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Sample records for biovar viciae populations

  1. Compatibility of rhizobial genotypes within natural populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae for nodulation of host legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguerre, Gisèle; Louvrier, Philippe; Allard, Marie-Reine; Amarger, Noëlle

    2003-04-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were sampled from two bulk soils, rhizosphere, and nodules of host legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) grown in the same soils. Additional populations nodulating peas, fava beans, and vetches (Vicia sativa) grown in other soils and fava bean-nodulating strains from various geographic sites were also analyzed. The rhizobia were characterized by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers as markers of the genomic background and PCR-RFLP of a nodulation gene region, nodD, as a marker of the symbiotic component of the genome. Pairwise comparisons showed differences among the genetic structures of the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and nodule populations and in the degree of host specificity within the Vicieae cross-inoculation group. With fava bean, the symbiotic genotype appeared to be the preponderant determinant of the success in nodule occupancy of rhizobial genotypes independently of the associated genomic background, the plant genotype, and the soil sampled. The interaction between one particular rhizobial symbiotic genotype and fava bean seems to be highly specific for nodulation and linked to the efficiency of nitrogen fixation. By contrast with bulk soil and fava bean-nodulating populations, the analysis of pea-nodulating populations showed preferential associations between genomic backgrounds and symbiotic genotypes. Both components of the rhizobial genome may influence competitiveness for nodulation of pea, and rhizosphere colonization may be a decisive step in competition for nodule occupancy.

  2. Identification of a NodD repressible gene adjacent to nodM in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao'er Yang; Bihe Hou; Chenzhi Zong; Guofan Hong

    2012-01-01

    The nodFEL and nodMNT operons in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae are transcribed in the same orie-tation and induced by NodD in response to flavonoids secreted by legumes.In the narrow intergenic region between nodFEL and nodMNT,we identified a small gene divergently transcribed from nodM to the 3' end of nodL.Unlike the promoters upstream of nodF and nodM,the promoter of this gene is constitutively expressed.It appeared that its promoter might partially overlap with that of nodM and its expression was repressed by nodD.A deletion mutation was made and proteins produced by the mutant were compared with those by wild-type using 2D gel electrophoresis.Several protein differences were identified suggesting that this small gene influences the expression or stability of these proteins.However,the mutant nodulated its host plant (pea) normally.

  3. Immobilization and Survival of Root Nodule Bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar viciae / Gumiņbaktērijas Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae imobilizācija un dzīvotspēja

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    Žvagiņa Signe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae ir augsnes baktērija, kas spēj veidot gumiņus uz zirņu, pupu, lēcu un vīķu saknēm un saistīt atmosfēras slāpekli simbiozē ar augiem. Gumiņbaktērijas izmanto lauksaimniecībā kā bioloģiskus mēslošanas līdzekļus augu augšanas veicināšanai. Komerciālos gumiņbaktēriju preparātus var iegādāties sausā, šķidrā vai liofilizētā formā. Parasti izmanto sausos sagatavotos mēslošanas līdzekļus uz kūdras bāzes. Šī pētījuma mērķis bija imobilizēt R. leguminosarum un noteikt tās dzīvotspēju šķidrumā un dažādos nesējmateriālos, lai izstrādātu uzlabotus gumiņbaktēriju preparātus. Imobilizēšanai izmantoja piecus sterilizētus materiālus: kūdru, māla pulveri, divu veidu ovālus šūnainās keramikas agregātus un cilindriskas keramikas granulas, kas izgatavotas no Planču depozīta Devona perioda māla. Imobilizāciju veica 2,5 stundu laikā 20 °C temperatūrā. Vēlāk kūdru, pulveri un granulas noberza un sasmalcināja ūdenī ar sterilu piestiņu, lai atdalītu pielipušās baktērijas. Baktēriju kolonijas veidojošo vienību skaitu noteica, izsējot iegūto suspensiju atšķaidījumus Petri traukos ar agarizētu barotni. Dzīvotspēju noteica arī ar LIVE/DEAD epifluorescences metodi. Iegūtie rezultāti parādīja, ka nesējmateriāls ietekmē imobilizācijas sekmes un ka uzglabāšanas temperatūra ietekmē R. leguminosarum dzīvotspēju. Vislabākos rezultātus ieguva, uzglabājot baktērijas suspensijā vai imobilizējot uz kūdras. Rekomendējam uzglabāt R. leguminosarum produktus −18 °C vai 4 °C temperatūrā.

  4. Oospora populations of Peronospora viciae: quantification, germinability andsurvival.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Peronospora viciae causes downy mildew on pea, field and broad bean. Two pathogens can be distinguished, P. viciae f.sp. pisi on pea (Pisum sativum) and P. viciae f. sp. fabae on field and broad bean (Vicia faba). These pathogens form resting spores, called oospores, in their host plant tissue. The

  5. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae populations in soils with increasing heavy metal contamination: abundance, plasmid profiles, diversity and metal tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakzian, A.; Murphy, P.; Turner, A.; Beynon, J.L.; Giller, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae were investigated from plots of a long-term sewage sludge experiment in Braunschweig, Germany, which represented a gradient of increasing metal contamination. The number of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae decreased from 105 cells g¿1 soil in uncontaminat

  6. Extended Multilocus Sequence Analysis to Describe the Global Population Structure of the Genus Brucella: Phylogeography and Relationship to Biovars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatmore, Adrian M.; Koylass, Mark S.; Muchowski, Jakub; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Gopaul, Krishna K.; Perrett, Lorraine L.

    2016-01-01

    An extended multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme applicable to the Brucella, an expanding genus that includes zoonotic pathogens that severely impact animal and human health across large parts of the globe, was developed. The scheme, which extends a previously described nine locus scheme by examining sequences at 21 independent genetic loci in order to increase discriminatory power, was applied to a globally and temporally diverse collection of over 500 isolates representing all 12 known Brucella species providing an expanded and detailed understanding of the population genetic structure of the group. Over 100 sequence types (STs) were identified and analysis of data provided insights into both the global evolutionary history of the genus, suggesting that early emerging Brucella abortus lineages might be confined to Africa while some later lineages have spread worldwide, and further evidence of the existence of lineages with restricted host or geographical ranges. The relationship between biovar, long used as a crude epidemiological marker, and genotype was also examined and showed decreasing congruence in the order Brucella suis > B. abortus > Brucella melitensis. Both the previously described nine locus scheme and the extended 21 locus scheme have been made available at http://pubmlst.org/brucella/ to allow the community to interrogate existing data and compare with newly generated data. PMID:28066370

  7. Investigation of Ureaplasma urealyticum biovars and their relationship with antimicrobial resistance

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    Zhu Chang-tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop Taqman fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR method for investigating the characteristics of the distributions of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU biovars and to explore the relationship between UU biovars and antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods: By the method of culture, Ureaplasma species were detected. Taqman fluorescence quantitative PCR for detecting UU biovars were developed and UU clinical isolates were detected to distinguish biovars. The broth micro-dilution susceptibility testing methods were used to determine UU susceptibility. Results: By Taqman PCR method, UU biovars was successfully detected. Of 126 samples, biovar 1 was found in 73 (57.94%. There was a statistical difference between genital-urinary tract infection group and asymptomatic group (P<0.05. In the region, UU biovar 1 to 9 kinds of agents kept higher susceptibility rates, but biovar 2 maintained higher susceptibility rates only to tetracyclines. Compared with biovar 1, UU biovar 2 resistance rates to 7 kinds of agents were higher (P<0.05. Conclusions: (1 Our new established Taqman PCR method is a useful tool for screening UU biovars. (2 UU biovar 1 predominated in asymptomatic population; whereas in genital-urinary tract infection population UU biovar 2 had a higher proportion. (3 The characteristics of drug resistance were different between UU biovars. Overall, both two biovars remained higher susceptibility rates to tetracyclines. A majority of biovor 1 strains were sensitive to macrolides and quinolones; while only a small number of biovar 2 strains kept sensitive to roxithromycin and quinolones, a large proportion of biovar 2 strains were found in intermediate ranges.

  8. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Vicia faba L. Landraces and Wild Related Species Assessed by Nuclear SSRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manuela; Lopes, Susana; Viegas, Wanda; Veloso, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a facultative cross-pollinating legume crop with a great importance for food and feed due to its high protein content as well as the important role in soil fertility and nitrogen fixation. In this work we evaluated genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean accessions from the Western Mediterranean basin and wild related species. For that purpose we screened 53 V. faba, 2 V. johannis and 7 V. narbonensis accessions from Portugal, Spain and Morocco with 28 faba bean Single Sequence Repeats (SSR). SSR genotyping showed that the number of alleles detected per locus for the polymorphic markers ranged between 2 and 10, with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values between 0.662 and 0.071, and heterozygosity (HO) between 0–0.467. Heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient levels indicate a higher level of inbreeding in wild related species than in cultivated Vicia. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a superior genetic diversity within accessions than between accessions even from distant regions. These results are in accordance to population structure analysis showing that individuals from the same accession can be genetically more similar to individuals from far away accessions, than from individuals from the same accession. In all three levels of analysis (whole panel of cultivated and wild accessions, cultivated faba bean accessions and Portuguese accessions) no population structure was observed based on geography or climatic factors. Differences between V. narbonensis and V. johannis are undetectable although these wild taxa are clearly distinct from V. faba accessions. Thus, a limited gene flow occurred between cultivated accessions and wild relatives. Contrastingly, the lack of population structure seems to indicate a high degree of gene flow between V. faba accessions, possibly explained by the partially allogamous habit in association with frequent seed exchange/introduction. PMID:27168146

  9. Identification at biovar level of Brucella isolates causing abortion in small ruminants of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozikhah, Ali Mohammad; Bagheri Nejad, Ramin; Amiri, Karim; Bahonar, Ali Reza

    2012-01-01

    To determine the most prevalent biovar responsible for brucellosis in sheep and goat populations of Iran, a cross-sectional study was carried out over 2 years in six provinces selected based on geography and disease prevalence. Specimens obtained from referred aborted sheep and goat fetuses were cultured on Brucella selective media for microbiological isolation. Brucellae were isolated from 265 fetuses and examined for biovar identification using standard microbiological methods. Results showed that 246 isolates (92.8%) were B. melitensis biovar 1, 18 isolates (6.8%) were B. melitensis biovar 2, and, interestingly, one isolate (0.4%) obtained from Mazandaran province was B. abortus biovar 3. In this study, B. melitensis biovar 3 was isolated in none of the selected provinces, and all isolates from 3 provinces (i.e., Chehar-mahal Bakhtiari, Markazi, and Ilam) were identified only as B. melitensis biovar 1. In conclusion, we found that B. melitensis biovar 1 remains the most prevalent cause of small ruminant brucellosis in various provinces of Iran.

  10. Identification at Biovar Level of Brucella Isolates Causing Abortion in Small Ruminants of Iran

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    Ali Mohammad Behroozikhah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the most prevalent biovar responsible for brucellosis in sheep and goat populations of Iran, a cross-sectional study was carried out over 2 years in six provinces selected based on geography and disease prevalence. Specimens obtained from referred aborted sheep and goat fetuses were cultured on Brucella selective media for microbiological isolation. Brucellae were isolated from 265 fetuses and examined for biovar identification using standard microbiological methods. Results showed that 246 isolates (92.8% were B. melitensis biovar 1, 18 isolates (6.8% were B. melitensis biovar 2, and, interestingly, one isolate (0.4% obtained from Mazandaran province was B. abortus biovar 3. In this study, B. melitensis biovar 3 was isolated in none of the selected provinces, and all isolates from 3 provinces (i.e., Chehar-mahal Bakhtiari, Markazi, and Ilam were identified only as B. melitensis biovar 1. In conclusion, we found that B. melitensis biovar 1 remains the most prevalent cause of small ruminant brucellosis in various provinces of Iran.

  11. Identification at Biovar Level of Brucella Isolates Causing Abortion in Small Ruminants of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Behroozikhah; Ramin Bagheri Nejad; Karim Amiri; Ali Reza Bahonar

    2012-01-01

    To determine the most prevalent biovar responsible for brucellosis in sheep and goat populations of Iran, a cross-sectional study was carried out over 2 years in six provinces selected based on geography and disease prevalence. Specimens obtained from referred aborted sheep and goat fetuses were cultured on Brucella selective media for microbiological isolation. Brucellae were isolated from 265 fetuses and examined for biovar identification using standard microbiological methods. Results show...

  12. Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T; Majstrenko, T; Geras'kin, S; Brown, J E; Belykh, E

    2009-10-01

    Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to alpha-, beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine dose-effect relationships and the range of doses that cause biological effects in natural Vicia cracca L. populations inhabiting the study area. The studied plant species is native to the area and is found ubiquitously. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at a reference location and six contaminated sites characterized by distinct floodplain depositional units with different enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. A large fraction of the dose at the study sites (including the reference location) was attributable to internal irradiation and (226)Ra was found to be an important contributor to this component of dose. The relationship between the frequency of chromosome aberrations in seedlings' root tip cells and the absorbed dose was found to be quadratic. An exponential model provided the best result in describing the empirical dependence between the absorbed dose and both the germination capacity of seeds and the survival rate of sprouts of V. cracca. For V. cracca plants inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, a weighted absorbed dose of 0.2 Gy (weighting factor for alpha particles=5) during the vegetation period could be considered to be a level below which no increase in genetic variability and decrease in reproductive capacity might be observed above background.

  13. Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, T.; Majstrenko, T. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Brown, J.E., E-mail: Justin.brown@nrpa.no [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini naeringspark 13, 1332 Osteras (Norway); Belykh, E. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-01

    Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine dose-effect relationships and the range of doses that cause biological effects in natural Vicia cracca L. populations inhabiting the study area. The studied plant species is native to the area and is found ubiquitously. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at a reference location and six contaminated sites characterized by distinct floodplain depositional units with different enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. A large fraction of the dose at the study sites (including the reference location) was attributable to internal irradiation and {sup 226}Ra was found to be an important contributor to this component of dose. The relationship between the frequency of chromosome aberrations in seedlings' root tip cells and the absorbed dose was found to be quadratic. An exponential model provided the best result in describing the empirical dependence between the absorbed dose and both the germination capacity of seeds and the survival rate of sprouts of V. cracca. For V. cracca plants inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, a weighted absorbed dose of 0.2 Gy (weighting factor for alpha particles = 5) during the vegetation period could be considered to be a level below which no increase in genetic variability and decrease in reproductive capacity might be observed above background.

  14. The analysis of core and symbiotic genes of rhizobia nodulating Vicia from different continents reveals their common phylogenetic origin and suggests the distribution of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains together with Vicia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Martínez, Estela R; Valverde, Angel; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Tejedor, Carmen; Mateos, Pedro F; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-08-01

    In this work, we analysed the core and symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains isolated from Vicia sativa in three soils from the Northwest of Spain, and compared them with other Vicia endosymbionts isolated in other geographical locations. The analysis of rrs, recA and atpD genes and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer showed that the Spanish strains nodulating V. sativa are phylogenetically close to those isolated from V. sativa and V. faba in different European, American and Asian countries forming a group related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The analysis of the nodC gene of strains nodulating V. sativa and V. faba in different continents showed they belong to a phylogenetically compact group indicating that these legumes are restrictive hosts. The results of the nodC gene analysis allow the delineation of the biovar viciae showing a common phylogenetic origin of V. sativa and V. faba endosymbionts in several continents. Since these two legume species are indigenous from Europe, our results suggest a world distribution of strains from R. leguminosarum together with the V. sativa and V. faba seeds and a close coevolution among chromosome, symbiotic genes and legume host in this Rhizobium-Vicia symbiosis.

  15. Analyse de la tolérance des populations locales de fève (Vicia faba L. à la sécheresse au stade juvénile

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    Nora AQTBOUZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most important abiotic stress responsible of the production instability and lower levels of yields of faba bean (Vicia faba L.. The cropping of tolerant varieties can be an opportunity to stabilize production. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic variability and to study the drought tolerance in the juvenile plant stage in a collection of local Moroccan faba bean populations from the province of Taounate. A number of 60 local populations were studied under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Different morphological and physiological traits were studied before and under water stress and during the recovery phase. The difference between recovery and water stress phases estimates the capacity of local populations to recover from drought. The local populations contain a wide diversity for different studied traits. The gain in dry matter has a negative and highly significant correlation with dry matter yield under water stress (r = -0.64 **. The populations 16, 47, 1 and 9 have proven to be the most drought tolerant at juvenile stage.

  16. Transcriptomic Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Biovar 1B Infecting Murine Macrophages Reveals New Mechanisms of Extracellular and Intracellular Survival

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is typically considered an extracellular pathogen; however, during the course of an infection, a significant number of bacteria are stably maintained within host cell vacuoles. Little is known about this population and the role it plays during an infection. To address this question and to elucidate the spatially and temporally dynamic gene expression patterns of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1B through the course of an in vitro infection, transcriptome sequencing and differ...

  17. Colonização radicular de plantas cultivadas por Ralstonia solanacearum biovares 1, 2 e 3 Root colonization of cultivated plants inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 1, 2 and 3

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    José Magno Martins Bringel

    2001-09-01

    . Root colonization was evaluated 45 days after inoculation by counting bacteria in root extracts of culture media with antibiotics. Pea plants hosted all six isolates, but only the isolate biovar 3 was pathogenic to this species. High populations of four isolates of the three biovars were found on soybean, and cucumber hosted high population of only two isolates (biovars 1 and 3. Pea was a non-susceptible host for Rs, except for one pathogenic isolate. Rice hosted very low populations of all isolates, while lettuce and spring onion did not host any isolates. These results showed the ability of Rs to colonize and survive on different plant roots as rhizobacteria.

  18. Embryological studies of reciprocal crosses between Vicia faba and Vicia narbonensis

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    Maciej Zenkteler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to asses the reciprocal crossability between Vicia faba and Vicia narbonensis. Flower buds or only ovaries of several varietes and genotypes were cross-pollinated in vivo (green house and field and in vitro. Only few pollen tubes passed the style and entered into the ovary. On the whole number of 5320 cross pollinated in vivo and in vitro flowers and ovaries of Vicia narbonensis only 78 globular hybrid embryos were observed. After cross pollination in vivo of 3860 flower buds and ovaries of Vicia faba globular embryos developed in 124 ovules. The highest number of globular embryos were obtained when the Vicia faba line 1/33 was pollinated with Vicia narbonensis lines P3, P5, 150, SE.Embryogenesis proceeded till the 6-10 day after pollination, however, karyological disturbances in the cells of embryos and endosperm were often noticed at earlier stages. In vitro pollen grains of Vicia faba germinated on stigmas and ovaries of Vicia narbonensis, a significant increase in the growth of pollen tubes was noticed after ovary pollination. The technique of in vitro pollination was not suitable for Vicia faba as the inoculated explants died shortly after transferring onto the medium. The results indicate that finding a more suitable genotype for crossing may give a chance to obtain higher number of embryos (example line 1/33 - thus sufficient number for culturing them on media.

  19. Association mapping for frost tolerance using multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Ahmed; Martsch, Regina

    2015-08-01

    A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) derived from 11 founder lines in faba bean was used in this study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for frost tolerance traits using the association mapping method with 156 SNP markers. This MAGIC population consists of a set of 189 genotypes from the Göttingen Winter Bean Population. The association panel was tested in two different experiments, i.e. a frost and a hardening experiment. Six morphological traits, leaf fatty acid composition, relative water content in shoots were scored in this study. The genotypes presented a large genetic variation for all traits that were highly heritable after frost and after hardening. High phenotypic significant correlations were established between traits. The principal coordinates analysis resulted in no clear structure in the current population. Association mapping was performed using a general linear model and mixed linear model with kinship. A False discovery rate of 0.20 (and 0.05) was used to test the significance of marker-trait association. As a result, many putative QTLs for 13 morphological and physiological traits were detected using both models. The results reveal that QTL mapping by association analysis is a powerful method of detecting the alleles associated with frost tolerance in the winter faba bean which can be used in accelerating breeding programs.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Biovar Intermedius NCTC 5011

    OpenAIRE

    Sangal, Vartul; Nicholas P Tucker; Burkovski, Andreas; Hoskisson, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    We report an annotated draft genome of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. intermedius NCTC 5011. This strain is the first C. diphtheriae bv. intermedius strain to be sequenced, and our results provide a useful comparison to the other primary disease-causing biovars, C. diphtheriae bv. gravis and C. diphtheriae bv. mitis. The sequence has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank with the accession number AJVH01000000.

  1. Draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar intermedius NCTC 5011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangal, Vartul; Tucker, Nicholas P; Burkovski, Andreas; Hoskisson, Paul A

    2012-09-01

    We report an annotated draft genome of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. intermedius NCTC 5011. This strain is the first C. diphtheriae bv. intermedius strain to be sequenced, and our results provide a useful comparison to the other primary disease-causing biovars, C. diphtheriae bv. gravis and C. diphtheriae bv. mitis. The sequence has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank with the accession number AJVH01000000.

  2. Rapid detection and biovar differentiation of Ureaplasma urealyticum in clinical specimens by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, L J; Ho, S W; Ho, H N; Liaw, S J; Lai, H C; Luh, K T

    1995-07-01

    On the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the multiple-banded (MB) antigen genes of Ureaplasma urealyticum, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was developed for rapid detection and biovar differentiation of U. urealyticum in a total of 100 urogenital specimens from 50 female patients. Positive PCR UM-1 amplification was found in 28 cervical swabs and 31 urine samples. Overall agreement between PCR and culture was 95%. Members of the two biovars of U. urealyticum could be distinguished by the size of the PCR UM-1 amplification products. Biovar differentiation was also demonstrated by two additional sets of PCRs: PCR UM-2 and UM-3. The PCR UM-2 was used to amplify biovar 1, while PCR UM-3 amplified biovar 2 specifically. The results indicated that use of the MB antigen gene as a target for PCR amplification could provide rapid and specific detection and biotyping of ureaplasma DNA in urogenital samples.

  3. Observaciones cariológicas en Vicia amphicarpa sensu lato

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    Tardío Pato, F. Javier

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytological studies were carried out on twenty four amphicarpic wild populations of Vicia sativa group from different sites (19 from Spain, 4 from Syria and 1 from Turkey. Morphologically, 19 accessions can be attributed to taxon Dorthes and 5 to V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío, comb. nov. In our studies, these two taxa show different chromosome numbers, V. amphicarpa Dorthes, has 14 chromosomes, while V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia has only 12. Furthermore, the form of the chromosomes in the karyotypes of both taxa is quite different. The chromosome number and the morphology of the karyotype found in the first taxon agree with most of previous reports on V. amphicarpa, with a very characteristic short metacentric and six acrocentric chromosomes, one of them satellited. However, the second taxon has a very different karyotype with three large chromosomes, one of them submetacentric and another satellited, plus another three chromosomes which are significantly smaller. Therefore, we can conclude that within the genus Vicia, at least two amphicarpic taxa exist, clearly differentiated, both in morphological and karyotypical characteristics.Se estudian cariológicamente 24 poblaciones anficárpicas silvestres pertenecientes al grupo Vicia sativa, de distinta procedencia (19 españolas, cuatro de Siria y una de Turquía. Se encuentran diferencias en los números cromosomáticos y en los cariótipos. Diecinueve poblaciones presentan 14 cromosomas y cariotipo como el observado por otros autores, constituido por un pequeño cromosoma metacéntrico y seis acrocéntricos, uno de ellos con satélite. Éstas corresponden a V. amphicarpa Dorthes. Las otras cinco, con 2n = 12 y cariotipo con tres cromosomas grandes, uno de ellos submetacéntrico, otro con satélite, y otros tres mucho más pequeños, corresponden a V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío. Esta anterior se propone como combinación nueva. Por

  4. Cross-Amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa Microsatellites across 22 Other Vicia Species

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    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa. For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species.

  5. Biovar-specific epitopes of the urease enzyme of Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, C R; Henrich, B; Hadding, U

    1996-11-01

    The importance of Ureaplasma urealyticum as a pathogen in premature neonates and patients with a profound defect in humoral immunity has, over the last few years, become well recognised. U. urealyticum is unique amongst the Mycoplasmataceae for its use of urea metabolism as an essential source of energy. The urease enzyme responsible for this is, therefore, of prime importance and any variability in expression of this enzyme may play a role in virulence of the organism. U. urealyticum is divided into 14 serovars comprising two biovars -- the parvo-biovar and T960-biovar. In this study monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against the urease enzyme. Two distinct epitopes of the 72-kDa alpha-subunit were recognised by three different MAbs. Under denaturing conditions both epitopes were shown to be specific for the parvo-biovar.

  6. The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

  7. Plaque Formation by and Plaque Cloning of Chlamydia trachomatis Biovar Trachoma

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Akira; Izutsu, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Ohuchi, Masanobu

    1998-01-01

    A new technique for the induction of plaque formation by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar trachoma applicable to the titration of infectivity and cloning of biovar trachoma was established. Three novel strains were cloned and confirmed to be free of glycogen inclusions. The lack of glycogen accumulation correlated with the absence of a 7.5-kb plasmid, which is highly conserved in other strains of C. trachomatis. Although the growth efficiency of these plasmid-free strains was slightly lower than ...

  8. A lack of genetic basis for biovar differentiation in clinically important Corynebacterium diphtheriae from whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangal, Vartul; Burkovski, Andreas; Hunt, Alison C; Edwards, Becky; Blom, Jochen; Hoskisson, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    The differentiation of clinically important Corynebacterium diphtheriae into specific biovars is complex and phylogenetically unclear. Comparative genomic analyses of 17 strains indicate that the division of C. diphtheriae into different biovars does not correlate with the variation in the gene content in the relevant metabolic categories that are potentially involved in the biovar discrimination. The biochemical separation is also not supported by phylogenetic analyses, suggesting molecular methods of typing C. diphtheriae strains should be adopted much more widely.

  9. Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity and phylogeny of root nodule bacteria isolated from V. cracca, V. hirsuta, V. sepium, V. tetrasperma and V. sylvatica growing in different locations in Sweden as well as an isolate each from V. cracca in Tromsø, Norway, and V. multicaulis in Siberia, Russia. Out of 25 isolates sampled from the six Vicia species in 12 different locations, there were 14 different genotypes based on the atpD, recA and nodA gene phylogenies. All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae group based on the concatenated atpD and recA phylogeny and the nodA phylogeny.

  10. The pan-genome of the animal pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis reveals differences in genome plasticity between the biovar ovis and equi strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Siomar C; Silva, Artur; Trost, Eva

    2013-01-01

    of complete pilus structures in biovar ovis could be responsible for a remarkable ability of these strains to spread throughout host tissues and penetrate cells to live intracellularly, in contrast with the biovar equi, which rarely attacks visceral organs. Intracellularly, the biovar ovis strains...

  11. Genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi strain 258 and prediction of antigenic targets to improve biotechnological vaccine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Siomar C; Trost, Eva; Ramos, Rommel T J;

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of several veterinary diseases in a broad range of economically important hosts, which can vary from caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats (biovar ovis) to ulcerative lymphangitis in cattle and horses (biovar equi). Existing vaccines ag...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis Biovar Intermedius, Isolated from the Prepuce of a Bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Harris, David; Lawley, Trevor D; Rego, Natalia; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Carretto, Luis; Velilla, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra; Gioffre, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar Intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. We report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce.

  13. Genetic diversity of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates nodulating two different host plants during soil restoration with alfalfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.X.; Kosier, B.; Priefer, U.B. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    A total of 360 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains was isolated from three brown-coal mining restoration fields of different age and plant cover (without and in the first and second year of alfalfa, Medicago sativa, cultivation) using two host species (Vicia hirsuta and Pisum sativum) as capture plants. The strains were genetically typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions (IGS-RFLP) and characterized by plasmid profiles and RFLP analysis of amplified nodABC genes. The R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population was dominated by the same group of strains (irrespective of the trap plant used). According to type richness, the genetic diversity of indigenous R. leguminosarum in the second year of restoration was lower than in the first year and it resembled that of the fallow field, except for plasmid types, in which it was higher than that of the fallow field. Some of the less frequent nodABC genotypes were associated with distinct chromosomal IGS genotypes and symbiotic plasmids (pSyms) of different sizes, indicating that horizontal transfer and rearrangements of pSym can occur in natural environments. However, the dominant pSym and chromosomal genotypes were strictly correlated suggesting a genetically stable persistence of the prevailing R. leguminosarum bv, viciae genotypes in the absence of its host plant.

  14. Assessing the Genotypic Differences between Strains of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi through Comparative Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraúna, Rafael A; Ramos, Rommel T J; Veras, Adonney A O; Pinheiro, Kenny C; Benevides, Leandro J; Viana, Marcus V C; Guimarães, Luís C; Edman, Judy M; Spier, Sharon J; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Seven genomes of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform, generating high-quality scaffolds over 2.35 Mbp. This bacterium is the causative agent of disease known as "pigeon fever" which commonly affects horses worldwide. The pangenome of biovar equi was calculated and two phylogenomic approaches were used to identify clustering patterns within Corynebacterium genus. Furthermore, other comparative analyses were performed including the prediction of genomic islands and prophages, and SNP-based phylogeny. In the phylogenomic tree, C. pseudotuberculosis was divided into two distinct clades, one formed by nitrate non-reducing species (biovar ovis) and another formed by nitrate-reducing species (biovar equi). In the latter group, the strains isolated from California were more related to each other, while the strains CIP 52.97 and 1/06-A formed the outermost clade of the biovar equi. A total of 1,355 core genes were identified, corresponding to 42.5% of the pangenome. This pangenome has one of the smallest core genomes described in the literature, suggesting a high genetic variability of biovar equi of C. pseudotuberculosis. The analysis of the similarity between the resistance islands identified a higher proximity between the strains that caused more severe infectious conditions (infection in the internal organs). Pathogenicity islands were largely conserved between strains. Several genes that modulate the pathogenicity of C. pseudotuberculosis were described including peptidases, recombination enzymes, micoside synthesis enzymes, bacteriocins with antimicrobial activity and several others. Finally, no genotypic differences were observed between the strains that caused the three different types of infection (external abscess formation, infection with abscess formation in the internal organs, and ulcerative lymphangitis). Instead, it was noted that there is a higher phenetic correlation between strains isolated at

  15. Assessing the Genotypic Differences between Strains of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi through Comparative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; Pinheiro, Kenny C.; Benevides, Leandro J.; Edman, Judy M.; Spier, Sharon J.; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Seven genomes of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform, generating high-quality scaffolds over 2.35 Mbp. This bacterium is the causative agent of disease known as “pigeon fever” which commonly affects horses worldwide. The pangenome of biovar equi was calculated and two phylogenomic approaches were used to identify clustering patterns within Corynebacterium genus. Furthermore, other comparative analyses were performed including the prediction of genomic islands and prophages, and SNP-based phylogeny. In the phylogenomic tree, C. pseudotuberculosis was divided into two distinct clades, one formed by nitrate non-reducing species (biovar ovis) and another formed by nitrate-reducing species (biovar equi). In the latter group, the strains isolated from California were more related to each other, while the strains CIP 52.97 and 1/06-A formed the outermost clade of the biovar equi. A total of 1,355 core genes were identified, corresponding to 42.5% of the pangenome. This pangenome has one of the smallest core genomes described in the literature, suggesting a high genetic variability of biovar equi of C. pseudotuberculosis. The analysis of the similarity between the resistance islands identified a higher proximity between the strains that caused more severe infectious conditions (infection in the internal organs). Pathogenicity islands were largely conserved between strains. Several genes that modulate the pathogenicity of C. pseudotuberculosis were described including peptidases, recombination enzymes, micoside synthesis enzymes, bacteriocins with antimicrobial activity and several others. Finally, no genotypic differences were observed between the strains that caused the three different types of infection (external abscess formation, infection with abscess formation in the internal organs, and ulcerative lymphangitis). Instead, it was noted that there is a higher phenetic correlation between strains isolated at

  16. Plaque formation by and plaque cloning of Chlamydia trachomatis biovar trachoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, A; Izutsu, H; Miyashita, N; Ohuchi, M

    1998-10-01

    A new technique for the induction of plaque formation by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar trachoma applicable to the titration of infectivity and cloning of biovar trachoma was established. Three novel strains were cloned and confirmed to be free of glycogen inclusions. The lack of glycogen accumulation correlated with the absence of a 7.5-kb plasmid, which is highly conserved in other strains of C. trachomatis. Although the growth efficiency of these plasmid-free strains was slightly lower than that of plasmid-positive strains, possession of the plasmid and glycogen accumulation were not essential for the survival of C. trachomatis.

  17. Genetic relatedness of Brucella suis biovar 2 isolates from hares, wild boars and domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Foster, Jeffrey T; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Sulyok, Kinga M; Wehmann, Enikő; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2014-08-27

    Porcine brucellosis generally manifests as disorders in reproductive organs potentially leading to serious losses in the swine industry. Brucella suis biovar 2 is endemic in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and hare (Lepus europeus, Lepus capensis) populations, thus these species may play a significant role in disease spread and serve as potential sources of infection for domestic pigs. The aim of this study was an epidemiologic analysis of porcine brucellosis in Hungary and a comparative analysis of B. suis bv. 2 strains from Europe using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA-16 and its MLVA-11 subset were used to determine the genotypes of 68 B. suis bv. 2 isolates from Hungary and results were then compared to European MLVA genotypes. The analyses indicated relatively high genetic diversity of B. suis bv. 2 in Hungary. Strains isolated from hares and wild boars from Hungary showed substantial genetic divergence, suggesting separate lineages in each host and no instances of cross species infections. The closest relatives of strains from Hungarian wild boars and domestic pigs were mainly in the isolates from German and Croatian boars and pigs. The assessment of the European MLVA genotypes of wild boar isolates generally showed clustering based on geographic origin. The hare strains were relatively closely related to one another and did not cluster based on geographic origin. The limited relationships between geographic origin and genotype in isolates from hares might be the result of cross-border live animal translocation. The results could also suggest that certain B. suis strains are more adapted to hares. Across Europe, isolates from domestic pigs were closely related to isolates originating from both hares and wild boars, supporting the idea that wild animals are a source of brucellosis in domestic pigs.

  18. Bacterial leaf rot of Aloe vera L., caused byErwinia chrysanthemi biovar 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de P.C.A.; Verhoeven, J.T.W.; Danse, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    A severe attack of the bacteriumErwinia chrysantemi biovar 3 on the succulentAloe vera on the Carribean island of Aruba is described. Biochemical and pathological characteristics of strains are presented, including results of successful inoculation experiments onAloe vera. This is the first report o

  19. A putative genomic island, PGI-1, in Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 revealed by subtractive hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, P.; van Elsas, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, a key bacterial pathogen of potato, has recently established in temperate climate waters. On the basis of isolates obtained from diseased (potato) plants, its genome has been assumed to be virtually clonal, but information on environmental isolates has been lacking.

  20. Phylogenetic diversity based on rrs, atpD, recA genes and 16S-23S intergenic sequence analyses of rhizobial strains isolated from Vicia faba and Pisum sativum in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillana, Nery; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris

    2008-03-01

    In this study 17 isolates from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum var. macrocarpum growing in different soils from Peru were isolated and characterized. The isolates, presenting 11 different RAPD profiles, were distributed in three groups on the basis of their 16S-RFLP patterns. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains from 16S-RFLP groups I, II and III were closely related (identities higher than 99.5%) to Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii DSM 30141 (=ATCC 14480), R. leguminosarum bv. viciae DSM 30132(T) and Rhizobium etli CFN42(T) (=USDA 9032(T)), respectively. The analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) and two housekeeping genes, atpD and recA, confirmed the identification of strains from group I, however those from groups II and III were phylogenetically divergent to strains DSM 30132(T) and CFN42(T). These results support the fact that the 16S rRNA gene is not adequate for identification at species level within genus Rhizobium and suggest the existence of putative new species within the phylogenetic group of R. leguminosarum. They also confirm the need of a taxonomic revision of R. leguminosarum since the reference strains of the three biovars included in this study are phylogenetically divergent according to their ITS, atpD and recA gene sequences.

  1. Study on the Response of some Solanaceous Plants to Ralstonia solanacearum Biovars 2A and 2T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Hasabi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is a very destructive bacterial plant pathogen that causes wilt disease in solanaceae crops. To study the response of potato, tomato, eggplant and petunia to bacterial wilt disease, two isolates representing biovars 2A and 2T of R. solanacearum were evaluated for their pathogenicity aggressiveness and tobacco hypersensitivity response (HR at two different temperature regimes. The response of plants was estimated by appearance of wilting symptoms and bacterial density in the xylems of inoculated plants over a four weeks period. The results indicated that isolates representing biovar 2T caused less disease in all the species and cultivars compared to isolates biovar 2A, at both temperature conditions and also, there were significant differences in susceptibility to biovars 2A and 2T of R. solanacearum among tomato, eggplant and petunia and potato cultivars.

  2. Emended description of Campylobacter sputorum and revision of its infrasubspecific (biovar) divisions, including C-sputorum biovar paraureolyticus, a urease-producing variant from cattle and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, S.L.W.; Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.;

    1998-01-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study of 15 bovine and human strains assigned to the catalase-negative, urease-positive campylobacter (CNUPC) group identified these bacteria as a novel, ureolytic biovar of Campylobacter sputorum for which we propose the name C. sputorum bv. paraureolyticus: suitable...... should be revised to include by. sputorum for catalase-negative strains; by. fecalis for catalase-positive strains; and by. paraureolyticus for urease-positive strains. Strains classified previously as by. bubulus should be reclassified as by. sputorum. The species description of C. sputorum is revised...

  3. The pan-genome of the animal pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis reveals differences in genome plasticity between the biovar ovis and equi strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomar C Soares

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of several infectious and contagious chronic diseases, including caseous lymphadenitis, ulcerative lymphangitis, mastitis, and edematous skin disease, in a broad spectrum of hosts. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections pose a rising worldwide economic problem in ruminants. The complete genome sequences of 15 C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from different hosts and countries were comparatively analyzed using a pan-genomic strategy. Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, core genomic, and singleton analyses revealed close relationships among pathogenic corynebacteria, the clonal-like behavior of C. pseudotuberculosis and slow increases in the sizes of pan-genomes. According to extrapolations based on the pan-genomes, core genomes and singletons, the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis shows a more clonal-like behavior than the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar equi. Most of the variable genes of the biovar ovis strains were acquired in a block through horizontal gene transfer and are highly conserved, whereas the biovar equi strains contain great variability, both intra- and inter-biovar, in the 16 detected pathogenicity islands (PAIs. With respect to the gene content of the PAIs, the most interesting finding is the high similarity of the pilus genes in the biovar ovis strains compared with the great variability of these genes in the biovar equi strains. Concluding, the polymerization of complete pilus structures in biovar ovis could be responsible for a remarkable ability of these strains to spread throughout host tissues and penetrate cells to live intracellularly, in contrast with the biovar equi, which rarely attacks visceral organs. Intracellularly, the biovar ovis strains are expected to have less contact with other organisms than the biovar equi strains, thereby explaining the significant clonal-like behavior of the biovar ovis

  4. Vicia (Leguminosae en el norte de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo O. Vanni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se rehabilita el nombre Vicia macrograminea y se aclaran interpretaciones erróneas de algunas especies, como V. epetiolaris, V. graminea var. transiens y V. stenophylla. Se amplía el área de dispersión de V. graminea var. transiens y se propone una nueva variedad para la ciencia: Vicia epetiolaris var. microcarpa. Se confirma la presencia de V. andicola y V. setifolia en el NO de la Argentina. Se incluye una clave e ilustraciones para diferenciar las especies estudiadas.

  5. Freqüência de biovares de Ralstonia solanacearum em diferentes cultivares e épocas de cultivo de batata no Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Joao Leodato Nunes; Duarte, Valmir; Silveira,José Ricardo Pfeifer; Van der Sand, Sueli Terezinha

    2001-01-01

    A presença das biovares I e/ou II de Ralstonia solanacearum em uma lavoura de batatas (Solanum tuberosum) tem influência direta no sucesso das medidas adotadas para controlar a murcha bacteriana. As biovares diferem entre si em relação à agressividade, latência e sobrevivência. Assim, um experimento de campo foi conduzido em uma área naturalmente infestada em duas épocas de cultivo com os objetivos de verificar (1) a incidência de biovares I e/ou II, (2) a relação entre biovar e época de plan...

  6. Duplex PCR for differentiation of the vaccine strain Brucella suis S2 and B. suis biovar 1 from other strains of Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Tan, Pengfei; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zouliang; Mao, Kairong; Peng, Daxin; Chen, Yiping

    2014-09-01

    Immunisation with attenuated Brucella spp. vaccines prevents brucellosis, but may also interfere with diagnosis. In this study, a duplex PCR was developed to distinguish Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from field strains of B. suis biovar 1 and other Brucella spp. The PCR detected 60 fg genomic DNA of B. suis S2 or biovar 1 field strains and was able to distinguish B. suis S2 and wild-type strains of B. suis biovar 1 among 76 field isolates representing all the common species and biovars, as well as four vaccine strains, of Brucella.

  7. Imunidade de aves (Gallus gallus) para Salmonella enterica subesp. enterica Sorovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum

    OpenAIRE

    Acelas Díaz, Silvia Juliana [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The fowl typhoid is a systemic disease of chickens caused by Salmonella enteric subsp. enteric serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum. This bacterium is highly pathogenic for chickens at any age, causing mortality even in adult birds. The progress of clinical signs differs among different lines of chickens. White lines of chickens are considered resistant and hardly mortality is observed. Chickens of brown lines are more susceptible and develop severe clinical signs with high mortality rates. T...

  8. Effect of disturbance of the gastrointestinal microflora on the faecal excretion of Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar A.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G. R.; Thornton, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Oral pretreatment of mice with either a mixture of kanamycin and erythromycin or metronidazole to modify the gut microflora greatly enhanced the faecal excretion of Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar A given by mouth. This lends support to the suggestion that disturbance of the gastrointestinal microflora in animals such as cattle, which often carry the organism in the rumen, may lead to intestinal multiplication and faecal excretion, thereby providing a source of infection that may lead to nec...

  9. Transcriptomic Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Biovar 1B Infecting Murine Macrophages Reveals New Mechanisms of Extracellular and Intracellular Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Zachary W; Poorey, Kunal; Brazel, David M; LaBauve, Annette E; Sinha, Anupama; Curtis, Deanna J; House, Samantha E; Tew, Karen E; Hamblin, Rachelle Y; Williams, Kelly P; Branda, Steven S; Young, Glenn M; Meagher, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is typically considered an extracellular pathogen; however, during the course of an infection, a significant number of bacteria are stably maintained within host cell vacuoles. Little is known about this population and the role it plays during an infection. To address this question and to elucidate the spatially and temporally dynamic gene expression patterns of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1B through the course of an in vitro infection, transcriptome sequencing and differential gene expression analysis of bacteria infecting murine macrophage cells were performed under four distinct conditions. Bacteria were first grown in a nutrient-rich medium at 26 °C to establish a baseline of gene expression that is unrelated to infection. The transcriptomes of these bacteria were then compared to bacteria grown in a conditioned cell culture medium at 37 °C to identify genes that were differentially expressed in response to the increased temperature and medium but not in response to host cells. Infections were then performed, and the transcriptomes of bacteria found on the extracellular surface and intracellular compartments were analyzed individually. The upregulated genes revealed potential roles for a variety of systems in promoting intracellular virulence, including the Ysa type III secretion system, the Yts2 type II secretion system, and the Tad pilus. It was further determined that mutants of each of these systems had decreased virulence while infecting macrophages. Overall, these results reveal the complete set of genes expressed by Y. enterocolitica in response to infection and provide the groundwork for future virulence studies.

  10. Bacillus cereus Biovar Anthracis Causing Anthrax in Sub-Saharan Africa—Chromosomal Monophyly and Broad Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabon, Philip; Zimmermann, Fee; Lankester, Felix; Peller, Tianna; Feistner, Anna; Todd, Angelique; Herbinger, Ilka; de Nys, Hélène M.; Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Wittig, Roman M.; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Grunow, Roland; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Corbett, Cindi R.; Klee, Silke R.; Leendertz, Fabian H.

    2016-01-01

    Through full genome analyses of four atypical Bacillus cereus isolates, designated B. cereus biovar anthracis, we describe a distinct clade within the B. cereus group that presents with anthrax-like disease, carrying virulence plasmids similar to those of classic Bacillus anthracis. We have isolated members of this clade from different mammals (wild chimpanzees, gorillas, an elephant and goats) in West and Central Africa (Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon, Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo). The isolates shared several phenotypic features of both B. anthracis and B. cereus, but differed amongst each other in motility and their resistance or sensitivity to penicillin. They all possessed the same mutation in the regulator gene plcR, different from the one found in B. anthracis, and in addition, carry genes which enable them to produce a second capsule composed of hyaluronic acid. Our findings show the existence of a discrete clade of the B. cereus group capable of causing anthrax-like disease, found in areas of high biodiversity, which are possibly also the origin of the worldwide distributed B. anthracis. Establishing the impact of these pathogenic bacteria on threatened wildlife species will require systematic investigation. Furthermore, the consumption of wildlife found dead by the local population and presence in a domestic animal reveal potential sources of exposure to humans. PMID:27607836

  11. Biovar diversity is reflected by variations of genes encoding urease of Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruifu, Y; Minli, Z; Guo, Z; Wang, X

    1997-01-01

    Five oligonucleotide primers derived from the gene encoding urease of Ureaplasma urealyticum were designed to evaluate the relationship between the urease gene and biovar diversity of this organism. Five combinations of these primers were tested by PCR and the result revealed that there were variations in urease genes among different serovars of U. urealyticum. This result, in agreement with other PCRs based on other functionally unrelated (rRNA and MB antigen) genes, may reflect the phylogenetic relationship among organisms taxonomically classified as U. urealyticum.

  12. Root hair deformation activity of nodulation factor and their fate on Vicia sativa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidstra, R.; Geurts, R.; Franssen, H.; Spaink, H.P.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1994-01-01

    We used a semiquantitative root hair deformation assay for Vicia sativa (vetch) to study the activity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae nodulation (Nod) factors. Five to 10 min of Nod factor-root interaction appears to be sufficient to induce root hair deformation. The first deformation is visibl

  13. Vicia vulcanorum (Fabaceae a new species from the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Mateos, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.

  14. Physiological and serological variation in S. mitis biovar 1 from the human oral cavity during the first year of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchherr, Jennifer L.; Bowden, George H.; Cole, Michael F.; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Richmond, Dorothy A.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Wirth, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The purpose of the study was to explore the physiological and antigenic diversity of a large number of S. mitis biovar 1 isolates in order to begin to determine whether these properties contribute to species persistence. Design S. mitis biovar 1 was collected from four infants from birth to one year of age. At each of 8–9 visits 60 isolates each were obtained from the cheeks, tongue and incisors (once erupted) yielding 4,440 in total. These were tested for production of neuraminidase, β1-N-acetylglucosaminidase, β1-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, IgA1 protease, and amylase-binding. Antigenic diversity was examined by ELISA and Western immunoblotting using antisera raised against S. mitis biovar 1 NCTC 12261T and SK145. Results 3,330 (75%) of the isolates were identified as S. mitis biovar 1 and 3,144 (94.4%) could be divided into four large phenotypic groups based on glycosidase production. 54% of the isolates produced IgA1 protease, but production was disproportionate among the phenotypes. Between 1/3 to 1/2 of the strains of each phenotype bound salivary α-amylase. Antisera against strains NCTC 12261T and SK145 displayed different patterns of reactivity with randomly selected representatives of the four phenotypes. Conclusions S. mitis biovar 1 is physiologically and antigenically diverse, properties which could aid strains in avoiding host immunity and promote re-colonization of a habitat or transfer to a new habitat. PMID:17045561

  15. Interacción de Tsukamurella paurometabola C-924 con Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH en el cultivo de frijol

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    Marieta Marín Bruzos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluaron, mediante análisis de los parámetros fenológicos de las plantas, la interacción de Tsukamurella paurometabola C-924 con Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH en el cultivo de frijol. Se emplearon cuatro tratamientos: plantas sin inocular (control, inoculadas con T. paurometabola C-924, inoculadas con R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH e inoculadas con ambas cepas. Se observaron diferencias significativas (P < 0.01 en los porcentajes de germinación de las plantas tratadas con microorganismos de forma independiente o conjunta con respecto al control sin inocular. Se determinó que la inoculación de T. paurometabola C-924 afectó el proceso de nodulación de R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH. Sin embargo, esto no incidió de manera significativa en la altura de las plantas ni en el diámetro del tallo, ya que no se encontraron diferencias entre los tratamientos para estos parámetros. Para el número de hojas, los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con la aplicación de T. paurometabola C-924. Se concluyó que la interacción de T. paurometabola C-924 con R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH en el frijol estimuló significativamente la germinación de las semillas y el número de hojas de las plantas con respecto al control sin inocular. Aunque la aplicación de T. paurometabola C-924 no favoreció la nodulación de R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH, esto no afectó las características fenológicas del cultivo.

  16. The draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. mitis NCTC 3529 reveals significant diversity between the primary disease-causing biovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangal, Vartul; Tucker, Nicholas P; Burkovski, Andreas; Hoskisson, Paul A

    2012-06-01

    We report the draft genome of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. mitis NCTC 3529. This is the first C. diphtheriae bv. mitis strain to be sequenced and reveals significant differences from the other primary biovar, C. diphtheriae bv. gravis.

  17. The Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. mitis NCTC 3529 Reveals Significant Diversity between the Primary Disease-Causing Biovars

    OpenAIRE

    Sangal, Vartul; Nicholas P Tucker; Burkovski, Andreas; Hoskisson, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the draft genome of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. mitis NCTC 3529. This is the first C. diphtheriae bv. mitis strain to be sequenced and reveals significant differences from the other primary biovar, C. diphtheriae bv. gravis.

  18. First report of orchitis in man caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1 in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Román, Jorge; Saegerman, Claude; Minda-Aluisa, Elizabeth; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington; Brandt, Jef; Douce, Richard

    2012-09-01

    We present a 44-year-old man from a rural community in northern Ecuador who worked on a cattle farm where he was involved with primary veterinary care, including assistance during births (or calving) and placenta retention and artificial insemination, with minimal precautions. In September of 2009, quite abruptly, he developed asthenia and hypersomnia without any apparent cause or symptoms like fever, chills, or night sweats. On November 14, 2009, he suffered from pain and edema in the right testicle that coincided with pain in the abdomen. Clinical, serological, and bacteriological investigations confirmed the first case of unilateral orchitis in man in Ecuador caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1. Because brucellosis is a neglected disease, special attention should be given to it in the training of medical and veterinary students.

  19. Typing discrepancy between phenotypic and molecular characterization revealing an emerging biovar 9 variant of smooth phage-resistant B. abortus strain 8416 in China

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    YaoXia eKang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly isolated smooth colony morphology phage-resistant (SPR strain 8416 isolated from a 45-year-old cattle farm cleaner with clinical features of brucellosis in China was reported. The most unusual phenotype was its resistance to two Brucella phages Tbilisi and Weybridge, but sensitive to Berkeley 2, a pattern similar to that of B. melitensis biovar 1. VITEK 2 biochemical identification system found that both strain 8416 and B. melitensis strains shared positive ILATk, but negative in other B. abortus strains. However, routine biochemical and phenotypic characteristics of strain 8416 were most similar to that of B. abortus biovar 9 except CO2 requirement. In addition, multiple PCR molecular typing assays including AMOS-PCR, B. abortus special PCR (B-ab PCR and a novel sub-biovar typing PCR, indicated that strain 8416 may belong to either biovar 3b or 9 of B. abortus. Surprisingly, further MLVA typing results showed that strain 8416 was most closely related to B. abortus biovar 3 in the Brucella MLVA database, primarily differing in 4 out of 16 screened loci. Therefore, due to the unusual discrepancy between phenotypic (biochemical reactions and particular phage lysis profile and molecular typing characteristics, strain 8416 couldn’t be exactly classified to any of the existing B. abortus biovars and might be a new variant of B. abortus biovar 9. The present study also indicates that the present phage typing scheme for Brucella spp. is subject to variation and the routine Brucella biovar typing needs further studies.

  20. Transformation of Vicia narbonensis via Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickardt, T; Meixner, M; Schade, V; Schieder, O

    1991-02-01

    Shoot tips and epicotyl-segments of Vicia narbonensis were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 pGV 3850 HPT, carrying a plasmid coding for hygromycin-phosphotransferase. On callus-induction medium containing 60 mg/l hygromycin for selection, approximately 18% of the explants produced hygromycin-resistant callus. After transfer to regeneration-medium these calluses produced hygromycin-resistant and nopaline-positive somatic embryos which could be regenerated to plantlets. The integration of the T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by Southern analysis.

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Brucella strains isolated from autochthonous livestock reveals the dominance of B. abortus biovar 3a in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertu, Wilson J; Ducrotoy, Marie J; Muñoz, Pilar M; Mick, Virginie; Zúñiga-Ripa, Amaia; Bryssinckx, Ward; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kabir, Junaid; Welburn, Susan C; Moriyón, Ignacio; Ocholi, Reuben A

    2015-10-22

    Brucellosis is a worldwide widespread zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Control of this disease in a given area requires an understanding of the Brucella species circulating in livestock and humans. However, because of the difficulties intrinsic to Brucella isolation and typing, such data are scarce for resource-poor areas. The paucity of bacteriological data and the consequent imperfect epidemiological picture are particularly critical for Sahelian and Sub-Sahara African countries. Here, we report on the characterization of 34 isolates collected between 1976 and 2012 from cattle, sheep and horses in Nigeria. All isolates were identified as Brucella abortus by Bruce-ladder PCR and assigned to biovar 3 by conventional typing. Further analysis by enhanced AMOS-ERY PCR showed that all of them belonged to the 3a sub-biovar, and MLVA analysis grouped them in a cluster clearly distinct from that formed by European B. abortus biovar 3b strains. Nevertheless, MLVA detected heterogeneity within the Nigerian biovar 3a strains. The close genetic profiles of the isolates from cattle, sheep and horses, suggest that, at least in some parts of Nigeria, biovar 3a circulates among animal species that are not the preferential hosts of B. abortus. Consistent with previous genetic analyses of 7 strains from Ivory Cost, Gambia and Togo, the analysis of these 34 Nigerian strains supports the hypothesis that the B. abortus biovar 3a lineage is dominant in West African countries.

  2. Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. nodulates Vicia faba on several continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, Sabrine; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Álvarez-Martínez, Estela; Peix, Alvaro; Mhamdi, Ridha; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    Several fast-growing strains nodulating Vicia faba in Peru, Spain and Tunisia formed a cluster related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical to that of R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T), whereas rpoB, recA and atpD gene sequences were phylogenetically distant, with sequence similarities of less than 96 %, 97 % and 94 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis showed a mean relatedness value of 43 % between strain FB206(T) and R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T). Phenotypic characteristics of the novel strains also differed from those of the closest related species of the genus Rhizobium. Therefore, based on genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, we propose to classify this group of strains nodulating Vicia faba as a novel species of the genus Rhizobium named Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. The type strain is FB206(T) ( = LMG 27434(T) = CECT 8280(T)).

  3. Bacterial wilt of potato (Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2): disease management, pathogen survival and possible eradication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Potato brown rot, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (Phylovar II, sequevar 1), is a serious endemic disease in the Nile Delta of Egypt. It is a quarantine disease in the EU, and export of potatoes fromEgypt

  4. Mutagenic effects of chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓徽

    2004-01-01

    In this study on the mutagenic effects of different concentrations of chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Vicia faba root tip, micronucleus assay and chromosome aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic indexes, micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. The results showed that the effects of CrO3 concentration on the mitotic indexes were complicated. CrO3 increases the micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. It was found that within certain range of CrO3 concentration the micronucleus rate increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3, but that the micronucleus rate decreased at higher level of CrO3 and that CrO3 also caused various types of chromosome aberration at a rate which increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3. We concluded that CrO3 has significant mutagenic effect on Vicia faba root tip cells.

  5. Motor effects of broad beans (Vicia faba) in Parkinson's disease: single dose studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempster, P A; Bogetic, Z; Secombei, J W; Martin, H D; Balazs, N D; Wahlqvist, M L

    1993-06-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) are a natural source of L-dopa. To investigate a possible role for this substance in the treatment of Parkinsonian motor oscillations, we carried out single dose studies of Vicia faba pod mixture plus carbidopa in six patients. Motor responses of equivalent magnitude to those of conventional L-dopa medication occurred in five cases with mean onset of 39 min and mean duration of 104 min. Vicia faba meals produced comparable L-dopa blood levels to fasting standard tablet doses and recovery studies yielded 0.25% L-dopa per weight of bean pod mixture. Vicia faba contains sufficient L-dopa to be pharmacologically active in patients with Parkinson's disease and can potentially be incorporated into dietary strategies to manage Parkinsonian motor oscillations.

  6. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Portuguese Cultivated Vicia faba L. through IRAP Markers

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    Diana Tomás

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean have been grown in Portugal for a long time and locally adapted populations are still maintained on farm. The genetic diversity of four Portuguese faba bean populations that are still cultivated in some regions of the country was evaluated using the Inter Retrotransposons Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP technique. It was shown that molecular markers based on retrotransposons previously identified in other species can be efficiently used in the genetic variability assessment of Vicia faba. The IRAP experiment targeting Athila yielded the most informative banding patterns. Cluster analysis using the neighbor-joining algorithm generated a dendrogram that clearly shows the distribution pattern of V. faba samples. The four equina accessions are separated from each other and form two distinct clades while the two major faba bean accessions are not unequivocally separated by the IRAP. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis of sequences amplified by IRAP Athila revealed a wide distribution throughout V. faba chromosomes, confirming the whole-genome coverage of this molecular marker. Morphological characteristics were also assessed through cluster analysis of seed characters using the unweighted pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA and principal component analysis (PCA, showing a clear discrimination between faba bean major and equina groups. It was also found that the seed character most relevant to distinguish accessions was 100 seed weight. Seed morphological traits and IRAP evaluation give similar results supporting the potential of IRAP analysis for genetic diversity studies.

  7. Assessment of arsenic toxicity using Allium/Vicia root tip micronucleus assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihua; Yi, Huilan; Yi, Min

    2010-04-15

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and is a potential human carcinogen. Its carcinogenicity has been demonstrated in several models. In this study, broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and common onion (Allium cepa L.), two plant species which are commonly used for detecting the genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants, were used to measure possible genotoxic effect of arsenite (0.3-30 mg/l). Present results showed that arsenite (As(III)) induced micronuclei (MN) formation in both Allium and Vicia root tips. MN frequency significantly increased in Vicia root cells exposed to 0.3-10 mg/l arsenite and in Allium root cells exposed to 1-30 mg/l arsenite, which indicated that Vicia root tip cells are more sensitive to arsenite than Allium. Mitotic index (MI) decreased in a concentration-dependent manner and showed significant differences in Vicia/Allium roots among treatments and the control, after exposure to 1-30 mg/l arsenite for at least 4 h. In the present study, MN frequency was positively associated with lipid peroxidation, which indicated that arsenite exposure can induce oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in plant cells. The results also suggested that Vicia/Allium root micronucleus (MN) assays are simple, efficient and reproducible methods for the genotoxicity monitoring of arsenic water contamination.

  8. Brucella melitensis Biovar 1 and Brucella abortus S19 Vaccine Strain Infections in Milkers Working at Cattle Farms in the Khartoum Area, Sudan.

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    Amira E F Osman

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is a preventable zoonoses that may become persistent, causing, if left untreated, severe localized disease. Occupational exposure to infected animals or animal products and consumption of fresh contaminated dairy are main risk factors.One hundred farmworkers employed at two cattle farms one in Khartoum North and one in Omdurman were screened for the presence of specific antibodies and seropositive workers were invited to donate a blood sample for blood culture. Molecular typing was used to characterize Brucella isolates.Ten percent of farmworkers tested seropositive and while Brucella melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the blood of three individuals, an isolate identical to the B. abortus S19 vaccine strain was isolated from a fourth person. All four bacteremic individuals were employed as milkers and did not have obvious disease.The isolation of the highly infectious pathogen B. melitensis from seropositive workers is consistent with the notion that the pathogen may persist in the blood without causing overt disease. While vaccination with strain S19 is essential for the control of bovine brucellosis the vaccine strain may be transmitted to the human population and protective measures remain important to prevent exposure also in view of the presence of B. melitensis. To create awareness for this potentially severe disease more information on the prevalence of the pathogen in different risk groups and in livestock in the Sudan is needed.

  9. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and typing of Brucella melitensis biovar 2 in lactating cows in Kuwait

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    Adel El-Gohary

    2016-09-01

    Results: The results showed that the overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 339 (7.25% by BAPAT, 332 (7.1% by RBPT, and 329 (7.04% by CFT. The results revealed that, 42 (8.6%, 5 (1.4% and 292 (7.6% sera were positive for brucellosis by BAPAT in the cows of Al-Wafra, Al-Kabed and Al-Salebia areas, respectively. Whereas, their respective number and seroreactive cases by RBPT were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 288 (7.4%. Similarly, as confirmatory test by CFT, the number and seroreactive cases in these areas were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 285 (7.46%. MRT revealed that the average positive case was 61.67% (59.46% in Al-Wafra; 60% in Al-Kabed and 66.6% in Al-Salebia. Two Brucella isolates could be recovered from the stomach content of the two aborted feti and typed as Brucella melitensis biovar 2. Conclusion: Brucellosis is prevalent among lactating cows in Kuwait. This indicates the potential role of these dairy animals in disseminating and spread of such zoonosis to human. Considering public health significance, appropriate preventive measures are suggestive for combating brucellosis in Kuwait. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 229-235

  10. Asymptomatic Brucella bacteraemia and isolation of Brucella melitensis biovar 3 from human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Güven; Külah, Canan; Kiliç, Selçuk; Ustündağ, Gonca

    2007-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease and virtually all infections derived from exposure to animals or ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products. Brucellosis among family members has been reported. However, screening household members of an index case of acute brucellosis is not a routine procedure. A 10-y-old boy was diagnosed with acute brucellosis. Unpasteurized goat cheese commonly consumed within the family was thought to be the possible source of the bacteria. The family (parents, sister and brother) was screened with physical examination, serum tube agglutination test, blood cultures and routine laboratory tests. Three additional cases (parents and sister) of serological and culture proven brucellosis were detected. Two of them (mother and sister) were asymptomatic and had no clinical findings. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was isolated from breast milk culture and from all blood cultures of 4 brucellosis cases. In conclusion, brucellosis, even with bacteraemia, can be completely asymptomatic. Consumption of raw milk products by household members is a common risk factor for brucellosis outbreak among family members. Thus, screening household members of an index case of brucellosis can expose new brucellosis cases.

  11. Analysis of iron acquisition and storage-related genes in clinical and non-clinical strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaujia, Pawan Kumar; Bajaj, Priyanka; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2015-10-01

    Possession of mechanisms for iron acquisition and its storage enhances the ability of the bacteria to survive in the iron-limiting environment of the host. In this study, 81 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A isolated from various clinical (n = 51) and non-clinical (n = 30) sources were investigated for the presence of the genes related to iron acquisition and storage. Important genes which were present in more than 85% of the strains included hasA, foxA, bfr, bfd, ftnA, and hmsT as well as the fhuCDB, fepBDGCfesfepA, feoAB, yfuABCD, hemPRSTUV, and hmsHFRS gene clusters. Majority of these genes is being reported for the first time in biovar 1A strains and showed significant homology with genes present in the known pathogenic biovars of Y. enterocolitica. However, no significant difference was observed in the distribution of iron acquisition and storage-related genes among clinical and non-clinical biovar 1A strains. Thus, it may be suggested that the presence of iron acquisition and storage-related genes per se might not be responsible for the supposedly better ability of clinical biovar 1A strains to cause infections in humans. However, in the backdrop of this data, the need to undertake functional studies are highly recommended.

  12. Nuclear DNA content and ultrastructure of secretory cells of Vicia faba L. stigma

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    Bogdan Wróbel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of study was the level of nuclear DNA and the ultrastructural transformations in the secretory cells of the stigma in Vicia faba L. It has been found that the stigmal cells which are active in biogenesis and exudate secretion are diploid cells whose differentiation starts from 2C DNA level. The presence of a population of nuclei with an amount DNA of about 2.5 C suggests that the metabolic activity of those cells may be regulated through supplementary incomplete replication. The ultrastructural transformations of secretory cells point to three stages of biogenesis and secretion of exudate. Stage I, before the start of the cell's secretory functions, is characterized by the development of the protein synthesizing apparatus and the activity of dictyosomes. In development stage II vesicular electron-transparent exudate is secreted. Stage III of exudate biogenesis is production of lipids. They form mainly in the plastids and are secreted with the involvement of the cell's vacuolar system.

  13. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  14. Sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes induced by propoxur following plant activation by Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Calderón-Segura, M E; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1995-01-01

    Because the carbamate insecticide propoxur induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba but was ineffective in producing SCE in lymphocytes in culture, it was hardly suspected that plant metabolism was involved. Experiments were conducted in which metabolic activation was afforded by Vicia faba roots, and SCE in human lymphocytes in vitro was used to assess cytogenetic damage. Several concentrations of propoxur (250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm) were applied for 4 hr to the roots of Vicia faba. Extracts prepared from these treatments were added to the lymphocyte cultures and a significant increase of SCE frequencies with a concentration-response relationship could be detected. The lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and the proliferation rate index (PRI) were not affected (except in the highest concentration, of 2,000 ppm). This general behavior was in agreement with the presence of an enzymatic system (S10 fraction) in Vicia roots capable of metabolizing or activating the propoxur. With 2,000 ppm, cell necrosis was produced in Vicia; therefore, this extract did not induce SCE in lymphocytes. However, lymphocyte proliferation kinetics were delayed and PRI was significantly decreased. Ethanol, a promutagen activated by this plant, was applied directly to the lymphocyte cultures as a positive control, and the response was negative. On the other hand, the extracts of roots treated with ethanol increased the SCE to more than twice that of the negative control, but the lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and PRI were not affected.

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Cool Virulence Factors of Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2.

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    Fanhong Meng

    Full Text Available While most strains of the plant pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum are tropical, the race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2 subgroup attacks plants in cooler climates. To identify mechanisms underlying this trait, we compared the transcriptional profiles of R. solanacearum R3bv2 strain UW551 and tropical strain GMI1000 at 20°C and 28°C, both in culture and during tomato pathogenesis. 4.2% of the ORFs in the UW551 genome and 7.9% of the GMI1000 ORFs were differentially expressed by temperature in planta. The two strains had distinct transcriptional responses to temperature change. GMI1000 up-regulated several stress response genes at 20°C, apparently struggling to cope with plant defenses. At the cooler temperature, R3bv2 strain UW551 up-regulated a cluster encoding a mannose-fucose binding lectin, LecM; a quorum sensing-dependent protein, AidA; and a related hypothetical protein, AidC. The last two genes are absent from the GMI1000 genome. In UW551, all three genes were positively regulated by the adjacent SolI/R quorum sensing system. These temperature-responsive genes were required for full virulence in R3bv2. Mutants lacking lecM, aidA, or aidC were each significantly more reduced in virulence on tomato at 20°C than at 28°C in both a naturalistic soil soak inoculation assay and when they were inoculated directly into tomato stems. The lecM and aidC mutants also survived poorly in potato tubers at the seed tuber storage temperature of 4°C, and the lecM mutant was defective in biofilm formation in vitro. Together, these results suggest novel mechanisms, including a lectin, are involved in the unique temperate epidemiology of R3bv2.

  16. Identification and characterization of PhoP regulon members in Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus

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    Du Zongmin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription regulator PhoP has been shown to be important for Y. pestis survival in macrophages and under various in vitro stresses. However, the mechanism by which PhoP promotes bacterial intracellular survival is not fully understood. Our previous microarray analysis suggested that PhoP governed a wide set of cellular pathways in Y. pestis. A series of biochemical experiments were done herein to study members of the PhoP regulon of Y. pestis biovar Microtus. Results By using gel mobility shift assay and quantitative RT-PCR, a total of 30 putative transcription units were characterized as direct PhoP targets. The primer extension assay was further used to determine the transcription start sites of 18 PhoP-dependent promoters and to localize the -10 and -35 elements. The DNase I footprinting was used to identify the PhoP-binding sites within 17 PhoP-dependent promoters, enabling the identification of PhoP box and matrix that both represented the conserved signals for PhoP recognition in Y. pestis. Data presented here providing a good basis for modeling PhoP-promoter DNA interactions that is crucial to the PhoP-mediated transcriptional regulation. Conclusion The proven direct PhoP targets include nine genes encoding regulators and 21 genes or operons with functions of detoxification, protection against DNA damages, resistance to antimicrobial peptides, and adaptation to magnesium limitation. We can presume that PhoP is a global regulator that controls a complex regulatory cascade by a mechanism of not only directly controlling the expression of specific genes, but also indirectly regulating various cellular pathways by acting on a set of dedicated regulators. These results help us gain insights into the PhoP-dependent mechanisms by which Y. pestis survives the antibacterial strategies employed by host macrophages.

  17. Joint effects of microwave and chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of microwave and chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Viciafaba root tip were studied. Micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic index, the micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberration frequency of Vicia faba root tip cells induced by microwave and CrO3. The results showed that the micronucleus frequency decreased, and that the mitotic index and chromosomal aberration frequency showed linear dose responses to CrO3, in treatment of microwave for 5 s. In microwave of 25 s, the mitotic index decreased, the micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberration frequency increased with increase of CrO3 concentration. We concluded that microwave and CrO3 had antagonistic effect on the mitotic index of Vicia faba root tip cells, but had synergetic effect on micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberration frequency of Vicia faba root tip cells.

  18. Vicia faba bioassay for environmental toxicity monitoring: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Munawar

    2016-02-01

    Higher plants are recognized as excellent genetic models to detect cytogenetic and mutagenic agents and are frequently used in environmental monitoring studies. Vicia faba (V. faba) bioassay have been used to study DNA damages i.e., chromosomal and nuclear aberrations induced by metallic compounds, pesticides, complex mixtures, petroleum derivates, toxins, nanoparticles and industrial effluents. The main advantages of using V. faba is its availability round the year, economical to use, easy to grow and handle; its use does not require sterile conditions, rate of cell division is fast, chromosomes are easy to score, less expensive and more sensitive as compared to other short-term tests that require pre-preparations. The V. faba test offers evaluation of different endpoints and tested agents can be classified as cytotoxic/genotoxic/mutagenic. This test also provides understanding about mechanism of action, whether the tested agent is clastogenic or aneugenic in nature. In view of advantages offered by V. faba test system, it is used extensively to assess toxic agents and has been emerged as an important bioassay for ecotoxicological studies. Based on the applications of V. faba test to assess the environmental quality, this article offers an overview of this test system and its efficiency in assessing the cytogenetic and mutagenic agents in different classes of the environmental concerns.

  19. Characterization of bacterial isolates from rotting potato tuber tissue showing antagonism to Dickeya sp. biovar 3 in vitro and in planta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; De Boer, W.J.; Van Veen, J.A.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities for biocontrol of biovar 3 Dickeya sp. in potato were investigated, using bacteria from rotting potato tissue isolated by dilution plating on nonselective agar media. In a plate assay, 649 isolates were screened for antibiosis against Dickeya sp. IPO2222 and for the production of sider

  20. Structural Variabilities in β-Lactamase (blaA of Different Biovars of Yersinia enterocolitica: Implications for β-Lactam Antibiotic and β-Lactamase Inhibitor Susceptibilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelja Singhal

    Full Text Available Yersiniosis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been reported from all continents. The bacterial species is divided into more than fifty serovars and six biovars viz. 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which differ in geographical distribution, ecological niches and pathogenicity. Most Y.enterocolitica strains harbor chromosomal genes for two β-lactamases, blaA an Ambler class A penicillinase and blaB an Ambler class C inducible cephalosporinase. In the present study, susceptibility to b-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitor was studied for Y. enterocolitica strains of biovars 1A, 1B, 2 and 4. We observed that β-lactamases were expressed differentially among strains of different biovars. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying such differential expression, the sequences of genes and promoters of blaA were compared. Also, the variants of blaA present in different biovars were modeled and docked with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The mRNA secondary structures of blaA variants were also predicted in-silico. Our findings indicated that neither variations in the promoter regions, nor the secondary structures of mRNA contributed to higher/lower expression of blaA in different biovars. Analysis of H-bonding residues of blaA variants with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid revealed that if amino acid residues of a β-lactamase interacting with amoxicillin and the clavulanic acid were similar, clavulanic acid was effective in engaging the enzyme, accounting for a significant reduction in MIC of amoxicillin-clavulanate. This finding might aid in designing better β-lactamase inhibitors with improved efficiencies in future.

  1. Structural Variabilities in β-Lactamase (blaA) of Different Biovars of Yersinia enterocolitica: Implications for β-Lactam Antibiotic and β-Lactamase Inhibitor Susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Neelja; Srivastava, Abhishikha; Kumar, Manish; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Yersiniosis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been reported from all continents. The bacterial species is divided into more than fifty serovars and six biovars viz. 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which differ in geographical distribution, ecological niches and pathogenicity. Most Y.enterocolitica strains harbor chromosomal genes for two β-lactamases, blaA an Ambler class A penicillinase and blaB an Ambler class C inducible cephalosporinase. In the present study, susceptibility to b-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitor was studied for Y. enterocolitica strains of biovars 1A, 1B, 2 and 4. We observed that β-lactamases were expressed differentially among strains of different biovars. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying such differential expression, the sequences of genes and promoters of blaA were compared. Also, the variants of blaA present in different biovars were modeled and docked with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The mRNA secondary structures of blaA variants were also predicted in-silico. Our findings indicated that neither variations in the promoter regions, nor the secondary structures of mRNA contributed to higher/lower expression of blaA in different biovars. Analysis of H-bonding residues of blaA variants with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid revealed that if amino acid residues of a β-lactamase interacting with amoxicillin and the clavulanic acid were similar, clavulanic acid was effective in engaging the enzyme, accounting for a significant reduction in MIC of amoxicillin-clavulanate. This finding might aid in designing better β-lactamase inhibitors with improved efficiencies in future.

  2. Structural Variabilities in β-Lactamase (blaA) of Different Biovars of Yersinia enterocolitica: Implications for β-Lactam Antibiotic and β-Lactamase Inhibitor Susceptibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Neelja; Srivastava, Abhishikha; Kumar, Manish; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Yersiniosis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been reported from all continents. The bacterial species is divided into more than fifty serovars and six biovars viz. 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which differ in geographical distribution, ecological niches and pathogenicity. Most Y.enterocolitica strains harbor chromosomal genes for two β-lactamases, blaA an Ambler class A penicillinase and blaB an Ambler class C inducible cephalosporinase. In the present study, susceptibility to b-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitor was studied for Y. enterocolitica strains of biovars 1A, 1B, 2 and 4. We observed that β-lactamases were expressed differentially among strains of different biovars. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying such differential expression, the sequences of genes and promoters of blaA were compared. Also, the variants of blaA present in different biovars were modeled and docked with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The mRNA secondary structures of blaA variants were also predicted in-silico. Our findings indicated that neither variations in the promoter regions, nor the secondary structures of mRNA contributed to higher/lower expression of blaA in different biovars. Analysis of H-bonding residues of blaA variants with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid revealed that if amino acid residues of a β-lactamase interacting with amoxicillin and the clavulanic acid were similar, clavulanic acid was effective in engaging the enzyme, accounting for a significant reduction in MIC of amoxicillin-clavulanate. This finding might aid in designing better β-lactamase inhibitors with improved efficiencies in future. PMID:25919756

  3. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia Faba L.)- antinutritional properties in monogastric animals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats

  4. On the presence of Vicia vicioides in Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Haase, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Please read the Spanish version of this Abstract.

    En el presente trabajo se actualiza el conocimiento corológico de la leguminosa Vicia vicioides (Desf. Cout. en la provincia de Alicante, aportando información sobre cinco nuevas poblaciones, que se añaden a la única localidad conocida previamente.

  5. Population dynamics of Streptococcus mitis in its natural habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, J.; Reinholdt, Jesper; Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic structure of the typical commensal Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 in its natural habitat in the human oral cavity and pharynx and to investigate the role that selected microbial properties and host, spatial, and temporal factors play in determining...... the structure of the bacterial population. Consecutive samples were collected from buccal and pharyngeal mucosal surfaces of two infants, their four parents, and two elderly individuals over a period of approximately 1 year. A total of 751 isolates identified as S. mitis biovar 1 were typed by restriction...... that previously observed for intestinal populations of Escherichia coli. The study provides evidence of the existence of both transient and persistent clones in adult individuals. In the two infants, however, none of 42 demonstrated clones were detected on more than a single occasion. Statistical calculations...

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Brucella suis Biovar 4 Strain NCTC 10385, Brucella ceti Strain NCTC 12891T , Brucella inopinata Strain CAMP 6436T, and Brucella neotomae Strain ATCC 23459T

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Tara; Ferrari, Sevinc; Lindberg, Martina; Bäckman, Stina; Kaden, Rene

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of developing quantitative PCR methods for the detection and differentiation of Brucella species, the genomes of Brucella ceti, Brucella inopinata, Brucella netotomae, and Brucella suis biovar 4 were sequenced and analyzed.

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Brucella suis Biovar 4 Strain NCTC 10385, Brucella ceti Strain NCTC 12891T, Brucella inopinata Strain CAMP 6436T, and Brucella neotomae Strain ATCC 23459T

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Tara; Ferrari, Sevinc; Lindberg, Martina; Bäckman, Stina; Kaden, Rene

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of developing quantitative PCR methods for the detection and differentiation of Brucella species, the genomes of Brucella ceti, Brucella inopinata, Brucella netotomae, and Brucella suis biovar 4 were sequenced and analyzed.

  8. Seminal vesiculitis and orchitis caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1 in young bison bulls from South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyan, J C; Holland, S D; Gidlewski, T; Saari, D A; Jensen, A E; Ewalt, D R; Hennager, S G; Olsen, S C; Cheville, N F

    1997-10-01

    Specimens of blood, lymph nodes, spleens, and genitalia were collected at slaughter from seven 3- and 4-year-old male bison that had recently become seropositive for brucellosis. The animals were from a captive herd of approximately 3,500 bison located in central South Dakota. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from 2 or more specimens from each of 6 bison. Severe necrotizing and pyogranulomatous orchitis was present in 1 testicle from 1 bull, and 4 animals had mild to marked seminal vesiculitis. Immunohistochemical staining labeled organisms in seminal vesicles and the testicle with orchitis. Ultrastructurally, intact bacilli were present in cytoplasmic vacuoles of some macrophages; other macrophages contained intracytoplasmic aggregates of calcified coccobacilli.

  9. Identification and characterization of the alpha-acetolactate synthase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugg, J D; Goelling, D; Stahl, U; Ledeboer, A M; Toonen, M Y; Verhue, W M; Verrips, C T

    1994-01-01

    The conversion of 3-13C-labelled pyruvate in an acetoin-producing clone from a Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis strain DSM 20384 plasmid bank in Escherichia coli was studied by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The results showed that alpha-acetolactate was the first metabolic product formed from pyruvate, whereas acetoin appeared at a much slower rate and reached only low concentrations. This alpha-acetolactate production shows that the cells express the gene for alpha-acetolactate synthase (als). Nucleotide sequence analysis identified an open reading frame encoding a protein of 554 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits extensive similarities to those of known alpha-acetolactate synthases from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The als gene is expressed on a monocistronic transcriptional unit, which is transcribed from a promoter located just upstream of the coding region. Images PMID:8017926

  10. Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Faba Bean (Vicia faba) against Broomrape Species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Rojas-Molina, Maria M.; Sillero, Josefina C.

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri, or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegyptiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further exploited in faba

  11. Characterization resistance mechanisms in faba bean (Vicia faba against broomrape species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rubiales

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegytiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Highly Virulent Race 4/Biovar 3 of Ralstonia solanacearum CaRs_Mep Causing Bacterial Wilt in Zingiberaceae Plants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Vibhuti; Sheoran, Neelam; Prameela, Thekkan Puthiyaveedu; Suseelabhai, Rajamma; Aggarwal, Rashmi; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Eapen, Santhosh J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome of Ralstonia solanacearum CaRs_Mep, a race 4/biovar 3/phylotype I bacterium causing wilt in small cardamom and other Zingiberaceae plants, was sequenced. Analysis of the 5.7-Mb genome sequence will aid in better understanding of the genetic determinants of host range, host jump, survival, pathogenicity, and virulence of race 4 of R. solanacearum. PMID:28057749

  13. Genetic relationships between clinical and non-clinical strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A as revealed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and multilocus restriction typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virdi Jugsharan S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic relationships among 81 strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources were discerned by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE and multilocus restriction typing (MLRT using six loci each. Such studies may reveal associations between the genotypes of the strains and their sources of isolation. Results All loci were polymorphic and generated 62 electrophoretic types (ETs and 12 restriction types (RTs. The mean genetic diversity (H of the strains by MLEE and MLRT was 0.566 and 0.441 respectively. MLEE (DI = 0.98 was more discriminatory and clustered Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A strains into four groups, while MLRT (DI = 0.77 identified two distinct groups. BURST (Based Upon Related Sequence Types analysis of the MLRT data suggested aquatic serotype O:6,30-6,31 isolates to be the ancestral strains from which, clinical O:6,30-6,31 strains might have originated by host adaptation and genetic change. Conclusion MLEE revealed greater genetic diversity among strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A and clustered strains in four groups, while MLRT grouped the strains into two groups. BURST analysis of MLRT data nevertheless provided newer insights into the probable evolution of clinical strains from aquatic strains.

  14. Interaction of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A with cultured cells in vitro does not reflect the two previously identified clonal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Mahesh S; Virdi, Jugsharan S

    2013-12-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A strains have been delineated into two clonal groups (A and B) based on repetitive extragenic palindrome- and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR genotyping. The present study investigated the interaction of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A strains with cultured cells in vitro by their ability to adhere, invade and survive within these cells. The response of macrophages to these strains was also studied by quantifying the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, production of nitric oxide and cytokines, and activation of NFκB. The survival rate of clonal group B strains inside macrophages was significantly higher than that of clonal group A strains. In addition, strains harbouring the fepA gene showed better survival inside macrophages. However, the production of nitric oxide and cytokines and activation of NFκB did not show any significant differences between the two clonal groups. In this study, interaction of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A with cultured cells in vitro did not reflect the previously identified clonal groups, but was more dependent on the characteristics of the individual strains. Therefore, a combination of genotype and phenotype data must be used to characterize this extremely heterogeneous organism.

  15. Mutagenic effects of chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓薇

    2004-01-01

    In this study on the mutagenic effects of different concentrations of chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Vicia faba root tip, micronucleus assay and chromosome aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic indexes, micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate of Viciafaba root tip cells. The results showed that the effects of CrO3 concentration on the mitotic indexes were complicated. CrO3 increases the micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. It was found that within certain range of CrO3 concentration the micronucleus rate increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3, but that the micronucleus rate decreased at higher level of CrO3 and that CrO3 also caused various types of chromosome aberration at a rate which increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3. We concluded that CrO3 has significant mutagenic effect on Viciafaba root tip cells.

  16. Isolation and expression of an aquaporin-like gene VfPIP1 in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xianghuan; HAO Fushun; CHEN Hui; CAI Jinghui; CHEN Jia; WANG Xuechen

    2005-01-01

    To explore the effects of aquaporins on stomatal movement, we isolated a full length cDNA of aquaporin-like gene VfPIP1 ( Vicia faba plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene, GenBank accession number: AY667436), which encodes for a 290-amino-acid polypeptide, from Vicia faba leaf epidermis by 5′/3′ RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The analyses of VfPIP1 transmembrane regions and amino acid sequence show that VfPIP1 owns six membrane-spanning domains and the special plasma membrane signature sequences GGGANXXXXGY and TGI/TNPARSL/FGAAI/VI/VF/YN, and it should be a member of PIP1 subfamily. The results of in situ hybridization and Northern blot indicate that VfPIP1 is strongly expressed in guard cells and induced by ABA. Hereby, VfPIP1 may be involved in the water-transmembrane movement of guard cells.

  17. Identification of integrin-like in guard cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We addressed the existence and localization of integrin-like in guard cells of Vicia faba by using a probe of polyclonal antibody against the human integrin (avb3/b5). Western blot results showed that three integrins-like of about 47.3, 43.7 and 41.1 ku were detected from the preparation of membrane fragments of purified guard cell protoplasts. Further research with immunofluorescent scanning micro-scopy indicated that those integrins-like were localized on plasma membrane of guard cells, most nearing the dorsal wall, which is consistent with the reception of signals from epidermal cells to guard cells. Thus our results indicate, for the first time, that integrins-like are present at guard cell plasma membrane of Vicia faba.

  18. A note on the earliest distribution, cultivation and genetic changes in bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia in ancient Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L. Willd. was a part of the everyday diet of the Eurasian Neanderthal population and the modern human Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. The major criteria to determine the domestication in bitter vetch and other ancient grain legumes are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed testa. Bitter vetch seeds were found among the earliest findings of cultivated crops at the site of Tell El-Kerkh, Syria, from 10th millennium BP. Along with cereals, pea and lentil, bitter vetch has become definitely associated with the start of the 'agricultural revolution' in the Old World. Bitter vetch entered Europe in its south-east regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Its distribution was rapid, since the available evidence reveals its presence in remote places at similar periods. Recently the first success has been obtained in the extraction of ancient DNA from charred bitter vetch seeds. The linguistic evidence supports the fact that most of Eurasian peoples have their own words denoting bitter vetch, meaning that its cultivation preceded the diversification of their own proto-languages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31024 i br. 173005

  19. Management of the broad bean weevil (Bruchus rufimanus Boh.) in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Roubinet, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bruchus rufimanus Boh. is a common pest on faba beans (Vicia faba L.) all over Europe and worldwide. The area of faba bean production is increasing in Sweden and in Europe, partly encouraged by the CAP subsidies for legume crops and diversified crop rotations. At the same time, number of the insecticides commonly used against B. rufimanus have been removed from the market as pollinators risk to be harmed as the treatment timing corresponds to crop flowering. In Sweden, only one ins...

  20. Meiotic changes in Vicia faba L. subsequent to treatments of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Husain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of mutagens for creating variations in crops like faba bean (Vicia faba L. is an important criterion in the contemporary world where food insecurity and malnutrition is alarming at the doors of various nations. Impact of two chemical mutagens viz. hydrazine hydrate (HZ and maleic hydrazide (MH on the two varieties (NDF-1 and HB-405 of Vicia faba were analysed in terms of meiotic behavior and pollen sterility. Since there are not enough data about the effect of these mutagens on the chromosomal behaviors of Vicia faba, this study presents the role of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide as well as various types of chromosomal aberrations in crop improvement. The lower concentration of mutagens showed less pollen sterility compared to the higher concentrations. Manipulation of plant structural component to induce desirable alternations provides valuable material for the breeders and could be used favorably for increasing mutation rate and obtaining a desirable spectrum of mutation in faba beans based on preliminary studies of cell division.

  1. Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Jing; Zheng, Wen Tao; Everall, Isobel; Young, J Peter W; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Tian, Chang Fu; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2015-09-01

    Four rhizobia-like strains, isolated from root nodules of Pisum sativum and Vicia faba grown in Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces of China, were grouped into the genus Rhizobium but were distinct from all recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes. The combined sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII for strain CCBAU 23252(T) showed 86.9 to 95% similarity to those of known species of the genus Rhizobium. All four strains had nodC and nifH genes and could form effective nodules with Pisum sativum and Vicia faba, and ineffective nodules with Phaseolus vulgaris, but did not nodulate Glycine max, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens or Lablab purpureus in cross-nodulation tests. Fatty acid composition, DNA-DNA relatedness and a series of phenotypic tests also separated these strains from members of closely related species. Based on all the evidence, we propose a novel species, Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., and designate CCBAU 23252(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12621(T) = LMG 27729(T)) as the type strain. This strain was isolated from a root nodule of Vicia faba and has a DNA G+C content of 61.1 mol% (Tm).

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vetch (Vicia sativa is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program.

  3. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs of β-lactamase gene (bla A or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes.

  4. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N; Kumar, M; Virdi, J S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs) were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs) of β-lactamase gene (bla A) or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes.

  5. MLVA as an Epidemiological Tool To Trace Back Brucella melitensis Biovar 1 Re-Emergence in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massis, F; Ancora, M; Atzeni, M; Rolesu, S; Bandino, E; Danzetta, M L; Zilli, K; Di Giannatale, E; Scacchia, M

    2015-10-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., still prevalent in most areas of the world. Brucellosis control in animals is the key to protect humans. The knowledge of Brucella spp. prevailing genotypes in a territory represents an important epidemiological tool to formulate policies and strategies for disease control and to trace back the introduction of new strains previously considered as exotic. In the last years, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) has been proposed as complementary to classical biotyping methods. MLVA may add important information to the classical epidemiological investigation techniques, to help in tracing back sources of infection in brucellosis outbreaks. Sardinia is an Italian region officially free from sheep and goats brucellosis since 1998. In 2011, Brucella melitensis biovar 1, a biotype not reported in Italy since 1995, was isolated in one flock in the region. The genotyping MLVA-16 showed that isolates belonged to a rare American lineage, confirming it was introduced from other countries. The strain was considered as probably originating from Spain, where this lineage is endemic. BrucellaMLVA-16 has been proved to be useful to analyse the epidemiological correlation of strains enabling to trace its geographic origin by comparing their previously reported genetic patterns.

  6. Isolation and Identification of Brucella melitensis Biovar 3 from Vaccinated Small Ruminants: A Public Health Threat in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, A; Mayer-Scholl, A; Dreshaj, S; Robaj, A; Sylejmani, D; Ramadani, N; Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, a human brucellosis case with severe clinical symptoms was reported at the University Clinic for Infectious Diseases in Prishtina, Kosovo. A trace-back investigation was conducted to find the source of human infection. A total of 49 blood samples and 15 corresponding milk samples from sheep and goats raised on the patient's farm were taken for serological and molecular analysis. Serology using RBT and CFT revealed 11 positive animals. Twelve milk samples were PCR positive. A Brucella strain isolated from a goat's milk sample was classified as Brucella melitensis biovar 3, indicating the first ever isolation and report in Kosovo. The use of the Bruce-ladder PCR provided differentiation between the field strain and the vaccine strain. Hence, the accidental transmission of the vaccine strain Rev 1 that was previously used for the vaccination of the farm animals could be excluded. The findings of this study show that brucellosis is still a public health threat in Kosovo despite control measures.

  7. Vitamins A, C, and E and β-Carotene Content in Seeds of Seven Species of Vicia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet SAHIN; Yasar KIRAN; Fikret KARATAS; Senem SONMEZ

    2005-01-01

    To determine the vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene content of Vicia species that can be used in animal feed, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to investigate the vitamin and β-carotene content in mature and immature seeds of seven Vicia species (Vicia anatolica Turrill., V. ervilia (L.) Willd., V. michauxii Sprengel, V. mollis Boiss. et Hausskn. ex Boiss., V. noeana Reuter ex Boiss., V. peregrina L., and V. sericocarpa Fenzl.), which are useful plants in animal feed in the eastern Anatolia region in Turkey. The vitamin content was found to differ between mature and immature seeds. The levels of vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene were higher in mature seeds than in immature seeds (P < 0.01).

  8. Origin of the Outbreak in France of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Biovar 3, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit, Revealed by a Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunty, A.; Cesbron, S.; Poliakoff, F.; Jacques, M.-A.

    2015-01-01

    The first outbreaks of bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 were detected in France in 2010. P. syringae pv. actinidiae causes leaf spots, dieback, and canker that sometimes lead to the death of the vine. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum, which is pathogenic on kiwi as well, causes only leaf spots. In order to conduct an epidemiological study to track the spread of the epidemics of these two pathogens in France, we developed a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). MLVA was conducted on 340 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 isolated in Chile, China, France, Italy, and New Zealand and on 39 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum isolated in Australia, France, and New Zealand. Eleven polymorphic VNTR loci were identified in the genomes of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 ICMP 18744 and of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum ICMP 18807. MLVA enabled the structuring of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains in 55 and 16 haplotypes, respectively. MLVA and discriminant analysis of principal components revealed that strains isolated in Chile, China, and New Zealand are genetically distinct from P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains isolated in France and in Italy, which appear to be closely related at the genetic level. In contrast, no structuring was observed for P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum. We developed an MLVA scheme to explore the diversity within P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and to trace the dispersal routes of epidemic P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 in Europe. We suggest using this MLVA scheme to trace the dispersal routes of P. syringae pv. actinidiae at a global level. PMID:26209667

  9. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils; Evaluacion del Uso Agricola de Vicia sativa L. en Suelos Contaminados con Mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-03-08

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  10. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krehenbrink Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Results Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP, a twin-arginine translocase (TAT secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. Conclusion None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to

  11. Prevalence and characterization of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum and Gallinarum from chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shafiullah Parvej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen responsible for animal and human diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and stereotyping of Salmonella isolates isolated from apparently healthy poultry. Furthermore, the clonal relatedness among the isolated Salmonella serovars was assessed. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cloacal swab samples from apparently healthy chickens were collected, and were subjected for the isolation and identification of associated Salmonella organisms. The isolated colonies were identified and characterized on the basis of morphology, cultural characters, biochemical tests, slide agglutination test, polymerase chain reaction, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns were also investigated using commonly used antibiotics. Results: Of the 150 samples, 11 (7.33% produced characteristics pink colony with black center on XLD agar medium, and all were culturally and biochemically confirmed to be Salmonella. All possessed serovar-specific gene SpeF and reacted uniformly with group D antisera, suggesting that all of the isolates were Salmonella Enterica serovar Gallinarum, biovar Pullorum and/or Gallinarum. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 54.54% of the isolated Salmonella Enterica serovars were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, whereas the 81.81% isolates were resistant to amoxycillin, doxycycline, kanamycin, gentamycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the XbaI-digested genomic DNA exhibited identical banding patterns, suggesting that the multidrug resistant Salmonella Enterica serovars occurring in commercial layers are highly clonal in Bangladesh. Conclusion: The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of poultry Salmonella in layer chicken and to find out the clonal relationship among them. The data in this study suggest the prevalence of Salmonella Enterica, which is multidrug resistant and

  12. Symbiotic Autoregulation of nifA Expression in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Marta; Palacios, José M.; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2004-01-01

    NifA is the general transcriptional activator of nitrogen fixation genes in diazotrophic bacteria. In Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791, the nifA gene is part of a gene cluster (orf71 orf79 fixW orf5 fixABCX nifAB) separated by 896 bp from an upstream and divergent truncated duplication of nifH (ΔnifH). Symbiotic expression analysis of genomic nifA::lacZ fusions revealed that in strain UPM791 nifA is expressed mainly from a σ54-dependent promoter (PnifA1) located upstream of orf71. Th...

  13. Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days Growth of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2 Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days'Grown of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days Growth of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2 Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days'Grown of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2

  14. Transfer and loss of naturally-occuring plasmids among isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae in heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakzian, A.; Murphy, P.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid transfer among isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae in heavy metal contaminated soils from a long-term experiment in Braunschweig, Germany, was investigated under laboratory conditions. Three replicate samples each of four sterilized soils with total Zn contents of 54, 104, 208 and

  15. Phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis of native rhizobia nodulating faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youseif, Sameh H; Abd El-Megeed, Fayrouz H; Ageez, Amr; Cocking, Edward C; Saleh, Saleh A

    2014-12-01

    The taxonomic diversity of forty-two Rhizobium strains, isolated from nodules of faba bean grown in Egypt, was studied using 16S rRNA sequencing, multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of three chromosomal housekeeping loci and one nodulation gene (nodA). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, most of the strains were related to Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium etli, and Rhizobium radiobacter (syn. Agrobacterium tumefaciens). A maximum likelihood (ML) tree built from the concatenated sequences of housekeeping proteins encoded by glnA, gyrB and recA, revealed the existence of three distinct genospecies (I, II and III) affiliated to the defined species within the genus Rhizobium/Agrobacterium. Seventeen strains in genospecies I could be classified as R. leguminosarum sv. viciae. Whereas, a single strain of genospecies II was linked to R. etli. Interestingly, twenty-four strains of genospecies III were identified as A. tumefaciens. Strains of R. etli and A. tumefaciens have been shown to harbor the nodA gene and formed effective symbioses with faba bean plants in Leonard jar assemblies. In the nodA tree, strains belonging to the putative genospecies were closely related to each other and were clustered tightly to R. leguminosarum sv. viciae, supporting the hypothesis that symbiotic and core genome of the species have different evolutionary histories and indicative of horizontal gene transfer among these rhizobia.

  16. The Effect Different Fertilizers, on Germination, Yield, of Vicia vilosa Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the interaction of germination, yield of Vicia vilosa Roth to use of biological fertilizer, chemical, and manure, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications at Research greenhouse, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013-2014 growing season. The experimental treatments was included three kinds of bio fertilizers and their integration with each other and vermicompost and chemical fertilizer as following : 1- mycorhhizaarbuscular species Glomus mosseae+vermicompost2- mycorhhiza+Nitrocsin (included bacteries Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. 3- mycorhhiza arbuscular+ Rhizobium (Rhizobium sp. 4-mycorhhiza arbuscular + Chemical fertilizer NPK 5- mycorhhizaarbuscular (Glomus moseae 6-control. The results showed that, although the treatments has not significant effects on height of stem , it has significant effects on characteristics of root length colonization percent, number the root node, Root dry weight, soggy yield, yield dry and protein Percent. The results showed that the highest percent of root length colonization(76 percent, number the root node (20, Root dry weight (.94 g, soggy yield (1894.5 g m-2, yield dry (473.63 g m-2 and protein Percent (27.33 percent was gained in integrated mycorhhiza and nitrocsine treatment. On the basis of results, the integration of mycrhhoriza and biological rhizobium is suggested as the best fertilizer treatment for Vicia vilosa Roth.

  17. Cytogenetic effects of leachates from tannery solid waste on the somatic cells of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saurabh; Chauhan, L K S; Pande, P N; Gupta, S K

    2004-04-01

    The contamination of surface- and groundwater by the leaching of solid wastes generated by industrial activities as a result of water runoff and rainfall is a matter of great concern. The leachates from tannery solid waste (TSW), a major environmental pollutant, were examined for their possible genotoxic effects on the somatic cells of Vicia faba. Leachates were prepared from solid wastes procured from leather-tanning industrial sites, and V. faba seedlings were exposed to three test concentrations, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, through soil and aqueous media for 5 days. The root tips examined for cytogenetic damage revealed that leachate of TSW significantly inhibited the mitotic index and induced significantly frequent chromosomal and mitotic aberrations (CA/MA) in a dose-dependent manner. The chemical analysis of TSW samples revealed that the chief constituents were chromium and nickel, which may cause genetic abnormalities. The frequency of aberrations was found to be higher in the root meristematic cells of Vicia faba exposed through the aqueous medium than those exposed through the soil medium. The results of the present study indicated that contamination of potable water bodies by leachates of TSW may cause genotoxicity. For the biomonitoring of complex mixtures of toxicants with the V. faba bioassay, the use of the aqueous medium seems to be a more promising method than the use of the soil medium.

  18. Genotoxic effects and induction of phytochelatins in the presence of cadmium in Vicia faba roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béraud, Eric; Cotelle, Sylvie; Leroy, Pierre; Férard, Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates different effects in roots of Vicia faba (broad bean) after exposure to cadmium. Genotoxic effects were assessed by use of the well-known Vicia root tip micronucleus assay. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the mitotic index in root tip cells. Finally, molecular induction mechanisms were evaluated by measuring phytochelatins with HPLC. After hydroponical exposure of V. faba roots to a range of cadmium concentrations and during different exposure times, the results of this approach showed large variations, according to the endpoint measured: after 48 h of exposure, genotoxic effects were found between 7.5 x 10(-8) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2), and cytotoxic effects were observed between 2.5 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2). Statistically significant phytochelatin (PC) concentrations were measured at >or=10(-6)M CdCl(2) for PC(2), and at >or=10(-5)M CdCl(2) for PC3 and PC4.

  19. Tannin, protein contents and fatty acid compositions of the seeds of several Vicia L. species from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kökten, Kağan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedoils of six Vicia species (Leguminosae were investigated for their protein, tannin contents and fatty acid compositions. The protein contents of the seeds were found to be between 21.87%-31.33%. The tannin contents of the seeds were found to be between 0.13%-1.07%. The fatty acid compositions of these six different species were determined by the GC of the methyl esters of their fatty acids. The oilseeds of Vicia species contain palmitic and stearic acids as the major component of their fatty acids, among the saturated acids, with small amounts of myristic, palmitoleic and margaric acids. The major unsaturated fatty acids found in the oilseeds were oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. In this study, the total saturated fatty acids of Vicia species were between 18.5 and 22.4% while the total unsaturated fatty acids were between 71.1 and 80.3%.

    Las semillas oleaginosas de seis especies de Vicia (Leguninoas fueron investigadas por su proteína, contenido en taninos y composición en ácidos grasos. El contenido de proteína en las semillas vario entre un 21.87%-31.33%. El contenido de taninos en las semillas vario entre un 0.13%- 1.07%. La composición de ácidos grasos de estas seis diferentes especies fue determinada por GC mediante los esteres metílicos de sus ácidos grasos. Las semillas oleaginosas de las especies de Vicia contienen ácidos palmítico y esteárico como componentes mayoritarios entre los ácidos grasos saturados, con pequeñas cantidades de ácido mirístico, ácido palmitoleico y ácido margárico. Los ácidos grasos insaturados mayoritarios encontrados en las semillas oleaginosas fueron el ácido oleico, ácido linoleico y ácido linolénico. En este estudio, el contenido total de ácidos grasos saturado de las especies de Vicia vario entre 18.5 y 22.4% mientras que el de insaturados vario entre 71.1 y 80.3%.

  20. Differences in uptake and distribution patterns between zinc and cadmium in Vicia villosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PIAO Hechun; LIU Congqiang

    2010-01-01

    Vicia villosa is an annual legume plant. Field-growing experiments were performed on six plots under different soil conditions. Variations in the concentrations of Zn and Cd in tissues were investigated. Differences in distribution patterns between Zn and Cd appeared during growing: the concentrations of Zn in roots in sandstone-derived soils were relatively higher than those in limestone-derived soils, and the uptake patterns of Zn by roots should be similar to those of iron (Fe). However, the concentrations of Cd in roots in limestone-derived soils were higher than those in sandstone-derived soils, and the uptake patterns of Cd by roots should be similar to those of manganese (Mn). On the contrast, the distribution patterns of Zn were similar to those of Mn, while the distribution patterns of Cd were similar to those of Fe in tissues, indicating that the uptake patterns of Zn and Cd were different from distribution patterns.

  1. Effect of high temperature treatment of Vicia faba roots on the oxidative stress enzymes in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filek, M; Baczek, R; Niewiadomska, E; Pilipowicz, M; Kościelniak, J

    1997-01-01

    The following types of superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been found in the leaves of Vicia faba: one isoenzyme of Mn-SOD and four isoenzymes of Cu/Zn-SOD. The treatments of roots with boiling water caused an increase of SOD activity in the leaves. The highest increase was measured after 5 s of the treatment. It was accompanied by a significant increase in catalase activity. Analysis of cell fractions' revealed an increase of SOD activity in the plastids and mitochondria isolated from the leaves of those plants whose roots were heat-treated. However, there was no distinct change of SOD activity in the cytosolic fraction. The possibility of an electric wave intervention inducing oxidative stress in the leaves is discussed.

  2. Vicia faba Hypersensitivity and ASA Intolerance in a Farmer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Damiani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The IgE-mediated allergic reactions to food are caused, generally, by ingestion. However, they can be rarely induced by exposure to airborne food particles through the handling or the cooking. Vicia faba is a vegetable which belongs to Legumes or Fabaceae family, Fabales order. Allergic reactions after ingestion of legumes and cases of asthma after exposure to the cooking vapors have been reported in the literature. A paper assessed the volatile substances (insect repellents released by V. faba. The authors demonstrated that this plant produces several chemical substances, such as small quantities of methyl salicylate. We describe a case of occupational allergy, induced by handling during picking up of fresh broad beans, in a farmer with history of adverse reaction after eating the cooked and raw vegetable.

  3. Post-transcriptional regulation of NifA expression by Hfq and RNase E complex in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghua Zhang; Guofan Hong

    2009-01-01

    NifA is the general transcriptional activator of nitrogen fixation genes in diazotrophic bacteria. In Rhizobium leguminosarum by. viciae strain 8401/pRL1JI, the NifA gene is part of a gene cluster (fixABCXNifAB). In this study, results showed that in R. leguminosarum by. viciae 8401/pRLI1I, host factor required (Hfq), and RNase E were involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of NifA expression. It was found that Hfq-dependent RNase E cleavage of NifA mRNA was essen-tial for NifA translation. The cleavage site is located at 32 nucleotides upstream of the NifA translational start codon. A possible explanation based on predicted RNA secondary structure of the NifA 5'-untranslated region was that the cleavage made ribosome-binding sites accessible for translation.

  4. Effects of endophyte colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae and Diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komivi S Akutse

    Full Text Available Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1 and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1 on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd and 3(rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68 and D. isaea (p = 0.45 and adult' survival times (p = 0.06. The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001 in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54 was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression.

  5. Soil genotoxicity assessment--results of an interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay in the context of ISO standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelle, Sylvie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Muller, Serge; Chenon, Pascale; Manier, Nicolas; Pandard, Pascal; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Maritxu; Pinelli, Eric; Giorgetti, Lucia; Barbafieri, Meri; Silva, Valéria C; Engel, Fernanda; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2015-01-01

    The Vicia micronucleus assay was standardized in an international protocol, ISO 29200, "Assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants-Vicia faba micronucleus test," for soil or soil materials (e.g., compost, sludge, sediment, waste, and fertilizing materials). The aim of this interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay was to investigate the robustness of this in vivo assay in terms of its applicability in different countries where each participant were asked to use their own seeds and reference soil, in agreement with the ISO 29200 standard. The ISO 29200 standard protocol was adopted for this study, and seven laboratories from three countries (France, Italy, and Brazil) participated in the study. Negative and positive controls were correctly evaluated by 100 % of the participants. In the solid-phase test, the micronucleus frequency (number of micronuclei/1,000 cells) varied from 0.0 to 1.8 for the negative control (i.e., Hoagland's solution) and from 5.8 to 85.7 for the positive control (i.e., maleic hydrazide), while these values varied from 0.0 to 1.7 for the negative control and from 14.3 to 97.7 for the positive control in the case of liquid-phase test. The variability in the data obtained does not adversely affect the robustness of the protocol assessed, on the condition that the methodology described in the standard ISO 29200 is strictly respected. Thus, the Vicia micronucleus test (ISO 29200) is appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests cited in legislation related to risk assessment of genotoxicity potential.

  6. Impact of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR on growth and antioxidant status of Vicia faba L. under copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-04-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reduce the toxicity of heavy metals in plants in polluted environments. In this work, the effects of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR strains on the growth of Vicia faba grown under copper stress were assessed during hydroponic culture. Growth parameters, copper (Cu) accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. Copper concentrations above 1mM damaged plant growth, but co-inoculation reduced its harmful effect. Co-inoculation of plants treated with 1mM Cu and 2mM Cu increased the dry weights as compared with Cu-treated and uninoculated plants. However, it decreased copper uptake up to 80% in the roots of 1-mM-Cu-treated plants as compared to non-inoculated control. Copper tolerance in Vicia faba is linked to the activity of antioxidant systems that are modulated by metal concentrations: both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were higher in the presence of Cu; a lower Cu dose of 0.5mM stimulated ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and/or peroxidase (POX) activities in shoots and roots; however in nodules CAT appeared to be the main peroxidase in H2O2 scavenging. The 1mM Cu treatment enhanced SOD, CAT and APX activities in roots and only SOD and POX were activated in shoots. All enzyme activities were inhibited by inoculation of 2mM Cu. The effect of inoculation with copper-accumulating PGPRs and the status of the antioxidant enzyme system were linked to changes in the copper tolerance status of Vicia faba. Our results suggested that Vicia faba inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR Enterobacter clocae and Pseudomonas sp. could help to alleviate copper stress under hydroponic conditions. This result should be tested under field conditions for soil fertilization and phytostabilisation purposes.

  7. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different.

  8. Environmental impact of sunscreen nanomaterials: Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of altered TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites on Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltete, Anne-Sophie, E-mail: as.foltete@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Masfaraud, Jean-Francois, E-mail: masfa@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Bigorgne, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.bigorgne@umail.univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Nahmani, Johanne, E-mail: Johanne.nahmani@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Chaurand, Perrine, E-mail: chaurand@cerege.fr [Centre Europeen de Recherches et d' Enseignement des Geosciences de l' Environnement (CEREGE), UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Mineral sunscreen nanocomposites, based on a nano-TiO{sub 2} core, coated with aluminium hydroxide and dimethicone films, were submitted to an artificial ageing process. The resulting Altered TiO{sub 2} Nanocomposites (ATN) were then tested in the liquid phase on the plant model Vicia faba, which was exposed 48 h to three nominal concentrations: 5, 25 and 50 mg ATN/L. Plant growth, photosystem II maximum quantum yield, genotoxicity (micronucleus test) and phytochelatins levels showed no change compared to controls. Oxidative stress biomarkers remained unchanged in shoots while in roots, glutathione reductase activity decreased at 50 mg ATN/L and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased for 5 and 25 mg ATN/L. Nevertheless, despite the weak response of biological endpoints, ICP-MS measurements revealed high Ti and Al concentrations in roots, and X-ray fluorescence micro-spectroscopy revealed titanium internalization in superficial root tissues. Eventual long-term effects on plants may occur. - Highlights: > TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites were artificially aged. > Vicia faba was exposed 48 h to the alteration byproducts in liquid phase. > Few endpoints were modified significantly from control. > A clogging on the roots and titanium penetration in tissues were suspected. > Eventual long-term effects of the particles may occur. - Artificially aged TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites caused few damages to Vicia faba in 48 h exposure, but particles clogged on roots and Ti entered the root tissues.

  9. 我国蚕豆育种进展%Advances in the Breeding of Vicia faba L.in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建群; 杨梅; 李洋; 陈丽君; 余东梅

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed the advances in research on genetic resources, breeding objectives, genetic regularities and breeding methods of Vicia faba L. The goal of breeding Vicia faba L. Was stable yield, high yield, great quality and resistance, the collection, research and utilization of genetic resources should be strengthened, the genetic map was established to combine the new and traditional breeding technology; it was proposed to encourage the seed company joining in the select breeding of Viciafaba L. .%系统地回顾了我国在蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)种质资源、育种目标、遗传规律和育种方法等方面中取得的进展;认为我国蚕豆育种的目标是稳产、高产、优质、抗逆性强,应该加强对种质资源的收集、研究、利用,建立蚕豆遗传图谱,将现代育种技术与传统育种方法相结合;提出了鼓励种子公司加入到蚕豆新品种选育中的设想.

  10. Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins-- Addition of Bacillus Cereus Biovar Anthracis to the HHS List of Select Agents and Toxins. Interim final rule and request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is adding Bacillus cereus Biovar anthracis to the list of HHS select agents and toxins as a Tier 1 select agent. We are taking this action to regulate this agent that is similar to B. anthracis to prevent its misuse, which could cause a biological threat to public health and/or national security.

  11. Effects of soil pH on the Vicia-micronucleus genotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyèvre, Adrien; Foltête, Anne Sophie; Aran, Delphine; Muller, Serge; Cotelle, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    In the field of contaminated sites and soil management, chemical analyses only bring typological data about pollution. As far as bioavailability and effects on organisms are concerned, we need ecotoxicology tools. In this domain, among many existing tests, we chose to study genotoxicity because it is a short-term endpoint with long-term consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of soil pH on the results of the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test for the two following reasons: (i) to define the pH range within which the test can be performed without modifying the soil to be tested, within the framework of the ISO standard of the test and (ii) to provides information about the effects of the pH on the genotoxic potential of soils. In this context, we modified the pH of a standard soil with HCl or NaOH and we spiked the matrix with copper (2, 4 and 8 mmol kg(-1) dry soil) or with maleic hydrazide, an antigerminative chemical (5, 10 and 20 μmol kg(-1) dry soil). We concluded that the pH had no effect on the mitotic index or micronucleus frequency in the root cells of the negative controls: extreme pH values did not induce micronucleus formation in root cells. Moreover, according to our results, the Vicia-micronucleus test can be performed with pH values ranging between 3.2 and 9.0, but in the ISO 29200 "Soil quality--assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants--V. faba micronucleus test" we recommended to use a control soil with a pH value ranging between 5 and 8 for a more accurate assessment of chemical genotoxicity. We also found that acid pH could increase the genotoxic potential of pollutants, especially heavy metals. With hydrazide maleic spiked soil, plants were placed in a situation of double stress, i.e. toxicity caused by extreme pH values and toxicity induced by the pollutant.

  12. Microtubules Are Essential for Guard-Cell Function in Vicia and Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Eisinger; David Ehrhardt; Winslow Briggs

    2012-01-01

    Radially arranged cortical microtubules are a prominent feature of guard cells.Guard cells expressing GFPtubulin showed consistent changes in the appearance of microtubules when stomata opened or closed.Guard cells showed fewer microtubule structures as stomata closed,whether induced by transfer to darkness,ABA,hydrogen peroxide,or sodium hydrogen carbonate.Guard cells kept in the dark (closed stomata) showed increases in microtubule structures and stomatal aperture on light treatment.GFP-EB1,marking microtubule growing plus ends,showed no change in number of plus ends or velocity of assembly on stomatal closure.Since the number of growing plus ends and the rate of plus-end growth did not change when microtubule structure numbers declined,microtubule instability and/or rearrangement must be responsible for the apparent loss of microtubules.Guard cells with closed stomata showed more cytosolic GFP-fluorescence than those with open stomata as cortical microtubules became disassembled,although with a large net loss in total fluorescence.Microtubule-targeted drugs blocked guard-cell function in Vicia and Arabidopsis.Oryzalin disrupted guard-cell microtubules and prevented stomatal opening and taxol stabilized guard-cell microtubules and delayed stomatal closure.Gas exchange measurements indicated that the transgenes for fluorescent-labeled proteins did not disrupt normal stomatal function.These dynamic changes in guard-cell microtubules combined with our inhibitor studies provide evidence for an active role of microtubules in guard-cell function.

  13. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sener AKINCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected both germination and harvesting, enhancing root length and biomass. Humic acid (HA caused significant increase of fresh (RFW and dry (RDW weights by 30.1% and 56.6% of broad bean roots, respectively. Flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analyses revealed that K content was major nutrient among the tested elements. Humic acid increased the contents of Na and K significantly. The content of Ca and Fe was not significantly increased whereas Cu, Mn and Zn content decreased under HA treatment.

  14. Plant regeneration from protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, M; Kohn, H; Nibbe, M; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1996-11-01

    Protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis isolated from epicotyls and shoot tips of etiolated seedlings were embedded in 1.4% sodium-alginate at a final density of 2.5×10(5) protoplasts/ml and cultivated in Kao and Michayluk-medium containing 0.5 mg/I of each of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6 -benzylaminopurine. A division frequency of 36% and a plating efficiency of 0.40-0.5% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred onto gelrite-solidified Murashige and Skoog-media containing various growth regulators. Regeneration of plants was achieved via two morphologically distinguishable pathways. A two step protocol (initially on medium with a high auxin concentration followed by a culture phase with lowered auxin amount) was used to regenerate somatic embryos, whereas cultivation on medium containing thidiazuron and naphthylacetic acid resulted in shoot morphogenesis. Mature plants were recovered from both somatic embryos as well as from thidiazuron-induced shoots.

  15. Characterization of the urease gene cluster from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffanin, Annita; Cadahia, Esther; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Palacios, Manuel

    2002-04-01

    Moderate levels of urease activity (ca. 300 mU mg(-1)) were detected in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791 vegetative cells. This activity did not require urea for induction and was partially repressed by the addition of ammonium into the medium. Lower levels of urease activity (ca. 100 mU mg(-1)) were detected also in pea bacteroids. A DNA region of ca. 9 kb containing the urease structural genes ( ureA, ureB and ureC), accessory genes ( ureD, ureE, ureF, and ureG), and five additional ORFs ( orf83, orf135, orf207, orf223, and orf287) encoding proteins of unknown function was sequenced. Three of these ORFs ( orf83, orf135 and orf207) have a homologous counterpart in a gene cluster from Sinorhizobium meliloti, reported to be involved in urease and hydrogenase activities. R. leguminosarum mutant strains carrying Tn 5 insertions within this region exhibited a urease-negative phenotype, but induced wild-type levels of hydrogenase and nitrogenase activities in bacteroids. orf287 encodes a potential transmembrane protein with a C-terminal GGDEF domain. A mutant affected in orf287 exhibited normal levels of urease activity in culture cells. Experiments aimed at cross-complementing Ni-binding proteins required for urease and hydrogenase synthesis (UreE and HypB, respectively) indicated that these two proteins are not functionally interchangeable in R. leguminosarum.

  16. SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE WITH PEA PLANTS AS INFLUENCED BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the effects of A. chroococcum on the proliferation of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv in a solid-carrier inoculant and on symbiotic effectiveness of Rlv with pea plants grown under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory experiment it was found that proliferation of both bacterial species, Rlv and A. chroococcum, in the dual-culture inoculants was efficient, and that A. chroococcum had no adverse effects on the development of the rhizobia (Rlv in the solid-carrier inoculant. In a pot experiment the highest number of nodules was detected on roots of pea plants inoculated with the dual-culture inoculant containing Rlv and A. chroococcum, slightly lower numbers on pea roots inoculated with the mono-culture inoculum of Rlv and almost no nodules were found on the roots of pea un-inoculated (control treatment with the bacteria. In the micro-plot experiment conducted in the years 2011–2012 pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds with the mono-culture inoculant of Rlv or with the mixed inoculant of Rlv and A. chroococcum slightly increased nodule numbers/plant, pod numbers/plant and seed numbers/pod, as compared to the un-inoculated control, but these differences were not reflected in pea seed yields/m2, which were similar in all treatments.

  17. The Impact of Processing on Antioxidant Activity of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Luo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of 70% acetone extracts of raw and processed seeds of faba bean (Vicia faba. L was evaluated by various in vitro antioxidant assays, including total antioxidant, free radical scavenging, reducing power, metal ion chelating, &beta-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching and antihemolytic activities. The total phenolics and tannin contents were higher in the extract of seeds processed by autoclaving with 1% ash solution (3.6 and 1.9/100 g extract, respectively. In general, all the extracts of processed seeds exhibited higher activity in various antioxidant systems, when compared to raw seeds but significant differences were noticed between processing methods. The extract of seeds autoclaved with 1% sugar solution showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC507.4 mg/mL. Interestingly, the extract of dry heated seeds registered higher inhibition of hemolysis (76.8% compared to standards butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA (61.8% and α-tocopherol (52.6% at the concentration of 500 &mug/mL.

  18. Nitric oxide mitigates arsenic-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, A K

    2015-09-01

    The protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) against arsenic (As)-induced structural disturbances in Vicia faba have been investigated. As treatment (0.25, 0.50, and 1 mM) resulted in a declined growth of V. faba seedlings. Arsenic treatment stimulates the activity of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST content were decreased. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX, and GST activity), mitotic index, and induction of different chromosomal abnormalities, hence led to oxidative stress. The concentration of SNP (0.02 mM) was very effective in counteracting the adverse effect of As toxicity. These abnormalities use partially or fully reversed by a simultaneous application of As and NO donor and sodium nitroprusside and has an ameliorating effect against As-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in V. faba roots.

  19. Cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumulation under water stress in Vicia faba leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; He, F; Jia, W

    2001-08-01

    Water stress-induced ABA accumulation is a cellular signaling process from water stress perception to activation of genes encoding key enzymes of ABA biosynthesis, of which the water stress-signal perception by cells or triggering mechanism of the ABA accumulation is the center in the whole process of ABA related-stress signaling in plants. The cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumulation under water stress was studied in leaves of Vicia faba. Mannitol at 890 mmol * kg(-1) osmotic concentration induced an increase of more than 5 times in ABA concentration in detached leaf tissues, but the same concentration of mannitol only induced an increase of less than 40 % in ABA concentration in protoplasts. Like in detached leaf tissues, ABA concentration in isolated cells increased more than 10 times under the treatment of mannitol at 890 mmol * kg(-1) concentration, suggesting that the interaction between plasmalemma and cell wall was essential to triggering of the water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Neither Ca(2+)-chelating agent EGTA nor Ca(2+)channel activator A23187 nor the two cytoskeleton inhibitors, colchicine and cytochalasin B, had any effect on water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Interestingly water stress-induced ABA accumulation was effectively inhibited by a non-plasmalemma-permeable sulfhydryl-modifier PCMBS (p-chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonic acid), suggesting that plasmalemma protein(s) may be involved in the triggering of water stress-induced ABA accumulation, and the protein may contain sulfhydryl group at its function domain.

  20. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aradhana; Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from insecticides toxicity. The seeds of Vicia faba var IIVR Selection-1 were treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm) of the insecticides alphamethrin (AM) and endosulfan (ES) for 6 h with and without 12 h conditioning treatment of SA (0.01 mM). Insecticides treatment caused a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and induction of different types of chromosomal abnormalities in the meristematic cells of broad bean roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA resulted in increased MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities. SA application also regulated proline accumulation and carotenoid content in the leaf tissues. SA resulted in the decrement of insecticides induced increase in proline content and increased the carotenoids content. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is more effective in alleviating the toxic effects of insecticides at higher concentrations than that at lower concentrations.

  1. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Wang

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC, rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins.

  2. Structure and chromosomal localization of DNA sequences related to ribosomal subrepeats in Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, F; Cremonini, R; Zolfino, C; Tucci, G F; D'Ovidio, R; Delre, V; DePace, C; Scarascia Mugnozza, G T; Cionini, P G

    1991-05-01

    Subrepeating sequences of 325 bp found in the ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS) of Vicia faba and responsible for variations in the length of the polycistronic units for rRNA were isolated and used as probes for in situ hybridization. Hybridization occurs at many regions of the metaphase chromosomes besides those bearing rRNA genes, namely chromosome ends and all the heterochromatic regions revealed by enhanced fluorescence after quinacrine staining. The DNA homologous to the 325 bp repeats that does not reside in the IGS was isolated, cloned and sequenced. It is composed of tandemly arranged 336 bp elements, each comprising two highly related 168 bp sequences. This structure is very similar to that of the IGS repeats and ca. 75% nucleotide sequence identity can be observed between these and the 168 bp doublets. The most obvious difference lies in the deletion, in the former, of a 14 bp segment from one of the two related sequences. It is hypothesized that the IGS repeats are derived from the 336 bp elements and have been transposed to ribosomal cistrons from other genome fractions. The possible relations between these sequences and others with similar structural features found in other species are discussed.

  3. DNA Damage in Vicia faba by Exposure to Agricultural Soils from Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Santacruz, L; García-Nieto, E; García-Gallegos, E; Romo-Gómez, C; Ortiz-Ortiz, E; Costilla-Salazar, R; Luna-Zendejas, H S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify some POPs, such as p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, and PCBs in agricultural soils of Tlaxcala, Mexico and evaluate their capacity for eliciting DNA damage, using Vicia faba as bioindicator. The values of ΣDDTs and ΣPCBs ranged from 8-24 to 118-26,983 µg/kg, respectively. The samples T1 (HQ = 9.3) and T2 (HQ = 53.9) showed concentrations of ΣPCBs higher than Canadian guidelines (SQGE = 500 µg/kg). The genotoxicity testing produced percentages of DNA fragmentation higher than negative control and statistically significant (p < 0.05), both in agricultural soils and organic extracts. The soils T2, T3, N4, and N5 showed a DICA from 2.6 to 3.1 times, statistically higher (p < 0.05) than negative control. In general, the agricultural soils have greater genotoxic capacity than the organic extracts, suggesting a potential risk to biota that depends upon this ecosystem.

  4. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kevin; Peng, Eric D; Huang, Amy S; Xia, Dong; Vermont, Sarah J; Lentini, Gaelle; Lebrun, Maryse; Wastling, Jonathan M; Bradley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC), rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins.

  5. Evaluation of several methods for breaking dormancy of bitter vetch seeds (Vicia ervilia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhi Hossein Reza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the effects of different treatments on breaking dormancy and germination of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L. freshly harvested seeds for seeding immediately. Partial scarified seeds (30 seconds with sandpaper were subjected to different treatments including: GA3 (250, 500 and 750 ppm, KNO3 (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% w/v, cold stratification (2, 4 and 6 days, sulfuric acid (25, 50 and 75 seconds, hot water (90°C; for 2.5 and 5 minutes, hydropriming via seed soaking in distilled water (4 and 8 hours and mechanical scarification. Among the mentioned treatments, cold stratification for 6 days had a best effect on germination related parameters final germination percentage, mean germination time and vigour indexthan the other periods. In contrast to scarification with acid and hot water, mechanical scarification improved germination parameters but this effect was lower than the cold stratification. The results suggest that bitter vetch seed has both physical and physiological dormancy.

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L. seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares (PLS regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation (r2 of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  7. Short-term toxic effects of chlorobenzenes on broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Wan; LI; Peijun; ZHOU; Qixing; SUN; Tieheng; TAI; Peid

    2005-01-01

    The root growth, changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity,malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein level of broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings were researched at different soil concentrations of chlorobenzene (CB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The results showed that root growth of seedlings was growth was, however, restored to some extent although there was a delay in returning to the control level. The total soluble protein content in seedlings increased with TCB concentration and duration of exposure. Effect of TCB stress on SOD activity in seedlings displayed a significant were placed in clean tap water for 3 d following exposure to 5 d of TCB stress to clear tap water (P<0.05). The experiments also revealed that a significant increase of MDA level in seedlings was a positive correlation between TCB concentration and MDA level. All the above results showed that SOD activity and MDA level of broadbean seedlings might be proposed as the biomarkers for short-term TCB contamination in soil. Compared to TCB, the toxicity of 50-1000 μg · g-1 CB or HCB in soil to broadbean seedlings was not observed after a 3 d exposure.

  8. Molecular tools for utilization of mitochondrial diversity in faba bean (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed in silico PCR analyses utilizing complete mitochondrial (mtDNA genome sequences of faba bean (Vicia faba and two related species, Vigna angularis and Vigna radiata, currently available in GenBank, to infer whether 15 published universal primer pairs for amplification of all 14 cis-spliced introns in genes of NADH subunits (nad genes are suitable for V. faba and related species. Then, we tested via PCR reactions whether seven out of 15 primer pairs would generate PCR products suitable for further manipulation in 16 genotypes of V. faba representing all botanical varieties of this species (major, minor, equina and subsp. paucijuga of various levels of improvement (traditional and improved cultivars originating from Europe, Africa, Asia and south America. We provide new PCR primers for amplification of nad1 intron 2/3 in V. faba, and demonstrate intraspecific variability in primary nucleotide sequences at this locus. Based on outcomes of both in silico predictions and PCR amplification, we report a set of PCR primers for amplification of five introns in nad genes that are promising molecular tools for future phylogeographic and other studies in this species for which unambiguous data on wild ancestors, centre of origin and domestication are lacking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005

  9. Molecular Diversity Assessment Using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers in Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem S. Alghamdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationship among 58 faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes. Fourteen SRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 1036 differently sized well-resolved peaks (fragments, of which all were polymorphic with a 0.96 PIC value and discriminated all of the 58 faba bean genotypes. An average pairwise similarity of 21% was revealed among the genotypes ranging from 2% to 65%. At a similarity of 28%, UPGMA clustered the genotypes into three main groups comprising 78% of the genotypes. The local landraces and most of the Egyptian genotypes in addition to the Sudan genotypes were grouped in the first main cluster. The advanced breeding lines were scattered in the second and third main clusters with breeding lines from the ICARDA and genotypes introduced from Egypt. At a similarity of 47%, all the genotypes formed separated clusters with the exceptions of Hassawi 1 and Hassawi 2. Group analysis of the genotypes according to their geographic origin and type showed that the landraces were grouped according to their origin, while others were grouped according to their seed type. To our knowledge, this is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in faba bean. Such information will be useful to determine optimal breeding strategies to allow continued progress in faba bean breeding.

  10. Effects of Glomus mosseae on the toxicity of heavy metals to Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu-hong; LIN Ai-jun; CHEN Bao-dong; WANG You-shan; SMITH Sally E; SMITH F Andrew

    2006-01-01

    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on the growth of Vicia faba and toxicity induced by heavy metals (HMs) (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) in a field soil contaminated by a mixture of these metals. There was also uninoculation treatment (NM) simultaneously. Mycorrhizal (GM) plants have significantly increased growth and tolerance to toxicity induced by heavy metals compared with NM plants. P uptake was significantly increased in GM plants. Mycorrhizal symbiosis reduced the transportation of HMs from root to shoot by immobilizing HMs in the mycorrhizal, shown by increasing the ratios of HMs from root to shoot. Oxidative stress, which can induce DNA damage, is an important mechanism of heavy metal toxicity. GM treatment decreased oxidative stress by intricating antioxidative systems such as peroxidases and non-enzymic systems including soluble protein. The DNA damage induced by heavy metals was detected using comet assay, which showed DNA damage in the plants was decreased by the GM treatment.

  11. [Broad beans (Vicia fava, L.) as an alternative source of protein in chick diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezares, A; Cuca, M; Avila, E; Velásquez, C

    1980-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the possibility of improving the nutritive value of broad beans (Vicia faba, L.) in poultry diets. In the first experiment, raw and autoclaved (1.0 kg/cm2/15 min) beans, with and without antibiotic supplementation, were studied. The results after 21 days showed no significant differences among treatments in regard to body weight. In feed conversion, however, a significant difference was observed when diets prepared with raw beans were supplemented with 20 ppm of flavomycin. In the second experiment raw and autoclaved beans were supplemented with 0, 10, and 20 ppm of virginiamycin and 200 and 400 ppm of flavomycin to study the effect of these two antibiotics. After 28 days, the results indicated no significant differences with antibiotic supplementation in either raw or autoclaved beans. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in body weight was found when beans were autoclaved. In the third experiment, two levels, 31 and 76% of raw and autoclaved beans, were included in the chick diets. The results in body weight, after 28 days, did not show any significant differences between raw and autoclaved beans fed at a 31% level. With the 76% level the autoclaved treatment, however, induced a significantly higher body weight than the diets containing raw beans.

  12. Cytotoxic effects of cylindrospermopsin in mitotic and non-mitotic Vicia faba cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garda, Tamás; Riba, Milán; Vasas, Gábor; Beyer, Dániel; M-Hamvas, Márta; Hajdu, Gréta; Tándor, Ildikó; Máthé, Csaba

    2015-02-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin known as a eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor. We aimed to study its effects on growth, stress responses and mitosis of a eukaryotic model, Vicia faba (broad bean). Growth responses depended on exposure time (3 or 6d), cyanotoxin concentration, culture conditions (dark or continuous light) and V. faba cultivar ("Standard" or "ARC Egypt Cross"). At 6d of exposure, CYN had a transient stimulatory effect on root system growth, roots being possibly capable of detoxification. The toxin induced nucleus fragmentation, blebbing and chromosomal breaks indicating double stranded DNA breaks and programmed cell death. Root necrotic tissue was observed at 0.1-20 μg mL(-1) CYN that probably impeded toxin uptake into vascular tissue. Growth and cell death processes observed were general stress responses. In lateral root tip meristems, lower CYN concentrations (0.01-0.1 μg mL(-1)) induced the stimulation of mitosis and distinct mitotic phases, irrespective of culture conditions or the cultivar used. Higher cyanotoxin concentrations inhibited mitosis. Short-term exposure of hydroxylurea-synchronized roots to 5 μg mL(-1) CYN induced delay of mitosis that might have been related to a delay of de novo protein synthesis. CYN induced the formation of double, split and asymmetric preprophase bands (PPBs), in parallel with the alteration of cell division planes, related to the interference of cyanotoxin with protein synthesis, thus it was a plant- and CYN specific alteration.

  13. ROLE OF ASCORBIC ACID ON GERMINATION INDEXES AND ENZYME ACTIVITY OF VICIA FABA SEEDS GROWN UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Awatif A. Mohsen; Mohsen K. H. Ebrahim; Wael F. S. Ghoraba

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate changes in growth and some metabolic activities in NaCl-stressed bean seedlings, and assessing the role of ascorbic acid to alleviate these changes. The germination was carried out to study the response of presoaked faba bean seeds (Vicia faba cv. Misr 2) in freshly prepared ascorbic acid (50 ppm ≈ 0.3 mM; as recommended dose as described by El-Tayeb, 1995) or distilled water (control) for 4 hrs at natural environmental conditions, to salinity stress duri...

  14. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  15. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaadawi,I.S; KHALIQ,A.; A.A Al-Temimi; Matloob,A

    2011-01-01

    Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba) fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin) at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was ...

  16. Emergence and molecular characterisation of non-toxigenic tox gene-bearing Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar mitis in the United Kingdom, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakikhany, K; Neal, S; Efstratiou, A

    2014-06-05

    Non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae have become increasingly recognised as emerging pathogens across Europe causing severe invasive disease. A subset of non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae are ‘non-toxigenic tox gene-bearing’ (NTTB) strains; these strains are genotypically toxpositive, but do not express the protein. The circulation of NTTB strains was first observed during the 1990s upsurge of diphtheria in Eastern Europe but has not been reported in other European countries. Circulation of NTTB strains could be considered an increased risk for diphtheria and other related diseases, given their possible role as a tox gene reservoir with the theoretical risk of re-emerging toxin expression. Here we report the characterisation of 108 non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae biovar mitis isolates submitted to the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Reference Centre for Diphtheria at Public Health England, London, between 2003 and 2012, in order to determine the presence of NTTB strains. Using molecular methods, five NTTB isolates were identified; four human isolates (MLST type 212) and one isolate from a companion cat (MLST type 40). The emergence of these strains could indicate continuation of the circulation of potentially toxigenic strains and appropriate laboratory diagnostic methods should be used for detection. Given the complacency that currently exists in Europe awareness with regards to diphtheria diagnostics must be enhanced.

  17. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.; conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila Carmen M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of genetic markers is complex and costly in species with little pre-existing genomic information. Faba bean possesses one of the largest and least studied genomes among cultivated crop plants and no gene-based genetic maps exist. Gene-based orthologous markers allow chromosomal regions and levels of synteny to be characterised between species, reveal phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal evolution, and enable targeted identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba, using an F6 population developed from a cross between the lines Vf6 (equina type and Vf27 (paucijuga type. Results Of 796 intron-targeted amplified polymorphic (ITAP markers screened, 151 markers could be used to construct a comparative genetic map. Linkage analysis revealed seven major and five small linkage groups (LGs, one pair and 12 unlinked markers. Each LG was comprised of three to 30 markers and varied in length from 23.6 cM to 324.8 cM. The map spanned a total length of 1685.8 cM. A simple and direct macrosyntenic relationship between faba bean and Medicago truncatula was evident, while faba bean and lentil shared a common rearrangement relative to M. truncatula. One hundred and four of the 127 mapped markers in the 12 LGs, which were previously assigned to M. truncatula genetic and physical maps, were found in regions syntenic between the faba bean and M. truncatula genomes. However chromosomal rearrangements were observed that could explain the difference in chromosome numbers between these three legume species. These rearrangements suggested high conservation of M. truncatula chromosomes 1, 5 and 8; moderate conservation of chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 7 and no conservation with M. truncatula chromosome 6. Multiple PCR amplicons and comparative mapping were suggestive of

  18. 蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)叶片蒸腾速率的因子分析%Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Transpiration Rate of Vicia faba L. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍思伟

    2001-01-01

    利用LI-1600稳态气孔计测定了蚕豆叶片蒸腾速率的日变化,以及水分胁迫下蒸腾速率的变化,探讨了环境因子对蚕豆叶片蒸腾速率的影响.结果表明,光量子通量密度是影响蒸腾速率的主要气象因子,土壤含水量影响叶片相对含水量,并通过气孔扩散阻力来影响蒸腾速率.%By using LI-1600 steady state porometer,the transpiration changes of the Vicia faba L.leaves were determined through a day and under the condition of the water stress,in order to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on the transpiration rate of the Vicia faba leaves.The result indicated that PFD is the principal meteorological factor influencing transpiration.The soil water content influenced the relative water content of leaf leaves,and also influenced the transpiration by stoma diffusing resistance.

  19. Planting geometry to optimize growth and productivity in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Bhatt, B P; Sundaram, P K; Gupta, A K; Singh, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) responses to alteration of its ambient environment leads to certain modification in the crop phenology, yield attributes and economic yield. To know the extent and pattern of response by faba bean to alterations, a two year field experimentation was carried out with two crop establishment methods (i) flatbed planting (ii) raised bed planting, four planting geometry (i) 30 x 20 cm(ii) 30 x 30 cm (iii) 30 x 45 cm and (iv) 45X45cm and three seeding depth. All the treatment (two crop establishment methods, four planting geometry and three seeding depth) were combined together consisting twenty four treatments, were organized in factorial experiment in complete randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. Data were recorded on growth and development; yield attributes and yield. Soil analysis was done and finally statistical tool were applied to come in to valid conclusion. Raised bed planting proves superior over flatbed in case of seed yield. Square planting architect with 30 cm apart prove better (3690.9 kg ha(-1)) than other tested planting geometry. Seeding at 10 cm depth showed, significant improvement in seed yield per plant and per ha over other two tested seeding depth. Phosphorus availability was significantly higher in raised bed planting (36.9 kg ha(-1)). However, available K (kg ha(-1)) was significantly influenced by planting geometry and seeding depth. It was maximum (155.2 kg ha(-1)) with 30 x 45 cm plant geometry, proved significantly higher than 30 x 20 cm and 30 x 30 cm and at par with 45 x 45 cm planting.

  20. Short-term toxic effects of chlorobenzenes on broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan; Li, Peijun; Zhou, Qixing; Sun, Tieheng; Tai, Peidong; Xu, Huaxia

    2005-05-01

    The root growth, changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein level of broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings were researched at different soil concentrations of chlorobenzene (CB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The results showed that root growth of seedlings was interrupted after 5 d of 50-200 microg x g(-1) TCB treatment. During a 3 d recovery period, root growth was, however, restored to some extent although there was a delay in returning to the control level. The total soluble protein content in seedlings increased with TCB concentration and duration of exposure. Effect of TCB stress on SOD activity in seedlings displayed a significant dose-effect relationship for 1-5 d of 50-200 microg x g(-1) treatment. When broadbean seedlings were placed in clean tap water for 3 d following exposure to 5 d of TCB stress to clear tap water for 3 d, SOD activity at 50 microg x g(-1) TCB recovered towards control level (P>0.05) while a significant increase in SOD activity was observed at 100 and 200 microg x g(-1) TCB compared to control (P<0.05). The experiments also revealed that a significant increase of MDA level in seedlings occurred after 3 and 5 d of 100 and 200 microg x g(-1) TCB treatment (P<0.05 and P<0.01), and there was a positive correlation between TCB concentration and MDA level. All the above results showed that SOD activity and MDA level of broadbean seedlings might be proposed as the biomarkers for short-term TCB contamination in soil. Compared to TCB, the toxicity of 50-1000 microg x g(-1) CB or HCB in soil to broadbean seedlings was not observed after a 3 d exposure.

  1. Characterization of genes involved in erythritol catabolism in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Christopher K; Rath, Amber M; Noel, Tanya C; Hynes, Michael F

    2006-07-01

    A genetic locus encoding erythritol uptake and catabolism genes was identified in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, and shown to be plasmid encoded in a wide range of R. leguminosarum strains. A Tn5-B22 mutant (19B-3) unable to grow on erythritol was isolated from a mutant library of R. leguminosarum strain VF39SM. The mutated gene eryF was cloned and partially sequenced, and determined to have a high homology to permease genes of ABC transporters. A cosmid complementing the mutation (pCos42) was identified and was shown to carry all the genes necessary to restore the ability to grow on erythritol to a VF39SM strain cured of pRleVF39f. In the genomic DNA sequence of strain 3841, the gene linked to the mutation in 19B-3 is flanked by a cluster of genes with high homology to the known erythritol catabolic genes from Brucella spp. Through mutagenesis studies, three distinct operons on pCos42 that are required for growth on erythritol were identified: an ABC-transporter operon (eryEFG), a catabolic operon (eryABCD) and an operon (deoR-tpiA2-rpiB) that encodes a gene with significant homology to triosephosphate isomerase (tpiA2). These genes all share high sequence identity to genes in the erythritol catabolism region of Brucella spp., and clustalw alignments suggest that horizontal transfer of the erythritol locus may have occurred between R. leguminosarum and Brucella. Transcription of the eryABCD operon is repressed by EryD and is induced by the presence of erythritol. Mutant 19B-3 was impaired in its ability to compete against wild-type for nodulation of pea plants but was still capable of forming nitrogen-fixing nodules.

  2. Effect of kiln dust from a cement factory on growth of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ismet; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Oztürk, Münir

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to study the effects of different amounts of kiln dust mixed with soil on the seed germination, plant growth, leaf area and water content of Vicia faba cv. Eresen. The reason for this was that cement kiln dust generated as a by-product from the cement factories is rich in potassium, sulfate and other compounds. This product becomes a serious problem when it comes in contact with water. The dust was collected from a cement factory located in Canakkale. Various elements such as Al, Co, Mo, Ca, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se and Zn were determined both in soil as well as kiln dust. Kiln dust was mixed with soil in pots (20 cm diameter) to make seven different treatments varying from 15 to 105 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil. The experiment lasted for 4 months. Seeds of V faba were sown in the pots filled with mixtures of preanalysed kiln dust and soil. Germination was high in the pots with a lower treatment of cement kiln dust. However, lower germination rates were observed in the pots mixed with the highest and the medium amounts of cement kiln dust. Plants growing in the soil including 15 g kiln dust showed better performance in length as compared to control. Leaf area increased with increase in cement kiln dust content up to 60 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil, but declined after 75 g kg(-1). Water content of leaves (mg cm(-2) leaf area) was found to be constantly decreasing with respect to increasing cement kiln content in the pots. Differences between the averages were evaluated by Tukey test and results were found to be significant.

  3. Exposure to 915 MHz radiation induces micronuclei in Vicia faba root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavino, Bianca; Carboni, Giovanni; Petrillo, Roberto; Paoluzzi, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Rizzoni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones and wireless networks raised a great debate about the real carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure associated with these devices. Conflicting results are reported by the great majority of in vivo and in vitro studies on the capability of RF-EMF exposure to induce DNA damage and mutations in mammalian systems. Aimed at understanding whether less ambiguous responses to RF-EMF exposure might be evidenced in plant systems with respect to mammalian ones, in the present work the mutagenic effect of RF-EMF has been studied through the micronucleus (MN) test in secondary roots of Vicia faba seedlings exposed to mobile phone transmission in controlled conditions, inside a transverse electro magnetic (TEM) cell. Exposure of roots was carried out for 72h using a continuous wave (CW) of 915 MHz radiation at three values of equivalent plane wave power densities (23, 35 and 46W/m(2)). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured with a calorimetric method and the corresponding values were found to fall in the range of 0.4-1.5W/kg. Results of three independent experiments show the induction of a significant increase of MN frequency after exposure, ranging from a 2.3-fold increase above the sham value, at the lowest SAR level, up to a 7-fold increase at the highest SAR. These findings are in agreement with the limited number of data on cytogenetic effects detected in other plant systems exposed to mobile phone RF-EMF frequencies and clearly show the capability of radiofrequency exposure to induce DNA damage in this eukaryotic cell system.

  4. Isolation and characterization of sequences homologous to the tobacco clone axi 1 (auxin independent) from a Vicia sativa nodule cDNA library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalçin-Mendi, Y.; Çetiner, S.; Bisseling, T.

    2001-01-01

    In this research, partial nucleotide sequences of the axi 1 gene, which is related to auxin perception and transduction, isolated from Vicia sativa using cDNA library screening were investigated. Four V. sativa cDNA clones representing homologous of the tobacco axi 1 (auxin independent) cDNA clone w

  5. Dietary effects of faba-bean (Vicia faba L.) tannins on the morphology and function of the small-intestinal mucosa of weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Jansman, A.J.M.; Wiebenga, J.; Koninkx, J.F.J.G.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of condensed tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) on morphological and functional variables of the small-intestinal mucosa of piglets. In an experiment with young piglets (8-17 kg body weight), fed on either a control diet or a diet contain

  6. Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Loon, van Y.P.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Norel, van A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds from six pairs of near-isogenic lines of Vicia faba L., each pair consisting of a tannin-free (TF) and a tannin-containing (TC) partner line, were used to study the effect of breeding for the absence of condensed tannins on the seed content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and starch (S

  7. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management.

  8. [Radiation risk assessment for plant reference species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) from the area of radium production waste storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Maĭstrenko, T A; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2012-01-01

    The risk of an enhanced level of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay series in the environment for reference plant species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) was assessed. 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Po, 232Th and 228Th concentration factors for plants were found to be lower than one. The aboveground parts of Vicia cracca sampled from the area of the radium production waste storage mainly accumulated 22Ra, Pinus sylvestris branches--210Pb, 226Ra and 210Po. LOEDR calculated for the chromosome aberration frequency in both plant studies was 17-71 microGy/h. LOERD values for the reproductive capacity decrease in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 17-71 microGy/h and 116-258 microGy/h, correspondingly. EDR10 for the chromosome aberration frequency in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 148 and 347 microGy/h, that is, correspondingly, 255 and 708 times higher that background values. EDR10 for the plant reproductive capacity was 11-34 microGy/h, which 19-69 times increases the background values.

  9. Effects of ecological factors on the survival and physiology of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 in agricultural drainage water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsas, van J.D.; Kastelein, P.; Vries, de P.M.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of Ralstonia solanacearum bv. 2, the causative agent of brown rot in potato, in aquatic habitats of temperate climate regions is still poorly understood. In this study, the population dynamics and the physiological response of R. solanacearum bv. 2 were tested in sterile pure water and in a

  10. Licheniocin 50.2 and Bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis BGBU1-4 Inhibit Biofilms of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci and Listeria monocytogenes Clinical Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganic, Veselin; Lozo, Jelena; Beric, Tanja; Kojic, Milan; Arsic, Biljana; Garalejic, Eliana; Djukic, Slobodanka; Stankovic, Slavisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Listeria monocytogenes have important roles in pathogenesis of various genital tract infections and fatal foetomaternal infections, respectively. The aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of two novel bacteriocins on biofilms of CoNS and L. monocytogenes genital isolates. Methods The effects of licheniocin 50.2 from Bacillus licheniformis VPS50.2 and crude extract of bacteriocins produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis BGBU1-4 (BGBU1-4 crude extract) were evaluated on biofilm formation and formed biofilms of eight CoNS (four S. epidermidis, two S. hominis, one S. lugdunensis and one S. haemolyticus) and 12 L. monocytogenes genital isolates. Results Licheniocin 50.2 and BGBU1-4 crude extract inhibited the growth of both CoNS and L. monocytogenes isolates, with MIC values in the range between 200–400 AU/ml for licheniocin 50.2 and 400–3200 AU/ml for BGBU1-4 crude extract. Subinhibitory concentrations (1/2 × and 1/4 × MIC) of licheniocin 50.2 inhibited biofilm formation by all CoNS isolates (p bacteriocins in concentrations of 100 AU/mL and 200 AU/mL reduced the amount of 24 h old CoNS and L. monocytogenes biofilms (p bacteriocins have potential to be used for genital application, to prevent biofilm formation and/or to eradicate formed biofilms, and consequently reduce genital and neonatal infections by CoNS and L. monocytogenes. PMID:27930711

  11. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, A.; El-Beltagi, H. E. S.

    2010-07-01

    The seeds of Vicia f aba L. Gaza 834 were exposed to {gamma}-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He-Ne (632.8 nm) or diode (650.0 nm) laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He-Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy) of {gamma}-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of {gamma}-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 {mu}mol/g d.w) compared to the control (3.9 {mu}mol/g d.w). Laser treatment by He-Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P < 0.05) in MDA content (4.4 and 5.08 {mu}mol/g d.w respectively) compared to the control (3.9 {mu}mol/g d.w). H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 {mu}mol/g d.w) compared to the control (2.3 {mu}mol/g d.w.). On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with {gamma}-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with {gamma}-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by {gamma}-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of {gamma}-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone. (Author) 46 refs.

  12. Reporte histórico: Primer Aislamiento de Vibrio cholera serogrupo O1 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba durante la epidemia de cólera en el Perú ‑ 1991 Historical report: first isolation of Vibrio cholera serogroup O1 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba during the cholerae epidemic in Perú ‑ 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Bravo Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hace 20 años apareció una enfermedad diarreica nueva en el Perú y el Laboratorio de Referencia de Enteropatógenos del Instituto Nacional de Salud, cumplió una labor destacada en el aislamiento e identificación rápida y oportuna del Vibrio cholerae. La enfermedad del cólera no se había presentado anteriormente, pero en la última semana de enero de 1991 se detectó un brote epidémico de diarrea aguda con deshidratación intensa y algunos casos de fallecidos. La epidemia afectó, al comienzo, varias localidades del litoral peruano. Equipos de trabajo de la Oficina General de Epidemiología y de los laboratorios del Instituto Nacional de Salud obtuvieron muestras fecales de pacientes con diarrea aguda procedentes de las ciudades de Chancay, Chimbote, Piura y algunos hospitales de Lima. Las muestras colectadas en el medio de transporte de Cary y Blair fueron procesadas en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Enteropatógenos (LANARE del Instituto Nacional de Salud. De todas las muestras se aisló e identificó Vibrio cholerae serogrupo O1 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba que mostró ser sensible a la tetraciclina y a otros antibióticos. Esta investigación confirmó el primer brote epidémico de cólera en el Perú.20 years ago, a new diarrheal disease was introduced in Peru and the Enteropathogens Reference Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Salud had an outstanding role in the isolation and rapid and timely identification of Vibrio cholerae. Cholera had not been seen before, but during the last week of January 1991 an outbreak of acute diarrhea was detected, presenting intense dehydration and some deaths. The epidemic affected, in the beginning, many locations of the peruvian coast. Some working teams of the General Office of Epidemiology and of the Instituto Nacional de Salud obtained fecal samples from patients with acute diarrhea coming from the cities of Chancay, Chimbote, Piura and some hospitals in Lima. The collected samples

  13. Role of Ascorbic Acid on Germination Indexes and Enzyme Activity of Vicia faba Seeds Grown under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatif A. Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to investigate changes in growth and some metabolic activities in NaCl-stressed bean seedlings, and assessing the role of ascorbic acid to alleviate these changes. The germination was carried out to study the response of presoaked faba bean seeds (Vicia faba cv. Misr 2 in freshly prepared ascorbic acid (50 ppm ≈ 0.3 mM; as recommended dose as described by El-Tayeb, 1995 or distilled water (control for 4 hrs at natural environmental conditions, to salinity stress during germination period. The radicle and plumule lengths were inhibited at high dose of NaCl but, ascorbic acid application to salt-treated seeds seemed to increase radicle and plumule elongation. The radicle and plumule fresh and dry weights were gradually decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations but, a noticeable increase of radicle and plumule fresh and dry weights were reached in seedlings treated with ascorbic acid. The pigment biosynthesis was substantially affected by salt treatment. Addition of ascorbic acid to stressed seedlings more or less furthered the inhibitory effects of salinity. Salinity enhanced the accumulation of reducing sugars in both radicle and plumule of Vicia faba seedlings as compared with control. Ascorbic acid treatment furthered the stimulatory effects of NaCl. Salinity gradually lowered the protein content of plumules. Ascorbic acid treatments raised the accumulation of protein contents in radicle to a great extent compared to those subjected only to NaCl. Plumule alkaloid content was lowered by low and moderate levels of NaCl. Coupling ascorbic acid to salt treated seeds induced a highly significant increase in alkaloid content of plumules compared to its corresponding controls. Sodium chloride treatments to Vicia faba seeds for two days caused a drastic suppression of α- and β-amylase activities. Ascorbic acid application to non-salinized seeds seemed without effects whereas, the salt-treated seeds showed more or less

  14. The content of chlorophyll response to salt stress in the leaf of Vicia faba L.%盐胁迫对蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)叶绿素a和b含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军华; 冯桂莲; 高榕

    2000-01-01

    用不同的盐浓度对蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)处理的实验表明:叶绿素含量随盐浓度的增大而有所降低,而叶绿素a/b则无明显变化.当NaCl浓度升至1%时,叶绿素的含量在处理后的第三天呈现"增-降"现象,在1.5%NaCl浓度下,"增-降"尤为显著.这种叶绿素含量的变化势必影响到以叶片叶绿素含量比来判断植物抗盐性大小.

  15. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagi, Hossam E. S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Vicia faba L. Giza 834 were exposed to γ-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He–Ne (632.8 nm or diode (650.0 nm laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He- Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy of γ-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of γ-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (3.9 μmol/g d.w. Laser treatment by He–Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P 2O2 content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (2.3 μmol/g d.w.. On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with γ-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with γ-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by γ-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of γ-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone.Semillas de Vicia faba L. Giza 834 fueron expuestas a γ-irradiación a dosis de 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 y 20.0 kGy y después expuesta a una radiación laser de He–Ne (632.8 nm o de diodo (650.0 nm durante 5 minutos. Las actividades de las enzimas POD, APOX, CAT, SOD y GST fueron favorecidas significativamente, y éstas alcanzaron un máximo a una dosis de 5.0 kGy para las enzimas

  16. Granulomatous myelitis associated with hemorrhagic syndrome due to consumption of Vicia villosa by cattle Mielite granulomatosa associada à síndrome hemorrágica devido ao consumo de Vicia villosa em um bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sonne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of spontaneous Vicia villosa poisoning affected a 6-year-old Holstein cow. Although the most striking findings included a generalized hemorrhagic condition associated with granulomatous myelitis, histological lesions typically seen with the vetch-associated systemic granulomatous syndrome were also present. Prominent gross findings were bloody nasal and oral discharges, disseminated hemorrhages, and bloody feces. Generalized hemorrhages associated with infiltration of numerous organs by lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, multinucleated giants cells, and eosinophils were the main microscopic findings. Anti-CD68 immunostaining confirmed the presence of moderate histiocytic infiltrate and multinucleated giant cells in the bone marrow. These changes in the bone marrow probably caused the generalized hemorrhagic changes described here.Um bovino Holandês de seis anos naturalmente intoxicado pela Vicia villosa apresentou lesões não comumente encontradas nessa intoxicação. Embora a lesão mais evidente fosse hemorragia generalizada associada à mielite granulomatosa, as lesões granulomatosas típicas da intoxicação pela ervilhaca também estavam presentes histologicamente. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram hemorragias nasal e oral, hemorragias generalizadas e fezes com sangue. Lesões hemorrágicas generalizadas associadas com infiltrado inflamatório de linfócitos, plasmócitos, macrófagos, células gigantes multinucleadas e eosinófilos foram os principais achados microscópicos encontrados. O teste imuno-histoquímico anti-CD68 confirmou a presença de infiltrado moderado de macrófagos e de células gigantes multinucleadas na medula óssea. As alterações na medula óssea provavelmente constituem a causa da hemorragia generalizada descrita nesse caso.

  17. Effect of Flower Removal on Senescence and Metabolism of Faba Bean (Vicia Faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaMingzhong

    1999-01-01

    In pot experiments of Xichang,China,during 1989-1994,visual scnescence symptoms and associated changes in constituent contents and activities of leaves of faba bean(Vicia faba L.)were compared in respones to flower removal.the leaves from upper, middle and lower positions were sampled six times during reproductive development phase.At 70 DAP flower removal had caused 37%-189% and 82%-197% increase of green leaf area and green leaf dry weight per plant respectively.Flower removal led to a significant increase in the chlorophyll,soluble surar and protein contents and the catalase activity.The leaf cell relative electroconductivity of those plants was maintained at a lower level,relative to the control,during the late growing stage.These results certainly implied that the leaves of flower removal plants were still fully functional at a very late growing stage,consequently the plants increased many new branches per plant.

  18. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  19. VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Yang, W C; Pallisgård, N

    1995-01-01

    We isolated ENOD5, ENOD12 and ENOD40 homologues from Vicia sativa and studied their expression pattern during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Comparison of the VsENOD40 nucleotide sequence with the pea, soybean and alfalfa ENOD40 sequences showed that the sequences contain two conserved regions...... the expression pattern of VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Although the expression of these genes is largely similar to that of the pea counterparts, differences where found for the expression of VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 in Vicia. VsENOD12 is expressed in the whole...

  20. 烟草浸提液对蚕豆根尖的遗传损伤%The Genetic Damage of Smokeless Tobacco Extract on Vicia Faba Root Tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂芳; 吴学进; 黄先忠.; 张婷婷

    2012-01-01

    利用不同浓度的烟草浸提液对蚕豆根尖进行常温处理,结果对蚕豆根尖细胞造成不同程度的遗传损伤,而且根尖细胞微核率与烟草浸提液浓度成正相关。%Vicia faba root tip was treated using different concentrations of smokeless tobacco extract at normal temperature. Result indicated that the rc,ot tip cells of Vicia faba suffered different degree of genetic damage, and root tip cell micronucleus rate was positively ~'orrelated with the concentration of smokeless tobacco extract.

  1. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output

    OpenAIRE

    Gullón, P.; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatt...

  2. Doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos no estado de Santa Catarina associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E Mendes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intoxication in three dairy cows grazing pasture contaminated with Vicia villosa in two different farms was reported. Hyperthermia, skin alopecia and pruritus were the main clinical signs. Macroscopically, gray to white up to 5cm nodules were detected, especially in kidney and lymph nodes, which correspond to mild to severe multifocal granulomatous infiltrate. This is the first report of systemic granulomatous disease due to consumption of hairy vetch in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

  3. Doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos no estado de Santa Catarina associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa)

    OpenAIRE

    R.E Mendes; V Surkamp; D.C. Machado; Pilati,C

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous intoxication in three dairy cows grazing pasture contaminated with Vicia villosa in two different farms was reported. Hyperthermia, skin alopecia and pruritus were the main clinical signs. Macroscopically, gray to white up to 5cm nodules were detected, especially in kidney and lymph nodes, which correspond to mild to severe multifocal granulomatous infiltrate. This is the first report of systemic granulomatous disease due to consumption of hairy vetch in the State of Santa Catarin...

  4. Assessment of the genotoxicity of 137Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minouflet, Marion; Ayrault, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including 137Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of 137Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to 137Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid 137Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive 137Cs pollution.

  5. Assessment of the genotoxicity of {sup 137}Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minouflet, Marion [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite et Sante Environnementale, CNRS FRE 2635, UFR Sci.F.A., Universite de Metz-Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France)]. E-mail: marion.minouflet@terre.unige.ch; Ayrault, Sophie [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Badot, Pierre-Marie [Laboratoire de Biologie Environnementale, EA 3184 USC INRA, Universite de Franche-Comte, Place Leclerc, F-25030 Besancon cedex (France); Cotelle, Sylvie [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite et Sante Environnementale, CNRS FRE 2635, UFR Sci.F.A., Universite de Metz-Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Ferard, Jean-Francois [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite et Sante Environnementale, CNRS FRE 2635, UFR Sci.F.A., Universite de Metz-Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France)

    2005-07-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including {sup 137}Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of {sup 137}Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to {sup 137}Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid {sup 137}Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive {sup 137}Cs pollution.

  6. Genetic diversity of resident soil rhizobia isolated from nodules of distinct hairy vetch genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) is widely grown as a legume cover crop throughout the U.S.A., with biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) through symbiosis with Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae (Rlv) being one of the most sought after benefits of its cultivation. This study determined if HV culti...

  7. 布鲁氏菌种及种内部分生物型快速PCR鉴定方法的建立及应用研究%Development and application of one-step polymerase chain reaction(PCR) for rapid identification of Brucella species and some biovars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振军; 侯雪新; 孙渭歌; 贾雪; 田国忠

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立一步法PCR快速鉴定布鲁氏菌种及种内部分生物型.方法 设计6对引物,建立一步法PCR反应,将布鲁氏菌6个种和种内某些生物型进行鉴定,应用该方法检测了27株布鲁氏菌参考菌株和239株临床分离的布鲁氏菌,并与生物学分型方法进行比较.结果 通过一步法PCR能够将待检菌株准确的鉴定到布鲁氏菌种,对于猪种可以定位到生物型和疫苗株;对于牛种可以鉴定到牛种生物型1、3、4 与2、5、6、7、9两组生物型;对于羊种可以鉴定到1与2、3两组生物型和羊种疫苗株.生物学分型方法和PCR方法准确鉴定到种水平的符合率分别为98.33%和100%.结论 一步法PCR是一种快速、特异、简便而低费用的鉴定布鲁氏菌种的分子分型方法.%Objective To develop a one-step PCR assay for rapid discrimination of six Brucella species and some intraspecific biovars.Methods Using 6 pairs of primers in one-step PCR to differentiate six classical Brucella species and some biovar in ordinary PCR instrument.The tested strains including 27 reference strains of six Brucella species and 239 Brucella strains were estimated by the PCR assay and biological identification methods.Results The six Brucella species could be precisely differentiated by the onestep PCR assay from the tested strains.Five biovars and vaccine strain of B.suis species could be determined,and biovars 1,3,4 and biovars 2,5,6,7,9 of B.abortus species could be identified at the level of their biovar,moreover,biovars 1,2 and 3,and vaccine strain Rev 1 of B.melitensis species were also discriminated at the biovar and strain level.The accurate rates of the biological identification method and the PCR assay were 98.33% and 100% respectively.Conclusion One-step PCR assay was a rapid,specific,and low cost method for identification of Brucella species and discriminating biovars in ordinary PCR instrument.

  8. Structures of two cell wall-associated polysaccharides of a Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 strain. A unique teichoic acid-like polysaccharide and the group O antigen which is a C-polysaccharide in common with pneumococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, N; Jansson, P.-E.; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    The cell wall of Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 strain SK137 contains the C-polysaccharide known as the common antigen of a closely related species Streptococcus pneumoniae, and a teichoic acid-like polysaccharide with a unique structure. The two polysaccharides are different entities and could...... to that of one of the two structures of C-polysaccharide previously identified in S. pneumoniae. C-polysaccharide of S. mitis is characterized by the presence, in each repeating unit, of two residues of phosphocholine and both galactosamine residues in the N-acetylated form. Immunochemical analysis showed that C......-polysaccharide constitutes the Lancefield group O antigen. Studies using mAbs directed against the backbone and against the phosphocholine moiety of the C-polysaccharide revealed several different patterns of these epitopes among 95 S. mitis and Streptococcus oralis strains tested and the exclusive presence of the group O...

  9. 铀尾矿浸出液对蚕豆(Vicia faba)早期生长的影响%Effects of Uranium Tailings Lixivium on Early Growth of Vicia Faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易俗; 王瑞兰; 冯涛; 向言词; 周红超

    2007-01-01

    利用室内培养法研究了铀尾矿浸出液对蚕豆(Vicia faba)根尖细胞的微核率、核酸酶活性及对蚕豆种子萌发的影响.结果表明:铀尾矿浸出液达到一定剂量时均可引起蚕豆根尖细胞微核数增加,微核数随浓度增大而逐渐增多,说明铀尾矿对蚕豆幼苗具有明显的遗传毒性效应;铀尾矿对蚕豆种子的萌发率没有影响;铀尾矿促进幼苗的生长,低浓度比高浓度明显;低浓度铀尾矿浸出液对核酸酶有一定的激活作用,高浓度则抑制.当铀尾矿浸出液浓度逐渐增大时,抑制作用逐渐增强.图1,表4,参14.

  10. Ca2+ is involved in muscarine-acetylcholine-receptor-mediated acetylcholine signal transduction in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fanxia; MIAO Long; ZHANG Shuqiu; LOU Chenghou

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important neurochemical transmitter in animals; it also exists in plants and plays a significant role in various kinds of physiological functions in plants. ACh has been known to induce the stomatal opening. By monitoring the changes of cytosolic Ca2+ with fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM under the confocal microscopy,we found that exogenous ACh increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of guard cells of Vicia faba L. Muscarine, an agonist of muscarine acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), could do so as well. In contrast, atropine, the antagonist of mAChR abolished the ability of ACh to increase Ca2+ in guard cells.This mechanism is similar to mAChR in animals. When EGTA was used to chelate Ca2+ or ruthenium red to block Ca2+ released from vacuole respectively, the results showed that the increased cytosolic Ca2+ mainly come from intracellular Ca2+ store. The evidence supports that Ca2+ is involved in guard-cell response to ACh and that Ca2+ signal is coupled to mAChRs in ACh signal transduction in guard cells.

  11. Efecto de la acetilación sobre las propiedades funcionales y nutricionales de almidones de haba (VICIA FABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron algunas propiedades funcionales del almidón de haba (Vicia faba, con dos niveles de proteína -12,89% y 4,41%-, obtenido por fraccionamiento por vía húmeda de las semillas secas. Se comparan el secado en rodillos y la liofilización como métodos para deshidratar la muestra, así como las propiedades funcionales del almidón antes y después de acetilarlo con anhídrido acético. También se investigaron ciertas propiedades de interés nutricional con el fin de observar la influencia de la modificación química en la biodisponibilidad del almidón de haba. Se realizó la determinación de almidón total, almidón resistente por retrogradación (AR3, almidón disponible y la velocidad de hidrólisis enzimática en el almidón nativo y en el modificado.

  12. Contaminant bioavailability in soil and phytotoxicity/genotoxicity tests in Vicia faba L.: a case study of boron contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the model plant for genotoxicity studies Vicia faba L. was used to investigate the relation between Boron (B) content and bioavailability in soil and plant genotoxic/phytotoxic response. A total of nine soil samples were investigated: two soil samples were collected from a B-polluted industrial area in Cecina (Tuscany, Italy), the other samples were obtained by spiking control soil (from a not polluted area of the basin) with seven increased doses of B, from about 20 to 100 mg B kg(-1). As expected, B availability, evaluated by chemical extraction, was higher (twofold) in spiked soils when compared with collected polluted soils with the same B total content. To analyze the phytotoxic effects of B, seed germination, root elongation, biomass production, and B accumulation in plant tissues were considered in V. faba plants grown in the various soils. Moreover, the cytotoxic/genotoxic effects of B were investigated in root meristems by mitotic index (MI) and micronuclei frequency (MCN) analysis. The results highlighted that V. faba was a B-sensitive plant and the appearance of phytotoxic effects, which altered plant growth parameters, were linearly correlated to the bioavailable B concentration in soils. Concerning the occurrence of cytotoxic/genotoxic effects induced by B, no linear correlation was observed even if MCN frequency was logarithmic correlated with the concentration of B bioavailable in soils.

  13. Purification and characterization of a new dimeric mannose/glucose-binding isolectin from Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Sanjenbam Kunjeshwori; Devi, Langoljam Inaotombi; Singh, Laishram Rupachandra

    2009-01-01

    A new mannose/glucose specific isolectin VTL-II has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the seeds of Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreber through successive steps of (i) lectin extraction, (ii) ammonium sulfate fractionation (30-50%), and (iii) affinity chromatography on a column of Sephadex G-50 covalently coupled with D-mannose. The isolectin was found to be a dimeric protein of molecular weight 62 kDa made up of apparently chemically identical subunits unlike the tetrameric isolectins reported earlier from the same plant source. It was found to exhibit (i) 8-16 times higher specificity for rabbit RBC than human RBC, though it showed unspecificity with respect to the different human blood groups, (ii) non-dependence on divalent metal ion for its hemagglutinating activity, (iii) relatively broad pH optimum ranging from pH 7.0 to 8.0, and (iv) thermal inactivation behavior characterized by t(1/2) of 50 degrees C.

  14. Actin Dynamics Regulates Voltage-Dependent Calcium-Permeable Channels of the Vicia faba Guard Cell Plasma Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Liu-Min Fan

    2009-01-01

    Free cytosolic Ca~(2+) ([Ca~(2+)]_(cyt)) is an ubiquitous second messenger in plant cell signaling, and [Ca~(2+)]_(cyt) elevation is associated with Ca~(2+)-permeable channels in the plasma membrane and endomembranes regulated by a wide range of stimuli. However, knowledge regarding Ca~(2+) channels and their regulation remains limited in planta. A type of voltage-dependent Ca~(2+)-permeable channel was identified and characterized for the Vicia faba L. guard cell plasma membrane by using patch-clamp techniques. These channels are permeable to both Ba~(2+) and Ca~(2+), and their activities can be inhibited by micromolar Gd~(3+). The unitary conductance and the reversal potential of the channels depend on the Ca~(2+) or Ba~(2+) gradients across the plasma membrane. The inward whole-cell Ca~(2+) (Ba~(2+)) current, as well as the unitary current amplitude and NP. of the single Ca~(2+) channel, increase along with the membrane hyperpolarization. Pharmacological experiments suggest that actin dynamics may serve as an upstream regulator of this type of calcium channel of the guard cell plasma membrane. Cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization blocker, activated the NP_o of these channels at the single channel level and increased the current amplitude at the whole-cell level. But these channel activations and current increments could be restrained by pretreatment with an F-actin stabilizer, phalloidin. The potential physiological significance of this regulatory mechanism is also discussed.

  15. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality.

  16. Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Pinelli, E; Pourrut, B; Silvestre, J; Dumat, C

    2011-01-01

    Formation of organometallic complexes in soil solution strongly influence metals phytoavailability. However, only few studies deal with the influence of metal speciation both on plant uptake and genotoxicity. In the present study, Vicia faba seedlings were exposed for 6h in controlled hydroponic conditions to 5 μM of lead nitrate alone and chelated to varying degrees by different organic ligands. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid were, respectively, chosen as models of humic substances and low weight organic acids present in natural soil solutions. Visual Minteq software was used to estimate free lead cations concentration and ultimately to design the experimental layout. For all experimental conditions, both micronucleus test and measure of lead uptake by plants were finally performed. Chelation of Pb by EDTA, a strong chelator, dose-dependently increased the uptake in V. faba roots while its genotoxicity was significantly reduced, suggesting a protective role of EDTA. A weak correlation was observed between total lead concentration absorbed by roots and genotoxicity (r(2)=0.65). In contrast, a strong relationship (r(2)=0.93) exists between Pb(2+) concentration in exposure media and genotoxicity in the experiment performed with EDTA. Citric acid induced labile organometallic complexes did not demonstrate any significant changes in lead genotoxicity or uptake. These results demonstrate that metal speciation knowledge could improve the interpretation of V. faba genotoxicity test performed to test soil quality.

  17. CYTOGENETIC AND MOLECULAR RESPONSES OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE APPLICATION FOR TOLERANCE TO EXTREME TEMPERATURES IN VICIA FABA L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öney, S; Tabur, S; Tuna, M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4] on mitosis, cell cycle and chromosomes in Vicia faba L. seeds exposed to extreme temperatures were investigated using flowcytometric and cytogenetic analysis. Seeds germinated at high and low temperatures showed a signiicant decrease in mitotic index as compared to those of optimum temperature conditions. Application of 50 and 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 were successful in alleviating the negative effects of low and high temperature on mitotic activity, respectively. 50 µM (NH4)2SO4 showed the most positive effect on cell cycle at the extreme temperatures. This concentration increased the cell division removing or decreasing the negative effects of temperature stress. Namely, the highest G2/M and S phase percentages under stress conditions were obtained with application of 50 µM (NH4)2SO4. Chromosomal aberrations were not observed in cells of seeds germinated in distilled water and also at any temperatures. However, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly by increasing (NH4)2SO4 concentration. The highest aberration frequency in all temperature degree tested was found at 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 concentration.

  18. NMR imaging of root water distribution in intact Vicia faba L plants in elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottomley, P.A.; Rogers, H.H.; Prior, S.A. (GE Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (USA))

    1993-04-01

    The effect of elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2] on water distribution in the intact roots of Vicia faba L. bean seedlings grown in natural soil was studied noninvasively with proton ([sup 1]H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. Exposure of 24-d-old plants to atmospheric CO[sub 2] enriched air at 650 cm[sup 3] m[sup -3] produced significant increases in water imaged in upper roots, hypogeal cotyledons and lower stems in response to a short-term drying-stress cycle. Above ground, drying produced negligible stem shrinkage and stomatal resistance was unchanged. In contrast, the same drying cycle caused significant depletion of water imaged in the same upper root structures in control plants subject to ambient CO[sub 2] (350 cm[sup 3] m[sup -3]), and stem shrinkage and increased stomatal resistance. The results suggest that inhibition of transpiration caused by elevated CO[sub 2] does not necessarily result in attenuation of water transport from lower root structures. Inhibition of water loss from upper roots and lower stem in elevated CO[sub 2] environments may be a mitigating factor in assessing deleterious effects of greenhouse changes on crops during periods of dry climate.

  19. Botrytone, a new naphthalenone pentaketide produced by Botrytis fabae, the causal agent of chocolate spot disease on Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Villegas-Fernández, Angel M; Andolfi, Anna; Melck, Dominique; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2011-09-14

    A strain of Botrytis fabae isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants displaying clear chocolate spot disease symptoms produced phytotoxic metabolites in vitro. The phytotoxins isolated from the culture filtrate organic extract were characterized by spectroscopic and optical methods. A new naphthalenone pentaketide, named botrytone, was isolated and characterized as (4R)-3,4-dihydro-4,5,8-trihydroxy-1(2H)-naphthalenone together with other well-known closely related naphthalenones such as regiolone and cis- and trans-3,4-dihydro-2,4,8-trihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-ones. When tested on leaves of the host plant, with the cis- and trans-3,4-dihydro-2,4,8-trihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-ones assayed in mixture, regiolone demonstrated the highest level of phytotoxicity together with cis- and trans-3,4-dihydro-2,4,8-trihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-ones. Botrytone showed moderate phytotoxic activity at 1 mg/mL and was still phytotoxic at 0.5 mg/mL.

  20. Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Vicia faba: A Pilot Study on the Environmental Monitoring of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there have been some attempts to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs in mammalian and human cell-lines, there is little information on plants which play a vital role in ecosystems. The study reports the use of Vicia faba root-tip meristem to investigate the genotoxicity of AgNPs under modified GENE-TOX test conditions. The root tip cells of V. faba were treated with four different concentrations of engineered AgNPs dispersion to study toxicological endpoints such as mitotic index (MI, chromosomal aberrations (CA and micronucleus induction (MN. For each concentration, five sets of microscopy observations were carried out. The results demonstrated that AgNPs exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05 the number of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and decreased the MI in exposed groups compared to control. From this study we infer that AgNPs might have penetrated the plant system and may have impaired mitosis causing CA and MN. The results of this study demonstrate that AgNPs are genotoxic to plant cells. Since plant assays have been integrated as a genotoxicity component in risk assessment for detection of environmental mutagens, they should be given full consideration when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the nanoparticles in the environment.

  1. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  2. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akroum, S

    2017-03-01

    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg.

  3. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy) approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Hamid; Street, Kenneth; Bari, Abdallah; Mackay, Michael; Stoddard, Frederick L

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  4. Physiological impacts of soil pollution and arsenic uptake in three plant species: Agrostis capillaris, Solanum nigrum and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austruy, A; Wanat, N; Moussard, C; Vernay, P; Joussein, E; Ledoigt, G; Hitmi, A

    2013-04-01

    In order to revegetate an industrial soil polluted by trace metals and metalloids (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb), the impact of pollution on three plant species, Solanum nigrum and Agrostis capillaris, both native species in an industrial site, and Vicia faba, a plant model species, is studied. Following the study of soil pollution from the industrial wasteland of Auzon, it appears that the As is the principal pollutant. Particular attention is given to this metalloid, both in its content and its speciation in the soil that the level of its accumulation in plants. In V. faba and A. capillaris, the trace metals and metalloids inhibit the biomass production and involve a lipid peroxidation in the leaves. Furthermore, these pollutants cause a photosynthesis perturbation by stomatal limitations and a dysfunction of photosystem II. Whatever the plant, the As content is less than 0.1 percent of dry matter, the majority of As absorbed is stored in the roots which play the role of trap organ. In parallel, the culture of S. nigrum decreases significantly the exchangeable and weakly adsorbed fraction of As in rhizospheric soil. This study has highlighted the ability of tolerance to trace metals of S. nigrum and to a lesser extent A. capillaris. Our data indicate that V. faba is not tolerant to soil pollution and is not a metallophyte species.

  5. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J Tett

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  6. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of pRb-like protein in root meristem cells of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) regulates cell cycle progression by controlling the G1-to-S phase transition. As evidenced in mammals, pRb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with a number of proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, proteins with a conserved LxCxE motif (D-type cyclin), and c-Abl tyrosine kinase. CDK-mediated phosphorylation of pRb inhibits its ability to bind target proteins, thus enabling further progression of the cell cycle. As yet, the roles of pRb and pRb-binding factors have not been well characterized in plants. By using antibody which specifically recognizes phosphorylated serines (S807/811) in the c-Abl tyrosine kinase binding C-domain of human pRb, we provide evidence for the cell cycle-dependent changes in pRb-like proteins in root meristems cells of Vicia faba. An increased phosphorylation of this protein has been found correlated with the G1-to-S phase transition.

  7. Localization of NOS-like protein in guard cells of Vicia faba L. And its possible function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; WANG YouQun; JIA WenSuo; LOU ChengHou; ZHANG ShuQiu

    2007-01-01

    Using the immuno-fluorescence and immuno-gold electron microscope technology, localization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like proteins was determined in guard cells of Vicia faba L. NOS is mainly localized in nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplast, mitochondria and the cell wall of guard cells. Scorch and exogenous JA can enhance the level of nitric oxide (NO) and increase NOS activity in both leaf and epidermis, and the changing pattern of NOS activity was consistent with the change of NO. NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, inhibited JA-induced NO generation. From the results, we presumed that NO generation from NOS pathway is the main pathway in the stress and JA responses. The pharmacological experiment showed that increasing the Ca2+ at a suitable concentration promoted leaf NOS activity and the NO level, indicating that NOS activity together with the distribution of NO is Ca2+-dependent. NOS and NO are possibly involved in the regulation of stomatal movement thus playing an important role in plant stress responses.

  8. De novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map of Vicia faba (L. for transfer cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruba Shankari eArun Chinnappa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba (L. is an important cool-season grain legume species used widely in agriculture but also in plant physiology research, particularly as an experimental model to study transfer cell (TC development. Adaxial epidermal cells of isolated cotyledons can be induced to form functional TCs, thus providing a valuable experimental system to investigate genetic regulation of TC development. The genome of V. faba is exceedingly large (ca. 13 Gb, however, and limited genomic information is available for this species. To provide a resource for transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, we have undertaken de novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map for V. faba. Illumina paired-end sequencing of total RNA pooled from different tissues and different stages, including isolated cotyledons induced to form TCs, generated 69.5M reads, of which 65.8M were used for assembly following trimming and quality control. Assembly using a De-Bruijn graph-based approach within CLC Genomics Workbench v6.1 generated 21,297 contigs, of which 80.6% were successfully annotated against GO terms. The assembly was validated against known V. faba cDNAs held in GenBank, including transcripts previously identified as being specifically expressed in epidermal cells across TC trans-differentiation. This cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map therefore provides a valuable tool for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, and also enriches the genetic resources available for this important legume crop species.

  9. Variation in seed mineral elements profile and yield in field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor is one of the major leguminous crops cultivated in the world and mainly destined for animal feed. Although its seed is generally recognised as a good protein source, little is known about its mineral elements profile, which is an important aspect for a balanced animal diet. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the seed mineral elements composition, along with some key production parameters, in eight field bean genotypes grown in a Mediterranean environment, without intensive management, over two years (2009/10 and 2010/11. Independently of the year, the seed of Chiaro di Torre Lama was the richest in phosphorus (P, magnesium, calcium and iron contents, while that of Sint 6 and Motta Chiaro 69 were the most effective accumulators of potassium and zinc, respectively. While all the genotypes yielded better in the second year (with more rainfall, the seasonal effect on seed mineral elements composition depended on the genotype. Indeed, the P content was 46% lower in Chiaro di Torre Lama, Motta Chiaro 69 and Sint 6 in the second year, while there was only a negligible seasonal effect for Sint 8 with respect to Fe content. Overall, this crop is reasonably productive under a low management regime and its seed can supply significant amounts of certain minerals (particularly P in feed formulations. Both aspects are important in a perspective of optimising field bean production in the Mediterranean area and, hence, improving farmers’ income.

  10. Effect of different processing methods on the nutritional characteristics and tannin content of fababean seed (Vicia faba minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Poli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, because of their high protein content, the demand of legume seeds is significantly increased. In the centre and southern Italy fababean (Vicia faba minor can play an important role as alternative protein source in ruminant nutrition. In this trial has been studied the effect of different treatments (flaking, cooking, dehulling, germination on the in vitro digestibility and tannin content of fababean seeds. The in vitro OM and NDF digestibility of seeds were significantly (P<0.05 improved by dehulling and flaking. The in vitro OM digestibility of dehulled fababean (99.27% showed higher values (P<0.05 than the other treated seeds as well as in vitro NDF digestibility (90.33%, P<0.05. Germination of fababean reduces the in vitro digestibility of OM and NDF. Cooking in water was more effective in reducing tannins than other treatments. Compared to the untreated the cooked has significantly (P<0.05 reduced the tannin content over 55% (2.71 g/kgDM vs. 6.10 g/kgDM. Germinated fababean did not affect the tannin content of seeds. The results from this trial suggest that thermal treatments applied to fababean seeds in order to reduce the tannins must be evaluated according to the cost/benefits ratio because this factors in seeds is low (<10 g/kgDM.

  11. Nitric oxide involved in signal transduction of Jasmonic acid-induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; SHI Wuliang; ZHANG Shuqiu; LOU Chenghou

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and Jasmonic acid (JA) are two key signaling molecules involved in many and diverse biological pathways in plants. Growing evidence suggested that NO signaling interacts with JA signaling. In this work, Our experiment showed that NO exists in guard cell of Vicia faba L., and NO is involved in signal transduction of JA- induced stomata closuring: (ⅰ) JA enhances NO synthesis in guard cell; (ⅱ) both JA and NO induced stomatal closure, and had dose response to their effects; (ⅲ) there are synergetic correlation between JA and lower NO concentration in regulation of stomatal movement; (ⅳ) JA-induced stomatal closure was largely prevented by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetrame- thylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO), a specific NO scavenger. An inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) in mammalian cells, NG-nitro-L-Arg-methyl eater (L-NAME) also inhibits plant NOS, repressing JA-induced NO generation and JA-induced stomatal closure. We presumed that NO mainly comes from NOS after JA treatment.

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean(Vicia faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaojiao; Wang; Hao; Liu; Guixing; Ren

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean(Vicia faba L.) seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS). Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares(PLS) regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation(r2) of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  13. Regulating role of acetylcholine and its antagonists in inward rectified K~+ channels from guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷强; 花宝光; 郭玉海; 娄成后

    2000-01-01

    The inward rectified potassium current of Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts treated with acetylcholine (ACh) or the antagonists of its receptors were recorded by employing the patch clamp technique. The results show that ACh at lower concentrations increases the inward K+ current, in contrast, ACh at higher concentrations inhibits it. Treated with d-Tubocurarine (d-Tub), an antagonist of the nicotine ACh receptor (nAChR) inhibits the inward K+ current by 30%. Treated with atropine (Atr), an antagonist of the muscarine (Mus) ACh receptor (mAChR) also inhibits it by 36%. However, if guard cell protoplasts are treated with d-Tub and Atr together, the inward K+ current is inhibited by 60%-75%. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a strong inhibitor of K+ channels has no effect on the inward K+ current regulated by ACh, suggesting that there are inward K+ channels modulated by AChRs on the membrane of the guard cell protoplasts. These data demonstrate an ACh-regulated mechanism for stomatal movement.

  14. Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein source for organic chickens: performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Castellini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of transgenic feed and synthetic amino acids in organic chicken diets has made necessary to find protein-rich feedstuffs which do not alter productive performance. The effect of the faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a partial substitute for soybean on the performance and carcass traits of slow-growing chickens of both sexes reared under the organic method was assessed. The experiment was carried out in the spring and autumn; one thousand birds per season were split into 8 groups (4 groups of males and 4 groups of females, each duplicated and fed a double phase diet: a common starter diet for 20 days and two different growing-finisher diets containing either soybean (24%; S or faba bean (16%; F till the end of the rearing period (120 d. Average values of final live weight, feed intake and daily weight gain were significantly affected by sex, being higher in males than in females; the diets affected performance only in the 21-60 days of age period when the F group grew less and had poorer feed efficiency compared to the S group. Successively, the compensatory growth eliminated differences in slaughter weight. Regarding carcass traits, the diet affected only the ready- to-cook carcass percentage and the carena length, both of which were higher in S birds. Faba beans could be a valuable protein source in the diet of organic chickens when used after the critical starter period.

  15. Regulating role of acetylcholine and its antagonists in inward rectified K+ channels from guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The inward rectified potassium current of Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts treated with acetylcholine (ACh) or the antagonists of its receptors were recorded by employing the patch clamp technique. The results show that ACh at lower concentrations increases the inward K+ current, in contrast, ACh at higher concentrations inhibits it. Treated with d-Tubocurarine (d-Tub), an antagonist of the nicotine ACh receptor (nAChR) inhibits the inward K+ current by 30%. Treated with atropine (Atr), an antagonist of the muscarine (Mus) ACh receptor (mAChR) also inhibits it by 36%.However,if guard cell protoplasts are treated with d-Tub and Atr together, the inward K+ current is inhibited by 60%-75%. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a strong inhibitor of K+ channels has no effect on the inward K+ current regulated by ACh, suggesting that there are inward K+ channels modulated by AChRs on the membrane of the guard cell protoplasts. These data demonstrate an ACh-regulated mechanism for stomatal movement.

  16. Characterization of root-nodule bacteria isolated from Vicia faba and selection of plant growth promoting isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, Sabrine; Chebil, Samir; Gtari, Maher; Mhamdi, Ridha

    2013-06-01

    A collection of 104 isolates from root-nodules of Vicia faba was submitted to 16S rRNA PCR-RFLP typing. A representative sample was further submitted to sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. Isolates were assigned to 12 genera. All the nodulating isolates (45 %) were closely related to Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA2370(T) (99.34 %). The remaining isolates, including potential human pathogens, failed to nodulate their original host. They were checked for presence of symbiotic genes, P-solubilization, phytohormone and siderophore production, and then tested for their growth promoting abilities. Results indicated that 9 strains could induce significant increase (41-71 %) in shoot dry yield of faba bean. A Pseudomonas strain was further assessed in on-farm trial in combination with a selected rhizobial strain. This work indicated that nodule-associated bacteria could be a valuable pool for selection of effective plant growth promoting isolates. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of nodules in increasing risks related to pathogenic bacteria should not be neglected and needs to be investigated further.

  17. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tett, Adrian J; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Poole, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  18. Cd-induced oxidative stress and lignification in the roots of two Vicia sativa L. varieties with different Cd tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Haiyun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Zhenguo; Zhang, Fenqin

    2016-01-15

    We examined the effects of Cd on growth, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, antioxidant enzymatic activity, and lignin content in the roots of two varieties of Vicia sativa. Treatment with Cd decreased plant growth and increased ROS and lipid peroxidation levels to a greater extent in the Cd-sensitive variety ZM than in the Cd-tolerant variety L3. Most hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2(•-)) were accumulated in the cell walls and extracellular spaces in response to Cd treatments. Chemical assays and experiments using inhibitors showed that larger increases in H2O2 and O2(•-) production in ZM than in L3 were probably attributed to elevated Cd-induced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-peroxidase (NADH-POD) activity. Cd treatment increased the accumulation of lignin and the guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) activities in the apoplast more significantly in ZM root than in L3. Howerver, root laccase activity was higher in L3 than in ZM. Thus Cd toxicity induced significant lignification in the roots of V. sativa, and increases in H2O2 accumulation and apoplastic GPOD activity were likely responsible for this effect.

  19. MAP kinase specifically mediates the ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells of Vicia faba L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jing; AN Guoyong; WANG Pengcheng; WANG Pengtao; HAN Jinfeng; JIA Yanbin; SONG Chunpeng

    2003-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is involved in ABA- or H2O2-signaling, and H2O2 acts as intermediate in the downstream of ABA signal transduction pathway, which has recently emerged as a secondary messenger of ABA signaling. Using an epidermal strip bioassay and laser scanning confocal microscope, we provided the first evidence that MAP kinase plays an important role in H2O2 signal initial, amplification and specific targeting in response to stimuli in guard cells. ABA- or H2O2-induced Vicia faba stomatal closure was inhibited or reversed by the specific inhibitor PD98059 of MEK1/2; the guard cells were pre-incubated or -microinjected by 10 (mol·L-1 PD98059, ABA could not enhance the fluorescence intensity of H2O2 probe dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Meanwhile, after ABA induced the H2O2 accumulation in guard cells, the exogenous or intracellular PD98059 could reduce the DCF fluorescence intensity. Most interestingly, on the contrary to ABA, the DCF fluorescence intensity of guard cells treated by 100 (mol·L-1 salicylic acid (SA) was not down-regulated by PD98059, yet PD98059 did not regulate the stomatal movement being induced by light, dark or salicylic acid. These results suggest that MEK1/2 could mediate stomatal closure by abolishing the ABA-induced H2O2 generation/accumula- tion in the specific manner.

  20. An Assessment of the Potential of Vicia faba minor in the Storage of the L-Form of 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larher, F; Gerard, J; Gerant-Sauvage, D; Hamelin, J; Briens, M

    1984-08-01

    The uncommon amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) was determined colorimetrically using isonicotinic acid hydrazide (IAH) in the crude extracts obtained from fresh material of Vicia faba minor. DOPA was found to accumulate at concentrations inconsistent with its solubility in water. Other orthodiphenols do not interfere in DOPA determination. The accumulated DOPA was only of the L-form. The DOPA content in the dry material of Vicia faba was significantly lower than that from the corresponding fresh material, suggesting some kind of DOPA oxidation during drying. Subsequent analyses designed to evaluate the actual potential of V. faba minor in the accumulation of DOPA were performed with fresh material. It was observed that the DOPA concentration in the tissues of V. faba minor is reproducible when expressed on a fresh matter weight basis. In young seedlings L-DOPA production is significantly enhanced by light via an increased fresh matter yield. The DOPA content was found to be increased in mature plants grown on media enriched with low concentrations of NaCl (up to 25 mM) that showed a positive effect on their growth. NaCl induced an overproduction of L-DOPA even when growth was restricted by ion excess. On the contrary, the DOPA level dropped in mature plants submitted to water stress. Nodulated plants were found to contain higher content of L-DOPA than the non-nodulated ones grown with NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+). It is suggested that DOPA hyperproduction by Vicia faba minor might be optimized by growing plants in mild saline conditions and by inoculating them with efficient salt tolerant strains of R. leguminosarum.

  1. Investigación preliminar de la influencia del tratamiento térmico y tiempo de almacenamiento sobre el aroma de habas (Vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos-Díaz, José; University of Helsinki; Suvanto, Sonja; University of Helsinki; Forsten, Elina; University of Helsinki; Seppa, Laila; University of Helsinki

    2016-01-01

    Haba (Vicia faba) es una leguminosa disponible en Finlandia que se utiliza en la alimentación humana y animal debido a su alto contenido de proteína y fibra. A diferencia de otras legumbres, poco se sabe acerca de las sustancias volátiles que se producen durante el almacenamiento y los descriptores de aroma asociados a las mismas. durante el almacenamiento y los descriptores de aroma asociados a las mismas. Las suspensiones fueron elaboradas en base a harina de habas. Muestras fueron sometida...

  2. Study on Micronucleus Rates of Vicia Faba Root Tips Induced by TMV Solution%TMV溶液诱导蚕豆根尖微核的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘开全; 马学萍; 宋路平; 李波

    2013-01-01

    In order to preliminary studying on effect of TMV solution to environmental deterioration,Micronucleus tests were conducted in Vicia faba root tips treated with different concentrations of TMV solution in the study.The results as follows:TMV solution had some inductive effect on micronucleus of Vicia faba root tips.Compared with the control group,the difference was very significant between different concentration of TMV solution and micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tips (P=0.003<0.01).Its micronucleus rate tended to increase with the increasing of TMV solution concentration (r=0.982).Comparing with the control group,the difference was not significant(P>0.01,r=0.312) between different processing time and micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tips treated by the same concentration of TMV solution.It is suggested that micronucleus test can be applied to monitor inherent toxicity of tobacco mosaic virus.%应用蚕豆根尖微核试验初步研究了一定浓度的烟草花叶病毒(Tobacco Mosaic Virus,TMV)溶液对环境污染的效应.结果表明,TMV溶液浓度与各处理蚕豆根尖微核率的相关性较强(r=0.982),且差异极显著(P=0.003<0.01),即蚕豆根尖微核率随着TMV溶液浓度的升高而增加;同一浓度的TMV溶液处理蚕豆根尖不同时间后其微核率在各组间没有显著差异(P>0.01),且蚕豆根尖微核率与处理时间相关性不强(r=0.312).研究表明蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术可应用于烟草花叶病毒遗传毒性监测.

  3. Lesões de pele em bovinos com doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp. Skin lesions in cattle with systemic granulomatous disease associated to pasturing vetch (Vicia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida Fighera

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se as lesões cutâneas macroscópicas em 10 e histológicas em 8 vacas afetadas por doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp.. Em todos os casos, as lesões cutâneas eram caracterizadas por múltiplas áreas coalescentes de alopecia, liquenificação e descamação. Os locais mais atingidos pela lesão de pele foram: cabeça e pescoço (10/10, tronco (4/10, períneo (3/10 e mama (2/10. Em todos os 8 casos avaliados histologicamente, as lesões se caracterizavam por dermatite perivascular superficial granulomatosa de intensidade variável. Outros achados histológicos incluíram dermatite perivascular profunda (1/8, perifoliculite (2/8, foliculite mural (3/8, hiperqueratose ortoqueratótica compacta (6/8, erosões (1/8, úlceras (2/8, microabscessos de Munro (8/8, crostas serocelulares (1/8, espongiose (4/8, degeneração hidrópica (5/8, acantólise (1/8, corpúsculos de Civatte (2/8, exocitose linfoplasmocitária (6/8, edema superficial (6/8, incontinência pigmentar (2/8, basofilia (6/8 e mineralização distrófica do colágeno (2/8, tumefação do núcleo das células endoteliais (8/8 e ectasia de glândulas sudoríparas (8/8.Gross and histopathological lesions in the skin of respectively 10 and 8 cows affected with systemic granulomatous disease associated with pasturing vetch (Vicia spp. are described. In all cases, the cutaneous lesions were characterized by multiple coalescent areas of alopecia, lichenification and desquamation. More frequently affected sites were the skin covering the head and neck (10/10, trunk (4/10, escutcheon (3/10 and mammary gland (2/10. In all 8 histologically examined cases the lesions were characterized by superficial perivascular granulomatous dermatitis of varying intensity. Other histological findings included deep perivascular dermatitis (1/8, perifoliculitis (2/8, mural foliculitis (3/8, compact orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis (6/8, erosions (1/8, ulcers (2

  4. Doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp Systemic granulomatous disease in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associated with grazing vetch (Vicia spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S. L. Barros

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois surtos de uma doença associada ao pastoreio de duas espécies de ervilhaca (predominantemente Vicia villosa e, em menor grau, V. sativa foram observados em agosto-setembro de 2001, em vacas Holandesas adultas de duas propriedades rurais do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram afetadas, em uma das propriedades, quatro de 42 vacas (9,5% e, na outra, uma de oito vacas (12,5%. Os sinais clínicos incluíam, embora não em todos os casos, febre, prurido, espessamento e enrugamento da pele com placas multifocais de alopecia, conjuntivite, corrimento nasal seroso, perda de peso, acentuada queda na produção de leite e diarréia. O curso clínico foi de aproximadamente duas semanas. Todas as vacas afetadas clinicamente morreram, uma foi sacrificada; três foram necropsiadas. Em cada um desses animais havia um padrão de lesões sistêmicas que consistiam de nódulos multifocais ou coalescentes, macios ou moderadamente firmes e branco-acinzentados, que infiltravam vários órgãos, mas eram particularmente proeminentes no miocárdio, nos linfonodos, no baço, na glândula adrenal e no córtex renal. Essas lesões resultavam em aumento de volume e alteração na arquitetura do órgão invadido. Microscopicamente, as lesões consis-tiam de extensa infiltração celular composta de proporções variáveis de macrófagos epitelióides, linfócitos, plasmócitos, células gigantes multinucleadas e eosinófilos. Os números de eosinófilos eram geralmente altos. Essa infiltração granulomatosa causava degeneração e perda de células parenquimatosas no órgão afetado. A intensidade das lesões variou entre as três vacas e entre os vários órgãos de cada animal. Essa é a primeira documentação no Brasil de doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca.Two outbreaks of a disease associated with grazing vetch species (predominantly Vicia villosa and to a lesser extent V. sativa were observed during August-September 2001, in

  5. Physiological response of vicia faba to prohexadione-calcium under saline conditions Resposta fisiológica de vicia faba a prohexadiona-cálcio sob condições salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bekheta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the activities of oxidative enzymes (indole acetic acid oxidase, peroxidase and catalase, endogenous hormones (gibberellic acid (GA3, indole acetic acid (IAA, abscisic acid (ABA and cytokinins (AsZeatin, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, total carbohydrates, total soluble sugars, amino acid proline and vegetative growth parameters were used as indicators to explain the physiological role of the growth retardant prohexadione-calcium on Vicia faba seedlings 40 days after sowing under salinity stress for 30 days. The obtained results show that soaking faba bean seeds prior to sowing at different concentrations of prohexadione-calcium (0, 10, 20 and 30 ppm significantly increased the activities of indole acetic acid oxidase (IAA-oxidase and peroxidase enzymes, but decreased the catalase enzyme activity as compared with their respective control. Application of prohexadione-Ca caused markedly decreases in the endogenous contents of gibberellins and indole acetic acid (IAA but increased the levels of natural growth inhibitor abscisic acid (ABA and cytokinins in the shoots of faba bean seedlings. All the prohexadione-Ca concentrations increased the contents of amino acid proline, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, total carbohydrates and total soluble sugars in faba bean seedlings grown under salt stress. Application of prohexadione-Ca decreased significantly seedling height and shoot fresh weight but significantly increased shoot dry weight.Mudanças nas atividades de enzimas oxidativas (oxidase, peroxidase e catalase do ácido indol-acético, hormônios endógenos (ácido giberélico (GA3, ácido indol-acético (AIA, ácido abscísico (ABA e citocininas (AsZeatin, pigmentos fotossintéticos (clorofila a, clorofila b e carotenóides, carboidratos totais, açúcares solúveis totais, aminoácido prolina e parâmetros de crescimento vegetativo foram usados como

  6. Characterization and functional analysis of seven flagellin genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. Characterization of R. leguminosarum flagellins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambalo Dinah D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae establishes symbiotic nitrogen fixing partnerships with plant species belonging to the Tribe Vicieae, which includes the genera Vicia, Lathyrus, Pisum and Lens. Motility and chemotaxis are important in the ecology of R. leguminosarum to provide a competitive advantage during the early steps of nodulation, but the mechanisms of motility and flagellar assembly remain poorly studied. This paper addresses the role of the seven flagellin genes in producing a functional flagellum. Results R. leguminosarum strains 3841 and VF39SM have seven flagellin genes (flaA, flaB, flaC, flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG, which are transcribed separately. The predicted flagellins of 3841 are highly similar or identical to the corresponding flagellins in VF39SM. flaA, flaB, flaC, and flaD are in tandem array and are located in the main flagellar gene cluster. flaH and flaG are located outside of the flagellar/motility region while flaE is plasmid-borne. Five flagellin subunits (FlaA, FlaB, FlaC, FlaE, and FlaG are highly similar to each other, whereas FlaD and FlaH are more distantly related. All flagellins exhibit conserved amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminal ends and are variable in the central regions. Strain 3841 has 1-3 plain subpolar flagella while strain VF39SM exhibits 4-7 plain peritrichous flagella. Three flagellins (FlaA/B/C and five flagellins (FlaA/B/C/E/G were detected by mass spectrometry in the flagellar filaments of strains 3841 and VF39SM, respectively. Mutation of flaA resulted in non-motile VF39SM and extremely reduced motility in 3841. Individual mutations of flaB and flaC resulted in shorter flagellar filaments and consequently reduced swimming and swarming motility for both strains. Mutant VF39SM strains carrying individual mutations in flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG were not significantly affected in motility and filament morphology. The flagellar filament and the motility of 3841 strains

  7. Cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumula-tion under water stress in Vicia faba leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Water stress-induced ABA accumulation is a cellular signaling process from water stress perception to activation of genes encoding key enzymes of ABA biosynthesis, of which the water stress-signal perception by cells or triggering mechanism of the ABA accumulation is the center in the whole process of ABA related-stress signaling in plants. The cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumulation under water stress was studied in leaves of Vicia faba. Mannitol at 890 mmol· kg-1 osmotic concentration induced an increase of more than 5 times in ABA concentra-tion in detached leaf tissues, but the same concentration of mannitol only induced an increase of less than 40 % in ABA concentration in protoplasts. Like in detached leaf tissues, ABA concentra-tion in isolated cells increased more than 10 times under the treatment of mannitol at 890 mmol·kg-1 concentration, suggesting that the interaction between plasmalemma and cell wall was essential to triggering of the water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Neither Ca2+-che- lating agent EGTA nor Ca2+ channel activator A23187 nor the two cytoskeleton inhibitors, colchicine and cyto-chalasin B, had any effect on water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Interestingly water stress-induced ABA accumulation was effectively inhibited by a non-plasmalemma-perme- able sulfhy-dryl-modifier PCMBS (p-chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonic acid), suggesting that plasmalemma pro-tein(s) may be involved in the triggering of water stress-induced ABA accumulation, and the protein may contain sulfhydryl group at its function domain.

  8. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A; Johnson, David

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling.

  9. Inhibition of Blue Light-Dependent H+ Pumping by Abscisic Acid in Vicia Guard-Cell Protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, C. H.; Kinoshita, T.; Oku, T.; Shimazaki, Ki.

    1996-06-01

    Blue-light (BL)-dependent H+ pumping in guard-cell protoplasts (GCPs) from Vicia faba was inhibited by 65% in the presence of abscisic acid (ABA). The inhibition increased with the time after application of ABA and was concentration dependent with a saturating concentration of 1 [mu]M at pH 6.2. The inhibition was nearly independent of the pH of the medium in the range 5.4 to 7.2 when ABA was applied at 10 [mu]M, whereas it was dependent on pH when the ABA concentration was decreased. The protonated form of ABA was saturating at 40 nM in inhibiting BL-dependent H+ pumping under various experimental conditions, whereas the dissociated form at 500 nM had no inhibitory effect on the pumping, suggesting that the protonated form of ABA is the form active in inhibiting the pumping. Fusicoccin (10 [mu]M), an activator of plasma membrane H+-ATPase, induced H+ pumping from GCPs, and the rate of H+ pumping was decreased to 70% by ABA. In contrast, ABA did not inhibit H+ pumping in isolated microsome vesicles from GCPs. These results suggest that the inhibition of BL-dependent H+ pumping by ABA in GCPs may be due to indirect inactivation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase and/or inhibition of the BL-signaling pathway. The pump inhibition by ABA causes membrane depolarization and can be an initial step to induce stomatal closure and reduces the transpirational water loss under drought stress in the daytime.

  10. Genotoxicity assessment of soils from wastewater irrigation areas and bioremediation sites using the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y F; Gong, P; Wilke, B M; Zhang, W; Song, X Y; Sun, T H; Ackland, M L

    2007-02-01

    Genotoxicity potential of soils taken from wastewater irrigation areas and bioremediation sites was assessed using the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus assay. Twenty five soils were tested, of which 8 were uncontaminated soils and taken as the control to examine the influence of soil properties; 6 soils were obtained from paddy rice fields with a history of long-term wastewater irrigation; 6 soils were obtained from bioremediation sites to examine effects of bioremediation; and 5 PAH-contaminated soils were used to examine methodological effects between direct soil exposure and exposure to aqueous soil extracts on micronuclei (MN) frequency ( per thousand) in the V. faba root tips. Results indicate that soil properties had no significant influences on MN frequencies (p > 0.05) when soil pH varied between 3.4 to 7.6 and organic carbon between 0.4% and 18.6%. The MN frequency measured in these control soils ranged from 1.6 per thousand to 5.8 per thousand. MN frequencies in soils from wastewater irrigation areas showed 2- to 48-fold increase as compared with the control. Soils from bioremediation sites showed a mixed picture: MN frequencies in some soils decreased after bioremediation, possibly due to detoxification; whereas in other cases remediated soils induced higher MN frequencies, suggesting that genotoxic substances might be produced during bioremediation. Exposure to aqueous soil extracts gave a higher MN frequency than direct exposure in 3 soils. However, the opposite was observed in the other two soils, suggesting that both exposure routes should be tested in case of negative results from one route. Data obtained from this study indicate that the MN assay is a sensitive assay suitable for evaluating genotoxicity of soils.

  11. Sugar and organic acid accumulation in guard cells of Vicia faba in response to red and blue light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbott, L.D.; Zeiger, E. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Changes in neutral sugar and organic acid content of guard cells were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography during stomatal opening in different light qualities. Sonicated Vicia faba epidermal peels were irradiated with 10 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] of blue light, a fluence rate insufficient for the activation of guard cell photosynthesis, or 125 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] of red light, in the presence of 1mM KCl, 0.1 mM CaCl[sub 2]. The low-fluence-rate blue light stimulated an average net stomatal opening of 4.7 [mu]m in 2 h, whereas the saturating fluence rate of red light stimulated an average net opening of 3.8 [mu]m in 2 h. Under blue light, the malate content of guard cells increased to 173% of the initial level during the first 30 min of opening and declined as opening continued. Sucrose levels continuously rose throughout the blue light-stimulated opening, reaching 215% of the initial level after 2 h. The starch hydrolysis products maltose and maltotriose remained elevated at all times. Under red light, guard cells showed very little increase in organic acid or maltose levels, whereas sucrose levels increased to 208% of the initial level after 2 h. Total measured organic metabolite concentrations were correlated with stomatal apertures in all cases except where substantial malate increases occurred. These results support the hypothesis that light quality modulates alternative mechanisms of osmotic accumulation guard cells, including potassium uptake, photosynthetic sugar production, and starch breakdown. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tab.

  12. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khazaei

    Full Text Available Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L. collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  13. De novo assembly of a genome-wide transcriptome map of Vicia faba (L.) for transfer cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun-Chinnappa, Kiruba S; McCurdy, David W

    2015-01-01

    Vicia faba (L.) is an important cool-season grain legume species used widely in agriculture but also in plant physiology research, particularly as an experimental model to study transfer cell (TC) development. TCs are specialized nutrient transport cells in plants, characterized by invaginated wall ingrowths with amplified plasma membrane surface area enriched with transporter proteins that facilitate nutrient transfer. Many TCs are formed by trans-differentiation from differentiated cells at apoplasmic/symplasmic boundaries in nutrient transport. Adaxial epidermal cells of isolated cotyledons can be induced to form functional TCs, thus providing a valuable experimental system to investigate genetic regulation of TC trans-differentiation. The genome of V. faba is exceedingly large (ca. 13 Gb), however, and limited genomic information is available for this species. To provide a resource for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC differentiation, we have undertaken de novo assembly of a genome-wide transcriptome map for V. faba. Illumina paired-end sequencing of total RNA pooled from different tissues and different stages, including isolated cotyledons induced to form epidermal TCs, generated 69.5 M reads, of which 65.8 M were used for assembly following trimming and quality control. Assembly using a De-Bruijn graph-based approach generated 21,297 contigs, of which 80.6% were successfully annotated against GO terms. The assembly was validated against known V. faba cDNAs held in GenBank, including transcripts previously identified as being specifically expressed in epidermal cells across TC trans-differentiation. This genome-wide transcriptome map therefore provides a valuable tool for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC trans-differentiation, and also enriches the genetic resources available for this important legume crop species.

  14. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Pickett, John A.; Johnson, David

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. PMID:25200735

  15. Potential impact of CO{sub 2} leakage from carbon capture and storage systems on field bean (Vicia faba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Traboulsi, M.; Sjoegersten, S.; Colls, J.; Black, C. [Univ. of Nottingham. School of Biosciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Steven, M. [Univ. of Nottingham. School of Geography, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Capture and geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has been suggested to be essential to reduce emissions to the atmosphere and aid mitigation of global climate change. However, leakage from transport pipelines or carbon capture and storage (CCS) reservoirs may pose risks to vegetation and contribute to rising atmospheric concentrations [CO{sub 2}]. This study examined effects on seedling emergence and growth when field bean plants (Vicia faba cv. Wizard) grown under field conditions were subjected to elevated soil [CO{sub 2}] for 39 days after planting. The strong negative correlation between soil [CO{sub 2}] and [O{sub 2}] during the injection period created a hypoxic soil environment under conditions of elevated soil [CO{sub 2}]. The damaging impact of this treatment became apparent early in the experiment as no seeds exposed to soil [CO{sub 2}] >50% emerged, even after injection was discontinued. Some seeds exposed to soil [CO{sub 2}] <50% produced seedlings, but many did not survive. Seedling emergence and survival in the gassed plots was greatest at [CO{sub 2}] of 5-20%, but root and shoot growth was reduced relative to control plants. Seedling emergence and growth were negatively related to soil [CO{sub 2}] and positively related to [O{sub 2}], although it is not known which was more important in inducing the observed effects. These findings suggest that leakage of CO{sub 2} from transport pipelines or CCS sites may greatly reduce seedling emergence and crop establishment in the vicinity of such infrastructures. (Author)

  16. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  17. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet tolerance and glutathione redox system significance assessment in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Naser A. [University of Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) and Department of Chemistry (Portugal); Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K. [University of Aveiro, Center for Mechanical Technology and Automation (TEMA) and Department of Mechanical Engineering (Portugal); Shah, Zahoor A. [University of Toledo, Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal, E-mail: ahmadr@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) and Department of Chemistry (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    Adsorbents based on single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter termed 'graphene oxide') are widely used in contaminated environments cleanup which may easily open the avenues for their entry to different environmental compartments, exposure to organisms and their subsequent transfer to human/animal food chain. Considering a common food crop-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germinating seedlings as a model plant system, this study assesses the V. faba-tolerance to different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg L{sup -1}) of graphene oxide (0.5-5 {mu}m) and evaluates glutathione ({gamma}-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) redox system significance in this context. The results showed significantly increased V. faba sensitivity under three graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 1,600 > 200 > 100 mg graphene oxide L{sup -1}), which was accompanied by decreased glutathione redox (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione) ratio, reduced glutathione pool, as well as significant and equally elevated activities of glutathione-regenerating (glutathione reductase) and glutathione-metabolizing (glutathione peroxidase; glutathione sulfo-transferase) enzymes. Contrarily, the two graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 800 > 400 graphene oxide mg L{sup -1}) yielded promising results; where, significant improvements in V. faba health status (measured as increased graphene oxide tolerance) were clearly perceptible with increased ratio of the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione pool and glutathione reductase activity but decreased activities of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes. It is inferred that V. faba seedlings-sensitivity and/or tolerance to graphene oxide concentrations depends on both the cellular redox state (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio) and the reduced glutathione pool which in turn are controlled by a finely tuned modulation of the coordination between glutathione-regenerating and

  18. Comparative transcriptional profiling provides insights into the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vicia sativa (the common vetch possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae.

  19. Biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols in developing and maturing seeds of winter vetch (Vicia vlllosa Roth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the accumulation of two types of α-D-galactosides: raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols were compared with changes in the activities of galactosyltransferases during winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seed development and maturation. Occurrence of galactinol and raffinose in young seeds and changes in activities of galactinol synthase and raffinose synthase during seed development indicated that formation of raffinose oligosaccharides (RFOs preceded synthesis of galactopinitols. Although transfer of galactose residues into raffinose oligosaccharides increased as seeds were maturing, at late stages of seed maturation the accumulation of galactopinitols was preferred to that of RFOs. In the present study, activities of enzymes transferring galactose moieties from galactinol to D-pinitol forming galactopinitol A, and further transfer of galactose moieties from galactinol to mono- and di-galactopinitol A were detected throughout seed development and maturation. This is a new observation, indicating biological potential of winter vetch seeds to synthesize mono-, di- and tri-galactosides of D-pinitol in a pathway similar to RFOs. The pattern of changes in activities of stachyose synthase and enzymes synthesizing galactopinitols (named galactopinitol A synthase and ciceritol synthase suggests that formation of stachyose, mono- and di-galactopinitol A (ciceritol is catalyzed by one enzyme. High correlation between activities of verbascose synthase and enzyme catalyzing synthesis of tri-galactopinitol A from galactinol and ciceritol (named tri-galactopinitol A synthase also suggests that biosynthesis of both types of tri-galactosides was catalyzed by one enzyme, but distinct from stachyose synthase. Changes in concentrations of galactosyl acceptors (sucrose and D-pinitol can be a factor which regulates splitting of galactose moieties between both types of galactosides in winter vetch seeds.

  20. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments.

  1. Bacillus simplex—A Little Known PGPB with Anti-Fungal Activity—Alters Pea Legume Root Architecture and Nodule Morphology When Coinoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Hirsch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two strains, 30N-5 and 30VD-1, identified as Bacillus simplex and B. subtilis, were isolated from the rhizospheres of two different plants, a Podocarpus and a palm, respectively, growing in the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden. B. subtilis is a well-known plant-growth promoting bacterial species, but B. simplex is not. B. simplex 30N-5 was initially isolated on a nitrogen-free medium, but no evidence for nitrogen fixation was found. Nevertheless, pea plants inoculated with B. simplex showed a change in root architecture due to the emergence of more lateral roots. When Pisum sativum carrying a DR5::GUSA construct, an indicator for auxin response, was inoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or its symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, GUS expression in the roots was increased over the uninoculated controls. Moreover, when pea roots were coinoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or B. subtilis 30VD-1 and R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, the nodules were larger, clustered, and developed more highly branched vascular bundles. Besides producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphate, the two Bacillus spp., especially strain 30VD-1, exhibited anti-fungal activity towards Fusarium. Our data show that combining nodulating, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia with growth-promoting bacteria enhances plant development and strongly supports a coinoculation strategy to improve nitrogen fixation, increase biomass, and establish greater resistance to fungal disease.

  2. Protein tyrosine phosphatases involved in signaling of the ABA-induced H2O2generation in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wuliang; JlA Wensuo; LIU Xin; ZHANG Shuqiu

    2004-01-01

    Although protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) play an important role in signal transduction in animal cells, little is known about the function of PTPases in higher plants. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are the critical components of ABA signaling pathway in guard cells. PTPase is an important regulator of MAPK, which is believed to mediate ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells of Viciafaba L. Here, we investigate the possible role of PTPases in stomatal movement process. Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a specific inhibitor of PTPases, could prevent ABA or H2O2-induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L; furthermore, it could promote opening of the stomata closed by ABA or H2O2. The activity of PTPases can be effectively inhibited by PAO and H2O2. DTT had no effect on the PAO-induced inhibition of PTPases activity, but it could relieve the inhibition of H2O2 on PTPases activity. PAO could also inhibit the ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells of Vicia faba L. These results suggested that PTPases is a critical signaling component in ABA-induced stomatal closure, and serve as targets for H2O2 lying on the signaling pathways downstream of ABA induced H2O2 generation.

  3. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayssam M. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b ,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  4. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oil treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Peleggi, Francesco

    2016-12-24

    Essential oils have recognized antimicrobial and antifungal properties which allow their utilization in agriculture like an alternative to pesticides, but their utilization requires the knowledge of all the potential structural changes and damages produced by the interaction with the vegetal organisms. In this paper, we investigated the effects of two essential oils, the tea tree oil (TTO) and the mixture of clove and rosemary oils (C + R), on the molecular structure of Vicia faba roots by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Fourier near infrared transform (FTNIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy showed structural modifications of the absorption bands related to DNA (1100 and 1050 cm(-1), carbohydrate backbones, and nucleotide bands within 900 and 850 cm(-1)), proteins (1700 and 1600 cm(-1) amide I band, 1580 and 1520 cm(-1) amide II band), and lipids (methylene group of aliphatic chains between 2950 and 2800 cm(-1)). The changes in the secondary structures of proteins consisted of a denaturation depending on increased presence of random coil structures. In addition, in the samples treated with TTO oils, we observed the presence of protein oxidation, an effect negligible instead for the C + R-treated samples. The modified shapes of the infrared methyl bands of aliphatic chains suggested an increased lipid disorder which could also determine lipid peroxidation. The changes observed for the DNA structures at the highest concentration of the above essential oils can be related to the genotoxic effect of eugenol, an important constituent of both TTO and C + R mixture oils. FTNIR spectroscopy showed the modified shape of the second overtone bands belonging to methyl and methylene groups, between 8500 and 8000 cm(-1). This confirmed the increased lipid disorders already observed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results obtained on the probe organism V. faba show that FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy can become a useful support to the conventional cytogenetic tests used

  5. DETECCIÓN DEL ANTÍGENO Tn EN TUMORES EPITELIALES CON LA LECTINA DE Vicia villosa isolectina B4 Using Vicia villosa lectin (B4 isolectin for detecting Tn antigen in epithelial tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes Los epítopes T, Tn y sTn, se expresan en un alto porcentaje de tumores epiteliales y pueden detectarse con anticuerpos monoclonales y lectinas. Objetivo. Evaluar diferencias de expresión del antígeno Tn en cortes histológicos de epitelios no neoplásicos y tumores epiteliales mediante isolectina B4 de Vicia villosa. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron semicuantitativamente localización, intensidad y porcentaje de expresión del antígeno en carcinomas in-situ e infiltrantes y epitelios no neoplásicos de cérvix, seno y urotelio, mediante isolectina B4. Resultados La expresión de Tn en cérvix predominó en membrana de células no neoplásicas y citoplasma de células tumorales; su intensidad fue mayor en carcinomas in-situ e infiltrantes comparado con epitelio no neoplásico aunque en este el porcentaje de expresión fue mayor. En seno, la expresión de Tn fue predominantemente citoplasmática con intensidad similar, el porcentaje de expresión fué mayor en carcinomas ductales in-situ e infiltrantes. En urotelio no neoplásico y tumoral la expresión de Tn predominó en citoplasma; la intensidad y el porcentaje de expresión fueron mayores en neoplasias no invasivas de bajo y alto grado, mientras que en urotelio no neoplásico fue baja y no hubo tendencia definida en tumores infiltrantes. Conclusiones. La detección del antígeno Tn mediante la lectina VVB4 mostró una mayor extensión de marcación en carcinomas ductales de seno en relación con el epitelio no neoplásico, pero no mostró una tendencia definida entre el tejido normal, ni diferentes etapas del desarrollo de los tumores de cérvix y urotelio. Estos hallazgos pueden atribuirse a la heterogeneidad de los procesos carcinogénicos o a que la especificidad de la lectina VVB4 no está restringida a este antígeno.Background. T, Tn and sTn epitopes are expressed in a large percentage of epithelial tumours and may be detected with monoclonal antibodies and lectins

  6. A method for triple fluorescence labeling with Vicia villosa agglutinin, an anti-parvalbumin antibody and an anti-G-protein-coupled receptor antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, S B

    1998-06-01

    The aim of the original study [S.B. Bausch, C. Chavkin, Vicia villosa agglutinin labels a subset of neurons coexpressing both the mu opioid receptor and parvalbumin in the developing rat subiculum, Dev. Brain Res., 97, 1996, 169-177] [3] was to develop a method for identifying a subset of mu opioid receptor-expressing interneurons in the rat subiculum for electrophysiological studies. Previous studies had shown that a subset of parvalbumin-positive neurons in the rat subiculum could be labeled with the lectin, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) [C.T. Drake, K.A. Mulligan, T.L. Wimpey, A. Hendrickson, C. Chavkin, Characterization of Vicia villosa agglutinin-labeled GABAergic neurons in the hippocampal formation and in acutely dissociated hippocampus, Brain Res., 554, 1991, 176-185] [11], and that mu opioid receptor immunoreactivity (-IR) and parvalbumin-IR were colocalized in a subset of neurons in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus [S.B. Bausch, C. Chavkin, Colocalization of mu and delta opioid receptors with GABA, parvalbumin and a G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel in the rodent brain, Analgesia, 1, 1995, 282-285] [2]. We hypothesized that a subset of mu opioid receptor-expressing neurons in the subiculum also would express the calcium binding protein, parvalbumin, and could be labeled with VVA. Labeling of live neurons with VVA [11] then could be used to identify these neurons. This protocol was designed to triple-label neurons expressing the mu opioid receptor, parvalbumin and the carbohydrate group, N-acetylgalactosamine (which binds VVA [S.E. Tollefsen, R. Kornfeld, The B4 lectin from Vicia villosa seeds interacts with N-acetylgalactosamine residues alpha-linked to serine or threonine residues in cell surface glycoproteins, J. Biol. Chem., 258, 1983, 5172-5176][M.P. Woodward, W.W. Young, R.A. Bloodgood, Detection of monoclonal antibodies specific for carbohydrate epitopes using periodate oxidation, J. Immunol. Methods, 78, 1985, 143-153] [25

  7. Lesões de pele em bovinos com doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Claudio Severo Lombardo de; Fighera Rafael Almeida; Souza Tatiana Mello de

    2005-01-01

    Descrevem-se as lesões cutâneas macroscópicas em 10 e histológicas em 8 vacas afetadas por doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp.). Em todos os casos, as lesões cutâneas eram caracterizadas por múltiplas áreas coalescentes de alopecia, liquenificação e descamação. Os locais mais atingidos pela lesão de pele foram: cabeça e pescoço (10/10), tronco (4/10), períneo (3/10) e mama (2/10). Em todos os 8 casos avaliados histologicamente, as lesões se caracteri...

  8. Experiment on oxidative damage of Vicia faba by domestic sewage%生活污水对蚕豆的氧化损伤实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚青

    2012-01-01

    研究了某污水处理厂不同取样点的污水对蚕豆根部和叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性及丙二醛(MDA)含量的影响.结果表明:各取样点的污水引起蚕豆根部和叶片SOD活性增加和叶片中POD和CAT活性的增加;随着各取样点CODCr增加,根部的CAT和POD的活性均表现为先升后降.且除了B沉外,各取样点的污水均使得根部和叶片的MDA含量显著增高.由于加氯消毒,出水的毒性高于B沉池污水.%The present study investigated toxic impacts of domestic sewage from different treatment processes on malondialdehyde (MDA) , superoxide dismutase (SOD) , catalase (CAT) and peroxidase(POD) in roots and leaves of Vicia faba. The results showed that SOD activities were increased at all samples both in roots and leaves of Vicia faba; CAT and POD activities were also enhanced in leaves; In roots, CAT and POD activities were enhanced at low CODCr concentrations, and were decreased at high CODCr concentrations. Except for secondary settler, MDA were significantly increased at all samples both in roots and leaves.

  9. Genotoxic effects of the carbamate insecticide Pirimor-50® in Vicia faba root tip meristems and human lymphocyte culture after direct application and treatment with its metabolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Sánchez-Alarcón, Juana; Milić, Mirta; Olivares, José Luis Gómez; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate genotoxic effects of Pirimor-50®, a pirimicarb-based formulation (50 % active ingredient), in human lymphocyte cultures and Vicia faba root meristems. Furthermore, the objective was to examine a combined influence of insecticide treatment with mammalian microsomal S9 and vegetal S10 metabolic fractions or S10 mix metabolic transformation extracts (after Vicia faba primary roots treatment with Pirimor-50®). We used sister chromatid exchange assay-SCE and measured cell cycle progression and proliferation (proportion of M1-M3 metaphases and replication index ratio-RI). Two processes were used for plant promutagen activation: in vivo activation-Pirimor-50® was applied for 4 h to the plant and then S10 mix was added to lymphocytes; and, in vitro activation-lymphocytes were treated with Pirimor-50® and S10 or S9 for 2 h. Direct treatment induced significantly higher SCE frequencies in meristems at 0.01 mg mL-1. In lymphocytes, significantly higher SCE was at 1 mg mL-1 with decrease in RI and M1-M3 metaphase proportions at 0.5 mg mL-1 and cell division stop at 2.5 mg mL1. S10 mix lymphocyte treatment showed significantly elevated SCE values at 2-2.5 mg mL-1, with cell death at 3 mg mL-1. Lymphocyte treatment with Pirimor-50® together with S9 or S10 showed slightly elevated SCE frequency but had a significant influence on RI decrease, with lowest values in S9 treatment. Since no data are available on the genotoxicity of Pirimor-50®, this study is one of the first to evaluate and compare its direct effect in two bioassays, animal and vegetal, and also the effect of plant and animal metabolism on its genotoxic potential.

  10. Humoral Immunity to Commensal Oral Bacteria in Human Infants: Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Antibodies Reactive with Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis during the First Two Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael F.; Bryan, Stacey; Evans, Mishell K.; Pearce, Cheryl L.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Sura, Patricia A.; Wientzen, Raoul L.; Bowden, George H. W.

    1999-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies reactive with the pioneer oral streptococci Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and Streptococcus oralis, the late oral colonizer Streptococcus mutans, and the pioneer enteric bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in saliva samples from 10 human infants from birth to age 2 years were analyzed. Low levels of salivary SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of all four species were detected within the first month after birth, even though S. mutans and E. faecalis were not recovered from the mouths of the infants during the study period. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with the four species over this time period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with all four species were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with these bacteria showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. Adsorption of each infant’s saliva with cells of one species produced a dramatic reduction of antibodies recognizing the other three species. Sequential adsorption of saliva samples removed all SIgA antibody to the bacteria, indicating that the SIgA antibodies were directed to antigens shared by all four species. The induction by the host of a limited immune response to common antigens that are likely not involved in adherence may be among the mechanisms that commensal streptococci employ to persist in the oral cavity. PMID:10085031

  11. An amino-terminal secretion signal is required for YplA export by the Ysa, Ysc, and flagellar type III secretion systems of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Sasha M; Young, Glenn M

    2005-09-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1B maintains three distinct type III secretion (TTS) systems, which independently operate to target proteins to extracellular sites. The Ysa and Ysc systems are prototypical contact-dependent TTS systems that translocate toxic effectors to the cytosols of targeted eukaryotic host cells during infection. The flagellar TTS system is utilized during the assembly of the flagellum and is required for secretion of the virulence-associated phospholipase YplA to the bacterial milieu. When ectopically produced, YplA is also a secretion substrate for the Ysa and Ysc TTS systems. In this study, we define elements that allow YplA recognition and export by the Ysa, Ysc, and flagellar TTS systems. Fusion of various amino-terminal regions of YplA to Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) lacking its native secretion signal demonstrated that the first 20 amino acids or corresponding mRNA codons of YplA were sufficient for export of YplA-PhoA chimeras by each TTS system. Export of native YplA by each of the three TTS systems was also found to depend on the integrity of its amino terminus. Introduction of a frameshift mutation or deletion of yplA sequences encoding the amino-terminal 20 residues negatively impacted YplA secretion. Deletion of other yplA regions was tolerated, including that resulting in the removal of amino acid residues 30 through 40 of the polypeptide and removal of the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA. This work supports a model in which independent and distantly related TTS systems of Y. enterocolitica recognize protein substrates by a similar mechanism.

  12. 从蚕豆叶片中提取保卫细胞原生质体方法的改进%Improved Method for Preparation of Guard Cell Protoplasts from Leaves of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项燕; 武永军; 张花; 梁宗锁

    2009-01-01

    以蚕豆为试材,对其进行不同表皮撕取方式、不同离心分离方式处理后制备保卫细胞原生质体的实验,确定了蚕豆叶片保卫细胞制备过程中表皮的撕取和原生质体分离的方式,建立了一套高效制备高纯度保卫细胞原生质体的方法.%Guard cell protoplasts preparation on different epidermis tearing and centrifugation were studied by leaves of vicia faba , main methods were determined,and a high-efficiency guard cell protoplasts preparing method was established in leaves of vicia faba.

  13. Effects of water stress on the osmoregulation ability in Vicia faba L.leaves%水分胁迫对蚕豆叶片渗透调节能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍思伟

    2001-01-01

    为探讨蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)对水分胁迫的适应机理,经人工水分胁迫处理,研究了水分胁迫对蚕豆叶片渗透调节能力的影响.结果表明:蚕豆叶片中作为细胞内渗透调节物质的游离脯氨酸、K++、可溶性总糖等细胞内溶质含量在水分胁迫下都有明显增加.这些指标均与土壤含水量呈负相关,表明蚕豆具有一定的渗透调节能力.但是,渗透调节作用有一定的局限性,在中度和严重水分胁迫下,蚕豆的蒸腾速率明显下降,气孔扩散阻力大大增加,最终表现为植株生物量的明显降低.%In order to study Vicia faba L.adaptable mechanism of water stress.By artificial imposed water stress,the result showed that under the condition of water stress,contents of the osmotic regulators such as the free proline,K++ and soluble sufar increased significantly in leaves of Vicia faba L.The osmotic potential of cell decreased,and the increased quantities of these indices correlated negatively to the water content of soil significantly.These facts indicated that Vicia faba L.had certain osmoregulation ability.However,osmoregulation ability had certain limitation.Under the medial and high water stress,the rate of transpiration decreased significantly and stoma diffusing resistance increased greatly.Ultimately,the biomass of plant decreased significantly.

  14. 空气中高浓度二氯乙烷对蚕豆根尖细胞遗传毒性研究%The genotoxicity of High-Dose Concentration in the Air on Vicia faba Root Tips Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洋; 周小敏; 熊旭辉; 谭广辉; 张琼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of micronucleus test of Vicia faba root-tip cell in application of mutation detection caused by air pollutants. Methods This experiment takes available Vicia faba as research objects, which was poisoned by high concentration dichloroethane of simulated indoor air at airtight container. Results With the increasing of concentration, the descending trend of mitotic index and the escalation of average micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate had been observed, which showed a conspicuous dose-response relationship. Conclusion Genetic toxic effects of Vicia faba root-tip cell caused by dichloroethane are unquestionable under all experiment concentration. Furthermore, it is possible that the using of micronucleus test in Vicia faba linn root-tip cell for high concentration dichloroethane of indoor air.%目的 探讨将蚕豆根尖微核检测系统(micronucleus,MCN)应用于空气污染物致突变性检测的可行性.方法 以市售蚕豆为材料,在密闭容器中模拟室内空气的高浓度二氯乙烷污染,对蚕豆进行染毒.结果 随着浓度的递增,平均微核率、染色体畸变率逐步上升,有丝分裂指数有下降趋势,表现出明显的剂量效应关系.结论 在实验浓度下,1,2-二氯乙烷有对蚕豆根尖细胞产生遗传毒害效应.应用蚕豆根尖微核技术检测室内高浓度1,2-二氯乙烷污染物是可行的.

  15. Effect of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum allelopathy on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells%宜宾油樟的化感作用对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓骛远; 罗通; 郑田喜

    2011-01-01

    利用油樟水浸提液作用蚕豆根尖研究了油樟化感作用对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响.结果表明:油樟对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的化感作用和浸提液浓度、作用时间有密切关系.在实验设计的范围内,随油樟水浸提液浓度的加大,蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数显著减小,而细胞微核率显著提高;油樟浸提液作用48 h时,对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的化感作用最强;油樟水浸提液诱导蚕豆根尖细胞产生染色体断片和滞后染色体等多种畸变染色体,并使有丝分裂各时期的分裂相减少.说明油樟化感物质抑制了细胞的有丝分裂,促进微核的产生,从而影响蚕豆根尖的生长和细胞的遗传稳定性.%The effect of Youzhang [Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble), N.Chan]allelopathy on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells was studied with Youzhang water extracts acting Vicia faba root tips.The result shows the allelopathy has a close relation to the extract concentration and treating time.Within designed range of the experiment, the mitosis index of Vicia faba root tip cells decreases obviously, and the micronucleus frequency rises remarkably along with the increase of Youzhang extract concentrations.When acting time comes to 48 hours, the allelopathy of Youzhang extracts on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells is the strongest.Youzhang water extracts induce a variety of aberrant chromosomes, such as chromosome fregments and delaying chromosomes, and inhibit mitosis different phases.It is implied that Youzhang's allelopthy matter inhibits cell mitosis, and promotes micronucleus generation of cells, and finally affects the growth of Vicia faba root tips and the genetic stability of cells.

  16. Study of Micronucleus Phenomenon of Vicia faba Induced by Four lnvorment Pollution Reagent%4种环境污染试剂诱导蚕豆微核现象的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓓; 许守明; 赵丽芸; 苏思

    2011-01-01

    [目的]检测4种试剂处理后蚕豆的微核情况,以此评估一些污染物的危害性.[方法]通过蚕豆根尖微核试验,根据微核出现的频率来评价环境诱变因子对蚕豆微核的损害程度,镜捡计数后计算微核率.[结果]甲醛、丙烯酰胺、硝酸铅、O2衍生物可导致蚕豆根尖细胞间期细胞微核频率明显升高,但每种污染物在不同浓度会有不同程度的微核现象,且在一定浓度范围内微核率上升,浓度达到一定值时下降.[结论]丙烯酰胺、甲醛对蚕豆根尖细胞具有明显的遗传毒性效应;硝酸铅对蚕豆根尖细胞不具有明显的遗传毒性效应;SO2衍生物低浓度时对蚕豆根尖细胞有一定遗传毒性效应,高浓度效应明显.%[Objective] The aim was to study micronucleus phenomenon of Vicia faba induced by four invorment pollution reagent in order to assess some of the dangers of pollution. [ Method] By the mature root tip cells of Vicia faba micronucleus in substantial progress in water pollution monitoring, micronucleus phenomenon of Vicia faba induced by four invorment pollution reagent was studied. [Result] It was found that a representative of the environmental pollutants such as formaldehyde, acrylamide, lead nitrate, SO, derivatives could result in root tip cells of Vicia faba micronucleus frequency of interphase cells to increase significantly, but different pollutants at different concentrations varied degrees of micro-nuclear phenomenon, and in a certain range of concentration would increase the micronucleus rate, but would decline. [ Conclusion] Formaldehyde and acrylamide had evident genotoxic effects on root tip cells of Vicia faba, lead nitrate had not evident genotoxic effects, and S02 derivatives had a certain genotoxic effect at low concentration, and had evident genotoxic effects at high concentration.

  17. Evaluation of the ability of two multiplex PCR assays (Bruce-ladder and Suis-ladder) to distinguish six Brucella species and Brucella suis at the biovar level%应用多重PCR鉴别布鲁氏菌种及猪种5个生物型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 崔步云; 赵鸿雁; 朴东日; 姜海; 邰新平; 田国忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of two types of multiplex PCR assays (Bruce-ladder and Suis-ladder) to distinguish six Brucella species and five biovars of Brucella suis. Methods A Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR assay was performed using 8 pairs of primers to distinguish six Brucella species. A Suis-ladder multiplex PCR assay was performed using 4 pairs of primers to distinguish five biovars of B. suis. The tested strains, which consisted of 27 reference strains of six Brucella species and 239 Brucella isolates, were examined using PCR assays and methods of biological identification. Results The Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR assay differentiated six Brucella species, including Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis , Brucella suis , Brucella canis , Brucella ovis , and Brucella neotomae , in a single step. The Suis-ladder multiplex PCR assay differentiated five biovars of B. suis in a single step. The electrophoresis patterns of the vaccine strain S2 and biovar 1 of B. suis were identical. The total rate of concordance between methods of biological identification and multiplex PCR assays was 100%. Conclusion The Bruce-ladder and Suis-ladder multiplex PCR assays are rapid and specific methods of respectively identifying Brucella species and B. suis at the biovar level.%目的 应用布鲁氏菌种多重PCR和猪种多重PCR对布鲁氏菌进行鉴定. 方法 对两套多重PCR方法进行条件优化,应用布鲁氏菌参考菌株、疫苗株和临床分离菌株进行评价,并与生物学分型方法进行比较. 结果 布鲁氏菌种多重PCR扩增(包括牛种布鲁氏菌8个生物型,猪种5个生物型,羊种3个生物型,以及绵羊附睾、犬和沙漠森林野鼠种各1个生物型)可获得152~1 682 bp的8个DNA片段,但种间DNA片段数不一.猪种多重PCR扩增猪种5个生物型菌株得到197~774 bp的7个DNA片段,不同生物型的DNA扩增图谱不同;猪种疫苗株S2扩增图谱与猪种生物1型相同,多重PCR分型方法与生物学

  18. The Effect of Weeds Interference Time and Plant Density on Weeds Control and Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dabaghzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Broad bean (Vicia faba L. belongs to the Fabaceae family and is the most important protein plant in the world. Although broad bean used as cover crop is able to deal with weeds, but the evidence show that yield of the plant decreased 32-82% because of competition with weeds. Using crop density is one of the ecological approaches in weed management. Broad bean density can produce biomass, weed competition, seed yield and ultimately influence the economic yield. Many reports show that increasing crop density reduced negative effects of weeds. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of weeds interference and different densities of broad bean on density and biomass of weeds and broad bean seed yield. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out as split plot in randomized complete block, with four replications, during 2009-2010 in a field experiment at Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, Ahwaz. Weeds interference was investigated on 5 levels, including V5, V9, V13 broad-bean phonological stages, full season weeding and full season weeds interference selected as main plots, and broad-bean density on 3 levels: including 8, 11 and 14 plants m-2 as subplots. Density, dry weight and diversity of weeds and seed yield of broad bean were evaluated. Results and Discussion The results showed that the weeds including wild beet, field bindweed and mallow had the highest occurrence (26.35, 21.17 and 18.46 plants m-2 respectively in V9 broad-bean phonological stage, where the peak abundance of weeds was observed. The frequency of mallow, clover and yellow alfalfa were high until V5 broad-bean phonological stage, but in the next stages, they were replaced by other weeds and sorrel. It was also observed that the environmental factors can affect composition of weeds, for example, as the temperature increased in the early spring, an increase in the density of field bindweed was recorded. In the treatment of 8 plants

  19. Does ascorbate in the mesophyll cell walls form the first line of defence against ozone? Testing the concept using broad bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsányi, E; Lyons, T; Plöchl, M; Barnes, J

    2000-05-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants were exposed, in duplicate controlled environment chambers, to charcoal/Purafil-filtered air (CFA-grown plants) or to 75 nmol mol(-1) ozone (O(3)) for 7 h d(-1) (O(3)-grown plants) for 28 d, and then exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3 )for 8 h. The concentration of ascorbate (ASC) was determined in leaf extracellular washing fluid (apoplast) and in the residual leaf tissue (symplast) after 0, 4 and 8 h acute fumigation, and after a 16 h "recovery" period in CFA. Changes in stomatal conductance were measured in vivo in order to model pollutant uptake, while the light-saturated rate of CO(2) assimilation (A:(sat)) was recorded as an indicator of O(3)-induced intracellular damage. Measurements of A:(sat) revealed enhanced tolerance to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3) in plants pre-exposed to the pollutant compared with equivalent plants grown in CFA, consistent with the observed reduction in pollutant uptake due to lower stomatal conductance. The concentration of ASC in the leaf apoplast (ASC(apo)) declined upon O(3)-treatment in both CFA- and O(3)-grown plants, consistent with the oxidation of ASC(apo) under O(3)-stress. Furthermore, the decline in ASC(apo) was reversible in O(3)-grown plants after a 16 h "recovery" period, but not in plants grown in CFA. No significant change in the level and/or redox state of ASC in the symplast (ASC(symp)) was observed in plants exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3), and there was no difference in the constitutive level of ASC(symp) between CFA- and O(3)-grown plants. Model calculations indicated that the reaction of O(3) with ASC(apo) in the leaves of Vicia faba is potentially sufficient to intercept a substantial proportion (30-40%) of the O(3)entering the plant under environmentally-relevant conditions. The potential role of apoplastic ASC in mediating the tolerance of leaves to O(3) is discussed.

  20. Application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the estimation of protein and L-canavanine contents in seeds of one-flowered vetch (Vicia articulate Hornem.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vioque, R.; Rodriguez Conde, M. F.; Mozos Pascual, M. de los

    2009-07-01

    In this work it has been evaluated the effectiveness of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the estimation of two constituents affecting the nutritional quality of the seeds of one-flowered vetch (Vicia articulate Hornem.): protein and L-canavanine, a toxic non-protein amino acid. The NIRS calibrations showed good statistics with coefficients of multiple determination (R{sup 2}) of 0.97 for total protein and 0.95 for L-canavanine. The developed equations were further used to estimate the contents of protein and L-canavanine of a set of unknown samples (external validation). The equation for total protein was able to predict with an accuracy similar to that of the reference method showing a correlation (r{sup 2}) between the reference and predicted values of 0.95. In the case of L-canavanine, r{sup 2} was only 0.72 and the equation was only effective to discriminate samples into groups of low, medium and high contents. (Author) 20 refs.

  1. Isolation of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis placenta by use of Vicia villosa bound agarose affinity chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Beckers

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the isolation and characterisation of new PAG molecules extracted from mid- and late-pregnancy placentas in the water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis. After extraction, acid and ammonium sulphate precipitation and DEAE chromatography water buffalo PAG (wbPAG were enriched by Vicia villosa agarose (VVA affininity chromatography. As determined by Western blotting with anti-PAG-sera, apparent molecular masses of immunoreactive bands from VVA peaks ranged from 59.5 to 75.8 kDa and from 57.8 to 80.9 kDa in the mid- and late- pregnancy placenta respectively. Aminoterminal microsequencing of proteins allowed the identification of three distinct wbPAG sequences wich have ben deposed in the SwissProt database: RGSXLTIHPLRNIRDFFYUG (Acc. n. P85048, RGSXLTILPLRNIID (P85049 and RGSXLTHLPLRNI (P85050. Their comparison to those previously identified revealed that two of them were new since they have not been described yet. Our results confirm the suitability of VVA chromatography in enrichment of multiple PAG molecules expressed in buffalo placenta. Productions of specific antisera can be very useful in immonoistochemical and immunocyitochemical studies of PAG expression in fetomaternal interfaces. Purified native PAG are also required for development on specific immoassays (RIA/ELISA currently used for pregnancy diagnosis and physiological investigation in farm animal.

  2. Three major nucleolar proteins migrate from nucleolus to nucleoplasm and cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. exposed to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rong; Zhang, Huaning; Li, Shaoshan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-09-01

    Results from our previous investigation indicated that Al could affect the nucleolus and induce extrusion of silver-staining nucleolar particles containing argyrophilic proteins from the nucleolus into the cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. So far, the nucleolar proteins involved have not been identified. It is well known that nucleophosmin (B23), nucleolin (C23), and fibrillarin are three major and multifunctional nucleolar proteins. Therefore, effects of Al on B23, C23, and fibrillarin in root tip cells of V. faba exposed to 100 μM Al for 48 h were observed and analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. The results from this work demonstrated that after 100 μM of Al treatment for 48 h, B23 and C23 migrated from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm and fibrillarin from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. In some cells, fibrillarin was present only in the cytoplasm. Western blotting data revealed higher expression of the three major nucleolar proteins in Al-treated roots compared with the control and that the B23 content increased markedly. These findings confirmed our previous observations.

  3. The effects of nano-TiO{sub 2} on seed germination, development and mitosis of root tip cells of Vicia narbonensis L. and Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica, E-mail: mruffini@biologia.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy); Giorgetti, Lucia; Geri, Chiara [Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology (IBBA/CNR), UOS Pisa (Italy); Cremonini, Roberto [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    This study aimed to provide new information about phyto-toxicology of nano-TiO{sub 2} on plant systems. To contribute to the evaluation of the potential harmful effects of the nanoparticles on monocots and dicots we considered their effects on seed germination and root elongation applying a concentration range from 0.2 to 4.0 Per-Mille-Sign in the plants Zea mays L. and Vicia narbonensis L. Moreover, we achieved a genotoxicity study at cytological level in root meristems by means of traditional cytogenetic approach, to evidence possible alterations in mitotic activity, chromosomal aberrations, and micronuclei release. From these analyses it comes out that nano-TiO{sub 2} particles, after short-term exposure and under our experimental conditions, delayed germination progression for the first 24 h in both materials. Root elongation was affected only after treatment with the higher nano-TiO{sub 2} concentration. Further significant effects were detected showing mitotic index reduction and concentration-dependent increase in the aberration emergence that evidenced a nano-TiO{sub 2}-induced genotoxic effect for both species.

  4. AMPLIFICATION OF MICRODISSECTED CHROMOSOMES FROM VICIA FABA BY TWO PCR TECHNIQUES%2种PCR技术扩增微分离的蚕豆染色体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽华; 陈正华

    2004-01-01

    用接头介导的PCR (polymerase chain reaction, LA-PCR) 和简并寡核苷酸PCR(DOP-PCR)2种技术对微分离的蚕豆(vicia faba)大M染色体进行了扩增,并对扩增结果及2种PCR技术的优缺点进行了比较.结果表明,LA-PCR的扩增产物大小为0.3~3kb, 而DOP-PCR的扩增产物大小为0.3~1.3kb. LA-PCR的对照中未观察到扩增产物,而DOP-PCR的对照中却明显观察到扩增产物,此扩增产物是由于引物之间相互退火而形成的二聚体或更高级的聚合体. LA-PCR的Southern杂交信号明显强于DOP-PCR,可见LA-PCR的扩增效率明显高于DOP-PCR.

  5. Nitrogen Fixation (C(2)H(2) Reduction) by Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.) Nodules and Bacteroids under Water-Restricted Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, V; Trinchant, J C; Rigaud, J

    1990-03-01

    Water potentials of leaves and nodules of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivated on a sandy mixture were linearly and highly (r(2) = 0.99) correlated throughout a water deprivation of plants. A decrease of 0.2 megapascal of the nodule water potential (Psi(nod)) induced an immediate 25% inhibition of the highest level of acetylene reduction of broad bean nodules attached to roots. This activity continued to be depressed when water stress increased, but the effect was less pronounced. Partial recovery of optimal C(2)H(2) reduction capacity of mildly water stressed nodules (Psi(nod) = -1.2 megapascals) was possible by increasing the external O(2) partial pressure up to 60 kilopascals. The dense packing of the cortical cells of nodules may be responsible for the limitation of O(2) diffusion to the central tissue. Bacteroids isolated from broad bean nodules exhibited higher N(2) fixation activity with glucose than with succinate as an energy-yielding substrate. Bacteroids from stressed nodules appeared more sensitive to O(2), and their optimal activity declined with increasing nodule water deprivation. This effect could be partly due to decreased bacteroid respiration capacity with water stress. Water stress was also responsible for a decrease of the cytosolic protein content of the nodule and more specifically of leghemoglobin. The alteration of the bacteroid environment appears to contribute to the decline in N(2) fixation under water restricted conditions.

  6. Chloride-inducible transient apoplastic alkalinizations induce stomata closure by controlling abscisic acid distribution between leaf apoplast and guard cells in salt-stressed Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mithöfer, Axel; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Zörb, Christian; Muehling, Karl H

    2015-11-01

    Chloride stress causes the leaf apoplast transiently to alkalize, an event that is presumed to contribute to the ability of plants to adapt to saline conditions. However, the initiation of coordinated processes downstream of the alkalinization is unknown. We hypothesize that chloride-inducible pH dynamics are a key chemical feature modulating the compartmental distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and, as a consequence, affecting stomata aperture. Apoplastic pH and stomata aperture dynamics in intact Vicia faba leaves were monitored by microscopy-based ratio imaging and porometric measurements of stomatal conductance. ABA concentrations in leaf apoplast and guard cells were compared with pH dynamics by gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results demonstrate that, upon chloride addition to roots, an alkalizing factor that initiates the pH dynamic propagates from root to leaf in a way similar to xylem-distributed water. In leaves, it induces a systemic transient apoplastic alkalinization that causes apoplastic ABA concentration to increase, followed by an elevation of endogenous guard cell ABA. We conclude that the transient alkalinization, which is a remote effect of chloride stress, modulates the compartmental distribution of ABA between the leaf apoplast and the guard cells and, in this way, is instrumental in inducing stomata closure during the beginning of salinity.

  7. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 Adapts to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid with "Auxin-Like" Morphological Changes, Cell Envelope Remodeling and Upregulation of Central Metabolic Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya V Bhat

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to characterize the effects of environmental stressors at the molecular level on model organisms with the ever increasing number and variety of anthropogenic chemical pollutants. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, as one of the most widely applied pesticides in the world, is one such example. This herbicide is known to have non-targeted undesirable effects on humans, animals and soil microbes, but specific molecular targets at sublethal levels are unknown. In this study, we have used Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (Rlv as a nitrogen fixing, beneficial model soil organism to characterize the effects of 2,4-D. Using metabolomics and advanced microscopy we determined specific target pathways in the Rlv metabolic network and consequent changes to its phenotype, surface ultrastructure, and physical properties during sublethal 2,4-D exposure. Auxin and 2,4-D, its structural analogue, showed common morphological changes in vitro which were similar to bacteroids isolated from plant nodules, implying that these changes are related to bacteroid differentiation required for nitrogen fixation. Rlv showed remarkable adaptation capabilities in response to the herbicide, with changes to integral pathways of cellular metabolism and the potential to assimilate 2,4-D with consequent changes to its physical and structural properties. This study identifies biomarkers of 2,4-D in Rlv and offers valuable insights into the mode-of-action of 2,4-D in soil bacteria.

  8. A study of arsenic speciation in soil, irrigation water and plant tissue: A case study of the broad bean plant, Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-11-01

    Samples of soil, the broad bean plant, Vicia faba and irrigation water were collected from the same agricultural site in Dokan, in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation were determined in all materials by ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively. Available arsenic (11%) was also determined within the soil, together with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of total arsenic were: soil (5.32μgg(-1)), irrigation water (1.06μgL(-1)), roots (2.065μgg(-1)) and bean (0.133μgg(-1)). Stems, leaves and pods were also measured. Inorganic As(V) dominated soil (90%) and root (78%) samples. However, organo-arsenic (MMA, 48% and DMA, 19%) was the more dominant species in the edible bean. The study provides an insight into the uptake, preferred disposal route, speciation changes and loss mechanism involved for arsenic with this food source.

  9. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of urban surface waters using freshwater luminescent bacteria Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 and Vicia faba root tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Ma; Xiaochang Wang; Yongjun Liu

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater luminescent bacteria Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 test and the Vicia faba root tip test associated with solid-phase extraction were applied for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of organic substances in three rivers,two lakes and effluent flows from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Xi'an,China.Although the most seriously polluted river with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) showed high cytotoxicity (expressed as TH50,the toxicity impact index) and genotoxicity (expressed as RMCN,the relative frequency of micronucleus),no correlative relation was found between the ecotoxicity and organic content of the water samples.However,there was a linear correlative relation between TⅡ50 and RMCN for most water samples except that from the Zaohe River,which receives discharge from WWTP and untreated industrial wastewaters.The ecotoxicity of the organic toxicants in the Chanhe River and Zaohe River indicated that cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were related to the pollutant source.The TⅡ50 and RMCN were also found to correlate roughly to the dissolved oxygen concentration of the water.Sufficient dissolved oxygen in surface water is thus proved to be an indicator of a healthy water environmental condition.

  10. A New Mechanism for the Regulation of Stomatal Aperture Size in Intact Leaves (Accumulation of Mesophyll-Derived Sucrose in the Guard-Cell Wall of Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw Jr, W. H.; Smith, B. G.; Freed, G. A.

    1997-05-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with 14CO2, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol-1) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the 14C content and Sucspecific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO2 incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol-1) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma-1 min-1). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 [mu]m. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  11. Electrophoretic assay for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in guard cells and other leaf cells of Vicia faba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarczynski, M.C.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Arold, N.; Neuhoff, V.; Hampp, R. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA) Max-Planck-Institute fuer Experimentelle Medizin, Goettingen (West Germany) Universitaet Tuebingen (West Germany))

    1989-04-01

    The ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) contents of guard cells and other cells of Vicia faba L. leaflet were determined. To prevent proteolysis, proteins of frozen protoplast preparations or of cells excised from freeze-dried leaf were extracted directly in a sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-containing solution which was heated immediately after sample addition. Protein profiles of the different cell types were obtained by electrophoresis of the extracts and subsequent densitometry of the stained protein bands. About one-third of the protein of palisade parenchyma and of spongy parenchyma was Rubisco large subunit. Using chlorophyll (Chl):protein ratios previously obtained, we calculate mesophyll contained ca. 22 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. In contrast, guard-cell protoplast preparations were calculated to contain from 0.7 to 2.2 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. The upper end of this range is an overestimate resulting from contamination by mesophyll and to the method of peak integration. Extracts of excised guard cells were calculated to contain 0.05 to 0.17 millimole Rubisco per mole Chl. We conclude that Rubisco is absent, or virtually so, in guard cells of V. faba.

  12. Modification of catalase and MAPK in Vicia faba cultivated in soil with high natural radioactivity and treated with a static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Nazanin; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Payez, Atefeh

    2014-03-01

    The effects of a static magnetic field (SMF) and high natural radioactivity (HR) on catalase and MAPK genes in Vicia faba were investigated. Soil samples with high natural radioactivity were collected from Ramsar in north Iran where the annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation is higher than 20mSv/year. The specific activity of the radionuclides of (232)Th, (236)Ra, and (40)K was measured using gamma spectrometry. The seeds were planted either in the soil with high natural radioactivity or in the control soils and were then exposed to a SMF of 30mT for 8 days; 8h/day. Levels of expression of catalase and MAPK genes, catalase activity and H2O2 content were evaluated. The results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of catalase and MAPK genes in SMF- and HR-treated plants compared to the controls. An increase in catalase activity was accompanied by increased expression of its gene and accumulation of H2O2. Relative expression of the MAPK gene in treated plants, however, was lower than those of the controls. The results suggest that the response of V. faba plants to SMF and HR may be mediated by modification of catalase and MAPK.

  13. Rumen microbial protein supply as estimated from purine derivative excretion on sheep receiving faba beans (vicia faba as supplement delivered at different feeding frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmuddin Natsir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and extensive degradation of faba beans (Vicia faba by ruminal microbes can result in substantial and undesirable N loss from the rumen. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that offering faba beans as a supplement more than once a day to sheep receiving a combination of oaten chaff and lucerne chaff as a basal diet will increase microbial protein supply to the intestines. The experiment was conducted in a Latin square design (4 x 4 using four mature merino sheep. The treatments were: T0 = basal diet ad libitum + nil supplements, T1 = T0 + faba beans (FB fed once daily, T2 = T0 + FB fed twice daily, T3 = T0 + FB fed 8 times daily. The basal diet was given once per day at 09:00 in the morning while FB were given at the rate of approximately 0.5% of live body weight and delivered according to the treatment protocol. Urinary excretion of purine derivative (PD was used to estimate microbial protein supply. The results indicated that even though treatment statistically had no effects on total urine output, PD excretion in the urine, PD absorbed, estimated microbial N supply, and the efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis, provision of supplement to sheep numerically improved microbial N supply by 92% compared to that of control group. However, there were no differences within the supplemented group. Therefore, it is concluded that feeding faba beans more than once a day was unnecessary.

  14. 蚕豆产量研究与高产育种%Yield Analysis and High Yield Breeding of Faba Bean(Vicia faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔世友; 缪亚梅

    2004-01-01

    对近30余年蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)产量研究与高产育种技术进行了总结,蚕豆产量研究表明:生物学产量是经济产量形成的物质基础,两者间存在高度正相关;产量构成因素对产量的形成均有较高的正向作用,但产量构成因素的改良受单株荚、粒数与粒重间负相关的制约;收获指数与籽粒产量间呈现极显著的正相关.还对蚕豆高产育种中高结荚率、早熟性的选择以及如何协调荚、粒数与粒重间的关系进行了讨论.

  15. Identification and Morphological Diversity of Vicia faba L.Germplasm Imported%外引蚕豆种质资源鉴定与形态多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 万正煌; 陈宏伟; 仲建锋; 伍广洪

    2013-01-01

    研究了10份外引蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)种质资源的生育期、子粒形态特征、主要农艺性状等.结果表明,埃塞俄比亚蚕豆种质资源具有较高的变异系数,为8.01%~55.80%,其中种皮光滑度和百粒重的变异系数最高,达55%以上,变异系数较小的是主茎节数(8.01%)和株高(8.99%).4个质量性状中种皮光滑度的形态多样性指数最高,而15个数量性状中每果节荚数的形态多样性指数最高.

  16. Mineral nutrient imbalance, DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink involved in growth retardation of Vicia faba L.seedlings exposed to lanthanum ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengrun Wang; Kegui Zhang; Mei He; Chuanjun Jiang; Liumin Tian; Yuan Tian; Xiaorong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Effects of mineral nutrient imbalance,DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink on growth of Vicia faba L.seedlings hydroponically cultivated in concentrations of extraneous lanthanum (La) for 20 days were investigated in the present experiment.The results showed that contents of La,Cu or K elements in roots generally changed synchronously with those in leaves,while Ca,Fe,Zn,Mg,Mn or P in the roots altered inversely to those in the leaves.Thus,the extraneous La led to redistribution and imbalance of mineral nutrient elements in the roots and leaves.DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink were investigated by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)and sodium dodecyl sulfate/potassium (SDS/K+) precipitation methods,respectively.The results demonstrated that the increasing La induced DNA break and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) in the seedlings.These results suggested that mineral nutrient imbalance,DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink were involved in the growth retardation and growth alteration of the seedlings,which may help to understand the mechanisms of rare earth elements (REEs) on plant growth.

  17. Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes aggravated biochemical and subcellular damages in leaves of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings under combined stress of lead and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chengrun, E-mail: chengrunwang@163.com [School of Life Science, Huainan Normal University, Huainan 232001 (China); Liu, Haitao; Chen, Jinyun [School of Life Science, Huainan Normal University, Huainan 232001 (China); Tian, Yuan [Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Shi, Jian; Li, Dongdong; Guo, Chen; Ma, Qingping [School of Life Science, Huainan Normal University, Huainan 232001 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • MWCNTs-COOH disturb mineral elements and cause oxidative damages in the leaves. • Cd and Pb combination result in reduction of mineral elements and enrichment of Na, involving in toxicity mechanisms. • MWCNTs-COOH facilitate Cd and Pb uptake, and aggravate biochemical and subcellular damages. - Abstract: Increasing industrialization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would inevitably lead to their release into the environment and combination with heavy metals. However, studies concerning the combined effects of MWCNTs and heavy metals on agricultural crops are limited. Herein, effects and mechanisms of carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L) and their combination with 20 μM Pb and 5 μM Cd (shortened as Pb + Cd) on Vicia faba L. seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the MWCNTs-COOH disturbed the imbalance of nutrient elements, and caused oxidative stress and damages in the leaves. Additionally, the combination of MWCNTs-COOH with Pb + Cd resulted in enrichment of Pb and Cd, and deterioration of oxidative damages compared with the treatments of MWCNTs-COOH or Pb + Cd alone in the leaves. As the results, the concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH not only caused oxidative stress, but also exacerbated the biochemical and subcellular damages due to the treatment of Pb + Cd in the leaves. It also suggests that persistent release of MWCNTs-COOH into the environment may cause phytotoxicity and aggravate ecological risks due to combination of heavy metals.

  18. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ping; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1997-05-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol{sup -1}) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and Suc-specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO, incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol{sup -1}) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma{sup -1} min{sup -1}). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, M a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 pm. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and N high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism. 50 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein feed for growing lambs with and without protected lysine and methionine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Badii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Appenninica lambs were submitted to a growth trial from day 60 to day 110 of age (on average and the com-  position of gains was estimated by means of the comparative slaughter technique. Sixteen different diets, based on wheat  straw as the forage and on field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as the sole protein feed, were tested both by means of ANOVA  and of response surface analysis, a multiple regression method designed to study additive and interaction effects. This  study thus examined the combined effect of 4 levels of dietary CP (13, 15, 18, 20% DM and 4 levels of rumen protected  lysine and methionine, replacing 4 levels of field bean CP (0, 1, 2, 3 percent units, upon intakes, gains, digestibility and  retentions of nutrients within gains. The animals had rather high gains (250 g/d on average and retention efficiencies both  of feed nitrogen and energy. Dietary CP levels higher than 18% and amino acid supplementation appeared of no use in  improving the lambs’ performance. It is concluded that field bean may represent a valid alternative to soy bean as a pro-  tein feed for growing ruminants in the so-called “organic” animal production where transgenic soy is banned. 

  20. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Rybaczek

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD was a secondary result of caffeine (CF induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU [double-stranded breaks (DSBs mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant-DSBs versus alkaline-DSBs or SSBs. The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i extensive vacuolization; (ii abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv protoplast shrinkage (v fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD.

  1. The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasiak-Popowska, D.; Szukala, J.; Gulewicz, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha{sup -}1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed energy and germination in all three years of the study (1999-2001) - on average germination energy by 8.8% and total germination by 3.2%-. Germination of faba bean seed under conventional tillage in the drier years was significantly higher than in the zero tillage system. In the wetter year, seed from both simplified systems produced seeds with higher germination than in traditional conventional tillage. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer affected germination energy, but had no effect on faba bean germination. Sprinkler irrigation and N fertilization had no effect on the content of the sugars studied in the faba bean seed. However, the stachyose content of faba bean seeds from conventional tilled plants was significantly higher than in seed of zero tilled plants (0.78 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm), and the galactose content of seed from zero tilled plants was significantly higher than in the other two cultivation systems - 0.34 and 0.28 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm in seeds from conventional and reduced tillage system, respectively. Additional key words: agronomic treatment, faba bean seeds, RFOs sugars. (Author) 24 refs.

  2. Okadaic acid (1 microM) accelerates S phase and mitosis but inhibits heterochromatin replication and metaphase anaphase transition in Vicia faba meristem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Kazmierczak, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Protein kinases and phosphatases are the foremost agents which take part in cell cycle regulation in both plants and other eukaryotes. Protein kinases are a very well examined group of proteins with respect to chemical structure and function. Nowadays protein phosphatases, including PP1 and PP2A belonging to the PSP family, are the focus of interest. Okadaic acid (OA) which is a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase activity is widely used to study them. In the present research, the involvement of OA-sensitive phosphatases in the regulation of progression of the plant cell cycle was analysed (in planta) using Vicia faba root meristems synchronized with hydroxyurea and divided into five series. Each series was treated with 1 muM OA for 3 h for different time periods corresponding to the consecutive cell cycle phases. The results showed that in the OA-treated cells DNA replication and mitosis began earlier than in the control cells, since G(1) and G(2) phases were significantly shorter and the H1 histone kinases activity was higher. Moreover, autoradiography and morphological analyses of mitotic figures revealed that the OA-treated cells entered mitosis before the end of heterochromatin replication. An immunocytochemical search showed that earlier initiation of S phase in the OA-treated cells correlated with more abundant phosphorylation of Rb-like protein in comparison with the control cells. OA also induced significant condensation of metaphase chromosomes and blocked metaphase-anaphase transition.

  3. Exploiting Illumina Sequencing for the Development of 95 Novel Polymorphic EST-SSR Markers in Common Vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa, a self-pollinating and diploid species, is one of the most important annual legumes in the world due to its short growth period, high nutritional value, and multiple usages as hay, grain, silage, and green manure. The available simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for common vetch, however, are insufficient to meet the developing demand for genetic and molecular research on this important species. Here, we aimed to develop and characterise several polymorphic EST-SSR markers from the vetch Illumina transcriptome. A total number of 1,071 potential EST-SSR markers were identified from 1025 unigenes whose lengths were greater than 1,000 bp, and 450 primer pairs were then designed and synthesized. Finally, 95 polymorphic primer pairs were developed for the 10 common vetch accessions, which included 50 individuals. Among the 95 EST-SSR markers, the number of alleles ranged from three to 13, and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.09 to 0.98. The observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, and the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.11 to 0.98. These 95 EST-SSR markers developed from the vetch Illumina transcriptome could greatly promote the development of genetic and molecular breeding studies pertaining to in this species.

  4. Promutagen activation of triazine herbicides metribuzin and ametryn through Vicia faba metabolism inducing sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes in vitro and in V. faba root tip meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Maya, Saúl; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan M; de la Cruz, Leticia Gómez

    2005-03-01

    The aim of our study was the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes in vitro and in root tip meristems of Vicia faba to evaluate the genotoxic effects of metribuzin and ametryn. Direct treatments of these herbicides on human lymphocytes in vitro applied 24 h after the beginning of culture did not induce SCE; however, they showed a cytotoxic effect in the cultures expressed as cellular death. On the contrary, when extracts of V. faba roots, treated for 4 h with metribuzin and ametryn (in vivo activation), were added to the lymphocyte cultures, SCEs were significantly induced with an asymptotic response. Negative responses appeared with the in vitro assays, in which metribuzin and ametryn were added directly to the 48 h lymphocyte cultures for 4 h. Nevertheless, in treatments in which the S10 metabolic mix was added, the SCE frequencies were significantly different to the control, although a concentration-response relationship was only observed with metribuzin. The results showed that both herbicides needed the V. faba metabolism to produce SCE in human lymphocyte cultures. Metribuzin and ametryn applied to V. faba root tip meristems for 4 h increased SCE frequency significantly, and a concentration-response relationship was observed with both herbicides.

  5. 核桃根、茎、叶提取物对蚕豆的遗传毒性分析%Genetic toxicity of active ingredients extracted from roots,stems, and leaves of walnut on Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄元河; 潘乔丹

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究核桃根、茎、叶不同提取物的化感作用机制,为开发新型无公害植物源除草剂提供科学依据.[方法]采用蚕豆根生长试验和蚕豆微核试验,测定核桃根、茎、叶不同提取物对蚕豆生长的影响和遗传毒性.[结果]经核桃根、叶正丁醇提取物培养24和48h的蚕豆根生长减慢,当核桃根、叶正丁醇提取物浓度大于0.050 g/mL时,培养72 h的蚕豆根生长停滞.微核试验结果,核桃根、叶正丁醇提取物能抑制蚕豆根尖细胞生长,损伤其遗传物质,导致其有丝分裂指数下降、微核率增高,与对照相比呈显著性差异(P<0.05),且在试验浓度范围内(0.025~0.100 g/mL)表现出显著的浓度效应和时间效应.[结论]核桃根和叶中含有一定遗传毒性的化感物质,能够抑制植物细胞分裂,导致细胞遗传物质损伤,对周围植物产生不可逆的遗传损伤效应.%In order to provide scientific evidences for the development of pollution-free botanical herbicides, this study explored the allelopathic mechanism of different extracts from the roots, stems, and leaves of walnut (Juglans regia L.). [ Method jThe Vicia (aba root growth test and micronucleus test were used to study the effects of the different ingredients derived from the roots, stems, and leaves of walnut on Vicia faba growth and their genetic toxicity. [ResultJThe research results showed that the Vicia faba root grew slowly after being cultured by the n-butanol extracts (0.025, 0.050, 0.100 g/mL) from walnut roots and leaves for 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. When the extracts concentration was greater than 0.050 g/mL, the Vicia faba root, which was cultured for 72 hrs, stopped growing. The micronuclear test indicated that the n-butanol extracts of roots and leaves could inhibit the growth of Vicia faba root tip cells and damage the genetic material, which resulted in the mitotic index of Vicia faba root tips to decrease and micronuclear rate to

  6. Einflüsse des Ackerbohnenkäfers (Bruchus rufimanus) und von Bodenpathogenen auf Feldaufgang und Ertrag bei bunt- und weißblühenden Ackerbohnensorten (Vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We compared field emergence and yield of a white- and a coloured-flowered variety of faba bean (Vicia faba) in relation to Bruchus rufimanus seed damage in a factorial, hand sown mini-plot field experiment. Further manipulating factors at sowing were, foot root rot inoculation with a 4-species Fusarium-mixture, a seed dressing with powdered testa material of the coloured-flower variety and sowing depth. In both varieties Fusarium-inoculation was the most detrimental and significant factor to ...

  7. Sucrose synthase activity and carbohydrates content in relation to phosphorylation status of Vicia faba root meristems during reactivation from sugar depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Ciereszko, Iwona

    2012-11-01

    Carbohydrate starvation of Vicia faba root meristems leads to readjustment of carbohydrate metabolism and blocks the cell cycle in two principal control points (PCP1/2). The cell cycle reactivation is possible after sucrose provision, although with a delay of about 12h. During this period, the cells are sensitive to 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) and okadaic acid (OA), inhibitors of protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether those inhibitors are involved in inhibition of cell cycle revival through interference with the activities of two sucrose-cleaving enzymes: sucrose synthase (SuSy; EC 2.4.1.13) and invertase (INV; EC 3.2.1.26). In sugar-starved cells, the in situ activity of both enzymes decreased significantly. Following supplementation of root meristems with sugar, INV remained inactive, but SuSy activity increased. Despite the lack of INV activity, glucose was present in meristem cells, but its content was low in cells treated with OA. In the latter case, the size of plastids was reduced, they had less starch, and Golgi structures were affected. In sugar-starved cells, SuSy activity was induced more by exogenous sucrose than by glucose. The sucrose-induced activity was strongly inhibited by OA (less by 6-DMAP) at early stages of regeneration, but not at the stages preceding DNA replication or mitotic activities. The results indicate that prolongation of regeneration and a marked decrease in the number of cells resuming proliferation (observed in previous studies) and resulting from the action of inhibitors, are correlated with the process of SuSy activation at the beginning of regeneration from sugar starvation.

  8. Involvement of carbon monoxide produced by heme oxygenase in ABA-induced stomatal closure in Vicia faba and its proposed signal transduction pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has recently proven to be an important bioactive or signaling molecule in mammalian cells. Its effects are mainly mediated by nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP (cGMP). In Vicia faba leaves, CO production and heme oxygenase (HO) activity, an important CO synthetic enzyme, are first reported to increase in response to ABA treatment, which could result in stomatal closure. Inter-estingly, ABA-induced stomatal closure in V. Faba guard cells is partially blocked when the synthetic CO inhibitor ZnPP, or the CO/NO scavenger Hb is added. Furthermore, we show that, exogenously applied CO donor, hematin, and CO aqueous solution not only result in the enhancement of CO release, but also time-dependently induce stomatal closure, and the latter is mimicked by the application of an NO donor SNP. The above-mentioned stomatal closure effects are differentially reversed by the addition of tungstate, a potent inhibitor of NO synthetic enzyme nitrate reductase (NR), the specific NO scavenger cPTIO, ZnPP, or Hb. During treatment for 4 h, SNP, 0.01% CO aqueous solution or hematin significantly triggers NO synthesis, whereas cPTIO, or tungstate approximately fully inhibits NO fluorescence. Additionally, application of the GC inhibitor ODQ blocks CO-induced stomatal closure. This inhibition could be reversed when 8-Br-cGMP is added. Thus, the above results suggest that CO produced by HO is involved in ABA-induced stomatal closure, and NO and cGMP may function as downstream intermediates in the CO signaling responsible for stomatal closure.

  9. The acquisition of desiccation tolerance in developing Vicia hirsuta seeds coincides with an increase in galactinol synthase expression and soluble α-D-galactosides accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojło, Ewa; Pupel, Piotr; Lahuta, Lesław B; Podliński, Paweł; Kucewicz, Magdalena; Górecki, Ryszard J

    2015-07-20

    Galactinol is the galactosyl donor for the biosynthesis of both the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) and galactosyl cyclitols (Gal-C). Its synthesis by galactinol synthase (GolS, EC 2.4.1.123) is the first committed step of the soluble α-D-galactosides biosynthetic pathway in orthodox seeds. The deposition of galactosides in seeds is suggested to be associated with desiccation tolerance (DT). In this work, for the first time, we cloned and characterized two Vicia hirsuta (L.) S.F. Gray galactinol synthase genes (VhGolS1, VhGolS2), analyzed galactinol synthase activity and measured the accumulation of galactosides of both sucrose and D-pinitol in relation to the acquisition of DT in developing seeds of this wild species. A developmentally induced increase of VhGolS1 expression preceded the rise of GolS activity in crude protein extract from maturing seeds, while the expression of the VhGolS2 gene remained low. GolS activity peaked just after the beginning of the maturation drying phase. The increase of GolS activity was not followed by galactinol accumulation, instead the high enzyme activity was related to high levels of galactose bound in soluble galactosides of the RFO and galactosyl pinitol series. Acquisition of DT coincided with an increase of VhGolS1 expression, high galactinol synthase activity and the accumulation of oligogalactosides in seeds. DT was positively correlated with the high content of soluble α-D-galactosides of both the RFO and galactosyl pinitol series as well as with the amount of galactose bound in these galactosides.

  10. IMPROVING THE TOLERANCE OF Vicia faba AGAINST ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY RESULTED FROM THE IRRIGATION WITH SEA WATER BY USING KNO3 AND (NH42SO4 AS CHEMICAL OSMOREGULATORS Mejoramiento de la tolerancia de Vicia faba a salinidad ocasionada por irrigación con agua de mar usando KNO3 AND (NH42SO4 como osmoreguladores químicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMEL MOHAMED

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The familiar solutes, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO4(3-, SO4(2-, soluble carbohydrates, amino acids and soluble proteins, which play a role in osmotic adjustment were estimated to investigate the role of potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphate as osmoregulators and their effects on the solutes composition. Vicia faba L. was cultivated and irrigated with 5, 10, 15 and 20 % (v:v sea water. The plants were divided to three groups. The first was irrigated with sea water only. The second was treated with 5 mM KNO3 while the third was treated with 5mM (NH42SO4. The plants were left to grow until flowering stage. The results indicated that the non treated group increased the soluble carbohydrates in the roots to avoid the influx of sodium. The treatment with KNO3 decreased the sodicity (SAR while (NH42SO4 treatment decreased the SK:Na value in the shoots at higher salinity. The availability of nitrogen as nitrate or ammonium ions enhances the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates in shoots. The plants of all groups were depended on Ca2+, as compatible solute more than Na+, and K+.Los solutos Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO4(3-, SO4(2-, carbohidratos y proteínas solubles, así como amino ácidos son importantes en ajuste osmótico y fueron estimados para determinar el papel de nitrato de potasio y sulfato de amonio como osmoreguladores y su efecto en la composición de solutos. Vicia faba L. fue cultivada e irrigada con 5, 10, 15 y 20 % (v:v de agua de mar permitiendo crecimiento hasta el estado de floración. Las plantas fueron divididas en tres grupos. El primero fue irrigado con agua de mar solamente. El segundo fue tratado con 5 mM KNO3, mientras que el tercer grupo fue expuesto a 5mM (NH42SO4. Los resultados indican que las plantas del primer grupo (no tratado incrementan carbohidratos solubles en sus raíces para evitar influjo de sodio. El tratamiento con KNO3 disminuye riqueza de sodio (SAR mientras que la exposición a (NH42SO4 diminuye la de SK

  11. Variaciones en el pH de la rizosfera y en el porcentaje de materia seca de Vicia sativa al aplicar dos fuentes fosfatadas de baja solubilidad en un andisol del departamento de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjivar F. Juan Carlos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En el estudio se utilizaron seis tratamientos: el testigo (T0, sin fuentes fosfatadas (T1 y con adiciones de 25 y 50 kg/ha de P como fosforita Huila (T2 y T3 y calfós (T4 y T5. Los cambios generados por la raíz se evaluaron utilizando la solución nutritiva de Marschner Römheld y Ossenberg-Neuhaus, acondicionada con agar. El porcentaje de materia seca parcial de Vicia sativa se incrementó significativamente al aplicar 25 y 50 kg/ha de P como fosforita Huila (T2 y T3 y calfos (T5 y T6 en la localidad de Genoy. El pH de la solución agarizada sufrió disminuciones significativas a través del tiempo especialmente en los tratamientos T3 y T2.

    Palabras claves: pH rizosférico, Vicia sativa, Papilionoidea, fuentes fosfatadas, solubilidad

  12. lAA and BAP affect protein phosphorylation-dependent processes during sucrose-mediated G1 to S and G2 to M transitions in root meristem cells of Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Teresa Polit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In carbohydrate-starved root meristems of Vicia faba subsp. minor, the expression of two Principal Control Points located at the final stages of the G1 (PCP1 and G2 (PCP2 phases has been found to be correlated with a marked decrease of protein phosphorylation within cell nuclei, nucleoli and cytoplasm. Adopting the same experimental model in our present studies, monoclonal FITC conjugated antibodies that recognize phosphorylated form of threonine (αTPab-FITC were used to obtain an insight about how the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP, and the mixture of both phytohormones influence the time-course changes in an overall protein phosphorylation during sucrose-mediated PCP1→S and PCP2→M transitions. Unsuspectedly, neither IAA, BAP, nor the mixture of both phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose did up-regulate protein phosphorylation. However using the block-and-release method, it was shown that root meristems of Vicia provided with sucrose alone indicated higher levels of αTPab-FITC. Contrarily, phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose induced apparent decline in phosphorylation of cell proteins, which - when compared with the influence of sucrose alone - became increasingly evident in time. Thus, it seems probable, that a general decline in the amount of αTPab-FITC labeled epitopes may overlay specific phosphorylations and dephosphorylations governed by the main cell cycle kinases and phosphatases.

  13. Counting Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  14. [The assessment of no adverse effect doses for plant populations chronically exposed to radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Belykh, E S; Geras'kin, S A

    2010-01-01

    Dose rates cause no adverse effects on natural populations of Pinus sylvestris L. and Vicia cracca L. inhabiting territories contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes (Vodny settlement, Komi Republic) were determined. A significant increase in embryonic lethal mutation frequency in V. cracca legumes and decrease in seedlings survival rate as compared with control values were registered at dose rate equal to 1.67 mGy/day, that is 280 times higher than the one calculated for the reference site. The adverse effects in P. sylvestris expressed in increased frequency of chromosome aberrations in meristematic root tips and decreased reproductive capacity of seeds were determined at absorbed dose rate equal to 0.083 mGy/day. Data obtained show that the decrease in plant reproductive capacity in case of chronic exposure of radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series can observe at lower weighted absorbed dose rates than in case of environmental contamination by artificial radionuclides.

  15. Promoting Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THE world's population reached 5 billion in 1987,then 6 billion in 1999;now,in 2011,it is 7 billion.For a country with a set birth control policy,the way in which Chinese people and the media view this number has greatly changed.People are increasingly reflecting on the concept of population from a more scientific and rational perspective.This shift is a change from how people perceived population in the past.

  16. Effect of several germination treatments on phosphatases activities and degradation of phytate in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua; Luo, Fengxia

    2012-10-01

    Two assays were conducted to investigate the changes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) phosphatases (phytase [Phy] and acid phosphatase [AcPh]) and the degradation of its substrates (inositol phosphate esters) during seed germination. The 1st assay was to establish the optimal germination conditions of faba bean and azuki bean to improve the endogenous phosphatases and increase the hydrolysis of phytate and, in the second assay, to determine the different lower phosphate esters of myo-inositol produced during the germination process. In the 1st assay, seeds were soaked for 12 and 24 h and germinated for 3 and 5 d with and without the addition of gibberellic acid (GA(3) ). In the second assay, seeds were soaked for 12 h and germinated for 1, 3, and 5 d with GA(3) . Phy (up to 3625 and 1340 U/kg) and AcPh (up to 9456 and 2740 U/g) activities, and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) (8.23 and 7.46 mg/g), inositol pentaphosphate (IP5) (0.55 and 0.82 mg/g), and inositol tetraphosphate (IP4) (0.26 and 0.01 mg/g) were detected in ungerminated faba bean and azuki bean, respectively. The germination process caused a significant increase of Phy and AcPh activities in faba bean (up to 147% and 210%) and azuki bean (up to 211% and 596%) and a reduction in the phytate phosphorus content (up to 81% and 63%, respectively). Phytate phosphorus content was affected only by soaking time in the case of faba bean. Finally, during the course of germination, IP6 and IP5 were rapidly degraded in faba bean (88% and 39%) and azuki bean (55% and 56%), and IP4 was only a short-living intermediate, which was increased during hydrolysis and degraded to inositol triphosphate. In this manner we could obtain a low-phytate, endogenous phosphatase-rich ingredient for enhancing human nutrition.

  17. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens B. Hafke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Apart from a few using cut aphid stylets, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (-130 mV to -110 mV, while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. -100 mV. In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to -55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H+-induced depolarisations were recorded. Data analysis by nonlinear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie-Hofstee (EH -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: Km1 1.2-1.8 mM, Km2 6.6-9.0 mM of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC favoured single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, Km values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher Km values (EH: Km1 10 mM, Km2 70 mM as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (-0.1 to -0.3 pA/ pF were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a Km values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in-situ determination of Km values, (c As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved in sucrose uptake by sieve

  18. Evaluation of microbial biomass C and N content of the soils cultivated with vetch (Vicia sativa L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Bolat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume forage crops have the ability of retaining free nitrogen in the air through symbiotic Rhizobium bacteria found in their roots. Additionally, microbial biomass (MB–an essential living component of soil and a significant factor influencing plant nutrient dynamics–is considered to be accurate indicator of soil’s biological condition. Given the aforementioned aspects, soil MB C (Cmic and MB N (Nmic of different legume forage crops were investigated in this study. Soil samples were taken in order to identify certain physical and chemical characteristics of the soil using volume cylinders (0 – 6.5 cm depth from Vicia sativa L. (VSP and Medicago sativa L. planted (MSP areas. To determine the Cmic and Nmic contents, topsoil samples were also taken from 0 – 6.5 cm depth. Cmic and Nmic contents were identified using chloroform – fumigation – extraction method. There was no statistical significance for particle density, bulk density, electrical conductivity, CaCO3 %, and decomposition ratio (Corg/Ntotal of the VSP and MSP soil (P > 0.05. However, some other soil characteristics such as temperature, porosity, sand, silt and clay contents, pH, organic C and total N differed significantly (P < 0.05. Compared to VSP soil, the Cmic contents were determined to be 27 % higher (P < 0.05 in MSP soil. In VSP soil, the soil Nmic content ranged from 83.38 µg g-1 to 124.67 µg g-1, while it ranged from 91.62 µg g-1 to 187.07 µg g-1 in MSP soil. The Nmic content of the MSP soil was observed to be approximately 35 % higher than VSP soil, and a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 was noticed between the two. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found not only between the Cmic and organic C contents (r = 0.667; P < 0.05 but also between the Nmic and total N contents of MSP and VSP soil (r = 0.881; P < 0.01. The results of the study revealed that soil Cmic and Nmic values differ as the types of planted legume forage crops

  19. Quality Analysis of Broad Bean(Vicia faba Linn.) Varieties%不同蚕豆品种的品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严清彪; 刘玉皎

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究不同蚕豆(Vicia faba Linn.)品种的品质差异.[方法]对111个不同蚕豆品种的种子蛋白质、单宁、钙以及硒含量进行了测定.[结果]蛋白质含量优异的品种有13个,单宁含量优异的品种有20个,钙含量优异的品种有16个,硒含量优异的品种有18个,通过对蛋白质、单宁、钙以及硒含量进行排序比对,筛选3个单项优质的品种分别为法7(1638)、青海83-26-12,2005-00,3个多项优质品种分别为H8096-3、青海马牙-1-1和伊拉克45-1.[结论]该研究可为进一步研究和加工利用蚕豆提供参考依据.%The purpose was to study the differences of quality of different broad bean varieties. [ Method ] The content of seed protein, tannins, calcium, and selenium of 111 kinds of broad bean varieties were measured. [ Result] The results showed that among the 111 different broad beans varieties, 13 varieties were high in protein content, 20 varieties were high in tannins content, 16 varieties were high in calcium content, and 18 varieties were high in selenium content. Though the sort and comparison of the content of protein, tannins, calcium, and selenium, 3 varieties were found to be single high-quality varieties; Fa7(1638) , Qinhai83-26-12, and2005-00, 3varieties were found to be multiply-quality varieties; H8096-3 , Qinhaiyama-1-1, and Iraq45-1. [ Conclusion] The study provides a reference basis for deeply researching, machining and utilizing of broad bean.

  20. Nitric Oxide Blocks Blue Light-Induced K+ Influx by Elevating the Cytosolic Ca2+ Concentration in Vicia faba L.Guard Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zhao; Yuan-Yuan Li; Hui-Li Xiao; Chang-Shui Xu; Xiao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ plays a pivotal role in nitric oxide (NO)-promoted stomatal closure.However,the function of Ca2+ in NO inhibition of blue light (BL)-induced stomatal opening remains largely unknown.Here,we analyzed the role of Ca2+ in the crosstalk between BL and NO signaling in Vicia faba L.guard cells.Extracellular Ca2+ modulated the BL-induced stomatal opening in a dose-dependent manner,and an application of 5 μM Ca2+ in the pipette solution significantly inhibited BL-activated K+ influx.Sodium nitroprusside (SNP),a NO donor,showed little effect on BL-induced K+ influx and stomatal opening response in the absence of extracellular Ca2+,but K+ influx and stomatal opening were inhibited by SNP when Ca2+ was added to the bath solution.Interestingly,although both SNP and BL could activate the plasma membrane Ca2+ channels and induce the rise of cytosolic Ca2+,the change in levels of Ca2+ channel activity and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration were different between SNP and BL treatments.SNP at 100 μM obviously activated the plasma membrane Ca2+ channels and induced cytosolic Ca2+ rise by 102.4%.In contrast,a BL pulse (100 μmol/m2 per s for 30 s) slightly activated the Ca2+ channels and resulted in a Ca2+ rise of only 20.8%.Consistently,cytosolic Ca2+ promoted K+ influx at 0.5 μM or below,and significantly inhibited K+ influx at 5 μM or above.Taken together,our findings indicate that Ca2+ plays dual and distinctive roles in the crosstalk between BL and NO signaling in guard cells,mediating both the BL-induced K+ influx as an activator at a lower concentration and the NO-blocked K+ influx as an inhibitor at a higher concentration.

  1. 苦藠对蚕豆根尖微核率的影响研究%Effect of Scallion on Micronucleus Frequency in Vicia Faba Root Tips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 李睿

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mutation of Scallion and compare the effect of different polar Scallion extract on micronucleus rate. Methods: Micronucleus tests were conducted in Vicia faba root tips treated with different concentrations of Scallion extract .Results: Different concentrations of Scallion water extract and ethanol extract treated in Viciafaba root tips. Comparing with the control group, the difference was not significant (P>0.05), and micronucleus index<1.5. So Scallion water extract and ethanol extract had no mutagenic effect. Scallion water extract had more inhibitory effect on micronucleus rate Compared with ethanol extract. The concentrations of scalli water extract between 0.008 g/ml and 0.08g/ml had micronucleus index in the range between 0.76-0.95 (mean <1.0), and reduced with the increasing of the concentration.The ethanol extract on micronucleus was no significant effect. Its micronucleus index 1.09-1.28 (<1.5) tended to decrease with increasing concentration.%目的:探讨苦藠在致突变性方面的作用,并比较不同极性苦藠提取液对蚕豆根尖微核率的影响作用.方法:蚕豆根尖细胞微核实验.结果:通过将不同浓度的苦藠水提取液和乙醇提取液处理蚕豆根尖细胞,与空白对照组比较,差别无显著性(P>0.05),且微核指数均<1.5,即苦蹔无任何致突变作用;苦藠水提取液比较乙醇提取液对蚕豆根尖微核率有一定抑制作用,其浓度在0.008g/mL-0.08g/mL之间微核指数范围在0.76-0.95(均<1.0),随浓度增加而降低,乙醇提取液对蚕豆根尖微核率无显著影响,微核指数在1.09-1.28(<1.5),随着浓度增加有降低趋势.

  2. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  3. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  4. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  5. Study on Organic Wastewater Monitoring of Laboratory Using MCN Test of Vicia Faba Root Tips%蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术监测实验室有机废水的污染研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晶晶; 屈艾; 刘小燕; 贾蓉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The genetic toxicity and pollution effects of biological and chemical organic wastewater were studied. [ Method] Organic wastewater which was formed during the preparation of cyclohexanone were diluted eight concentration gradients and detected using MCN test of Vicia faba root tips. [ Results] The results showed that different concentration gradients of organic wastewater had genetic toxicity. In certain concentration range, with the rising of organic wastewater treatment concentration, rate of micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells, pollution index and mitotic index gradually increased. However, beyond concentration gradient, organic wastewater restrained Viciafaba cell micro nuclear formation and mitosis. [ Conclusion] Organic wastewater has obvious genetic toxicity and environment pollution effect. VAMCN can be used to monitor and evaluate pollution effect of organic wastewater and the laboratory wastewater after reasonably diluted or eliminate heavy metals can be discharged.%[目的]对生物及化学类实验室的有机废水进行遗传毒性和污染效应的研究.[方法]将实验室条件下制备环已酮时所排有机废水逐级稀释成8个梯度浓度,采用蚕豆(Vicia faba)根尖细胞微核技术进行检测.[结果」不同浓度梯度的实验室有机废水对蚕豆根尖细胞有遗传毒性,在一定浓度范围内,随着废水处理浓度增大,蚕豆根尖细胞微核率、污染指数和有丝分裂指数逐渐增加;但浓度过高,反而会抑制蚕豆根尖细胞微核的形成和有丝分裂的进行.[结论]实验室有机废水有明显的遗传毒性和环境污染效应,可以利用蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术对其污染效应进行监测和评价,实验室废水必须进行合理的处理(稀释或吸附消除重金属)方能排出.

  6. 微波对蚕豆根尖细胞的遗传损伤%Microwave radiation-induced genetic damage of root-tip cells in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗蔚华; 钱晓薇; 朱睦元

    2012-01-01

    以蚕豆(Vcia faba L.)根尖为实验材料,研究微波辐射对蚕豆根尖细胞的损伤效应.采用蚕豆根尖微核试验和染色体畸变试验方法,以不同处理时间(0~30 s)的微波辐射为诱变剂,测定蚕豆根尖细胞的微核率、有丝分裂指数及染色体畸变率等指标.结果表明:6个时间微波处理组的微核率、染色体畸变率均明显高于阴性对照组(P<0.001).而6个时间微波处理组的有丝分裂指数却明显低于阴性对照组(P<0.001).在本实验处理时间范围内,3个指标均具有一定的时间效应.即随着微波处理时间的延长,微核率及染色体畸变率逐渐升高,而有丝分裂指数则逐渐降低.结论是在该实验微波剂量及处理时间下,微波对蚕豆根尖细胞具有明显的损伤效应.%Microwave radiation-induced genetic damage was investigated in root-tip cells of Vicia faba. Taking the microwave as a mutagen in micronucleus and chromosome aberration assays, mitotic index, micronucleus frequency, and chromosome aberration frequency were detected in time-course treatments of Vicia faba root tip cells. The results showed that micronucleus frequencies, chromosome aberration frequencies in 6 microwave treatment groups were significantly higher than the controlling without microwave treatment (P<0. 001) , while their mitotic index was much lower than that of control group (P<0. 001). During microwave treatments, micronucleus frequency and chromosome aberration frequency were increased in treatment time-dependent manner in root-tip cells, whereas the mitotic index was decreased. These data suggest that microwave causes obvious genetic damage to root-tip cells in Vicia faba.

  7. Imaginary populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez–Abraín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002 wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002, that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologists often forget "to acknowledge that many study units are neither natural nor even units in terms of constituting a population system", and hence claimed that we "require much more accuracy than in past decades in order to be more effective to characterize populations and predict their behaviour". They stated that this is especially necessary "in disciplines such as conservation biology or resource pest management, to avoid reaching wrong conclusions or making inappropriate decisions". As a population ecologist and conservation biologist I totally agree with these authors and, like them, I be¬lieve that greater precision and care is needed in the use and definition of ecological terms. The point I wish to stress here is that we ecologists tend to forget that when we use statistical tools to infer results from our sample to a population we work with what statisticians term "imaginary", "hypothetical" or "potential" popula¬tions. As Zar (1999 states, if our sample data consist of 40 measurements of growth rate in guinea pigs "the population about which conclusions might be drawn is the growth rates of all the guinea pigs that conceivably might have been administered the same food supplement under identical conditions". Such a population does not really exist, and hence it is considered a hypothetical or imaginary population. Compare that definition with the population concept that would be in our minds when performing such measurements. We would probably

  8. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  9. 蛹虫草胞内锌多糖对丝裂霉素诱发蚕豆根尖细胞微核的影响%Effect of intra-polysaccharide zinc-riched of Cordyceps militaris on micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells induced by Mitomycin-c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素婷; 朱蕴兰; 张城; 陈宏伟; 宋海燕

    2011-01-01

    以蛹虫苹为材料,利用蚕豆根尖细胞微核实验,探讨了蛹虫草胞内锌多糖对丝裂霉素(MMC)诱发的蚕豆根尖细胞微核的影响。结果表明:胞内锌多糖对蚕豆根尖细胞微核的产生具有显著的抑制作用,且胞内锌多糖抑制微核产生的能力随胞内锌多糖浓度增加而增强.当胞内锌多糖浓度为100ug/mL时,抑制MMC诱发的蚕豆根尖细胞微核率最高到达59.56%。蛹虫草胞内锌多糖具有显著抑制蚕豆根尖细胞微核产生的能力。%With Cordyceps militaris as material,micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells was tested,discussing effects of intra-polysaccharide zinc-riched of Cordyceps militaris on micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells induced by Mitomycin-c. Results showed that: intra-polysaccharids zinc-riched of Cordyceps militaris inhibited the production of micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells significantly. And the inhibition effect of intra- polysaccharide zinc-riched of Cordyceps militaris on micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells was intenser as the concentration of intra-polysaccharids zinc-riched increased. When the concentration of intra-polysaccharids zinc-riched was 100ug/mL,the inhibition density of intra-polysaccharids zinc-riched on micronuclear of Vicia faba root tip cells induced by Mitomycin-c reached to the highest at 59.56%. Intra-polysaccharide zinc-riched of Cordyceps militaris had significant ability to inhibit the production of micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells.

  10. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba Integração de resíduos de girassol (Helianthus annuus com herbicida pré-emergente na supressão de plantas daninhas na cultura da fava (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Alsaadawi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was even better than herbicide used alone. Integration of recommended dose of Treflan with sunflower residue at 1,400 g m-² produced maximum (987.5 g m-2 aboveground biomass of broad bean, which was 74 and 36% higher than control and recommended herbicide dose applied alone, respectively. Combination of herbicide and sunflower residue appeared to better enhance pod number and yield per unit area than herbicide alone. Application of 50% dose of Treflan in plots amended with sunflower residue resulted in similar yield advantage as was noticed with 100% herbicide dose. Chromatographic analysis of residue-infested field soil indicated the presence of several phytotoxic compounds of phenolic nature. Periodic data revealed that maximum suppression in weed density and dry weight synchronized with peak values of phytotoxins observed 4 weeks after incorporation of sunflower residues. Integration of sunflower residues with lower herbicide rates can produce effective weed suppression without compromising yield as a feasible and environmentally sound approach in broad bean fields.O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de utilizar resíduos agrícolas com potencial alelopático para reduzir o uso de herbicidas sintéticos em fava (Vicia faba. Resíduos de girassol (600 e 1,400 g m-2 e Treflan (50, 75 e 100% da dose recomendada foram incorporados ao solo isoladamente ou em combinação uns com os outros. Parcelas não tratadas foram mantidas como controle. A aplicação de

  11. HPLC analysis of Vicia guard cells indicates that products from photosynthetic carbon fixation and starch hydrolysis have an osmotic role during stomatal opening under blue (BL) and red (RL) light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbott, L.D.; Zeiger, E. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1991-05-01

    HPLC was used to quantify neutral sugars and organic acids in guard cells of sonicated Vicia faba epidermal peels irradiated with BL or RL in the presence of 1 mM KCl. Under photosynthetically inactive, low fluence-rates of BL, guard cells initially accumulate malate and citrate. At later times, sucrose and starch breakdown products such as maltose predominate. Guard cells opening under saturating fluence rates of RL show very little organic acid or maltose accumulation, and accumulate mainly sucrose. Changes in metabolite concentrations were correlated with stomatal apertures in both light treatments. These results support previous observations that light quality modulated alternative mechanisms of osmotic accumulation in guard cells, including K{sup +} uptake, photosynthesis and starch hydrolysis. At 5 mM, KCl suppresses RL but not BL-induced opening. These contrasting KCl treatments can be used to investigate osmoregulatory features in guard cells.

  12. Phylogeny and population structure of brown rot- and Moko disease-causing strains of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, G; Remenant, B; Chiroleu, F; Lefeuvre, P; Prior, P

    2012-04-01

    The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools.

  13. [Population education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, M

    1992-12-01

    Africa has the highest population growth rate in the world (3%). It has 650 million people (about 900 million in 2000). Rapid population growth has serious consequences which, if not addressed, will be disastrous. This worrisome situation has led some governments to adopt demographic policies to slow down population growth. The UN Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recommends that schools provide population education. Various population conferences have popularized population education in schools among African countries. UNESCO began its regional program on population education in Africa in 1969. National family life and population education (FL/PE) projects have increased from 4 in 1970 to 32 in 1990 (17 in French- and Portuguese-speaking Africa and 5 in English-speaking Africa). These projects teach students about the links between demographic problems and socioeconomic factors and contemporary culture. They aim for total development of the individual and improvement of the quality of life for the individual, family, and community. Topics covered in FL/PE are birth rate; fertility; health; and maternal, infant, and child mortality; unwanted pregnancy; illegal abortion; sexually transmitted diseases; rural-urban migration; and urbanization. Benin introduced FL/PE at all levels of its education system while Senegal, Guinea, Mauritania, and Zaire introduced it to only the primary and secondary school levels. Some countries teach FL/PE as one discipline while most countries (e.g., Senegal) have integrated it into other disciplines (e.g., geography). FL/PE should begin in primary schools because they have the most students and prepare students for middle schools, which provide FL/PE. Elementary education in Senegal is being overhauled to introduce current major problems bit by bit. Senegal also wants to incorporate FL/PE into literacy and adult education programs. Integration of FL/PE into other disciplines should be encouraged.

  14. Mutagenic Effects of Pesticides Detected by Micronucleus on Different Vicia faba Linn%用微核技术检测农药对不同蚕豆的诱变效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雁霞; 王跃华; 苟兴华; 苟小军; 邬晓勇; 李文娴

    2011-01-01

    根据发芽率、微核率参数从3种蚕豆种子中筛选最佳的微核实验材料,采用微核技术研究4种农药对蚕豆根尖细胞的诱变效应.结果表明:广元蚕豆种子是最佳的微核实验材料.4种农药单独使用时,农药浓度与微核率呈剂量-效应关系,敌敌畏的诱变效应最大,除它杀虫剂的诱变效应最小.4种农药的最佳使用浓度为:敌敌畏1.9 mg/L,敌杀死-溴氰菊酯2.5mg/L,甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐1.4 mg/L,除它强力广谱高效杀虫剂2.3 mg/L.%To screen the best Vicia faba for the micronucleus experiment,three broad bean seeds were selected according to the germination rate and the micronucleus rate parameters. Four kinds of pesticides were used to inducce the Vicia faba root-tip by the technology of micronucleus. The results showed that: Cuangyuan bean seed was the best Micronucleus test material. When each of the four pesticides was used alone,the pesticide concentration and micronuclei in a dose-response relationship. The maximum mutagenic effect was the dichlorvos and Chuta was the minimum. The best concentrations of four kinds of pesticides were: dichlorvos 1.9 mg/L,deitamethrin 2. 5 mg/L,dyloxvolaton 1.4 mg/L and ememectin benzoate 2.3 mg/L.

  15. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida.

  16. LC-MSdetermination of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean (Vicia fabaL. lines with common and rare flowercolors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of muscle control, which causes trembling of the limbs and head as well as impaired balance. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine is the major ingredient of several prescription drugs used to treat PD. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the few plant species that is known to produce L-DOPA and has the potential to be developed as a functional food crop for people suffering with PD. Objective: Aimed to provide needed information for people who want to use faba bean as a natural remedy or functional food to relieve PD symptoms, this study analyzed the variation of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean lines with common and rare flower colors. Methods: Leaf and flower samples were taken from field grown plants with different flower colors, namely, pink with purple lines and black dots, pure white, brown, and crimson. Samples were freeze-dried and L-DOPA was quantified by a LC-MS system consisting of an ACQUITY UPLC in line with a Synapt G2 HDMS quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This experiment was carried out in two consecutive years (2012 and 2013 and the plants used in the second year were grown from the seeds harvested from the plants used in the first year. Results and Discussion: Our two-year study revealed a high level of variation in L-DOPA concentration for leaf and flower tissues among the six faba bean lines studied. The average L-DOPA concentration based on dry weight (DW in flowers ranged from 27.8 to 63.5 mg/g and 18.2 to 48.7 mg/g for leaf tissues. There was no significant correlation between L-DOPA concentrations in flowers and leaves. The L-DOPA concentration in flowers and in leaves of the same line varied but were not statistically significant between the two years. Ideally, the genotype with the highest average L-DOPA concentration in both flowers and leaves would be grown

  17. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  18. 长柔毛野豌豆编码甘油-3-磷酸酰基转移酶基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of cDNA for the Glycerol-3- phosphate Acyltsansferase from Vicia villosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕燕波; 陈善娜; 鄢波; 杨明挚; 黄兴奇

    2002-01-01

    甘油-3-磷酸酰基转移酶(GPAT)基因与植物抗冷性密切相关.克隆到的长柔毛野豌豆(Vicia villosa)GPAT基因的编码区完整的cDNA片段长1377bp,编码458个氨基酸残基,与蚕豆(Vicia faba)和豌豆(Pissum sativum)比较,其核苷酸序列的同源性分别为94.1%和93.3%,氨基酸序列的同源性分别为96.9%和98.0%.

  19. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases or decreases in the size of populations over space and time are, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change over time in the abundance of some population is the simple difference between the number of additions (individuals entering the population minus the number of subtractions (individuals leaving the population. Of course, the precise nature of the pattern and process of these additions and subtractions is often complex, and population biology is often replete with fairly dense mathematical representations of both processes. While there is no doubt that analysis of such abstract descriptions of populations has been of considerable value in advancing our, there has often existed a palpable discomfort when the ‘beautiful math’ is faced with the often ‘ugly realities’ of empirical data. In some cases, this attempted merger is abandoned altogether, because of the paucity of ‘good empirical data’ with which the theoretician can modify and evaluate more conceptually–based models. In some cases, the lack of ‘data’ is more accurately represented as a lack of robust estimates of one or more parameters. It is in this arena that methods developed to analyze multiple encounter data from individually marked organisms has seen perhaps the greatest advances. These methods have rapidly evolved to facilitate not only estimation of one or more vital rates, critical to population modeling and analysis, but also to allow for direct estimation of both the dynamics of populations (e.g., Pradel, 1996, and factors influencing those dynamics (e.g., Nichols et al., 2000. The interconnections between the various vital rates, their estimation, and incorporation into models, was the general subject of our plenary presentation by Hal Caswell (Caswell & Fujiwara, 2004. Caswell notes that although interest has traditionally

  20. Stellar Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-01-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on ne

  1. Stickleback Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Candolin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced eutrophication has increased offspring production in a population of threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea. Here, we experimentally investigated the effects of an increased density of juveniles on behaviours that influence survival and dispersal, and, hence, population growth—habitat choice, risk taking, and foraging rate. Juveniles were allowed to choose between two habitats that differed in structural complexity, in the absence and presence of predators and conspecific juveniles. In the absence of predators or conspecifics, juveniles preferred the more complex habitat. The preference was further enhanced in the presence of a natural predator, a perch Perca fluviatilis (behind a transparent Plexiglas wall. However, an increased density of conspecifics relaxed the predator-enhanced preference for the complex habitat and increased the use of the open, more predator-exposed habitat. Foraging rate was reduced under increased perceived predation risk. These results suggest that density-dependent behaviours can cause individuals to choose suboptimal habitats where predation risk is high and foraging rate low. This could contribute to the regulation of population growth in eutrophicated areas where offspring production is high.

  2. Population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of population aging in China, the most densely populated country in the world. Statistics indicate that by the end of 1998, 83.75 million out of the 1.248 billion Chinese people will be over 65 years old. According to the UN standards, China will soon become an aging society. The aging population poses several challenges to the country with the greatest challenge being the increasing social responsibility to care for the aged. With the undeveloped legislative framework to protect the interests of the aged and the serious drawbacks in the pension system to cater only to the income part and not the service part of the aged, China is not yet ready for the advent of aging. Violation of the rights of senior citizens is still very rampant despite enactment of the law on Protection of the Rights of the Elderly in 1996. Moreover, China is not economically ready to become an aging society. China faces this challenge by adopting a three-pronged approach to solve the problem namely: family support, establishment of nursing homes, and creating a social security framework that addresses the needs of the society suited to the Chinese condition. It is believed that with the growing economy of the country and the rising income of its people, a comprehensive social security net will be created to take care of the aged.

  3. 空心莲子草不同部位水浸提液对蚕豆、玉米化感作用机制的研究%The Study on Allelopathy Mechanism of Aqueous Extracts from the Different Organizations of Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb on Vicia faba and Zea mays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊勇; 屈睿; 王红斌; 熊开金; 姜传亮

    2011-01-01

    用空心莲子草为研究材料,以农作物蚕豆、玉米为受试植物,采用培养皿滤纸法测定空心莲子草对受试农作物种子萌发率的影响,并检测幼苗的生理指标丙二醛(MDA)含量、超氧化物歧酶(SOD)活性、过氧化物酶(POD)活力以及蚕豆根尖细胞微核率变化,来探讨化感作用机制.结果表明,空心莲子草根、茎、叶不同浓度水浸提液对受试农作物种子萌发率具有不同程度的抑制作用,且处理浓度越高抑制作用越强,水浸提液使受体幼苗体内的MDA含量增加,SOD活性、POD活性先增加后降低趋势,使蚕豆根尖细胞微核率上升.空心莲子草水溶性化感物质使受试农作物受到了氧化胁迫,抗氧化酶系统、蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂受到了抑制作用,从而影响了农作物幼苗的萌发和生长.%The study used Alternanthera philoxeroides as material, the subjects plants were Vicia faba and Zea may. The effects of Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb on the seed germination of two species were studied by using culture dish filter paper method. The physiological index of tested crops MDA content, peroxidase (POD) activity changes, micronucleus rate changes of Vicia faba root-tip cell were detected. The result showed aqueous extracts form Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb were affected to different degrees for the tested Vicia faba and Zea mays germination rate, made seedlings malondialdehyde (MDA) content to increase, made seedlings superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity firstly to increase and then to decrease trend, also made root tip cells of Vicia micronucleus rate to increase. The tested crops were oxidative stressed by water-soluble allelochemicals from Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb. Antioxidant enzyme systems and root tip cells mitosis were inhibited. The aqueous extracts from the different organizations Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb affected the germination and growth of Vicia faba and

  4. Hydrogen Sulfide Mediates ABA-induced Stomatal Closure of Vicia faba L.%H2S介导ABA诱导蚕豆气孔运动的生理机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁; 侯智慧; 赵方贵; 刘新

    2011-01-01

    Through pharmacological combined with spectrophotography to study the effects of ABA and ABA with inhibitors of H2S synthesis on stomatal closure of Vicia faba L., H2S generation and L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase (pyridoxalphosphate dependent enzymes) activity.The results showed that AOA and NH2OH, inhibitors of pyridoxal-5 ‘-phosphate-dependent enzymes, C3H3KO3 + NH3, products of L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase all inhibited ABA- induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L.obviously under light condition.Treatment with ABA induced H2S generation and increased L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase activity.AOA,NH2OH,C3H3KO3+NH3 reduced H2S generation induced by ABA and the activity increase of L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase.Those results suggested that ABA enhanced the activity of L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase,inducing the accumulation of H2S via L-/D-cysteine resolving, and finally induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L..%以蚕豆为实验材料,利用药理学实验和分光光度法,研究了ABA处理及ABA与H2S合成抑制剂共处理对蚕豆气孔运动的影响,以及体内H2S水平、H2S合成酶L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶(磷酸吡哆盐依赖性酶)活性变化.结果表明:(1)光下H2S的合成抑制剂羧甲氧基胺半盐酸盐(AOA)、羟氨(NH2OH)、L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶分解产物C3H3KO3+NH3均明显抑制ABA诱导的蚕豆气孔关闭;(2)外源ABA能够明显提高叶片的H2S水平及L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶活性;(3)AOA、NH2OH、C3H3KO3和NH3均可以逆转ABA所引起的H2S水平及L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶活性的升高.研究发现,ABA可通过增强L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶活性,促进L-/D-半胱氨酸分解生成H2S,进而诱导蚕豆气孔关闭.

  5. Ca2+对蚕豆种子萌发及根生长的影响%Effects of Ca2+ on the Germination and Root Growth of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英慧

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To study the effects of Ca2+ on seed germination, root length, and mitotic index of root tip cells of Vicia faba. [ Method] Vicia faba seeds were cultured with CaCl2 solutions at different concentration using distilled water treatment as CK. Germination rates were counted;root lengths were measured;and the root tips were fixed,dyed and squashed for microscopic examination,and mitotic index of its root tip cells were calculated. [ Result ] There was no effect on germination of Vicia faba seeds treated with 1.0 - 5.0 mmol/L Ca2+.The speed of germination decreased when the seeds were treated with Ca2+ above 10.0 mmol/L,but at last there was no effect on the rate of germination. The root length and mitotic index of root tip cells were increased after the treatment with Ca2+ at concentration of 1.0 - 10.0 mmol/L. When the root tips were treated with Ca2+ at higher concentration ,the root length and mitotic index decreased, and even the growth of root and cell division were inhibited. [ Conclusion ] Ca2+ is an essential element for plants ,but the application of excessive Ca2+ would generate toxicity. This study provides scientific evidence for rational application of calcium fertilizer.%[目的]研究不同浓度Ca对蚕豆种子萌发、根长以及根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响.[方法]用不同浓度的CaCl 溶液培养蚕豆种子,以蒸馏水培养为对照,统计不同处理下蚕豆种子萌发率;测量根长;根尖固定、染色、压片后进行观察,计算有丝分裂指数.[结果]1.0-5.0 mmol/L Ca 对蚕豆种子萌发没有影响.当Ca 浓度超过10.0 mmol/L后,随着Ca浓度的增高,蚕豆种子萌发速率降低,但对最终萌发率没有影响;1.0-10.0mmol/L Ca 能不同程度地促进蚕豆根生长和细胞分裂,其中5.0mmol/L Ca 处理的蚕豆根长和有丝分裂指数最高,之后随着Ca 浓度的继续增高,根生长和细胞分裂速度开始下降,甚至受到抑制.[结论]Ca 是植物体生长的必需元素,但Ca

  6. Indian populations

    CERN Document Server

    Spahni,J

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. J.C. Spahni qui a parcouru les Andes, Vénezuela etc. parle de ses expériences et connaissances qu'il a vécu au cours des 14 ans parmi les populations indiennes de la Cordillière des Andes. Il a ramené des objets artisanals indiens lesquels l'auditoire peut acquérir. L'introduction-conférence est suivi d'un film, commenté par lui-même; après l'entracte il y un débat-dialogue avec le public.

  7. Effect of phthalate esters on micronuclei rates in vicia faba root tip cells%邻苯二甲酸酯类物质对蚕豆根尖细胞微核率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段丽菊; 王海雪; 高留闯; 唐智敏; 吉宗慧; 范清堂; 崔留欣

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study the mutagenicity of some kinds of phthalate esters. METHODS:Vicia faba root tips were exposed to different concentrations of phthalate esters including dimethyl phthalate,dibuthyl phthalate,bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate,diethyl phthalate and dipropyl phthalate for 24 hours. Number of micronuclei of vicia faba root tips cells was observed. RESULTS:Compared with the negative control group,while dimethyl phthalate at the concentration of 0.008,0.016,0.032 mg/L,phthalate dibutyl and phthalate dioctyl at the concentration of 0.016,0.032 mg/L,respectively, there were significant differences in micronucleus rate (P0.05). CONCLUSION:The present study demonstrats that dimethyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate,dioctyl phthalate displayed genetic toxicity and low concentration of diethyl phthalate and phthalate dipropyl showed no genotoxicity.%目的:研究几种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质的遗传毒性。方法:用不同浓度邻苯二甲酸二甲酯、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯、邻苯二甲酸二丙酯、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯和邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯对蚕豆根尖染毒24 h后,观察蚕豆根尖细胞的微核数。结果:邻苯二甲酸二甲酯在浓度为0.008、0.016和0.032 mg/L,邻苯二甲酸二丁酯和邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯在浓度为0.016和0.032 mg/L时,所致蚕豆根尖细胞微核率均显著高于阴性对照组(P0.05)。结论:在本实验条件下,邻苯二甲酸二甲酯、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯、邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯对蚕豆根尖具有遗传毒性,低浓度邻苯二甲酸二乙酯和邻苯二甲酸二丙酯对蚕豆根尖不具有遗传毒性。

  8. Allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Ageratum conyzoides with Vicia-micronucleus test%利用蚕豆根尖微核试验研究入侵植物胜红蓟的化感作用潜力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚娟; 何兴金

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To study the allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Ageratum conyzoides Linn. [Method] The allopathic effects of aqueous extracts of leaf, stem, flower and ground part of A. Conyzoides were studied by using View-micronucleus test. [Result]The results showed that the aqueous extracts had genetic toxicity to Vi-cia faba root tip cells. The aqueous extracts of leaf, stem, flower and ground part had the mitotic index decreased, the micronucleus frequency increased, and aberrant chromosomes such as micronucleus, chromosome bridge and chromosome ring. These effects were concentration-dependent. The allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts increased in the following order: flower, stem, leaf and ground part. Compared with the ground part, the allelopathic potential of the three parts did not increase simply, but the role of leaf was strongest. [Conclusion] The leaf had the highest allelopathic potential.%[目的]研究入侵植物胜红蓟(Ageratum conyzoides Linn.)的化感作用潜力.[方法]运用蚕豆(Vicia fabaL)根尖细胞微核试验研究入侵植物胜红蓟叶、茎、花以及地上部分(除去根以外的植物体,下同)水浸提液的化感效应.[结果]胜红蓟水浸提液具有较强的遗传毒性.在叶、茎、花和地上部分水浸提液作用下,蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数下降,微核率升高,细胞中出现了微核、染色体桥、染色体环等多种染色体畸变,胜红蓟水浸提液对蚕豆根尖的影响存在显著的浓度效应.胜红蓟叶、茎、花和地上部分的整体效应为叶>茎>花>地上部分,与地上部分相比三部位之间的化感作用潜力不存在简单加和作用,但仍以叶片效应最强.[结论]叶片具有最高的化感作用潜力.

  9. 局部灼伤对茉莉酸在蚕豆幼苗中运输和分配的影响%Effect of Localized Scorch on the Transport and Distribution of Exogenous Jasmonic Acid in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 张蜀秋; 娄成后; 于风义

    2002-01-01

    用示踪技术研究了3H-JA (jasmonic acid)在双子叶植物蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)中的运输和分配规律以及局部灼伤对其运输与分配的影响.外源3H-JA 能够以高于4~5 cm*min-1的速率在蚕豆幼苗体内向上和向下运输.幼叶局部灼伤能提高3H-JA的向上运输能力,促进3H-JA向受伤部位的调运;增加3H-JA向成熟叶片下表皮的运输分配比率;阻止3H-JA从受伤部位的向外输出.据此推测,伤胁迫下JA的运输与分配的改变可能与植物体防御伤反应密切相关,并有可能参与了对气孔运动的调控.%Exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) has been showed to be able to induce stomatal closure in Vicia faba L. in previous investigations. The transport and distribution of 3H_JA affected by localized scorch on V. faba seedling were studied with radioisotope technique. The results showed that 3H_JA could be transported up or down at the rate of 4-5 cm*min-1 following feeding into root or shoot tip. The transport of 3H_JA in shoot reached a relative stable rate at 30 min after being fed through root. Wounding by scorch in the youngest leaf caused an increase in the transport of 3H_JA from root to shoot and enhanced the distribution of 3H_JA in the wounded leaf. However, distribution of 3H_JA in unwounded leaves increased after 5 h being fed through the youngest leaf. It was noticed that wounding improved accumulation of 3H_JA in abaxial epidermis. Consistent results were obtained: wounding prevented transport of 3H_JA out from the youngest leaf to root; These observations suggest that JA plays an important role as a defense signal and might be involved in the regulation of the stomatal movement in response to wounding stress.

  10. Population Genetics with Fluctuating Population Sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Chotibut, Thiparat

    2016-01-01

    Standard neutral population genetics theory with a strictly fixed population size has important limitations. An alternative model that allows independently fluctuating population sizes and reproduces the standard neutral evolution is reviewed. We then study a situation such that the competing species are neutral at the equilibrium population size but population size fluctuations nevertheless favor fixation of one species over the other. In this case, a separation of timescales emerges naturally and allows adiabatic elimination of a fast population size variable to deduce the fluctuations-induced selection dynamics near the equilibrium population size. The results highlight the incompleteness of the standard population genetics with a strictly fixed population size.

  11. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  12. 亚硫酸氢钠对蚕豆光合生产和蛋白含量的影响%Effect of hydrogen sulfite sodium on the photosynthetic production and the content of protein of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌平; 闵运江; 汪马成

    2007-01-01

    在蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)灌浆期对其叶面喷施50 mg·L-1和100 mg·L-1的亚硫酸氢钠溶液,结果表明:两种浓度的亚硫酸氢钠均可提高叶片净光合速率,增加籽粒产量,其中50 mg·L-1的促进效果明显.同时研究表明,亚硫酸氢钠虽然可以增加籽粒产量,但却降低了籽粒的蛋白质含量,其中100mg·L-1处理后的降低幅度较大.此外,试验还测定了各处理组的叶绿素含量,结果表明,亚硫酸氢钠对促进叶绿素含量增加与光合产量增加呈正相关.

  13. 核酸类似物诱导蚕豆高频率类减数分裂%Somatic Meiosis-like Reduction Induced at High Frequency by Nucleotide Analogues in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽华; 陈一华; 陈正华

    2000-01-01

    建立了用咖啡因、尿嘧啶处理蚕豆(Vicia faba)根尖细胞,诱导高频率体细胞类减数分裂的体系.筛选出最佳药物处理浓度及最佳恢复时间,咖啡因处理过程中减数分裂的频率最高达54.0 %,尿嘧啶处理类减数分裂频率最高达35.7%.观察体细胞类减数分裂的全过程,发现体细胞染色体减数存在着两种类型, 其一为染色体减数分组,多数情况下染色体分为两个组,但未见纺锤丝的作用;另一类型为与配子发生过程相似的减数分裂,出现染色体配对、交叉的图样.这一体系的建立对单倍体的诱导及细胞工程育种有着重要意义.

  14. 活性氧介导砷诱导的蚕豆保卫细胞死亡%Involvement of ROS in Arsenic-Induced Guard Cell Death in Detached Epidermis of Vicia faba Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛美昭; 仪慧兰

    2013-01-01

    采用蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)表皮条生物法,研究砷的细胞毒性作用机制.结果发现,一定浓度的NaAsO2可使气孔保卫细胞活性降低,部分细胞死亡,细胞死亡率呈浓度依赖性增高;砷处理组保卫细胞内活性氧(reactive oxygen species,ROS)水平升高.抗氧化剂抗坏血酸和过氧化氢酶及Ca2+特异性螫合剂EGTA、Ca2+通道抑制剂LaCl3与NaAsO2共同作用时,砷诱发的细胞死亡被显著抑制;MAPK激酶抑制剂PD98059亦能有效阻止NaAsO2诱发的细胞死亡.研究结果表明,砷胁迫引起的胞内ROS合成增加可能通过Ca2+信号途径介导了保卫细胞的死亡过程,MAPK途径参与了砷诱导的细胞死亡.

  15. Effect of formaldehyde from artificial wood-based boards on micronucleus rate of vicia faba cells%木质板材释放的甲醛对蚕豆根尖细胞微核的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光学; 王芸; 严彦; 郭君毅; 杨旭

    2003-01-01

    为了研究木质人造板材释放气体的遗传毒性,用木质人造板材释放的不同浓度的甲醛气体对蚕豆vicia faba根尖进行染毒,用显微镜观测根尖细胞的微核率.结果表明,蚕豆根尖细胞微核率与甲醛气体的浓度有良好的正相关性.经1.24mg/m3和3.71mg/m3甲醛气体灌流染毒的细胞微核率与对照组之间具有显著性差异(P<0.01)甲醛气体可以通过液相的吸收产生高浓度的蓄积,从而引起浸泡其中的根尖细胞发生DNA损伤.

  16. Genotoxicity of Cr6+ on the Tip Cell of Vicia faba L.Root%Cr6+对蚕豆根尖细胞的遗传毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕

    2013-01-01

    采用蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)根尖细胞微核试验研究了不同浓度的铬对蚕豆根尖细胞微核率和染色体畸变的影响,以此评价铬(Cr6+)的遗传毒性.结果表明,随铬浓度升高,蚕豆根尖细胞微核率先升后降,染色体畸变率升高.50 mg/L铬处理48 h微核率和100 mg/L铬处理48 h染色体畸变率达到最大值,达到最大值后随着铬浓度增加微核率下降,但仍高于对照,铬引起的染色体畸变以染色体断片、落后染色体和染色体桥为主.试验结果表明,铬能诱导蚕豆根尖细胞微核的产生和染色体畸变.

  17. Study on fatty acid of Vicia sativa and Elymus nutans in alpine grassland region%高山草原地区箭箸豌豆和垂穗披碱草脂肪酸构成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚秉泉; 毛祝新; 傅华

    2011-01-01

    用GC-MS方法对高山草原地区种植的豆科牧草箭菩豌豆333/A(Vicia sativa)和禾本科牧草垂穗披碱草(Elymus nutans)中脂肪酸含量进行测定,分别检测到12种和11种脂肪酸.两种牧草中脂肪酸总量分别为4.84和4.46 g/kg,都舍有4种不饱和脂肪酸(UFA),其含量次序同为:α-亚麻酸>亚油酸>油酸>棕榈油酸;饱和脂肪酸(SFA)中均为棕榈酸含量最高;UFA/SFA值分别为1.34和2.21.垂穗披碱草与箭菩豌豆333/A相比,其UFA含量高(11%),SFA含量低(33%),UFA/SFA是后者的1.65倍.本研究建立的气质联用测定脂肪酸的色谱条件,各组分分离效果好,结果重现性高.

  18. Mutation Effects of Sodium Sulfite and Sodium Nitrite in Root TiP Cells of Vicia Faba%亚硫酸钠和亚硝酸钠对蚕豆根尖细胞致突变作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虹; 王小娟; 高向丽

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: We studied the mutation effects of sodium sulfite and sodium nitrite in root tip cells of Vicia faba . MATERIALS AND METHODS: The root tips of Vicia faba were treated with different concentrations of sodium sulfite and sodium nitrite (in the concentrations of 25,50,100,200,400 mg/L) with distilled water as control for four hours.The root tips of Vicia faba were stained with carbol fuchsin and examined. The micronucleus rate and the rate of chromosome aberration were determined within root tip cells of Vicia faba . RESULTS: Different concentrations of sodium sulfite and sodium nitrite increased the micronucleus rate and the rate of chromosome aberration in root tip cells of Vicia faba . Both these rates increased with treatment concentration. The micronucleus rate of sodium nitrite was higher than that of sodium sulfite at the some concentration. Sodium sulfite and sodium nitrite induced chromosome to produce various types of chromosomal aberrations: free chromosome, chromosome fragments, chromosome adhesion, lagging chromosome, chromosome bridge, polarized chromosome and ring chromosome. CONCLUSION: Sodium sulfite and sodium nitrite revealed obvious mutation effects and caused certain genetic toxicity in root tip cells of Vicia faba . The effects of sodium nitrite were stronger than that of sodium nitritet.%背景与目的:研究亚硫酸钠和亚硝酸钠对蚕豆根尖细胞的致突变作用. 材料与方法:用不同浓度的亚硫酸钠和亚硝酸钠(25、50、100、200、400 mg/L)分别处理蚕豆根尖4 h,并以蒸馏水作为对照,用石炭酸品红染液染色,分别观察、测定蚕豆根尖细胞的微核率和染色体畸变率. 结果:与对照组相比,不同浓度的亚硫酸钠和亚硝酸钠均能诱导蚕豆根尖细胞微核率和染色体畸变率增加(P<0.05或P<0.01),且随处理浓度的增大而增加.在相同浓度下,亚硝酸钠诱导的微核率高于亚硫酸钠诱导的微核率.亚硫酸钠和亚硝酸钠诱

  19. Evaluation of cocomposted coal fly ash on dynamics of microbial populations and heavy metal uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallini, G.; Vaccari, F.; Pera, A.; Agnolucci, M.; Scatena, S.; Varallo, G. [University of Verona, Verona (Italy). Science and Technology Dept.

    1999-06-01

    Vicia faba, in a pot experiment with sandy and clayey soils under greenhouse conditions, was checked for growth response to different amendments with coal alkaline fly ash or cocomposted fly ash mixed with lignocellulosic residues. Soil microbial populations, pH and electrical conductivity as well as heavy metal uptake by plants were monitored. At rates of five and ten percent (on a dry matter basis) in both soils, neither fly ash alone nor cocomposted fly ash exerted any negative effect. Plant biomass production was not influenced in either clayey or sandy soil. Alkaline fly ash did not promote microbial growth when applied alone to the soils. However, cocomposted fly ash generally increased bacterial and actinomycetes counts in both soils. Fungi were not affected by ash. Due to the increase of soil pH by alkaline fly ash or cocomposted fly ash, plant uptake of heavy metals was depressed in the sandy soil. Heavy metal mobility did not cause change in the clayey soil where a high buffering capacity mitigated the effects of fly ash amendments.

  20. Effective population size of korean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Leeyoung

    2014-12-01

    Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century.

  1. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  2. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Annual report, September 15, 1990--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  3. Role of Inducible - NOS in Light/Darkness - Regulated Stomatal Movement of Vicia Faba%诱导型一氧化氮合酶在光暗调控的蚕豆气孔运动中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋喜贵; 王娜; 佘小平

    2012-01-01

    以蚕豆叶片下表皮为材料,借助表皮条分析、免疫细胞化学染色、细胞核染色和激光扫描共聚焦显微镜技术,对一氧化氮(nitricoxide,NO)在光暗调控的蚕豆气孔运动中的作用进行探索。实验证明,NO专一性清除剂2,4-羧基苯-4,4,5,5-四甲基咪唑-l-氧-3-氧化物(cPrIO)和一氧化氮合酶(Nos)抑制剂NG-氮-L-精氨酸-甲酯(L-NAME)能够逆转黑暗诱导气孔关闭的效应,并能阻断黑暗诱导的蚕豆保卫细胞NO水平的提高。但二者对光下气孔孔径几乎没有影响。结果表明,光暗调控的蚕豆气孔运动与保卫细胞胞质内的NO水平有关,在保卫细胞细胞核中存在诱导型一氧化氮合酶(inducible-nitric喇desynthase,iNOS),而光暗条件下iNOS活性不同,进而引起NO水平变化并最终影响气孔开关。%In this study, the abaxial epidermis of Vicia faba is used as materials, and role of NO in light/dark - regulated / stomatal movement is investigated by epidermal strip bioassay, immunocytochemical methods, carbolfuchsin staining and la- serseanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Our data shows that the darkness - induced stomata closure and NO generation in guard cell can be prevented by 2- (4 - carboxyphenyl) - 4,4,5,5 - tetmmethylimidazohne - 1 - oxyl - 3 - oxide (cP- TIO) and NG - nitro - L - Arg - methyl ester (L - NAME), the specific NO scavenger and an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) respectively, which has no significant effect on stomatal aperture in light. So we suggest that light/darkness- regu- lated stomata] movement is related to the levels of NO in guard cell. In addition, we also indicate that in nucleus of V. faba guard cells plant possess inducible- nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and light/darkness - regulated NO levels in guard cells of Vicia faba is likely related to the change of iNOS activeness, and then results in the opening or closing of the stomata.

  4. Effects of Pb2+ on the Germination and Root Growth of Vicia faba L.%铅对蚕豆种子萌发及根生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英慧; 韩善华

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究铅对蚕豆种子萌发、根生长以及细胞分裂的影响.[方法]用不同浓度的PbCl溶液培养蚕豆种子,以蒸馏水培养作为对照,统计蚕豆种子萌发率,测量根长,根尖固定、染色、压片后镜检,计算有丝分裂指数.[结果]1.0×10~5.0×10mol/L Pb处理第1、2天,蚕豆种子萌发率稍高于对照,培养第3、4天则与对照相当,Pb对蚕豆种子的萌发没有显著影响.Pb对蚕豆根尖生长产生抑制作用,随着浓度增加,根的生长速率递减,随着处理时间延长,每单位时间的根生长速度递减或停止.根尖细胞有丝分裂指数随Pb浓度的增高和处理时间的延长而递减.[结论]Pb对蚕豆根尖生长发育有影响,其影响程度与Pb处理浓度、处理时间有关.%[ Objective ] The aim was to study the effects of Pb2+ on the seed germination, root length,and mitotic of Viciafaba L.. [ Method ] With the distilled water treatment as the control, Viciafaba L. seeds were cultured with PbCl2 solutions at different concentration,and then their germination rate and root lengths were measured,and their root tips were fixed,dyed and squashed for microscopic examination,and the mitotic index (%) of root tip cells was calculated. [Result]When seeds were treated with 1 × 10-4 -5 × 10-4 mol/L Pb2+ for 1 and 2 days,the germination percentage of seeds lightly increased. But 3 and 4 days later,there was no difference between the seeds treated by Pb2+ and the control. Pb2+ had no significant influence on seed germination. Pb2+ inhibited root growth of Vicia faba L.. The rate of root growth decreased successively with the increasing Pb2+ concentration. The speed of the root growth per time unit also decreased successively or stopped with the increasing treatment duration. The mitotic index decreased progressively with both the increasing Pb2 + concentration and treatment duration. [ Conclusion ] Pb2 + showed effects on the root growth of Vicia faba L. in a dose

  5. Exogenously applied D-pinitol and D-chiro-inositol modifies the accumulation of α-D-galactosides in developing tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have investigated the effect of exogenous cyclitols on the accumulation of their galactosides and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs, as well as on some enzymes important for their biosynthesis in seeds of tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray. Immature seeds during 6-day incubation with D-chiro-inositol (naturally does not appear in seeds of tiny vetch were accumulated cyclitol and its galactosides (fagopyritols: B1 and B2. Short 4-hour incubation with D-chiro-inositol, and subsequent slow desiccation process caused accumulation of free cyclitol only, without biosynthesis of its galactosides. Feeding D-chiro-inositol to pods of tiny vetch induced accumulation of high levels of its galactosides (fagopyritol B1, B2 and B3 in maturing seeds. Similarly, feeding D-pinitol increased accumulation of its mono-, di- and tri-galactosides: GPA, GPB, DGPA and TGPA in tiny vetch seed. Accumulation of both cyclitols and their galactosides drastically reduced accumulation of verbascose. Inhibition of RFOs biosynthesis by elevated levels of free cyclitols suggests some competition between formation of both types of galactosides and similarity of both biosynthetic routes in tiny vetch seeds. Galactinol synthase (GolS from tiny vetch seeds demonstrated ability to utilize D-chiro-inositol as galactosyl acceptor, instead of myo-inositol. Presence of both cyclitols, as substrates for GolS, caused synthesis of their galactosides: fagopyritol B1 and galactinol. However, formation of galactinol was more efficient than fagopyritol B1. D-chiro-Inositol and D-pinitol at concentrations several-fold higher than myo-inositol had inhibitory effect on GolS. Thus, we suggest that a level of free cyclitols can have an influence on the rate of galactinol biosynthesis and further accumulation of RFOs and galactosyl cyclitols in tiny vetch seeds.

  6. 不同污水对蚕豆根尖微核诱导率的影响%Effects of Different Sewages on Micronucleus Induction Rates of Vicia faba Root Tip cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余代龙; 杨先泉; 谭利; 蒋琴

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨不同工业污水对环境的污染程度.[方法]采用蚕豆根尖微核技术,测定了雅安2种类型工业污水对蚕豆根尖细胞微核的遗传毒性.[结果]铸造厂污水和制药厂污水诱发的蚕豆根尖微核细胞率分别为21.65‰和23.55‰.卡方分析结果显示,2种污水样品诱发的微核细胞率与阴性对照间差异极显著.[结论]不同类型的工业污水对蚕豆根尖细胞微核的诱导程度有差异,蚕豆根尖细胞微核对各种工业污水的遗传毒性十分敏感.%[Objective] The aim was to explore pollution degrees of different industrial sewages on environment. [ Method] The genotoxicity of 2 kinds of industrial sewages from Ya' an on root tip cells of Viciafaba were tested by micronucleus assay. [ Result] Micronucleus frequencies induced by the sewages from a pharmaceutical industry and a plating factory in Ya' an were 21.65%. And 23.55%., respectively. There were significant differences between the two treated groups and negative control (P<0.01). [Conclusion] The micronucleus frequencies induced by different industrial sewages are different The micronuclens of Vicia faba root tip cells are very sensitive to the genotoxicity of various sewages.

  7. Plastic Membrane Mulching Effect on Varieties of Vicia Faba Linn--Experimenting in Kangding County of Ganzi, Sichuan Province%蚕豆不同品种的地膜覆盖效应*--以四川省甘孜州康定县为试点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈安茹

    2013-01-01

    Four different kinds of Vicia faba Linn were used in two groups of experiments respectively,one group with plastic membrane mulching and the other without. It turned out that Vicia faba in the former group grew rapidly and the yields of fresh green pod and seeds all shared improvement to different extent. Planting modes such as intercropping,interplanting and mixed planting can be utilized to increase economic and ecological benefits.%采用4种不同品种的蚕豆进行覆膜和不覆膜试验,结果证明覆膜栽培的蚕豆生长发育迅速,青鲜荚和籽粒的产量均有不同程度的提高,同时还可利用间作、套种、混作等种植方式来提高经济及生态等各方面效益。

  8. Education Vital Signs: Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariya, Sally Banks

    1985-01-01

    Population changes and demographics shape the future of public schools. Includes statistics on ethnic makeup of student population, the projected baby boomlet, children of working mothers, households without children, and the aging population. (MD)

  9. Human Population Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  10. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  11. Why Population in 1974?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Marion

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the impact of world population growth leading to the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and to the declaration of 1974 as World Population Year. Previews some of the parameters and interconnecting interests to be considered during this year of intensive population study. (JR)

  12. 4种典型PPCPs对蚕豆和大蒜根尖细胞微核率的影响%Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兰君; 王金花; 朱鲁生; 王军; 赵祥

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline ( DOX) , ciprofloxacin ( CIP) , triclocarban ( TCC) and carbamazepine ( CBZ) in the concentration range of 12. 5-100 mg•L-1 were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-faba and garlic. The results showed that:①When the Vicia-faba root-tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1. 67‰( CK1 ) , it was significantly different from that of the control group ( P﹤0. 05) , and the micronucleus index was even greater than 3. 5;With the increasing concentrations of the PPCPs, the micronucleus rates first increased and then decreased. ②When the garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0. 67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3. 5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg•L-1 and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg•L-1; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. ③Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. ④ The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP﹥CBZ﹥TCC﹥DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different.%药物及个人护理品( PPCPs)对生态环境的潜在风险受到世界各国科学家

  13. Effects of UV-B radiation on the growth and reproduction of Vicia angustifolia%UV-B辐射对窄叶野豌豆生长繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 王兴安; 王仁君; 邱念伟; 马宗琪; 杜国祯

    2012-01-01

    A simulation experiment with supplementation and exclusion of solar ultraviolet-B ( UV-B) radiation was conducted to study the effects of enhanced and near ambient UV-B radiation on the growth and reproduction of alpine annual pasture Vicia angustifolia on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Enhanced UV-B decreased the plant height and biomass, biomass allocation to fruit, flower number, and 100-seed mass significantly, delayed flowering stage, increased the concentration degree of flowering and success rate of reproduction, but had little effect on seed yield. Near ambient UV-B radiation made the plant height increased after an initial decrease, decreased biomass allocation to fruit and 100-seed mass, but little affected flowering duration, flower number, and seed yield. Both enhanced and near ambient UV-B radiation could inhibit the growth and production of V. angustifolia, and the effect of enhanced UV-B radiation was even larger.%采用增补和滤除掉部分自然UV-B辐射的模拟试验,研究了增强和近环境UV-B辐射对高寒草甸一年生牧草窄叶野豌豆生长和繁殖的影响.结果表明:增补UV-B辐射处理后,窄叶野豌豆的株高、生物量、分配向果实的生物量、总花数和种子百粒重均显著下降,花期延迟,开花集中度和繁殖成功率有所提高,而种子产量无显著变化.相对于减弱UV-B辐射处理,近环境UV-B辐射使窄叶野豌豆的株高先降后升,分配向果实的生物量减少,花期、花数和种子产量无显著变化,种子百粒重减小.增强和近环境UV-B辐射对窄叶野豌豆的生长和繁殖有一定的抑制作用,且增强UV-B辐射的影响更大.

  14. Achados patológicos e imuno-histoquímicos em bovinos com doença granulomatosa sistêmica pelo consumo de Vicia villosa (Leg. Papilionoideae no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sonne

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao consumo de Vicia villosa (Leg. Papilionoideae foi diagnosticada em 5 bovinos no período de 2005 a 2008. Os bovinos apresentavam alopecia, lesões crostosas na pele, prurido, febre, queda da produção leiteira, anorexia e emagrecimento. O curso clínico médio da doença foi de 2 semanas. Dos bovinos analisados três morreram e dois foram eutanasiados. As lesões macroscópicas de alopecia e crostas na pele eram localizadas principalmente na face e pescoço. Observava-se nódulos multifocais a coalescentes branco-acinzentados que infiltravam vários órgãos especialmente em linfonodos, rins e coração. As lesões microscópicas consistiam na infiltração de linfócitos, macrófagos, células epitelioides, células gigantes multinucleadas, eosinófilos e plasmócitos. Linfonodos, rins, adrenal, baço e fígado de todos os bovinos apresentaram infiltrado granulomatoso, porém de intensidade variável. Nos testes imuno-histoquímicos dos órgãos com infiltrado inflamatório, as principais células visualizadas foram os linfócitos T, seguidos de macrófagos/células epitelioides/células gigantes multi-nucleadas e os linfócitos B foram raramente detectados nos locais de inflamação granulomatosa. O número reduzido de células marcadas por Ki-67 nas lesões granulomatosas, tende a indicar que a proliferação celular não foi responsável pela hipercelularidade das lesões e que o recrutamento de macrófagos e linfócitos para o local da inflamação provavelmente tenha sido o responsável pelo acúmulo de células no infiltrado inflamatório.

  15. Genetic Damage of Root Tip Cells in Broad Bean Plant (Vicia faba) Induced by Water in Liao River Valley%辽河流域水诱发蚕豆根尖细胞遗传损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利红; 徐成斌; 陈忠林; 苏丹; 王家懿

    2009-01-01

    以辽河流域12个不同断面的河水为诱变剂,运用蚕豆根尖微核检测技术和染色体畸变实验方法,测定蚕豆根尖细胞的有丝分裂指数、微核率和染色体畸变率.结果表明:不同断面的河水均能降低蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数,能诱发较高频率的微核和染色体畸变,产生染色体断片、核突起和核碎裂.所有样点微核率和染色体畸变率均高于对照组.根据采样点水质污染指数分析町知,福德店水质属重度污染,东辽河、条子河、红庙子水质属中度污染,招苏台河水质属轻度污染.%Water in 12 sections of Liao River Valley was sampled as mutagen and micronucleus test and chromosome aberration assay were used to detect mitotic index,micronucleus ratio and chromosome aberration ratio of root tip cells in broad bean plant(Viciafaba).Results showed that water in different sections can decrease the mitotic index in Vicia faba root tip ceHs,induce higher raftos of either micronucleus or chromosome aberration and produce chromosomal segments,nuclear protuberances and fragments.Micronucleus ratio and chromosome aberration ratio in different sections were higher than those of the control group.Analysis of pollution index in 12 sections showed that water quality Was graded as heavy pollution in Fudedian River,moderate pollution in Dongliao River,Tiaozi River and Hongmiaozi River and light pollution in Zhaosutai River.

  16. A study of the genetic toxicological action of germinated Solanum tuberosum using micronuclei in Vicia faba root-tip test technique%用蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术研究发芽马铃薯的遗传毒理作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋梅兰

    2001-01-01

    To explore the genetic toxicological action in germinated Solanum tuberosum, an experiment on the micronucleus frequence of maceration extract of germinated Solanum tuberosum had been carried out with the micronucleus test technique of Vicia faba root-tip cell. The results showed that when the concentrations of maceration extract are 25 g/L, 50 g/L, 100 g/L and 200 g/L, the micronucleus frequence of Vicia faba root-tip cell was 17.21‰, 23.53‰, 29.55‰, 39.40‰ separately. There existed significant differences when compared with negative control, but didn′t cause significant differences as for the non-germinated Solanum tuberosum′s maceration extract with the corresponding concentration to the formation of the micronucleus frequence of Vicia faba root-tip cell when compared with the negative control. Thus,the experiment showed that the formation of micronucleus might be induced greatly by the maceration extract in germination Solanum tuberosum. This technique can be used to test the genetic toxicological action of germinated Solanum tuberosum.%为探讨发芽马铃薯的遗传毒理作用,用蚕豆根尖细胞微核监测技术对发芽马铃薯浸渍液的微核率进行了测定,结果表明:发芽马铃薯浸渍液的质量浓度为25 g/L、50 g/L、100 g/L、200 g/L时,蚕豆根尖细胞微核率分别为17.21‰、23.53‰、29.55‰、39.40‰,与阴性对照组相比存在显著性差异;相应浓度的未发芽马铃薯浸渍液对蚕豆根尖细胞微核率的形成与阴性对照组相比无显著性差异.实验结果提示发芽马铃薯浸渍液能显著诱发蚕豆根尖细胞微核的形成,利用蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术可以监测发芽马铃薯的遗传毒理作用.

  17. Identification and characterization of regions of difference between the Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum and the Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Pullorum genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Diego Felipe Alves; Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano; Barrow, Paul Andrew; Oliveira, Marcos Túlio de; Almeida, Adriana Maria; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Berchieri, Angelo

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella Gallinarum is the causative agent of fowl typhoid, a severe septicaemic disease that affects birds of all ages, whereas S. Pullorum causes pullorum disease, a systemic disorder affecting primarily young birds. A proportion of birds with pullorum disease become carriers and are thereby able to transmit S. Pullorum vertically. Although these two pathogens cause distinct diseases, they are otherwise phenotypically and genetically similar. Therefore, the small variations that lead to the differences in virulence must have a genetic basis which currently is unknown. In the present study, we compared the genome sequences of S. Gallinarum (strains: SG287/91 and SG9) and S. Pullorum (strains: SP_CDC, SP_RKS, SP_FCAV, SP_S06) and identified 223 regions of difference (RODs), characterized by indels which were detected by using the software Artemis Comparison Tool. Some of the RODs led to pseudogenes frequently formed by frameshifts and premature stop codons in genes primarily involved in virulence and metabolism. We further verified the presence of some conserved RODs by PCR in 26 isolates of S. Gallinarum and 17 of S. Pullorum in order to extrapolate data analyses from genome comparison to field strains. The variations observed in virulence-related genes of S. Gallinarum and S. Pullorum appear not to be sufficient to explain the differences between the distinct biology of infection of fowl typhoid and pullorum disease. Thus, we suggest that the identified pseudogenes affecting metabolism might play a greater role during infection than previously thought.

  18. The Growing Human Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyfitz, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the growing human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)

  19. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  20. Multiple Population Theory: Extreme helium population problem

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2009-01-01

    The spreads in chemical abundances inferred by recent precision observations suggest that some or possibly all globular clusters can no longer be considered as simple stellar populations. The most striking case is omega Cen in the sense that its bluest main-sequence despite its high metallicity demands an extreme helium abundance of Y > 0.4. I focus on this issue of "the extreme helium population problem" in this review.

  1. Population control charts for population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John P

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare managers are beginning to collect full population data, rather than sample data, on some patient and performance measures. For example, hospitals and healthcare systems already gather and store comprehensive data on admissions, ambulatory encounters, and other procedures. And as the electronic medical record is more widely used, complete population data will be collected on an even wider range of clinical measures, such as blood pressure and Laboratory values, in both inpatient and outpatient settings. To correctly monitor process quality when working with full population data, rather than sample data, healthcare managers will need appropriate statistical tools. Traditional control charts, which are used for tracking processes over time, are not suitable for such population data because they are based on the assumption that sample data are being collected. The author proposes a new type of control chart specifically for use with such population data: population control charts. These control charts can be used for monitoring processes that have output measures with continuous, binomial, or nonbinomial rate variables.

  2. 微核技术在蚕豆氯化钠胁迫和碳酸钠胁迫中的应用研究%Application of Micronucleus Test Technology to Vicia faba L.Under the Stress of NaCl or Na2CO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫秋洁; 罗明华; 唐倩; 陈嫚

    2012-01-01

    The aim was is explore the application approach of applying the micronuclear testing technology to NaCl stress and Na2CO3 stress in Vicia faba L.. The seeds were soaked under the concentration of 0.5%-4.0% NaCl and 0.5%-3.0% Na2CO3 respectively, for contrast with distilled water treatment. And then, the germination rate, the micronucleus frequency, the relative salinity-injury rate and salt-sensitivity index of the seeds were calculated. And the variance analysis and multiple comparisons were used to study relation in treatments. The results showed that: (1) the germination rate and the relative salinity-injury rate of Vicia faba were reduced with the increasing concentration of NaCl and Na2CO3, while the micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root-tip cell increased firstly and then decreased, the peak value appeared in 2% NaCl and 2% Na2CO3 respectively. (2)There were significant differences {P<0.05) and very significant differences (P<0.01) in germination and micronucleus rate among different treatments of NaCl concentration and Na2CO3 concentration. (3) Under the same concentration value of NaCl and Na2CO3, the treatment of Na2CO3 stress showed higher influence in the germination rate, the relative salinity- injury rate, the micronucleus rate and the relative salinity-injury rate compare to the treatment of NaCl stress. Therefore, the suitable concentrate range of applying the micronuclear testing technology to NaCl stress or Na2CO3 stress in Vicia faba L. Both was 0.5%-2%.%为探索微核技术在蚕豆耐盐胁迫中的应用途径.以蒸馏水处理为对照,测定在浓度为0.5%~4.0%的NaCl和0.5%~3.0%的Na2CO3溶液处理下蚕豆种子的发芽率和微核率,计算相对盐害率和盐敏指数,通过方差分析和多重比较对比其变化趋势.结果表明:(1)蚕豆种子的发芽率和相对盐害率随盐胁迫浓度的升高而降低,而微核率和盐敏指数随盐胁迫浓度的升高先增大后减小,峰值时的浓度为2%;(2)发

  3. Controlling Population with Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  4. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  5. 饲喂蚕豆的草鱼肠道细菌群落的PCR-DGGE 分析%PCR-DGGE analysis of intestinal microecology of Ctenopharyngodon idellus fed with Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴康; 胡俊; 黄晓声; 夏虎; 陈亮; 李男; 张学振

    2014-01-01

    为探讨饲喂蚕豆( Vicia faba)对草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道菌群的影响,采用PCR-DGGE技术比较了饲喂蚕豆的草鱼(脆肉鲩组)及饲喂配合饲料的草鱼(普通草鱼组)肠道微生物菌群的异同。结果显示, DGGE图谱上出现了20条明显条带,表明脆肉鲩组及普通草鱼组肠道中均存在大量细菌群落。对这20条条带测序后,获得了其中17条条带的序列,这17条条带中有9条是尚未被培养的细菌。经分析发现,这17条条带分属于变形菌门( Proteobacteria )、放线菌门( Actinobacteria )、厚壁菌门( Firmicutes )、拟杆菌门( Bacteroidetes )及未分类的细菌,其中变形菌门为两组肠道的优势菌。实验还发现,饲喂蚕豆对肠内容物菌群的影响大于对肠壁菌群的影响。结果表明,饲喂蚕豆不改变草鱼肠道菌群的种类,但对肠道菌群的相对丰度有一定影响。%To evaluate the effect of faba bean on intestinal flora , the intestinal microbiota of crisp grass carp group ( grass carp fed with faba bean ) and grass carp group ( grass carp fed with formula feed ) were investigated using 16S rDNA PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology.Twenty DGGE bands appearing in DGGE fingerprint re-vealed that there were numerous intestinal microbiota in the two groups .Seventeen DGGE bands were successfully se-quenced.However, nine of these bands were classified as unculturable according to the phylogenetic analysis .The domi-nant bacteria in the fore-gut and mid-gut of the two groups all belonged to Proteobacteria , and other bacteria identified be-longed to actinobacteria, firmicutes, bacteroidetes and unclassified-bacteria.The result also showed that the influence caused by faba bean on intestinal microbiota was more remarkable in intestinal content than in intestinal wall .These results suggested that feeding faba bean did not change the microbial

  6. Molecular Population Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Sònia; Barbadilla, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Molecular population genetics aims to explain genetic variation and molecular evolution from population genetics principles. The field was born 50 years ago with the first measures of genetic variation in allozyme loci, continued with the nucleotide sequencing era, and is currently in the era of population genomics. During this period, molecular population genetics has been revolutionized by progress in data acquisition and theoretical developments. The conceptual elegance of the neutral theory of molecular evolution or the footprint carved by natural selection on the patterns of genetic variation are two examples of the vast number of inspiring findings of population genetics research. Since the inception of the field, Drosophila has been the prominent model species: molecular variation in populations was first described in Drosophila and most of the population genetics hypotheses were tested in Drosophila species. In this review, we describe the main concepts, methods, and landmarks of molecular population genetics, using the Drosophila model as a reference. We describe the different genetic data sets made available by advances in molecular technologies, and the theoretical developments fostered by these data. Finally, we review the results and new insights provided by the population genomics approach, and conclude by enumerating challenges and new lines of inquiry posed by increasingly large population scale sequence data. PMID:28270526

  7. Population education country programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Population education country programs in the countries of India, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka are reviewed. In India the machinery is beginning to roll for the nationwide implementation of a 3-year national population education project. A variety of strategies will be used at the national and state levels using existing facilities and infrastructure for implementing various aspects of the program. Recommendations and proposed project activities arrived at during 2 workshop/training programs are outlined. The Malaysian population education program recently developed a working draft of the scope, content, and objectives of population education at the primary and lower and upper secondary levels. This working draft is being pretested among teachers and curriculum developers, and, once revised, it will serve as the overall guiding framework for those responsible for preparing curriculum and instructional materials on population education. The population education program in Nepal will be implemented by 3 units: Curriculum, Textbook, Supervision, and Development Center; Tribhuvan University; and Division of Adult Education. The longterm objective is to institutionalize population education in the formal and nonformal education programs including the university. The Population Education Program of the Philippines has prepared a reader in Filipino for grade 3 pupils. Population education in the country has been promoted to a lesser degree in private than in public schools. the Institutional Development Program of the Population Center Foundation conducted a Summer Institute in Instructional Product Development for the primary purpose of institutionalizing population in the social science curriculum at the tertiary level. The population education program of Sri Lanka will undergo a revival in the recently approved 2-year project agreement between Sri Lanka's government and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

  8. Green fluorescent protein labeling of food pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensberger, Eva Theres; Kostić, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Labeling of bacteria with marker genes, such as green fluorescent protein, is a useful and practicable tool for tracking and enumerating bacterial cells in a complex environment e.g. discrimination from the indigenous background population. In this study, novel TurboGFP prokaryotic expression vector was utilized for labeling of Yersinia species. Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A, biovar 2, biovar 4 and Y. pseudotuberculosis were successfully transformed with the vector and expressed bright green fluorescence that was even detectable visually by eye. No adverse effects were observed in growth behavior of the labeled strains compared to wild type (parental) strains and vector maintenance for longer time periods could be achieved for Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A, Y. enterocolitica biovar 2 and Y. pseudotuberculosis.

  9. Befolkningsudviklingen (Population Development)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The article takes the 1972 report, The Limits to Growth as its starting point, briefly explaining the Systam Dynamics model used for the report's analyses. Focus is on the important role of population. The simple model of I = PxAxT, where I is the environmental Impact, P population, A is the Affl......The article takes the 1972 report, The Limits to Growth as its starting point, briefly explaining the Systam Dynamics model used for the report's analyses. Focus is on the important role of population. The simple model of I = PxAxT, where I is the environmental Impact, P population...

  10. Measurably evolving populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drummond, Alexei James; Pybus, Oliver George; Rambaut, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    processes through time. Populations for which such studies are possible � measurably evolving populations (MEPs) � are characterized by sufficiently long or numerous sampled sequences and a fast mutation rate relative to the available range of sequence sampling times. The impact of sequences sampled through...... time has been most apparent in the disciplines of RNA viral evolution and ancient DNA, where they enable us to estimate divergence times without paleontological calibrations, and to analyze temporal changes in population size, population structure and substitution rates. Thus, MEPs could increase our...

  11. Population Education Regional News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) a comparative study on managing population education programs; (2) a South Pacific workshop in which training materials on sex education, family life education, and nutrition-oriented mixed gardening were developed; and (3) a workshop on evaluative research, the focus of national population education programs in Asia. (JN)

  12. Population Education Country Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights various population education programs in Afghanistan, China, India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Also describes population education programs at primary and secondary levels in Thailand, curriculum and instructional materials development in this country, and teaching units and curriculum outlines developed from a workshop for…

  13. Understanding Population Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, Carl

    1987-01-01

    Population projections are "what if" computational exercises. Given selected assumptions about future trends in fertility, mortality, and migration, population trends can be projected. Government and business planners need this information, and they also require enough time to put facilities in place to meet future needs. Everyone benefits from a…

  14. The Population Activist's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Inst., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is a guide to effective action strategies on dealing with overpopulation. Divided into five sections, the book outlines programs, suggests references, and lists resources that are helpful for thinking and for planning action on population issues. Section one focuses on strategies to change the current population policy choices made…

  15. Dimensions of Philippine population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Major findings of a 2 1/2 year research program on Philippine population are presented. The population situation is described with respect to fertility, mortality, life expectancy, migration, labor force, and family formation. Policy recommendations addressing problems in each of these areas are made.

  16. Negative Drift in Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian

    2011-01-01

    An important step in gaining a better understanding of the stochastic dynamics of evolving populations, is the development of appropriate analytical tools. We present a new drift theorem for populations that allows properties of their long-term behaviour, e.g. the runtime of evolutionary algorithms...

  17. POPULATION TURNING POINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Latest census shows structural imbalance of population has replaced explosive growth to become China’s top challenge China’s population grew by less than 1 percent annually in the last decade,but it still remains the world’s largest at 1.37 billion people,according to results

  18. Ecology and Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Amos H.

    1973-01-01

    Author suggests that study of population growth is not a field of study only for ecologists. Population growth is related with social sciences in the nature of its process and future consequences. Broader, comprehensive approaches to this problem will be useful. (PS)

  19. Cairo: repackaging population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, H

    1995-01-01

    Aid agencies, charities, and other nongovernmental organizations once denounced population control programs as racist interference in the third world. Yet, at the United Nations Conference on Population and Development in Cairo last September, these same organizations endorsed very similar ideas. The U.N. can now claim that even its fiercest critics not only have muted their criticism of population control programs but now positively endorse them. Over the last 30 years, population control has been consciously repackaged by the U.S. establishment. The image of population control has changed from being overtly anti-third world to being about giving the people of the third world--especially women--basic rights in family planning. Wrapped up in the language of women's empowerment and environmentalism, the establishment's old arguments about there being too many nonwhite babies in the world, have, unfortunately, won the day.

  20. Diversity of Poissonian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations—Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring the diversity of Poissonian populations depends on the lower-bound cut-off applied. This research characterizes the classes of Poissonian populations whose diversities are invariant with respect to the cut-off level applied and establishes an elemental connection between these classes and extreme-value theory. The measures of diversity considered are variance and dispersion, Simpson’s index and inverse participation ratio, Shannon’s entropy and Rényi’s entropy, and Gini’s index.

  1. Global population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmore, J

    1992-07-01

    The global population passed 5 billion in 1987. In the year 2000 the world's population will be more than 6 billion, increasing by 90-100 million each year. About 95% of future demographic growth will take place in developing countries. The number of school age children is projected to increase from 940 million in 1980 to 1280 million by the year 2000. Under current labor force growth projections in developing countries, around 1.6 billion new jobs will have to be created between 1980 and 2025, with nearly 1 billion of them in Asia. Population often increases at a more rapid rate than agricultural growth. Food production per capita has declined in 70 developing countries. Much of the projected population increase will take place in environmentally fragile regions of the developing world. Population pressures contribute to deforestation, desertification, and scarcity of clean water. The United Nations Population Fund has estimated that in Asia over 43% of women not using family planning would like to postpone, space, or limit their childbearing. Over half of the world's couples of reproductive age are now using contraception. Family planning to postpone the first birth and to eliminate late child bearing would reduce both child loss and maternal illness and death. Both infant and maternal mortality are greater with higher order births. Reducing average family size is an effective way of reducing infant and maternal mortality. The World Bank has given high priority to population assistance, with large programs in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Population assistance provided by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau totaled about $4.5 million during 1989-90 and is expected to be about $8 million during 1991-92. Australia should increase the proportion of its development assistance budget devoted to population, and family planning programs should increase to around $26 million in line with other major donors.

  2. The population threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  3. [Trends in population aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovics, E

    1990-11-01

    The age structure of the world population between 1950 and 1985 is analyzed according to changes in fertility, mortality, and international migration in developing and developed countries. "Relying on the results of the medium scenario of the population forecasts prepared by the U.N. Division of International Economic and Social Affairs, the author demonstrates that aging of the world population will become a global phenomenon, characteristic of every region and county of the world, between 1985 and 2025." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  4. Constructing populations in biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose a.

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement...... to the construction of populations, whereby specific nationalities, communities, societies, patient groups and political systems become imbued or bio-objectified with particular characteristics, such as compliant, distant, positive, commercialized or authoritarian. This bio-objectification process is problematic...... in relation to policy aspirations ascribed to biobanking engagement since it gives rise to reified notions of different populations....

  5. Parallel grid population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  6. AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture has contributed to loss of vertebrate biodiversity in many regions, including the U.S. Corn Belt. Amphibian populations, in particular, have experienced widespread and often inexplicable declines, range reductions, and extinctions. However, few attempts have been made...

  7. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Torres

    Full Text Available Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population.

  8. Modeling Honey Bee Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, David J.; Ricoy, Ulises M.; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population. PMID:26148010

  9. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  10. Market Squid Population Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains population dynamics data on paralarvae, juvenile and adult market squid collected off California and the US Pacific Northwest. These data were...

  11. Populated Places of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains points that represent populated places, ie. cities, towns, villages or any other named place where people live. The coverage was developed...

  12. Effects of volatile allelochemicals from Chenopodium ambrosioides on the stoma guard cells in leaf epidermis of Vicia faba%土荆芥挥发性化感物质对蚕豆叶表皮保卫细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 马丹炜; 陈永甜; 袁立娜; 黄雪婷; 瞿欢欢

    2016-01-01

    化感作用是外来植物土荆芥( Chenopodium ambrosioides)成功入侵的机制之一。为了探讨土荆芥挥发油的化感作用机制,该文以蚕豆( Vicia faba)叶的下表皮为材料,将表皮条孵育在分别含土荆芥挥发油、α-萜品烯和对伞花素的MES [2-( N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid]缓冲液中,25℃下光照培养30 min,采用吖啶橙/溴乙锭( AO/EB)双荧光染色法和Feulgen染色法,研究土荆芥挥发油、α-萜品烯和对伞花素对保卫细胞活性和细胞核形态的影响。结果表明:在土荆芥挥发油、α-萜品烯和对伞花素的作用下,蚕豆气孔保卫细胞活性降低,细胞核出现固缩、畸形或降解等细胞凋亡特征。随着处理剂量增加,保卫细胞活性显著下降,核异常率显著增加,表明土荆芥挥发油、α-萜品烯和对伞花素均对蚕豆保卫细胞具有细胞毒性,其中,挥发油毒性最大,α-萜品烯的毒性次之,对伞花素的毒性最小;Caspase抑制剂Z-VAD-FMK可缓解挥发油、α-萜品烯和对伞花素对保卫细胞的毒性,提高细胞活性,这种缓解效应随着抑制剂浓度的增加而增大。由此可见,土荆芥挥发油、α-萜品烯和对伞花素诱导蚕豆保卫细胞发生了Caspase依赖性的细胞凋亡。%Chenopodium ambrosioides, an aromatic herbnative to tropical Central and South America, has become a major invasive plant in China. Allelopathy plays a crictical role in the successful invasion of C. ambrosioides, and has an allelopathic stress on neighbor plants. To explore the allelopathy mechanism, the effects of volatile oil from C. am-brosioides,α-terpinene and cymene on guard cell viabilities and nucleus morphology in Vicia faba leaves were investi-gated using epidermal strips bioassay, AO/EB fluorescent staining and conventional Feulgen staining. Epidermal strips of leaves were incubated in 2-( N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid ( MES) buffer containing volatile oil, α-terpinene and cymene for

  13. EDUCATION AND ROMA POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Asensio Belenguer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Education and the Roma Population. It presents an approach to schooling of Romani children since its outset in the city of Zaragoza (Spain. It analyzes the current status as presented by the Strategy for Social Inclusion of this people 2012-2020, and collects, from various sources, the fact that education remains a pending challenge for Roma Population. Measures to be taken by the educational community from a gender and inclusive perspective are proposed.

  14. Population Density Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-05

    194 POPULATION DENSITY MODELING TOOL by Davy Andrew Michael Knott David Burke 26 June 2012 Distribution...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2012/194 26 June 2012 POPULATION DENSITY MODELING TOOL by Davy Andrew Michael Knott David Burke...Density Modeling Tool 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Davy Andrew Michael Knott David Burke 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  15. Exploding Increase of Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H. [Sunmoon University, Chonan (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Until 1650, the population of the world did not increase properly. According to studies of the demography, the annual increase rate of the world population during 2500 years, from 850 B.C. to 1650 A.D., was just 0.07%. Currently, however, the world population, which has exceptionally rapidly increased from 1900, is more than 6 billion as of 2000. After World War II, especially, the increase rate of the population has risen to about 1.8%, so we can use the word, explosion of the population. The explosion of the population accompanies the increase of energy consumption. The energy production of every year cannot sufficiently meet the energy demand, so we can face the grand energy crisis someday. The date might be a someday after 2020. According to the future forecasting of Shell, one of the majors, the peak of oil supply will be between 2015 and 2020. Unless the alternative energy is developed, the whole world will suffer the serious oil crisis.

  16. Normative population theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, T

    1989-01-01

    This article finds utilitarian and contractarian approaches to solving the problem of optimal population unacceptable. The principles of utility refer to the best population as the one which contains the greatest sum of utility or the one with the highest average utility. Yet Parfits's repugnant conclusion states that these can imply a very large population at a very low standard of living. Cowen's Methuselah's Paradox says that for any possible happy and meaningful life, we can imagine another, much longer life which demonstrates the absurdity of the utility principles. Lewis argues for a conception of well being based upon choices over whole irreducible states of affairs, i.e., an ordinal concept of value. The contractarian approach assumes that we would rationally choose what type of life we were to live if the choice were made without anyone knowing his particular standing in the world--the veil of ignorance. This requires the individuals to choose on the basis of self interest, but gives too much weight to the individuals actually being born. The most promising population theory appears to be the ideal participant method. Simply stated the optimal population is what an individual would prefer if he had to sequentially live out each life in his choice. Further, this method may be able to reduce the difficulties with evaluating alternate populations to the common problem of aggregating disparate preferences.

  17. 氯化盐和激素对发芽蚕豆中γ-氨基丁酸富集的影响%Effects of chloride salts and hormones on γ-aminobutyric acid enrichment in germinated faba beans( Vicia faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠; 杨润强; 李岩; 韩永斌; 顾振新

    2012-01-01

    Effects of CaCl2,NaCl,gibberellic acid(GA3)and abscisic acid (ABA) on glutamate decarboxylase(GAD) ,diamine oxidases (DAO)and -γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA)of germinated faba beans ( Vicia faba L. ) , together with the contribution rate of polyamines (Pas) degradation to the enrichment of GABA were studied. The results showed that CaCl2, NaCl and GA3, except ABA, could increase the content of GABA in germinated faba beans under hypoxia stress. It was indicated that the optimal culture components for GABA en richment were:NaCl at a concentration of 37.1 mmol·L-1 ,CaCl2 at a concentration of 7. 3 mmol·L-1 and GA3 at a concentration of 27. 0 μmol·L-1. Under those conditions,the content of GABA was the highest,reaching(6. 14±0. 12) mg·g-1 ,which was 1. 58 times of the control. And the contribution rate of Pas degradation to enrichment of GABA ranged from 37.6% to 38.9% .%以蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)为试材,研究CaCl2 、NaCl、赤霉素(GA3)和脱落酸(ABA)对发芽蚕豆谷氨酸脱羧酶(GAD)、二胺氧化酶(DAO)和γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的影响,以及多胺(PAs)降解对GABA富集的贡献率.结果表明:低氧胁迫下,除ABA外,CaCl2、NaCl和GA3处理均可提高发芽蚕豆GABA含量;培养液组分中NaCl、CaCl2、GA3浓度分别为37.1 mmol·L-1、7.3 mmol·L-1和27.0 μmol·L-1时,发芽蚕豆中GABA富集量(6.14±0.12) mg·g-1是对照的1.58倍;PAs降解对GABA富集的贡献率为37.6%~ 38.9%.

  18. First China Population Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The China Population Award is given every two years for family planning implementation, science, and technology, and honorary achievements. The winners for the First China Population Award were as follows: Mr. Zhao Zhihao, governor of Shandong province; Mme. Shang Dewei, retired from the Shanghai family planning committee; Mme. Cui Peihua, director of the Nanche Village, Shidao Town, Rongcheng City, Shandong Province, Family Planning Office; Mme. Xu Aiguang, director of Zhejiang Family Planning Committee; Mr. Ye Wenshi, secretary of Guanghan City Party Committee, Sichuan province; Mr. Zhang Zhiyuan, president of Liaoning Family Planning Association; Mme. Shou Haizhen, director of Jiangsu Family Planning Committee for family planning implementation. Mme. Yan Renying, vice president of the China Family Planning Association, Mr. Wu Jieping, vice president of the China Family Planning Association, and Mr. Lie Zheng (deceased), former president of the Population Association of China received prized for achievements in science and technology. Mr. Ma Yinchu (decreased) honorary president of Peking University, received an honorary prize for his creative views on the contradictions between rapid population growth and increased capital wealth. He recommended population control and improvement in quality of human resources. He recommended the practice of deferred marriage and other solutions to China's population problems. As an ultra-leftist, he was severely criticized, but redeemed in 1981 shortly before he died. The science and technology awards went to Mr. Zheng who established the first population research institute and suggested that reproduction be in balance with material resources. Mr. Jieping was a medical specialist and contributed to research on male birth control. Mme. Renying, as an obstetrician and gynecologist, researched use of prostaglandin injections for ending early pregnancy and reversible female sterilization. She was active in efforts of prevention of

  19. Population pressure rising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Even though the ESCAP region has been successful in slowing population growth, Asia will account for half of the global population increase every year, or about 1 billion persons in the next quarter century, according to a new report by the Asian Development Bank (ADB). That report, entitled "Population Policy Paper," states that Asia will be the global center of population aging largely because of big increases in the number of persons over the age of 65 in China, Japan and the region's newly industrializing economies. "By the year 2000, 86% of the world's aged will be in the Asia-Pacific region and by the year 2025 there are projected to be 687 million persons over the age of 65 in the region, placing unprecedented strains on economic and social systems far beyond what traditional extended family networks can absorb," the paper says. But the report also considers other aspects of overall population increase. "The prospect of an additional billion or so people in Asia over the next 25 years is daunting, since the implications for poverty, economic growth, unemployment and environmental quality are immense," it adds. The region's economies will have to scramble to generate jobs and livelihoods for tens of millions of young people for the next several decades. Rural-to-urban migration trends threaten the collapse of urban infrastructure, with the social tensions and political instability that such troubles bring, the report states.

  20. Frequency Population Growth Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouralah Salehi Asfiji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Solow growth model assumes that labor force grows exponentially. That is not a realistic assumption. In generalized logistic equations that describes more accurately population growth. Economic growth is not a smooth process. Real GDP has fluctuations in the growth rate. We call these fluctuations business cycles. Business cycle theory came about from the failures of classical economics in being able to illuminate on the causes of the Great Depression. The logistic growth model to explain changes in population growth rates are not. In this paper a new analysis of the population growth rate in the frequency space is described with mathematical logic and economic reasoning, so that, firstly, to a higher level of capital per capita, or at least equal to the Solow growth model reaches Second, the limits of saturation (Carrying-Capacity is not, and ultimately, population growth rates have an impact on long-term per capita amounts. The initial classic assumption is changed in this article based on the available frequencies in the population growth equation.

  1. Population and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian C.; Landis MacKellar, F.; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2000-11-01

    Population and Climate Change provides the first systematic in-depth treatment of links between two major themes of the 21st century: population growth (and associated demographic trends such as aging) and climate change. It is written by a multidisciplinary team of authors from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis who integrate both natural science and social science perspectives in a way that is comprehensible to members of both communities. The book will be of primary interest to researchers in the fields of climate change, demography, and economics. It will also be useful to policy-makers and NGOs dealing with issues of population dynamics and climate change, and to teachers and students in courses such as environmental studies, demography, climatology, economics, earth systems science, and international relations.

  2. Asymetric Pavlovian Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Bournez, Olivier; Cohen, Johanne; Koegler, Xavier; Rabie, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Population protocols have been introduced by Angluin et al. as a model of networks consisting of very limited mobile agents that interact in pairs but with no control over their own movement. A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact pairwise according to some rules that update their states. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized as semi-linear predicates. In an orthogonal way, several distributed systems have been termed in literature as being realizations of games in the sense of game theory. We investigate under which conditions population protocols, or more generally pairwise interaction rules, correspond to games. We show that restricting to asymetric games is not really a restric- tion: all predicates computable by protocols can actually be computed by protocols corresponding to games, i.e. any semi-linear predicate can be computed by a Pavlovian population multi-protocol.

  3. Quenched effective population size

    CERN Document Server

    Sagitov, Serik; Vatutin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    We study the genealogy of a geographically - or otherwise - structured version of the Wright-Fisher population model with fast migration. The new feature is that migration probabilities may change in a random fashion. Applying Takahashi's results on Markov chains with random transition matrices, we establish convergence to the Kingman coalescent, as the population size goes to infinity. This brings a novel formula for the coalescent effective population size (EPS). We call it a quenched EPS to emphasize the key feature of our model - random environment. The quenched EPS is compared with an annealed (mean-field) EPS which describes the case of constant migration probabilities obtained by averaging the random migration probabilities over possible environments.

  4. Distance Learning for Special Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Rodger A.

    2012-01-01

    Distance education strategies for remotely deployed, highly mobile, or institutionalized populations are reviewed and critiqued. Specifically, asynchronous, offline responses for special military units, Native Americans on remote reservations, prison populations and other geographically, temporally or technologically isolated niche populations are…

  5. Cancer among circumpolar populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, T Kue; Kelly, Janet J; Friborg, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the "world average" rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. FINDINGS: Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions......, averaged over the decade 2000-2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a "Circumpolar Inuit" group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008...

  6. On the evolutionary history, population genetics and diversity among isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis PFGE pattern JEGX01.0004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc W Allard

    Full Text Available Facile laboratory tools are needed to augment identification in contamination events to trace the contamination back to the source (traceback of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis. Understanding the evolution and diversity within and among outbreak strains is the first step towards this goal. To this end, we collected 106 new S. Enteriditis isolates within S. Enteriditis Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE pattern JEGX01.0004 and close relatives, and determined their genome sequences. Sources for these isolates spanned food, clinical and environmental farm sources collected during the 2010 S. Enteritidis shell egg outbreak in the United States along with closely related serovars, S. Dublin, S. Gallinarum biovar Pullorum and S. Gallinarum. Despite the highly homogeneous structure of this population, S. Enteritidis isolates examined in this study revealed thousands of SNP differences and numerous variable genes (n = 366. Twenty-one of these genes from the lineages leading to outbreak-associated samples had nonsynonymous (causing amino acid changes changes and five genes are putatively involved in known Salmonella virulence pathways. While chromosome synteny and genome organization appeared to be stable among these isolates, genome size differences were observed due to variation in the presence or absence of several phages and plasmids, including phage RE-2010, phage P125109, plasmid pSEEE3072_19 (similar to pSENV, plasmid pOU1114 and two newly observed mobile plasmid elements pSEEE1729_15 and pSEEE0956_35. These differences produced modifications to the assembled bases for these draft genomes in the size range of approximately 4.6 to 4.8 mbp, with S. Dublin being larger (∼4.9 mbp and S. Gallinarum smaller (4.55 mbp when compared to S. Enteritidis. Finally, we identified variable S. Enteritidis genes associated with virulence pathways that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance

  7. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal-aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    At various times after pulse labeling Vicia faba L. leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents whereas those from rinsed peels contained only cytoplastic contents. Sucrose specific radioactivity peaked in palisade cells, 111 GBq{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and sucrose specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO{sub 2} incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum sucrose specific radioactivity and a high sucrose influx rate. These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple sucrose pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived sucrose in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by {approximately} 4 {micro}m. Factors expected to enhance sucrose accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic sucrose concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll-sucrose efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal-aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  8. Micronucleus Test in Vicia Faba Root Tip Cell to Inspect the Water Quality of Qingyi River in Wuhu City%青弋江芜湖市段水环境质量的蚕豆根尖微核检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友保; 刘登义

    2001-01-01

    @@ 微核实验(micronucleus test,MCNT)是根据环境污染物能引起染色体畸变而形成微核的原理来测诱变物质对染色体损伤用的一种简便易行的法.陈光荣在1983年开始用蚕豆根尖微核技术(Vicia-MCN)来检测农药和化学诱变剂对染色体的损伤情况[8].1986年,国家环保局把用蚕豆根尖微核技术监测水污染的测试方法编入了[3].目前利用蚕豆初生根尖微核技术监测环境污染和危险化学品的研究已得到了广泛的用[4~7],成为我国水环境监测的规范化方法之一[8,9].本文应用该技术对青弋江芜湖市段水体的致突变性进行分析和研究.

  9. Reconceptualization of Population Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, O. J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses eight aspects of the reorganization of population education: (1) need for clear objectives; (2) emerging concerns about content; (3) prioritization of contents; (4) involvement of parents; (5) approaches to teaching; (6) teacher training; (7) evaluation issues; and (8) institutionalization. (MDH)

  10. Populism in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-20

    a profound constitutional reform through the National Congress. The goal is always to adapt the democratic system and subordinate it to the personal...to the democratic system of a country that has become immersed in populism. The other inevitably involves 21 control of the media, the military

  11. Population and Development Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sharon; Garran, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes a unit on demographics for a high school world-history course that addresses questions of uneven population growth and the "problem of global overpopulation." Provides a detailed outline of the two-day unit including unit and daily goals and objectives, daily activities and questions, and ideas for further student research. (DSK)

  12. Multiphoton coherent population oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Sharypov, A V

    2014-01-01

    We study the bichromatic driving of a two-level system which displays long-lived coherent population oscillations (CPO). We show that under certain conditions, multiphoton parametric interaction leads to the appearance of CPO resonances at the subharmonic frequencies. In addition, in the region of the CPO resonances, there is strong parametric interaction between the weak sideband components of the electromagnetic field.

  13. Adam Smith on population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, J J

    1970-11-01

    Abstract Adam Smith dealt with questions of population mainly in his Wealth of Nations. His discussion falls roughly under five heads and reflects in considerable measure his image of the English economy. (1) A country's population capacity, given the average level of consumption, was conditioned by the stock of land, the skill with which it was cultivated, and the degree to which division of labour could be increased and thereby augment output for domestic use and sale in external markets. (2) Growth of population was essentially in response to growth of the demand for labour and served to increase division of labour. (3) The social mechanisms underlying elevation of the scale of living are touched upon, and in an optimistic spirit. (4) The distribution of a country's population responded to its progress in opulence, with the rate of this progress conditioned by the degree to which inappropriate (e.g. mercantilist) policies were avoided. (5) Smith dealt briefly with such matters as colonies, education, size of economy, environmental influences, and public policy, all of which he recognized as significant for the quantity and quality of a country's numbers.

  14. [Population trends and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs.

  15. Relics: penguin population programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L; Xie, Z

    2001-01-01

    What has been responsible for the increase in Chinstrap penguin populations during the past 40 years in maritime Antarctica? One view ascribes it to an increase in availability of their prey brought on by the decrease in baleen whale stocks. The contrary opinion, attributes it to environmental warming. This causes a gradual decrease in the frequency of cold years with extensive winter sea ice cover. A number of penguin monitoring programs are in progress and are expected to provide some answers to these questions. Unfortunately, it is not easy to distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic change since penguins are easily accessible predators of krill and the feeding range of the penguins has almost overlapped with the krill fishery in time and space in the last four decades. Therefore it is important to reconstruct the change of ancient penguin abundance and distribution in the absence of human activity. Many efforts have focused on surveying the abandoned penguin rookeries, but this method has not been able to give a continuous historical record of penguin populations. In several recent studies, ancient penguin excreta was scooped from the penguin relics in the sediments of the lake on penguin rookery, Ardley Island, maritime Antarctica. In these studies, penguin droppings or guano soil deposited in the lake and changes in sediment geochemistry have been used to calculate penguin population changes based upon the geochemical composition of the sediment core. The results suggest that climate change has a significant impact on penguin populations.

  16. Africa population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akinyoade, A.; Damen, J.C.M.; Dietz, A.J.; Kilama, B.; Omme, van G.

    2014-01-01

    Africa's population has grown extremely rapidly over the last fifty years from 289 million inhabitants in 1961 to more than 1 billion today. This is a growth rate of 350% in just half a century and the number of urban residents has increased even more quickly: from 65 million in 1960 to 460 million

  17. China Population and Developmenl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) paid great attention to the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. One of the top priorities of the ICPD Programme of Action is to provide adolescents with necessary sexual and reproductive health information and services, ensure their right to reproductive health education and services, and help them develop risk-free behaviours and healthy lifestyles.

  18. Charting Population Shifts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China is updating its demographic information through its once-in-adecade population census.The latest database will be used as an important reference for the country to draft its development plan for the next five years and deal with social problems,such as an aging society and imbalanced gender ratio,according to experts.

  19. The Problem of Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘香情; 钱丹

    2002-01-01

    With the population growing, a lot of problems have come out, Nowadays a lot of tall buildings have been built, but the houses are still very short; A lot of cars and buses have increased, but they are still crowded with people; A lot of schools have been built,

  20. Discussion Forum--Population Theories: Their Implications on Population Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Contends that unless population education programs have a clear conceptual framework built upon a consistent set of population theories, they will remain merely as appendices to established school projects. Several population theories and their implications for population education are described. These include Malthusian demographic transition,…

  1. [Vietnam and its population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, J

    1993-01-01

    Viet Nam's 1993 population of 72 million makes it the second largest country of Southeast Asia after Indonesia. Viet Nam's demographic transition is underway, but growth is still a rapid 2% annually, a sufficiently high rate to hinder socioeconomic development. The 1979 and 1989 censuses and the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey are the major recent sources of data on Viet Nam's population. Marriage is universal in Viet Nam. Men marry at 24.5 and women at 23.2 years on average. Fertility estimates based on nonadjusted census data indicate a total fertility rate for 1988-89 of 3.8 overall, 2.2 in urban areas, and 4.3 in rural areas. Regional differences resulting from contraceptive usage, educational differentials, and tabus regarding spacing are strong. The average household size is 5. Viet Nam's first fertility reduction policy was announced in 1963 and sought to improve the welfare of women to increase their productivity for the war effort. More recent family planning policies are based on the view that rapid demographic growth is one of the great obstacles to development. The objectives of the current policy are to reduce the growth rate to 1% by the end of the century, increase contraceptive prevalence, delay arrival of the first child, limit family size to 2 children or 3 for ethnic minorities, and increase birth intervals from 3 to 5 years. The program is voluntarist in nature but includes incentives and disincentives. Life expectancy at birth in 1989 was 67.5 years for women and 63 for men. Infant mortality was 37/1000, with regional differentials. The principal causes of hospital deaths are tuberculosis, malaria, and diarrhea. Objectives of the current health policy are to prevent infectious diseases, reinforce primary health care services, promote traditional medicine, achieve self-sufficiency in basic medicines, and improve environmental health and access to clean water. Viet Nam is one of the most densely populated Southeast Asian countries and is still

  2. On optimal population paths

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, John S

    1977-01-01

    The overall purpose of this monograph is to integrate and critically evaluate the existing literature in the area of optimal joint savings population programs. The existing diverse presentations are all seen to be discussions within a unified framework. The central problem is to compare the desirability of alternative inter-temporal sequences of total savings and population sizes. Of critical importance is whether one regards persons as the fundamental moral entities or whether one takes Sidgwick's viewpoint that something good being the result of one's action is the baSic reason for dOing anything. The latter viewpoint is consistent with defining a complete social preference ordering over these alternative sequences. Since part of one's interest is to evaluate the consequences of various ethical beliefs a com­ parative study of several such orderings is presented; in particular the Mill-Wolfe average utilitarian, and Sidgwick-Meade classical utilitarian) formulations. A possible problem with the social pref...

  3. Population, desertification, and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westing, A H

    1994-01-01

    When an imbalance develops between population numbers and the carrying capacity of the land, the persons thereby displaced are referred to as environmental refugees. The utilization of the land beyond sustainability leads to land degradation and ultimately, desertification. The social and political impacts of long-term environmental migration can be distinguished: a) at the site of origin of the displaced persons by the residual population; b) at rural sites of destination within the nation between the new arrivals and preestablished populations; c) in the cities within the nation; d) in the nonindustrialized foreign countries; and e) in the industrialized foreign countries. In the event that an area which had previously been devoted to pastoralism is converted to agriculture, the displaced pastoralists might respond through armed rebellion. In some instances, the disenchanted urban squatters become a politically restive and even a destabilizing force, as occurred in Sudan in the 1980s, especially in Khartoum and Port Sudan. The foreign countries to which many of the displaced persons are migrating are subjected to increasing levels of migrant-induced economic, cultural, and political strains. The growing problems associated with south-to-north migration across the Mediterranean Sea have recently led France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain to enter into a consultative arrangement with Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. All foreign aid to the nonindustrialized countries that attempts to ameliorate the problem of desertification must adopt integrated approaches that: a) address population issues; b) support environmental education; c) provide for the protection of biodiversity; d) encourage participatory forms of local and national government; e) provide opportunities for income generation outside the livestock sector; and f) foster political security and facilitate ecogeographical (subregional) cooperation.

  4. Population and health policies

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T.Paul

    2009-01-01

    The program evaluation literature for population and health policies is in flux, with many disciplines documenting biological and behavioral linkages from fetal development to late life mortality, chronic disease, and disability, though their implications for policy remain uncertain. Both macro- and microeconomics seek to understand and incorporate connections between economic development and the demographic transition. The focus here is on research methods, findings, and questions that econo...

  5. [Population, ethics and equity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer, G

    1997-01-01

    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT)

  6. SOME EFFECTS OF CHLOR-LIGNINE TREATMENT ON VICIA SATIVA, VICIA VILLOSA AND PISUM SATIVUM SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odetta Grama

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The tre a tme nt a dm iniste re d 12 hours w ith diffe re nt c once ntra tions of c hlor lignine s ha s induc e d a de c re a se of M I va lue and a n inc re ase of a be rra tions fre qu ncy .

  7. 从populations谈population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2000-01-01

    高中英语课本第二册第9单元里有这样一个句子:“Many parts of the world.which once had large populations and produced plenty of crops.have become deserts.”(世界上很多地区,一度人口众多。生产过大量农作物,现在已经变成沙漠了。)这就说明,表“人口”一般用population,也可以用populations。

  8. Diabetes in population isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify...... on glucose-stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, and T2D. The variant defines a specific subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes characterized by decreased post-prandial glucose uptake and muscular insulin resistance. These and other recent findings in population isolates illustrate the value...

  9. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  10. [Roma populations and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Y; Tabin, J P; Hourton, G; Bodenmann, P

    2015-03-25

    The health status of the so-called "Roma" is usually much poorer than that of neighbouring non-Roma populations with a life expectancy gap of 5-15 years. This results from prolonged exposure to adverse determinants of health and to persistent exclusion from social and political arenas. Scientific and social research has only poorly addressed the health issues of Roma and evidences are scarce. Insufficient access to public services, including to health care and non optimal clinical practices are modifiable factors. If correctly addressed, this could contribute to reduce health disparities, including in Switzerland.

  11. Density Estimation in Several Populations With Uncertain Population Membership

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2011-09-01

    We devise methods to estimate probability density functions of several populations using observations with uncertain population membership, meaning from which population an observation comes is unknown. The probability of an observation being sampled from any given population can be calculated. We develop general estimation procedures and bandwidth selection methods for our setting. We establish large-sample properties and study finite-sample performance using simulation studies. We illustrate our methods with data from a nutrition study.

  12. Innovations in Population Education: Conveying Population Education through Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The use of games and simulations is a method that educators are finding especially useful in presenting information about population concerns. The "Futures Wheels" is a participatory classroom exercise, designed to demonstrate probable consequences of future population increases and is also used to illustrate a wide range of population related…

  13. Training Manual in Population Education. Population Education Programme Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Population education is at different stages of development in the Asian countries, but almost all of the countries show an interest in developing population education programs. This manual for designing and implementing population education programs consists of six chapters. Chapter one highlights issues and problems arising in connection with…

  14. Population III Hypernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Smidt, Joseph; Even, Wesley; Wiggins, Brandon; Johnson, Jarrett L; Fryer, Chris L

    2014-01-01

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. But until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic lighthouses at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25 - 50 M$_{\\odot}$ hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10 - 15 to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and z = 4 - 5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, a superluminous event will occur that may be se...

  15. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J. [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wiggins, Brandon K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Johnson, Jarrett L., E-mail: dwhalen1999@gmail.com [XTD-PRI, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ☉} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ∼ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  16. The Resonant Transneptunian Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Gladman, B; Petit, J-M; Kavelaars, J; Jones, R L; Parker, J Wm; Van Laerhoven, C; Nicholson, P; Rousselot, P; Bieryla, A; Ashby, M L N

    2012-01-01

    The transneptunian objects (TNOs) trapped in mean-motion resonances with Neptune were likely emplaced there during planet migration late in the giant-planet formation process. We perform detailed modelling of the resonant objects detected in the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS) in order to provide population estimates and, for some resonances, constrain the complex internal orbital element distribution. Detection biases play a critical role because phase relationships with Neptune make object discovery more likely at certain longitudes. This paper discusses the 3:2, 5:2, 2:1, 3:1, 5:1, 4:3, 5:3, 7:3, 5:4, and 7:4 mean-motion resonances, all of which had CFEPS detections, along with our upper limit on 1:1 Neptune Trojans (which is consistent with their small population estimated elsewhere). For the plutinos (TNOs in the 3:2 resonance) we refine the orbital element distribution given in Kavelaars et al. (2009) and show that steep H-magnitude distributions (N(H) proportional to 10aH, with a=0.8-0.9) a...

  17. Correlations and Neuronal Population Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Adam; Coen-Cagli, Ruben; Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Pouget, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Brain function involves the activity of neuronal populations. Much recent effort has been devoted to measuring the activity of neuronal populations in different parts of the brain under various experimental conditions. Population activity patterns contain rich structure, yet many studies have focused on measuring pairwise relationships between members of a larger population-termed noise correlations. Here we review recent progress in understanding how these correlations affect population information, how information should be quantified, and what mechanisms may give rise to correlations. As population coding theory has improved, it has made clear that some forms of correlation are more important for information than others. We argue that this is a critical lesson for those interested in neuronal population responses more generally: Descriptions of population responses should be motivated by and linked to well-specified function. Within this context, we offer suggestions of where current theoretical frameworks fall short.

  18. CDC WONDER: Population (from Census)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population online databases contain data from the US Census Bureau. The Census Estimates online database contains contains county-level population counts for...

  19. CDC WONDER: Population (from Census)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population online databases contain data from the US Census Bureau. The Census Estimates online database contains county-level population counts for years 1970 -...

  20. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  1. Investigation and genetic characteristic analysis of Brucella strain isolated from high-risk population in a human Brucellosis epidemic in Guizhou province%贵州省一起人间布鲁氏菌病疫情高危人群调查及分离菌遗传特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月; 王定明; 李世军; 陈红; 李沛丽; 刘英; 马青; 周敬祝; 余春; 黄艳; 唐光鹏

    2016-01-01

    Objective In order to provide scientific basis for Brucellosis control and prevention, sero⁃epidemiological survey, Brucella isolation and genetic characteristic analysis were conducted for the high⁃risk population in a human Brucellosis epidemic in Weining county of Guizhou province. Methods Tube agglutination test was used to detect the anti⁃Brucella antibody for the high⁃risk human population. Rose Bengal Plate Test was applied to detect the antibody in goat blood samples. The blood of antibody positive human population was collected for Brucella isolation. Conventional methods, genus specific BCSP31-PCR and species⁃specific AMOS⁃PCR were used to identify the bacteria strain, and the genetic characteristic was analyzed using MLVA and MLST techniques. Results Six people of 43 high⁃risk populations were confirmed as anti⁃Brucella antibody positive, 64 out of 302 goat blood samples were anti⁃Brucella antibody positive, with positive rate of 21.19%. A suspected Brucella strain were isolated from one of the high⁃risk human populations and wasidentified as B. melitensis biovar 3. MLVA-16 analysis indicated that the bacteria strain was most closely clustered with B. melitensis biovar 3. Multilocus sequence typing analysis indicated the strain was ST8. Conclusion Genetic characteristic of Brucella strain isolated from the Brucelosis epidemic was consistent with that of M. melitensis biovar 3. Although antibody and Brucella were detected, the high⁃risk populations did not displayed symptoms, so all of them were asymptomatic infections. The epidemic was seemingly imported due to goats trading, suggested that health and animal disease control and prevention departments and doctors should pay great attention to it.%目的:对贵州省威宁县一起人间布鲁氏菌病(布病)疫情中的高危人群进行血清学调查、菌株分离鉴定及遗传特征分析,为布病疫情的防控提供科学依据。方法采用试管

  2. Cd胁迫下绿豆和箭舌豌豆叶片抗氧化系统的变化%The Change of Antioxidant System in Leaves of Mung Bean (Phaseolus aureus ) and Common Vetch ( Vicia sativa ) Seedlings Under Cd Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芬琴; 沈振国; 徐朗莱

    2012-01-01

    研究了Cd胁迫下绿豆(Phaseolus aureus)和箭舌豌豆(Vicia sativa)幼苗的生长,叶片内过氧化氢酶(CAT)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)、超氧化岐化酶(SOD)、愈创木酚过氧化物酶(GPOD)和谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)的同工酶活性,还原性谷胱甘肽(GSH)和抗坏血酸( ASC)以及Cd含量的变化.结果显示,100 μmol·L-l Cd胁迫9d期间,随着Cd胁迫时间的延长,绿豆和箭舌豌豆幼苗主根的伸长量和其根系干重显著降低(P<0.05),根表面出现越来越明显的褐色,绿豆叶表面出现可见的褐色斑点;两种植物叶片的CAT、APX和SOD同工酶活性以及绿豆叶片的GR活性呈先升后降的趋势,而两种植物叶的GPOD活性明显增加;在箭舌豌豆叶片中,GR活性随Cd暴露时间的延长而增加,而GSH先降后升;在绿豆叶片中,GSH和ASC随Cd暴露时间的延长而降低;与此同时,两种植物叶片中Cd的含量也随Cd胁迫时间的延长而增加,和箭舌豌豆相比,绿豆叶片中Cd含量增加更多.结果表明,箭舌豌豆有较强的抗氧化能力.%The effects of cadmium(Cd) on the plant growth, activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants in leaves of mung bean(Phaseolus aureus) and common vetch(Vicia saliva) were investigated using hydriponic experiments. Cadmium at 100 μmol·L-1 significantly decreased the main root elongation and roots dry weight, and increased activities of superoxide, dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), ascorbate peroxidase(APX) and guaiacol peroxidase(GPOD) in the leaves of both species. Activity of glutathione reductase(GR) in V. Sativa leaves increased, and content of ascorbic acid( ASC ) remained unchanged with Cd exposure time, whereas reduced glutathione(GSH) appeared to decrease for initial 6 days and then increased. But in P. Aureus leaves, activity of GR and contents of GSH and ASC decreased with Cd exposure time. Compared to P. Aureus, V. Saliva had higher activities of SOD, CAT, APX and GR, and

  3. Population, migration and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  4. A Population of Assessment Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."

  5. Population Parameters of Beaked Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    of deep diving cetaceans , their use of the habitat, and their sensitivity to human interactions . The results will facilitate improved regional...augment the sparse knowledge of beaked whale population biology, facilitating the assessment of possible population effects of human impacts...potential population effects of human impacts. Economic development Economic development is often related to increasing noise levels in the ocean

  6. Population Education Documents, Reprint Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This publication contains reprints of five documents that were either published in foreign journals or released in limited numbers by author or publisher. The papers are all concerned with population education, but deal more specifically with the role of population and the schools. Among the topics discussed are population education and the school…

  7. Stochastic population theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, Donald

    1974-01-01

    These notes serve as an introduction to stochastic theories which are useful in population biology; they are based on a course given at the Courant Institute, New York, in the Spring of 1974. In order to make the material. accessible to a wide audience, it is assumed that the reader has only a slight acquaintance with probability theory and differential equations. The more sophisticated topics, such as the qualitative behavior of nonlinear models, are approached through a succession of simpler problems. Emphasis is placed upon intuitive interpretations, rather than upon formal proofs. In most cases, the reader is referred elsewhere for a rigorous development. On the other hand, an attempt has been made to treat simple, useful models in some detail. Thus these notes complement the existing mathematical literature, and there appears to be little duplication of existing works. The authors are indebted to Miss Jeanette Figueroa for her beautiful and speedy typing of this work. The research was supported by the Na...

  8. Population and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, E H

    1975-01-01

    Quality of population is as important as quantity when one is discussing public health needs or quality of the labor force. Population quality as measured by physical disease, mental disease, maternal death and morbidity rates, fetal and infant mortality rates, and family size and child health is discussed. Charts give figures for Korea from a variety of sample surveys and census studies for 1973. All developing countries have high child death rates from communicable diseases. Korea, in addition, suffers from several parasitic diseases. The problems of maternal death and morbidity are due to disease, hard physical labor during pregnancy, poorly attended births (26% were attended by a mother or mother-in-law and 11% by friends and relatives), and high parity. Figures show that the danger of childbirth is greatest for the 1st baby, lower for the 2nd and 3rd, then rises, climbing steeply after the 5th birth. Iron deficiency anemia and oxalic acid deficiency together with general malnutrition contribute to high maternal morbidity and mortality and fetal death or improper brain development. It is also well accepted that children from large families have slower physical and mental growth than children in smaller families. Family planning problems can best be solved by integrating birth spacing and birth limitation programs into a total maternal and child health scheme and emphasizing the health aspects of family planning. Maternity-centered family planning is but 1 example of such an integrated approach. This integration will make better use of personnel, result in better program supervision, and will help the mother understand it is in her best interest to practice family planning.

  9. NO和H2O2在光/暗调控蚕豆气孔运动中的作用及其相互关系%Role and Relationship of Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide in Light/Dark-regulated Stomatal Movement in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘小平; 宋喜贵; 贺军民

    2004-01-01

    Role and relationship of NO and H2O2 in light/dark-regulated stomatal movement in Vicia faba L. were investigated by epidermal strip bioassay and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Results showed that the effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO-releasing compound) and H2O2 on stomatal closure were more significant in light than those in the dark. Dark-induced closure of stomata was largely prevented not only by 2,4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), a specific NO scavenger and NG-nitro-L-arg-methyl eater (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) in mammalian cells that also inhibits plant NOS, but also by addition of ascorbic acid (Vc) and exogenous catalase (CAT),which are an important reducing substrate for H2O2 removal and an H2O2 scavenger, respectively. Experiments based on fluorescent probe DAF-2 DA and H2DCF-DA showed that the level of endogenous NO and H2O2 in guard cells was greater in the dark than that in light. These results prove that light/dark regulates stomatal movement via influencing NO and H2O2 production. In addition, H2O2-induced NO production and stomatal closure in light were abolished partly by cPTIO and L-NAME. Interestingly, SNP-induced H2O2accumulation and stomatal closure were reversed by Vc and CAT in light. These show that NO and H2O2cross talk in light/dark-regulated stomatal movement. Furthermore, L-NAME could reverse stomatal closure and NO generation induced by darkness and H2O2 in light, we presume that the NO generation in guard cells of Vicia faba is likely related to NOS-like enzyme.%借助表皮条分析和激光扫描共聚焦显微镜技术,对NO和H2O2在光/暗调控蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)气孔运动中的作用及其相互关系进行了探索.结果显示,光下外源NO供体硝普钠(SNP)和H2O2促进气孔关闭的效应明显大于暗中,暗中NO专一性清除剂2,4-羧基苯-4,4,5,5-四甲基咪唑-1-氧-3-氧化物(cPTIO)、一氧化氮合酶(NOS)抑制剂NG-氮-L

  10. Population and the World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, S

    1973-12-01

    The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program.

  11. Stellar populations in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai

    2016-01-01

    Stellar populations contain the most important information about star clus- ter formation and evolution. Until several decades ago, star clusters were believed to be ideal laboratories for studies of simple stellar populations (SSPs). However, discoveries of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters have expanded our view on stellar populations in star clusters. They have simultaneously generated a number of controversies, particularly as to whether young star clusters may have the same origin as old globular clusters. In addition, extensive studies have revealed that the SSP scenario does not seem to hold for some intermediate-age and young star clusters either, thus making the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters even more complicated. Stellar population anomalies in numerous star clusters are well-documented, implying that the notion of star clusters as true SSPs faces serious challenges. In this review, we focus on stellar populations in massive clusters with different ...

  12. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function.

  13. Language dynamics in finite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L; Nowak, Martin A

    2003-04-01

    Any mechanism of language acquisition can only learn a restricted set of grammars. The human brain contains a mechanism for language acquisition which can learn a restricted set of grammars. The theory of this restricted set is universal grammar (UG). UG has to be sufficiently specific to induce linguistic coherence in a population. This phenomenon is known as "coherence threshold". Previously, we have calculated the coherence threshold for deterministic dynamics and infinitely large populations. Here, we extend the framework to stochastic processes and finite populations. If there is selection for communicative function (selective language dynamics), then the analytic results for infinite populations are excellent approximations for finite populations; as expected, finite populations need a slightly higher accuracy of language acquisition to maintain coherence. If there is no selection for communicative function (neutral language dynamics), then linguistic coherence is only possible for finite populations.

  14. European population substructure: clustering of northern and southern populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Seldin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between "northern" and "southern" European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek have >85% membership in the "southern" population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the "northern" population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the "southern" population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies.

  15. Population distribution and population growth in Yogyakarta special region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Mantra

    2013-07-01

    The annual rate of population growth in Yogyakarta Special Region is much lower compared with other provinces in Java. During 1961 and 1971 the rate of population growth was 1.1 percent, for the period 1971— 1980 became 1.09 percent. This region experienced a net loss of population through migration, and that the losses were greater in the poor areas of Gunung Kidul and Kulon Progo

  16. A population genetics model of linkage disequilibrium in admixed populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) created in admixed population and the rate of decay in the disequilibrium over evolution is an important subject in population genetics theory and in disease gene mapping in human populations. The present study represents the theoretical investigation of effects of gene frequencies, levels of LD and admixture proportions of donor populations on the evolutionary dynamics of the LD of the admixed population. We examined the conditions under which the admixed population reached linkage equilibrium or the peak level of the LD. The study reveals the inappropriateness in approximating the dynamics of the LD generated by population admixture by the commonly used formula in literature. An appropriate equation for the dynamics is proposed. The distinct feature of the newly suggested formula is that the value of the nonlinear component of the LD remains constant in the first generation of the population evolution. Comparison between the predicted disequilibrium dynamics shows that the error will be caused by using the old formula, and thus resulting in a misguidance in using the evolutionary information of the admixed population in gene mapping.

  17. population in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dravecký Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available V rokoch 2011 – 2014 sa realizoval monitoring hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého (Aquila pomarina v ôsmich chránených vtáčích územiach na Slovensku. U 149 hniezdnych párov z celkových 272 úspešných hniezdení počas 4 hniezdnych sezón vyletelo 277 mláďat. Priemerná reprodukčná úspešnosť predstavovala 0,51 juv./prítomný pár, 0,69 juv./hniezdiaci pár a 1,37 juv./100 km2. V uvedenom období bolo okolo hniezd orlov krikľavých ustanovených celkom 151 ochranných zón, ktoré zabezpečili ochranu 119 hniezdnych teritórií, čo predstavuje cca 17 % hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého na Slovensku. Testovaním účinnosti ochranných zón sa zistilo, že v hniezdach s vyhlásenou ochrannou zónou je vyššia pravdepodobnosť úspešného odchovania mláďat v porovnaní s hniezdami bez takejto zóny. Pravdepodobnosť, že hniezdenie bude úspešné v hniezdach hniezdiacich párov bez ochrannej zóny bola 48.1% (95% confidence intervals (CIs: 37.4–59.0%, v hniezdach s ochrannou zónou 64.8% (95% CIs: 59.8–69.6%. Medzi 5 najčastejšie využívaných hniezdnych stromov na hniezdenie A. pomarina na Slovensku patrí Picea abies 61× (28,4%, Pinus sylvestris 45× (20,9%, Quercus sp. 36× (16,7%, Fagus sylvatica 25× (11,6% a Abies alba 18× (8,4%. Medzi zriedkavejšie druhy hniezdnych stromov patrí Larix decidua 12× (5,6% a Alnus glutinosa 3× (1,4%, ďalších 11 druhov hniezdnych stromov nedosiahli 1 %. Najvyšší počet hniezdnych stromov (n = 215, tj. 34 hniezd (15,8% sa nachádzal v intervale nadmorskej výšky 401 – 450 m a 29 hniezd (13,5% v intervale 351 – 400 m n. m. Ostatné výškové pásma boli pod hranicou 10%. 54% zistených hniezd (116 hniezd sa nachádza vo výškovom pásme 301 – 600 m n. m., 71 hniezd (33% v pásme 600 – 900 m n. m. Najnižšie situované hniezdo bolo v nadmorskej výške 150 m a najvyššie 950 m, priemer bol 595,01 m. Najvyšší počet hniezd (n = 209 bol na strome

  18. Population growth, poverty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, J S

    1997-07-01

    One of the most popular explanations for the many problems that face Africa is population growth. Africa's population has doubled since 1960. Africa has the highest fertility rate in the world and the rate of population growth is higher than in any other region. At the same time, Africa faces a social and economic situation that is viewed by many as alarming. Among the problems that devastate Africa is that of persistent poor health. Africa has lower life expectancy, higher mortality rates and is affected by more disease and illness conditions than any other region. Focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, this paper examines the relationship between population growth, poverty and poor health. While most analyses have focused on population growth as an original cause of poverty and underdevelopment, this paper argues that while both population growth and poor health play a significant role in exacerbating the problem of poverty, they are themselves primary consequences of poverty rather than its cause.

  19. Habitat quality and fish population

    OpenAIRE

    Tafesse Tirkaso, Wondmagegn; Gren, Ing-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of marine ecosystem due to, among others, eutrophication and climate change, has been of concern for sustainable fishery management worldwide, but studies on associated impacts on fish populations are rare. The purpose of this study is to estimate effects of nutrient loads, which cause eutrophication, on the perch population at the Swedish east coast. To this end, we use a modified Gordon-Schaefer logistic growth model for econometric estimation of perch population on the Swedish ...

  20. [Population control and environment protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, G

    1982-01-29

    Although many factors cause environmental pollution and damage, the most important and basic factor is a rapidly increasing population. Therefore, a balanced development of population and environment is essential. The pressure a rapidly increasing populaton exerts on the environment has many aspects. The pressure of population on land resources results in increased land use and increased insecticide use due to increased insect tolerance leading to decreased productivity of cultivated land, increased desert formation, and decreased food supply. Population pressure on forest resources leads to land erosion; one of the major causes of the 1981 flood in Sichuan was attributed to excessive logging activities. Demand for fuels (firewood, straws, animal manures) by an increasing population leads to decrease in natural fertilizers, decreased food production, and energy shortage in rural areas. Population pressure on cities leads to air, water, noise and other environmental pollution as well as decrease in housing facilities and in green vegetation. Problems resulting from population pressures on industrial development include industrial and environmental pollution and unemployment. Population increases and accompanying industrial activities affect the weather which in turn affects the quality of agriculture, forests, and lakes. Thus, if unchecked, atmospheric carbon dioxide level would double by the middle of the next century, which would lead to increase in atmospheric temperature with disastrous consequences. Therefore, a well planned program for population control is essential for achieving decent quality of life.

  1. Population Education: A Critical Population and Development Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

    1991-01-01

    This review and assessment of population education programs demonstrates that, although population education has made many contributions to the overall education process, its success requires continual revision and review of existing conceptualizations and content. Outlines and discusses other critical factors, pertinent issues, and guidelines for…

  2. Population dynamics and population control of Galium aparine L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, van der R.Y.

    1993-01-01

    The population biology of Galium aparine L. needs to be better understood, in order to be able to rationalize decisions about the short- and long-term control of this weed species for different cropping practices.A population dynamics model was developed to simulate the basic processes of the life c

  3. Detection, Diversity, and Population Dynamics of Waterborne Phytophthora ramorum Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, C A; Garbelotto, M

    2015-01-01

    Sudden oak death, the tree disease caused by Phytophthora ramorum, has significant environmental and economic impacts on natural forests on the U.S. west coast, plantations in the United Kingdom, and in the worldwide nursery trade. Stream baiting is vital for monitoring and early detection of the pathogen in high-risk areas and is performed routinely; however, little is known about the nature of water-borne P. ramorum populations. Two drainages in an infested California forest were monitored intensively using stream-baiting for 2 years between 2009 and 2011. Pathogen presence was determined both by isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from symptomatic bait leaves. Isolates were analyzed using simple sequence repeats to study population dynamics and genetic structure through time. Isolation was successful primarily only during spring conditions, while PCR extended the period of pathogen detection to most of the year. Water populations were extremely diverse, and changed between seasons and years. A few abundant genotypes dominated the water during conditions considered optimal for aerial populations, and matched those dominant in aerial populations. Temporal patterns of genotypic diversification and evenness were identical among aerial, soil, and water populations, indicating that all three substrates are part of the same epidemiological cycle, strongly influenced by rainfall and sporulation on leaves. However, there was structuring between substrates, likely arising due to reduced selection pressure in the water. Additionally, water populations showed wholesale mixing of genotypes without the evident spatial autocorrelation present in leaf and soil populations.

  4. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  5. [Population policy: speeches and actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Lopez, A

    1991-06-01

    Mexico's population policy was created almost 20 years ago in response to the need to regulate the country's population growth. Currently the policy stresses more balanced distribution of the population in accordance with realistic development possibilities. By 1986 it was recognized that population policy in Mexico had gone beyond mere control of fertility to encompass direct government intervention in more complex global problems. It was concluded that the possibility of achieving rational population distribution depended on balanced regional development. A strong family planning policy, efforts to integrate demographic programs into general development plans, employment policies, and measures to encourage harmonious spatial distribution were viewed as necessary, but it was also felt that greater speed was required and that the population policy should play a larger role in the development strategy. The National Population Program for 1989-94 has the objectives of promoting the integration of demographic objectives into economic and social planning and promoting a decline in the rate of population growth from 1.8% in 1995 to 1.5% in 2000 through fertility decline. It seeks a more rational population distribution in which the weight of large metropolitan zones would be reduced and growth of intermediate and small cities promoted. It seeks to encourage greater participation by women in the nation's life, and to contribute to integrated development and elevation in the living standards of indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. Greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous populations

  6. Stochastic delocalization of finite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyrhofer, Lukas; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2013-01-01

    The localization of populations of replicating bacteria, viruses or autocatalytic chemicals arises in various contexts, such as ecology, evolution, medicine or chemistry. Several deterministic mathematical models have been used to characterize the conditions under which localized states can form, and how they break down due to convective driving forces. It has been repeatedly found that populations remain localized unless the bias exceeds a critical threshold value, and that close to the transition the population is characterized by a diverging length scale. These results, however, have been obtained upon ignoring number fluctuations (‘genetic drift’), which are inevitable given the discreteness of the replicating entities. Here, we study the localization/delocalization of a finite population in the presence of genetic drift. The population is modeled by a linear chain of subpopulations, or demes, which exchange migrants at a constant rate. Individuals in one particular deme, called ‘oasis’, receive a growth rate benefit, and the total population is regulated to have constant size N. In this ecological setting, we find that any finite population delocalizes on sufficiently long time scales. Depending on parameters, however, populations may remain localized for a very long time. The typical waiting time to delocalization increases exponentially with both population size and distance to the critical wind speed of the deterministic approximation. We augment these simulation results by a mathematical analysis that treats the reproduction and migration of individuals as branching random walks subject to global constraints. For a particular constraint, different from a fixed population size constraint, this model yields a solvable first moment equation. We find that this solvable model approximates very well the fixed population size model for large populations, but starts to deviate as population sizes are small. Nevertheless, the qualitative behavior of the

  7. Stellar populations in star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Yuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Li-Cai

    2016-12-01

    Stellar populations contain the most important information about star cluster formation and evolution. Until several decades ago, star clusters were believed to be ideal laboratories for studies of simple stellar populations (SSPs). However, discoveries of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters have expanded our view on stellar populations in star clusters. They have simultaneously generated a number of controversies, particularly as to whether young star clusters may have the same origin as old globular clusters. In addition, extensive studies have revealed that the SSP scenario does not seem to hold for some intermediate-age and young star clusters either, thus making the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters even more complicated. Stellar population anomalies in numerous star clusters are well-documented, implying that the notion of star clusters as true SSPs faces serious challenges. In this review, we focus on stellar populations in massive clusters with different ages. We present the history and progress of research in this active field, as well as some of the most recent improvements, including observational results and scenarios that have been proposed to explain the observations. Although our current ability to determine the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters is unsatisfactory, we propose a number of promising projects that may contribute to a significantly improved understanding of this subject.

  8. Food for the ageing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, M.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The world’s ageing population is increasing and food professionals will have to address the needs of older generations more closely in the future. This unique volume reviews the characteristics of the ageing population as food consumers, the role of nutrition in healthy ageing and the design of food

  9. Information Networking in Population Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The rapidly increasing body of knowledge in population education has created the need for systematic and effective information services. Information networking entails sharing resources so that the information needs of all network participants are met. The goals of this manual are to: (1) instill in population education specialists a more…

  10. Human Population: Fundamentals of Growth and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Cheryl Lynn, Ed.

    This booklet focuses on eight elements of population dynamics: "Population Growth and Distribution"; "Natural Increase and Future Growth"; "Effect of Migration on Population Growth"; "Three Patterns of Population Change"; "Patterns of World Urbanization"; "The Status of Women";…

  11. Assessment of ASEAN population programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of the 5th meeting of the ASEAN Heads of Population Program, held at Chiang Mai during November 1981, were the following: to discuss and consider the midterm reviews of some of the Phase 1 projects; to discuss and consider the ASEAN population experts' views on the progress made in the rest of the phase 1 projects; to discuss and consider the progress made in the implementation of the phase 2 projects; to discuss and consider the ASEAN population experts' recommendations on the ASEAN population program in the 1980s based on the report of the programming exercise submitted by the consultant in the expert group meeting; and to discuss administrative and other problems faced by the program implementors in the operationalization of the ongoing ASEAN population projects and provide appropriate directions to solve such problems. As a result of the programming exercise, the meeting established the directions for the future ASEAN population program and strongly recommended the continuation, intensification, and expansion of the ASEAN population program. A total of 12 projects comprise the ASEAN population program: 5 projects under phase 1 and 7 under phase 2. Under phase 1, 1 project has been completed, and the 1st parts of 2 other projects are in the process of implementation. Phase 2 projects, which started in September/October 1980, are all in the process of implementation. The following phase 1 projects are summarized: integration of population and rural development policies and programs; modular training for trainers of population and development agencies in ASEAN countries; multi-media support for population programs in the context of rural development in ASEAN countries; and migration in relation to rural development. The following phase 2 projects are also summarized: institutional development and exchange of personnel; women in development in ASEAN countries; and migration in relation to rural development. The following phase 2 projects are also

  12. Population in the classic economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Doğruyol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth subject in economics is an important factor of development. Classic economics ecole indicates the population as main variable which tender of growth. On the other hand T. R. Malthus is known as economist who regards population as a problem and brings up it among the classical economists. However, Adam Smith is an intellectual who discussed population problem earlier on the classic economics theory. According to Adam Smith one of the main factors that realise the growth is labour. In addition to population made it established. The aim of this study is analyzing the mental relationship between Malthus whose name has been identified with relation between population-growth and Smith who discussed this subject first time but put it off on process of theorisation.

  13. Population problems and population research in a market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X

    1994-01-01

    A market driven economy has many effects on population growth. The laws of social production were explicated by Marx and Engels, and Comrade Deng Xiaoping presents his views on China's socialist market economy and population problems in this article. Modern market economies have changed greatly over time. Before the 1960s, the focus of the interaction between population and economic change was in macro control. Since the 1960s, the focus shifted to micro control. Theories on maximum growth and neomodern population theory provide only a few useful elements. Cost-benefit analysis of child production functions, despite limitations, has universal appeal. Western theories with sound scientific evidence and Marxist theories should be examined and integrated within the Chinese experience. Two areas of concern in China are the spatial imbalance between population and economic development and an appropriate time period for any research activity. Scientific research in China will be advanced by careful integration of theory and practice, careful study of the Chinese experience, in-depth analysis, and bold, practical approaches which incorporate existing research results from the West. There are three dominant views of economic reforms. 1) Economic development plans should include a market economy. 2) Chinese population control would depend upon administrative means rather than market forces. 3) There are indirect ways in which the market affects population production. The last position is favored. The conclusions are made that family planning has been and continues to be a driving force in declining birth rates and that a focus on government population control does not discount the importance of the influence of economic factors on changes in the birth rate. Market forces are beginning to show their impact on people's choice in reproduction, and the impact is increasing. Reforms must be made appropriate to both the position and the negative influence of the market economy on

  14. Ca2+参与水杨酸诱导蚕豆气孔运动时的信号转导%Ca2+ is Involved in the Signal Transduction During Stomatal Movement in Vicia faba L. Induced by Salicylic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 孟繁霞; 张蜀秋; 娄成后

    2003-01-01

    在一定条件下,外源水杨酸(SA)可以诱导蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)气孔关闭,阻止气孔张开.以Fluo-3-AM作为Ca2+的荧光探针,利用激光共聚焦扫描显微技术,对水杨酸调控气孔运动中保卫细胞胞质Ca2+的变化趋势及Ca2+的来源进行了研究.结果表明,水杨酸可引起胞质Ca2+增加,这种变化发生在气孔开度改变之前.Ca2+螯合剂BAPTA(1,2-bis(2-amino phenoxy) ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid,1 mmol/L)几乎可以完全抑制水杨酸诱导气孔开度减小的作用;胞外Ca2+螯合剂EGTA(2 mmol/L)、质膜Ca2+通道抑制剂尼群地平(nifedipine,NIF, 1 μmol/L)和LaCl3(1 mmol/L)可不同程度地减弱水杨酸诱导气孔关闭的效应.BAPTA(1 mmol/L)预处理后,水杨酸不再引起胞质Ca2+含量改变;尼群地平能够降低水杨酸引起的胞质Ca2+ 增加的幅度.说明Ca2+可能参与水杨酸诱导气孔运动的信号转导.水杨酸引起胞内升高的Ca2+可能既来自胞外又来自胞内,胞内Ca2+库可能是其主要来源.

  15. Tibet's population: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, D

    1997-08-01

    This article describes trends in population growth in Tibet during the Yuan Dynasty (1260-1287), the Qing Dynasty (1734-36), and during decennial periods after 1952, until 1994. Tibet was conquered by the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty in the 13th century. During 1260-87, 3 enumerations revealed a total population of about 559,962 Tibetans, of whom 70,000 were lamas. Enumeration during 1734-36, revealed a total population of 941,151 Tibetans and 138,617 households. Tibet's population increased to about 1 million in 1951, an addition of 60,000 persons over 210 years. During 1952-59, the rate of population growth was fairly low at 0.94%. The total increase was 78,000 persons, or 11,000/year. Population increased from 1.15 million to about 1.23 million during 1952-59. The Dalai Lama went into exile with about 74,000 Tibetans in March 1959. Population during 1960-69 increased from 1.23 million to 1.48 million. The annual growth rate was 1.89%. Population increased by 252,500 persons, or 25.300/year. Reforms were carried out during this period. The region shifted from feudalism to socialism. Tibetans obtained free medical care and access to land. The birth rate was 25/1000, and the death rate was 10/1000. During 1970-79, both economic and population growth increased. Population increased from 1.48 million to 1.83 million, or a rate of annual growth of 2.14%. Population during this period increased by 348,500 persons, or 34,900/year. This was the fastest period of population growth. During 1980-89, the total fertility rate was maintained at around 4 children/woman, and family planning was implemented in urban areas. The annual rate of growth was 1.85%. Population increased by 367,000 persons, or 36,700/year. During 1990-94, the annual growth rate was 1.76 with a total increase of 159,000 persons, or 39,800/year.

  16. Can human populations be stabilized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-02-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.

  17. Bangladesh. Population education programme reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The UNFPA (UN Population Fund)-funded population education program was reviewed last November 1994 in order to identify the emerging needs and requirements as well as chart the future directions of the program. The review was undertaken with the assistance of the CST SAWA Adviser on Population Education, Dr. D.M. de Rebello. Comprehensive literature review, and intensive discussions with government functionaries, educationists, teachers, students, UNFPA country director and staff and concerned officials of the World Bank and other UN agencies involved in the program served as the modalities for the review. The review looked into the current status of the school education sector and assessed the present progress of the population education program vis-a-vis its objectives and achievements. It also analyzed the issues and constraints in relation to institutionalization of the program, capacity building and integration of population education in curriculum and textbooks. Among the many recommendations, the review proposed further building up of national capacities at various levels; development of teaching/learning materials and textbooks for the new sectors; and intensification of good quality teacher education. Institutionalization of population education in the formal school system up to grade 12 and in technical and vocational education as well as the madrasah system and the introduction of population education in the Mass Non-formal Education Program were also proposed.

  18. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective.

  19. Population and Australian development assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  20. On the local stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Klaus; Chini, Rolf; Kaderhandt, Lena; Chen, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of the local stellar populations from a volume-complete all-sky survey of the about 500 bright stars with distances less than 25 pc and down to main-sequence effective temperatures Teff ≥ 5300 K. The sample is dominated by a 93 per cent fraction of Population I stars, only 22 sources (5 per cent) are Population II stars, and 9 sources (2 per cent) are intermediate-disc stars. No source belongs to the halo. By following the mass of the stars instead of their light, the resulting subset of 136 long-lived stars distributes as 22 (16.2 per cent):6 (4.4 per cent):108 (79.4 per cent) for the Population II:intermediate disc:Population I, respectively. Along with the much larger scaleheight reached by Population II, this unbiased census of long-lived stars provides plain evidence for a starburst epoch in the early Milky Way, with the formation of a massive, rotationally supported, and dark Population II. The same conclusion arises from the substantial early chemical enrichment levels, exemplified here by the elements magnesium and iron, as it arises also from the local Population II white dwarfs. The kinematics, metallicity distribution functions, star formation rates, age-metallicity relations, the inventory of young stars, and the occurrence of blue straggler stars are discussed. A potentially new aspect of the survey is the possibility for substructure among the local Population II stars that may further subdivide into metal-poor and metal-rich sources.

  1. Food production and population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, H C

    1993-07-01

    Governments have frequently ignored the issue of population consumption exceeding the rates of renewal of natural resources. At the UN Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, the issue of population growth was ignored in the agenda and action plan. In 1974, the UN World Population Conference suggested population stability would be possible if standards of living were raised. Industrialized nations spent half a century of active interference with the stability of global populations and failed to slow growth. 27 countries, mainly in tropical and subtropical zones, have an average cereal yield of under 1 ton per hectare, when improved seed and basic minimum fertilizer could yield 2 tons per hectare. Efforts to increase yields by the Consultative Group for International Agricultural research in 13 international centers resulted in global annual increases of about 50 million tons of grain (wheat and rice). Rainfed agriculture did not benefit as much because of climatic conditions. Where varieties of triticale, sorghum, millet, groundnuts, chick peas, cowpeas, beans, and cassava have helped increase food production, population growth has outstripped the gains. Agricultural fertilizers have been unfairly blamed for soil nutrient losses. Because of the age structure of population, the expected population growth can only be addressed through development of higher yields, new strains resistant to disease, and fertilizers. Slow release phosphates for tropical soils are needed. Shortages of domestic fuel divert much needed farmyard manure and composted crop residues. About 400 million tons of dung are thus wasted annually; food grain harvests are thus reduced by 14 million tons. About 50% of the 1133 million poorest people will live in Asia and another 25% will live in Sub-Saharan Africa, living on a total degraded area of 1219 million hectares. Imbalance between food supply and population need to be addressed on an effective international scale.

  2. Inherent randomness of evolving populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Marc

    2014-03-01

    The entropy rates of the Wright-Fisher process, the Moran process, and generalizations are computed and used to compare these processes and their dependence on standard evolutionary parameters. Entropy rates are measures of the variation dependent on both short-run and long-run behaviors and allow the relationships between mutation, selection, and population size to be examined. Bounds for the entropy rate are given for the Moran process (independent of population size) and for the Wright-Fisher process (bounded for fixed population size). A generational Moran process is also presented for comparison to the Wright-Fisher Process. Results include analytic results and computational extensions.

  3. Sampling hard to reach populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugier, J; Sargeant, M

    1997-10-01

    Studies on 'hidden populations', such as homeless people, prostitutes and drug addicts, raise a number of specific methodological questions usually absent from research involving known populations and less sensitive subjects. This paper examines the advantages and limitations of nonrandom methods of data collection such as snowball sampling. It reviews the currently available literature on sampling hard to reach populations and highlights the dearth of material currently available on this subject. The paper also assesses the potential for using these methods in nursing research. The sampling methodology used by Faugier (1996) in her study of prostitutes, HIV and drugs is used as a current example within this context.

  4. Population samples and genotyping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, S J; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Single, R M; Meyer, D; Hill, J; Dron, H A; Jani, A J; Thomson, G; Erlich, H A

    2007-04-01

    The 14th International HLA (human leukocyte antigen) Immunogenetics Workshop (14th-IHIWS) Biostatistics and Anthropology/Human Genetic Diversity project continues the population sampling, genotype data generation, and biostatistic analyses of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop Anthropology/Human Genetic Diversity Component, with the overall goal of further characterizing global HLA allele and haplotype diversity and better describing the relationships between major histocompatibility complex diversity, geography, linguistics, and population history. Since the 13th Workshop, new investigators have and continue to be recruited to the project and new high-resolution class I and class II genotype data are being generated for 112 population samples from around the world.

  5. Population and resources in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, S A

    1995-05-01

    "The island of Mauritius was facing a crisis by the 1950s as the relationship between its population and resources became unbalanced....A two-pronged strategy was set in place to change the relationship between population and resources. Firstly, an aggressive family-planning policy was established, reducing population growth. Secondly, the economy was diversified with tourism, financial services and, especially, manufacturing in the Mauritius Export Processing Zone, creating extra finance and resources. The changes have not been cost-free but Mauritius ends the century, not as a classic case of overpopulation, but more [as] a model micro-state that has overcome many population and resource problems, largely through its own efforts."

  6. Population Issues. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents information about the problems caused by increasing population. Discusses the environmental impact and the ways that technology can be used to solve problems of overpopulation. Includes possible student outcomes and a student quiz. (JOW)

  7. Wolf population genetics in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Remm, Jaanus; Pilot, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is an iconic large carnivore that has increasingly been recognized as an apex predator with intrinsic value and a keystone species. However, wolves have also long represented a primary source of human–carnivore conflict, which has led to long-term persecution of wolves......, resulting in a significant decrease in their numbers, genetic diversity and gene flow between populations. For more effective protection and management of wolf populations in Europe, robust scientific evidence is crucial. This review serves as an analytical summary of the main findings from wolf population...... (Y chromosome) and biparental [autosomal microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)]. To describe large-scale trends and patterns of genetic variation in European wolf populations, we conducted a meta-analysis based on the results of previous microsatellite studies and also included...

  8. The Veteran Population Projection 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VetPop2014 is an actuarial projection model developed by the Office of the Actuary (OACT) for Veteran population projection from Fiscal Year FY2014 to FY2043. Using...

  9. Population genetics without intraspecific data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorne, Jeffrey L; Choi, Sang Chul; Yu, Jiaye

    2007-01-01

    A central goal of computational biology is the prediction of phenotype from DNA and protein sequence data. Recent models of sequence change use in silico prediction systems to incorporate the effects of phenotype on evolutionary rates. These models have been designed for analyzing sequence data...... populations, and parameters of interspecific models should have population genetic interpretations. We show, with two examples, how population genetic interpretations can be assigned to evolutionary models. The first example considers the impact of RNA secondary structure on sequence change, and the second...... reflects the tendency for protein tertiary structure to influence nonsynonymous substitution rates. We argue that statistical fit to data should not be the sole criterion for assessing models of sequence change. A good interspecific model should also yield a clear and biologically plausible population...

  10. Cancer patterns in Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbye, M.; Friborg, Jeppe Tang

    2008-01-01

    Inuit people inhabit the circumpolar region, with most living in Alaska, northwest Canada, and Greenland. Although malignant diseases were believed to be almost non-existent in Inuit populations during the beginning of the 20th century, the increasing life expectancy within these populations showed...... a distinct pattern, characterised by a high risk of Epstein-Barr virus-associated carcinomas of the nasopharynx and salivary glands, and a low risk of tumours common in white populations, including cancer of the prostate, testis, and haemopoietic system. Both genetic and environmental factors seem......, and reproductive factors. This Review will briefly summarise the current knowledge on cancer epidemiology in Inuit populations, with emphasis on the characteristic Inuit types of cancer Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9...

  11. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  12. Quasispecies theory for finite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Man; Muñoz, Enrique; Deem, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    We present stochastic, finite-population formulations of the Crow-Kimura and Eigen models of quasispecies theory, for fitness functions that depend in an arbitrary way on the number of mutations from the wild type. We include back mutations in our description. We show that the fluctuation of the population numbers about the average values is exceedingly large in these physical models of evolution. We further show that horizontal gene transfer reduces by orders of magnitude the fluctuations in the population numbers and reduces the accumulation of deleterious mutations in the finite population due to Muller’s ratchet. Indeed, the population sizes needed to converge to the infinite population limit are often larger than those found in nature for smooth fitness functions in the absence of horizontal gene transfer. These analytical results are derived for the steady state by means of a field-theoretic representation. Numerical results are presented that indicate horizontal gene transfer speeds up the dynamics of evolution as well.

  13. Structure of African elephant populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegismund, H R; Arctander, P

    1996-01-01

    The structure of elephant populations from east and south Africa has been analyzed by Georgiadis et al. (1994) on the basis of restriction site variation of mitochondrial DNA. They used F statistics based on identity by descent in tests for subdivision and reached the conclusion that there was a ......The structure of elephant populations from east and south Africa has been analyzed by Georgiadis et al. (1994) on the basis of restriction site variation of mitochondrial DNA. They used F statistics based on identity by descent in tests for subdivision and reached the conclusion...... that there was a significant differentiation at the continental level, but that "populations were not significantly subdivided at the regional levels." The data were reanalyzed by Monte-Carlo permutation tests where population subdivision was tested by using F statistics based on partitioning the total haplotype diversity...... among populations. This resulted in identical conclusions at the continental level, but revealed in addition a significant subdivision at the regional level indicating haplotype frequency differences among the populations....

  14. The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, A J

    1980-04-01

    Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.

  15. Population priorities: the challenge of continued rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Adair

    2009-10-27

    Rapid population growth continues in the least developed countries. The revisionist case that rapid population could be overcome by technology, that population density was advantageous, that capital shallowing is not a vital concern and that empirical investigations had not proved a correlation between high population growth and low per capita income was both empirically and theoretically flawed. In the modern world, population density does not play the role it did in nineteenth-century Europe and rates of growth in some of today's least developed nations are four times than those in nineteenth-century Europe, and without major accumulation of capital per capita, no major economy has or is likely to make the low- to middle-income transition. Though not sufficient, capital accumulation for growth is absolutely essential to economic growth. While there are good reasons for objecting to the enforced nature of the Chinese one-child policy, we should not underestimate the positive impact which that policy has almost certainly had and will have over the next several decades on Chinese economic performance. And a valid reticence about telling developing countries that they must contain fertility should not lead us to underestimate the severely adverse impact of high fertility rates on the economic performance and prospects of many countries in Africa and the Middle East.

  16. Analysis of Population Dynamics in World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gress

    2011-01-01

    Population dynamics is an important topic in current world economy. The size and growth of population have an impact on economic growth and development of individual countries and vice versa, economic development influences demographic variables in a country. The aim of the article is to analyze historical development of world population, population stock change and relations between population stock change and economic development.

  17. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  18. Population dynamics in variable environments

    CERN Document Server

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    1990-01-01

    Demography relates observable facts about individuals to the dynamics of populations. If the dynamics are linear and do not change over time, the classical theory of Lotka (1907) and Leslie (1945) is the central tool of demography. This book addresses the situation when the assumption of constancy is dropped. In many practical situations, a population will display unpredictable variation over time in its vital rates, which must then be described in statistical terms. Most of this book is concerned with the theory of populations which are subject to random temporal changes in their vital rates, although other kinds of variation (e. g. , cyclical) are also dealt with. The central questions are: how does temporal variation work its way into a population's future, and how does it affect our interpretation of a population's past. The results here are directed at demographers of humans and at popula­ tion biologists. The uneven mathematical level is dictated by the material, but the book should be accessible to re...

  19. Chinese Population and Environment Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智慧

    2012-01-01

    China is typical country for the change of environment,which is the center area and pressure about population.It has 12 billion in 2000,which is the one fifth of the total world population.And humanists think the population will increase to 16 billion till zoos.Is has increase 7 billion between 1950 to 2000 that beyond the total number of the whole people at the be ginning of the industry reductions.The increasing of the huge population' s extrading which is area is nearly equal to the east of America,the Yangtze and the Huanghe valley.In the west of China it is filled with desert and mountain ranges,and the south it is limited to the resist of other civilization,while the population of agriculture is more and more dense that Our ancestors has till aged for thousands of years.In fact,China has already become an excessivepacked “island”.

  20. Political economy of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

    1987-01-01

    Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates.