shows that the application of liquidity coverage ratio (LCR based on Basel III will lead to a significant adaptation of banks liquidity management. LCR causes a change in bank’s liquidity allocation and funding to be less effective and more costly and restrictive for providing credits comparing with economic determinants. It is demonstrated that the application of LCR underestimates actual liquidity position of a bank and leads to allocation ineffectiveness. The empirical part contains simulation of impacts of systemic liquidity shock on the banking sector’s ability to withstand the unfavourable credit shock while solvency is maintained. The results confirm the robustness of the Czech banking system ensuing from the systemic surplus of liquidity, high volume of bank capital and its high profitability. The estimations of the VAR model show that the relations between liquidity characteristics of banks, sources of aggregate liquidity shock, interbank market illiquidity and the credit facilities of the Czech National Bank are relatively weak, supporting the conclusion that the banks face liquidity shocks of non-persistent character.

  18. Liquid Nitrogen (Oxygen Simulant) Thermodynamic Vent System Test Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Tucker, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    In designing systems for the long-term storage of cryogens in low-gravity (space) environments, one must consider the effects of thermal stratification on tank pressure that will occur due to environmental heat leaks. During low-gravity operations, a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure without propellant resettling. A series of TVS tests was conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using liquid nitrogen (LN2) as a liquid oxygen (LO2) simulant. The tests were performed at tank til1 levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%, and with a specified tank pressure control band. A transient one-dimensional TVS performance program is used to analyze and correlate the test data for all three fill levels. Predictions and comparisons of ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature with test data are presented.

  19. The liquid helium system of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, J.M.; Bollinger, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Starting in 1978 with one small refrigerator and distribution line, the LHe system of ATLAS has gradually grown into a complex network, as required by several enlargements of the superconducting linac. The cryogenic system now comprises 3 refrigerators, 11 helium compressors, /approximately/340 ft. of coaxial LHe transfer line, 3 1000-l dewars, and /approximately/76 LHe valves that deliver steady-state flowing LHe to 16 beam-line cryostats. In normal operation, the 3 refrigerators are linked so as to provide cooling where needed. LHe heat exchangers in distribution lines play an important role. This paper discusses design features of the system, including the logic of the controls that permit the coupled refrigerators to operate stably in the presence of large and sudden changes in heat load. 8 refs., 3 figs

  20. The finite-size effect in thin liquid crystal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa, I.

    2018-05-01

    Effects of surface ordering in liquid crystal systems confined between cell plates are of great theoretical and experimental interest. Liquid crystals introduced in thin cells are known to be strongly stabilized and ordered by cell plates. We introduce a new theoretical method for analyzing the effect of surfaces on local molecular ordering in thin liquid crystal systems with planar geometry of the smectic layers. Our results show that, due to the interplay between pair long-range intermolecular forces and nonlocal, relatively short-range, surface interactions, both orientational and translational orders of liquid crystal molecules across confining cells are very complex. In particular, it is demonstrated that the SmA, nematic, and isotropic phases can coexist. The phase transitions from SmA to nematic, as well as from nematic to isotropic phases, occur not simultaneously in the whole volume of the system but begin to appear locally in some regions of the LC sample. Phase transition temperatures are demonstrated to be strongly affected by the thickness of the LC system. The dependence of the corresponding shifts of phase transition temperatures on the layer number is shown to exhibit a power law character. This new type of scaling behavior is concerned with the coexistence of local phases in finite systems. The influence of a specific character of interactions of molecules with surfaces and other molecules on values of the resulting critical exponents is also analyzed.

  1. Measured performance of four PWR liquid radioactive waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Mandler, J.W.; Stalker, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study of the liquid radwaste treatment and boron recovery systems of four operating PWR power plants. The performance of a given system was determined from measurements of radionuclide inventories in samples drawn from demineralizers, evaporators, filters, and gaseous cleanup systems. The plants at which measurements were made are Fort Calhoun, Zion 1 and 2, Turkey Point 3 and 4, and Rancho Seco

  2. Thaw flow control for liquid heat transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpich, Aaron S.

    1989-01-01

    In a liquid metal heat transport system including a source of thaw heat for use in a space reactor power system, the thaw flow throttle or control comprises a fluid passage having forward and reverse flow sections and a partition having a plurality of bleed holes therein to enable fluid flow between the forward and reverse sections. The flow throttle is positioned in the system relatively far from the source of thaw heat.

  3. Liquid Nitrogen (Oxygen Simulent) Thermodynamic Venting System Test Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Tucker, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    In designing systems for the long-term storage of cryogens in low gravity space environments, one must consider the effects of thermal stratification on excessive tank pressure that will occur due to environmental heat leakage. During low gravity operations, a Thermodynamic Venting System (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure without propellant resettling. The TVS consists of a recirculation pump, Joule-Thomson (J-T) expansion valve, and a parallel flow concentric tube heat exchanger combined with a longitudinal spray bar. Using a small amount of liquid extracted by the pump and passing it though the J-T valve, then through the heat exchanger, the bulk liquid and ullage are cooled, resulting in lower tank pressure. A series of TVS tests were conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center using liquid nitrogen as a liquid oxygen simulant. The tests were performed at fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25% with gaseous nitrogen and helium pressurants, and with a tank pressure control band of 7 kPa. A transient one-dimensional model of the TVS is used to analyze the data. The code is comprised of four models for the heat exchanger, the spray manifold and injector tubes, the recirculation pump, and the tank. The TVS model predicted ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature are compared with data. Details of predictions and comparisons with test data regarding pressure rise and collapse rates will be presented in the final paper.

  4. Unimolecular Solvolyses in Ionic Liquid: Alcohol Dual Solvent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D. Kochly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken of the solvolysis of pivaloyl triflate in a variety of ionic liquid:alcohol solvent mixtures. The solvolysis is a kΔ process (i.e., a process in which ionization occurs with rearrangement, and the resulting rearranged carbocation intermediate reacts with the alcohol cosolvent via two competing pathways: nucleophilic attack or elimination of a proton. Five different ionic liquids and three different alcohol cosolvents were investigated to give a total of fifteen dual solvent systems. 1H-NMR analysis was used to determine relative amounts of elimination and substitution products. It was found, not surprisingly, that increasing the bulkiness of alcohol cosolvent led to increased elimination product. The change in the amount of elimination product with increasing ionic liquid concentration, however, varied greatly between ionic liquids. These differences correlate strongly, though not completely, to the Kamlet–Taft solvatochromic parameters of the hydrogen bond donating and accepting ability of the solvent systems. An additional factor playing into these differences is the bulkiness of the ionic liquid anion.

  5. Expert system for liquid low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework

  6. System of liquid thermostatic control for jet experiments on NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selivanov, S.I.; Bogatkin, R.A.; Ershov, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    The system of liquid thermostating of a sensor of NMR spectrometer, used as a registering device in the method of continuous and interrupting stream, is described. Such method of thermostating permits to make kinetic measurements in the temperature range from -40 to +60 deg C with the accuracy +-0.1 deg C and removes the necessity for applying secondary temperature NMR standards

  7. An integrated calibration system for liquid argon calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Marschalkowski, E; Mense, T; Nürnberger, H A; Schäfer, U

    1999-01-01

    A novel technical solution for an integrated version of the pulse generator of a calibration system for liquid argon calorimeters is presented. It consists of a differential amplifier with automatic offset compensation, a current mirror and a switching logic. These components are integrated on an ASIC chip in CMOS technology. The technical realisation as well as results on the performance are presented. (author)

  8. Liquid scintillation counting system with automatic gain correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    An automatic liquid scintillation counting apparatus is described including a scintillating medium in the elevator ram of the sample changing apparatus. An appropriate source of radiation, which may be the external source for standardizing samples, produces reference scintillations in the scintillating medium which may be used for correction of the gain of the counting system

  9. An Integrated Approach Using Liquid Culture System Can it Make ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic dilemma is a common problem faced as culture and polymerase chain reaction results vary in their sensitivity and specificity. A thorough knowledge of epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, and spectrum of the disease and importance of including liquid culture system for the diagnosis of this disease are ...

  10. Microcomputer-aided monitor for liquid hydrogen target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitami, T.; Watanabe, K.

    1983-03-01

    A microcomputer-aided monitor for a liquid hydrogen target system has been designed and tested. Various kinds of input data such as temperature, pressure, vacuum, etc. are scanned in a given time interval. Variation with time in any four items can be displayed on CRT and, if neccessary, printed out on a sheet of recording paper. (author)

  11. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Rigo, E.C.S.; Fraga, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  12. Role of an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl sulfate in extraction studies of gadolinium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Kamalika [Calcutta Univ., Kolkata (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Wolterbeek, H.T. [Technical Univ. Delft (NL). Section RIH (Radiation and Isotopes in Health)

    2012-07-01

    The room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl sulfate was studied for its extraction behavior for {sup 159}Gd in an environmentally benign liquid-liquid extraction system. The gadolinium oxide when dissolved in nitric acid and extracted in an RTIL/dextran biphasic system, was found to get completely extracted in the IL phase. The otherwise difficult to dissolve gadolinium oxide was found to have some solubility in the IL studied. Biphasic systems consisting of IL/dextran and certain IL/salt were studied for the extraction behavior of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} dissolved in the above RTIL. A similar experiment was also done with acid-dissolved gadolinium oxide for comparison. (orig.)

  13. Alkyl-halogenide promoted ionic liquid catalysis of isobutane/butene-alkylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilder, L.; Korth, W.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    The effect of two different types of promoters on the performance of Lewis-acidic chloroaluminate ionic liquid catalysts was studied for liquid liquid biphasic isobutane/2-butene alkylation. In particular, the activity and selectivity of such catalytic systems was investigated. Experimental results obtained from a batch reactor show, that tert-butyl halides increase the reaction rate significantly and shift the C8-selectivity towards the desired high-octane trimethylpentanes (TMPs). But, secondary reactions like oligomerization and cracking are not affected by the use of these promoters. (orig.)

  14. Experimental study on desulfurization efficiency and gas-liquid mass transfer in a new liquid-screen desulfurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhongwei; Wang, Shengwei; Zhou, Qulan; Hui, Shi'en

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new liquid-screen gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern with discarded carbide slag as the liquid sorbent of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system. On the basis of experimental data, the correlations of the desulfurization efficiency with flue gas flow rate, slurry flow rate, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio were investigated. A non-dimensional empirical model was developed which correlates the mass transfer coefficient with the liquid Reynolds number, gas Reynolds number and liquid-gas ratio (L/G) based on the available experimental data. The kinetic reaction between the SO 2 and the carbide slag depends on the pressure distribution in this desulfurizing tower, gas liquid flow field, flue gas component, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio mainly. The transient gas-liquid mass transfer involving with chemical reaction was quantified by measuring the inlet and outlet SO 2 concentrations of flue gas as well as the characteristics of the liquid-screen two-phase flow. The mass transfer model provides a necessary quantitative understanding of the hydration kinetics of sulfur dioxide in the liquid-screen flue gas desulfurization system using discarded carbide slag which is essential for the practical application. (author)

  15. A broadband helical saline water liquid antenna for wearable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaosheng; Huang, Yi; Gao, Gui; Yang, Cheng; Lu, Zhonghao; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A broadband helical liquid antenna made of saline water is proposed. A transparent hollow support is employed to fabricate the antenna. The rotation structure is fabricated with a thin flexible tube. The saline water with a concentration of 3.5% can be injected into or be extracted out from the tube to change the quantity of the solution. Thus, the tunability of the radiation pattern could be realised by applying the fluidity of the liquid. The radiation feature of the liquid antenna is compared with that of a metal one, and fairly good agreement has been achieved. Furthermore, three statements of the radiation performance corresponding to the ratio of the diameter to the wavelength of the helical saline water antenna have been proposed. It has been found that the resonance frequency increases when the length of the feeding probe or the radius of the vertical part of the liquid decreases. The fractional bandwidth can reach over 20% with a total height of 185 mm at 1.80 GHz. The measured results indicate reasonable approximation to the simulated. The characteristics of the liquid antenna make it a good candidate for various wireless applications, especially the wearable systems.

  16. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    % after implementations of this method in March 2000. However, failures of instrumentation and control system components led to additional plant down time and damage to the bearings and seals. The enthalpy and pressure of well 103 declined substantially from the inception of the project. When the project was started the wellhead pressure and enthalpy were 760 psig and 882 Btu/lb respectively. At the time the plant was placed in standby the corresponding values were only 525 psig and 658 Btu/lb. This reduced the available plant power to only 400 kWe making the project economically unfeasible. However, replacement of the existing rotor with the Dual Pressure Rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals will enable the existing Biphase turbine to produce 1190 kWe at the present well conditions without the backpressure steam turbine. Operation with the present staff can then be sustained by selling power under the existing Agreement with CFE. Implementation of this option is recommended with operation of the facility to continue as a demonstration plant. Biphase turbine theory, design and performance are reported herein. The construction of the Biphase turbine and power plant and operational experience are detailed. Improvements in the Biphase turbine are indicated and analyzed. The impact of Biphase techonology on geothermal power production is discussed and recommendations made.

  17. Volume fraction prediction in biphasic flow using nuclear technique and artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Cesar M.; Brandao, Luis E.B., E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The volume fraction is one of the most important parameters used to characterize air-liquid two-phase flows. It is a physical value to determine other parameters, such as the phase's densities and to determine the flow rate of each phase. These parameters are important to predict the flow pattern and to determine a mathematical model for the system. To study, for example, heat transfer and pressure drop. This work presents a methodology for volume fractions prediction in water-gas stratified flow regime using the nuclear technique and artificial intelligence. The volume fractions calculate in biphasic flow systems is complex and the analysis by means of analytical equations becomes very difficult. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means of the artificial neural network. The detection system uses appropriate broad beam geometry, comprised of a ({sup 137}Cs) energy gamma-ray source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in order measure transmitted beam whose the counts rates are influenced by the phases composition. These distributions are directly used by the network without any parameterization of the measured signal. The ideal and static theoretical models for stratified regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the network. The detector also was modeled with this code and the results were compared to experimental photopeak efficiency measurements of radiation sources. The proposed network could obtain with satisfactory prediction of the volume fraction in water-gas system, demonstrating to be a promising approach for this purpose. (author)

  18. Volume fraction prediction in biphasic flow using nuclear technique and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Cesar M.; Brandao, Luis E.B.

    2015-01-01

    The volume fraction is one of the most important parameters used to characterize air-liquid two-phase flows. It is a physical value to determine other parameters, such as the phase's densities and to determine the flow rate of each phase. These parameters are important to predict the flow pattern and to determine a mathematical model for the system. To study, for example, heat transfer and pressure drop. This work presents a methodology for volume fractions prediction in water-gas stratified flow regime using the nuclear technique and artificial intelligence. The volume fractions calculate in biphasic flow systems is complex and the analysis by means of analytical equations becomes very difficult. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means of the artificial neural network. The detection system uses appropriate broad beam geometry, comprised of a ( 137 Cs) energy gamma-ray source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in order measure transmitted beam whose the counts rates are influenced by the phases composition. These distributions are directly used by the network without any parameterization of the measured signal. The ideal and static theoretical models for stratified regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the network. The detector also was modeled with this code and the results were compared to experimental photopeak efficiency measurements of radiation sources. The proposed network could obtain with satisfactory prediction of the volume fraction in water-gas system, demonstrating to be a promising approach for this purpose. (author)

  19. Construction and implementation of a liquid scintillation TDCR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yongle; Liang Juncheng; Liu Jiacheng; Yang Yuandi; Yuan Daqing

    2012-01-01

    The triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method is an absolute measurement method of radioactivity, and is a popular technique for the standardization of pure beta radionuclides. A triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) liquid scintillation counting system has been constructed in China. A description of the system and measured activities for sources such as 3 H and 99 Te are presented. (authors)

  20. Analytical concepts for health management systems of liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Tulpule, Sharayu; Hawman, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Substantial improvement in health management systems performance can be realized by implementing advanced analytical methods of processing existing liquid rocket engine sensor data. In this paper, such techniques ranging from time series analysis to multisensor pattern recognition to expert systems to fault isolation models are examined and contrasted. The performance of several of these methods is evaluated using data from test firings of the Space Shuttle main engines.

  1. Glass and liquid phase diagram of a polyamorphic monatomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Shaina; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2013-02-01

    We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a monatomic system with Fermi-Jagla (FJ) pair potential interactions. This model system exhibits polyamorphism both in the liquid and glass state. The two liquids, low-density (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL), are accessible in equilibrium MD simulations and can form two glasses, low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) solid, upon isobaric cooling. The FJ model exhibits many of the anomalous properties observed in water and other polyamorphic liquids and thus, it is an excellent model system to explore qualitatively the thermodynamic properties of such substances. The liquid phase behavior of the FJ model system has been previously characterized. In this work, we focus on the glass behavior of the FJ system. Specifically, we perform systematic isothermal compression and decompression simulations of LDA and HDA at different temperatures and determine "phase diagrams" for the glass state; these phase diagrams varying with the compression/decompression rate used. We obtain the LDA-to-HDA and HDA-to-LDA transition pressure loci, PLDA-HDA(T) and PHDA-LDA(T), respectively. In addition, the compression-induced amorphization line, at which the low-pressure crystal (LPC) transforms to HDA, PLPC-HDA(T), is determined. As originally proposed by Poole et al. [Phys. Rev. E 48, 4605 (1993)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.4605 simulations suggest that the PLDA-HDA(T) and PHDA-LDA(T) loci are extensions of the LDL-to-HDL and HDL-to-LDL spinodal lines into the glass domain. Interestingly, our simulations indicate that the PLPC-HDA(T) locus is an extension, into the glass domain, of the LPC metastability limit relative to the liquid. We discuss the effects of compression/decompression rates on the behavior of the PLDA-HDA(T), PHDA-LDA(T), PLPC-HDA(T) loci. The competition between glass polyamorphism and crystallization is also addressed. At our "fast rate," crystallization can be partially suppressed and the

  2. Lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour in amphiphile-protic ionic liquid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengfei; Greaves, Tamar L; Fong, Celesta; Caruso, Rachel A; Drummond, Calum J

    2012-03-21

    Approximate partial phase diagrams for nine amphiphile-protic ionic liquid (PIL) systems have been determined by synchrotron source small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and cross polarised optical microscopy. The binary phase diagrams of some common cationic (hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, CTAC, and hexadecylpyridinium bromide, HDPB) and nonionic (polyoxyethylene (10) oleyl ether, Brij 97, and Pluronic block copolymer, P123) amphiphiles with the PILs, ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), ethanolammonium nitrate (EOAN) and diethanolammonium formate (DEOAF), have been studied. The phase diagrams were constructed for concentrations from 10 wt% to 80 wt% amphiphile, in the temperature range 25 °C to >100 °C. Lyotropic liquid crystalline phases (hexagonal, cubic and lamellar) were formed at high surfactant concentrations (typically >50 wt%), whereas at thermal stability of the phases formed by these surfactants persisted to temperatures above 100 °C. The phase behaviour of amphiphile-PIL systems was interpreted by considering the PIL cohesive energy, liquid nanoscale order, polarity and ionicity. For comparison the phase behaviour of the four amphiphiles was also studied in water.

  3. The liquid lithium limiter control system on FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertocchi, A. [EURATOM-ENEA Association, Frascati Research Center, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)], E-mail: bertocchi@frascati.enea.it; Di Donna, M [Department of Informatics, Systems and Productions, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Panella, M; Vitale, V [EURATOM-ENEA Association, Frascati Research Center, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    In the second half of 2005, a liquid lithium limiter (LLL) with capillary porous system (CPS) configuration was installed to test on Tokamak FTU. The liquid lithium flows through capillaries from a reservoir to the side faced to the plasma to form a thin lithium film as wall coating. The system includes three stainless steel cases, which contain two thermocouples each one. A heating system brings the Li temperature about 200 deg. C to allow the liquid to flow. This temperature, monitored by thermocouples, needs to be controlled. To carry out this experimental procedure, some new features have been introduced in the existent control system based on Opto22{sup TM} modules and a CORBA/PHP/MySQL software architecture. The historical data storage to keep the lithium temperature evolution has been added. Two graphical tools - developed in MATLAB{sup TM} and Java environments, respectively, to monitor the lithium temperature coming from thermocouples - have been also implemented. The LLL control system allows to regulate the heater temperature in each unit to reach operational conditions, where the temperature adjustment can be performed either automatically through a specific control law or manually by the operator. During the plasma shot the system switches off the limiter power supply to prevent instruments damage. Moreover, in the same experimental context, a first approach to automatically obtain executable code - starting from control laws designed by Simulink{sup TM} tool - has been realized.

  4. The liquid lithium limiter control system on FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertocchi, A.; Di Donna, M.; Panella, M.; Vitale, V.

    2007-01-01

    In the second half of 2005, a liquid lithium limiter (LLL) with capillary porous system (CPS) configuration was installed to test on Tokamak FTU. The liquid lithium flows through capillaries from a reservoir to the side faced to the plasma to form a thin lithium film as wall coating. The system includes three stainless steel cases, which contain two thermocouples each one. A heating system brings the Li temperature about 200 deg. C to allow the liquid to flow. This temperature, monitored by thermocouples, needs to be controlled. To carry out this experimental procedure, some new features have been introduced in the existent control system based on Opto22 TM modules and a CORBA/PHP/MySQL software architecture. The historical data storage to keep the lithium temperature evolution has been added. Two graphical tools - developed in MATLAB TM and Java environments, respectively, to monitor the lithium temperature coming from thermocouples - have been also implemented. The LLL control system allows to regulate the heater temperature in each unit to reach operational conditions, where the temperature adjustment can be performed either automatically through a specific control law or manually by the operator. During the plasma shot the system switches off the limiter power supply to prevent instruments damage. Moreover, in the same experimental context, a first approach to automatically obtain executable code - starting from control laws designed by Simulink TM tool - has been realized

  5. Liquid Cooling System for CPU by Electroconjugate Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Sakurai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dissipated power of CPU for personal computer has been increased because the performance of personal computer becomes higher. Therefore, a liquid cooling system has been employed in some personal computers in order to improve their cooling performance. Electroconjugate fluid (ECF is one of the functional fluids. ECF has a remarkable property that a strong jet flow is generated between electrodes when a high voltage is applied to ECF through the electrodes. By using this strong jet flow, an ECF-pump with simple structure, no sliding portion, no noise, and no vibration seems to be able to be developed. And then, by the use of the ECF-pump, a new liquid cooling system by ECF seems to be realized. In this study, to realize this system, an ECF-pump is proposed and fabricated to investigate the basic characteristics of the ECF-pump experimentally. Next, by utilizing the ECF-pump, a model of a liquid cooling system by ECF is manufactured and some experiments are carried out to investigate the performance of this system. As a result, by using this system, the temperature of heat source of 50 W is kept at 60°C or less. In general, CPU is usually used at this temperature or less.

  6. Improved liquid waste processing system of PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Kazuyasu

    1977-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has engaged in the improvement and enhancement of waste-processing facilities for PWR power stations, and recently established the improved processing system. With this system, it becomes possible to contain radioactive waste gas semi-permanently within plants and to recycle waste liquid after the treatment, thus to make the release of radioactive wastes practically zero. The improved system has the following features, namely the recycling system is adopted, drain is separated and each separated drain is treated by specialized process, the reboiler type evaporator and the reverse osmosis equipment are used, and the leakless construction is adopted for the equipments. The radioactive liquid wastes in PWR power stations are classified into coolant drain, drain from general equipments, chemical drain and cleaning water. The outline of the improved processing system and the newly developed equipments such as the reboiler type evaporator and the reverse osmosis equipment are explained. With the evaporator, the concentration rate of waste liquid can be raised to about three times, and foaming waste can be treated efficiently. The decontamination performance is excellent. The reverse osmosis treatment is stable and reliable method, and is useful for the treatment of cleaning water. It is also effective for concentrating treatment. The unmanned automatic operation is possible. (Kako, I.)

  7. The Liquid Lithium Limiter control system on FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertocchi, A.; Panella, M.; Vitale, V.; Sinibaldi, S.

    2006-01-01

    In the second half of 2005, a liquid lithium limiter (LLL) with capillary porous system configuration was installed for testing on the FTU tokamak. The liquid lithium flows through capillaries from a reservoir to the side facing the plasma to form a thin liquid lithium film. The system is composed of three stainless steel sections, which contain two thermocouples each. A heating system brings the Li temperature to about 200 o C allowing the liquid to flow. This temperature, monitored by thermocouples, needs to be controlled. [M. Apicella, G. Mazzitelli et al., First experiment with Lithium Limiter on FTU, 17 o International Conference on Plasma Surface Interaction in Controlled Fusion Devices, 22 - 26 May 2006, Hefei Anhui, China]. To carry out this experimental procedure, some new features have been introduced in the existent control system based on Opto22 TM modules and a CORBA/PHP/MySQL software architecture [A. Bertocchi, S. Podda, V. Vitale, Fusion Eng. Des. 74 (2005) 787-791]. The historical data storage to keep the lithium temperature evolution has been added. Two graphical tools - developed in MATLab and Java environments respectively to monitor the lithium temperature coming from thermocouples - have been also implemented. The control system allows regulating the heater temperature in each section of the LLL to reach operational conditions, where the temperature adjustment can be performed either automatically through a specific control law or manually by the operator. During plasma operations the system switches off the limiter power supply to prevent instruments damage. Moreover, in the same experimental context, a first approach to automatically obtain executable code - starting from control laws designed by Simulink TM tool - has been realized. (author)

  8. The Liquid Lithium Limiter control system on FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertocchi, A; Panella, M; Vitale, V [Associazione EURATOM- ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Sinibaldi, S [Rome University ' ' Tor Vergata ' ' , Informatics, Systems and Production Dept., Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In the second half of 2005, a liquid lithium limiter (LLL) with capillary porous system configuration was installed for testing on the FTU tokamak. The liquid lithium flows through capillaries from a reservoir to the side facing the plasma to form a thin liquid lithium film. The system is composed of three stainless steel sections, which contain two thermocouples each. A heating system brings the Li temperature to about 200 {sup o}C allowing the liquid to flow. This temperature, monitored by thermocouples, needs to be controlled. [M. Apicella, G. Mazzitelli et al., First experiment with Lithium Limiter on FTU, 17{sup o} International Conference on Plasma Surface Interaction in Controlled Fusion Devices, 22 - 26 May 2006, Hefei Anhui, China]. To carry out this experimental procedure, some new features have been introduced in the existent control system based on Opto22{sup TM} modules and a CORBA/PHP/MySQL software architecture [A. Bertocchi, S. Podda, V. Vitale, Fusion Eng. Des. 74 (2005) 787-791]. The historical data storage to keep the lithium temperature evolution has been added. Two graphical tools - developed in MATLab and Java environments respectively to monitor the lithium temperature coming from thermocouples - have been also implemented. The control system allows regulating the heater temperature in each section of the LLL to reach operational conditions, where the temperature adjustment can be performed either automatically through a specific control law or manually by the operator. During plasma operations the system switches off the limiter power supply to prevent instruments damage. Moreover, in the same experimental context, a first approach to automatically obtain executable code - starting from control laws designed by Simulink{sup TM} tool - has been realized. (author)

  9. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium for binary systems of N-formylmorpholine with alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengrong; Xia Shuqian; Ma Peisheng; Liu Tao; Han Kewei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The LLE data of four binary systems containing N-formylmorpholine were measured. ► Both NRTL and UNIQUAC models can fit the experimental data well. ► The new group interaction parameters of UNIFAC (Do) were regressed from the LLE data. ► The estimated result shows that the group interaction parameters and methods are reliable. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data were determined for four binary systems containing N-formylmorpholine (NFM) and alkanes (3-methylpentane, heptane, nonane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) over the temperature range from around 300 K to near 420 K using a set of newly designed equilibrium equipment. The compositions of both light and heavy phases were analyzed by gas chromatography. The mutual solubility increased as the temperature increased for all these systems. The binary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data were correlated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations with temperature-dependent parameters. Both models correlate the experimental results well. Furthermore, the UNIFAC (Do) group contribution model was used to correlate and estimate the LLE data for NFM containing systems. Two methods of group division for NFM were used. NFM is treated as a single group: NFM group (method I) or divided into two groups: CHO and C 4 H 8 NO (method II), respectively. The group interaction parameters for CH 2 –NFM, or CH 2 –CHO and CH 2 –C 4 H 8 NO were fitted from the experimental LLE data. The UNIFAC (Do) model correlates the experimental data well. In addition, in order to develop UNIFAC (Do) group contribution model to estimate the LLE data of (NFM + cycloalkane) systems, some literature LLE data were used. The group interaction parameters for c-CH 2 –NFM, c-CH 2 –CHO and c-CH 2 –C 4 H 8 NO were correlated. Then these group interaction parameters were used to estimate the phase equilibrium data of binary systems in the literature by the UNIFAC (Do) model. The results showed that the estimated values are in

  10. Development of a numerical simulator to control the liquid level of a subsea separator system; Dsenvolvimento de simulador numerico para controle de nivel de um sistema de separacao submarina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiguemoto, Denis; Rodrigues, Vinicius Mastelaro [DPR Engenharia, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tsukada, Raphael; Mendes, Jose Ricardo Palaquim [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Serapiao, Adriane Beatriz de Souza [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Estevam, Valdir [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The challenges posed by recent discoveries of oil accumulations at bigger distances from the cost and ultra deep water depths (above 2500 meters) have stimulated the development of technologies and equipment to overcome these challenges. A major technological issue is the need for larger vessels capable of withstanding the weight of installed equipment and pipe production, which significantly increase the manufacturing cost which is already of the order of billions of dollars. The oil industry has focused efforts on developing solutions aimed to reduce weight installed on production platforms. In this context the Subsea Separation Systems was developed in order to carry out the primary processing under the water, thereby reducing the processing plant installed in the oil production platforms. It is a biphasic (liquid and gas) separator that sends the phases to the platform by means of independent pipes. This paper presents a numerical simulator developed to understand the behavior of the liquid level inside the Subsea Separations Systems for its operating conditions. A control system for liquid level was tested and evaluated considering the behavior of fluids within the Subsea Separation System and the pipes that carry them to the production unit. The numerical simulator developed allows a quick and practical understanding of the behavior of the liquid level inside the equipment and also the behavior of pressure and flow within the production pipe which produce benefits for the development design. (author)

  11. Liquid gating elastomeric porous system with dynamically controllable gas/liquid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zhizhi; Wang, Honglong; Tang, Yongliang; Wang, Miao; Huang, Lizhi; Min, Lingli; Meng, Haiqiang; Chen, Songyue; Jiang, Lei; Hou, Xu

    2018-02-01

    The development of membrane technology is central to fields ranging from resource harvesting to medicine, but the existing designs are unable to handle the complex sorting of multiphase substances required for many systems. Especially, the dynamic multiphase transport and separation under a steady-state applied pressure have great benefits for membrane science, but have not been realized at present. Moreover, the incorporation of precisely dynamic control with avoidance of contamination of membranes remains elusive. We show a versatile strategy for creating elastomeric microporous membrane-based systems that can finely control and dynamically modulate the sorting of a wide range of gases and liquids under a steady-state applied pressure, nearly eliminate fouling, and can be easily applied over many size scales, pressures, and environments. Experiments and theoretical calculation demonstrate the stability of our system and the tunability of the critical pressure. Dynamic transport of gas and liquid can be achieved through our gating interfacial design and the controllable pores' deformation without changing the applied pressure. Therefore, we believe that this system will bring new opportunities for many applications, such as gas-involved chemical reactions, fuel cells, multiphase separation, multiphase flow, multiphase microreactors, colloidal particle synthesis, and sizing nano/microparticles.

  12. Prediction of (liquid + liquid) equilibrium for binary and ternary systems containing ionic liquids with the bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide anion using the ASOG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Pedro A.; Cisternas, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ASOG model was used to predict LLE data for ionic liquid systems. • Twenty five binary and seven ternary systems that include the NTf 2 anion were used. • New group interaction parameters were determined. • The results are satisfactory, with rms deviations of about 3%. - Abstract: Ionic liquids are neoteric, environmentally friendly solvents (as they do not produce emissions) composed of large organic cations and relatively small inorganic anions. They have favorable physical properties, such as negligible volatility and a wide range of liquid existence. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for systems including ionic liquids, although essential for the design, optimization and operation of separation processes, remain scarce. However, some recent studies have presented ternary LLE data involving several ionic liquids and organic compounds such as alkanes, alkenes, alkanols, ethers and aromatics, as well as water. In this work, the ASOG model for the activity coefficient is used to predict LLE data for 25 binary and 07 ternary systems at 101.3 kPa and several temperatures; all the systems are formed by ionic liquids including the bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (NTf 2 ) anion plus alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, alkanols, water, thiophene and aromatics. New group interaction parameters were determined using a modified Simplex method, minimizing a composition-based objective function of experimental data obtained from the literature. The results are satisfactory, with rms deviations of approximately 3%

  13. Microcontroller based automatic liquid poison addition control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapatral, R.S.; Ananthakrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Microcontrollers are finding increasing applications in instrumentation where complex digital circuits can be substituted by a compact and simple circuit, thus enhancing the reliability. In addition to this, intelligence and flexibility can be incorporated. For applications not requiring large amount of read/write memory (RAM), microcontrollers are ideally suited since they contain programmable memory (Eprom), parallel input/output lines, data memory, programmable timers and serial interface ports in one chip. This paper describes the design of automatic liquid poison addition control system (ALPAS) using intel's 8 bit microcontroller 8751, which is used to generate complex timing control sequence signals for liquid poison addition to the moderator in a nuclear reactor. ALPAS monitors digital inputs coming from protection system and regulating system of a nuclear reactor and provides control signals for liquid poison addition for long term safe shutdown of the reactor after reactor trip and helps the regulating system to reduce the power of the reactor during operation. Special hardware and software features have been incorporated to improve performance and fault detection. (author)

  14. Evaluation of a contact device type ejector system for liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwamback, Niomedes

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate an ejector system, operated simultaneously with two immiscible liquid phases and a gas phase, as a contact device for liquid-liquid extraction processes. The ejector, made of perspex, has a variable geometry, although this feature was not explored in the thesis. Motivated by recent uses of liquid-liquid extraction processes for the removal of traces of heavy metal from waste waters, it was decided to carry out tests with synthetic effluents. This strategy, typical of experimental work under evaluation of technical feasibility, greatly simplifies experiments, since the nature of the chemical species involved and their feed concentrations are known exactly and do not fluctuate. The extractant used was DEHPA (diethyl hexyl phosphoric acid). The metal chosen for tests was iron with oxidation number +3, because of its high extraction coefficient towards DEHPA and also for its chemical behavior similar to americium and other heavy metals. In addition to that, iron forms soluble coloured complexes adequate to spectrophotometric determination analysis, a simple, quick and very reliable analytical technique. The effects of electrolytes of interest, namely NaCl, FeSO 4 and Al(NO 3 ) 3 , upon the extraction process were investigated. The effects resulting from the introduction of a gas phase, actually air (bubbles), in the ejector upon the extraction efficiency were studied. By coupling advanced digital photographic technique and image analysis with microcomputer, the bubble mean size was measured. It was then correlated with equipment's geometrical (characteristic diameters) and operational variables (phases' flow rates and gas hold-ups). To enable scale-up procedures, data were preferably correlated by means of dimensionless groups. For the systems and conditions investigated in this thesis and under the same operational conditions, the introduction of air bubbles by means of an ejector has greatly improved the process

  15. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter system for the SLC Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Fox, J.D.; Smith, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the physical packaging and the logical organization of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) electronics system for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC are described. This system processes signals from approximately 44,000 calorimeter towers and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged within the detector itself as opposed to an external electronics support rack. The signal path from the towers in the liquid argon through the vacuum to the outside of the detector is explained. The organization of the control logic, analog electronics, power regulation, analog-to-digital conversion circuits, and fiber optic drivers mounted directly on the detector are described. Redundancy considerations for the electronics and cooling issues are discussed. 12 refs., 5 figs

  16. Scintillation trigger system of the liquid argon neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, S.V.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutnikov, Yu.E.; Denisov, A.G.; Kochetkov, V.I.; Matveev, M.Yu.; Mel'nikov, E.A.; Usachev, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the organization of the Scintillation Trigger System (STS) for the Liquid Argon Neutrino Detector of the Tagged Neutrino Facility. STS is aimed at the effective registration of the needed neutrino interaction type and production of a fast trigger signal with high time resolution. The fast analysis system of analog signal from the trigger scintillation planes for rejection of the trigger signals from background processes is described. Real scintillation trigger planes characteristics obtained on the basis of the presented data acquisition system are shown. 10 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Performance investigation on the ultrasonic atomization liquid desiccant regeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zili; Zhang, Kaisheng; Hwang, Yunho; Lian, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We applied ultrasonic atomization technology to boost liquid desiccant regeneration. • We established a novel UARS and made a thorough study on its performance. • We developed a performance prediction model for UARS and validated its accuracy. • The necessary regeneration temperature dropped significantly (4.4 °C) in UARS. • Energy consumption for regenerating desiccant was reduced greatly (60.4%) in UARS. - Abstract: Liquid desiccant dehumidification systems have accumulated considerable research interest in recent years for their great energy saving potential in buildings. Within the system, the regenerator recovering liquid desiccant plays a major role in its performance. When the ultrasonic atomization technology is applied to atomize the desiccant solution into numerous tiny droplets with diameters around 50 μm, the regeneration process could be greatly enhanced. To validate this approach, a novel ultrasonic atomization liquid desiccant regeneration system (UARS) was studied in this work. An Ideal Regeneration Model (IRM) was developed to predict the regeneration performance of the UARS. Additionally, thorough experiments were carried out to validate the model under different operating conditions of the desiccant solution and air stream. The model predicted values and the experimental results coincided, with the average deviation less than 7.9%. The performance of UARS was compared with other regeneration systems from the open literature, while a case study was conducted for the power consumption and energy saving potential of UARS. It was found that the ultrasonic atomization technology enabled utilization of lower-grade energy for desiccant regeneration with the regeneration temperature lowered as much as 4.4 °C. In addition, a considerable energy saving potential of up to 23.4% could be achieved by the UARS for regenerating per unit mass flow of desiccant solution, while the power consumption of the ultrasonic atomization system

  18. Microscopic Fermi liquid approach to disordered narrow band systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolley, E.; Kolley, W.

    1977-01-01

    A Fermi liquid approach to tightly bound electrons in disordered systems is proposed to evaluate two-particle correlation functions L at T=0 deg K. Starting with a random Hubbard model and using a local ladder approximation in the particle-particle channel the irreducible particle-hole vertex is derived, being the kernel of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for L. CPA vertex corrections to the electrical conductivity and, for the ordered case, the correlation-enhanced paramagnetic susceptibility are calculated

  19. Cryogenic Liquid Sample Acquisition System for Remote Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Trainer, Melissa; Wegel, Don; Hawk, Douglas; Melek, Tony; Johnson, Christopher; Amato, Michael; Galloway, John

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to acquire autonomously cryogenic hydrocarbon liquid sample from remote planetary locations such as the lakes of Titan for instruments such as mass spectrometers. There are several problems that had to be solved relative to collecting the right amount of cryogenic liquid sample into a warmer spacecraft, such as not allowing the sample to boil off or fractionate too early; controlling the intermediate and final pressures within carefully designed volumes; designing for various particulates and viscosities; designing to thermal, mass, and power-limited spacecraft interfaces; and reducing risk. Prior art inlets for similar instruments in spaceflight were designed primarily for atmospheric gas sampling and are not useful for this front-end application. These cryogenic liquid sample acquisition system designs for remote space applications allow for remote, autonomous, controlled sample collections of a range of challenging cryogenic sample types. The design can control the size of the sample, prevent fractionation, control pressures at various stages, and allow for various liquid sample levels. It is capable of collecting repeated samples autonomously in difficult lowtemperature conditions often found in planetary missions. It is capable of collecting samples for use by instruments from difficult sample types such as cryogenic hydrocarbon (methane, ethane, and propane) mixtures with solid particulates such as found on Titan. The design with a warm actuated valve is compatible with various spacecraft thermal and structural interfaces. The design uses controlled volumes, heaters, inlet and vent tubes, a cryogenic valve seat, inlet screens, temperature and cryogenic liquid sensors, seals, and vents to accomplish its task.

  20. On the abundance and general nature of the liquid-liquid phase transition in molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Rei; Tanaka, Hajime

    2005-01-01

    Even a single-component liquid may have more than two kinds of isotropic liquid states. The transition between these different states is called a liquid-liquid transition (LLT). An LLT has been considered to be a rather rare phenomenon, in particular for molecular liquids. Very recently, however, we found an LLT in triphenyl phosphite, which may be the first experimental observation of an LLT for molecular liquids. Here we report convincing evidence of the second example of LLT for another molecular liquid, n-butanol. Despite large differences in the chemical structure and the molecular shape between triphenyl phosphite and n-butanol, the basic features of the transformation kinetics are strikingly similar. This suggests that an LLT may not be a rare phenomenon restricted to specific liquids, but may exist in various molecular liquids, which have a tendency to form long-lived locally favoured structures due to anisotropic interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding). (letter to the editor)

  1. Identification of chemical compounds in a liquid-liquid extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez C, F de M de la.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to identify the chemical compounds that are distributed in a liquid-liquid extraction system in which the third phase is observed; for this purpose the FeCl 3 (0.12M) - HCl (8.43M) - Diisopropilic ether - system was used, for the quantitative determination of the chemical compounds, FeCl 3 solutions labelled with 59 Fe or witH 38 Cl were used; the Karl Fischer method for the determination of the water concentration at the organic phases was used, the obtained data was used for the calculations of the H + distribution in each phase. The results are that when the distribution equilibrium is reached, the aqueous phase is a 7.5M HCl solution; the light organic phase contains 2 H[FeCl 4 ].6H 2 O and the dense organic phase contains 2 H[FeCl 4 ].6H 2 O.3HCl.12H 2 O. The differences between these compounds are due to a high concentration of water and the HCl in the organic solvent. This causes a heterogeneous physic field, and then the third phase formation. (author)

  2. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate one or more drugs or compounds from a...

  3. 21 CFR 862.2260 - High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High pressure liquid chromatography system for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2260 High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A high pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate...

  4. Development of Liquid Propulsion Systems Testbed at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Reginald; Nelson, Graham

    2016-01-01

    As NASA, the Department of Defense and the aerospace industry in general strive to develop capabilities to explore near-Earth, Cis-lunar and deep space, the need to create more cost effective techniques of propulsion system design, manufacturing and test is imperative in the current budget constrained environment. The physics of space exploration have not changed, but the manner in which systems are developed and certified needs to change if there is going to be any hope of designing and building the high performance liquid propulsion systems necessary to deliver crew and cargo to the further reaches of space. To further the objective of developing these systems, the Marshall Space Flight Center is currently in the process of formulating a Liquid Propulsion Systems testbed, which will enable rapid integration of components to be tested and assessed for performance in integrated systems. The manifestation of this testbed is a breadboard engine configuration (BBE) with facility support for consumables and/or other components as needed. The goal of the facility is to test NASA developed elements, but can be used to test articles developed by other government agencies, industry or academia. Joint government/private partnership is likely the approach that will be required to enable efficient propulsion system development. MSFC has recently tested its own additively manufactured liquid hydrogen pump, injector, and valves in a BBE hot firing. It is rapidly building toward testing the pump and a new CH4 injector in the BBE configuration to demonstrate a 22,000 lbf, pump-fed LO2/LCH4 engine for the Mars lander or in-space transportation. The value of having this BBE testbed is that as components are developed they may be easily integrated in the testbed and tested. MSFC is striving to enhance its liquid propulsion system development capability. Rapid design, analysis, build and test will be critical to fielding the next high thrust rocket engine. With the maturity of the

  5. A Historical Systems Study of Liquid Rocket Engine Throttling Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Erin M.; Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive systems study to examine and evaluate throttling capabilities of liquid rocket engines. The focus of this study is on engine components, and how the interactions of these components are considered for throttling applications. First, an assessment of space mission requirements is performed to determine what applications require engine throttling. A background on liquid rocket engine throttling is provided, along with the basic equations that are used to predict performance. Three engines are discussed that have successfully demonstrated throttling. Next, the engine system is broken down into components to discuss special considerations that need to be made for engine throttling. This study focuses on liquid rocket engines that have demonstrated operational capability on American space launch vehicles, starting with the Apollo vehicle engines and ending with current technology demonstrations. Both deep throttling and shallow throttling engines are discussed. Boost and sustainer engines have demonstrated throttling from 17% to 100% thrust, while upper stage and lunar lander engines have demonstrated throttling in excess of 10% to 100% thrust. The key difficulty in throttling liquid rocket engines is maintaining an adequate pressure drop across the injector, which is necessary to provide propellant atomization and mixing. For the combustion chamber, cooling can be an issue at low thrust levels. For turbomachinery, the primary considerations are to avoid cavitation, stall, surge, and to consider bearing leakage flows, rotordynamics, and structural dynamics. For valves, it is necessary to design valves and actuators that can achieve accurate flow control at all thrust levels. It is also important to assess the amount of nozzle flow separation that can be tolerated at low thrust levels for ground testing.

  6. The high pressure electronic control system in liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Stefan; Popeneciu, Gabriel; Toadere, Florin

    2002-01-01

    The Liquid Chromatography system can perform a wide variety of measurements and separations especially for the organic liquids, with maximum applications flexibility for less than half price of Gas Chromatography. The repeatability and accuracy of results in quantitative high pressure liquid chromatography are highly dependent on the reproducibility and accuracy of both integrated flow rate and mobile phase composition. Flow rate fluctuation leads to poor reproducibility in both integrated peak areas and retention times. Similarly, poor control of mobile phase composition will cause poor repeatability of retention time and peak heights. The our Solvent Delivery System SDS 200 is a single pump system which provides precise compensated flow rates from 0.01 to 10 mL/min, selectable upper pressure limits of 0 to 100 bar or 10 to 450 bar, and solvent compressibility correction. Ternary solvent system on-line mixing capability saves time, reduces solvent waste and provides more flexibility for difficult separations. The pump itself has two different displacement pistons which are used alternately on both suction and discharge, so that intake of the solvent are synchronous. The evacuated solvent from the two pump's chambers is mixed in the reference unit and then is supplied to the damping unit for flow ripple reduction. The SDS Electronic Module ensures the functions: controls the programmed flow rate, detects and shows the solvent pressure in solvent, supplies the step motor, measures and limits the solvent pressure. The control panel of SDS 200, contains a two-stages flow decimal programmer, a eight-positions knob for upper pressure limits, an alarm LED and a parallel port for connection to a PC system. (authors)

  7. Temperature control system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1986-10-01

    A temperature-feedback system has been developed for controlling electrical power to liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCM). Software, written for a microcomputer-based data acquisition and process monitoring system, compares glass temperatures with a temperature setpoint and adjusts the electrical power accordingly. Included in the control algorithm are steps to reject failed thermocouples, spatially average the glass temperatures, smooth the averaged temperatures over time using a digital filter, and detect foaming in the glass. The temperature control system has proved effective during all phases of melter operation including startup, steady operation, loss of feed, and shutdown. This system replaces current, power, and resistance feedback control systems used previously in controlling the LFCM process

  8. Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. F.; Figueroa, F.; Politopoulos, T.; Oonk, S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to correctly detect and identify any possible failure in the systems, subsystems, or sensors within a reusable liquid rocket engine is a major goal at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). A health management (HM) system is required to provide an on-ground operation crew with an integrated awareness of the condition of every element of interest by determining anomalies, examining their causes, and making predictive statements. However, the complexity associated with relevant systems, and the large amount of data typically necessary for proper interpretation and analysis, presents difficulties in implementing complete failure detection, identification, and prognostics (FDI&P). As such, this paper presents a Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines as a solution to these problems through the use of highly intelligent algorithms for real-time FDI&P, and efficient and embedded processing at multiple levels. The end result is the ability to successfully incorporate a comprehensive HM platform despite the complexity of the systems under consideration.

  9. Stoichiometric implications of a biphasic life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Scott D; Berven, Keith A; Carmack, Douglas J; Capps, Krista A

    2016-03-01

    Animals mediate flows of elements and energy in ecosystems through processes such as nutrient sequestration in body tissues, and mineralization through excretion. For taxa with biphasic life cycles, the dramatic shifts in anatomy and physiology that occur during ontogeny are expected to be accompanied by changes in body and excreta stoichiometry, but remain little-explored, especially in vertebrates. Here we tested stoichiometric hypotheses related to the bodies and excreta of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) across life stages and during larval development. Per-capita rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion varied widely during larval ontogeny, followed unimodal patterns, and peaked midway through development (Taylor-Kollros stages XV and XII, respectively). Larval mass did not increase steadily during development but peaked at stage XVII and declined until the termination of the experiment at stage XXII. Mass-specific N and P excretion rates of the larvae decreased exponentially during development. When coupled with population-biomass estimates, population-level excretion rates were greatest at stages VIII-X. Percent carbon (C), N, and C:N of body tissue showed weak trends across major life stages; body P and C:P, however, increased sixfold during development from egg to adult. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific ontogenic changes in nutrient contents of excretion and body tissues can be significant, and that N and P are not always excreted proportionally throughout life cycles. These results highlight the dynamic roles that species play in ecosystems, and how the morphological and physiological changes that accompany ontogeny can influence ecosystem-level processes.

  10. Liquid metal liner implosion systems with blade lattice for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki; Fujiie, Yoichi

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the liquid liner implosion systems with the blade lattice is proposed for the rotational stabilization of the liner inner surface which is facing a plasma in a fusion reactor. The blades are electrically conducting and inclined to the radial direction. Its major function is either acceleration or deceleration of the liner in the azimuthal direction. This system enables us to exclude the rotary mechanism for the liner rotation. In this system, the liner is formed as an annular flow of a liquid metal (the waterfall concept). Results show that there is no significant difference of the energy cost for the stabilization compared with the earlier proposed system where a liner is rotated rigidly before implosion. Furthermore, the application of the rotating blade lattice makes it possible to reduce the rotational kinetic energy required for the stabilization at turnaround, where the lattice acts as an impeller in the initial liner rotation. There is an optimum blade angle to maximize the compressed magnetic field energy inside the liner for a given driving energy. (author)

  11. System of the incineration for the liquid scintillation garbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, Katsumi

    1981-12-01

    In Japan from 1980 the incineration of the used scintillation liquid has been permitted according to the safety guide regulation of Japan Scientific Technology Agency. This incineration method would disperse the radioactivity in local site and destroy the chemicals at the same time. This system are consist of three parts. (1) Filtration and pH. adjustment of liquid garbage. (2) Bubbling vaporization in closed cycle. The temperature of the solution inside vessel is kept from 65 0 C to 85 0 C and the solution is bubbled with nealy 4 0 C circulated air. After the end of distillation, water layer is separated from the organic chemical layer and put it down the drain according to the regulation. (3) The residue is mixed with only the distilled organic chemicals according to the next classification, thereafter incineration is carried out. (a) For under the radioactive concentration of 1 x 10 -3 μCi/ml, the mixed scintillation liquid are burned up in specially designed incinerator. (b) For over the level of 1 x 10 -3 μCi/ml, only the distilled organic chemicals are burned up and the residue will be sent to the Waste Disposal Site. (c) For under the water content of 5% these liquid garbage can be directly are burned up without distillation The residue seemed to be suitable for the combustion of the dried carcased animals as the auxiliary fuels. This incinerator will be able to use as room heater or water heater for the bath without radioactive contamination inside of install room. (author)

  12. Performance of the TGT liquid argon calorimeter and trigger system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.; Schöntag, M.; Siedling, R.; Wlochal, M.; Wotschack, J.; Cheplakov, A.; Feshchenko, A.; Kazarinov, M.; Kukhtin, V.; Ladygin, E.; Obudovskij, V.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Kluge, E.-E.; Krause, J.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Zerwas, D.; Ban, J.; Bruncko, D.; Jusko, A.; Kocper, B.; Aderholz, M.; Brettel, H.; Dulny, B.; Dydak, F.; Fent, J.; Huber, J.; Jakobs, K.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Bogolyubsky, M. Y.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kurchaninov, L. L.; Levitsky, M. S.; Maksimov, V. V.; Minaenko, A. A.; Moiseev, A. M.; Semenov, P. A.; Tikhonov, V. V.

    1996-02-01

    A novel concept of a liquid argon calorimeter, the "Thin Gap Turbine" (TGT) calorimeter, is presented. A TGT test module, equipped with specially developed cold front-end electronics in radiation hard GaAs technology, has been operated in a particle beam. Results on its performance are given. A 40 MHz FADC system with a "circular data store" and standalone readout and play-back capability has been developed to test the properties of the TGT detector for trigger purposes. Results on trigger efficiency, response and energy resolution are given.

  13. Performance of the TGT liquid argon calorimeter and trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, W.; Geuling, E.; Schoentag, M.

    1996-03-01

    A novel concept of a liquid argon calorimeter, the thin gap turbine (TGT) calorimeter, is presented. A TGT test module, equipped with specially developed cold front-end electronics in radiation hard GaAs technology, has been operated in a particle beam. Results on its performance are given. A 40 MHz FADC system with a circular data store and standalone readout and playback capability has been developed to test the properties of the TGT detector for trigger purposes. Results on trigger efficiency, response and energy resolution are given. (orig.)

  14. Performance of the TGT liquid argon calorimeter and trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.; Schoentag, M.; Siedling, R.; Wlochal, M.; Wotschack, J.; Cheplakov, A.; Feshchenko, A.; Kazarinov, M.; Kukhtin, V.; Ladygin, E.; Obudovskij, V.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Kluge, E.-E.; Krause, J.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Zerwas, D.; Ban, J.; Bruncko, D.; Jusko, A.; Kocper, B.; Aderholz, M.; Brettel, H.; Dulny, B.; Dydak, F.; Fent, J.; Huber, J.; Jakobs, K.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Bogolyubsky, M.Y.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Kiryunin, A.E.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Levitsky, M.S.; Maksimov, V.V.; Minaenko, A.A.; Moiseev, A.M.; Semenov, P.A.; Tikhonov, V.V. [Tech. Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Phys. Inst.]|[CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)]|[Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)]|[Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)]|[Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-21

    A novel concept of a liquid argon calorimeter, the ``thin gap turbine`` (TGT) calorimeter, is presented. A TGT test module, equipped with specially developed cold front-end electronics in radiation hard GaAs technology, has been operated in a particle beam. Results on its performance are given. A 40 MHz FADC system with a ``circular data store`` and standalone readout and play-back capability has been developed to test the properties of the TGT detector for trigger purposes. Results on trigger efficiency, response and energy resolution are given. (orig.).

  15. Performance of the TGT liquid argon calorimeter and trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.; Schoentag, M.

    1996-01-01

    A novel concept of a liquid argon calorimeter, the 'Thin Gap Turbine' (TGT) calorimeter, is presented. A TGT test module, equipped with specially developed cold front-end electronics in radiation hard GaAs technology, has been operated in a particle beam. Results on its performance are given. A 40 MHz FADC system with a 'circular data store' and standalone readout and playback capability has been developed to test the properties of the TGT detector for trigger purposes. Results on trigger efficiency, response and energy resolution are given. 12 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Performance of the TGT liquid argon calorimeter and trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.; Schoentag, M.; Siedling, R.; Wlochal, M.; Wotschack, J.; Cheplakov, A.; Feshchenko, A.; Kazarinov, M.; Kukhtin, V.; Ladygin, E.; Obudovskij, V.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Kluge, E.-E.; Krause, J.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Zerwas, D.; Ban, J.; Bruncko, D.; Jusko, A.; Kocper, B.; Aderholz, M.; Brettel, H.; Dulny, B.; Dydak, F.; Fent, J.; Huber, J.; Jakobs, K.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Bogolyubsky, M.Y.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Kiryunin, A.E.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Levitsky, M.S.; Maksimov, V.V.; Minaenko, A.A.; Moiseev, A.M.; Semenov, P.A.; Tikhonov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    A novel concept of a liquid argon calorimeter, the ''thin gap turbine'' (TGT) calorimeter, is presented. A TGT test module, equipped with specially developed cold front-end electronics in radiation hard GaAs technology, has been operated in a particle beam. Results on its performance are given. A 40 MHz FADC system with a ''circular data store'' and standalone readout and play-back capability has been developed to test the properties of the TGT detector for trigger purposes. Results on trigger efficiency, response and energy resolution are given. (orig.)

  17. Modelling of liquid injection shutdown system (LISS) in ACR-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubcher, M.; Colton, A.; Donnelly, J.V.

    2008-01-01

    Modelling of the Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) in the ACR-1000 reactor core must account for the major phenomena that occur following its activation, namely the moderator hydraulics and core neutronics. The former requires modelling of the poison volumes, their time of entry into the reactor, and their propagation into the moderator after emission from the nozzle. The latter requires the reactivity worth of varying volumes and geometries of poisoned moderator fluid in order to simulate the reactivity effect of the injected poison. The time-dependent poison map is generated from hydraulic calculations, and then the neutronics data for standard geometries and concentrations is constructed using DRAGON. (author)

  18. Treatment systems for liquid wastes generated in chemical analysis laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linda Berrio; Oscar Beltran; Edison Agudelo; Santiago Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, handling of liquid wastes from chemical analysis laboratories is posing problems to different public and private organizations because of its requirements of an integrated management. This article reviews various treatment technologies and its removal efficiencies in order to establish criteria for selecting the system and the appropriate variables to achieve research objectives as well as environmental sustainability. Review begins with a description of the problem and continues with the study of treatments for laboratory wastes. These technologies are segregated into physicochemical and biological treatments that comprise a variety of processes, some of which are considered in this review.

  19. A case of mumps-related acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Kyoko; Shiihara, Takashi; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shunji; Dowa, Yuri; Watanabe, Mio

    2017-10-01

    Mumps is a common childhood viral disease characterized by fever and swelling of the parotid gland. The prognosis is generally good, although some complications, such as encephalitis (0.1%), exist. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion is the most common type of acute encephalopathy. However, this type of encephalopathy has not been reported in association with mumps infection. A previously healthy 3-year-old Japanese boy had a brief convulsion after fever for 3days, and then had conscious disturbance and parotitis. After several days, he had a second brief convulsion and was admitted. Increased serum amylase levels and presence of anti-mumps immunoglobulin M antibody confirmed mumps parotitis. The patient had another brief seizure later the day of admission. He did not have status or cluster seizures, although the biphasic nature of his seizures, conscious disturbance between the seizures, no pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid, and brain magnetic resonance images were consistent with acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion. In Japan, the mumps vaccine is not administered as a part of routine immunizations. It thus has low coverage (30-40%), and as a result, mumps infections are still common. However, this is the first case of mumps-related acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion. This case may be representative of only a minority of patients with mumps-associated central nervous system involvement. Nevertheless, this diagnostic possibility may be considered. In order to prevent mumps-related complications, routine mumps vaccination might be warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biphasic interactions between a cationic dendrimer and actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Florence, Alexander T

    2010-12-01

    Gene delivery systems face the problem not only of the route toward the cell and tissues in question, but also of the molecularly crowded environment of both the cytoplasm and the nucleus itself. One of the physical barriers in the cytoplasm for diffusing nanoparticles is an actin network. Here, we describe the finding that a self-fluorescent sixth generation cationic dendrimer (6 nm in diameter) interacts reversibly and possibly electrostatically with actin filaments in vitro. Not only does this interaction slow the diffusion of the dendrimer but it also affects actin polymerization in a biphasic manner. At low concentrations the dendrimer behaves like a G-binding actin protein, retarding actin polymerization, whereas at high concentrations the dendrimer acts as a nucleating protein accelerating the polymerization. Thus in vivo the diffusion of a dendrimer carrier such as this has both physical and chemical elements: by decreasing polymerization it might accelerate its own transport, and by enhancing actin polymerization retard it. This finding suggests that such a dendrimer may have a role as an anticancer agent through its inhibitory effect on actin polymerization.

  1. Study of Baffle Boundary and System Parameters on Liquid-Solid Coupling Vibration of Rectangular Liquid-Storage Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the vibration problem of liquid-solid coupling of rectangular liquid-storage structure with horizontal elastic baffle, ignoring the influence of surface gravity wave, two different velocity potential functions corresponding to the liquid above and below the elastic baffle are assumed; based on the theory of mathematical equation and energy method, the formulas of basic frequency of liquid-solid coupling vibration system are derived, the baffle joined to the tank wall with 3 kinds of boundary conditions, namely, four edges simply supported, two opposite edges clamped and two opposite edges simply supported, and four edges clamped; the influence rules of baffle length-width ratio, the ratio of baffle height to liquid level, baffle elastic modulus, baffle density, baffle thickness, and liquid density on the coupling vibration performance are studied. The results show that the frequency of the clamped boundary is minimum; the influences of baffle length-width ratio and relative height on the basic frequency are much greater than that of the other system parameters; the relation between baffle length-width ratio and the frequency is exponential, while baffle relative height has a parabola relation with the frequency; the larger the baffle length-width ratio, the closer the baffle to the liquid level; the coupling frequency will be reduced more obviously.

  2. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of four alcohol–water systems containing 1,8-cineole at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hengde; Feng, Zhangni; Wan, Li; Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Tianfei; Fang, Yanxiong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of C_1–C_4 alcohol–water systems containing 1,8-cineole are presented. Distribution ratios of alcohol in the mixtures are examined. The immiscible region of the LLE systems is evaluated and discussed. - Highlights: • Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria containing 1,8-cineole are presented. • Distribution ratios of C_1–C_4 alcohol in the mixtures are examined. • The LLE values were correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. - Abstract: As an eco-friendly compound from essential oils, 1,8-cineole (cineole, eucalyptol) has the potential to replace the ozone depleting industrial solvents. This paper presents experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for four alcohol–water systems containing 1,8-cineole. To evaluate the phase equilibrium properties of 1,8-cineole in aqueous alcohol mixtures, LLE values for the ternary systems (water + methanol or ethanol or 1-propanol or 1-butanol + 1,8-cineole) were determined with a tie-line method at T = 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure. The well-known Hand, Bachman and Othmer–Tobias equations were used to test the reliability of the experimental results. The binodal curves and distribution ratios of alcohol in the mixtures are shown and discussed. The experimental LLE values were satisfactorily correlated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC models.

  3. Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

    1998-01-16

    RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

  4. Liquid radioactive waste processing system in Improved OPR-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soonmin; Kim, Kiljung; Park, Jungsu

    2008-01-01

    The design goal of liquid rad waste system is to minimize the release of radioactive materials to the environment, the occupational radiation exposure to workers, and the solid rad waste volume generated from LRS operation. In 1998, KOPEC in conjunction with KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co.) started a special task study which had been focused on the worldwide advanced technologies in the liquid rad waste process area by considering the design goals above. As a result of this task, KOPEC and KHNP finally decided to adopt a reverse osmosis processing method for Improved OPR-1000 in Korea. The advanced LRS design incorporating the R/O process has been introduced into Shin-Wolsong 1 and 2 (SWN 1 and 2) as well as Shin-Kori 1 and 2 (SKN 1 and 2), which are recently under construction, and also is adopted for Shin-Kori 3 and 4 (SKN 3 and 4) and Shin-Ulchin 1 and 2 (SUN 1 and 2), which are planned for the near future construction as the first APR-1400 type of Korean reactors. The LRS shop performance test for SKN 1 and 2 (Improved OPR-1000 R/O package system) was conducted by DOOSAN and DTS (Diversified Technologies Services, Inc) in January, 2008. The purpose of the test was to demonstrate the performance of actual R/O system to be installed in SKN 1 and 2 site. In this paper, overall system configuration and the shop performance test result is presented based on Improved OPR-1000 LRS R/O Package system

  5. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels in Non-Thermal Plasma-Liquid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    channel with liquid wall in the microporous media under the ultrasound cavitations has shown the following: · The action of the ultrasound field in the...microporous liquid which has a very large ratio of the plasma-liquid contact surface to the plasma volume. As is known the ultrasonic (US) cavitation is a very...2) and it ran over a flat dielectric surface of the magnetostrictive transmitter (5) which produced ultrasonic (US) cavitations , so the discharge

  6. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  7. Identifying Liquid-Gas System Misconceptions and Addressing Them Using a Laboratory Exercise on Pressure-Temperature Diagrams of a Mixed Gas Involving Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on students' understandings of a liquid-gas system with liquid-vapor equilibrium in a closed system using a pressure-temperature ("P-T") diagram. By administrating three assessment questions concerning the "P-T" diagrams of liquid-gas systems to students at the beginning of undergraduate general chemistry…

  8. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) testing in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  9. Quaternary isobaric (vapor + liquid + liquid) equilibrium and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for the system (water + ethanol + cyclohexane + heptane) at 101.3 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pequenin, Ana; Asensi, Juan Carlos; Gomis, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Water-ethanol-cyclohexane-heptane and water-cyclohexane-heptane isobaric VLLE. → Isobaric experimental data were determined at 101.3 kPa. → A dynamic recirculating still with an ultrasonic homogenizer was used. → The quaternary system does not present quaternary azeotropes. - Abstract: Experimental isobaric (vapor + liquid + liquid) and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the ternary system {water (1) + cyclohexane (2) + heptane (3)} and the quaternary system {water (1) + ethanol (2) + cyclohexane (3) + heptane (4)} were measured at 101.3 kPa. An all-glass, dynamic recirculating still equipped with an ultrasonic homogenizer was used to determine the VLLE. The results obtained show that the system does not present quaternary azeotropes. The point-by-point method by Wisniak for testing the thermodynamic consistency of isobaric measurements was used to test the equilibrium data.

  10. Universality classes and critical phenomena in confined liquid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Chalyi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the similar universal behavior of infinite-size (bulk systems of different nature requires the same basic conditions: space dimensionality; number components of order parameter; the type (short- or long-range of the intermolecular interaction; symmetry of the fluctuation part of thermodynamical potential. Basic conditions of similar universal behavior of confined systems needs the same supplementary conditions such as the number of monolayers for a system confinement; low crossover dimensionality, i.e., geometric form of restricted volume; boundary conditions on limiting surfaces; physical properties under consideration. This review paper is aimed at studying all these conditions of similar universal behavior for diffusion processes in confined liquid systems. Special attention was paid to the effects of spatial dispersion and low crossover dimensionality. This allowed us to receive receiving correct nonzero expressions for the diffusion coefficient at the critical point and to take into account the specific geometric form of the confined liquid volume. The problem of 3D⇔2D dimensional crossover was analyzed. To receive a smooth crossover for critical exponents, the Kawasaki-like approach from the theory of mode coupling in critical dynamics was proposed. This ensured a good agreement between data of computer experiment and theoretical calculations of the size dependence of the critical temperature Tc(H of water in slitlike pores. The width of the quasi-elastic scattering peak of slow neutrons near the structural phase transition in the aquatic suspensions of plasmatic membranes (mesostructures with the typical thickness up to 10 nm was studied. It was shown that the width of quasi-elastic peak of neutron scattering decreases due to the process of cell proliferation, i.e., with an increase of the membrane size (including the membrane thickness. Thus, neutron studies could serve as an additional diagnostic test for the

  11. Computer simulation of confined and flexoelectric liquid crystalline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmes, F.

    2003-01-01

    In this Thesis, systems of confined and flexoelectric liquid crystal systems have been studied using molecular computer simulations. The aim of this work was to provide a molecular model of a bistable display cell in which switching is induced through the application of directional electric field pulses. In the first part of this Thesis, the study of confined systems of liquid crystalline particles has been addressed. Computation of the anchoring phase diagrams for three different surface interaction models showed that the hard needle wall and rod-surface potentials induce both planar and homeotropic alignment separated by a bistability region, this being stronger and wider for the rod-surface varant. The results obtained using the rod-sphere surface model, in contrast, showed that tilled surface arrangements can be induced by surface absorption mechanisms. Equivalent studies of hybrid anchored systems showed that a bend director structure can be obtained in a slab with monostable homeotropic anchoring at the top surface and bistable anchoring at the bottom, provided that the slab height is sufficiently large and the top homeotropic anchoring is not too strong. In the second part of the Thesis, the development of models for tapered (pear-shaped) mesogens has been addressed. The first model considered, the truncated Stone expansion model, proved to be unsuccessful in that it did not display liquid crystalline phases. This drawback was then overcome using the alternative parametric hard Gaussian overlap model which was found to display a much richer phase behaviour. With a molecular elongation k = 5, both nematic and interdigitated smectic A 2 phases were obtained. In the final part of this Thesis, the knowledge acquired from the two previous studies was united in an attempt to model a bistable display cell. Switching between the hybrid aligned nematic and vertical states of the cell was successfully performed using pear shaped particles with both dielectric and

  12. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Benjamin Gleason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma, with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid, supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma.

  13. Fire fighting system for inflammable liquids and process using it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levillain, C.

    1988-01-01

    For fighting fires of flammable liquids, such as liquid sodium or hydrocarbons, a layer of floating spheres (cellular concrete or hollow metal) is maintained on the surface by a square or preferentially triangular-meshed metallic net [fr

  14. Process and fire extinguishing system for inflammable liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levillain, C.

    1988-01-01

    A fire on the surface of a flammable liquid is extinguished by spreading a compact layer of sphere of uniform diameter, floating on the liquid surface. Spheres are stored in a tank and run out by gravity [fr

  15. Thermodynamic modeling of ternary and quaternary (liquid + liquid) systems containing water, FeCl3, HCl and diisopropyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, Miran; Hendriks, Ilse; Smits, Ralph E.R.; Schuur, Boelo; Haan, André B. de

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Literature data from various sources was validated experimentally. • Ternary and quaternary (liquid + liquid) systems were successfully described with the NRTL model. • Some deflection at higher HCl concentrations between model and data. • Additional data verification proved correctness of the literature data. -- Abstract: Liquid–liquid extraction using ethers as solvents is a potentially energy saving alternative for the concentration of aqueous ferric chloride solutions. Adequate thermodynamic models that describe the behavior of the resulting quaternary systems (FeCl 3 , ether, acid and water) are not available in the literature. In this paper, the development of an equilibrium description applying the NRTL-model is presented, including experimental validation and fitting of the NRTL-parameters on the validated data. Equilibrium experiments were performed for the ternary systems (water + HCl + DiPE) and (water + FeCl 3 + DiPE) and the obtained data is in good agreement with the results from Maljkovic et al.[37] and Cambell et al.[39]. Experimental data of the quaternary system is taken from Maljkovic et al.[37]. The obtained binary interaction parameters to describe the (liquid + liquid) quaternary system (water + FeCl 3 + HCl + DiPE) and the constituting ternaries by the NRTL model are presented. Model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data

  16. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years

  17. Branch-cut singularities in thermodynamics of Fermi liquid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhter, Arkady; Finkel'stein, Alexander M

    2006-10-24

    The recently measured spin susceptibility of the two-dimensional electron gas exhibits a strong dependence on temperature, which is incompatible with the standard Fermi liquid phenomenology. In this article, we show that the observed temperature behavior is inherent to ballistic two-dimensional electrons. Besides the single-particle and collective excitations, the thermodynamics of Fermi liquid systems includes effects of the branch-cut singularities originating from the edges of the continuum of pairs of quasiparticles. As a result of the rescattering induced by interactions, the branch-cut singularities generate nonanalyticities in the thermodynamic potential that reveal themselves in anomalous temperature dependences. Calculation of the spin susceptibility in such a situation requires a nonperturbative treatment of the interactions. As in high-energy physics, a mixture of the collective excitations and pairs of quasiparticles can effectively be described by a pole in the complex momentum plane. This analysis provides a natural explanation for the observed temperature dependence of the spin susceptibility, both in sign and in magnitude.

  18. The Nature and Assessment of Systemic Risk in Terms of Liquidity of the Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavreniuk Vladyslav V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the nature of systemic risk as a threat to the financial stability of the banking system and develop analytical tools to assess its impact on the banking system in terms of its liquidity. To solve the tasks assigned, there used general scientific and specific methods, such as: logical and dialectical method, mathematical and graphical one. Based on the generalization, analysis and comparison of different interpretations, there clarified the concept of «systemic risk» as a risk generated by financial institutions or individual sectors through the implementation of the mechanism of risk transmission, achieving significant scale of distribution and adversely affecting the stability of the financial system and the real sector of economy. There identified key aspects of systemic risk: a systemic risk is not a sum of all individual risks of financial institutions; b spreads through the channels of interconnectedness between financial institutions; c is a result of accumulated structural imbalances; d affects the stability of the financial/banking system, public confidence and the real sector of economy. Analytical tools for estimation of the bank’s contribution to the systemic liquidity risk on the basis of which it is determined that the first place in terms of the effect on the aggregate systemic risk of liquidity of the Ukrainian banking system is occupied by banks of Group I, the second place — by Privatbank, the third, fourth, fifth places — by banks in Group II — Oschadbank, Ukreximbank. It is found that it is systemically important state-owned banks that have a significant impact on systemic liquidity risk. It is determined that the probability of default of a leading systemically important bank could result in considerable cumulative losses for the entire banking system and real economy. The prospects of further research are the development of tools for systemic risk assessment with respect to

  19. Combination of deep eutectic solvent and ionic liquid to improve biocatalytic reduction of 2-octanone with Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cell

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Xu; Peng-Xuan Du; Min-Hua Zong; Ning Li; Wen-Yong Lou

    2016-01-01

    The efficient anti-Prelog asymmetric reduction of 2-octanone with Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cells was successfully performed in a biphasic system consisting of deep eutectic solvent (DES) and water-immiscible ionic liquid (IL). Various DESs exerted different effects on the synthesis of (R)-2-octanol. Choline chloride/ethylene glycol (ChCl/EG) exhibited good biocompatibility and could moderately increase the cell membrane permeability thus leading to the better results. Adding ChCl/EG ...

  20. Rational approach to solvent system selection for liquid-liquid extraction-assisted sample pretreatment in counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Gu, Dongyu; Wang, Miao; Guo, Xinfeng; Li, Haoquan; Dong, Yue; Guo, Hong; Wang, Yi; Fan, Mengqi; Yang, Yi

    2017-05-15

    A rational liquid-liquid extraction approach was established to pre-treat samples for high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:5:4:5, v/v) and (1:5:1:5, v/v) were selected as solvent systems for liquid-liquid extraction by systematically screening K of target compounds to remove low- and high-polarity impurities in the sample, respectively. After liquid-liquid extraction was performed, 1.4g of crude sample II was obtained from 18.5g of crude sample I which was extracted from the flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L., and then separated with HSCCC by using a solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:2:1:2, v/v). As a result, 31mg of robinin and 37mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside were isolated from 200mg of crude sample II in a single run of HSCCC. A scale-up separation was also performed, and 160mg of robinin with 95% purity and 188mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside with 97% purity were produced from 1.2g of crude sample II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biphasic effect of citral, a flavoring and scenting agent, on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheqiong; Xi, Jinlei; Li, Jihong; Qu, Wen

    2009-10-01

    Although some central effects of citral have been reported, cognitive effects on spatial memory have not been investigated. The evidence showed that citral can regulate the synthesis of retinoic acid (RA), which exerts a vital function in the development and maintenance of spatial memory. In this study, we applied Morris water maze to test the effect of citral on animals' spatial learning and memory. To elucidate the mechanism of this effect, we also measured the retinoic acid concentration in rats' hippocampus by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our data implied biphasic effects of citral. The low dose (0.1 mg/kg) of citral improved the spatial learning capability, and enhanced the spatial reference memory of rats, whereas the high dose (1.0 mg/kg) was like to produce the opposite effects. Meanwhile, the low dose of citral increased the hippocampal retinoic acid concentration, while the high dose decreased it. Due to the quick elimination and non-bioaccumulation in the body, effects of citral on spatial memory in this study seemed to be indirect actions. The change in hippocampal retinoic acid concentration induced by different doses of citral might be responsible for the biphasic effect of citral on spatial learning and memory.

  2. Chiral separation of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid enantiomers by high-speed counter-current chromatography with biphasic recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shengqiang

    2010-01-01

    This work concentrates on a novel chiral separation technology named biphasic recognition applied to resolution of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid enantiomers by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The biphasic chiral recognition HSCCC was performed by adding lipophilic (−)-2-ethylhexyl tartrate in the organic stationary phase and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in the aqueous mobile phase, which preferentially recognized the (−)-enantiomer and (+)-enantiomer, respectively. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methyl tert-butyl ether-water (9:1:10, v/v/v) with the above chiral selectors was selected according to the partition coefficient and separation factor of the target enantiomers. Various parameters involved in the chiral separation were investigated, namely the types of the chiral selector (CS); the concentration of each chiral selector; pH of the mobile phase; and the separation temperature. The mechanism involved in this biphasic recognition chiral separation by HSCCC was discussed. Langmuirian isotherm was employed to estimate the loading limits for each chiral selector. The overall experimental results show that the HSCCC separation of enantiomer based on biphasic recognition is much more efficient than the traditional monophasic recognition chiral separation, since it utilizes the cooperation of both lipophilic and hydrophilic chiral selectors. PMID:20303497

  3. Method for determining efficiency in a liquid scintillation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, B.H.

    1975-01-01

    In a liquid scintillation system utilizing plural photomultiplyier means, a method for determining efficiency of coincident pulse detection. Various incremental counting efficiency levels are associated with asymptotic functions in a two dimension matrix in which the abscissa and ordinate correspond to the pulse heights of each of a pair of coincident pulses from different photomultiplier means. An efficiency determining point is located in the matrix based on the sum of the pulse heights of each of the coincident pulses as well as on the amplitude of the smallest pulse of the coincident pulses. The single counting efficiency determining point is recorded as the level of efficiency at which the photomultiplier means detect scintillations that generate coincident pulses having pulse heights equal to those recorded. (Patent Office Record)

  4. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  5. 324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-07-29

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.

  6. Competition, liquidity and stability: international evidence at the bank and systemic levels

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Ngoc My

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of market power on bank liquidity; the association between competition and systemic liquidity; and whether the associations between liquidity and stability at both bank- and systemic- levels are affected by competition. The first research question is explored in the context of 101 countries over 1996-2013 while the second and the third, which require listed banks, use a smaller sample of 32 nations during 2001-2013. The Panel Least Squares and the system Ge...

  7. Deep eutectic solvents as performance additives in biphasic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Dongming; Wang, Xuping; Zhou, Pengfei; Hollmann, F.; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents act as surfactants in biphasic (hydrophobic/aqueous) reaction mixtures enabling higher interfacial surface areas at lower mechanical stress as compared to simple emulsions. Exploiting this effect the rate of a chemoenzymatic epoxidation reaction was increased more than

  8. In vitro study on biomineralization of biphasic calcium phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we report the preparation of a bone graft material, having cylindrical shape, containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), gelatin (G), chitosan (C) and Terminalia chebula (TC) extract. TC extract was used as a crosslinker that gives stability to bone graft when it is placed in SBF. The graft was stable in the SBF ...

  9. Biphasic Clinical Course Among Kenyan Children With Cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of Falciparum malaria. It is associated with a significant risk of death and neurological sequelae. A biphasic clinical picture is associated with an even greater risk of neurological sequelae. Objective To examine the incidence and clinical ...

  10. Homogeneous Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Rare Earths with the Betaine—Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerstraete, Tom Vander; Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Several fundamental extraction parameters such as the kinetics and loading were studied for a new type of metal solvent extraction system with ionic liquids. The binary mixture of the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and water shows thermomorphic behavior with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), which can be used to avoid the slower mass transfer due to the generally higher viscosity of ionic liquids. A less viscous homogeneous phase and mixing on a molecular scale are obtained when the mixture is heated up above 55 °C. The influence of the temperature, the heating and cooling times, were studied for the extraction of neodymium(III) with betaine. A plausible and equal extraction mechanism is proposed in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, nitrate, and chloride media. After stripping of the metals from the ionic liquid phase, a higher recovery of the ionic liquid was obtained by salting-out of the ionic liquid fraction lost by dissolution in the aqueous phase. The change of the upper critical solution temperature by the addition of HCl or betaine was investigated. In addition, the viscosity was measured below and above the UCST as a function of the temperature. PMID:24169434

  11. Melter viewing system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Brenden, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    Melter viewing systems are an integral component of the monitoring and control systems for liquid-fed ceramic melters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has designed cameras for use with glass melters at PNL, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This report is a compilation of these designs. Operating experiences with one camera designed for the PNL melter are discussed. A camera has been fabricated and tested on the High-Bay Ceramic Melter (HBCM) and the Pilot-Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) at PNL. The camera proved to be an effective tool for monitoring the cold cap formed as the feed pool developed on the molten glass surface and for observing the physical condition of the melter. Originally, the camera was built to operate using the visible light spectrum in the melter. It was later modified to operate using the infrared (ir) spectrum. In either configuration, the picture quality decreases as the size of the cold cap increases. Large cold caps cover the molten glass, reducing the amount of visible light and reducing the plenum temperatures below 600 0 C. This temperature corresponds to the lowest level of blackbody radiation to which the video tube is sensitive. The camera has been tested in melter environments for about 1900 h. The camera has withstood mechanical shocks and vibrations. The cooling system in the camera has proved effective in maintaining the optical and electronic components within acceptable temperature ranges. 10 refs., 15 figs

  12. Environmental system applied to radioactive liquid effluent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa

    2009-01-01

    The current environmental administration considers the productive activity as an environmental system, defined as a group of processes, interactions, parameters and factors involved in the production. This mastering dissertation evaluated the release of the liquid radioactive effluents at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), under a systemic environmental study. The study evaluated the source term at IPEN in the period from 2004 to 2008, making use of gamma-ray and alpha spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, liquid phase scintillation and atomic absorption spectrometry. The employed methodologies were verified using samples from the Intercomparison National Program - PNI/IRD and Reference Materials. The facilities that contributed the most in these releases were the Radiopharmaceutical Center (CR) and the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) with an average of 11,4% and 87,4%, respectively, relative to the present radioactive activity. The sewer system releases were within the radioactive protection regulations, showing the effectiveness of IPEN's Radioactive Effluents Monitoring Program. The concentration of the stable elements Ag, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was determined in the liquid effluent in ali the samples from the storage tanks TR1 and CR in the period from 2004 to 2008 and in some of the samples of other IPEN's facilities in the period from 2004 to 2007. Among the analyzed effluents, two samples were higher than the stable elements discharge standards established in the state of Sao Paulo, one sample was higher than the required value of the element cadmium and the other higher than required value of the element zinco The storage tank TR1 discharge flow was estimated in 10,9 ± 0,9 m3 h -1 . The dilution factor at discharge point E1 was estimated using a radiotracers the isotopes 3 H, 137 CS, 60 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn, which are commonly released into IPEN's sewer system. The executed radiotracer study was carried out

  13. Ionic liquid and nanoparticle hybrid systems: Emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiqi; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2017-06-01

    Having novel electronic and optical properties that emanate from their nano-scale dimensions, nanoparticles are central to numerous applications. Ionic liquids can confer to nanoparticle chemical protection and physicochemical property enhancement through intermolecular interactions and can consequently improve the stability and reusability of nanoparticle for various operations. With an aim to combine the novel properties of nanoparticles and ionic liquids, different structures have been generated, based on a balance of several intermolecular interactions. Such ionic liquid and nanoparticle hybrids are showing great potential in diverse applications. In this review, we first introduce various types of ionic liquid and nanoparticle hybrids, including nanoparticle colloidal dispersions in ionic liquids, ionic liquid-grafted nanoparticles, and nanoparticle-stabilized ionic liquid-based emulsions. Such hybrid materials exhibit interesting synergisms. We then highlight representative applications of ionic liquid and nanoparticle hybrids in the catalysis, electrochemistry and separations fields. Such hybrids can attain better stability and higher efficiency under a broad range of conditions. Novel and enhanced performance can be achieved in these applications by combining desired properties of ionic liquids and of nanoparticles within an appropriate hybrid nanostructure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Process equipment waste and process waste liquid collection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The US DOE has prepared an environmental assessment for construction related to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) and Process Waste Liquid (PWL) Collection System Tasks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. This report describes and evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposed action (and alternatives). The purpose of the proposed action would be to ensure that the PEW and PWL collection systems, a series of enclosed process hazardous waste, and radioactive waste lines and associated equipment, would be brought into compliance with applicable State and Federal hazardous waste regulations. This would be accomplished primarily by rerouting the lines to stay within the buildings where the lined floors of the cells and corridors would provide secondary containment. Leak detection would be provided via instrumented collection sumps locate din the cells and corridors. Hazardous waste transfer lines that are routed outside buildings will be constructed using pipe-in-pipe techniques with leak detection instrumentation in the interstitial area. The need for the proposed action was identified when a DOE-sponsored Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance assessment of the ICPP facilities found that singly-contained waste lines ran buried in the soil under some of the original facilities. These lines carried wastes with a pH of less than 2.0, which were hazardous waste according to the RCRA standards. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  15. 900-L liquid xenon cryogenic system operation for the MEG experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Haruyama, T; Mihara, S; Hisamatsu, Y; Iawamoto, W; Mori, T; Nishiguchi, H; Otani, W; Sawada, R; Uchiyama, Y; Nishitani, T

    2009-01-01

    A cryogenic system for the MEG (muon rare decay) experiment has started operation at the Paul Sherrer Institute in Zurich. The main part of the MEG detector is the 900-L liquid xenon calorimeter for gamma ray detection, equipped with 850 photo multipliers directly immersed in liquid xenon. A 200 W pulse tube cryocooler enabled LN2-free operation of this calorimeter. A liquid purification system; using a liquid pump and a zero boil-off 1000-L cryogenic buffer dewar is also included in the system. The first entire engineering run was carried out in November-December 2007 and satisfactory cryogenic performances were confirmed.

  16. The Daily Liquidity Effect in a Floor System – Empirical Evidence from the Norwegian

    OpenAIRE

    Syrstad, Olav

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the liquidity effect in Norway by examining the relationship between a range of liquidity variables and five different measures of the short-term interbank premium. The models are estimated on data from January 2007 and up to the end of September 2011, a period in which Norges Bank implemented its liquidity policy within a so-called floor system, and prior to the new liquidity system introduced on 3 October 2011. In a floor system the key policy rate is equal to banks’ dep...

  17. The Daily Liquidity Effect in a Floor System – Empirical Evidence from the Norwegian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Syrstad, Olav

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the liquidity effect in Norway by examining the relationship between a range of liquidity variables and five different measures of the short-term interbank premium. The models are estimated on data from January 2007 and up to the end of September 2011, a period in which Norges Bank implemented its liquidity policy within a so-called floor system, and prior to the new liquidity system introduced on 3 October 2011. In a floor system the key policy rate is equal to banks' dep...

  18. Liquid-liquid phase equilibria for ternary systems of several polyethers with NaCl and H2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milosevic, M.; Staal, K.J.J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid–liquid extraction using polymers followed by induced phase separation is a potential energy reducing technology for water–salt separation. Ternary equilibrium data have been determined and reported for the (block co)poly ethers–sodium chloride–water systems at two different temperatures at

  19. Thermodynamic modeling of ternary and quaternary (liquid + liquid) systems containing water, FeCl3, HCl and diisopropyl ether

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milosevic, M.; Hendriks, I.; Smits, R.E.R.; Schuur, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid–liquid extraction using ethers as solvents is a potentially energy saving alternative for the concentration of aqueous ferric chloride solutions. Adequate thermodynamic models that describe the behavior of the resulting quaternary systems (FeCl3, ether, acid and water) are not available in

  20. False alarm rates of liquid explosives detection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzhongova, E.; Anderson, D.; Ruiter, J. de; Novakovic, V.; Ruiz Oses, M.

    2017-01-01

    Restrictions on the carriage of liquids, aerosol, and gels (LAGs) by airline passengers have been in place since November 2006, following the discovery of a terrorist plot involving homemade liquid explosives to be used on transatlantic flights (Wikipedia, 2006). Restrictions on the carriage of LAGs

  1. Hydroponic system for the treatment of anaerobic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, K; Nair, J; Bäuml, B

    2012-01-01

    The effluent from anaerobic digestion process has high concentrations of nutrients, particularly nitrogen, essential for plant growth but is not suitable for direct disposal or application due to high chemical oxygen demand (COD), low dissolved oxygen (DO), odour issues and is potentially phytotoxic. This research explored the optimum conditions of anaerobic effluent for application and dilutions of the effluent required to obtain better plant growth. A small-scale hydroponic system was constructed in a glasshouse to test different concentrations of anaerobic effluent against a commercial hydroponic medium as the control for the growth of silverbeet. It was found that the survival of silverbeet was negatively affected at 50% concentration due to low DO and NH(4) toxicity. The concentration of 20% anaerobic liquid was found to be the most efficient with highest foliage yield and plant growth. The hydroponic system with 20% concentrated effluent had better utilisation of nutrients for plant growth and a COD reduction of 95% was achieved during the 50-day growth period. This preliminary evaluation revealed that the growth and development of silverbeet was significantly lower in anaerobic effluent compared with a commercial hydroponic plant growth solution. The nutrient quality of anaerobic effluent could be highly variable with the process and the waste material used and dilution may depend on the nutrient content of the effluent. It is recommended that, a pre-treatment of the effluent to increase DO and reduce ammonium content is required before plant application, and simple dilution by itself is not suitable for optimum plant growth in a hydroponic system.

  2. Review of biphasic insulin aspart in the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Raja-Khan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nazia Raja-Khan, Sarah S Warehime, Robert A GabbayDivision of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Penn State Institute for Diabetes and Obesity, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USABackground: Insulin is an effective treatment for achieving glycemic control and preventing complications in patients with diabetes. In order to make insulin therapy more acceptable to patients, newer formulations of insulin have been developed, such as biphasic insulins. Biphasic insulins conveniently provide both prandial and basal insulin in a single injection. One of the most well-studied biphasic insulins is biphasic insulin aspart 70/30.Objective: Our goal was to review the current literature on the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted using the terms “biphasic insulin aspart” to identify clinical studies and reviews.Results: Biphasic insulin aspart more effectively reduces post-prandial glucose compared to other biphasic insulins and basal insulins. Compared to biphasic insulin aspart, fasting glucose levels are lower with NPH, similar with glargine, and similar or lower with biphasic human insulin. Treat-to-target trials have shown that a goal HbA1c below 6.5 or 7% can be achieved with biphasic insulin aspart. The risk of hypoglycemia is similar to or less than that seen with other biphasic insulins or NPH insulin.Conclusion: Biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with diabetes.Keywords: biphasic insulin aspart, insulin, diabetes

  3. Regularity of solutions to the liquid crystals systems in R2 and R3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Mimi; Qing, Jie; Schonbek, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we establish regularity and uniqueness for solutions to density dependent nematic liquid crystals systems. The results presented extend the regularity and uniqueness for constant density liquid crystals systems, obtained by Lin and Liu (1995 Commun. Pure Appl. Math. XLVIII 501–37)

  4. Coolant Design System for Liquid Propellant Aerospike Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Miranda; Branam, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engines burn at incredibly high temperatures making it difficult to design an effective coolant system. These particular engines prove to be extremely useful by powering the rocket with a variable thrust that is ideal for space travel. When combined with aerospike engine nozzles, which provide maximum thrust efficiency, this class of rockets offers a promising future for rocketry. In order to troubleshoot the problems that high combustion chamber temperatures pose, this research took a computational approach to heat analysis. Chambers milled into the combustion chamber walls, lined by a copper cover, were tested for their efficiency in cooling the hot copper wall. Various aspect ratios and coolants were explored for the maximum wall temperature by developing our own MATLAB code. The code uses a nodal temperature analysis with conduction and convection equations and assumes no internal heat generation. This heat transfer research will show oxygen is a better coolant than water, and higher aspect ratios are less efficient at cooling. This project funded by NSF REU Grant 1358991.

  5. Pipeline protection with multi component liquid polyurethane coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuprion, Rainer; Hornig, Maja [TIB Chemicals Ag, Mannheim (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Protective coating systems are one of the major defence mechanisms against corrosion for transmission pipelines, pipes within a refinery or petrochemical processing facilities. More and more pipelines are being constructed for the supply and transmission of gas and oil, each year but, in addition many existing pipelines are approaching an age where inspection reveals the necessity to consider complete refurbishment. However, the number of rehabilitation projects each year is still relatively small. Therefore, in the coming years, a rising need and necessity can be expected, for the owners and operating companies to be faced with the option of either replacing the pipeline or refurbishing of the existing pipeline. If the pipeline is known to have external corrosion, then safe and economic operation should be assured. Rehabilitation should be done before it is too late in order to ensure its future integrity and operational life. Rehabilitation of pipelines has been both the economic solution and, more significantly, the ecological solution and in many of those cases the coatings selected for the external protection has been multi component liquids based on 100% solids polyurethanes. (author)

  6. Coolant circulation system for a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, R.A.; Garabedian, G.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a liquid metal circulation system comprising an electromagnetic pump comprised of: (a) an elongated cylindrical pump support housing; (b) a cylindrical pressure dome structure coaxially situated and supported within the pump support housing, having a closed, hemispherical upper end and an open, cylindrical lower end; (c) a cylindrical pump coaxially situated within the pressure dome structure including: (1) a central core body of laminated transformer steel having six peripherally equally spaced helical grooves on its outer surface extending the entire length of the central core body, (2) a multiplicity of square, ceramic insulated copper wires situated in the helical grooves, (3) electrical leads extending from the terminal ends of the square copper wires through the upper end of the pressure dome structure and to a three-phase low voltage/high amperage power source, (4) an austenitic stainless steel jacket covering the outer surface of the central core body and covering the helically coiled square copper wires, the outer stainless steel jacket and the inner surface of the pressure dome structure defining an annular flow passage

  7. The liquid metastable miscibility gap in Cu-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curiotto, S.; Greco, R.; Pryds, Nini

    2007-01-01

    Some Cu-based alloys, like Cu–Co, Cu–Fe and Cu–Co–Fe, display a liquid metastable miscibility gap. When the melt is undercooled below a certain temperature depending on the alloy composition, they present a separation in two liquid phases, followed by coagulation before dendritic solidification....... In order to predict the phase equilibria and the mechanisms of microstructure formation, a determination of the metastable monotectics in the phase diagrams is essential. This paper focuses on the up-to-date findings on the Cu–Co, Cu–Fe and Cu–Co–Fe metastable miscibility gap in the liquid phase...

  8. Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering with Natural Extracellular Matrix-Derived Biphasic Composite Scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Xu

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has provided an alternative therapeutic possibility for degenerative disc diseases. However, we lack an ideal scaffold for IVD tissue engineering. The goal of this study is to fabricate a novel biomimetic biphasic scaffold for IVD tissue engineering and evaluate the feasibility of developing tissue-engineered IVD in vitro and in vivo. In present study we developed a novel integrated biphasic IVD scaffold using a simple freeze-drying and cross-linking technique of pig bone matrix gelatin (BMG for the outer annulus fibrosus (AF phase and pig acellular cartilage ECM (ACECM for the inner nucleus pulposus (NP phase. Histology and SEM results indicated no residual cells remaining in the scaffold that featured an interconnected porous microstructure (pore size of AF and NP phase 401.4 ± 13.1 μm and 231.6 ± 57.2 μm, respectively. PKH26-labeled AF and NP cells were seeded into the scaffold and cultured in vitro. SEM confirmed that seeded cells could anchor onto the scaffold. Live/dead staining showed that live cells (green fluorescence were distributed in the scaffold, with no dead cells (red fluorescence being found. The cell-scaffold constructs were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice and cultured for 6 weeks in vivo. IVD-like tissue formed in nude mice as confirmed by histology. Cells in hybrid constructs originated from PKH26-labeled cells, as confirmed by in vivo fluorescence imaging system. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the feasibility of developing a tissue-engineered IVD in vivo with a BMG- and ACECM-derived integrated AF-NP biphasic scaffold. As well, PKH26 fluorescent labeling with in vivo fluorescent imaging can be used to track cells and analyse cell--scaffold constructs in vivo.

  9. Prediction of liquid-liquid equilibria for polyethylene glycol based aqueous two-phase system by ASOG and UNIFAC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perumalsamy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-Liquid equilibrium data were obtained for the polyethylene glycol2000(PEG2000-sodium citrate-water system at 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K. The effect of temperature on binodal and tie line data was studied and published in a previous article (Murugesan and Perumalsamy, 2005. The interaction parameters of ASOG and UNIFAC models were estimated using the LLE data of PEG2000-sodium citrate-water system and are used to predict the LLE data for PEG6000-sodium citrate-water system at 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K (literature data. The predicted LLE data by both ASOG and UNIFAC models showed good agreement with the experimental and literature data.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Apatitic Biphasic Calcium Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin Thin Nwe; Kyaw Naing; Khin Mar Tun; Nyunt Wynn

    2005-09-01

    The apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate (ABcp) consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and -tricalcium phosphate ( -Tcp) has been prepared by precipitation technique using slaked lime and orthophosphoric acid. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the product I (hydroxyapatite) revealed that ABcp was partially crystalline state. However, on heating at 800 C for 8 hrs, XRD pattern indicated a perfectly crystalline form of ABcp. This observation was supported by FT-IR measurement. The change in morphology regarding in the functional nature was infered by the shift in the FT-IR frequency. The optimization of the apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate was done by the variation of disodium hydrogen phosphate concentration, setting time, hardening time as well as compressive strength. The perpared cement may be used as an artificial substitution bone

  11. Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.

  12. Liquid fuels from renewable resources in Canada: systems economics studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osler, C. F

    1978-01-01

    This paper highlights the methodology and results of a six volume study completed for the Canadian government on alternatives for liquid fuel production from renewable resources after the mid-1980s...

  13. Decontamination of radioactive liquid systems by modified clay minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Petrushka, Ihor; Moroz, Olexandr

    2016-01-01

    The process mechanism for sorption of strontium and cesium from liquid radioactive waste using modified bentonites from Yaziv sulfur deposit was investigated. The technique for predicting the intensity of the sorption process based on the comparison of experimental and calculated values of mass transfer coefficients was proposed. It was detected that the process of sorption extraction of strontium and cesium from liquid medium using modified clay minerals may be bes...

  14. Liquid–liquid equilibria in the quinary aqueous two-phase system of poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 + sodium sulfate + water in the presence of glucose and ethanol: Experimental investigation and thermodynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekayati, Javad; Roosta, Aliakbar; Javanmardi, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Quinary LLE phase equilibria involving PEG 6000 + Na_2SO_4 + H_2O + glucose + ethanol. • Favorable partition coefficients of ethanol and glucose. • Satisfactory correlation of the LLE experimental data with the original NRTL model. • Root mean squared deviations (RMSDs) of less than 0.6%. - Abstract: Extractive fermentation processes involving aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) are considered as viable means of overcoming the problems associated with product inhibition. Practical development of these processes requires accurate knowledge of the liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) of the ATPS forming components alongside the substrate and product of the fermentation process. In this work, the quinary aqueous two-phase LLE of poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 + sodium sulfate + water in the presence of glucose and ethanol have been experimentally determined at 298.15 K using spectrophotometric methods. The resulting LLE data were then satisfactorily correlated by the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient model based on mass fractions. In doing so, the binary energy interaction parameters of the NRTL activity coefficient model were obtained and reported. Calculated RMS deviations below 0.6% demonstrate that the original NRTL activity coefficient model can accurately correlate the LLE data of the quinary aqueous biphasic system of interest.

  15. Liquid–liquid equilibria in the quinary aqueous two-phase system of poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 + sodium sulfate + water in the presence of glucose and ethanol: Experimental investigation and thermodynamic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekayati, Javad; Roosta, Aliakbar, E-mail: aa.roosta@sutech.ac.ir; Javanmardi, Jafar

    2016-02-10

    Highlights: • Quinary LLE phase equilibria involving PEG 6000 + Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O + glucose + ethanol. • Favorable partition coefficients of ethanol and glucose. • Satisfactory correlation of the LLE experimental data with the original NRTL model. • Root mean squared deviations (RMSDs) of less than 0.6%. - Abstract: Extractive fermentation processes involving aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) are considered as viable means of overcoming the problems associated with product inhibition. Practical development of these processes requires accurate knowledge of the liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) of the ATPS forming components alongside the substrate and product of the fermentation process. In this work, the quinary aqueous two-phase LLE of poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 + sodium sulfate + water in the presence of glucose and ethanol have been experimentally determined at 298.15 K using spectrophotometric methods. The resulting LLE data were then satisfactorily correlated by the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient model based on mass fractions. In doing so, the binary energy interaction parameters of the NRTL activity coefficient model were obtained and reported. Calculated RMS deviations below 0.6% demonstrate that the original NRTL activity coefficient model can accurately correlate the LLE data of the quinary aqueous biphasic system of interest.

  16. Development and Integration of the Janus Robotic Lander: A Liquid Oxygen-Liquid Methane Propulsion System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Raul

    Initiatives have emerged with the goal of sending humans to other places in our solar system. New technologies are being developed that will allow for more efficient space systems to transport future astronauts. One of those technologies is the implementation of propulsion systems that use liquid oxygen and liquid methane (LO2-LCH4) as propellants. The benefits of a LO2-LCH4 propulsion system are plenty. One of the main advantages is the possibility of manufacturing the propellants at the destination body. A space vehicle which relies solely on liquid oxygen and liquid methane for its main propulsion and reaction control engines is necessary to exploit this advantage. At the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) MIRO Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) such a vehicle is being developed. Janus is a robotic lander vehicle with the capability of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) which integrates several LO2-LCH 4 systems that are being devised in-house. The vehicle will serve as a testbed for the parallel operation of these propulsion systems while being fed from common propellant tanks. The following work describes the efforts done at the cSETR to develop the first prototype of the vehicle as well as the plan to move forward in the design of the subsequent prototypes that will lead to a flight vehicle. In order to ensure an eventual smooth integration of the different subsystems that will form part of Janus, requirements were defined for each individual subsystem as well as the vehicle as a whole. Preliminary testing procedures and layouts have also been developed and will be discussed to detail in this text. Furthermore, the current endeavors in the design of each subsystem and the way that they interact with one another within the lander will be explained.

  17. Regioselective biooxidation of (+-valencene by recombinant E. coli expressing CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis in a two-liquid-phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Rolf D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background (+-Nootkatone (4 is a high added-value compound found in grapefruit juice. Allylic oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+-valencene (1 provides an attractive route to this sought-after flavoring. So far, chemical methods to produce (+-nootkatone (4 from (+-valencene (1 involve unsafe toxic compounds, whereas several biotechnological approaches applied yield large amounts of undesirable byproducts. In the present work 125 cytochrome P450 enzymes from bacteria were tested for regioselective oxidation of (+-valencene (1 at allylic C2-position to produce (+-nootkatone (4 via cis- (2 or trans-nootkatol (3. The P450 activity was supported by the co-expression of putidaredoxin reductase (PdR and putidaredoxin (Pdx from Pseudomonas putida in Escherichia coli. Results Addressing the whole-cell system, the cytochrome CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis was found to catalyze the oxidation of (+-valencene (1 yielding nootkatol (2 and 3 and (+-nootkatone (4. However, when the in vivo biooxidation of (+-valencene (1 with CYP109B1 was carried out in an aqueous milieu, a number of undesired multi-oxygenated products has also been observed accounting for approximately 35% of the total product. The formation of these byproducts was significantly reduced when aqueous-organic two-liquid-phase systems with four water immiscible organic solvents – isooctane, n-octane, dodecane or hexadecane – were set up, resulting in accumulation of nootkatol (2 and 3 and (+-nootkatone (4 of up to 97% of the total product. The best productivity of 120 mg l-1 of desired products was achieved within 8 h in the system comprising 10% dodecane. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the identification of new P450s capable of producing valuable compounds can basically be achieved by screening of recombinant P450 libraries. The biphasic reaction system described in this work presents an attractive way for the production of (+-nootkatone (4, as it is safe and can easily be

  18. Regioselective biooxidation of (+)-valencene by recombinant E. coli expressing CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis in a two-liquid-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girhard, Marco; Machida, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Masashi; Schmid, Rolf D; Arisawa, Akira; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2009-07-10

    (+)-Nootkatone (4) is a high added-value compound found in grapefruit juice. Allylic oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene (1) provides an attractive route to this sought-after flavoring. So far, chemical methods to produce (+)-nootkatone (4) from (+)-valencene (1) involve unsafe toxic compounds, whereas several biotechnological approaches applied yield large amounts of undesirable byproducts. In the present work 125 cytochrome P450 enzymes from bacteria were tested for regioselective oxidation of (+)-valencene (1) at allylic C2-position to produce (+)-nootkatone (4) via cis- (2) or trans-nootkatol (3). The P450 activity was supported by the co-expression of putidaredoxin reductase (PdR) and putidaredoxin (Pdx) from Pseudomonas putida in Escherichia coli. Addressing the whole-cell system, the cytochrome CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis was found to catalyze the oxidation of (+)-valencene (1) yielding nootkatol (2 and 3) and (+)-nootkatone (4). However, when the in vivo biooxidation of (+)-valencene (1) with CYP109B1 was carried out in an aqueous milieu, a number of undesired multi-oxygenated products has also been observed accounting for approximately 35% of the total product. The formation of these byproducts was significantly reduced when aqueous-organic two-liquid-phase systems with four water immiscible organic solvents - isooctane, n-octane, dodecane or hexadecane - were set up, resulting in accumulation of nootkatol (2 and 3) and (+)-nootkatone (4) of up to 97% of the total product. The best productivity of 120 mg l-1 of desired products was achieved within 8 h in the system comprising 10% dodecane. This study demonstrates that the identification of new P450s capable of producing valuable compounds can basically be achieved by screening of recombinant P450 libraries. The biphasic reaction system described in this work presents an attractive way for the production of (+)-nootkatone (4), as it is safe and can easily be controlled and scaled up.

  19. Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Rhodium and Platinum Catalysts Used in Hydrosilylation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Zielinski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A group of imidazolium and pyridinium based ionic liquids has been synthetized, and their ability to dissolve and activate the catalysts used in hydrosilylation reaction of 1-octane and 1,1,1,3,5,5,5-heptamethyltrisiloxane was investigated. An organometallic catalyst as well as inorganic complexes of platinum and rhodium dissolved in ionic liquids were used, forming liquid solutions not miscible with the substrates or with the products of the reaction. The results show that application of such a simple biphasic catalytic system enables reuse of ionic liquid phase with catalysts in multiple reaction cycles reducing the costs and decreasing the amount of catalyst needed per mole of product.

  20. Solid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Systems with an Ionic Liquid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Zuzana; Sauton, H.; Hynek, V.; Malijevská, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2008), s. 657-664 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/0444; GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : experimental data * solid-liquid equlibrium * 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2008

  1. Calculation of liquid-liquid phase separation in a ternary system of a polymer in a mixture of a solvent and a nonsolvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, Frank W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical method for the calculation of the binodal of liquid-liquid phase separation in a ternary system is described. The Flory-Huggins theory for three-component systems is used. Binodals are calculated for polymer/solvent/nonsolvent systems which are used in the preparation of asymmetric

  2. Comb polymer architecture and particle size effects on the behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks for direct-write assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Jun

    the repulsive particle size. Additionally, we find that biphasic suspensions composed of both identical and different mean particle sizes exhibit larger φ-scaling exponents for compressive yield stress than shear yield stress, indicating that such systems become more resistant to compression with increasing φ. This observation suggests that the biphasic suspensions flowing through fine nozzles are more resistant to filter pressing. Our findings provide new insights into controlling rheological properties of suspensions, which are applicable to a broad range of colloidal processing techniques. Finally, the printing behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks is investigated as a function of attractive-to-repulsive volume fraction and particle size ratio. Ink flow behavior is characterized by extrusion measurements, which reveals that the suspension viscosity, and, hence, pressure drop within micronozzles decrease as either the fraction or size of repulsive particles increases. We find that the shape retention of spanning filaments is improved by having a larger fraction of repulsive particles of smaller mean size, since this enhances the initial modulus recovery immediately after shear deformation. Biphasic inks composed of both identical and different mean particle sizes exhibit excellent flowability through fine nozzles compared to purely attractive inks, enabling fine-scale printing. These observations provide guidelines for optimizing the composition of biphasic inks for direct-write assembly of fine-scale, 3D structures.

  3. Extraction Equilibrium of Acrylic Acid by Aqueous Two-Phase Systems Using Hydrophilic Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hwa; Lee, Woo Youn; Kim, Ki-Sub; Hong, Yeon Ki

    2014-01-01

    As an effective method for extraction of acrylic acid, aqueous two-phase systems based on morpholinium ionic liquids were used in this study. Effects of the alkyl chain length of cation in morpholinium ionic liquids on phase diagram and extraction efficiencies were investigated. Experimental results show that aqueous two phase systems can be formed by adding appropriate amount of morpholinium ionic liquids to aqueous K 2 HPO 4 solutions. It can be found that the ability of morpholinium ionic liquids for phase separation followed the order [HMMor][Br]>[OMMor][Br]>[BMMor][Br]>[EMMor][Br]. There was little difference between binodal curves of imidazolium ionic liquids and those of morpholinium ionic liquids. 50-90% of the extraction efficiency was observed for acrylic acid by aqueous two phase extraction of acrylic acid with morpholinium ionic liquids. It can be concluded that morpholinium ionic liquids/K 2 HPO 4 were effective for aqueous two phases extraction of acrylic acid comparing to imidazolium ionic liquids/K 2 HPO 4 systems because of their lower cost

  4. Nuclear-station post-accident liquid-sampling system: developed by Duke Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, D.A.; Birch, M.L.; Orth, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island showed that means must be provided to determine the radioactivity levels in high activity liquid and gaseous systems of a nuclear power plant without undue radiation exposure to personnel. The Duke Power Post Accident Liquid Sampling System provides the means for obtaining diluted liquid samples and diluted dissolved gas samples following a reactor accident involving substantial core damage. Their approach yields a straightforward engineering solution at a fraction of the cost of other systems. A description of the system, general design criteria, and color coded flow diagrams are included

  5. Biphasic products of dicalcium phosphate-rich cement with injectability and nondispersibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chia-Ling; Chen, Jian-Chih; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Tien, Yin-Chun; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a calcium phosphate cement was developed using tetracalcium phosphate and surface-modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). This developed injectable bone graft substitute can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ through the piping system that has an adequate mechanical strength, non-dispersibility, and biocompatibility. The materials were based on the modified DCPA compositions of calcium phosphate cement (CPC), where the phase ratio of the surface-modified DCPA is higher than that of the conventional CPC for forming dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-rich cement. The composition and morphology of several calcium phosphate cement specimens during setting were analyzed via X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system. The compressive strength of DCP-rich CPCs was greater than 30 MPa after 24 h of immersion in vitro. The reaction of the CPCs produced steady final biphasic products of DCPs with apatite. The composites of calcium phosphate cements derived from tetracalcium phosphate mixed with surface-modified DCPA exhibited excellent mechanical properties, injectability, and interlocking forces between particles, and they also featured nondispersive behavior when immersed in a physiological solution. - Highlights: • Bone cement precursor with nanocrystals is characterized. • DCP-rich CPCs with nanocrystals exhibited biphasic product phases. • Nanocrystals in cement significantly affected the interlocking ability. • Nanocrystals in cement exhibited higher strength and anti-dispersion. • DCP-rich CPCs increase the potential of bioresorption after reaction

  6. Isobaric vapour-liquid-liquid equilibrium and vapour-liquid equilibrium for the system water + ethanol + iso-octane at 101.3 kPa

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Beviá, Francisco; Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Asensi Steegmann, Juan Carlos; Font Escamilla, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Poster enviado a Equifase 2002, VI Iberoamerican Conference on Phase Equilibria for Process Design, Foz de Iguazú (Brazil), October 12th to 16th, 2002. Many studies have been carried out in the heterogeneous azeotropic distillation field either by experiment or by simulation. The development of all these studies requires the use of sets of isobaric vapour–liquid–liquid equilibrium (VLLE) data. However, the number of ternary systems with experimental VLLE data is very limited, since it is d...

  7. MEASUREMENT AND CORRELATION OF THE MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR A LIQUID-LIQUID SYSTEM WITH HIGH DENSITY DIFFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixian Huang

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the mass transfer behavior of a liquid-liquid system with high density difference (∆ρ≈500 kg/m3, single drop experiments were performed by using the ternary chloroform-ethanol-water system. The mass transfer direction was from the dispersed phase to the continuous phase, while the aqueous phase was dispersed in chloroform to generate drops. The influences of drop diameter, initial solute concentration and temperature on the mass transfer were investigated. The effects of the drop diameter and initial solute concentration on interfacial instability of droplets hanging in the continuous phase were also observed. For the purpose of correlation, a mass transfer enhancement factor F was introduced and then correlated as a function of dimensionless variables. The modified correlation from the mass transfer coefficient model was found to fit well with the experimental values.

  8. Emergency cooling system for a liquid metal cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Ryoichi; Fujiwara, Toshikatsu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To suitably cool liquid metal as coolant in emergency in a liquid metal cooled reactor by providing a detector for the pressure loss of the liquid metal passing through a cooling device in a loop in which the liquid metal is flowed and communicating the detector with a coolant flow regulator. Constitution: A nuclear reactor is stopped in nuclear reaction by control element or the like in emergency. If decay heat is continuously generated for a while and secondary coolant is insufficiently cooled with water or steam flowed through a steam and water loop, a cooler is started. That is, low temperature air is supplied by a blower through an inlet damper to the cooler to cool the secondary coolant flowed into the cooler through a bypass pipe so as to finally safely stop an entire plant. Since the liquid metal is altered in its physical properties by the temperature at this time, it is detected to regulate the opening of the valve of the damper according to the detected value. (Sekiya, K.)

  9. Liquids - vapor and liquids - solids equilibria in the system Th(NO3)4 - UO2(NO3)2 - HNO3 - H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, V.I.; Vakhrushin, A.Yu.; Mamaev, S.L.; Zhirnov, Yu.P.

    1999-01-01

    Liquids - vapor and liquids - solids equilibria in the system Th(NO 3 ) 4 - UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 - HNO 3 - H 2 O were investigated. It was established that in this system thorium nitrate hexahydrate and uranyl nitrate hexa- and trihydrate are formed. Empiric equations of solubility isotherm at 25 deg C were found. Densities of liquid phases of the system were determined. It was established that uranyl nitrates and thorium nitrates salt out nitric acid in vapor phase just as separately so in the case of mutual presence. Empiric equation fixing relationship between nitric acid concentration in condensed phase and concentrations of all components in liquid phase was found

  10. Modelling dynamic liquid-gas systems: Extensions to the volume-of-fluid solver

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, Johan A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the extension of the volume-of-fluid solver, interFoam, for improved accuracy and efficiency when modelling dynamic liquid-gas systems. Examples of these include the transportation of liquids, such as in the case of fuel carried...

  11. Extensive Evaluation of the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents Method in Predicting Liquid-Liquid Equilibria in Ternary Systems of Ionic Liquids with Molecular Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduszyński, Kamil

    2018-04-12

    A conductor-like screening model for real solvents (COSMO-RS) is nowadays one of the most popular and commonly applied tools for the estimation of thermodynamic properties of complex fluids. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the performance of this approach in calculating liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) phase diagrams in ternary systems composed of ionic liquid and two molecular compounds belonging to diverse families of chemicals (alkanes, aromatics, S/N-compounds, alcohols, ketones, ethers, carboxylic acid, esters, and water). The predictions are presented for extensive experimental database, including 930 LLE data sets and more than 9000 data points (LLE tie lines) reported for 779 unique ternary mixtures. An impact of the type of molecular binary subsystem on the accuracy of predictions is demonstrated and discussed on the basis of representative examples. The model's capability of capturing qualitative trends in the LLE distribution ratio and selectivity is also checked for a number of structural effects. Comparative analysis of two levels of quantum chemical theory (BP-TZVP-COSMO vs BP-TZVPD-FINE) for the input molecular data for COSMO-RS is presented. Finally, some general recommendations for the applicability of the model are indicated based on the analysis of the global performance as well as on the results obtained for systems relevant from the point of view of important separation problems.

  12. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided

  13. Biphasic electrical currents stimulation promotes both proliferation and differentiation of fetal neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-A Chang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells has attracted researchers from multiple disciplines, including the engineering and the biomedical fields. No doubt, growth factor based methods are still the most dominant of achieving some level of proliferation and differentiation control--however, chemical based methods are still limited by the quality, source, and amount of the utilized reagents. Well-defined non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells allow stem cell scientists to control stem cell biology by precisely administering the pre-defined parameters, whether they are structural cues, substrate stiffness, or in the form of current flow. We have developed a culture system that allows normal stem cell growth and the option of applying continuous and defined levels of electric current to alter the cell biology of growing cells. This biphasic current stimulator chip employing ITO electrodes generates both positive and negative currents in the same culture chamber without affecting surface chemistry. We found that biphasic electrical currents (BECs significantly increased the proliferation of fetal neural stem cells (NSCs. Furthermore, BECs also promoted the differentiation of fetal NSCs into neuronal cells, as assessed using immunocytochemistry. Our results clearly show that BECs promote both the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of fetal NSCs. It may apply to the development of strategies that employ NSCs in the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  14. MDCT urography: experience with a bi-phasic excretory phase examination protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Degenhart, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L.

    2007-01-01

    The benefit of multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) for visualising early and late excretory phase (EP) upper urinary tract (UUT) opacification has been studied. UUT opacification was retrospectively evaluated in 45 bi-phasic four-row MDCTU examinations. The UUT was divided into intrarenal collecting system (IRCS), proximal, middle and distal ureter. Two independent readers rated opacification: 1, none; 2, partial; 3, complete. Numbers of segments and percentages of UUTs at each score were calculated for each EP and two EPs combined. Results of a single EP and of combined EPs were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks. IRCS and proximal ureter were at least partially opacified in each EP in >95%. The middle ureter was at least partially opacified in the early and late EP in 85% and 93%, respectively. The distal ureter was opacified in 65% (49/75) in the early EP and in 78% (59/75) in the late EP. Combining two EPs, non-opacified distal segments decreased to 9% (7/75). Significant improvement between a single EP and combining two EPs were found for the middle and distal ureter (P < 0.03). Bi-phasic MDCTU substantially improved opacification of the middle and distal ureter. IRCS and proximal ureter are reliably opacified with one EP. (orig.)

  15. Online Epileptic Seizure Prediction Using Wavelet-Based Bi-Phase Correlation of Electrical Signals Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Zahra; Amirfattahi, Rasoul; Shayegh, Farzaneh; Ghassemi, Fahimeh

    2015-09-01

    Considerable efforts have been made in order to predict seizures. Among these methods, the ones that quantify synchronization between brain areas, are the most important methods. However, to date, a practically acceptable result has not been reported. In this paper, we use a synchronization measurement method that is derived according to the ability of bi-spectrum in determining the nonlinear properties of a system. In this method, first, temporal variation of the bi-spectrum of different channels of electro cardiography (ECoG) signals are obtained via an extended wavelet-based time-frequency analysis method; then, to compare different channels, the bi-phase correlation measure is introduced. Since, in this way, the temporal variation of the amount of nonlinear coupling between brain regions, which have not been considered yet, are taken into account, results are more reliable than the conventional phase-synchronization measures. It is shown that, for 21 patients of FSPEEG database, bi-phase correlation can discriminate the pre-ictal and ictal states, with very low false positive rates (FPRs) (average: 0.078/h) and high sensitivity (100%). However, the proposed seizure predictor still cannot significantly overcome the random predictor for all patients.

  16. One- and zero-dimensional electron systems over liquid helium (Review article)

    CERN Document Server

    Kovdrya, Y Z

    2003-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of one-dimensional and zero-dimensional electron systems near the liquid helium surface are surveyed. The properties of electron states over the plane surface of liquid helium including thin layers of helium are considered. The methods of realization of one- and zero-dimensional electron systems are discussed, and the results of experimental and theoretical investigations of their properties are given. The experiments with localization processes in a quasi-one-dimensional electron systems on liquid helium are described. The collective effects in one-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional electron systems are considered, and the point of possible application of low-dimensional electron systems on liquid helium in electron devices and quantum computers is discussed.

  17. On a hyperbolic system arising in liquid crystals modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Rocca, E.; Schimperna, G.; Zarnescu, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2018), s. 15-35 ISSN 0219-8916 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : dissipative solution * liquid crystal * weak-strong uniqueness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.940, year: 2016 https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219891618500029

  18. Ionic liquids in separations of azeotropic systems – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereiro, A.B.; Araújo, J.M.M.; Esperança, J.M.S.S.; Marrucho, I.M.; Rebelo, L.P.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper provides a review of methods using ionic liquids as azeotrope breakers. ► Azeotrope breaking potential of ILs was compared to that of conventional solvents. ► The influence of ILs structure on the azeotrope breaking capacity was accomplished. ► Guidelines to select the most suitable ILs as azeotrope breakers were established. - Abstract: Efforts to make existing separation methods more efficient and eco-friendly may get a boost from the use of a relatively new class of compounds known as ionic liquids (ILs). The separation of azeotropic mixtures has conventionally been one of the most challenging tasks in industrial processes due to the fact that their separation by simple distillation is basically impossible. This paper provides a critical review of methods using ILs as azeotrope breakers. Three separation processes were addressed: liquid–liquid extraction, extractive distillation, and supported liquid membranes. We examine the azeotrope breaking potential of ILs and compare their performance to that of conventional solvents. A systematic analysis of the influence of the structure of ILs on their azeotrope breaking capacity contributes to the establishment of guidelines for selecting the most suitable ILs for the separation of specific azeotropic mixtures.

  19. Wetting in a Colloidal Liquid-Gas System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijting, W. K.; Besseling, N. A.; Stuart, M. A.

    2003-05-01

    We present first observations of wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions (coated silica cyclohexane-polydimethylsiloxane). The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate (coated glass) was determined for a series of compositions. Upon approach to the critical point, a transition occurs from partial to complete wetting.

  20. Wetting in a colloidal liquid-gas system

    OpenAIRE

    Wijting, W.K.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present first observations of wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions (coated silica-cyclohexane-polydimethylsiloxane). The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate (coated glass) was determined for a series of compositions. Upon approach to the critical point, a transition occurs from partial to complete wetting.

  1. Wetting in a colloidal liquid-gas system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijting, W.K.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present first observations of wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions (coated silica-cyclohexane-polydimethylsiloxane). The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate (coated glass) was determined for a series of

  2. System Design Description Salt Well Liquid Pumping Dynamic Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The Salt Well Liquid (SWL) Pumping Dynamic Simulation used by the single-shell tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project is described. A graphical dynamic simulation predicts SWL removal from 29 SSTs using an exponential function and unique time constant for each SST. Increasing quarterly efficiencies are applied to adjust the pumping rates during fiscal year 2000

  3. Commissioning of the XENON1T liquid level measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis, Christopher [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Two-phase xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) have been operated very successfully in direct detection experiments for dark matter. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled with sub-millimeter precision. We present the installation, commissioning and first measurement data of two kinds of level meters operated in the XENON1T TPC: short level meters are three-plated capacitors measuring the level of the liquid-gas interface with a measurement range h∼5 mm and a resolution of ΔC/h∼1 pF/mm. The long level meters are cylindrical double-walled capacitors, measuring the overall filling level of the XENON1T TPC at a measurement range of h=1.4 m and a resolution of ΔC/h∼0.1 pF/mm. Further, we present the design and programming of the readout electronic based on the UTI chip by Smartec, which allows to read all six levelmeters simultaneously.

  4. Design of shutdown system no.2 liquid poison injection system for 500 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, S.; Balasubrahmanian, A.K.; Pillai, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Defence in depth and two group system concepts form the basic design philosophy for the shutdown systems. There are two independent, diverse and fast acting shutdown systems provided for the 500 MWe PHWR. The design is based on fail-safe principle, sufficient component redundancy and on-line testing. Liquid poison injection system, as shutdown system 2, is newly developed for the 500 MWe PHWRs. The system operates by rapidly injecting gadolinium nitrate solution into bulk moderator using stored helium pressure thereby inserting negative reactivity. A high pressure helium supply tank which provides the energy for system actuation, is connected, through an array of fast acting valves in series-parallel arrangement, to the individual poison tanks storing gadolinium nitrate solution. The valves, belonging to three different channels of reactor Protection System 2, are the only active components in the system. The valves are fail safe and are periodically tested on-line without actually firing the system. The system comprising of in-core assemblies and the external process system has been engineered. Experimental work is being carried out by BARC for design validation and data generation. This paper describes the conceptual development, design basis, design parameters and detailed engineering of the system. (author)

  5. High bulk modulus of ionic liquid and effects on performance of hydraulic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambic, Milan; Kalb, Roland; Tasner, Tadej; Lovrec, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years ionic liquids have gained in importance, causing a growing number of scientists and engineers to investigate possible applications for these liquids because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Their outstanding advantages such as nonflammable liquid within a broad liquid range, high thermal, mechanical, and chemical stabilities, low solubility for gases, attractive tribological properties (lubrication), and very low compressibility, and so forth, make them more interesting for applications in mechanical engineering, offering great potential for new innovative processes, and also as a novel hydraulic fluid. This paper focuses on the outstanding compressibility properties of ionic liquid EMIM-EtSO4, a very important physical chemically property when IL is used as a hydraulic fluid. This very low compressibility (respectively, very high Bulk modulus), compared to the classical hydraulic mineral oils or the non-flammable HFDU type of hydraulic fluids, opens up new possibilities regarding its usage within hydraulic systems with increased dynamics, respectively, systems' dynamic responses.

  6. System and method for liquid extraction electrospray-assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-07-12

    A system for sampling a surface includes a surface sampling probe comprising a solvent liquid supply conduit and a distal end, and a sample collector for suspending a sample collection liquid adjacent to the distal end of the probe. A first electrode provides a first voltage to solvent liquid at the distal end of the probe. The first voltage produces a field sufficient to generate electrospray plume at the distal end of the probe. A second electrode provides a second voltage and is positioned to produce a plume-directing field sufficient to direct the electrospray droplets and ions to the suspended sample collection liquid. The second voltage is less than the first voltage in absolute value. A voltage supply system supplies the voltages to the first electrode and the second electrode. The first electrode can apply the first voltage directly to the solvent liquid. A method for sampling for a surface is also disclosed.

  7. Automated Liquid-Level Control of a Nutrient Reservoir for a Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Boris; Asumadu, Johnson A.; Dogan, Numan S.

    1997-01-01

    A microprocessor-based system for control of the liquid level of a nutrient reservoir for a plant hydroponic growing system has been developed. The system uses an ultrasonic transducer to sense the liquid level or height. A National Instruments' Multifunction Analog and Digital Input/Output PC Kit includes NI-DAQ DOS/Windows driver software for an IBM 486 personal computer. A Labview Full Development system for Windows is the graphical programming system being used. The system allows liquid level control to within 0.1 cm for all levels tried between 8 and 36 cm in the hydroponic system application. The detailed algorithms have been developed and a fully automated microprocessor based nutrient replenishment system has been described for this hydroponic system.

  8. RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION WITH A TRIISOOCTYLAMINE DILUENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malmary

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary alkylamines in solution with organic diluents are attractive extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous phases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism for extraction of organic acids from water by a long-chain aliphatic tertiary amine. In order to attain this objective, we studied the liquid-liquid equilibria between the triisooctylamine + 1-octanol + n-heptane system as solvent and an aqueous solution of an individual carboxylic acid such as citric, lactic and malic acids. The experiments showed that the partition coefficient for a particular organic acid depends on the kind of solute, notably when the acid concentration in the aqueous phase is low. A mathematical model, where both chemical association and physical distribution are taken into consideration, is proposed. The model suggests that the various complexes obtained between amine and organic acids contribute to the distribution of the solute between the coexisting phases in equilibrium.

  9. Liquid-liquid equilibrium of water + PEG 8000 + magnesium sulfate or sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems at 35°C: experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Castro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase systems is a highly efficient technique for separation and purification of biomolecules due to the mild properties of both liquid phases. Reliable data on the phase behavior of these systems are essential for the design and operation of new separation processes; several authors reported phase diagrams for polymer-polymer systems, but data on polymer-salt systems are still relatively scarce. In this work, experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data on water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + magnesium sulfate and water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems were obtained at 35°C. Both equilibrium phases were analyzed by lyophilization and ashing. Experimental results were correlated with a mass-fraction-based NRTL activity coefficient model. New interaction parameters were estimated with the Simplex method. The mean deviations between the experimental and calculated compositions in both equilibrium phases is about 2%.

  10. Performance analysis of a novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mingkun; Zhao, Pan; Wu, Yi; Dai, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Due to the intermittence and fluctuation of wind resource, the increasing penetration level of wind power will bring huge challenges to maintain the stability of power system. Integrating compressed air energy storage (CAES) system with wind farms can weaken this negative effect. However CAES system needs large caverns or mines to store compressed air, which is restricted in application. In this paper, a novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide is presented. The mathematical models of compressed liquid-carbon dioxide energy storage system are developed. The parametric analysis is conducted to examine the effect of some key thermodynamic parameters on the system performance. Compared with AA-CAES, the liquid carbon dioxide energy storage system has advantages such as a high energy density, high EVR. Moreover, the round trip efficiency of this system can reach about 56.64%, which is acceptable in consideration of the storage volume. Therefore, this proposed system has a good potential for storing wind power in large scale and offers an attractive solution to the challenges of the increasing penetration level of wind power. - Highlights: • A novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide is presented. • The effects of some key parameters on the system performance are studied. • The operation optimization is conducted by genetic algorithm. • Comparative analysis of AA-CAES and liquid carbon dioxide system is studied.

  11. Liquid-liquid equilibria for binary and ternary systems containing glycols, aromatic hydrocarbons, and water: Experimental measurements and modeling with the CPA EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2006-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data of four binary glycol + aromatic hydrocarbon systems and three ternary systems containing water have been measured at atmospheric pressure. The measured systems are monoethylene glycol (MEG) + benzene or toluene, triethylene glycol (TEG) + benzene or toluene, MEG...... + water + benzene, MEG + water + toluene, and TEG + water + toluene. The binary systems are correlated with the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state while the ternary systems are predicted from interaction parameters obtained from the binary systems. Very satisfactory liquid-liquid equilibrium...... correlations are obtained for the binary systems using temperature-independent interaction parameters, while adequate predictions are achieved for multicomponent water + glycol + aromatic hydrocarbons systems when accounting for the solvation between the aromatic hydrocarbons and glycols or water....

  12. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans releases 2.0 and 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettler, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  13. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  14. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans release 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  15. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  16. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory [Adelphi Technology LLC, Purdue Technology Center, 5225 Exploration Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46241 (United States); Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  17. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory; Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J.; Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  18. Vapor-liquid equilibria for the acetone-ethanol-n-propanol-tert-butanol-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochigi, K.; Uchida, K.; Kojima, K.

    1981-12-01

    This study deals with the measurement of vapor-liquid equilibria for the five-component system acetone-ethanol-n-propanol-tert-butanol-water at 760 mmHg and prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria by the ASOG group contribution method. The five-component system in this work is composed of a part of the components obtained during ethanol production by vapor-phase hydration of ethylene. 6 refs.

  19. The elimination of singularities in pair correlation functions of a multicomponent liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'jev, O.M.; Chalij, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method that allows to find nonsingular expressions for pair correlation functions of a multicomponent liquid system. The nature of the method deals with using integral and differential Ornstein-Zernike equations for finding asymptotic expressions for pair correlation functions and their subsequent precision. The obtained results are analyzed taking into account their possible applicability for studying the correlative behaviour of multicomponent liquid systems

  20. Novel liquid application systems for poorly soluble drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Luschmann, Christoph Roman

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was focused on the development of efficient novel liquid formulations for poorly water soluble drugs for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases. With Restasis® there is currently only one drug product approved by the FDA, in the US only, for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. It still suffers from low bioavailability, bad biocompatibility and thus a low patient compliance, as well as cumbersome manufacturing. Hence, there is a tremendous lack in the options for a causal...

  1. Modeling vapor liquid equilibrium of ionic liquids + gas binary systems at high pressure with cubic equations of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. D. Freitas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (IL have been described as novel environmentally benign solvents because of their remarkable characteristics. Numerous applications of these solvents continue to grow at an exponential rate. In this work, high pressure vapor liquid equilibria for 17 different IL + gas binary systems were modeled at different temperatures with Peng-Robinson (PR and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equations of state, combined with the van der Waals mixing rule with two binary interaction parameters (vdW-2. The experimental data were taken from the literature. The optimum binary interaction parameters were estimated by minimization of an objective function based on the average absolute relative deviation of liquid and vapor phases, using the modified Simplex algorithm. The solubilities of all gases studied in this work decrease as the temperature increases and increase with increasing pressure. The correlated results were highly satisfactory, with average absolute relative deviations of 2.10% and 2.25% for PR-vdW-2 and SRK-vdW-2, respectively.

  2. Liquid densities and excess molar volumes for (ionic liquids + methanol + water) ternary system at atmospheric pressure and at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deenadayalu, Nirmala [Department of Chemistry, Durban University of Technology, Steve Biko Campus, P.O. Box 1334, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal 4001 (South Africa)], E-mail: NirmalaD@dut.ac.za; Kumar, Satish; Bhujrajh, Pravena [Department of Chemistry, Durban University of Technology, Steve Biko Campus, P.O. Box 1334, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal 4001 (South Africa)

    2007-09-15

    Excess molar volumes, V{sub m}{sup E} have been evaluated from density measurements over the entire composition range for ternary liquid system of ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium diethylenglycol monomethylether sulphate {l_brace}[EMIM][CH{sub 3}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}OSO{sub 3}]) (1) + methanol (2) + water (3){r_brace} at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 313.15) K. A vibrating tube densimeter was used for these measurements at atmospheric pressure. The V{sub m}{sup E} values were found to be negative at T = (298.15 and 303.15) K. For {l_brace}[EMIM][CH{sub 3}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}OSO{sub 3}] (1) + methanol (2) + water (3){r_brace} at T = 313.15 K the V{sub m}{sup E} values become positive at higher mole fraction of ionic liquid and at a corresponding decrease in mole fraction of water. All the experimental data were fitted with the Redlich-Kister equation. The results have also been analysed in term of graph theoretical approach.

  3. Effect of dispersive long-range corrections to the pressure tensor: The vapour-liquid interfacial properties of the Lennard-Jones system revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Blas, F. J., E-mail: felipe@uhu.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Centro de Investigación de Física Teórica y Matemática, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Mendiboure, B. [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes et leurs Réservoirs, UMR5150, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, B. P. 1155, Pau Cedex 64014 (France); Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I. [Centro de Investigación de Física Teórica y Matemática, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Departamento de Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-11-14

    We propose an extension of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janeček [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6264–6269 (2006)], presented recently by MacDowell and Blas [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074705 (2009)] to account for the intermolecular potential energy of spherical, rigid, and flexible molecular systems, to deal with the contributions to the microscopic components of the pressure tensor due to the dispersive long-range corrections. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of spherical Lennard-Jones molecules with different cutoff distances, r{sub c} = 2.5, 3, 4, and 5σ. In addition, we have also considered cutoff distances r{sub c} = 2.5 and 3σ in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections proposed in this work. The normal and tangential microscopic components of the pressure tensor are obtained using the mechanical or virial route in combination with the recipe of Irving and Kirkwood, while the macroscopic components are calculated using the Volume Perturbation thermodynamic route proposed by de Miguel and Jackson [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164109 (2006)]. The vapour-liquid interfacial tension is evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the Test-Area methodology. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles, coexistence densities, vapour pressure, critical temperature and density, and interfacial thickness as functions of temperature, paying particular attention to the effect of the cutoff distance and the long-range corrections on these properties. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the cutoff distance (at fixed temperature) is to sharpen the vapour-liquid interface, to decrease the vapour pressure, and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. As a result, the interfacial

  4. Effect of dispersive long-range corrections to the pressure tensor: The vapour-liquid interfacial properties of the Lennard-Jones system revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Blas, F. J.; Mendiboure, B.; Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an extension of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janeček [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6264–6269 (2006)], presented recently by MacDowell and Blas [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074705 (2009)] to account for the intermolecular potential energy of spherical, rigid, and flexible molecular systems, to deal with the contributions to the microscopic components of the pressure tensor due to the dispersive long-range corrections. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of spherical Lennard-Jones molecules with different cutoff distances, r c = 2.5, 3, 4, and 5σ. In addition, we have also considered cutoff distances r c = 2.5 and 3σ in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections proposed in this work. The normal and tangential microscopic components of the pressure tensor are obtained using the mechanical or virial route in combination with the recipe of Irving and Kirkwood, while the macroscopic components are calculated using the Volume Perturbation thermodynamic route proposed by de Miguel and Jackson [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164109 (2006)]. The vapour-liquid interfacial tension is evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the Test-Area methodology. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles, coexistence densities, vapour pressure, critical temperature and density, and interfacial thickness as functions of temperature, paying particular attention to the effect of the cutoff distance and the long-range corrections on these properties. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the cutoff distance (at fixed temperature) is to sharpen the vapour-liquid interface, to decrease the vapour pressure, and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. As a result, the interfacial thickness

  5. Measurements and correlation of liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary (3-heptanone + phenol + water) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Gaojie; Yang, Deling; Ning, Pengge; Wang, Qingjie; Gong, Fuchun; Cao, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The liquid-liquid equilibrium data for 3-heptanone + phenol + water were measured. • The distribution coefficient of phenol and selectivity for solvent extraction efficiency were calculated. • The NRTL model (two regression methods) and UNIQUAC model were used to correlate the experimental data with good results. • The physical meaning of the regressed binary parameters was explained by intermolecular attractive energy. • The activity coefficient of phenol and enthalpy change in extraction process were investigated. - Abstract: Liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) for the ternary (3-heptanone + phenol + water) system has been determined under atmospheric pressure at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 318.15 K and 323.15 K. The NRTL and UNIQUAC models were used to correlate the experimental results. The corresponding binary parameters were obtained and their physical meaning is explained by intermolecular attractive energy. The results from the two models agree well with experimental values. The NRTL model was more accurate than that of the UNIQUAC model. Meanwhile, the NRTL model was used to regress all the experimental values at different temperatures simultaneously, which is defined as total-regression. Compared with the individual regression by the NRTL model, the total regression by the NRTL model has fewer parameters and covers a wider interpolated range from 298.15 K to 323.15 K. The distribution coefficient for phenol changes with temperature. The phenol concentration can be expressed as a function of activity coefficient of phenol in both phases. The effect of temperature on the extraction performance of 3-heptanone was also investigated. The phenol extraction process by 3-heptanone is exothermic. The increase of temperature is not a benefit to phenol extraction.

  6. Basic models in transitory analysis in biphasic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez S, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    The two-phase flow but studied and possibly the more complex, is the one integrated by gas-liquid mixtures. These flows are with frequency inside systems and equipment related with the chemical industry, that of the petroleum and in the one dedicated to the electric energy generation, being inside this last, in particular in the nuclear and of geothermal areas, those that but have motivated to the detailed and complete analysis of the behavior of the two-phase flows. The present report, it tries to analyze inside the nuclear reactor area, the emergence of some abnormal operation situations, related exclusively with the two-phase flow in gas-liquid mixtures. (Author)

  7. Optical Mass Gauging System for Measuring Liquid Levels in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullenberger, Ryan M.; Munoz, Wesley M.; Lyon, Matt P.; Vogel, Kenny; Yalin, Azer P.; Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A compact and rugged fiber-coupled liquid volume sensor designed for flight on a sounding rocket platform is presented. The sensor consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer capable of measuring the amount of liquid contained in a tank under any gravitational conditions, including a microgravity environment, by detecting small changes in the index of refraction of the gas contained within a sensing region. By monitoring changes in the interference fringe pattern as the system undergoes a small compression provided by a piston, the ullage volume of a tank can be directly measured allowing for a determination of the liquid volume. To demonstrate the technique, data are acquired using two tanks containing different volumes of liquid, which are representative of the levels of liquid in a tank at different time periods during a mission. The two tanks are independently exposed to the measurement apparatus, allowing for a determination of the liquid level in each. In a controlled, laboratory test of the unit, the system demonstrated a capability of measuring a liquid level in an individual tank of 10.53 mL with a 2% error. The overall random uncertainty for the flight system is higher than that one test, at +/- 1.5 mL.

  8. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapor + liquid) equilibria of (CO2 + alkanol) binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Arturo; Gutierrez, Jorge E.; Araus, Karina A.; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → (Vapor + liquid) equilibria of three (CO 2 + C 5 alcohol) binary systems were measured. → Complementary data are reported at (313, 323 and 333) K and from (2 to 11) MPa. → No liquid immiscibility was observed at the temperatures and pressures studied. → Experimental data were correlated with the PR-EoS and the van de Waals mixing rules. → Correlation results showed relative deviations ≤8 % (liquid) and ≤2 % (vapor). - Abstract: Complementary isothermal (vapor + liquid) equilibria data are reported for the (CO 2 + 3-methyl-2-butanol), (CO 2 + 2-pentanol), and (CO 2 + 3-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 11) MPa. For all (CO 2 + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapor + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data with deviations for the mole fractions <8% and <2% for the liquid and vapor phase, respectively.

  9. ASSESING THE DETERMINANTS OF BANK LIQUIDITY. CASE STUDY ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru LUCA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has highlighted the importance of liquidity risk for the banking system. Therefore, this study focuses on identifing the determinants of liquidity of Romanian banks. The data cover the period from 2006 to 2013 and take into account only bank-specific factors. The empirical study was applied on 16 Romanian banks and based on previous studies and uses different liquidity ratios, encompassing different points of view on liquidity. Regarding the explanatory variables considered in this analysis, they include various items of internal character concerning: capital adequacy, asset quality, profitability, efficiency of financial intermediation and the size of the banks. The results of our regression analysis indicate that bank liquidity is positively related to capital adequacy of banks and bank profitability and negatively related to the rate of non-performing loans, net interest margin and the size of the bank.

  10. Numerical simulation on stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingchun

    2012-01-01

    The stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank was simulation object. Gas, liquid and solid were air, sodium nitrate liquor and titanium whitening, respectively. The mathematic model based on three-fluid model and the kinetic theory of particles was established for the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. The CFD commercial software was used for solving this model. The detail flow parameters as three phase velocity, pressure and phase loadings were gained. The calculated results agree with the experimental results, so they can well define the flow behavior in the tank. And this offers a basic method for the scale-up and optimization design of the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. (author)

  11. Experimental system design of liquid lithium-lead alloy bubbler for DFLL-TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Li Junge; Xu Shaomei; Weng Kuiping

    2011-01-01

    The liquid lithium-lead alloy bubbler is a very important composition in the tritium unit of Chinese Dual-Functional Lithium Lead Test Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM). In order to complete the construction and run of the bubbler experimental system,overall design of the system, main circuit design and auxiliary system design have been proposed on the basis of theoretical calculations for the interaction of hydrogen isotope with lithium-lead alloy and experiment for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium-lead alloy by bubbling with rotational jet nozzle. The key of this design is gas-liquid exchange packed column, to achieve the measurement and extraction of hydrogen isotopes from liquid lithium-lead alloy. (authors)

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of an innovative liquid desiccant air conditioning system to supply potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.; Gandhidasan, P.; Zubair, Syed M.; Bahaidarah, Haitham M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The study objective is to reduce the energy consumption of desiccant AC system. • Heat and mass losses are recovered in the proposed system using a condenser. • The conventional and the proposed systems are compared in terms of COP. • The proposed system performance is better than the conventional system. • The proposed system produces freshwater in addition to space cooling. - Abstract: Liquid desiccant air conditioning systems are cost-effective, environmentally friendly and energy efficient techniques, especially in coastal areas. In the conventional liquid desiccant air conditioning system, the scavenging air is expelled into the atmosphere carrying a considerable amount of energy and water vapor. Thus, there is plenty of room to improve the system performance by recovering these losses. The proposed system consists of a conventional liquid desiccant air conditioning system plus a condenser. The aim of this study is to reduce the energy consumption by recovering the heat from the scavenging air using the condenser while also producing freshwater in addition to space cooling. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is used as the liquid desiccant for this study. The mathematical formulation for simultaneous heat and mass transfer between the condenser and the regenerator was developed to establish a comparison between the performance of the conventional and modified systems. Using the generated model, it is found that the modified system performance is 11.25% better than the conventional system and that it produces 86.4 kg of freshwater per hour as a by-product under the given conditions.

  13. Functions and requirements document, WESF decoupling project, low-level liquid waste system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was constructed in 1974 to encapsulate and store cesium and strontium which were isolated at B Plant from underground storage tank waste. The WESF, Building 225-B, is attached physically to the west end of B Plant, Building 221-B, 200 East area. The WESF currently utilizes B Plant facilities for disposing liquid and solid waste streams. With the deactivation of B Plant, the WESF Decoupling Project will provide replacement systems allowing WESF to continue operations independently from B Plant. Four major systems have been identified to be replaced by the WESF Decoupling Project, including the following: Low Level Liquid Waste System, Solid Waste Handling System, Liquid Effluent Control System, and Deionized Water System.

  14. Structural studies on volatile, air and moisture sensitive liquids at ambient and elevated temperatures using liquid X-ray scattering. The structure of liquid gallium (III) chloride systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvenlund, Stefan; Bengtsson, Lars A.

    1994-09-01

    An X-ray scattering method is presented which provides accurate structural information on air and moisture sensitive liquids at ambient and elevated temperatures using a standard θ-θ X-ray diffractometer. The method utilizes capillary glass tubes as sample containers and requires no corrections for sample container absorption or scattering, as shown by structural studies of well-known systems such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride and antimony trichloride. Artefacts produced by the sample holder are insignificant and very easy to correct for. The major drawback of the method is the long time of experiment, due to the small (compared with the standard set-up) area/volume ratio of the liquid which contributes to the intensity of the scattered radiation. However, the time required is not unduly long except for liquids containing light elements only (very low scattering power) or very heavy ones (high liner absorptivity). Liquid GaCl 3 is shown to have a dimeric structure consisting of edge-sharing GaCl 4 tetrahedra. This structure is analogous to that previously found for GaCl 3 in the gaseous and solid state and for AlCl 3 in the gaseous and liquid state. Concentrated solutions of GaCl 3 in benzene have been shown to comprise monomeric GaCl 3 units with C3v symmetry. However, it is suggested that such units form as a result of a radiolytically induced cleavage of the Ga 2Cl 6 moieties. No GaC correlation is resolved, which is explained by assuming a σ-type complex GaCl 3 and benzene and/or an ill-defined interaction between the GaCl 3 unit and benzene. The former sitution would most probably produce too few GaC correlation to be observable by the present method, whereas the latter situation would produce a very broad GaC correlation difficult to separate from the background. However, the deviation from the D3h symmetry adopted by GaCl 3 in the gas phase indicates a specific interation between GaCl 3 and benzene.

  15. High rate amplifier-digitizer system for liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droege, T.F.; Lobkowicz, F.; Fukushima, Y.

    1978-01-01

    A low-cost charge amplifier for a liquid argon photon detector and a new method for pulse height analysis are described. This scheme is suitable for high-energy photon detection with high counting rate. Samples of preamplifer output are taken just before and just after the arrival of the charge from the detector. The difference of these samples provides a stable pedestal and rejects low frequency noise. Short two-pulse resolving time (approximately equal to 200ns) is achieved. 6 refs

  16. Method for determining efficiency in a liquid scintillation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, B.H.

    1975-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of counting radioactive events in a liquid scintillation radiation detecting and counting apparatus by utilizing pulses generated by a photomultiplying means resulting from scintillations caused by radioactive events. A counting efficiency value is assigned to each pulse generated in the photomultiplying means according to the height of the pulse. The numerical inverse of each assigned counting efficiency value is determined and each numerical inverse is recorded as an actual number of radioactive events with each having a pulse height identical to that of the corresponding pulse generated in the photomultiplying means. (Patent Office Record)

  17. Flow measurement in two-phase (gas-liquid) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, G.F.; Whalley, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The main methods of measuring mass flow and quality in gas-liquid flows in industrial situations are reviewed. These include gamma densitometry coupled with differential pressure devices such as crifice plates, turbine flow meters and drag screens. For each method the principle of operation, and the advantages and disadvantages, are given. Some further techniques which are currently being investigated and developed for routine use are also described briefly. Finally the detailed flow measurements possible on a particular flow pattern - annular flow - is examined. (author)

  18. Selion offers a unique system for treating liquid nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusa, E.; Kurki, H. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    Studies on the treatment of liquid nuclear waste have been conducted actively in the IVO Group since the early 1980s. And the work has borne fruit: the CsTreat and SrTreat ion exchange products, developed by the IVO Group, were launched three years ago. The ion exchangers have already been in full use at a number of sites throughout the world. In addition, they are currently being tested at many nuclear research institutes and power plants in the USA, Japan and Europe

  19. Thermal degradation of polymer systems having liquid crystalline oligoester segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Matroniani

    Full Text Available Abstract Block copolymers and blends comprised by liquid crystalline oligoester and polystyrene were prepared and their thermal stability were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The samples have shown three main decomposition temperatures due to (1 lost of flexible chain and decomposition of mesogenic segment, (2 decomposition of polystyrene and (3 final decomposition of oligoester rigid segment. Both copolymers and polymer blends presented lower thermal stability compared to polystyrene and oligoester. The residual mass after heating at 600 °C in copolymers and polymer blends were lower than those found in the oligoesters. A degradative process of aromatic segments of oligoester induced by decomposition of polystyrene is suggested.

  20. Diffuse-charge dynamics of ionic liquids in electrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui

    2011-11-01

    We employ a continuum theory of solvent-free ionic liquids accounting for both short-range electrostatic correlations and steric effects (finite ion size) [Bazant et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 046102 (2011)] to study the response of a model microelectrochemical cell to a step voltage. The model problem consists of a 1-1 symmetric ionic liquid between two parallel blocking electrodes, neglecting any transverse transport phenomena. Matched asymptotic expansions in the limit of thin double layers are applied to analyze the resulting one-dimensional equations and study the overall charge-time relation in the weakly nonlinear regime. One important conclusion is that our simple scaling analysis suggests that the length scale √(λ*(D)l*(c)) accurately characterizes the double-layer structure of ionic liquids with strong electrostatic correlations where l*(c) is the electrostatic correlation length (in contrast, the Debye screening length λ*(D) is the primary double-layer length for electrolytes) and the response time of λ(D)(*3/2)L*/(D*l(c)(1/2)) (not λ*(D)L*/D* that is the primary charging time of electrolytes) is the correct charging time scale of ionic liquids with strong electrostatic correlations where D* is the diffusivity and L* is the separation length of the cell. With these two new scales, data of both electric potential versus distance from the electrode and the total diffuse charge versus time collapse onto each individual master curve in the presence of strong electrostatic correlations. In addition, the dependance of the total diffuse charge on steric effects, short-range correlations, and driving voltages is thoroughly examined. The results from the asymptotic analysis are compared favorably with those from full numerical simulations. Finally, the absorption of excess salt by the double layer creates a depletion region outside the double layer. Such salt depletion may bring a correction to the leading order terms and break down the weakly nonlinear

  1. Two novel solvent system compositions for protected synthetic peptide purification by centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarouche, Nassima; Giraud, Matthieu; Forni, Luciano; Butte, Alessandro; Edwards, F; Borie, Nicolas; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2014-04-11

    Protected synthetic peptide intermediates are often hydrophobic and not soluble in most common solvents. They are thus difficult to purify by preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), usually used for industrial production. It is then challenging to develop alternative chromatographic purification processes. Support-free liquid-liquid chromatographic techniques, including both hydrostatic (centrifugal partition chromatography or CPC) and hydrodynamic (counter-current chromatography or CCC) devices, are mainly involved in phytochemical studies but have also been applied to synthetic peptide purification. In this framework, two new biphasic solvent system compositions covering a wide range of polarity were developed to overcome solubility problems mentioned above. The new systems composed of heptane/tetrahydrofuran/acetonitrile/dimethylsulfoxide/water and heptane/methyl-tetrahydrofuran/N-methylpyrrolidone/water were efficiently used for the CPC purification of a 39-mer protected exenatide (Byetta®) and a 8-mer protected peptide intermediate of bivalirudin (Angiox®) synthesis. Phase compositions of the different biphasic solvent systems were determined by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. Physico-chemical properties including viscosity, density and interfacial tension of these biphasic systems are also described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cell–material interactions on biphasic polyurethane matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicesare, Patrick; Fox, Wade M.; Hill, Michael J.; Krishnan, G. Rajesh; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2013-01-01

    Cell–matrix interaction is a key regulator for controlling stem cell fate in regenerative tissue engineering. These interactions are induced and controlled by the nanoscale features of extracellular matrix and are mimicked on synthetic matrices to control cell structure and functions. Recent studies have shown that nanostructured matrices can modulate stem cell behavior and exert specific role in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that nanostructured phase morphology of synthetic matrix can control adhesion, proliferation, organization and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nanostructured biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) with segmental composition exhibit biphasic morphology at nanoscale dimensions and can control cellular features of MSCs. Biodegradable PU with polyester soft segment and hard segment composed of aliphatic diisocyanates and dipeptide chain extender were designed to examine the effect polyurethane phase morphology. By altering the polyurethane composition, morphological architecture of PU was modulated and its effect was examined on MSC. Results show that MSCs can sense the nanoscale morphology of biphasic polyurethane matrix to exhibit distinct cellular features and, thus, signifies the relevance of matrix phase morphology. The role of nanostructured phases of a synthetic matrix in controlling cell–matrix interaction provides important insights for regulation of cell behavior on synthetic matrix and, therefore, is an important tool for engineering tissue regeneration. PMID:23255285

  3. A New Biphasic Dicalcium Silicate Bone Cement Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Zuleta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the processing parameters and biocompatibility of a novel biphasic dicalcium silicate (C2S cement. Biphasic α´L + β-C2Sss was synthesized by solid-state processing, and was used as a raw material to prepare the cement. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility studies were assessed by soaking the cement samples in simulated body fluid (SBF and human adipose stem cell cultures. Two critical-sized defects of 6 mm Ø were created in 15 NZ tibias. A porous cement made of the high temperature forms of C2S, with a low phosphorous substitution level, was produced. An apatite-like layer covered the cement’s surface after soaking in SBF. The cell attachment test showed that α´L + β-C2Sss supported cells sticking and spreading after 24 h of culture. The cement paste (55.86 ± 0.23 obtained higher bone-to-implant contact (BIC percentage values (better quality, closer contact in the histomorphometric analysis, and defect closure was significant compared to the control group (plastic. The residual material volume of the porous cement was 35.42 ± 2.08% of the initial value. The highest BIC and bone formation percentages were obtained on day 60. These results suggest that the cement paste is advantageous for initial bone regeneration.

  4. Liquid formation in the Y-Si-Al-O-N system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redington Keely, W.; Redington, M.; Hampshire, S. [Limerick Univ. (Ireland). Materials Research Centre

    2000-07-01

    Some silicon nitride ceramics are sintered using a combination of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} additives to form a Y-Si-Al-O-N liquid that promotes densification and allows the {alpha}{yields}{beta} transformation to take place by solution/precipitation through the liquid which cools as an intergranular phase. The type and amount of additive determines the nature and quantity of the resulting grain boundary phase as indicated and this can affect high temperature strength, creep resistance and oxidation resistance. Thus it is important to understand the phase equilibria in these complex systems and then apply this knowledge to processing, the development of beneficial microstructures and the relationship between these and properties. One difficulty is that, for any particular composition, the quantity and composition of the liquid at the sintering temperature is not known accurately and a full compositional representation has not been achieved. This paper attempts to represent the liquid region at various temperatures in the Jaenecke prism of the Y-Si-Al-O-N system. Published information on liquid compositions, standardised into eq.% format, was combined with experimental data interpolated from the less well defined regions to build a composite picture of liquid in this system. Representation was achieved using a customised graphical environment, AutoCAD trademark. AutoLISP trademark routines combined with this drafting package allow data from multiple sources to be integrated. This results in a series of overlays which indicate the liquid region from its initial formation at 1335 C and its subsequent development at different ''milestone'' temperatures. At 1700 C the orthographic projections of the liquid region are combined to give a volume bounded by nurbs surfaces, using ALIAS trademark software, to enable visualisation of the proposed liquid region. (orig.)

  5. NAPP liquid shutoff rod system design, development, testing and precommissioning feed back study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, K.L.; Kaushik, R.V.; Mahajan, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    The development testing of a liquid poison shutoff rod system has enabled the evolution of a proven and acceptable design of the secondary shutdown system for 235 MWe standardised Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). The availability of a full scale test loop is also proving for checking and qualifying the various suggestions for online improvements in the system. (author)

  6. Application of ionic liquids in electrochemical sensing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Torriero, Angel A J

    2011-01-15

    Since 1992, when the room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) based on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation were reported to provide an attractive combination of an electrochemical solvent and electrolyte, ILs have been widely used in electrodeposition, electrosynthesis, electrocatalysis, electrochemical capacitor, and lithium batteries. However, it has only been in the last few years that electrochemical biosensors based on carbon ionic liquid electrodes (CILEs) and IL-modified macrodisk electrodes have been reported. However, there are still a lot of challenges in achieving IL-based sensitive, selective, and reproducible biosensors for high speed analysis of biological and environmental compounds of interest. This review discusses the principles of operation of electrochemical biosensors based on CILEs and IL/composite-modified macrodisk electrodes. Subsequently, recent developments and major strategies for enhancing sensing performance are discussed. Key challenges and opportunities of IL-based biosensors to further development and use are considered. Emphasis is given to direct electron-transfer reaction and electrocatalysis of hemeproteins and enzyme-modified composite electrodes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chirality transfer technique between liquid crystal microdroplets using microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-kun; Lee, Doyeon; Song, Jang-kun

    2018-02-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystal (LC) microdroplet is applied in many areas, such as tunable laser, biosensor, information display and security identification, due to its unique optical properties. The topological structure, defects, and photonic crystallinity in the cholesteric liquid crystal (LC) microdroplet can be controlled through the chirality. Here we report an interesting phenomenon that chirality information can be shared among dispersed LC microdroplets in surfactant aqueous solution, which is driven by the transferring of chiral dopant molecules. As a result, we developed an artificial molecule transfer technology which could in situ vary the material composition within the isolated dispersed microdroplets. The molecular transfer is switchable and the transfer speed is controllable by tuning the molecular solubility in continuous phase. Based on this technique, we manipulated, forward and backward, the topological evolution and the photonic crystal band-gap of the dispersed LC droplet. This technique is an easy and powerful experimental tool, and it may be applicable to other fields in optical application, biology, chemistry and material science.

  8. Characterization of adsorption uptake curves for both intraparticle diffusion and liquid film mass transfer controlling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonetaka, Noriyoshi; Fan, Huan-Jung; Kobayashi, Seiji; Su, Yang-Chih; Furuya, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    In general, the adsorption uptake curve (AUC) can be easily determined in either intraparticle diffusion or liquid film mass transfer dominating systems. However, for both intraparticle diffusion and liquid film mass transfer controlling systems, the characterization of AUC is much more complicated, for example, when relatively small adsorbent particles are employed. In addition, there is no analytical solution available for both intraparticle diffusion and liquid film mass transfer controlling systems. Therefore, this paper is trying to characterize AUC for both intraparticle diffusion and liquid film mass transfer controlling adsorption systems using the shallow bed reactor technique. Typical parameters influencing AUC include liquid film mass transfer coefficient (k F ), effective intraparticle diffusivity (D S ), influent concentration (c 0 ) and equilibrium parameters (such as Freundlich isotherm constants k and 1/n). These parameters were investigated in this research and the simulated results indicated that the ratio of k F /D S and Freundlich constant 1/n had impact on AUC. Biot number (Bi) was used to replace the ratio of k F /D S in this study. Bi represents the ratio of the rate of transport across the liquid layer to the rate of intraparticle diffusion. Furthermore, Bi is much more significant than that of 1/n for AUC. Therefore, AUC can be characterized by Bi. In addition, the obtained Bi could be used to determine D S and k F simultaneously. Both parameters (D S and k F ) are important for designing and operating fixed bed reactors.

  9. Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems From Rigid Polymer Networks to Elastomers

    CERN Document Server

    Broer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    With rapidly expanding interest in liquid crystalline polymers and elastomers among the liquid crystal community, researchers are currently exploring the wide range of possible application areas for these unique materials, including optical elements on displays, tunable lasers, strain gauges, micro-structures, and artificial muscles. Written by respected scientists from academia and industry around the world, who are not only active in the field but also well-known in more traditional areas of research, "Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems: From Rigid Polymer Networks to Elastomers&qu

  10. Analysis of a biphase-based servo format for hard-disk drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makinwa, K.A.A.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Voorman, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    Biphase modulation in an embedded-servo format for hard-disk drives is investigated. It is shown that for biphase, at the low linear densities typical of servo information, near-maximum-likelihood performance can be attained by a simple bit detector consisting of a full-response linear equalizer and

  11. Development of a test system for high level liquid waste partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Wu H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning and transmutation strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of high level liquid waste, in which the partitioning of high level liquid waste is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a tri-alkylphosphine oxide process for the removal of actinides, a crown ether strontium extraction process for the removal of strontium, and a calixcrown ether cesium extraction process for the removal of cesium, has been developed to treat Chinese high level liquid waste. A test system containing 72-stage 10-mm-diam annular centrifugal contactors, a remote sampling system, a rotor speed acquisition-monitoring system, a feeding system, and a video camera-surveillance system was successfully developed to carry out the hot test for verifying the improved total partitioning process. The test system has been successfully used in a 160 hour hot test using genuine high level liquid waste. During the hot test, the test system was stable, which demonstrated it was reliable for the hot test of the high level liquid waste partitioning.

  12. Effect of transient liquid flow on retention characteristics of screen acquisition systems. [design of Space Shuttle feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    A design analysis, is developed based on experimental data, to predict the effects of transient flow and pressure surges (caused either by valve or pump operation, or by boiling of liquids in warm lines) on the retention performance of screen acquisition systems. A survey of screen liquid acquisition system applications was performed to determine appropriate system environment and classification. A screen model was developed which assumed that the screen device was a uniformly distributed composite orthotropic structure, and which accounted for liquid inflow/outflow, gas ingestion quality, screen stress, and liquid spill. A series of 177 tests using 13 specimens (5 screen meshes, 4 screen device construction/backup methods, and 2 orientations) with three test fluids (isopropyl alcohol, Freon 114, and LH2) provided data which verified important features of the screen model and resulted in a design tool which could accurately predict the transient startup performance acquisition devices.

  13. The Daya Bay antineutrino detector filling system and liquid mass measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Draeger, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hinrichs, P.; Lewis, C. A.; Mattison, H.; McFarlane, M. C.; Webber, D. M.; Wenman, D.; Wang, W.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2013-09-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has measured the neutrino mixing angle θ13 to world-leading precision. The experiment uses eight antineutrino detectors filled with 20-tons of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator to detect antineutrinos emitted from the Daya Bay nuclear power plant through the inverse beta decay reaction. The precision measurement of sin22θ13 relies on the relative antineutrino interaction rates between detectors at near (400 m) and far (roughly 1.8 km) distances from the nuclear reactors. The measured interaction rate in each detector is directly proportional to the number of protons in the liquid scintillator target. A precision detector filling system was developed to simultaneously fill the three liquid zones of the antineutrino detectors and measure the relative target mass between detectors to < 0.02%. This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of the system and the resulting precision measurement of the detectors' target liquid masses.

  14. Influence of radiation on the system liquid radioactive wastes: geologic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Balukova, V.D.; Kabakchi, S.A.; Medvedeva, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Introduction of liquid radioactive wastes into deep strata-collectors results in a number of physical-chemical processes: precipitation, dissolution, complex formation, sorption, etc. The area occupied by the injected waste and changes in the nature of the liquid phase depend primarily on radiolysis processes in the heterogeneous system of liquid waste-stratal material occurring at elevated temperatures and pressures. Experiments that simulate actual conditions of temperature, pressure and high radiation levels on this system have been performed. Results are presented for radiolytic gas formation and for changes in the liquid phase and sorption capacity of stratal minerals. It is shown that the temperature increase in the stratum-collector significantly enhances waste decomposition processes, promotes sorption of radionuclides and decreases the mobility of the waste in the formation

  15. THE FINANCIAL LIQUIDITY OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES IN POLAND IN THE SYSTEM SIZE OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the diversification of financial liquidity of food industry enterprises in Poland in 2009-2011 and indicates the main factors shaping liquidity. The study used unpublished data of Central Statistical Office, allowing for the analysis of liquidity in the system classes the food industry and the system enterprise size (small, medium, large. The analyses show, that the food industry in Poland in 2009-2011, regardless of their size and adopted ratios, have the ability to regulate the current liabilities, but kept at a low level. Analysis of the factors influencing liquidity showed, that the primary importance was turnover ratio of current liabilities, as well as ratio of financing of income through equity.

  16. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria of (CO2 + alcohol) binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Jorge E.; Bejarano, Arturo; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus based on a static-analytic method assembled in this work was utilized to perform high pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements with uncertainties estimated at 2 + 1-propanol), (CO 2 + 2-methyl-1-propanol), (CO 2 + 3-methyl-1-butanol), and (CO 2 + 1-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 12) MPa. For all the (CO 2 + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored to insure that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapour + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values with deviations for the mol fractions <0.12 and <0.05 for the liquid and vapour phase, respectively.

  17. Thermodynamic characteristics of a novel wind-solar-liquid air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, W.; Zhou, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, W.; Pan, C. Z.; Wang, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the nature of fluctuation and intermittency, the utilization of wind and solar power will bring a huge impact to the power grid management. Therefore a novel hybrid wind-solar-liquid air energy storage (WS-LAES) system was proposed. In this system, wind and solar power are stored in the form of liquid air by cryogenic liquefaction technology and thermal energy by solar thermal collector, respectively. Owing to the high density of liquid air, the system has a large storage capacity and no geographic constraints. The WS-LAES system can store unstable wind and solar power for a stable output of electric energy and hot water. Moreover, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to investigate the best system performance. The result shows that the increases of compressor adiabatic efficiency, turbine inlet pressure and inlet temperature all have a beneficial effect.

  18. Comparative technical-economical analysis of solar systems with liquid absorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloyanov, N.; Popova, I.

    2005-01-01

    An analyses of solar water heating systems with two types liquid absorbent is presented. A system with classic collector design is used for comparison. The dependence between the value of the collectors active area and the absorbent type, collectors slope and design parameters is discussed. Two economic indexes (payback period and index of actual net value, based on the electricity price) are used for comparison of the different variants of the system. The presented results shown that: 1) the payback period can be reduced twice if the collectors with liquid absorbent are used; 2) the index of actual net value of the systems using the collectors with fluid absorbent is about four times higher than this one with classic collectors; 3) the systems using distilled water like a liquid absorbent can not fulfil the requirements for the positive economic indicators

  19. Experience on the removal of impurities from liquid metal systems by cold-trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, J. A.

    1963-10-15

    Experience in impurity removal by cold-trapping, which was obtained on DFR and its associated liquid metal rigs, is reviewed. The development of the present DFR cold-trapping system is outlined, and the operation of the additional pumped loops, which were required in order to control the reactor impurity levels, are described. Operation of the liquid metal rigs ancillary to the reactor project is discussed with particular reference to the control of impurity levels. (auth)

  20. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Symbiotic Nuclear—Coal Systems for Production of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowski, S.

    The notion of safety is not confined to the technological or non-proliferation aspects. It covers also the elements of energy policy: irrational reactions of societies, emotions, egoistic interests of more or less powerful pressure of economical and external political factors. One should be conscious that the country's privilege of being equipped by the Nature with rich resources of oil or gas is not solely economical, but even more a political one. Simultaneously, the gradual depletion of world hydrocarbons that draws behind irrevocable price increase has to be expected within the time scale of exploitation of power plants (now amounted to ~60 years). Therefore consequences of energy policy last much longer than the perspectives the political or economical decision makers are planning and acting within and the public is expecting successes and finally evaluating them. The world oil and gas resources are geopolitically very non-uniformly distributed, in contrast to coal and uranium. Since the level of energy self-sufficiency of the EU is highest for coal, the old idea of synfuels production from coal is recalled. Yet, in view of limits to the CO2 emissions in the EU another method has to be used here than the conventional coal liquefaction just applied in China. Simultaneously, an interesting evolution of energy prices was be observed, namely an increase in that of motor fuels in contrast to that of electricity remaining well stable. This fact suggests that the use of electricity (mainly the off-peak load), generated without emissions of CO2 for production of liquid fuels can prove reasonable. Thus, the essence of the presented idea of coal-nuclear symbiosis lies in the supply of energy in the form of H2, necessary for this process, from a nuclear reactor. Particularly, in the present option H2 is obtained by electrolytic water splitting supplying also O2 as a precious by-product in well mature and commercially available already since decades, Light Water Reactors

  2. Interfacial transport phenomena and stability in liquid-metal/water systems: scaling considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulla, S.; Liu, X.; Anderson, M.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.; Cho, D.

    2001-01-01

    One concept being considered for steam generation in innovative nuclear reactor applications, involves water coming into direct contact with a circulating molten metal. The vigorous agitation of the two fluids, the direct liquid-liquid contact and the consequent large interfacial area give rise to very high heat transfer coefficients and rapid steam generation. For an optimum design of such direct contact heat exchange and vaporization systems, detailed knowledge is necessary of the various flow regimes, interfacial transport phenomena, heat transfer and operational stability. In this paper we describe current results from the first year of this research that studies the transport phenomena involved with the injection of water into molten metals (e.g., lead alloys). In particular, this work discusses scaling considerations related to direct contact heat exchange, our experimental plans for investigation and a test plan for the important experimental parameters; i.e., the water and liquid metal mass flow rates, the liquid metal pool temperature and the ambient pressure of the direct contact heat exchanger. Past experimental work and initial scaling results suggest that our experiments can directly represent the proper liquid metal pool temperature and the water subcooling. The experimental variation in water and liquid metal flow rates and system pressure (1-10 bar), although smaller than the current conceptual system designs, is sufficient to verify the expected scale effects to demonstrate the phenomena. (authors)

  3. Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) Embedded Readout Designs for Liquid Helium Level Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasakthi, C; Gireesan, K; Usha Rani, R; Sheela, O K; Janawadkar, M P

    2014-08-01

    This article reports the development of programmable system-on-chip (PSoC)-based embedded readout designs for liquid helium level sensors using resistive liquid vapor discriminators. The system has been built for the measurement of liquid helium level in a concave-bottomed, helmet-shaped, fiber-reinforced plastic cryostat for magnetoencephalography. This design incorporates three carbon resistors as cost-effective sensors, which are mounted at desired heights inside the cryostat and were used to infer the liquid helium level by measuring their temperature-dependent resistance. Localized electrical heating of the carbon resistors was used to discriminate whether the resistor is immersed in liquid helium or its vapor by exploiting the difference in the heat transfer rates in the two environments. This report describes a single PSoC chip for the design and development of a constant current source to drive the three carbon resistors, a multiplexer to route the sensor outputs to the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a buffer to avoid loading of the sensors, an ADC for digitizing the data, and a display using liquid crystal display cum light-emitting diode modules. The level sensor readout designed with a single PSoC chip enables cost-effective and reliable measurement system design. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  4. Liquid–liquid equilibria study of the (water + phosphoric acid + hexyl or cyclohexyl acetate) systems at T = (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K: Measurement and thermodynamic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Ghanadzadeh Gilani, H.; Shekarsaraee, S.; Nasiri-Touli, E.; Seyed Saadat, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tie line data for aqueous solutions of phosphoric acid with esters were obtained. • The LLE data were correlated using the UNIQUAC and NRTL models. • The quality of the LLE data was validated using the appropriate equations. • Separation factors were calculated for the chosen solvents. - Abstract: Liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the (water + phosphoric acid + n-hexyl acetate or cyclohexyl acetate) ternary systems were determined at T = (298.15, 308.15 and 318.15) K and p = 101.3 kPa. The cloud point method was used to obtain the solubility and the Karl-Fischer, acidimetric titration, and refractive index methods were used to determine the tie-line values. Both the ternary systems exhibit type-1 behavior of LLE. The experimental values were regressed and acceptably correlated using the UNIQUAC and NRTL models. The reliability of the experimental tie lines was confirmed using the Othmer–Tobias plot. Experimental distribution coefficients and separation factors were fitted using the Kamlet–Taft LSER model. The influence of temperature on the biphasic area and separation factor was found to be minor. As a result, both the esters are suitable separating agents for aqueous phosphoric acid mixtures.

  5. Design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems at high level liquid waste conditioning facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The immobilization of high level liquid wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels is of great interest and serious efforts are being undertaken to find a satisfactory technical solution. Volatilization of fission product elements during immobilization poses the potential for the release of radioactive substances to the environment and necessitates effective off-gas cleaning systems. This report describes typical off-gas cleaning systems used in the most advanced high level liquid waste immobilization plants and considers most of the equipment and components which can be used for the efficient retention of the aerosols and volatile contaminants. In the case of a nuclear facility consisting of several different facilities, release limits are generally prescribed for the nuclear facility as a whole. Since high level liquid waste conditioning (calcination, vitrification, etc.) facilities are usually located at fuel reprocessing sites (where the majority of the high level liquid wastes originates), the off-gas cleaning system should be designed so that the airborne radioactivity discharge of the whole site, including the emission of the waste conditioning facility, can be kept below the permitted limits. This report deals with the sources and composition of different kinds of high level liquid wastes and describes briefly the main high level liquid waste solidification processes examining the sources and characteristics of the off-gas contaminants to be retained by the off-gas cleaning system. The equipment and components of typical off-gas systems used in the most advanced (large pilot or industrial scale) high level liquid waste solidification plants are described. Safety considerations for the design and safe operation of the off-gas systems are discussed. 60 refs, 31 figs, 17 tabs

  6. Progress on the MICE Liquid Absorber Cooling and Cryogenic Distribution System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Drumm, P.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Ishimoto, S.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Lau, W.W.; Yang, S.Q.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the progress made on the design of the cryogenic cooling system for the liquid absorber for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The absorber consists of a 20.7-liter vessel that contains liquid hydrogen (1.48 kg at 20.3 K) or liquid helium (2.59 kg at 4.2 K). The liquid cryogen vessel is located within the warm bore of the focusing magnet for the MICE. The purpose of the magnet is to provide a low beam beta region within the absorber. For safety reasons, the vacuum vessel for the hydrogen absorber is separated from the vacuum vessel for the superconducting magnet and the vacuum that surrounds the RF cavities or the detector. The absorber thin windows separate the liquid in the absorber from the absorber vacuum. The absorber vacuum vessel also has thin windows that separate the absorber vacuum space from adjacent vacuum spaces. Because the muon beam in MICE is of low intensity, there is no beam heating in the absorber. The absorber can use a single 4 K cooler to cool either liquid helium or liquid hydrogen within the absorber

  7. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  8. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-​functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3...... methyl methacrylate and/or methacrylic acid. Catalyst systems according to the invention are suitable for reactions forming separable product and catalyst phases and supported ionic liquid phase SILP applications....

  9. A cryogenic monitor system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter in the SLD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.J.; Fox, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    This paper describes the monitoring electronics system design for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) portion of the SLD detector. This system measures temperatures and liquid levels inside the LAC cryostat and transfers the results over a fiber-optic serial link to an external monitoring computer. System requirements, unique design constraints, and detailed analog, digital and software designs are presented. Fault tolerance and the requirement for a single design to work in several different operating environments are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Complex Formation in a Liquid-Liquid Extraction System Containing Cobalt(II, 4-(2-Pyridylazoresorcinol, and Nitron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya Vassileva Racheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex formation and liquid-liquid extraction were studied in a system containing cobalt(II, 4-(2-pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR, 1,4-diphenyl-3-(phenylamino-1H-1,2,4-triazole (Nitron, Nt, water, and chloroform. The effect of some experimental parameters (pH, shaking time, concentration of PAR, and concentration of Nt was systematically investigated, and the optimum conditions for cobalt extraction as an ion-association complex, (NtH+[Co3+(PAR2], were found. The following key equilibrium constants were calculated: constant of association (Log β=4.77±0.06, constant of distribution (LogKD=1.34±0.01, and constant of extraction (LogKex=6.11±0.07. Beer’s law was obeyed for Co concentrations up to 1.7 μg mL−1 with a molar absorptivity of 6.0×104 L mol−1 cm−1 at λmax=520 nm. Some additional characteristics, such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, and Sandell’s sensitivity, were estimated as well.

  11. Optimization and application of homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction in preconcentration of copper (II) in a ternary solvent system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: farajzade@yahoo.com; Bahram, Morteza [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zorita, Saioa [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Lund, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mehr, Behzad Ghorbani [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-30

    In this study a homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction based on the Ph-dependent phase-separation process was investigated using a ternary solvent system (water-acetic acid-chloroform) for the preconcentration of Cu{sup 2+} ions. 8-Hydroxy quinoline was used as the chelating agent prior to its extraction. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using acetylene-air flame was used for the quantitation of analyte after preconcentration. The effect of various experimental parameters in extraction step was investigated using two optimization methods, one variable at a time and central composite design. The experimental design was done at five levels of operating parameters. Nearly the same optimized results were obtained using both methods: sample size, 5 mL; volume of NaOH 10 M, 2 mL; chloroform volume, 300 {mu}L; 8-hydroxy quinoline concentration more than 0.01 M and salt amount did not affect the extraction significantly. Under the optimum conditions the calibration graph was linear over the range 10-2000 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The relative standard deviation was 7.6% for six repeated determinations (C = 500 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Furthermore, the limit of detection (S/N = 3) and limit of quantification (S/N = 10) of the method were obtained as 1.74 and 6 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively.

  12. Measurement of liquid-liquid equilibria for condensate + glycol and condensate + glycol + water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    ,2-ethanediol (MEG) + condensate and MEG + water + condensate systems at temperatures from (275 to 323) K at atmospheric pressure. The condensate used in this work is a stabilized natural gas condensate from an offshore field in the North Sea. Compositional analysis of the natural gas condensate was carried out...... by gas chromatography, and detailed separation of individual condensate's components has been carried out. Approximately 85 peaks eluting before nonane were identified by their retention time. Peak areas were converted to mass fraction using 1-heptene as an internal standard. The components were divided...... into boiling range groups from hexane to nonane. Paraffinic (P), naphthenic (N), and aromatic (A) distributions were obtained for the boiling point fractions up to nonane. The average molar mass and the overall density of the condensate were measured experimentally. For the mutual solubility of MEG...

  13. Decontamination and decommissioning of TAN radioactive liquid-waste-evaporator system (PM-2A). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning of the Test Area North (TAN) liquid waste evaporator (PM-2A). The PM-2A facility included the aboveground evaporator system, two underground holding tanks and feedlines, an electrical distribution subsystem, and one above ground concrete tank. Much surface soil of the PM-2A area was also radioactively contaminated. Stabilization of the liquid and sludge in the holding tanks, a major task, was achieved by pumping most of the liquid into 55-gal drums and mixing it with cement. The drums were buried in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The remaining liquid and sludge were dried in place by layers of diatomaceous earth. The most contaminated surface soil was removed, and the area backfilled with clean topsoil and graded, reducing the surface radiation field to background. A 6-ft-high chain link fence now surrounds the area. Most of the area was seeded to crested wheatgrass. 46 figures, 9 tables

  14. Failure detection of liquid cooled electronics in sealed packages. [in airborne information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and experimental verification of a method of detecting fluid-mass loss, expansion-chamber pressure loss, or excessive vapor build-up in NASA's Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) are presented. The primary purpose of this leak-detection method is to detect the fluid-mass loss before the volume of vapor on the liquid side causes a temperature-critical part to be out of the liquid. The method detects the initial leak after the first 2.5 pct of the liquid mass has been lost, and it can be used for detecting subsequent situations including the leaking of air into the liquid chamber and the subsequent vapor build-up.

  15. Fully integrated microfluidic measurement system for real-time determination of gas and liquid mixtures composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Groenesteijn, Jarno; van der Wouden, E.J.; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and realised a fully integrated microfluidic measurement system for real-time determination of both flow rate and composition of gas- and liquid mixtures. The system comprises relative permittivity sensors, pressure sensors, a Coriolis flow and density sensor, a thermal flow sensor

  16. Ultrasonic instrument for continuous measurement of liquid levels in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, L.S.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic level measurement system which provides a continuous digital readout over a range of 3-180 inches, was tested in 500 0 F liquid sodium. The system proved to be accurate and reliable, required no initial warm-up period and experienced no long term drift. Modifications can extend the present operating temperatures to greater than 1200 0 F

  17. Open loop, auto reversing liquid nitrogen circulation thermal system for thermo vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, M C A; Nolakha, Dinesh; Saharkar, B S; Kavani, K M; Patel, D R

    2012-01-01

    In a thermo vacuum chamber, attaining and controlling low and high temperatures (-100 Deg. C to +120 Deg. C) is a very important task. This paper describes the development of 'Open loop, auto reversing liquid nitrogen based thermal system'. System specifications, features, open loop auto reversing system, liquid nitrogen flow paths etc. are discussed in this paper. This thermal system consists of solenoid operated cryogenic valves, double embossed thermal plate (shroud), heating elements, temperature sensors and PLC. Bulky items like blowers, heating chambers, liquid nitrogen injection chambers, huge pipe lines and valves were not used. This entire thermal system is very simple to operate and PLC based, fully auto system with auto tuned to given set temperatures. This system requires a very nominal amount of liquid nitrogen (approx. 80 liters / hour) while conducting thermo vacuum tests. This system was integrated to 1.2m dia thermo vacuum chamber, as a part of its augmentation, to conduct extreme temperature cycling tests on passive antenna reflectors of satellites.

  18. Tribological properties of rice starch in liquid and semi-solid food model systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, K.; Stieger, M.A.; Linden, van der E.; Velde, van de Fred

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the tribological and rheological properties of liquid and semi-solid food model systems containing micro-granular rice starch. Native (uncooked) and gelatinized rice starch dispersions, o/w emulsions and emulsion-filled gelatin gels were studied as food model systems. Native

  19. Biphasic 201thallium scintgraphy after dipyridamole in mitral valve diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoliner, R.; Dudczak, R.; Kronik, G.; Moesslacher, H.; Kletter, K.; Frischauf, H.

    1980-01-01

    The results of biphasic 201 thallium scintigraphy after dipyridamole i.v. could neither prove nor exclude the presence of small focal lesions in the myocardium of 17 patients with mitral valve diseases. The frequent finding of a decrease in activity in the anterolateral myocardium is probably due to a relative increase in activity in the region of the inferior wall with superimposed areas of the papillary muscle and right ventricular myocardium. If the right ventricle is visualized in stress- or redistribution images, an increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure can be accepted. According to Cohen's criteria, a grade 2 or 3 virtually proves the existence of pulmonary hypertension, a grade 1 makes this finding rather probable. The possibility of pulmonary hypertension can not be excluded if the right ventricular myocardium is not visualized. (orig.) [de

  20. Fluctuations in an Inorganic Glass Forming System Capable of Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, V.; Maksimov, L.; Anan'ev, A.; Nemilov, S.; Rusan, V.

    2012-08-01

    Rayleigh and Mandel'shtam-Brillouin scattering (RMBS) spectroscopy and high temperature ultrasonic study (HTUS) are applied to PbO-Al2O3-B2O3 glass forming system characterized by over liquidus miscibility gap. Temperature dependences of ultrasonic velocity of glass melts were measured in 600-1200°C range. "Frozen-in" density fluctuations in two phase glasses were estimated from HTUS data by Macedo-Shroeder formulation. Landau-Placzek ratios were found from RMBS spectra of single phase glasses at room temperature. Results of RMBS and HTUS were compared with well-known SAXS data. It was found that contribution of "frozen-in" density fluctuations into light scattering by two-phase glasses is much smaller than the scattering on particles of the second glassy phase causing opalescence of the glasses. Abnormal "water-like" growth of ultrasonic velocity with melt temperature can be explained by coexistence of two types of packaging of structural elements.

  1. Liquid Hydrogen Recirculation System for Forced Flow Cooling Test of Superconducting Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Y.; Kainuma, T.; Shigeta, H.; Shiotsu, M.; Tatsumoto, H.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Nonaka, S.; Inatani, Y.; Yoshinaga, S.

    2017-12-01

    The knowledge of forced flow heat transfer characteristics of liquid hydrogen (LH2) is important and necessary for design and cooling analysis of high critical temperature superconducting devices. However, there are few test facilities available for LH2 forced flow cooling for superconductors. A test system to provide a LH2 forced flow (∼10 m/s) of a short period (less than 100 s) has been developed. The test system was composed of two LH2 tanks connected by a transfer line with a controllable valve, in which the forced flow rate and its period were limited by the storage capacity of tanks. In this paper, a liquid hydrogen recirculation system, which was designed and fabricated in order to study characteristics of superconducting cables in a stable forced flow of liquid hydrogen for longer period, was described. This LH2 loop system consists of a centrifugal pump with dynamic gas bearings, a heat exchanger which is immersed in a liquid hydrogen tank, and a buffer tank where a test section (superconducting wires or cables) is set. The buffer tank has LHe cooled superconducting magnet which can produce an external magnetic field (up to 7T) at the test section. A performance test was conducted. The maximum flow rate was 43.7 g/s. The lowest temperature was 22.5 K. It was confirmed that the liquid hydrogen can stably circulate for 7 hours.

  2. Aerosol Particle Interfacial Thermodynamics and Phase Partitioning Measurements Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Cari; Metcalf, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Secondary organic aerosol particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remain large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. Interfacial properties affect the ambient aerosol morphology, or internal structure of the particle, which in turn can affect the way a particle interacts with an environment of condensable clusters and organic vapors. To improve our ability to accurately predict ambient aerosol morphology, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Unfortunately, many techniques employed to measure interfacial properties do so in bulk solutions or in the presence of a ternary (e.g. solid) phase. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface or interfacial tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred.

  3. Biphasic growth of orbital volume in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Nan; Bi, Hua; Zhang, Bin; Li, Xue; Sun, Fengyuan; Qian, Xuehan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to map out the developmental curve of the orbital volume of Chinese children aged 1-15 years. CT scanning was performed on 109 children and the orbital volume, interlateral orbital rim distance (IORD), and extent of exophthalmos were measured on the CT images and plotted against age. The development of the orbit structure followed a biphasic pattern. The first growth phase was before 3 years and the second growth phase was between 7 years and 12 years of age. The growth speed in the first phase was about 3 times that of the second one (first vs second phase: 2.28 cm 3 /year vs 0.67 cm 3 /year for orbital volume, 5.01 mm/year vs 1.57 mm/year for IORD, 1.29 mm/year vs 0.42 mm/year for the exophthalmos). During development, there was no significant difference between the left and right orbits. There was no significant difference between boys and girls before 12 years of age. However, after 12 years of age, boys had significantly larger orbital volumes (22.16±2.28 cm 3 /year vs 18.57±1.16 cm 3 /year, pChinese children, the development of orbital volume follows a biphasic pattern and a sex difference becomes significant after the age of 12 years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Degradation of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in a Fenton-like system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siedlecka, E.M.; Mrozik, W.; Kaczynski, Z.; Stepnowski, P.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the usefulness of a Fenton-like system for the degradation of ionic liquid residues in water. The ionic liquid was oxidized in a dilute aqueous solution of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (bmimCl). The ionic liquid decomposes readily and rapidly in aqueous solution by chemical degradation in a Fenton-like system. Under chosen conditions the initial bmimCl solution was reduced by a factor of 0.973 within 90 min. Additional results showed that bmimCl degradations in a Fenton-like system in excess H 2 O 2 could be interpreted as a combined oxidation-reduction mechanism. Preliminary investigations of the mechanism of such degradations have indicated that initial OH· radicals can attack any one of the three carbon atoms on the imidazolium ring. The intermediates of this reaction may be mono- di- or amino- carboxylic acids

  5. Calculation of liquid-liquid equilibrium of aqueous two-phase systems using a chemical-theory-based excess Gibbs energy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessôa Filho P. A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures containing compounds that undergo hydrogen bonding show large deviations from ideal behavior. These deviations can be accounted for through chemical theory, according to which the formation of a hydrogen bond can be treated as a chemical reaction. This chemical equilibrium needs to be taken into account when applying stability criteria and carrying out phase equilibrium calculations. In this work, we illustrate the application of the stability criteria to establish the conditions under which a liquid-phase split may occur and the subsequent calculation of liquid-liquid equilibrium using a chemical-theory-modified Flory-Huggins equation to describe the non ideality of aqueous two-phase systems composed of poly(ethylene glycol and dextran. The model was found to be able to correlate ternary liquid-liquid diagrams reasonably well by simple adjustment of the polymer-polymer binary interaction parameter.

  6. Use of Respiratory Support in the Biphase Ventilation Airway Mode in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Koval

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP (also known as DuoPAP, BiLevel, BiVent, PCV+, SPAP is a mode of ventilation with cycling variations between two continuous positive airway pressure levels. It is a mixture of pressure controlled ventilation and spontaneous breathing, which is unrestricted in each phase of the respiratory cycle. The volume displacement caused by the difference between Phigh and Plow airway pressure level. The phase time ratio (PTR — the BIPAP frequency is calculated as the ratio between the durations of the two pressure phases, a PTR greater than 1:1 is called APRV (airway pressure release ventilation. In patients with ARDS maintained spontaneous breathing with BIPAP resulted in lower venous admixture and better arterial blood oxygenation as compared with A/C. Only a few studies with BIPAP have been performed in newborn and infants until now. We studied the use of BIPAP in newborn (body mass > 3kg and randomised 40 patients with respiratory failure for ventilation with BIPAP (n=20 or conventional mechanical ventilatory support (assist-control A/C — synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV (n=20. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality score (PRISM were collected for each patient. Fentanyl, diazepam, GABA were used as sedatives and adjusted in accordance with the Cook scale. We compared ventilatory parameters, information pertaining to pulmonary function and oxygen delivery, cardiac output, additional descriptors of organ system functions, duration and complications of ventilation and number and dosages of sedatives administered. All the patients that we intended to ventilate with BIPAP were successfully ventilated, we can conclude that biphasic ventilatory support suitable mode of ventilation for newborn with a decreased need of analgetics and sedatives than A/C. Finally, BIPAP is an a effective safe, and easy to use for personal mode of mechanical ventilatory support in newborn. 

  7. Sodium leak detection system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, D.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a device for detecting sodium leaks from a reactor vessel of a liquid sodium cooled nuclear reactor the reactor vessel being concentrically surrounded by a a containment vessel so as to define an airtight gap containing argon. It comprises: a light source for generating a first light beam, the first light beam having first and second predominant wavelengths, the first wavelength being substantially equal to an absorption line of sodium and the second wavelength being chosen such that it is not absorbed by sodium and argon; an optical multiplexer optically coupled to the light source; optically coupled to the multiplexer, each of the sensors being embedded in the containment vessel of the reactor, each of the sensors projecting the first light beam into the gap and collecting the first light beam after it has reflected off of a surface of the reactor vessel; a beam splitter optically coupled to each of the sensors through the multiplexer, the beam splitter splitting the first light beam into second and third light beams of substantially equal intensities; a first filter dispersed within a path of second light beam for filtering the second wavelength out of the third light beam; first and second detector beams disposed with in the paths of the second and third light beams so as to detect the intensities of the second and third light beams, respectively; and processing means connected to the first and second detector means for calculating the amount of the first wavelength which is absorbed when passing through the argon

  8. Thermodynamic equilibrium model to predict the cobalt distribution coefficient in the CoCl2--HCl--H2O--TBP liquid--liquid extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevarez, M.; Bautista, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a thermodynamic equilibrium model to predict the cobalt distribution coefficient in the CoCl 2 -HCl-H 2 O-TBP system is described. The model makes use of the various aqueous phase cobaltous chloride complexes stoichiometric stability constants expressed as their degree of formation, their mechanism of extraction into the organic phase, and the equilibrium constant for the extraction reaction. The model was verified by the good agreement between the calculated cobalt distribution coefficients and those obtained experimentally both in the present study and published by other investigators. The optimum extraction of cobalt by the TBP occurred at an HCl equilibrium aqueous place concentration between 8.5 and 9.5M. The development of efficient procedures for the separation and concentration of important industrial metals from their aqueous solutions by liquid-liquid extraction has recently been given impetus by the realization of an impending shortage of energy and mineral resources. Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the few methods by which it is possible to quantitatively separate elements which are similar in properties. The use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate cobalt and nickel, which very frequently occur in nature together, is an important separation problem in nonferrous metallurgy. There is some fundamental information available in the chemical literature regarding the mechanism and equilibrium thermodynamic properties of selected liquid-liquid extraction systems. This research effort shows how this available information can be utilized to improve existing separation and concentration theory and technique. The development and application of a thermodynamic equilibrium model for describing the liquid-liquid extraction of cobaltous chloride from aqueous HCl solutions by tributyl phosphate (TBP) using experimental data obtained in this investigation and from the literature are presented

  9. Effect of alkanolammonium formates ionic liquids on vapour liquid equilibria of binary systems containing water, methanol, and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuemei; Shen Chong; Li Chunxi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights ► Vapour pressures for six ternary systems containing an IL were measured. ► Components studied were water, ethanol, methanol, and alkanolammonium formates. ► The isobaric VLE were predicted using the fitted binary NRTL parameters. ► The ILs studied can generate a promising salt effect on VLE of azeotrope. ► [HMEA][HCOO] might be used as a potential entrainer in extractive distillation. - Abstract: Vapour pressures were measured using a quasi-static ebulliometer for the pseudo-binary mixtures of (water + ethanol), (water + methanol), and (methanol + ethanol) containing an alkanolammonium-based ionic liquid (IL), namely, mono-ethanolammonium formate ([HMEA][HCOO]) and di-ethanolammonium formate ([HDEA][HCOO]), respectively, with fixed IL mass fraction of 0.30 and over the temperature ranges of (292.12 to 371.13) K. The vapour pressures of the IL-containing ternary systems were favourably correlated using the NRTL model with an overall average absolute relative deviation (AARD) of 0.0082. Further, the salt effects of [HMEA][HCOO] and [HDEA][HCOO] on isobaric vapour liquid equilibria (VLE) of azeotrope and close boiling mixture, especially for the mixtures of (water + ethanol) and (methanol + ethanol), were investigated and compared with other ILs in terms of the x′–y phase diagrams predicted with the binary NRTL parameters. It is demonstrated that the relative volatilities of ethanol to water and ethanol to methanol are enhanced, and [HMEA][HCOO] might be used as a promising entrainer for the efficient separation of ethanol aqueous solution by special rectification.

  10. Liquid-vapor phase transition upon pressure decrease in the lead-bismuth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V. N.

    2009-11-01

    The liquid-vapor phase transitions boundaries were calculated on the basis of the values of vapor pressure of the components in the lead-bismuth system during the stepwise pressure decrease by one order of magnitude from 105 down to 1 Pa. The emergence of azeotropic liquid under pressure lower than 19.3 kPa was ascertained. The emergence of azeotropic mixture near the lead edge of the phase diagram was concluded to be the reason for technological difficulties in the distillation separation of the system into the components in a vacuum.

  11. Correlations between phase behaviors and ionic conductivities of (ionic liquid + alcohol) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Nam Ku; Bae, Young Chan

    2010-01-01

    To understand the basic properties of ionic liquids (ILs), we examined the phase behavior and ionic conductivity characteristics using various compositions of different ionic liquids (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [emim] [PF6] and 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bzmim] [PF6]) in several different alcohols (ethanol, propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and hexanol). We conducted a systematic study of the impact of different factors on the phase behavior of imidazolium-based ionic liquids in alcohols. Using a new experimental method with a liquid electrolyte system, we observed that the ionic conductivity of the ionic liquid/alcohol was sensitive to the surrounding temperature. We employed Chang et al.'s thermodynamic model [Chang et al. (1997, 1998) ] based on the lattice model. The obtained co-ordinated unit parameter from this model was used to describe the phase behavior and ionic conductivities of the given system. Good agreement with experimental data of various alcohol and ILs systems was obtained in the range of interest.

  12. Design and Development of Embedded Based System for the Measurement of Dielectric Constant Spectroscopy for Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ramana C. H.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An embedded based system for the measurement of dielectric constant spectroscopy (for frequencies 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 100 kHz, 1 MHz and 10 MHz for liquids has been designed and developed. It is based on the principle that the change in frequency of an MAX 038 function generator, when the liquid forms the dielectric medium of the dielectric cell, is measured with a microcontroller. Atmel’s AT89LP6440 microcontroller is used in the present study. Further, an LCD module is interfaced with the microcontroller in 4-bit mode, which reduces the hardware complexity. Software is developed in C using Keil’s C-cross compiler. The instrument system covers a wide range of dielectric constants for various liquids at various frequencies and at different temperatures. The system is quite successful in the measurement of dielectric constant in liquids with an accuracy of ± 0.01 %. The dielectric constant is very dependent on the frequency of their measurement. No one-measurement technique is available, however, that will give the frequency range needed to characterize the liquid sample. The paper deals with the hardware and software details.

  13. Effect of Liquid Crystalline Systems Containing Antimicrobial Compounds on Infectious Skin Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Aires, Carolina Patrícia; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed (i) to prepare liquid crystalline systems (LCS) of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and water containing antibacterial compounds and (ii) to evaluate their potential as drug delivery systems for topical treatment of bacterial infections. Therefore, LCS containing CPC (cetylpyridinium chloride) (LCS/CPC) and PHMB (poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride) (LCS/PHMB) were prepared and the liquid crystalline phases were identified by polarizing light microscopy 24 h and 7 days after preparation. The in vitro drug release profile and in vitro antibacterial activity of the systems were assessed using the double layer agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis. The interaction between GMO and the drugs was evaluated by a drug absorption study. Stable liquid crystalline systems containing CPC and PHMB were obtained. LCS/PHMB decreased the PHMB release rate and exerted strong antibacterial activity against all the investigated bacteria. In contrast, CPC interacted with GMO so strongly that it became attached to the system; the amount released was not sufficient to exert antibacterial activity. Therefore, the studied liquid crystalline systems were suitable to deliver PHMB, but not CPC. Accordingly, it was demonstrated that GMO interacts with each drug differently, which may interfere in the final efficiency of GMO/water LCS.

  14. Development and Evaluation of Liquid and Solid Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems for Atorvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Czajkowska-Kośnik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to design and characterize liquid and solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS for poorly soluble atorvastatin. To optimize the composition of liquid atorvastatin-SEDDS, solubility tests, pseudoternary phase diagrams, emulsification studies and other in vitro examinations (thermodynamic stability, droplet size and zeta potential analysis were performed. Due to the disadvantages of liquid SEDDS (few choices for dosage forms, low stability and portability during the manufacturing process, attempts were also made to obtain solid SEDDS. Solid SEDDS were successfully obtained using the spray drying technique from two optimized liquid formulations, CF3 and OF2. Despite liquid SEDDS formulation, CF3 was characterized by lower turbidity, higher percentage transmittance and better self-emulsifying properties, and based on the in vitro dissolution study it can be concluded that better solubilization properties were exhibited by solid formulation OF2. Overall, the studies demonstrated the possibility of formulating liquid and solid SEEDS as promising carriers of atorvastatin. SEDDS, with their unique solubilization properties, provide the opportunity to deliver lipophilic drugs to the gastrointestinal tract in a solubilized state, avoiding dissolution—a restricting factor in absorption rate of BCS Class 2 drugs, including atorvastatin.

  15. Simulation of Water Level Fluctuations in a Hydraulic System Using a Coupled Liquid-Gas Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A model for simulating vertical water level fluctuations with coupled liquid and gas phases is presented. The Preissmann implicit scheme is used to linearize the governing equations for one-dimensional transient flow for both liquid and gas phases, and the linear system is solved using the chasing method. Some classical cases for single liquid and gas phase transients in pipelines and networks are studied to verify that the proposed methods are accurate and reliable. The implicit scheme is extended using a dynamic mesh to simulate the water level fluctuations in a U-tube and an open surge tank without consideration of the gas phase. Methods of coupling liquid and gas phases are presented and used for studying the transient process and interaction between the phases, for gas phase limited in a chamber and gas phase transported in a pipeline. In particular, two other simplified models, one neglecting the effect of the gas phase on the liquid phase and the other one coupling the liquid and gas phases asynchronously, are proposed. The numerical results indicate that the asynchronous model performs better, and are finally applied to a hydropower station with surge tanks and air shafts to simulate the water level fluctuations and air speed.

  16. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the ternary systems (cycloalkane + ethylbenzene + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolim ethylsulfate) at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Emilio J.; Calvar, Noelia; Dominguez, Irene; Dominguez, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → [EMim][ESO 4 ] was studied as solvent to extract ethylbenzene from cycloalkanes. → (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data were measured at 298.15K and atmospheric pressure. → Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were obtained and compared with literature. → Experimental data were satisfactorily correlated using NRTL and UNIQUAC models. → [EMim][ESO 4 ] can be used as solvent for the studied (liquid + liquid) extraction. - Abstract: In this paper, (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems (cyclohexane, or cyclooctane, or methylcyclohexane + ethylbenzene + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate) have been determined experimentally at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The solubility curves and the tie-line compositions of the conjugate phases were obtained by means of density. The degree of consistency of the tie-lines was tested using the Othmer-Tobias equation, and the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) and the Universal Quasi-Chemical (UNIQUAC) models were used to correlate the phase equilibrium in the systems. Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were evaluated for the immiscible region.

  17. The method for simultaneous extraction and back extraction in liquid three-phase system and equipment for simultaneous extraction and back extraction in liquid three-phase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palyska, W.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The method for simultaneous extraction and back extraction in liquid three-phase system has been worked out. The equipment designed for that process has been also subject of the patent. The interesting component is extracted first to intermediate phase consists of magnetic solvent keeping two extracting phases separately. The intermediate magnetic liquid has been kept in its position using a stable magnet maintained on the surface of the extraction vessel. Then the component pass from intermediate phase to the third phase as a result of back extraction. Mixing in the extraction and back extraction zones is organized by means of rotating shaft going along the whole apparatus. The extraction and back extraction processes occur simultaneously as a result of continuous flow of solvent in their zones. The single extraction back extraction facilities can be joined in larger batteries. 3 figs

  18. Paired associative stimulation targeting the tibialis anterior muscle using either mono or biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocols induce plastic changes within the motor cortex. The objectives of this study were to investigate PAS effects targeting the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle using a biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse form and, to determine whether...... a reduced intensity of this pulse would lead to significant changes as has been reported for hand muscles using a monophasic TMS pulse. Three interventions were investigated: (1) suprathreshold PAbi-PAS (n = 11); (2) suprathreshold PAmono-PAS (n = 11) where PAS was applied using a biphasic or monophasic......% for subthreshold PAbi-PAS. PAS using a biphasic pulse form at subthreshold intensities induces similar effects to conventional PAS....

  19. Liquid crystalline systems for transdermal delivery of celecoxib: in vitro drug release and skin permeation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estracanholli, Eder André; Praça, Fabíola Silva Garcia; Cintra, Ana Beatriz; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Liquid crystalline systems of monoolein/water could be a promising approach for the delivery of celecoxib (CXB) to the skin because these systems can sustain drug release, improve drug penetration into the skin layers and minimize side effects. This study evaluated the potential of these systems for the delivery of CXB into the skin based on in vitro drug release and skin permeation studies. The amount of CXB that permeated into and/or was retained in the skin was assayed using an HPLC method. Polarizing light microscopy studies showed that liquid crystalline systems of monoolein/water were formed in the presence of CXB, without any changes in the mesophases. The liquid crystalline systems decreased drug release when compared to control solution. Drug release was independent of the initial water content of the systems and CXB was released from cubic phase systems, irrespective of the initial water content. The systems released the CXB following zero-order release kinetics. In vitro drug permeation studies showed that cubic phase systems allowed drug permeation and retention in the skin layers. Cubic phase systems of monoolein/water may be promising vehicles for the delivery of CXB in/through the skin because it improved CXB skin permeation compared with the control solution.

  20. Automatic quench compensation for liquid scintillation counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nather, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A method of automatic quench compensation is provided, where a reference measure of quench is taken on a sample prior to taking a sample count. The measure of quench is then compared with a reference voltage source which has been established to vary in proportion to the variation of the measure of quench with the level of a system parameter required to restore at least one isotope spectral energy endpoint substantially to a selected counting window discriminator level in order to determine the amount of adjustment of the system parameter required to restore the endpoint. This is followed by the appropriate adjustment of the system parameter required to restore the relative position of the discriminator windows and the sample spectrum and is followed in turn by taking a sample count

  1. The evolution of the mass-transfer functions in liquid Yukawa systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaulina, O. S., E-mail: olga.vaulina@bk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The results of analytic and numerical investigation of mass-transfer processes in nonideal liquid systems are reported. Calculations are performed for extended 2D and 3D systems of particles that interact with a screened Yukawa-type Coulomb potential. The main attention is paid to 2D structures. A new analytic model is proposed for describing the evolution of mass-transfer functions in systems of interacting particles, including the transition between the ballistic and diffusion regimes of their motion.

  2. Study of the liquid vapor equilibrium in the bromine-hydrobromic acid-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benizri, R.; Lessart, P.; Courvoisier, P.

    1984-01-01

    A glass ebullioscope was built and at atmospheric pressure, liquid-vapor equilibria relative to the Br2-HBr-H2O system, in the concentration range of interest for evaluation of the Mark 13 cycle was studied. Measurements were performed for the brome-azeotrope (HBr-H2O) pseudo-binary system and for the ternary system at temperatures lower than 125 C and in the bromine concentration range up to 13% wt.

  3. Improvements in iodine and ruthenium removal from advanced liquid processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skibo, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-27

    SRNL has considerable experience in designing, engineering, and operating systems for removing iodine-129 (I-129) and ruthenium-106 (Ru-106) from waste streams that are directly analogous to the Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS) waste streams. SRNL proposes to provide the technical background and design and engineering support for an improved I-129 and Ru-106 removal system for application to ALPS on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS).

  4. Simulation and economic analysis of a liquid-based solar system with a direct-contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger, in comparison to a system with a conventional heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, P.; Karaki, S.

    Using a solar computer simulation package called TRNSYS, simulations of the direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) solar system and a system with conventional shell-and-tube heat exchanger were developed, based in part on performance measurements of the actual systems. The two systems were simulated over a full year on an hour-by-hour basis at five locations; Boston, Massachusetts, Charleston, South Carolina, Dodge City, Kansas, Madison, Wisconsin, and Phoenix, Arizona. Typically the direct-contact system supplies slightly more heat for domestic hot water and space heating in all locations and about 5 percentage points more cooling as compared to the conventional system. Using a common set of economic parameters and the appropriate federal and state income tax credits, as well as property tax legislation for solar systems in the corresponding states, the results of the study indicate for heating-only systems, the DCLLHE system has a slight life-cycle cost disadvantage compared to the conventional system. For combined solar heating and cooling systems, the DCLLHE has a slight life-cycle cost advantage which varies with location and amounts to one to three percent difference from the conventional system.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of a liquid air energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizzi, Giuseppe Leo; Manno, Michele; Tolomei, Ludovica Maria; Vitali, Ruggero Maria

    2015-01-01

    The rapid increase in the share of electricity generation from renewable energy sources is having a profound impact on the power sector; one of the most relevant effects of this trend is the increased importance of energy storage systems, which can be used to smooth out peaks and troughs of production from renewable energy sources. Besides their role in balancing the electric grid, energy storage systems may provide also several other useful services, such as price arbitrage, stabilizing conventional generation, etc.; therefore, it is not surprising that many research projects are under way in order to explore the potentials of new technologies for electric energy storage. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of a cryogenic energy storage system, based on air liquefaction and storage in an insulated vessel. This technology is attractive thanks to its independence from geographical constraints and because it can be scaled up easily to grid-scale ratings, but it is affected by a low round-trip efficiency due to the energy intensive process of air liquefaction. The present work aims to assess the efficiency of such a system and to identify if and how it can achieve an acceptable round-trip efficiency (in the order of 50–60%).

  6. The automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for GDA detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, no physical access to the beam hall is required during routine filling operation. The system consists of ... PSI with the manual valve (MV) on the dewar kept open. For filling the detectors on one ... sequence the opening/closing of the valves depending upon the outlet temperature. By monitoring the time taken for ...

  7. The simple analytics of systemic liquidity risk regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Suarez, J.

    2011-01-01

    How to regulate systemic risk? This column presents a new CEPR discussion paper assessing the performance of Pigouvian taxes and quantity-based regulations in containing the social costs of high-risk banking. It finds that, depending on how banks differ, the socially efficient solution may be

  8. Experimental study of liquid-metal target designs of accelerating-controlled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarmonov, Mikhail; Makhov, Kirill; Novozhilova, Olga; Meluzov, A.G.; Beznosov, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Models of a liquid-metal target of an accelerator-controlled system have been experimentally studied at the Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University to develop an optimal design of the flow part of the target. The main explored variants of liquid-metal targets are: Design with a diaphragm (firm-and-impervious plug) mounted on the pipe tap of particle transport from the accelerator cavity to the working cavity of the liquid-metal target. Design without a diaphragm on the pipe tab of particle transport from the accelerator. The study was carried out in a high-temperature liquid-metal test bench under the conditions close to full-scale ones: the temperature of the eutectic lead-bismuth alloy was 260degC - 400degC, the coolant mass flow was 5-80 t/h, and the rarefaction in the gas cavity was 10 5 Pa, the coefficient of geometric similarity equal to 1. The experimental studies of hydrodynamic characteristics of flow parts in the designs of targets under full-scale conditions indicated high efficiency of a target in triggering, operating, and deactivating modes. Research and technology instructions for designs of the flow part of the liquid-metal target, the target design as a whole, and the target circuit of accelerator-controlled systems were formulated as a result of the studies. (author)

  9. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian, E-mail: florian.maier@fau.de [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, FAU Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  10. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  11. Comparison of immersed liquid and air cooling of NASA's Airborne Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) is currently under development at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The AIMS is designed as a modular system utilizing surface mounted integrated circuits in a high-density configuration. To maintain the temperature of the integrated circuits within manufacturer's specifications, the modules are to be filled with Fluorinert FC-72. Unlike ground based liquid cooled computers, the extreme range of the ambient pressures experienced by the AIMS requires the FC-72 be contained in a closed system. This forces the latent heat absorbed during the boiling to be released during the condensation that must take within the closed module system. Natural convection and/or pumping carries the heat to the outer surface of the AIMS module where the heat transfers to the ambient air. This paper will present an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of immersed liquid cooling and air cooling of the Airborne Information Management System.

  12. A system for traceable measurement of the microwave complex permittivity of liquids at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrakis, G A; Robinson, J; Kingman, S; Lester, E; George, M; Poliakoff, M; Harrison, I; Gregory, A P; Lees, K

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed for direct traceable dielectric measurements on liquids at high pressures and temperatures. The system consists of a coaxial reflectometric sensor terminated by a metallic cylindrical cell to contain the liquid. It has been designed for measurements on supercritical liquids, but as a first step measurements on dielectric reference liquids were performed. This paper reports on a full evaluation of the system up to 2.5 GHz using methanol, ethanol and n-propanol at pressures up to 9 MPa and temperatures up to 273 °C. A comprehensive approach to the evaluation of uncertainties using Monte Carlo modelling is used

  13. Activity and stability of feruloyl esterase A from Aspergillus niger in ionic liquid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, Birgitte; Riisager, Anders; Meyer, Anne S.

    in solvents that favour synthesis over hydrolysis, i.e. systems with low water content such as organic solvents or ionic liquids (ILs). The esterification of sinapic acid with glycerol catalysed by FAE A from Aspergillus niger (AnFaeA) in a series of ILs containing 15% (v/v) buffer showed that An...

  14. Pathology of the reproductive system and thyroid of women liquidators of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, A.A.; Merkulova, I.P.

    2014-01-01

    Data of the annual health follow up of the 100 women-liquidators of the Chernobyl accident performed by Republic centre of medical rehabilitation and balneotherapy have been analyzed. The high frequency of thyroid disease as well as the reproductive system pathology revealed: they were detected in 96% and 87% patients correspondingly. Oncological diseases were detected in 25% of studied cohort. (authors)

  15. Primitive Liquid Water of the Solar System in an Aqueous Altered Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Kitayama, A.; Matsuno, J.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakano, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive 3D observations of the aqueous altered CM chondrite Sutter's Mill using scanning imaging x-ray microscopy (SIXM) showed that some of calcite and enstatite grains contain two-phase inclusion, which is most probably composed of liquid water and bubbles. This water should be primitive water responsible for aqueous alteration in an asteroid in the early solar system.

  16. Conductive properties of switchable photoluminescence thermosetting systems based on liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Ocando, Connie; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2010-03-16

    Conductive properties of different thermosetting materials modified with nematic 4'-(hexyl)-4-biphenyl-carbonitrile (HBC) liquid crystal and rutile TiO(2) nanoparticles were successfully studied by means of tunneling atomic force miscroscopy (TUNA). Taking into account the liquid crystal state of the HBC at room temperature, depending on both the HBC content and the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles, designed materials showed different TUNA currents passed through the sample. The addition of TiO(2) nanoparticles into the systems multiply the detected current if compared to the thermosetting systems without TiO(2) nanoparticles and simultaneously stabilized the current passed through the sample, making the process reversible since the absolute current values were almost the same applying both negative and positive voltage. Moreover, thermosetting systems modified with liquid crystals with and without TiO(2) nanoparticles are photoluminescence switchable materials as a function of temperature gradient during repeatable heating/cooling cycle. Conductive properties of switchable photoluminescence thermosetting systems based on liquid crystals can allow them to find potential application in the field of photoresponsive devices, with a high contrast ratio between transparent and opaque states.

  17. Novel routes to liquid-based self-healing polymer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the current state-of-the-art and the progressing advancements in the field of self-healing materials, this thesis addresses several novel routes to advance the concept of liquid-based self-healing polymer systems. This thesis presents the concept and characterisation of a one-component

  18. Nonlinear absorption of fullerene- and nanotubes-doped liquid crystal systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamanina, N.; Reshak, Ali H; Vasiliev, P.Y.; Vangonen, A. I.; Studeonov, V. I.; Usanov, Y. E.; Ebothe, J.; Gondek, E.; Wojcik, W.; Danel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2009), s. 391-394 ISSN 1386-9477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nonlinear absorption properties * organic electrooptical systems * liquid crystal * fullerene s * nanotubes * PVK-derivatives Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.177, year: 2009

  19. MEMBRANOUS FLOWS IN GAS-LIQUID COLLECTORS-REGENERATORS OF SOLAR ABSORPTIVE SYSTEMS FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko А.V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the creation of new generation of solar collectors of the gas-liquid type, intended for use in alternative refrigerating and conditioning systems of drying-evaporating type with direct solar regeneration of absorbent. Special attention is given to the study of membranous flows features on inclined surfaces, including questions of such flows stability.

  20. Injecting a liquid bacteria-based repair system to make porous network conrete healed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangadji, S.; Wiktor, V.A.C.; Jonkers, H.M.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria induced calcite precipitation has been proven to be effective in making concrete structure self-healing. In Microlab TU Delft, the concept has been enhanced by developing a liquid bacteria-based concrete repair system. The solution contains calcite precipitating bacteria, nutrients and

  1. Counting efficiency for liquid scintillator systems with a single multiplier phototube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper counting efficiency as a function of a free parameter (the figure of merit) has been computed. The results are applicable to liquid scintillator systems with a single multiplier phototube. Tables of counting efficiency for 62 pure beta emitters are given for figures of merit in the range 0.25 to 50. (Author) 16 refs

  2. Evaluation of air-liquid interface exposure systems for in vitro assessment of airborne pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of cells to airborne pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of submerged cells. The published literature, however, describes irreproducible and/or unrealistic experimental conditions using ALI systems. We have compared fi...

  3. Modeling of vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium in gas - aqueous electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for the description of vapor-liquid-solid equilibria is introduced. This model is a combination of the extended UNIQUAC model for electrolytes and the Soave-Redlich-Kwong cubic equation of state. The model has been applied to aqueous systems containing ammonia and/or carbon ...

  4. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Measurements and Modeling of the Propyl Mercaptan plus Methane plus Water System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Javeed; Thomsen, Kaj; Coquelet, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    In this work, vapor−liquid equilibrium (VLE) measurements of propyl mercaptan (PM) in pure water were performed at three different temperatures, (303, 323, and 365) K, with a pressure variation from (1 to 8) MPa. The total system pressure was maintained by CH4. The inlet mole fraction of propyl...

  5. Isobaric (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for (di-n-propyl ether + n-propyl alcohol + water) and (diisopropyl ether + isopropyl alcohol + water) systems at 100 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lladosa, Estela; Monton, Juan B.; Burguet, MaCruz; Torre, Javier de la

    2008-01-01

    Isobaric (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria were measured for the (di-n-propyl ether + n-propyl alcohol + water) and (diisopropyl ether + isopropyl alcohol + water) system at 100 kPa. The apparatus used for the determination of (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibrium data was an all-glass dynamic recirculating still with an ultrasonic homogenizer couple to the boiling flask. The experimental data demonstrated the existence of a heterogeneous ternary azeotrope for both ternary systems. The (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria data were found to be thermodynamically consistent for both systems. The experimental data were compared with the estimation using UNIQUAC and NRTL models and the prediction of UNIFAC model

  6. Seismic analysis of liquid metal reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the finite-element numerical algorithm and its applications to LMR piping under seismic excitations. A time-history analysis technique using the implicit temporal integration scheme is addressed. A 3-D pipe element is formulated which has eight degrees of freedom per node (three displacements, three rotations, one membrane displacement, and one bending rotation) to account for the hoop, flexural, rotational, and torsional modes of the piping system. Both geometric and material nonlinearities are considered. This algorithm is unconditionally stable and is particularly suited for the seismic analysis. (orig./GL)

  7. Seismic analysis of liquid metal reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    To safely assess the adequacy of the LMR piping, a three-dimensional piping code, SHAPS, has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. This code was initially intended for calculating hydrodynamic-wave propagation in a complex piping network. It has salient features for treating fluid transients of fluid-structure interactions for piping with in-line components. The code also provides excellent structural capabilities of computing stresses arising from internal pressurization and 3-D flexural motion of the piping system. As part of the development effort, the SHAPS code has been further augmented recently by introducing the capabilities of calculating piping response subjected to seismic excitations. This paper describes the finite-element numerical algorithm and its applications to LMR piping under seismic excitations. A time-history analysis technique using the implicit temporal integration scheme is addressed. A 3-D pipe element is formulated which has eight degrees of freedom per node (three displacements, three rotations, one membrane displacement, and one bending rotation) to account for the hoop, flexural, rotational, and torsional modes of the piping system. Both geometric and material nonlinearities are considered. This algorithm is unconditionally stable and is particularly suited for the seismic analysis

  8. Stationary Flowing Liquid Lithium (SFLiLi) systems for tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid; Gentile, Charles; Roquemore, Lane

    2013-10-01

    The present approach to magnetic fusion which relies on high recycling plasma-wall interaction has exhausted itself at the level of TFTR, JET, JT-60 devices with no realistic path to the burning plasma. Instead, magnetic fusion needs a return to its original idea of insulation of the plasma from the wall, which was the dominant approach in the 1970s and upon implementations has a clear path to the DEMO device with PDT ~= 100 MW and Qelectric > 1 . The SFLiLi systems of this talk is the technology tool for implementation of the guiding idea of magnetic fusion. It utilizes the unique properties of flowing LiLi to pump plasma particles and, thus, insulate plasma from the walls. The necessary flow rate, ~= 1 g3/s, is very small, thus, making the use of lithium practical and consistent with safety requirements. The talk describes how chemical activity of LiLi, which is the major technology challenge of using LiLi in tokamaks, is addressed by SFLiLi systems at the level of already performed (HT-7) experiment, and in ongoing implementations for a prototype of SFLiLi for tokamak divertors and the mid-plane limiter for EAST tokamak (to be tested in the next experimental campaign). This work is supported by US DoE contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH11466.

  9. Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium and Excess Enthalpies in the Binary System 2-Methylpentane + N,N-Dimethylformamide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Magdalena; Řehák, K.; Matouš, J.; Novák, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2004), s. 1318-1322 ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : liquid-liquid equilibrium * excess enthalpies * thermodynamic models Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.368, year: 2004

  10. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    in mesenchymal cell mass treated by low concentration of Dex. Mmp-13 expression was obviously up-regulated by Dex in both mesenchymal cells and primary chondrocyte cultures. And Col10a1 expression was also increased by Dex exposure in chondrocyte. In summary, we have revealed that different concentrations of Dex exposure during early gestation could exert a biphasic effect on vertebrate skeletal development. - Highlights: • Chick embryos occurred shortening of the long bone following Dex exposure. • Dex suppressed chondrocytes proliferation and promoted apoptosis. • Dex exposure decreased ALP production and up-regulated Runx-2 and Mmp-13. • Dex exhibited biphasic effects on chondrogenic proliferation and nodule formation. • The hypertrophy and ossification were accelerated by Dex both in vivo and in vitro

  11. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chuai, Manli [Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao [Stem Cell and Regeneration Thematic Research Programme, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Fetal-Preterm Labor Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-11-15

    increased in mesenchymal cell mass treated by low concentration of Dex. Mmp-13 expression was obviously up-regulated by Dex in both mesenchymal cells and primary chondrocyte cultures. And Col10a1 expression was also increased by Dex exposure in chondrocyte. In summary, we have revealed that different concentrations of Dex exposure during early gestation could exert a biphasic effect on vertebrate skeletal development. - Highlights: • Chick embryos occurred shortening of the long bone following Dex exposure. • Dex suppressed chondrocytes proliferation and promoted apoptosis. • Dex exposure decreased ALP production and up-regulated Runx-2 and Mmp-13. • Dex exhibited biphasic effects on chondrogenic proliferation and nodule formation. • The hypertrophy and ossification were accelerated by Dex both in vivo and in vitro.

  12. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium of {l_brace}water + phenol + (1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or tert-butanol){r_brace} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlich de Oliveira, Leonardo [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Aznar, Martin, E-mail: maznar@feq.unicamp.b [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and binodal curve data were determined for the systems (water + phenol + tert-butanol) at T = 298.15 K, (water + phenol + 2-butanol) and (water + phenol + 1-butanol) at T = 298.15 K and T = 313.15 K by the combined techniques of densimetry and refractometry. Type I curve (for tert-butanol) and Type II curves (for 1- and 2-butanol) were found. The data were correlated with the NRTL model and the parameters estimated present root mean square deviations below 2% for the system with tert-butanol and lower than 0.8% for the other systems.

  13. Ion Transfer Voltammetry Associated with Two Polarizable Interfaces Within Water and Moderately Hydrophobic Ionic Liquid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Shiyu; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical system composed of two polarizable interfaces (the metallic electrode|water and water|ionic liquid interfaces), namely two‐polarized‐interface (TPI) technique, has been proposed to explore the ion transfer processes between water and moderately hydrophobic ionic liquids (W...... to an extremely narrow polarized potential window (ppw) caused by these moderately hydrophobic ionic components. In this article, we show that TPI technique has virtually eliminated the ppw limitation based on a controlling step of concentration polarization at the electrode|water interface. With the aid...

  14. Advances in liquid metal cooled ADS systems, and useful results for the design of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, V.; Debruyn, D.; Decreton, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid metal cooled Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have a lot of design commonalities with the design of IFMIF. The use of a powerful accelerator and a liquid metal spallation source makes it similar to the main features of the IFMIF irradiator. Developments in the field of liquid metal ADS can thus be very useful for the design phase of IFMIF, and synergy between both domains should be enhanced to avoid dubbing work already done. The liquid metal ADS facilities are developed for testing materials under high fast (> 1 MeV) neutron flux, and also for studying the transmutation of actinides as foreseen in the P and T (Partitioning and Transmutation) strategy of future fission industry. The ADS are mostly constituted of a sub-critical fission fuel assembly matrix, a spallation source (situated at the centre of the fuel arrangement) and a powerful accelerator targeting the spallation source. In liquid metal ADS, the spallation source is a liquid metal (like Pb-Bi) which is actively cooled to remove the power generated by the particle beam, spallation reactions and neutrons. Based on an advanced ADS design (e.g. the MYRRHA/XT-ADS facility), the paper shows the various topics which are common for both facilities (ADS and IFMIF) and highlights their respective specificities, leading to focused R and D activities. This would certainly cover the common aspects related to high power accelerators, liquid metal targets and beam-target coupling. But problems of safety, radioprotection, source heating and cooling, neutrons shielding, etc... lead also to common features and developments. Results already obtained for the ADS development will illustrate this synergy. This paper will therefore allow to take profit of recent developments in both fission and fusion programs and enhance the collaboration among the R and D teams in both domains. (authors)

  15. Advances in liquid metal cooled ADS systems, and useful results for the design of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.; Debruyn, D. [SCK CEN, Mol (Belgium); Decreton, M. [Ghent Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid metal cooled Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have a lot of design commonalities with the design of IFMIF. The use of a powerful accelerator and a liquid metal spallation source makes it similar to the main features of the IFMIF irradiator. Developments in the field of liquid metal ADS can thus be very useful for the design phase of IFMIF, and synergy between both domains should be enhanced to avoid dubbing work already done. The liquid metal ADS facilities are developed for testing materials under high fast (> 1 MeV) neutron flux, and also for studying the transmutation of actinides as foreseen in the P and T (Partitioning and Transmutation) strategy of future fission industry. The ADS are mostly constituted of a sub-critical fission fuel assembly matrix, a spallation source (situated at the centre of the fuel arrangement) and a powerful accelerator targeting the spallation source. In liquid metal ADS, the spallation source is a liquid metal (like Pb-Bi) which is actively cooled to remove the power generated by the particle beam, spallation reactions and neutrons. Based on an advanced ADS design (e.g. the MYRRHA/XT-ADS facility), the paper shows the various topics which are common for both facilities (ADS and IFMIF) and highlights their respective specificities, leading to focused R and D activities. This would certainly cover the common aspects related to high power accelerators, liquid metal targets and beam-target coupling. But problems of safety, radioprotection, source heating and cooling, neutrons shielding, etc... lead also to common features and developments. Results already obtained for the ADS development will illustrate this synergy. This paper will therefore allow to take profit of recent developments in both fission and fusion programs and enhance the collaboration among the R and D teams in both domains. (authors)

  16. The Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor Prevents Antigen-induced Biphasic Nasal Obstruction in Brown Norway Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kawasaki

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study provides a simple model of allergic biphasic nasal obstruction in BN rats, and also suggests that the PDE4 inhibitor may alleviate nasal obstruction in patients with allergic rhinitis.

  17. Biphasic cuirass ventilation is better than bag-valve mask ventilation for resuscitation following organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Gur

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The noninvasive, easy-to-operate Biphasic Cuirass Ventilation device was effective in reducing OP-induced mortality and might be advantageous in an organophosphate mass casualty event. This finding should be validated in further investigations.

  18. Trial fabrication and preliminary characterization of electrical insulator for liquid metal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, Masaru; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Oyamada, Rokuro

    1995-03-01

    In the design of the liquid metal blanket, MHD pressure drop is one of critical issues. Ceramic coating on the surface of structural material is considered as an electrical insulator to reduce the MHD pressure drop. Ceramic coating such as Y 2 O 3 is a promising electrical insulator due to its high electrical resistivity and good compatibility with liquid lithium. This report describes the trial fabrication and preliminary characterization of electrical insulator for a design study of the liquid metal system. From the results of trial fabrication and preliminary characterization, it is concluded that densified atmospheric plasma spray Y 2 O 3 coating with 410SS undercoating between 316SS substrate and Y 2 O 3 coating is suitable for Y 2 O 3 coating fabrication. (author)

  19. Liquid Metals as Plasma-facing Materials for Fusion Energy Systems: From Atoms to Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Howard A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Koel, Bruce E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bernasek, Steven L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Carter, Emily A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Debenedetti, Pablo G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-06-23

    The objective of our studies was to advance our fundamental understanding of liquid metals as plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems, with a broad scope: from atoms to tokamaks. The flow of liquid metals offers solutions to significant problems of the plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems. Candidate metals include lithium, tin, gallium, and their eutectic combinations. However, such liquid metal solutions can only be designed efficiently if a range of scientific and engineering issues are resolved that require advances in fundamental fluid dynamics, materials science and surface science. In our research we investigated a range of significant and timely problems relevant to current and proposed engineering designs for fusion reactors, including high-heat flux configurations that are being considered by leading fusion energy groups world-wide. Using experimental and theoretical tools spanning atomistic to continuum descriptions of liquid metals, and bridging surface chemistry, wetting/dewetting and flow, our research has advanced the science and engineering of fusion energy materials and systems. Specifically, we developed a combined experimental and theoretical program to investigate flows of liquid metals in fusion-relevant geometries, including equilibrium and stability of thin-film flows, e.g. wetting and dewetting, effects of electromagnetic and thermocapillary fields on liquid metal thin-film flows, and how chemical interactions and the properties of the surface are influenced by impurities and in turn affect the surface wetting characteristics, the surface tension, and its gradients. Because high-heat flux configurations produce evaporation and sputtering, which forces rearrangement of the liquid, and any dewetting exposes the substrate to damage from the plasma, our studies addressed such evaporatively driven liquid flows and measured and simulated properties of the different bulk phases and material interfaces. The range of our studies

  20. Method of and system for identification or estimation of a refractive index of a liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of and a system (100) for identification or estimation of a refractive index of a liquid (120) comprising a light receiving part (111) adapted to receive polarised or non-polarised light (125; 135), a light emitting part (112) adapted, during use, to transmit...... light (130), an optical structure (110) being adapted to receive, during use, polarised light (125) via or from the light receiving part (111), and being adapted to receive, during use, a liquid (120) having a predetermined refractive index to be identified or estimated, and a first polariser (115......); is adapted, during use, to pass the received light (135) through the optical path so that a narrow wavelength range of the transmitted light (130) is influenced by the predetermined refractive index of the received liquid (120) and that the influenced narrow wavelength range, when observed by a user and...

  1. Phase diagram and universality of the Lennard-Jones gas-liquid system

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The gas-liquid phase transition of the three-dimensional Lennard-Jones particles system is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The gas and liquid densities in the coexisting state are determined with high accuracy. The critical point is determined by the block density analysis of the Binder parameter with the aid of the law of rectilinear diameter. From the critical behavior of the gas-liquid coexisting density, the critical exponent of the order parameter is estimated to be β = 0.3285(7). Surface tension is estimated from interface broadening behavior due to capillary waves. From the critical behavior of the surface tension, the critical exponent of the correlation length is estimated to be ν = 0.63(4). The obtained values of β and ν are consistent with those of the Ising universality class. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3......COCHCOCH3), Pd (CF3COO)2, Pd(PPh3)4 or Pd2(dibenzylideneacetone)3. Such catalyst systems can be used for e.g. alkoxycarbonylation reactions, carboxylation reactions, and/or in a co-polymerization reaction, e.g. in the production of methyl propionate and/or propanoic acid, optionally in processes forming...... methyl methacrylate and/or methacrylic acid. Catalyst systems according to the invention are suitable for reactions forming separable product and catalyst phases and supported ionic liquid phase SILP applications....

  3. Design and simulation of liquid cooled system for power battery of PHEV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianpeng; Xu, Haijun; Xu, Xiaojun; Pan, Cunyun

    2017-09-01

    Various battery chemistries have different responses to failure, but the most common failure mode of a cell under abusive conditions is the generation of heat and gas. To prevent battery thermal abuse, a battery thermal management system is essential. An excellent design of battery thermal management system can ensure that the battery is working at a suitable temperature and keeps the battery temperature diffenence at 2-3 °C. This paper presents a thermal-elcetric coupling model for a 37Ah lithium battery using AMESim. A liquid cooled system of hybrid electric vehicle power battery is designed to control the battery temperature.A liquid cooled model of thermal management system is built using AMESim, the simulation results showed that the temperature difference within 3°C of cell in the pack.

  4. High Bulk Modulus of Ionic Liquid and Effects on Performance of Hydraulic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kambic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years ionic liquids have gained in importance, causing a growing number of scientists and engineers to investigate possible applications for these liquids because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Their outstanding advantages such as nonflammable liquid within a broad liquid range, high thermal, mechanical, and chemical stabilities, low solubility for gases, attractive tribological properties (lubrication, and very low compressibility, and so forth, make them more interesting for applications in mechanical engineering, offering great potential for new innovative processes, and also as a novel hydraulic fluid. This paper focuses on the outstanding compressibility properties of ionic liquid EMIM-EtSO4, a very important physical chemically property when IL is used as a hydraulic fluid. This very low compressibility (respectively, very high Bulk modulus, compared to the classical hydraulic mineral oils or the non-flammable HFDU type of hydraulic fluids, opens up new possibilities regarding its usage within hydraulic systems with increased dynamics, respectively, systems’ dynamic responses.

  5. (Vapor + liquid + liquid) equilibrium measurements and correlation for {1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134) + isobutane (R600a)} system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yanxing; Gong, Maoqiong; Dong, Xueqiang; Guo, Hao; Wu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • VLLE data for the (R134 + R600a) system at temperatures ranging from (235.311 to 241.720) K was measured. • The experiment was carried out using an apparatus based on the recirculation of vapor into liquid. • Correlation of VLE data was made using PR−HV−NRTL model. • A strong critical opalescence was observed. - Abstract: In this work, a study on the (vapor + liquid + liquid) equilibrium (VLLE) for the (R134 + R600a) system was carried out using an apparatus based on the recirculation of vapor into liquid at temperatures ranging from (235.311 to 241.720) K. The uncertainties of the composition, temperature, and pressure were less than ±0.005, ±5 mK and ±0.5 kPa, respectively. Thirty-eight experimental p–T–x data covering both branches of the binodal boundary and nineteen experimental p–T–y data were presented. Three numerical methods were used to obtain the second liquid phase compositions coexisting in equilibrium, and all the three methods lead to consistent results. Moreover, all of the experimental data were correlated by the Peng–Robinson equation of state (PR EoS) with the Huron–Vidal (HV) mixing rule involving the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient model. Then the vapor phase compositions were calculated. The results show good agreement with the experimental data, and the maximum deviation is less than 0.006

  6. Experimental investigation of liquid-liquid system drop size distribution in Taylor-Couette flow and its application in the CFD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad, Reza; Puttinger, Stefan; Pirker, Stefan; Schneiderbauer, Simon

    Liquid-liquid systems are widely used in the several industries such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical and petroleum. Drop size distribution (DSD) plays a key role as it strongly affects the overall mass and heat transfer in the liquid-liquid systems. To understand the underlying mechanisms single drop breakup experiments have been done by several researchers in the Taylor-Couette flow; however, most of those studies concentrate on the laminar flow regime and therefore, there is no sufficient amount of data in the case of in turbulent flows. The well-defined pattern of the Taylor-Couette flow enables the possibility to investigate DSD as a function of the local fluid dynamic properties, such as shear rate, which is in contrast to more complex devices such as stirred tank reactors. This paper deals with the experimental investigation of liquid-liquid DSD in Taylor-Couette flow. From high speed camera images we found a simple correlation for the Sauter mean diameter as a function of the local shear employing image processing. It is shown that this correlation holds for different oil-in-water emulsions. Finally, this empirical correlation for the DSD is used as an input data for a CFD simulation to compute the local breakup of individual droplets in a stirred tank reactor.

  7. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of (water + linalool + limonene) ternary system at T = (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramajo de Doz, Monica B.; Cases, Alicia M.; Solimo, Horacio N.

    2008-01-01

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for {water (1) + linalool (2) + limonene (3)} ternary system at T = (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15 ± 0.05) K are reported. The organic chemicals were quantified by gas chromatography using a flame ionisation detector while water was quantified using a thermal conductivity detector. The effect of the temperature on (liquid + liquid) equilibrium is determined and discussed. Experimental data for the ternary mixture are compared with values calculated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations, and predicted by means of the UNIFAC group contribution method. It is found that the UNIQUAC and NRTL models provide a good correlation of the solubility curve at these three temperatures, while comparing the calculated values with the experimental ones, the best fit is obtained with the NRTL model. Finally, the UNIFAC model provides poor results, since it predicts a greater heterogeneous region than experimentally observed

  8. Potential of multi-purpose liquid metallic fuelled fast reactor (MPFR) as a hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, H.; Ninokata, H.; Netchaev, A.; Sawada, T.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear energy is the only effective alternative energy source to fossil fuels in the next century. Therefore future nuclear power plants should satisfy the following three requirements: i) multiple energy conversion capability with high temperature not only for electricity generation but also for hydrogen production, ii) extended siting capability so as to eliminate on-site refuelling, and iii) passive safety features. An aim of this paper is to describe the basic concept of the multi-purpose liquid metallic fuelled fast reactor system (MPFR). The MPFR introduces the U-Pu-X (X: Mn, Fe, Co) liquid metallic alloy with Ta and Ta/TaC structural materials, and satisfies all of the conditions listed above based on the following characteristics of the liquid metallic fuel: high temperature operation between 650 deg C (sodium-cooled system) and 1 200 deg C (lead-cooled system), a core lifetime of 15-30 years without radiation damage of fuel materials, and enhanced passive safety by the thermal expansion of liquid fuel and the avoidance of re-criticality due to local core fuel dispersion at fuel failure events. (authors)

  9. A filter paper-based liquid culture system for citrus shoot organogenesis - a mixture-amount experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a static liquid culture system on shoot regeneration from citrus epicotyl explants. Two citrus types were used, Carrizo citrange and Ridge Pineapple sweet orange. A liquid culture system comprised of a Petri dish, cellulose filter paper dis...

  10. Systemic embolism produced by subcutaneous injections of liquid silicone for esthetic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconi, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Even though its use is not recommended, liquid silicone is a substance that has been used illegally for esthetic purposes for a long time. A case report is presented in which a young woman was injected subcutaneously, by an uncertified practitioner, industrial fluid silicone and subsequently developed a case of systemic embolism with pulmonary, skin and ocular complications. This article explains the physiopathology and the different manifestations of systemic embolism produced by fluid silicone. TAC was used. (The author)

  11. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf H Bremmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2 to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb and hemichrome (HC. The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain can be used for age determination of bloodstains. In this study, we further analyze the conversion of HbO(2 to met-Hb and HC, and determine the effect of temperature and humidity on the conversion rates. METHODOLOGY: The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain, as determined by quantitative analysis of optical reflectance spectra (450-800 nm, were measured as function of age, temperature and humidity. Additionally, Optical Coherence Tomography around 1300 nm was used to confirm quantitative spectral analysis approach. CONCLUSIONS: The oxidation rate of HbO(2 in bloodstains is biphasic. At first, the oxidation of HbO(2 is rapid, but slows down after a few hours. These oxidation rates are strongly temperature dependent. However, the oxidation of HbO(2 seems to be independent of humidity, whereas the transition of met-Hb into HC strongly depends on humidity. Knowledge of these decay rates is indispensable for translating laboratory results into forensic practice, and to enable bloodstain age determination on the crime scene.

  12. Comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for biphasic contact problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingen; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Wilcox, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    Articular cartilage plays an important role in the function of diarthrodial joints. Computational methods have been used to study the biphasic mechanics of cartilage, and Abaqus has been one of the most widely used commercial software packages for this purpose. A newly developed open-source finite element solver, FEBio, has been developed specifically for biomechanical applications. The aim of this study was to undertake a direct comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for some practical contact problems involving cartilage. Three model types, representing a porous flat-ended indentation test, a spherical-ended indentation test, and a conceptual natural joint contact model, were compared. In addition, a parameter sensitivity study was also performed for the spherical-ended indentation test to investigate the effects of changes in the input material properties on the model outputs, using both FEBio and Abaqus. Excellent agreement was found between FEBio and Abaqus for all of the model types and across the range of material properties that were investigated.

  13. Biphasically Modulating the Activity of Carboxypeptidase G2 with Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Ma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2 has been used for cancer prodrug therapy to realize the targeted release of active drugs, but there yet lacks a means to modulate the CPG2 activity. Here ultrasound was used to modulate the CPG2 activity. Methods: The activity of insonated CPG2 was determined, and then underlying biochemical (i.e., monomer, dimer and conformation and ultrasonic (i.e., heat and cavitation mechanisms were explored. Results: Ultrasound (1.0 MHz increased or decreased the enzymatic activity; the activity decreased as zero- or first-order kinetics, depending on the intensity. L1 (10 W/cm2 for 200 s improved the activity via increasing the specific activity. L2 or L3 (20 W/cm2 for 1200 or 3000 s decreased the activity via disassembling the dimer, degrading the monomer, inducing glycosylation, transforming conformation and decreasing the specific activity. An increase or a slight decrease of activity attributable to 10 W/cm2 was reversible, but the activity decrease due to 20 W/cm2 was irreversible. The enzymatic modulation was realized via cavitation. Conclusion: Ultrasound can biphasically modulate the CPG2 activity, and can be employed in the CPG2-prodrug therapy to adjust the release and moles of active drugs.

  14. Influence of saline solution on hydration behavior of β-dicalcium silicate in comparison with biphasic calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite bio-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, M.M., E-mail: mmahmoudradwan@yahoo.com [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Hamid, H.K. [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, A.F. [The Holding Company for Production of Vaccines, Sera and Drugs (EGYVAC) (Egypt)

    2015-12-01

    The influence of using saline solution as mixing and curing liquid on some characteristics of β-dicalcium silicate (β-C{sub 2}S) and biphasic compound tri-calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HAp) bio-ceramics was investigated. β-C{sub 2}S (27–30 nm) was prepared by solid state reaction at 1450 °C, while biphasic compound TCP/HAp (7–15 nm) was synthesized from an aqueous solution of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O by chemical precipitation method. Setting times, compressive strength, pH values, X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated. The evaluation of cytotoxicity of both calcium silicate and biphasic compounds to human gingival fibroblasts was carried out. The use of saline solution as mixing and immersing liquid shortened the setting time for the two bio-cements. TCP/HAp did not show any mechanical strength but β-C{sub 2}S showed good strength values. Both synthesized compounds showed a moderate cytotoxicity and both materials were effective in a no significant way. - Highlights: • The dissolution and hydration of β-C{sub 2}S and TCP/HAp in distilled water and saline solution were studied. • TCP/HAp did not show mechanical strength, while β-C{sub 2}S showed good mechanical strength. • The use of saline solution did enhances the dissolution & hydration rate. • An increase in pH values was detected when using saline solution. • Both materials showed a moderate cytotoxicity in no significant way.

  15. Definition and means of maintaining the process vacuum liquid detection interlock systems portion of the PFP safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THOMAS, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Process Vacuum Liquid Detection interlock systems prevent intrusion of process liquids into the HEPA filters downstream of demisters No.6 and No.7 during Process Vacuum System operation. This prevents liquid intrusion into the filters, which could cause a criticality. The Safety Envelope (SE) includes the equipment, which detects the presence of liquids in the vacuum headers; isolates the filters; shuts down the vacuum pumps; and alarms the condition. This report identifies the equipment in the SE operating, maintenance, and surveillance procedures needed to maintain the SE equipment; and rationale for exclusion of some equipment and testing from the SE

  16. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) Systems Study; Volume 1 - Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ware, Larry

    1989-01-01

    ...) solid rocket boosters (SRBs) with liquid rocket boosters (LRBs), Figure 1.0-1. The main objectives of a LRB substitution for the SRB were increased STS safety and reliability and increased payload performance...

  17. Lignocellulose fractionation into furfural and glucose by AlCl3-catalyzed DES/MIBK biphasic pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Kun; Shen, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Ying-Qiu; Hu, Zhi-Yan; Wang, Xing; Liu, Li

    2018-06-01

    Herein, an efficient DES/MIBK biphasic pretreatment system for preparation of furfural and fermentable glucose from lignocellulose was developed with AlCl 3 as catalysis. The low-cost and renewable DES (Choline chloride-Oxalic acid) served not only as a Brønsted acid catalyst, but also as a pretreatment solvent in present work, and MIBK as an extracting reagent which can increase the yield of furfural in DES phase. The effects of this biphasic pretreatment on the furfural yield and saccharification of the lignocellulose before and after pretreatment were explored using HPLC, HAPEC, FT-IR, XRD and SEM. Under the best pretreatment condition (at 140 °C for 90 min), furfural could be obtained in 70.3% yield and 80.8% of the pretreated lignocellulose was saccharified, which was 8.4 times higher than that of the raw lignocellulose without pretreatment. In a word, this pretreatment system can be considered as a potential technique for efficient valorization of lignocellulose for production of furfural and fermentable glucose. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Absorber and regenerator models for liquid desiccant air conditioning systems. Validation and comparison using experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, M.; Heinzen, R.; Jordan, U.; Vajen, K. [Kassel Univ., Inst. of Thermal Engineering, Kassel (Germany); Saman, W.; Halawa, E. [Sustainable Energy Centre, Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Solar assisted air conditioning systems using liquid desiccants represent a promising option to decrease high summer energy demand caused by electrically driven vapor compression machines. The main components of liquid desiccant systems are absorbers for dehumidifying and cooling of supply air and regenerators for concentrating the desiccant. However, high efficient and validated reliable components are required and the design and operation have to be adjusted to each respective building design, location, and user demand. Simulation tools can help to optimize component and system design. The present paper presents new developed numerical models for absorbers and regenerators, as well as experimental data of a regenerator prototype. The models have been compared with a finite-difference method model as well as experimental data. The data are gained from the regenerator prototype presented and an absorber presented in the literature. (orig.)

  19. Analysis and computer simulation for transient flow in complex system of liquid piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitry, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is concerned with unsteady state analysis and development of a digital computer program, FLUTRAN, that performs a simulation of transient flow behavior in a complex system of liquid piping. The program calculates pressure and flow transients in the liquid filled piping system. The analytical model is based on the method of characteristics solution to the fluid hammer continuity and momentum equations. The equations are subject to wide variety of boundary conditions to take into account the effect of hydraulic devices. Water column separation is treated as a boundary condition with known head. Experimental tests are presented that exhibit transients induced by pump failure and valve closure in the McGuire Nuclear Station Low Level Intake Cooling Water System. Numerical simulation is conducted to compare theory with test data. Analytical and test data are shown to be in good agreement and provide validation of the model

  20. Performance analysis of a mixed nitride fuel system for an advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the conceptual development and analysis of a proposed mixed nitride driver and blanket fuel system for a prototypic advanced liquid metal reactor design is performed. As a first step, an intensive literature survey is completed on the development and testing of nitride fuel systems. Based on the results of this survey, prototypic mixed nitride fuel and blanket pins is designed and analyzed using the SIEX computer code. The analysis predicts that the nitride fuel consistently operated at peak temperatures and cladding strain levels that compared quite favorably with competing fuel designs. These results, along with data available in the literature on nitride fuel performance, indicate that a nitride fuel system should offer enhanced capabilities for advanced liquid metal reactors