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Sample records for biovar viciae populations

  1. Compatibility of Rhizobial Genotypes within Natural Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar viciae for Nodulation of Host Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Laguerre, Gisèle; Louvrier, Philippe; Allard, Marie-Reine; AMARGER, Noëlle

    2003-01-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were sampled from two bulk soils, rhizosphere, and nodules of host legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) grown in the same soils. Additional populations nodulating peas, fava beans, and vetches (Vicia sativa) grown in other soils and fava bean-nodulating strains from various geographic sites were also analyzed. The rhizobia were characterized by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting and/or PCR-restriction ...

  2. Compatibility of rhizobial genotypes within natural populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae for nodulation of host legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguerre, Gisèle; Louvrier, Philippe; Allard, Marie-Reine; Amarger, Noëlle

    2003-04-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were sampled from two bulk soils, rhizosphere, and nodules of host legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) grown in the same soils. Additional populations nodulating peas, fava beans, and vetches (Vicia sativa) grown in other soils and fava bean-nodulating strains from various geographic sites were also analyzed. The rhizobia were characterized by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers as markers of the genomic background and PCR-RFLP of a nodulation gene region, nodD, as a marker of the symbiotic component of the genome. Pairwise comparisons showed differences among the genetic structures of the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and nodule populations and in the degree of host specificity within the Vicieae cross-inoculation group. With fava bean, the symbiotic genotype appeared to be the preponderant determinant of the success in nodule occupancy of rhizobial genotypes independently of the associated genomic background, the plant genotype, and the soil sampled. The interaction between one particular rhizobial symbiotic genotype and fava bean seems to be highly specific for nodulation and linked to the efficiency of nitrogen fixation. By contrast with bulk soil and fava bean-nodulating populations, the analysis of pea-nodulating populations showed preferential associations between genomic backgrounds and symbiotic genotypes. Both components of the rhizobial genome may influence competitiveness for nodulation of pea, and rhizosphere colonization may be a decisive step in competition for nodule occupancy. PMID:12676710

  3. Genetic diversity of a natural population of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae nodulating plants of Vicia faba in the Vesuvian area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Chiurazzi, Mario; Aponte, Maria; Pepe, Olimpia; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2007-12-01

    A total of 98 rhizobial strains, isolated during the winter of the years 2003 (35 isolates), 2004 (33 isolates), and 2005 (30 isolates) were analyzed to determine the genetic diversity of the natural population nodulating Vicia faba plants and to identify dominant genotypes. All isolates were identified as Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae by biovar-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification of the nodC gene. Intraspecific DNA polymorphism was evaluated through the restriction endonucleases analysis combined with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Four genotypes characterized 53% of the isolates, showing a high occurrence; moreover, they were recovered over the 3 years, thus showing a lasting persistence in the soil, which could mean a high degree of saprophytic competitiveness. The richness, diversity, and dominance indexes of genotypes were calculated to monitor the evolution of the rhizobial population during the 3 years. The genetic diversity of the analyzed strains decreased along the 3 years. In fact, the biodiversity index H' decreased from 2.6 in the first and second year to 1.9 in the third year; probably, as a result of bean monocropping, specific genotypes of Rh. leguminosarum bv. viciae were naturally selected. PMID:17899266

  4. Immobilization and Survival of Root Nodule Bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar viciae / Gumiņbaktērijas Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae imobilizācija un dzīvotspēja

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    Žvagiņa Signe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae ir augsnes baktērija, kas spēj veidot gumiņus uz zirņu, pupu, lēcu un vīķu saknēm un saistīt atmosfēras slāpekli simbiozē ar augiem. Gumiņbaktērijas izmanto lauksaimniecībā kā bioloģiskus mēslošanas līdzekļus augu augšanas veicināšanai. Komerciālos gumiņbaktēriju preparātus var iegādāties sausā, šķidrā vai liofilizētā formā. Parasti izmanto sausos sagatavotos mēslošanas līdzekļus uz kūdras bāzes. Šī pētījuma mērķis bija imobilizēt R. leguminosarum un noteikt tās dzīvotspēju šķidrumā un dažādos nesējmateriālos, lai izstrādātu uzlabotus gumiņbaktēriju preparātus. Imobilizēšanai izmantoja piecus sterilizētus materiālus: kūdru, māla pulveri, divu veidu ovālus šūnainās keramikas agregātus un cilindriskas keramikas granulas, kas izgatavotas no Planču depozīta Devona perioda māla. Imobilizāciju veica 2,5 stundu laikā 20 °C temperatūrā. Vēlāk kūdru, pulveri un granulas noberza un sasmalcināja ūdenī ar sterilu piestiņu, lai atdalītu pielipušās baktērijas. Baktēriju kolonijas veidojošo vienību skaitu noteica, izsējot iegūto suspensiju atšķaidījumus Petri traukos ar agarizētu barotni. Dzīvotspēju noteica arī ar LIVE/DEAD epifluorescences metodi. Iegūtie rezultāti parādīja, ka nesējmateriāls ietekmē imobilizācijas sekmes un ka uzglabāšanas temperatūra ietekmē R. leguminosarum dzīvotspēju. Vislabākos rezultātus ieguva, uzglabājot baktērijas suspensijā vai imobilizējot uz kūdras. Rekomendējam uzglabāt R. leguminosarum produktus −18 °C vai 4 °C temperatūrā.

  5. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae populations in soils with increasing heavy metal contamination: abundance, plasmid profiles, diversity and metal tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakzian, A.; Murphy, P.; Turner, A.; Beynon, J.L.; Giller, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae were investigated from plots of a long-term sewage sludge experiment in Braunschweig, Germany, which represented a gradient of increasing metal contamination. The number of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae decreased from 105 cells g¿1 soil in uncontaminat

  6. Investigation of Ureaplasma urealyticum biovars and their relationship with antimicrobial resistance

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    Zhu Chang-tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop Taqman fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR method for investigating the characteristics of the distributions of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU biovars and to explore the relationship between UU biovars and antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods: By the method of culture, Ureaplasma species were detected. Taqman fluorescence quantitative PCR for detecting UU biovars were developed and UU clinical isolates were detected to distinguish biovars. The broth micro-dilution susceptibility testing methods were used to determine UU susceptibility. Results: By Taqman PCR method, UU biovars was successfully detected. Of 126 samples, biovar 1 was found in 73 (57.94%. There was a statistical difference between genital-urinary tract infection group and asymptomatic group (P<0.05. In the region, UU biovar 1 to 9 kinds of agents kept higher susceptibility rates, but biovar 2 maintained higher susceptibility rates only to tetracyclines. Compared with biovar 1, UU biovar 2 resistance rates to 7 kinds of agents were higher (P<0.05. Conclusions: (1 Our new established Taqman PCR method is a useful tool for screening UU biovars. (2 UU biovar 1 predominated in asymptomatic population; whereas in genital-urinary tract infection population UU biovar 2 had a higher proportion. (3 The characteristics of drug resistance were different between UU biovars. Overall, both two biovars remained higher susceptibility rates to tetracyclines. A majority of biovor 1 strains were sensitive to macrolides and quinolones; while only a small number of biovar 2 strains kept sensitive to roxithromycin and quinolones, a large proportion of biovar 2 strains were found in intermediate ranges.

  7. Accumulation of a nod Gene Inducer, the Flavonoid Naringenin, in the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae Is Caused by the pH-Dependent Hydrophobicity of Naringenin

    OpenAIRE

    Recourt, Kees; Brussel, Anton A.N. van; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Lugtenberg, Ben J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Most Sym plasmid-localized nodulation genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae are only expressed upon activation of the NodD protein by plant flavonoids, e.g., naringenin (S. A. J. Zaat, C. A. Wijffelman, H. P. Spaink, A. A. N. van Brussel, and B. J. J. Lugtenberg, J. Bacteriol, 169:198-204, 1987). As part of a study on the mechanism of NodD protein activation, the mechanism of uptake and the intracellular fate of [3H]naringenin were studied. Naringenin was accumulated by Rhizobium cells ...

  8. Investigation on Biovars and Serotypes of Ureaplasma Urealyticum in Cervix in Chinese Gynecologic Check-up Population,Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic Clients and Sex Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yi(任翊); ZHAO Chunhui(赵春慧); ZHU Xuejun(朱学骏)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize the distribution pattern of biovars and serotypes of Ureaplasma urealyticum in normalhealthy women, sexually transmitted infections clinic clientsand in sex workers. Methods: We cultured cervical swabs taken from 261physical check-up clients, 599 STI clinic outpatients and 98sex workers using commercial selective medium. Somepositive cultures were further biotyped and serotyped byPCR.Results: (1) Biovar 1 of U. urealyticum (95.0%), especiallysingle infection of serotype 1, 3, and 6 of biovar 1, iscommonly found in healthy women. (2) U. urealyticum ismore commonly isolated in sex workers (90.8%) than inphysical check-up group (60.9%) and STI outpatients group(61.3%) (P< 0.001). (3) Biovar 2 infection of U. urealyticumis more prevalent in sex workers (28.1%) and STIoutpatients group (26.6%) than that in physical check-upgroup (4.9%) (P < 0.001). (4) Mixed infection caused bymore than one serotype of U. urealyticum is increasing fromphysical check-up group (8.6%) to STI outpatients (12.4%)and to sex workers (23.9%) (P < 0.01). (5) There is nostatistic difference in the distribution of serotype 1, 3, and 6of biovar 1 among these three groups (P=0.763). (6) ThePCR method described here is relatively simple, rapid andspecific for the biotyping and serotyping of biovar 1 of U.urealyticum.Conclusion: we should pay more attention to biovar 2and mixed infection than single infection of biovar 1 of U.urealyticum in clinic practice. PCR is a good method inbiotyping and serotyping.

  9. Identification at Biovar Level of Brucella Isolates Causing Abortion in Small Ruminants of Iran

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    Ali Mohammad Behroozikhah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the most prevalent biovar responsible for brucellosis in sheep and goat populations of Iran, a cross-sectional study was carried out over 2 years in six provinces selected based on geography and disease prevalence. Specimens obtained from referred aborted sheep and goat fetuses were cultured on Brucella selective media for microbiological isolation. Brucellae were isolated from 265 fetuses and examined for biovar identification using standard microbiological methods. Results showed that 246 isolates (92.8% were B. melitensis biovar 1, 18 isolates (6.8% were B. melitensis biovar 2, and, interestingly, one isolate (0.4% obtained from Mazandaran province was B. abortus biovar 3. In this study, B. melitensis biovar 3 was isolated in none of the selected provinces, and all isolates from 3 provinces (i.e., Chehar-mahal Bakhtiari, Markazi, and Ilam were identified only as B. melitensis biovar 1. In conclusion, we found that B. melitensis biovar 1 remains the most prevalent cause of small ruminant brucellosis in various provinces of Iran.

  10. Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, T.; Majstrenko, T. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Brown, J.E., E-mail: Justin.brown@nrpa.no [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini naeringspark 13, 1332 Osteras (Norway); Belykh, E. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-01

    Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine dose-effect relationships and the range of doses that cause biological effects in natural Vicia cracca L. populations inhabiting the study area. The studied plant species is native to the area and is found ubiquitously. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at a reference location and six contaminated sites characterized by distinct floodplain depositional units with different enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. A large fraction of the dose at the study sites (including the reference location) was attributable to internal irradiation and {sup 226}Ra was found to be an important contributor to this component of dose. The relationship between the frequency of chromosome aberrations in seedlings' root tip cells and the absorbed dose was found to be quadratic. An exponential model provided the best result in describing the empirical dependence between the absorbed dose and both the germination capacity of seeds and the survival rate of sprouts of V. cracca. For V. cracca plants inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, a weighted absorbed dose of 0.2 Gy (weighting factor for alpha particles = 5) during the vegetation period could be considered to be a level below which no increase in genetic variability and decrease in reproductive capacity might be observed above background.

  11. Colonização radicular de plantas cultivadas por Ralstonia solanacearum biovares 1, 2 e 3 Root colonization of cultivated plants inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 1, 2 and 3

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    José Magno Martins Bringel

    2001-09-01

    . Root colonization was evaluated 45 days after inoculation by counting bacteria in root extracts of culture media with antibiotics. Pea plants hosted all six isolates, but only the isolate biovar 3 was pathogenic to this species. High populations of four isolates of the three biovars were found on soybean, and cucumber hosted high population of only two isolates (biovars 1 and 3. Pea was a non-susceptible host for Rs, except for one pathogenic isolate. Rice hosted very low populations of all isolates, while lettuce and spring onion did not host any isolates. These results showed the ability of Rs to colonize and survive on different plant roots as rhizobacteria.

  12. Embryological studies of reciprocal crosses between Vicia faba and Vicia narbonensis

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    Maciej Zenkteler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to asses the reciprocal crossability between Vicia faba and Vicia narbonensis. Flower buds or only ovaries of several varietes and genotypes were cross-pollinated in vivo (green house and field and in vitro. Only few pollen tubes passed the style and entered into the ovary. On the whole number of 5320 cross pollinated in vivo and in vitro flowers and ovaries of Vicia narbonensis only 78 globular hybrid embryos were observed. After cross pollination in vivo of 3860 flower buds and ovaries of Vicia faba globular embryos developed in 124 ovules. The highest number of globular embryos were obtained when the Vicia faba line 1/33 was pollinated with Vicia narbonensis lines P3, P5, 150, SE.Embryogenesis proceeded till the 6-10 day after pollination, however, karyological disturbances in the cells of embryos and endosperm were often noticed at earlier stages. In vitro pollen grains of Vicia faba germinated on stigmas and ovaries of Vicia narbonensis, a significant increase in the growth of pollen tubes was noticed after ovary pollination. The technique of in vitro pollination was not suitable for Vicia faba as the inoculated explants died shortly after transferring onto the medium. The results indicate that finding a more suitable genotype for crossing may give a chance to obtain higher number of embryos (example line 1/33 - thus sufficient number for culturing them on media.

  13. Association mapping for frost tolerance using multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Ahmed; Martsch, Regina

    2015-08-01

    A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) derived from 11 founder lines in faba bean was used in this study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for frost tolerance traits using the association mapping method with 156 SNP markers. This MAGIC population consists of a set of 189 genotypes from the Göttingen Winter Bean Population. The association panel was tested in two different experiments, i.e. a frost and a hardening experiment. Six morphological traits, leaf fatty acid composition, relative water content in shoots were scored in this study. The genotypes presented a large genetic variation for all traits that were highly heritable after frost and after hardening. High phenotypic significant correlations were established between traits. The principal coordinates analysis resulted in no clear structure in the current population. Association mapping was performed using a general linear model and mixed linear model with kinship. A False discovery rate of 0.20 (and 0.05) was used to test the significance of marker-trait association. As a result, many putative QTLs for 13 morphological and physiological traits were detected using both models. The results reveal that QTL mapping by association analysis is a powerful method of detecting the alleles associated with frost tolerance in the winter faba bean which can be used in accelerating breeding programs.

  14. Observaciones cariológicas en Vicia amphicarpa sensu lato

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    Tardío Pato, F. Javier

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytological studies were carried out on twenty four amphicarpic wild populations of Vicia sativa group from different sites (19 from Spain, 4 from Syria and 1 from Turkey. Morphologically, 19 accessions can be attributed to taxon Dorthes and 5 to V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío, comb. nov. In our studies, these two taxa show different chromosome numbers, V. amphicarpa Dorthes, has 14 chromosomes, while V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia has only 12. Furthermore, the form of the chromosomes in the karyotypes of both taxa is quite different. The chromosome number and the morphology of the karyotype found in the first taxon agree with most of previous reports on V. amphicarpa, with a very characteristic short metacentric and six acrocentric chromosomes, one of them satellited. However, the second taxon has a very different karyotype with three large chromosomes, one of them submetacentric and another satellited, plus another three chromosomes which are significantly smaller. Therefore, we can conclude that within the genus Vicia, at least two amphicarpic taxa exist, clearly differentiated, both in morphological and karyotypical characteristics.Se estudian cariológicamente 24 poblaciones anficárpicas silvestres pertenecientes al grupo Vicia sativa, de distinta procedencia (19 españolas, cuatro de Siria y una de Turquía. Se encuentran diferencias en los números cromosomáticos y en los cariótipos. Diecinueve poblaciones presentan 14 cromosomas y cariotipo como el observado por otros autores, constituido por un pequeño cromosoma metacéntrico y seis acrocéntricos, uno de ellos con satélite. Éstas corresponden a V. amphicarpa Dorthes. Las otras cinco, con 2n = 12 y cariotipo con tres cromosomas grandes, uno de ellos submetacéntrico, otro con satélite, y otros tres mucho más pequeños, corresponden a V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío. Esta anterior se propone como combinación nueva. Por

  15. Cross-Amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa Microsatellites across 22 Other Vicia Species

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    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa. For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species.

  16. The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

  17. Observations of advanced lines (M8) of Vicia (Vicia faba L.) attained with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1977, the Facultad de Ciencias Agricolas from Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (FCA-UAEM) in cooperation with Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) has been developing the research related with the use of physical mutagens in plant breeding of Vicia faba L. Starting from 1985, the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (UAEM) is financing this research project and the Facultad de Ciencias Agricolas supplies the research personnel, the greenhouses and the experimental fields. Alternatives in plant breeding for vegetable species can be reach using the natural accumulated genetic endowment, or else by means of the production of new mutants through the application of mutagens. At the present time, mutagens can be considered as an additional element from men in its fight for the procurement of more and better food. All seems to point to the past, as well as to the future, that plant breeding task has been, is and will be to take advantage of the genetic variability already present in nature, or else to modify this variability with the more feasible technology, to fix in the population those genes which expression satisfy in a way every time more accurate, the demands of human being before the exploitation of product derived from vegetable species (A. Gustaffson 1964, mentioned by Escutia 1982). At the present, in some vegetable species as are bean, wheat, oats, maize, sesame, potatoes between others, technique of mutagenic induction by physical or chemical agents is used. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) establishes 300 varieties of asexual reproductions and 200 varieties of sexual reproduction, obtained by radiations methodology (Sosa 1983). (Author) 6 refs, 6 tabs

  18. Emended description of Campylobacter sputorum and revision of its infrasubspecific (biovar) divisions, including C-sputorum biovar paraureolyticus, a urease-producing variant from cattle and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, S.L.W.; Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.;

    1998-01-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study of 15 bovine and human strains assigned to the catalase-negative, urease-positive campylobacter (CNUPC) group identified these bacteria as a novel, ureolytic biovar of Campylobacter sputorum for which we propose the name C. sputorum bv. paraureolyticus: suitable...

  19. The pan-genome of the animal pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis reveals differences in genome plasticity between the biovar ovis and equi strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Siomar C; Silva, Artur; Trost, Eva;

    2013-01-01

    of complete pilus structures in biovar ovis could be responsible for a remarkable ability of these strains to spread throughout host tissues and penetrate cells to live intracellularly, in contrast with the biovar equi, which rarely attacks visceral organs. Intracellularly, the biovar ovis strains...

  20. Genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi strain 258 and prediction of antigenic targets to improve biotechnological vaccine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Siomar C; Trost, Eva; Ramos, Rommel T J;

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of several veterinary diseases in a broad range of economically important hosts, which can vary from caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats (biovar ovis) to ulcerative lymphangitis in cattle and horses (biovar equi). Existing vaccines ag...

  1. Yersinia pestis pFra Shows Biovar-Specific Differences and Recent Common Ancestry with a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Plasmid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Michael B.; James, Keith D.; Parkhill, Julian; Baker, Stephen G.; Stevens, Kim; Simmonds, Mark N.; Mungall, Karen L.; Churcher, Carol; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Titball, Richard W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Wain, John; Pickard, Derek; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dougan, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    Population genetic studies suggest that Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a clonal pathogen that has recently emerged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Plasmid acquisition is likely to have been a key element in this evolutionary leap from an enteric to a flea-transmitted systemic pathogen. However, the origin of Y. pestis-specific plasmids remains obscure. We demonstrate specific plasmid rearrangements in different Y. pestis strains which distinguish Y. pestis bv. Orientalis strains from other biovars. We also present evidence for plasmid-associated DNA exchange between Y. pestis and the exclusively human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. PMID:11274119

  2. Bacterial leaf rot of Aloe vera L., caused byErwinia chrysanthemi biovar 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de P.C.A.; Verhoeven, J.T.W.; Danse, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    A severe attack of the bacteriumErwinia chrysantemi biovar 3 on the succulentAloe vera on the Carribean island of Aruba is described. Biochemical and pathological characteristics of strains are presented, including results of successful inoculation experiments onAloe vera. This is the first report o

  3. Identification of biovars of Brucella abortus in aborted cattle and buffaloes herd in Sri Lanka

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    M. A. R. Priyantha

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis is an endemic disease in Sri Lanka, caused by Brucella abortus and had been reported all part of the country for last six decades. Since available biovar is still unknown, the objective of the study was to identify the biovar of B.abortus from sporadically aborted cattle and buffaloes. Samples were collected from 18 aborted herds out of 19 herds of Cattle and Buffaloes in the year 2010. Rose Bengal plate test and Compliment Fixation test were carried out. Milk, vaginal swabs, placental contents and aborted fetus were collected and cultured by conventional bacteriological methods. The detection of biovars were based on growth on Thionin and Bacto fuschin,CO2 requirement, H2S production, serum agglutination with Brucella negative, A,M and R reference antiserum. Eighteen herds investigated out of 19 herds reported, 11 herds were serologically positive for brucellosis (61.11% and only Brucella abortus were isolated from 8 individuals from six herds. All were identified as Biovar 3 of Brucella abortus. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 542-545

  4. A genome-wide SNP-based phylogenetic analysis distinguishes different biovars of Brucella suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2016-07-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Brucella suis is the etiological agent of porcine brucellosis. B. suis is the most genetically diverged species within the genus Brucella. We present the first large-scale B. suis phylogenetic analysis based on an alignment-free k-mer approach of gathering polymorphic sites from whole genome sequences. Genome-wide core-SNP based phylogenetic tree clearly differentiated and discriminated the B. suis biovars and the vaccine strain into different clades. A total of 16,756 SNPs were identified from the genome sequences of 54 B. suis strains. Also, biovar-specific SNPs were identified. The vaccine strain B. suis S2-30 is extensively used in China, which was discriminated from all biovars with the accumulation of the highest number of SNPs. We have also identified the SNPs between B. suis vaccine strain S2-30 and its closest homolog, B. suis biovar 513UK. The highest number of mutations (22) was observed in the phosphomannomutase (pmm) gene essential for the synthesis of O-antigen. Also, mutations were identified in several virulent genes including genes coding for type IV secretion system and the effector proteins, which could be responsible for the attenuated virulence of B. suis S2-30. PMID:27085292

  5. A putative genomic island, PGI-1, in Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 revealed by subtractive hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, P.; van Elsas, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, a key bacterial pathogen of potato, has recently established in temperate climate waters. On the basis of isolates obtained from diseased (potato) plants, its genome has been assumed to be virtually clonal, but information on environmental isolates has been lacking.

  6. Genetic relatedness of Brucella suis biovar 2 isolates from hares, wild boars and domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Foster, Jeffrey T; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Sulyok, Kinga M; Wehmann, Enikő; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2014-08-27

    Porcine brucellosis generally manifests as disorders in reproductive organs potentially leading to serious losses in the swine industry. Brucella suis biovar 2 is endemic in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and hare (Lepus europeus, Lepus capensis) populations, thus these species may play a significant role in disease spread and serve as potential sources of infection for domestic pigs. The aim of this study was an epidemiologic analysis of porcine brucellosis in Hungary and a comparative analysis of B. suis bv. 2 strains from Europe using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA-16 and its MLVA-11 subset were used to determine the genotypes of 68 B. suis bv. 2 isolates from Hungary and results were then compared to European MLVA genotypes. The analyses indicated relatively high genetic diversity of B. suis bv. 2 in Hungary. Strains isolated from hares and wild boars from Hungary showed substantial genetic divergence, suggesting separate lineages in each host and no instances of cross species infections. The closest relatives of strains from Hungarian wild boars and domestic pigs were mainly in the isolates from German and Croatian boars and pigs. The assessment of the European MLVA genotypes of wild boar isolates generally showed clustering based on geographic origin. The hare strains were relatively closely related to one another and did not cluster based on geographic origin. The limited relationships between geographic origin and genotype in isolates from hares might be the result of cross-border live animal translocation. The results could also suggest that certain B. suis strains are more adapted to hares. Across Europe, isolates from domestic pigs were closely related to isolates originating from both hares and wild boars, supporting the idea that wild animals are a source of brucellosis in domestic pigs.

  7. Study on the Response of some Solanaceous Plants to Ralstonia solanacearum Biovars 2A and 2T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Hasabi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is a very destructive bacterial plant pathogen that causes wilt disease in solanaceae crops. To study the response of potato, tomato, eggplant and petunia to bacterial wilt disease, two isolates representing biovars 2A and 2T of R. solanacearum were evaluated for their pathogenicity aggressiveness and tobacco hypersensitivity response (HR at two different temperature regimes. The response of plants was estimated by appearance of wilting symptoms and bacterial density in the xylems of inoculated plants over a four weeks period. The results indicated that isolates representing biovar 2T caused less disease in all the species and cultivars compared to isolates biovar 2A, at both temperature conditions and also, there were significant differences in susceptibility to biovars 2A and 2T of R. solanacearum among tomato, eggplant and petunia and potato cultivars.

  8. Koala Biovar of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infects Human and Koala Monocytes and Induces Increased Uptake of Lipids In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Coles, Katie A.; Timms, Peter; David W Smith

    2001-01-01

    We examined the ability of the koala biovar of Chlamydia pneumoniae to infect both Hep-2 cells and human monocytes and the effect of infection on the formation of foam cells. The koala biovar produced large inclusions in both human and koala monocytes and in Hep-2 cells. Koala C. pneumoniae induced foam cell formation with and without added low-density lipoprotein, in contrast to TW183, which produced increased foam cell formation only in the presence of low-density lipoprotein.

  9. Detection of Ureaplasma urealytium and Mycoplasma homanis in healthy women in Qingdao and biovars and serotypes of Ureaplasma urealytium%青岛地区解脲脲原体和人型支原体在健康成年女性泌尿道中的携带情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟慧娟; 史同新; 张骋; 徐敬星; 李民

    2013-01-01

    commensal in urinary tract in healthy women.The Parvum biovar is the predominant biovar in all groups.It presumes that Uu,and especially the Parvum biovar is possibly carried by normal population.The serotype 1 and serotype 6 are predominant serotypes of healthy women.The detection of Mh is very low in healthy women.

  10. Duplex PCR for differentiation of the vaccine strain Brucella suis S2 and B. suis biovar 1 from other strains of Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Tan, Pengfei; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zouliang; Mao, Kairong; Peng, Daxin; Chen, Yiping

    2014-09-01

    Immunisation with attenuated Brucella spp. vaccines prevents brucellosis, but may also interfere with diagnosis. In this study, a duplex PCR was developed to distinguish Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from field strains of B. suis biovar 1 and other Brucella spp. The PCR detected 60 fg genomic DNA of B. suis S2 or biovar 1 field strains and was able to distinguish B. suis S2 and wild-type strains of B. suis biovar 1 among 76 field isolates representing all the common species and biovars, as well as four vaccine strains, of Brucella.

  11. Duplex PCR for differentiation of the vaccine strain Brucella suis S2 and B. suis biovar 1 from other strains of Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Tan, Pengfei; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zouliang; Mao, Kairong; Peng, Daxin; Chen, Yiping

    2014-09-01

    Immunisation with attenuated Brucella spp. vaccines prevents brucellosis, but may also interfere with diagnosis. In this study, a duplex PCR was developed to distinguish Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from field strains of B. suis biovar 1 and other Brucella spp. The PCR detected 60 fg genomic DNA of B. suis S2 or biovar 1 field strains and was able to distinguish B. suis S2 and wild-type strains of B. suis biovar 1 among 76 field isolates representing all the common species and biovars, as well as four vaccine strains, of Brucella. PMID:25011712

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2 Strains with Different Temperature Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kat Xiaoli; Cullis, Jeff; Lévesque, C André; Tambong, James; Chen, Wen; Lewis, Christopher T; De Boer, Solke H; Li, Xiang Sean

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2) causes brown rot of potato in countries with temperate climates. Here, we report two draft genome sequences of R. solanacearum R3bv2 NCPPB909 and CFIA906 with different temperature adaptations. Analysis of these genome sequences will provide detailed insight on virulence, functionality, and plant/pest interactions of this widely distributed and regulated pathogen. PMID:26272559

  13. Effect of disturbance of the gastrointestinal microflora on the faecal excretion of Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar A.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G. R.; Thornton, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Oral pretreatment of mice with either a mixture of kanamycin and erythromycin or metronidazole to modify the gut microflora greatly enhanced the faecal excretion of Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar A given by mouth. This lends support to the suggestion that disturbance of the gastrointestinal microflora in animals such as cattle, which often carry the organism in the rumen, may lead to intestinal multiplication and faecal excretion, thereby providing a source of infection that may lead to nec...

  14. Bacillus cereus Biovar Anthracis Causing Anthrax in Sub-Saharan Africa—Chromosomal Monophyly and Broad Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabon, Philip; Zimmermann, Fee; Lankester, Felix; Peller, Tianna; Feistner, Anna; Todd, Angelique; Herbinger, Ilka; de Nys, Hélène M.; Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Wittig, Roman M.; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Grunow, Roland; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Corbett, Cindi R.; Klee, Silke R.; Leendertz, Fabian H.

    2016-01-01

    Through full genome analyses of four atypical Bacillus cereus isolates, designated B. cereus biovar anthracis, we describe a distinct clade within the B. cereus group that presents with anthrax-like disease, carrying virulence plasmids similar to those of classic Bacillus anthracis. We have isolated members of this clade from different mammals (wild chimpanzees, gorillas, an elephant and goats) in West and Central Africa (Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon, Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo). The isolates shared several phenotypic features of both B. anthracis and B. cereus, but differed amongst each other in motility and their resistance or sensitivity to penicillin. They all possessed the same mutation in the regulator gene plcR, different from the one found in B. anthracis, and in addition, carry genes which enable them to produce a second capsule composed of hyaluronic acid. Our findings show the existence of a discrete clade of the B. cereus group capable of causing anthrax-like disease, found in areas of high biodiversity, which are possibly also the origin of the worldwide distributed B. anthracis. Establishing the impact of these pathogenic bacteria on threatened wildlife species will require systematic investigation. Furthermore, the consumption of wildlife found dead by the local population and presence in a domestic animal reveal potential sources of exposure to humans. PMID:27607836

  15. Distribution and status of Vicia menziesii Spreng. (Leguminosae): Hawaii's first officially listed endangered plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshauer, F.R.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Vicia menziesii Spreng., Hawai'i's first officially listed endangered plant species, formerly occurred across a large area in the upper montane-mesic forest habitat on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. Until this species was `rediscovered? in 1974, it had last been seen in 1915, and it was presumed to be extinct. The population is presently thought to number 150?300 plants, most of which are seedlings. These are located within a 200 ha area on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa volcano. The primary factors responsible for the decline of V. menziesii are habitat loss and excessive predation on the plants by introduced ungulates. Continued logging and cattle grazing within its remnant range are major threats to its existence. Enhancing the survival of V. menziesii may best be accomplished by stabilizing its remaining habitat and allowing the population to reestablish itself naturally.

  16. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep and isolation of Brucella abortus biovar 6 in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumaa, M M; Osman, H M; Omer, M M; El Sanousi, E M; Godfroid, J; Ahmed, A M

    2014-12-01

    Brucellosis is one of the important zoonotic diseases among livestock. This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and isolate Brucella spp. in sheep in Kassala State in the east of Sudan. Two thousand and five serum samples were randomly collected from nine different localities. All serum samples were examined by the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and the modified RBPT (mRBPT). Forty-three (2.15%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6,3.0) and 68 (3.4%, 95% CI: 2.6, 4.2) samples were positive with the RBPT and the mRBPT, respectively. According to a known diagnostic sensitivity of 86.6% and a known diagnostic specificity of 97.6% for the mRBPT, the true prevalence was estimated to be 1.2% (95% CI: 0.3, 2.2). Different tissue samples were collected from 41 mRBPT seropositive animals. Brucella abortus biovar 6 was isolated from a pyometra of a seropositive ewe. It is important to note that B. abortus biovar 6 cannot be differentiated from Brucella melitensis biovar 2 by routine bacteriology. Only phage typing performed in reference laboratories will allow accurate identification of the strain. The fact that B. abortus biovar 6 does not require CO2 for growth, combined with the fact that it has been isolated from a small ruminant in this study, could easily have led to misidentification (as B. melitensis biovar 2), to wrong epidemiological inferences and to the implementation of inappropriate control measures. The results presented here suggest that sheep are spillover hosts, as previously described for camels, and that the actual reservoir of B. abortus biovar 6 is cattle in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan. This study highlights the importance of isolating and identifying Brucella spp. in different livestock species in order to accurately decipher brucellosis epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25812219

  17. Environmental Factors Influencing Numbers of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii and Its Bacteriophages in Two Field Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Kerrie A.; Barnet, Yvonne M.; McGilchrist, Clyde A.

    1987-01-01

    Fluctuations in numbers of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii and its bacteriophages in two fields with different soil types were followed during a 17-month period in 1981 and 1982. Mean levels of both phage and rhizobia varied significantly (P < 0.05) on different occasions, with rhizobial levels varying from 1.6 × 102 to 2.0 × 104 cell per g of soil and phage from 0 to 1.7 × 104 PFU/g of soil. Multivariate regression analysis showed rhizobial levels to be significantly and positively r...

  18. Patogenia de Salmonella enteritidis FT 13a y Salmonella enteritidis biovar Issatschenko en pollos de engorda

    OpenAIRE

    Griselda Ruiz Flores; Fernando Constantino Casas; José Antonio Quintana López; Carlos Cedillo Peláez; Odette Urquiza Bravo

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la patogenia de Salmonella enteritidis fagotipo 13a (SE FT 13a) y de Salmonella enteritidis biovar Issatschenko fagotipo 6a (SI) en pollitos de engorda de cuatro días de edad. Veintiocho aves por tratamiento fueron inoculadas con dosis de 1 × 108 (SE FT 13a) y 1 × 109 (SI), respectivamente, y 14 pollitos fueron inoculados con solución salina fi siológica (SSF), como testigos negativos. Se tomaron muestras de hígado, bazo, corazón, pulmón, buche,...

  19. Biovar diversity is reflected by variations of genes encoding urease of Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruifu, Y; Minli, Z; Guo, Z; Wang, X

    1997-01-01

    Five oligonucleotide primers derived from the gene encoding urease of Ureaplasma urealyticum were designed to evaluate the relationship between the urease gene and biovar diversity of this organism. Five combinations of these primers were tested by PCR and the result revealed that there were variations in urease genes among different serovars of U. urealyticum. This result, in agreement with other PCRs based on other functionally unrelated (rRNA and MB antigen) genes, may reflect the phylogenetic relationship among organisms taxonomically classified as U. urealyticum. PMID:9310943

  20. Biovar diversity is reflected by variations of genes encoding urease of Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruifu, Y; Minli, Z; Guo, Z; Wang, X

    1997-01-01

    Five oligonucleotide primers derived from the gene encoding urease of Ureaplasma urealyticum were designed to evaluate the relationship between the urease gene and biovar diversity of this organism. Five combinations of these primers were tested by PCR and the result revealed that there were variations in urease genes among different serovars of U. urealyticum. This result, in agreement with other PCRs based on other functionally unrelated (rRNA and MB antigen) genes, may reflect the phylogenetic relationship among organisms taxonomically classified as U. urealyticum.

  1. Variability among Rhizobium Strains Originating from Nodules of Vicia faba

    OpenAIRE

    van Berkum, P; Beyene, D; Vera, F. T.; Keyser, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    Rhizobium strains from nodules of Vicia faba were diverse in plasmid content and serology. Results of multilocus gel electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism indicated several deep chromosomal lineages among the strains. Linkage disequilibrium among the chromosomal types was detected and may have reflected variation of Rhizobium strains in the different geographical locations from which the strains originated. An investigation of pea strains with antibodies prepared agains...

  2. Vicia vulcanorum (Fabaceae a new species from the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Mateos, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.

  3. Biological soil disinfestation (BSD), a new control method for potato brown rot, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Wenneker, M.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Janse, J.D.; Coenen, G.C.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Blok, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    The potential of Biological Soil Disinfestation (BSD) to control potato brown rot, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, was investigated. BSD involves the induction of anaerobic soil conditions by increasing microbial respiration through incorporation of fresh organic amendments (here:

  4. Physiological and serological variation in S. mitis biovar 1 from the human oral cavity during the first year of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchherr, Jennifer L.; Bowden, George H.; Cole, Michael F.; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Richmond, Dorothy A.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Wirth, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The purpose of the study was to explore the physiological and antigenic diversity of a large number of S. mitis biovar 1 isolates in order to begin to determine whether these properties contribute to species persistence. Design S. mitis biovar 1 was collected from four infants from birth to one year of age. At each of 8–9 visits 60 isolates each were obtained from the cheeks, tongue and incisors (once erupted) yielding 4,440 in total. These were tested for production of neuraminidase, β1-N-acetylglucosaminidase, β1-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, IgA1 protease, and amylase-binding. Antigenic diversity was examined by ELISA and Western immunoblotting using antisera raised against S. mitis biovar 1 NCTC 12261T and SK145. Results 3,330 (75%) of the isolates were identified as S. mitis biovar 1 and 3,144 (94.4%) could be divided into four large phenotypic groups based on glycosidase production. 54% of the isolates produced IgA1 protease, but production was disproportionate among the phenotypes. Between 1/3 to 1/2 of the strains of each phenotype bound salivary α-amylase. Antisera against strains NCTC 12261T and SK145 displayed different patterns of reactivity with randomly selected representatives of the four phenotypes. Conclusions S. mitis biovar 1 is physiologically and antigenically diverse, properties which could aid strains in avoiding host immunity and promote re-colonization of a habitat or transfer to a new habitat. PMID:17045561

  5. Interacción de Tsukamurella paurometabola C-924 con Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH en el cultivo de frijol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Marín Bruzos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluaron, mediante análisis de los parámetros fenológicos de las plantas, la interacción de Tsukamurella paurometabola C-924 con Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH en el cultivo de frijol. Se emplearon cuatro tratamientos: plantas sin inocular (control, inoculadas con T. paurometabola C-924, inoculadas con R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH e inoculadas con ambas cepas. Se observaron diferencias significativas (P < 0.01 en los porcentajes de germinación de las plantas tratadas con microorganismos de forma independiente o conjunta con respecto al control sin inocular. Se determinó que la inoculación de T. paurometabola C-924 afectó el proceso de nodulación de R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH. Sin embargo, esto no incidió de manera significativa en la altura de las plantas ni en el diámetro del tallo, ya que no se encontraron diferencias entre los tratamientos para estos parámetros. Para el número de hojas, los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con la aplicación de T. paurometabola C-924. Se concluyó que la interacción de T. paurometabola C-924 con R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH en el frijol estimuló significativamente la germinación de las semillas y el número de hojas de las plantas con respecto al control sin inocular. Aunque la aplicación de T. paurometabola C-924 no favoreció la nodulación de R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH, esto no afectó las características fenológicas del cultivo.

  6. Transformation of Vicia narbonensis via Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickardt, T; Meixner, M; Schade, V; Schieder, O

    1991-02-01

    Shoot tips and epicotyl-segments of Vicia narbonensis were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 pGV 3850 HPT, carrying a plasmid coding for hygromycin-phosphotransferase. On callus-induction medium containing 60 mg/l hygromycin for selection, approximately 18% of the explants produced hygromycin-resistant callus. After transfer to regeneration-medium these calluses produced hygromycin-resistant and nopaline-positive somatic embryos which could be regenerated to plantlets. The integration of the T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by Southern analysis.

  7. Variability among Rhizobium Strains Originating from Nodules of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkum, P; Beyene, D; Vera, F T; Keyser, H H

    1995-07-01

    Rhizobium strains from nodules of Vicia faba were diverse in plasmid content and serology. Results of multilocus gel electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism indicated several deep chromosomal lineages among the strains. Linkage disequilibrium among the chromosomal types was detected and may have reflected variation of Rhizobium strains in the different geographical locations from which the strains originated. An investigation of pea strains with antibodies prepared against fava bean strains and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, targeting DNA regions coding for rRNA and nodulation, indicated that Rhizobium strains from V. faba nodules were distinguishable from those from Pisum sativum, V. villosa, and Trifolium spp. PMID:16535075

  8. [Studies on the chemical constitutens of Vicia amoena Fisch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, F; Yan, W M

    1997-10-01

    One new flavonoide was isolated from Vicia amoena Fisch. On the basis of spectral (UV, MS, NMR) and chemical reactions, it was elucidated to be kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-mannoside, named amoenin(A3). Moreover, five known compounds have been isolated and identified as quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3, 7-O-alpha-L-dirhamoside. The total flavonoides showed significant effects on inducing hyperlipidemia and increasing micro-blood vessel elasticity. PMID:11596220

  9. Environmental Factors Influencing Numbers of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii and Its Bacteriophages in Two Field Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, K A; Barnet, Y M; McGilchrist, C A

    1987-05-01

    Fluctuations in numbers of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii and its bacteriophages in two fields with different soil types were followed during a 17-month period in 1981 and 1982. Mean levels of both phage and rhizobia varied significantly (P soil and phage from 0 to 1.7 x 10 PFU/g of soil. Multivariate regression analysis showed rhizobial levels to be significantly and positively related to vegetation height and solar radiation, but not to mean temperature, precipitation, soil matric potential, or soil type. Rhizobiophage concentrations were significantly and positively related to soil matric potential and vegetation height. They were reduced in the silty clay loam soil, although the presence of 34% clay did not prevent phage multiplication and the occurrence of high phage levels. PMID:16347339

  10. Results of preliminary investigations at radio sensitivity of bean (Vicia faba L.) on fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of bean (Vicia faba L.) were irradiated with fast neutrons. The radiation doses applied ranged from 40 to 600 rads. Then irradiated seeds were sowed. During bean vegetation radiation effects were observed. (A.S.)

  11. Mutagenic effects of chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓徽

    2004-01-01

    In this study on the mutagenic effects of different concentrations of chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Vicia faba root tip, micronucleus assay and chromosome aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic indexes, micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. The results showed that the effects of CrO3 concentration on the mitotic indexes were complicated. CrO3 increases the micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. It was found that within certain range of CrO3 concentration the micronucleus rate increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3, but that the micronucleus rate decreased at higher level of CrO3 and that CrO3 also caused various types of chromosome aberration at a rate which increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3. We concluded that CrO3 has significant mutagenic effect on Vicia faba root tip cells.

  12. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Portuguese Cultivated Vicia faba L. through IRAP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Tomás

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean have been grown in Portugal for a long time and locally adapted populations are still maintained on farm. The genetic diversity of four Portuguese faba bean populations that are still cultivated in some regions of the country was evaluated using the Inter Retrotransposons Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP technique. It was shown that molecular markers based on retrotransposons previously identified in other species can be efficiently used in the genetic variability assessment of Vicia faba. The IRAP experiment targeting Athila yielded the most informative banding patterns. Cluster analysis using the neighbor-joining algorithm generated a dendrogram that clearly shows the distribution pattern of V. faba samples. The four equina accessions are separated from each other and form two distinct clades while the two major faba bean accessions are not unequivocally separated by the IRAP. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis of sequences amplified by IRAP Athila revealed a wide distribution throughout V. faba chromosomes, confirming the whole-genome coverage of this molecular marker. Morphological characteristics were also assessed through cluster analysis of seed characters using the unweighted pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA and principal component analysis (PCA, showing a clear discrimination between faba bean major and equina groups. It was also found that the seed character most relevant to distinguish accessions was 100 seed weight. Seed morphological traits and IRAP evaluation give similar results supporting the potential of IRAP analysis for genetic diversity studies.

  13. Brucella melitensis Biovar 1 and Brucella abortus S19 Vaccine Strain Infections in Milkers Working at Cattle Farms in the Khartoum Area, Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira E F Osman

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is a preventable zoonoses that may become persistent, causing, if left untreated, severe localized disease. Occupational exposure to infected animals or animal products and consumption of fresh contaminated dairy are main risk factors.One hundred farmworkers employed at two cattle farms one in Khartoum North and one in Omdurman were screened for the presence of specific antibodies and seropositive workers were invited to donate a blood sample for blood culture. Molecular typing was used to characterize Brucella isolates.Ten percent of farmworkers tested seropositive and while Brucella melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the blood of three individuals, an isolate identical to the B. abortus S19 vaccine strain was isolated from a fourth person. All four bacteremic individuals were employed as milkers and did not have obvious disease.The isolation of the highly infectious pathogen B. melitensis from seropositive workers is consistent with the notion that the pathogen may persist in the blood without causing overt disease. While vaccination with strain S19 is essential for the control of bovine brucellosis the vaccine strain may be transmitted to the human population and protective measures remain important to prevent exposure also in view of the presence of B. melitensis. To create awareness for this potentially severe disease more information on the prevalence of the pathogen in different risk groups and in livestock in the Sudan is needed.

  14. Brucella melitensis Biovar 1 and Brucella abortus S19 Vaccine Strain Infections in Milkers Working at Cattle Farms in the Khartoum Area, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Amira E. F.; Hassan, Abdullahi N.; Ali, Ali E.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human brucellosis is a preventable zoonoses that may become persistent, causing, if left untreated, severe localized disease. Occupational exposure to infected animals or animal products and consumption of fresh contaminated dairy are main risk factors. Methods One hundred farmworkers employed at two cattle farms one in Khartoum North and one in Omdurman were screened for the presence of specific antibodies and seropositive workers were invited to donate a blood sample for blood culture. Molecular typing was used to characterize Brucella isolates. Results Ten percent of farmworkers tested seropositive and while Brucella melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the blood of three individuals, an isolate identical to the B. abortus S19 vaccine strain was isolated from a fourth person. All four bacteremic individuals were employed as milkers and did not have obvious disease. Conclusions The isolation of the highly infectious pathogen B. melitensis from seropositive workers is consistent with the notion that the pathogen may persist in the blood without causing overt disease. While vaccination with strain S19 is essential for the control of bovine brucellosis the vaccine strain may be transmitted to the human population and protective measures remain important to prevent exposure also in view of the presence of B. melitensis. To create awareness for this potentially severe disease more information on the prevalence of the pathogen in different risk groups and in livestock in the Sudan is needed. PMID:25938483

  15. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and typing of Brucella melitensis biovar 2 in lactating cows in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel El-Gohary

    2016-09-01

    Results: The results showed that the overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 339 (7.25% by BAPAT, 332 (7.1% by RBPT, and 329 (7.04% by CFT. The results revealed that, 42 (8.6%, 5 (1.4% and 292 (7.6% sera were positive for brucellosis by BAPAT in the cows of Al-Wafra, Al-Kabed and Al-Salebia areas, respectively. Whereas, their respective number and seroreactive cases by RBPT were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 288 (7.4%. Similarly, as confirmatory test by CFT, the number and seroreactive cases in these areas were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 285 (7.46%. MRT revealed that the average positive case was 61.67% (59.46% in Al-Wafra; 60% in Al-Kabed and 66.6% in Al-Salebia. Two Brucella isolates could be recovered from the stomach content of the two aborted feti and typed as Brucella melitensis biovar 2. Conclusion: Brucellosis is prevalent among lactating cows in Kuwait. This indicates the potential role of these dairy animals in disseminating and spread of such zoonosis to human. Considering public health significance, appropriate preventive measures are suggestive for combating brucellosis in Kuwait. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 229-235

  16. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  17. Nuclear DNA content and ultrastructure of secretory cells of Vicia faba L. stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Wróbel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of study was the level of nuclear DNA and the ultrastructural transformations in the secretory cells of the stigma in Vicia faba L. It has been found that the stigmal cells which are active in biogenesis and exudate secretion are diploid cells whose differentiation starts from 2C DNA level. The presence of a population of nuclei with an amount DNA of about 2.5 C suggests that the metabolic activity of those cells may be regulated through supplementary incomplete replication. The ultrastructural transformations of secretory cells point to three stages of biogenesis and secretion of exudate. Stage I, before the start of the cell's secretory functions, is characterized by the development of the protein synthesizing apparatus and the activity of dictyosomes. In development stage II vesicular electron-transparent exudate is secreted. Stage III of exudate biogenesis is production of lipids. They form mainly in the plastids and are secreted with the involvement of the cell's vacuolar system.

  18. Population dynamics of Streptococcus mitis in its natural habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, J.; Reinholdt, Jesper; Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    endonuclease analysis (REA) and representative clones were typed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). The genetic diversity of the S. mitis biovar 1 isolates collected from single infant hosts over a period of 9 to 10 months was found to be between 0.69 and 0.76, which is considerably higher than...... the structure of the bacterial population. Consecutive samples were collected from buccal and pharyngeal mucosal surfaces of two infants, their four parents, and two elderly individuals over a period of approximately 1 year. A total of 751 isolates identified as S. mitis biovar 1 were typed by restriction...

  19. Biovars and Serotypes of Ureaplasma Urealyticum among Chinese Women Undergoing Routine Gynecologic Exam, Women with Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Female Sex Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任翊; 赵春慧; 朱学骏

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize the distribution pattern ofbiovars and serotypes of Ureaplasma urealyticum in normalhealthy women, sexually transmitted infections clinic clients,and in sex workers. Methods: We cultured cervical swabs taken from 261physical check-up clients, 599 STI clinic outpatients and 98 sexworkers using commercial selective medium. Some positivecultures were further biotyped and serotyped by PCR. Results: (1) U. urealyticum is more commonly isolated in sexworkers (90.8%) than in the physical check-up group (60.9%)or the STI outpatient group (61.3%) (P < 0.001). (2) Biovar 1of U. urealyticum (95.0%), especially single infection ofserotype 1, 3, and 6 of biovar 1, is commonly found in healthywomen. (3) Biovar 2 infection of U. urealyticum is moreprevalent in sex workers (28.1%) and STI outpatients group(26.6%) than that in the physical check-up group (4.9%) (P <0.001). (4) Mixed infection caused by more than one serotypeof U. urealyticum increased from physical check-up group(8.6%) to STI outpatients (12.4%) to sex workers (23.9%) (P <0.01). (5) There is no statistically significant difference in thedistribution of serotype 1, 3, and 6 of biovar 1 among thesethree groups (P=0.763). (6) The PCR method described here isrelatively simple, rapid and specific for the biotyping andserotyping of biovar 1 of U. urealyticum. Conclusion: We should pay more attention to biovar 2 andmixed infections of U. urealyticum than single infection ofbiovar 1 in clinic practice. PCR is a good method for biotypingand serotyping.

  20. Sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes induced by propoxur following plant activation by Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Calderón-Segura, M E; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1995-01-01

    Because the carbamate insecticide propoxur induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba but was ineffective in producing SCE in lymphocytes in culture, it was hardly suspected that plant metabolism was involved. Experiments were conducted in which metabolic activation was afforded by Vicia faba roots, and SCE in human lymphocytes in vitro was used to assess cytogenetic damage. Several concentrations of propoxur (250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm) were applied for 4 hr to the roots of Vicia faba. Extracts prepared from these treatments were added to the lymphocyte cultures and a significant increase of SCE frequencies with a concentration-response relationship could be detected. The lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and the proliferation rate index (PRI) were not affected (except in the highest concentration, of 2,000 ppm). This general behavior was in agreement with the presence of an enzymatic system (S10 fraction) in Vicia roots capable of metabolizing or activating the propoxur. With 2,000 ppm, cell necrosis was produced in Vicia; therefore, this extract did not induce SCE in lymphocytes. However, lymphocyte proliferation kinetics were delayed and PRI was significantly decreased. Ethanol, a promutagen activated by this plant, was applied directly to the lymphocyte cultures as a positive control, and the response was negative. On the other hand, the extracts of roots treated with ethanol increased the SCE to more than twice that of the negative control, but the lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and PRI were not affected.

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Cool Virulence Factors of Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanhong Meng

    Full Text Available While most strains of the plant pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum are tropical, the race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2 subgroup attacks plants in cooler climates. To identify mechanisms underlying this trait, we compared the transcriptional profiles of R. solanacearum R3bv2 strain UW551 and tropical strain GMI1000 at 20°C and 28°C, both in culture and during tomato pathogenesis. 4.2% of the ORFs in the UW551 genome and 7.9% of the GMI1000 ORFs were differentially expressed by temperature in planta. The two strains had distinct transcriptional responses to temperature change. GMI1000 up-regulated several stress response genes at 20°C, apparently struggling to cope with plant defenses. At the cooler temperature, R3bv2 strain UW551 up-regulated a cluster encoding a mannose-fucose binding lectin, LecM; a quorum sensing-dependent protein, AidA; and a related hypothetical protein, AidC. The last two genes are absent from the GMI1000 genome. In UW551, all three genes were positively regulated by the adjacent SolI/R quorum sensing system. These temperature-responsive genes were required for full virulence in R3bv2. Mutants lacking lecM, aidA, or aidC were each significantly more reduced in virulence on tomato at 20°C than at 28°C in both a naturalistic soil soak inoculation assay and when they were inoculated directly into tomato stems. The lecM and aidC mutants also survived poorly in potato tubers at the seed tuber storage temperature of 4°C, and the lecM mutant was defective in biofilm formation in vitro. Together, these results suggest novel mechanisms, including a lectin, are involved in the unique temperate epidemiology of R3bv2.

  2. Virulence determinants of Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Pullorum identified by PCR signature-tagged mutagenesis and the spiC mutant as a candidate live attenuated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shizhong; Jiao, Xinan; Barrow, Paul; Pan, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang

    2014-01-31

    Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (S. Gallinarum biovar Pullorum) is the causative agent of pullorum disease (PD) in chickens which results in considerable economic losses to the poultry industries in developing countries. PCR-Signature Tagged Mutagenesis was used to identify virulence determinants of S. Gallinarum biovar Pullorum and novel attenuated live vaccine candidates for use against this disease. A library of 1800 signature-tagged S. Gallinarum biovar Pullorum mutants was constructed and screened for virulence-associated genes in chickens. The attenuation of 10 mutants was confirmed by in vivo and in vitro competitive index (CI) studies. The transposons were found to be located in SPI-1 (2/10 mutants), SPI-2 (3/10), the virulence plasmid (1/10) and non-SPI genes (4/10). One highly attenuated spiC mutant persisted in spleen and liver for less than 10 days and induced high levels of circulating antibody and protective immunity against oral challenge in young broiler chickens. The spiC mutant is a potential new vaccine candidate for use with chickens against this disease. PMID:24355532

  3. Moderate temperature fluctuations rapidly reduce the viability of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2, in infected geranium, tomato, and potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, Jacob M; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

    2010-11-01

    Most Ralstonia solanacearum strains are tropical plant pathogens, but race 3, biovar 2 (R3bv2), strains can cause bacterial wilt in temperate zones or tropical highlands where other strains cannot. R3bv2 is a quarantine pathogen in North America and Europe because of its potential to damage the potato industry in cooler climates. However, R3bv2 will not become established if it cannot survive temperate winters. Previous experiments showed that in water at 4°C, R3bv2 does not survive as long as native U.S. strains, but R3bv2 remains viable longer than U.S. strains in potato tubers at 4°C. To further investigate the effects of temperature on this high-concern pathogen, we assessed the ability of R3bv2 and a native U.S. strain to survive typical temperate winter temperature cycles of 2 days at 5°C followed by 2 days at -10°C. We measured pathogen survival in infected tomato and geranium plants, in infected potato tubers, and in sterile water. The population sizes of both strains declined rapidly under these conditions in all three plant hosts and in sterile water, and no culturable R. solanacearum cells were detected after five to seven temperature cycles in plant tissue. The fluctuations played a critical role in loss of bacterial viability, since at a constant temperature of -20°C, both strains could survive in infected geranium tissue for at least 6 months. These results suggest that even when sheltered in infected plant tissue, R3bv2 is unlikely to survive the temperature fluctuations typical of a northern temperate winter.

  4. On the presence of Vicia vicioides in Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Haase, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Please read the Spanish version of this Abstract.

    En el presente trabajo se actualiza el conocimiento corológico de la leguminosa Vicia vicioides (Desf. Cout. en la provincia de Alicante, aportando información sobre cinco nuevas poblaciones, que se añaden a la única localidad conocida previamente.

  5. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  6. Identification of integrin-like in guard cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We addressed the existence and localization of integrin-like in guard cells of Vicia faba by using a probe of polyclonal antibody against the human integrin (avb3/b5). Western blot results showed that three integrins-like of about 47.3, 43.7 and 41.1 ku were detected from the preparation of membrane fragments of purified guard cell protoplasts. Further research with immunofluorescent scanning micro-scopy indicated that those integrins-like were localized on plasma membrane of guard cells, most nearing the dorsal wall, which is consistent with the reception of signals from epidermal cells to guard cells. Thus our results indicate, for the first time, that integrins-like are present at guard cell plasma membrane of Vicia faba.

  7. Isolation and biological activity of a new plant growth regulator of Vicia faba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasmonic acid was identified as a plant growth inhibitor of the pericarp of Vicia faba by means of gas-liquid chromatography, high resolution mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C NMR. The highest level of jasmonic acid was reached during intensive pericarp growth. Jasmonic acid is a plant growth inhibitor possessing a relative activity in the wheat seedling bioassay of 1-2.5 % compared to ABA (=100%). Contrary to ABA, jasmonic acid does not cause retardation of leaf emergence. In the dwarf rice gibberellin bioassay relative low concentrations of jasmonic acid inhibit both autonomous and GA3-stimulated growth. Jasmonic acid does not influence seed germination of Amaranthus caudatus. The possible physiological role of jasmonic acid in the Vicia pericarp and the distribution in plants of this new plant growth regulator type are discussed. (author)

  8. Mutagenic effects of chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓薇

    2004-01-01

    In this study on the mutagenic effects of different concentrations of chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Vicia faba root tip, micronucleus assay and chromosome aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic indexes, micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate of Viciafaba root tip cells. The results showed that the effects of CrO3 concentration on the mitotic indexes were complicated. CrO3 increases the micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. It was found that within certain range of CrO3 concentration the micronucleus rate increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3, but that the micronucleus rate decreased at higher level of CrO3 and that CrO3 also caused various types of chromosome aberration at a rate which increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3. We concluded that CrO3 has significant mutagenic effect on Viciafaba root tip cells.

  9. Isolation and expression of an aquaporin-like gene VfPIP1 in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xianghuan; HAO Fushun; CHEN Hui; CAI Jinghui; CHEN Jia; WANG Xuechen

    2005-01-01

    To explore the effects of aquaporins on stomatal movement, we isolated a full length cDNA of aquaporin-like gene VfPIP1 ( Vicia faba plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene, GenBank accession number: AY667436), which encodes for a 290-amino-acid polypeptide, from Vicia faba leaf epidermis by 5′/3′ RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The analyses of VfPIP1 transmembrane regions and amino acid sequence show that VfPIP1 owns six membrane-spanning domains and the special plasma membrane signature sequences GGGANXXXXGY and TGI/TNPARSL/FGAAI/VI/VF/YN, and it should be a member of PIP1 subfamily. The results of in situ hybridization and Northern blot indicate that VfPIP1 is strongly expressed in guard cells and induced by ABA. Hereby, VfPIP1 may be involved in the water-transmembrane movement of guard cells.

  10. Doğal Olarak Yetişen Kuş Fiği (Vicia cracca L.)’nin Bazı Bitkisel Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    KARAKURT, Erol

    2013-01-01

     This study was carried out in Kayseri- Sarız region where bird vetch (Vicia cracca L.) grows naturally in fields and pastures which farmers use to feed animals. In this research 50 bird vetch population obtained from different areas were tested for their some plant characteristics. Plant height, main stem height, number of main branches, leaflet number per leaf, leaf height, number of pods per plant, pod lenght, seed number per pod were determined. The results of two years of study; plant he...

  11. Genetic relationships between clinical and non-clinical strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A as revealed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and multilocus restriction typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virdi Jugsharan S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic relationships among 81 strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources were discerned by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE and multilocus restriction typing (MLRT using six loci each. Such studies may reveal associations between the genotypes of the strains and their sources of isolation. Results All loci were polymorphic and generated 62 electrophoretic types (ETs and 12 restriction types (RTs. The mean genetic diversity (H of the strains by MLEE and MLRT was 0.566 and 0.441 respectively. MLEE (DI = 0.98 was more discriminatory and clustered Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A strains into four groups, while MLRT (DI = 0.77 identified two distinct groups. BURST (Based Upon Related Sequence Types analysis of the MLRT data suggested aquatic serotype O:6,30-6,31 isolates to be the ancestral strains from which, clinical O:6,30-6,31 strains might have originated by host adaptation and genetic change. Conclusion MLEE revealed greater genetic diversity among strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A and clustered strains in four groups, while MLRT grouped the strains into two groups. BURST analysis of MLRT data nevertheless provided newer insights into the probable evolution of clinical strains from aquatic strains.

  12. A note on the earliest distribution, cultivation and genetic changes in bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia in ancient Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L. Willd. was a part of the everyday diet of the Eurasian Neanderthal population and the modern human Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. The major criteria to determine the domestication in bitter vetch and other ancient grain legumes are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed testa. Bitter vetch seeds were found among the earliest findings of cultivated crops at the site of Tell El-Kerkh, Syria, from 10th millennium BP. Along with cereals, pea and lentil, bitter vetch has become definitely associated with the start of the 'agricultural revolution' in the Old World. Bitter vetch entered Europe in its south-east regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Its distribution was rapid, since the available evidence reveals its presence in remote places at similar periods. Recently the first success has been obtained in the extraction of ancient DNA from charred bitter vetch seeds. The linguistic evidence supports the fact that most of Eurasian peoples have their own words denoting bitter vetch, meaning that its cultivation preceded the diversification of their own proto-languages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31024 i br. 173005

  13. Red light stimulates an electrogenic proton pump in Vicia guard cell protoplasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, E E; Zeiger, E; Hagiwara, S.

    1988-01-01

    Stomatal opening in response to light has a component that matches the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll; however, the intervening sensory transduction steps are not well understood. To study this process, we illuminated Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts with red light and simultaneously recorded current flow across the plasma membrane, utilizing the patch clamp technique in the whole cell configuration. We report evidence that under voltage clamp conditions, red light (1 mmol of photons.m-2...

  14. Micronucleus induction by low doses of X-rays in Vicia faba root tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the micronucleus test in Vicia faba root tips (VM test) were carried out in order to estimate the effects at low doses of X-rays (1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 R). The control value of micronucleus frequency is about 0.44/1000 cells. The dose where the micronucleus frequency is twice that of the control was estimated at 1.384 R. There was a linear kinetic dose response for the low-dose range studied here. (Auth.)

  15. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.) Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sener AKINCI; Tamer B�Y�KKESK?N; Ahmet ERO?LU; Birsen Eygi ERDO?AN

    2009-01-01

    Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected...

  16. Einfluss von Saatzeit und Strohmulch auf Blattlausbesiedelung und Viruserkrankungen in Fababohnen (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Saucke, Helmut; Juergens, Monique; Döring, Thomas Felix; Fittje, Susanne; Lesemann, Dietrich-Eckhard; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2008-01-01

    Fababohnen (Vicia faba L.) nehmen in der Ökologischen Landwirtschaft als Protein- und N-Quelle eine wichtige Stellung in der Fruchtfolge ein (Lampkin 1994; Müller & von Fragstein und Niemsdorff 2006). Als ertragslimitierende Faktoren spielen neben Wasserknappheit auch Schaderreger wie Insekten, Pilze und verschiedene Viruserkrankungen (Cockbain 1983) eine wichtige Rolle. Virusbedingte Ertragseinbußen wurden von Schmidt (1984) in konventionellen Fababohnen Ostdeutschlands auf jährlich ca. 8% g...

  17. Effects of copper on germination and reserve mobilization in Vicia sativa L. seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of different copper concentrations on percentage germination, increase in fresh weight and radicle growth of Vicia sativa L. seeds were studied. Physiological studies showed that the germination rate was not affected up to a concentration of 5 × 10−3 M, but already at 10−3 M the copper stopped root elongation. Structural and ultrastructural observations of embryo and cotyledon reserve mobilization showed that inhibition of radicle growth at 10−3 M Cu concentration cannot be ascribed to nutrient shortage but probably to an effect of copper on radicle cell division and elongation. In seeds treated with 5 × 10−3 M CuBr2, the copper completely inhibited cotyledon protein mobilization, so that embryo protein mobilization supported normal growth of the radicle up to 30 h after imbibition. The particular protein content of adjacent cotyledon cells is also discussed. -- Highlights: •The effects of copper on germinative metabolism of Vicia sativa were investigated. •The limit of Cu tolerance for germinative metabolism was between 10−4 and 10−3 M. •Copper excess allowed the germination but arrested the radicle growth. •Ultrastructural studies allowed to determine the possible causes of root growth stop. -- Copper excess allowed germination but arrested radicle growth in Vicia sativa L. seeds

  18. Meiotic changes in Vicia faba L. subsequent to treatments of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Husain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of mutagens for creating variations in crops like faba bean (Vicia faba L. is an important criterion in the contemporary world where food insecurity and malnutrition is alarming at the doors of various nations. Impact of two chemical mutagens viz. hydrazine hydrate (HZ and maleic hydrazide (MH on the two varieties (NDF-1 and HB-405 of Vicia faba were analysed in terms of meiotic behavior and pollen sterility. Since there are not enough data about the effect of these mutagens on the chromosomal behaviors of Vicia faba, this study presents the role of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide as well as various types of chromosomal aberrations in crop improvement. The lower concentration of mutagens showed less pollen sterility compared to the higher concentrations. Manipulation of plant structural component to induce desirable alternations provides valuable material for the breeders and could be used favorably for increasing mutation rate and obtaining a desirable spectrum of mutation in faba beans based on preliminary studies of cell division.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vetch (Vicia sativa is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program.

  20. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs of β-lactamase gene (bla A or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes.

  1. 蚕豆根分泌物对紫色土有效养分及微生物数量的影响%Effects of faba bean (Vicia fabaL.) root exudate on soil available nutrients and microbial population in different purple soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁秀梅; 耿赛男; 郑梦圆; 习向银; 宋大利; 黄伏森

    2016-01-01

    levels (low level of 6 mL and high level of 12 mL) of concentrated solutions of faba bean root exudates added separately to three types of 60 g purple soils (acid purple soil, alkaline purple soil and neutral purple soil) in constant temperature box. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of faba bean root exudates on soil available nutrients and microbial population in different purple soils. The results showed that compared with the control, both alkali-hydrolysable N and pH decreased significantly while available P, K, Zn and Fe along with microbial population increased significantly in the three types of purple soil after adding concentrated solutions of faba bean root exudates to the soil. Moreover, the above trends increased with increasing level of the root extrudates. The decreasing effects of high amount of faba bean root exudates on soil alkali-hydrolysable N and pH were most obvious in acid purple soil compared with in alkali and neutral purple soils. However, the most significant increasing effect on soil bacteria and fungi amounts was also observed in acid purple soils. The above four indicators in acid purple soils with high level faba bean root exudates addition were respectively 68.00%, 95.49%, 4.51 times and 10.00 times those of the control. In alkali purple soils, the addition of high amount of concentrated faba bean root exudates showed most significantly increasing effects on soil available P, K, Zn and Fe contents, which were 4.48 times, 2.04 times, 147.00% and 128.00% of those of the control, respectively. In conclusion, there were different effects on soil available nutrients and soil microbial activity after faba bean root exudates addition to different types of purple soils. This had a profound effect on the fertility of cultivated purple soils in the study area.

  2. Vitamins A, C, and E and β-Carotene Content in Seeds of Seven Species of Vicia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet SAHIN; Yasar KIRAN; Fikret KARATAS; Senem SONMEZ

    2005-01-01

    To determine the vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene content of Vicia species that can be used in animal feed, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to investigate the vitamin and β-carotene content in mature and immature seeds of seven Vicia species (Vicia anatolica Turrill., V. ervilia (L.) Willd., V. michauxii Sprengel, V. mollis Boiss. et Hausskn. ex Boiss., V. noeana Reuter ex Boiss., V. peregrina L., and V. sericocarpa Fenzl.), which are useful plants in animal feed in the eastern Anatolia region in Turkey. The vitamin content was found to differ between mature and immature seeds. The levels of vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene were higher in mature seeds than in immature seeds (P < 0.01).

  3. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Effects of Some Turkish Fodder Plants Belongs to Fabaceae Family (Vicia villosa, Trifolium ochroleucum and Onobrychis altissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Erbil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Vicia villosa, Trifolium ochroleucum and Onobrychis altissima samples were investigated. For this purpose, plant extracts were tested against 3 fungus, 4 Gr(- and 3 Gr(+ bacteria; additionally the glutathione (GSH level and total phenolic content were measered spectrophtometrically and total antioxidant capacity (TAC was done by ELISA method. According to results methanolic extracts of Vicia villosa, Trifolium ochroleucum and Onobrychis altissima exhibited no antimicrobial activities against test microorganisms. Trifolium ochroleucum extract has the highest levels for GSH and TAC (462.06±25.89 mmol/L, 30.35±0.003 mg GAE/g dw respectively. Vicia villosa extract is showed the highest antioxidant capacity (4.416±0.107 mM.

  4. FIA functions as an early signal component of abscisic acid signal cascade in Vicia faba guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yusuke; Uraji, Misugi; Watanabe-Sugimoto, Megumi; Okuma, Eiji; Munemasa, Shintaro; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Iwai, Sumio; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    An abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive Vicia faba mutant, fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure) had previously been isolated. In this study, it was investigated how FIA functions in ABA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. Unlike ABA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), H(2)O(2), and nitric oxide (NO) induced stomatal closure in the fia mutant. ABA did not induce production of either reactive oxygen species or NO in the mutant. Moreover, ABA did not suppress inward-rectifying K(+) (K(in)) currents or activate ABA-activated protein kinase (AAPK) in mutant guard cells. These results suggest that FIA functions as an early signal component upstream of AAPK activation in ABA signalling but does not function in MeJA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. PMID:22131163

  5. FIA functions as an early signal component of abscisic acid signal cascade in Vicia faba guard cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Yusuke; Uraji, Misugi; Watanabe-Sugimoto, Megumi; Okuma, Eiji; Munemasa, Shintaro; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C.; Iwai, Sumio; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    An abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive Vicia faba mutant, fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure) had previously been isolated. In this study, it was investigated how FIA functions in ABA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. Unlike ABA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), H2O2, and nitric oxide (NO) induced stomatal closure in the fia mutant. ABA did not induce production of either reactive oxygen species or NO in the mutant. Moreover, ABA did not suppress inward-rectifying K+ (Kin) cur...

  6. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils; Evaluacion del Uso Agricola de Vicia sativa L. en Suelos Contaminados con Mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-03-08

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  7. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krehenbrink Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Results Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP, a twin-arginine translocase (TAT secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. Conclusion None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to

  8. Altered features in the secondary structure of Vicia faba 5.8s rRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar, R N; Wildeman, A G

    1981-01-01

    We have re-examined the nucleotide sequence of Vicia faba (broad bean) 5.8S rRNA using partial chemical degradation and a new approach to high temperature (65-80 degrees C) sequencing gels. The results indicate that the secondary structure was not completely disrupted in previous studies (Tanaka, Y., Dyer, T.A. and Brownlee, G.G. (1980) Nucleic Acid Res. 8, 1259-1272) and explain ambiguities between the nucleotide sequence and T1 ribonuclease digests. Despite this revision, estimates in the s...

  9. Prevalence and characterization of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum and Gallinarum from chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shafiullah Parvej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen responsible for animal and human diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and stereotyping of Salmonella isolates isolated from apparently healthy poultry. Furthermore, the clonal relatedness among the isolated Salmonella serovars was assessed. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cloacal swab samples from apparently healthy chickens were collected, and were subjected for the isolation and identification of associated Salmonella organisms. The isolated colonies were identified and characterized on the basis of morphology, cultural characters, biochemical tests, slide agglutination test, polymerase chain reaction, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns were also investigated using commonly used antibiotics. Results: Of the 150 samples, 11 (7.33% produced characteristics pink colony with black center on XLD agar medium, and all were culturally and biochemically confirmed to be Salmonella. All possessed serovar-specific gene SpeF and reacted uniformly with group D antisera, suggesting that all of the isolates were Salmonella Enterica serovar Gallinarum, biovar Pullorum and/or Gallinarum. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 54.54% of the isolated Salmonella Enterica serovars were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, whereas the 81.81% isolates were resistant to amoxycillin, doxycycline, kanamycin, gentamycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the XbaI-digested genomic DNA exhibited identical banding patterns, suggesting that the multidrug resistant Salmonella Enterica serovars occurring in commercial layers are highly clonal in Bangladesh. Conclusion: The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of poultry Salmonella in layer chicken and to find out the clonal relationship among them. The data in this study suggest the prevalence of Salmonella Enterica, which is multidrug resistant and

  10. Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days Growth of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2 Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days'Grown of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days Growth of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2 Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days'Grown of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2

  11. A SNP-based consensus genetic map for synteny-based trait targeting in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Anne; Cottage, Amanda; Wood, Thomas; Khamassi, Khalil; Hobbs, Douglas; Gostkiewicz, Krystyna; White, Mark; Khazaei, Hamid; Ali, Mohamed; Street, Daniel; Duc, Gérard; Stoddard, Fred L; Maalouf, Fouad; Ogbonnaya, Francis C; Link, Wolfgang; Thomas, Jane; O'Sullivan, Donal M

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a globally important nitrogen-fixing legume, which is widely grown in a diverse range of environments. In this work, we mine and validate a set of 845 SNPs from the aligned transcriptomes of two contrasting inbred lines. Each V. faba SNP is assigned by BLAST analysis to a single Medicago orthologue. This set of syntenically anchored polymorphisms were then validated as individual KASP assays, classified according to their informativeness and performance on a panel of 37 inbred lines, and the best performing 757 markers used to genotype six mapping populations. The six resulting linkage maps were merged into a single consensus map on which 687 SNPs were placed on six linkage groups, each presumed to correspond to one of the six V. faba chromosomes. This sequence-based consensus map was used to explore synteny with the most closely related crop species, lentil and the most closely related fully sequenced genome, Medicago. Large tracts of uninterrupted colinearity were found between faba bean and Medicago, making it relatively straightforward to predict gene content and order in mapped genetic interval. As a demonstration of this, we mapped a flower colour gene to a 2-cM interval of Vf chromosome 2 which was highly colinear with Mt3. The obvious candidate gene from 78 gene models in the collinear Medicago chromosome segment was the previously characterized MtWD40-1 gene controlling anthocyanin production in Medicago and resequencing of the Vf orthologue showed a putative causative deletion of the entire 5' end of the gene. PMID:25865502

  12. Transfer and loss of naturally-occuring plasmids among isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae in heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakzian, A.; Murphy, P.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid transfer among isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae in heavy metal contaminated soils from a long-term experiment in Braunschweig, Germany, was investigated under laboratory conditions. Three replicate samples each of four sterilized soils with total Zn contents of 54, 104, 208 and

  13. fungal disease resistance in vicia faba in relation to water stress and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced systemic resistance (Isr), as a recent strategy, achieving biological control of plant disease through initiation to form natural antibiotic compounds, phytoalexin, that considered to be involved in the defense mechanism of plant to potential pathogen. Also, phytoalexin formed by leguminosae in response to infection play an extremely role in disease resistance. Indeed, wyerone acid (C14H12O4) has been clearfield as a phytoalexin formed by Vicia faba in response to infection stress. Therefore, the present study was outlined to clearify the feasibility to biocontrol of checolate spot disease caused by Botrytis fabae in faba bean, Vicia faba, plants under field condition. Pre. Sowing seed irradiated with low gamma ray were planted in: 1- Three pot experiments (salinity-Ni-Si) in complete randomized block design in three replicates. 2- Two field experiments in loam soil irrigated with river nile water (inducers-Isr)) in splite-plot design in three replicates. 3- Two field experiments in sandy soil irrigated with two saline water from 2 shallow-wells (inducers-Isr) in split-split plot design in three replicates

  14. Genotoxic effects and induction of phytochelatins in the presence of cadmium in Vicia faba roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béraud, Eric; Cotelle, Sylvie; Leroy, Pierre; Férard, Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates different effects in roots of Vicia faba (broad bean) after exposure to cadmium. Genotoxic effects were assessed by use of the well-known Vicia root tip micronucleus assay. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the mitotic index in root tip cells. Finally, molecular induction mechanisms were evaluated by measuring phytochelatins with HPLC. After hydroponical exposure of V. faba roots to a range of cadmium concentrations and during different exposure times, the results of this approach showed large variations, according to the endpoint measured: after 48 h of exposure, genotoxic effects were found between 7.5 x 10(-8) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2), and cytotoxic effects were observed between 2.5 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2). Statistically significant phytochelatin (PC) concentrations were measured at >or=10(-6)M CdCl(2) for PC(2), and at >or=10(-5)M CdCl(2) for PC3 and PC4.

  15. Cytogenetic effects of leachates from tannery solid waste on the somatic cells of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saurabh; Chauhan, L K S; Pande, P N; Gupta, S K

    2004-04-01

    The contamination of surface- and groundwater by the leaching of solid wastes generated by industrial activities as a result of water runoff and rainfall is a matter of great concern. The leachates from tannery solid waste (TSW), a major environmental pollutant, were examined for their possible genotoxic effects on the somatic cells of Vicia faba. Leachates were prepared from solid wastes procured from leather-tanning industrial sites, and V. faba seedlings were exposed to three test concentrations, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, through soil and aqueous media for 5 days. The root tips examined for cytogenetic damage revealed that leachate of TSW significantly inhibited the mitotic index and induced significantly frequent chromosomal and mitotic aberrations (CA/MA) in a dose-dependent manner. The chemical analysis of TSW samples revealed that the chief constituents were chromium and nickel, which may cause genetic abnormalities. The frequency of aberrations was found to be higher in the root meristematic cells of Vicia faba exposed through the aqueous medium than those exposed through the soil medium. The results of the present study indicated that contamination of potable water bodies by leachates of TSW may cause genotoxicity. For the biomonitoring of complex mixtures of toxicants with the V. faba bioassay, the use of the aqueous medium seems to be a more promising method than the use of the soil medium. PMID:15037999

  16. Revised description and classification of atypical isolates of Pasteurella multocida from bovine lungs based on genotypic characterization to include variants previously classified as biovar 2 of Pasteurella canis and Pasteurella avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Angen, Øystein; Olsen, John E.;

    2004-01-01

    Strains deviating in key phenotypic characters, mainly isolated from cases of bovine pneumonia in five European countries, were genotyped in order to examine their genotypic relationship with Pasteurella multocida. Twenty-two strains of Pasteurella avium biovar 2, including variants in indole, xy...

  17. 低磷胁迫下箭筈豌豆和毛叶苕子根际过程的差异比较%Comparison of rhizosphere processes of Vicia sativa and Vicia villosa in response to phosphorus deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕阳; 程文达; 黄珂; 李晓卿; 曹卫东; 申建波

    2011-01-01

    采用我国北方两个豆科绿肥品种:箭筈豌豆(Vicia sativa L.)与毛叶苕子(Vicia villosa Both),在控制条件下通过不同供磷处理的营养液培养,研究了不同绿肥作物适应低磷胁迫根际过程的差异,并揭示其高效利用磷的机理.试验通过分次取样的方法,测定了两种豆科作物在缺磷与供磷条件下的生物量、根系质子释放速率、根系有机酸分泌速率以及根表酸性磷酸酶活性的动态.结果表明,箭筈豌豆与毛叶苕子在生长前期对低磷胁迫的响应存在明显差异.箭筈豌豆主要靠增大质子释放量和提高酸性磷酸酶活性来适应低磷胁迫;而毛叶苕子主要通过提高根冠比、扩大根系生物量来对外界环境中的缺磷状况做出响应,在缺磷时其根表酸性磷酸酶的活性显著提高.箭筈豌豆与毛叶苕子可通过协调根系形态和生理的适应性变化提高对磷的吸收.%China is rich in leguminous green manure resources, but the rhizosphere processes-based mechanisms of efficient nutrient acquisition and use were not fully understood.A pot experiment with hydroponics was conducted under a controlled condition in a growth chamber by adopting two popular green manure species, Vicia sativa L.and Vicia villosa Roth., in the North China to compare the difference in rhizosphere processes of these two legume species in association with their adaptation mechanisms to the phosphorus (P)-deficient stresses.In the present study, the biomass of shoots and roots, H +-release rate from the roots, carboxylate ( organic acid) exudation and acid phosphatase activity on the root surface were measured at interval of 6 d after the P-deficient treatment.There was an evident difference in adaptation mechanisms of both legume green manure species to P deficiency.The adaptation of Vicia sativa L.to P-deficient stress was dominantly dependent on enhanced H +-release rate and acid phosphatase activity on the root surface in

  18. Host Suitability of Twelve Leguminosae Species to Populations of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, G. D.; Rumbaugh, M D

    1996-01-01

    Legumes of the genera Astragalus (milkvetch), Coronilla (crownvetch), Lathyrus (pea vine), Lotus (birdsfoot trefoil), Medicago (alfalfa), Melilotus (clover), Trifolium (clover), and Vicia (common vetch) were inoculated with a population of Melaidogyne chitwoodi from Utah or with one of three M. hapla populations from California, Utah, and Wyoming.Thirty-nine percent to 86% of alfalfa (M. scutellata) and 10% to 55% of red clover (T. pratense) plants survived inoculation with the nematode popul...

  19. OER and RBE of high energy neutron beams for growth inhibition in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiobiologic characteristics of 15 MeV neutrons produced by the d+T reaction at the TNO of Rijswijk and of neutrons produced by the d(50)+Be and p(75)+Be reactions at the cyclotron Cyclone of Louvain-la-Neuve were compared. Growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots was used as biologic system. An OER value of 1.5+-0.1 was obtained for the neutron beams compared. The RBE of 15 MeV, d(50)+Be and p(75)+Be neutrons was found equal to 3.4 +- 0.2, 3.2 +- 0.2 and 2.9 +- 0.3, respectively, relative to gamma rays, for a total (n+γ) absorbed dose of 0.6 Gy. (Auth.)

  20. RBE and OER values of negative pion beams from growth inhibition of Vicia Faba roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two pion beams of different momentum width have been used to expose meristems of Vicia Faba roots under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. The measurements of the resulting 10 days growth inhibition after exposures at various locations on the pion beam axes have been made and RBE and OER values evaluated for 50% effects compared to 60Co γ-rays. The results have been related to the fractional doses from star products defined by telescope measurements of stopped pions along the same beams. It has been found that the RBE value increases with the fractional 'star dose' up to a maximum after which the RBE decreases. The OER values, however, were found to decrease with increasing 'star dose' fraction rather rapidly after which it was found to be independent of the 'star dose' contribution. (orig.)

  1. Vicia faba Hypersensitivity and ASA Intolerance in a Farmer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Damiani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The IgE-mediated allergic reactions to food are caused, generally, by ingestion. However, they can be rarely induced by exposure to airborne food particles through the handling or the cooking. Vicia faba is a vegetable which belongs to Legumes or Fabaceae family, Fabales order. Allergic reactions after ingestion of legumes and cases of asthma after exposure to the cooking vapors have been reported in the literature. A paper assessed the volatile substances (insect repellents released by V. faba. The authors demonstrated that this plant produces several chemical substances, such as small quantities of methyl salicylate. We describe a case of occupational allergy, induced by handling during picking up of fresh broad beans, in a farmer with history of adverse reaction after eating the cooked and raw vegetable.

  2. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  3. Amino acid sequence and variant forms of favin, a lectin from Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, T P; Hemperly, J J; Cunningham, B A

    1982-04-25

    We have determined the complete amino acid sequence (182 residues) of the beta chain of favin, the glucose-binding lectin from fava beans (Vicia faba), and have established that the carbohydrate moiety is attached to Asn 168. Together with the sequence of the alpha chain previously reported (Hemperly, J. J., Hopp, T. P., Becker, J. W., and Cunningham, B. A. (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 6803-6810), these data complete the analysis of the primary structure of the lectin. We have also examined minor polypeptides that appear in all preparations of favin. Two lower molecular weight species (Mr = 9,500-11,600) appear to be fragments of the beta chain resulting from cleavage following Asn 76, whereas six high molecular weight forms (Mr = 25,000 or greater) appear to include aggregates of the beta chain and possibly some alternative products of chain processing. PMID:7068646

  4. Post-transcriptional regulation of NifA expression by Hfq and RNase E complex in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghua Zhang; Guofan Hong

    2009-01-01

    NifA is the general transcriptional activator of nitrogen fixation genes in diazotrophic bacteria. In Rhizobium leguminosarum by. viciae strain 8401/pRL1JI, the NifA gene is part of a gene cluster (fixABCXNifAB). In this study, results showed that in R. leguminosarum by. viciae 8401/pRLI1I, host factor required (Hfq), and RNase E were involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of NifA expression. It was found that Hfq-dependent RNase E cleavage of NifA mRNA was essen-tial for NifA translation. The cleavage site is located at 32 nucleotides upstream of the NifA translational start codon. A possible explanation based on predicted RNA secondary structure of the NifA 5'-untranslated region was that the cleavage made ribosome-binding sites accessible for translation.

  5. Effects of endophyte colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae and Diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komivi S Akutse

    Full Text Available Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1 and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1 on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd and 3(rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68 and D. isaea (p = 0.45 and adult' survival times (p = 0.06. The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001 in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54 was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression.

  6. Environmental impact of sunscreen nanomaterials: Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of altered TiO2 nanocomposites on Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral sunscreen nanocomposites, based on a nano-TiO2 core, coated with aluminium hydroxide and dimethicone films, were submitted to an artificial ageing process. The resulting Altered TiO2 Nanocomposites (ATN) were then tested in the liquid phase on the plant model Vicia faba, which was exposed 48 h to three nominal concentrations: 5, 25 and 50 mg ATN/L. Plant growth, photosystem II maximum quantum yield, genotoxicity (micronucleus test) and phytochelatins levels showed no change compared to controls. Oxidative stress biomarkers remained unchanged in shoots while in roots, glutathione reductase activity decreased at 50 mg ATN/L and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased for 5 and 25 mg ATN/L. Nevertheless, despite the weak response of biological endpoints, ICP-MS measurements revealed high Ti and Al concentrations in roots, and X-ray fluorescence micro-spectroscopy revealed titanium internalization in superficial root tissues. Eventual long-term effects on plants may occur. - Highlights: → TiO2-containing sunscreen nanocomposites were artificially aged. → Vicia faba was exposed 48 h to the alteration byproducts in liquid phase. → Few endpoints were modified significantly from control. → A clogging on the roots and titanium penetration in tissues were suspected. → Eventual long-term effects of the particles may occur. - Artificially aged TiO2-containing sunscreen nanocomposites caused few damages to Vicia faba in 48 h exposure, but particles clogged on roots and Ti entered the root tissues.

  7. Environmental impact of sunscreen nanomaterials: Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of altered TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites on Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltete, Anne-Sophie, E-mail: as.foltete@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Masfaraud, Jean-Francois, E-mail: masfa@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Bigorgne, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.bigorgne@umail.univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Nahmani, Johanne, E-mail: Johanne.nahmani@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Chaurand, Perrine, E-mail: chaurand@cerege.fr [Centre Europeen de Recherches et d' Enseignement des Geosciences de l' Environnement (CEREGE), UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Mineral sunscreen nanocomposites, based on a nano-TiO{sub 2} core, coated with aluminium hydroxide and dimethicone films, were submitted to an artificial ageing process. The resulting Altered TiO{sub 2} Nanocomposites (ATN) were then tested in the liquid phase on the plant model Vicia faba, which was exposed 48 h to three nominal concentrations: 5, 25 and 50 mg ATN/L. Plant growth, photosystem II maximum quantum yield, genotoxicity (micronucleus test) and phytochelatins levels showed no change compared to controls. Oxidative stress biomarkers remained unchanged in shoots while in roots, glutathione reductase activity decreased at 50 mg ATN/L and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased for 5 and 25 mg ATN/L. Nevertheless, despite the weak response of biological endpoints, ICP-MS measurements revealed high Ti and Al concentrations in roots, and X-ray fluorescence micro-spectroscopy revealed titanium internalization in superficial root tissues. Eventual long-term effects on plants may occur. - Highlights: > TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites were artificially aged. > Vicia faba was exposed 48 h to the alteration byproducts in liquid phase. > Few endpoints were modified significantly from control. > A clogging on the roots and titanium penetration in tissues were suspected. > Eventual long-term effects of the particles may occur. - Artificially aged TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites caused few damages to Vicia faba in 48 h exposure, but particles clogged on roots and Ti entered the root tissues.

  8. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carhamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rate.s were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different. PMID:27548984

  9. Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins-- Addition of Bacillus Cereus Biovar Anthracis to the HHS List of Select Agents and Toxins. Interim final rule and request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is adding Bacillus cereus Biovar anthracis to the list of HHS select agents and toxins as a Tier 1 select agent. We are taking this action to regulate this agent that is similar to B. anthracis to prevent its misuse, which could cause a biological threat to public health and/or national security.

  10. Plant regeneration from protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, M; Kohn, H; Nibbe, M; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1996-11-01

    Protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis isolated from epicotyls and shoot tips of etiolated seedlings were embedded in 1.4% sodium-alginate at a final density of 2.5×10(5) protoplasts/ml and cultivated in Kao and Michayluk-medium containing 0.5 mg/I of each of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6 -benzylaminopurine. A division frequency of 36% and a plating efficiency of 0.40-0.5% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred onto gelrite-solidified Murashige and Skoog-media containing various growth regulators. Regeneration of plants was achieved via two morphologically distinguishable pathways. A two step protocol (initially on medium with a high auxin concentration followed by a culture phase with lowered auxin amount) was used to regenerate somatic embryos, whereas cultivation on medium containing thidiazuron and naphthylacetic acid resulted in shoot morphogenesis. Mature plants were recovered from both somatic embryos as well as from thidiazuron-induced shoots.

  11. The effects of low doses of different radiation qualities on Vicia faba bean root meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of low doses of different radiation qualities have been investigated using the micronuclei induction in Vicia faba bean roots as an indicator. The radiation qualities used were: 60Co-gamma rays, high energy neutrons (maximum energy 600 MeV), low energy neutrons (mean energy 2.35 MeV), negative pions in the plateau region and negative pions in the stopping region. It was found that the best fit to the gamma ray data was obtained by using a linear+quadratic relationship, while in the case of the other radiation qualities a linear equation, represented the best fit, implying the non-existence of a threshold dose. No dose-rate, fractionation or oxygen effect was found for gamma radiation in the low dose region (below 20cGy) where the linear dependence between effect and dose is dominant. In contrast, in the high dose region these effects were present as normally expected. Fractionation experiments were carried out using high energy neutrons and pion radiation. No recovery was observed after neutron radiation while some recovery was found for the pion radiation. The RBE values found for the two neutron energies were in the high dose region 4.7 +- 0.4 and 11.8 +- 1.3. In the low dose region the RBE value approached a constant value of 25.4 +- 4.4 for the high energy neutrons and 63.7 +- 12.0 for the low energy neutrons. (orig./MG)

  12. Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Salt Stress Response under Different Soil Organic Matter Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Matijević

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of saline water for crop irrigation leads to rhizosphere salinization, which affects plant element uptake, as well as trace elements (TEs accumulation in plant tissue. Moreover, imbalance in crop element uptake may reflect on crop productivity. Soil organic matter (SOM plays an important role in soil biogeochemical processes and especially affects trace element mobility and bioavailability. Therefore, it is an important factor for assessment of plant responses under varying ecological conditions, including salinity. A greenhouse pot experiment was set up to study the effects of saline irrigation and increased SOM on faba bean (Vicia faba L. salt stress response. Soil from arable land of Croatian coastal region was used for the trial. One half of the bulk of soil provided for the experiment was mixed with commercial peat (4:1 and two trial variants, unmodified and increased SOM content, were investigated. Two weeks after transplanting faba bean seedlings into pots, treatment with two levels of NaCl salinity (50 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively was applied in a nutrient solution. Control plants were included in the measurements as well. Saline irrigation as well as increased SOM affected certain element accumulation in bean plant (leaf, pod and/or seed, although no significant interaction between rhizosphere salinization and SOM was revealed.

  13. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L. seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares (PLS regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation (r2 of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  14. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Wang

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC, rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins.

  15. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sener AKINCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected both germination and harvesting, enhancing root length and biomass. Humic acid (HA caused significant increase of fresh (RFW and dry (RDW weights by 30.1% and 56.6% of broad bean roots, respectively. Flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analyses revealed that K content was major nutrient among the tested elements. Humic acid increased the contents of Na and K significantly. The content of Ca and Fe was not significantly increased whereas Cu, Mn and Zn content decreased under HA treatment.

  16. OER of californium-252 at low dose rate for growth inhibition in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OER of 252Cf, at low dose rate, has been determined for growth inhibition in Vicia faba roots. A new strain ''BelB'' was used; it was found to be more resistant to prolonged anoxia. Two sets of linear 252Cf sources were used (linear activity 0.31 and 0.47 (μg.cm-1)) in somewhat different geometrical arrangements. The (n+γ) 252Cf dose rates at the level of the root tips were 0.11 and 0.13 Gy.h-1 respectively. The relative contribution of the γ component Dsub(γ) to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) at the level of the root tips was evaluated Dsub(γ)/Dsub(n+γ)=0.35 for the first source-geometry and 0.42 for the second source-geometry. The reference radiation was the γ emission of 192Ir, used in the same geometrical conditions and for similar irradiation times. Irradiations performed in aerobic and anoxic conditions were alternated. OER values of 1.4 +- 0.1 and 1.5 +- 0.1 were observed for the 252Cf emission with the first and second source-geometry respectively. The corresponding OER values for 192Ir were 2.3 +- 0.2 and 2.6 +- 0.1; the derived oxygen gain factors were then equal to 1.6 and 1.7 repectively

  17. Short-term toxic effects of chlorobenzenes on broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wan; LI Peijun; ZHOU Qixing; SUN Tieheng; TAI Peidong; XU Huaxia

    2005-01-01

    The root growth, changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity,malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein level of broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings were researched at different soil concentrations of chlorobenzene (CB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The results showed that root growth of seedlings was growth was, however, restored to some extent although there was a delay in returning to the control level. The total soluble protein content in seedlings increased with TCB concentration and duration of exposure. Effect of TCB stress on SOD activity in seedlings displayed a significant were placed in clean tap water for 3 d following exposure to 5 d of TCB stress to clear tap water (P<0.05). The experiments also revealed that a significant increase of MDA level in seedlings was a positive correlation between TCB concentration and MDA level. All the above results showed that SOD activity and MDA level of broadbean seedlings might be proposed as the biomarkers for short-term TCB contamination in soil. Compared to TCB, the toxicity of 50-1000 μg · g-1 CB or HCB in soil to broadbean seedlings was not observed after a 3 d exposure.

  18. Microtubules Are Essential for Guard-Cell Function in Vicia and Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Eisinger; David Ehrhardt; Winslow Briggs

    2012-01-01

    Radially arranged cortical microtubules are a prominent feature of guard cells.Guard cells expressing GFPtubulin showed consistent changes in the appearance of microtubules when stomata opened or closed.Guard cells showed fewer microtubule structures as stomata closed,whether induced by transfer to darkness,ABA,hydrogen peroxide,or sodium hydrogen carbonate.Guard cells kept in the dark (closed stomata) showed increases in microtubule structures and stomatal aperture on light treatment.GFP-EB1,marking microtubule growing plus ends,showed no change in number of plus ends or velocity of assembly on stomatal closure.Since the number of growing plus ends and the rate of plus-end growth did not change when microtubule structure numbers declined,microtubule instability and/or rearrangement must be responsible for the apparent loss of microtubules.Guard cells with closed stomata showed more cytosolic GFP-fluorescence than those with open stomata as cortical microtubules became disassembled,although with a large net loss in total fluorescence.Microtubule-targeted drugs blocked guard-cell function in Vicia and Arabidopsis.Oryzalin disrupted guard-cell microtubules and prevented stomatal opening and taxol stabilized guard-cell microtubules and delayed stomatal closure.Gas exchange measurements indicated that the transgenes for fluorescent-labeled proteins did not disrupt normal stomatal function.These dynamic changes in guard-cell microtubules combined with our inhibitor studies provide evidence for an active role of microtubules in guard-cell function.

  19. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aradhana; Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from insecticides toxicity. The seeds of Vicia faba var IIVR Selection-1 were treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm) of the insecticides alphamethrin (AM) and endosulfan (ES) for 6 h with and without 12 h conditioning treatment of SA (0.01 mM). Insecticides treatment caused a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and induction of different types of chromosomal abnormalities in the meristematic cells of broad bean roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA resulted in increased MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities. SA application also regulated proline accumulation and carotenoid content in the leaf tissues. SA resulted in the decrement of insecticides induced increase in proline content and increased the carotenoids content. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is more effective in alleviating the toxic effects of insecticides at higher concentrations than that at lower concentrations.

  20. Growth of Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) in Soil Amended with Sewage Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out to study the influence of dry sewage sludge on yield of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.). Sewage sludge were collected from three different wastewater treatment plants and the application rates were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, and 100 Mt/ha on dry weight basis. The soil used in this experiment was collected from the University of Jordan Research Station located near Muwaqar village (50 km south-east of Amman). The experimental design was a factorial experiment arranged in randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. The soil moisture content was maintained at 60-65% of the field capacity of the control treatment. Plant yield was significantly affected by sludge treatments. The highest dry matter yield (29 gm/plant) was obtained at 30 Mt/ha of As-Salt sludge when harvested at 50-100% podding. In general, sewage applied at a rate ranged from 30-50 Mt/ha resulted in maximum plant height, maximum number of branches and maximum number of leaves/plant. Dry matter production was significantly positively correlated with plant height. Application of sewage sludge up to the 30 Mt/ha treatment improved the growth of the root system. It can be concluded that vetch plants grown on Muwaqar's soil amended with 30 Mt/ha As-Salt sludge rate produced the highest amount of hay (dry matter yield) suitable for animal feeding. ( Author's) 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 Tabs

  1. Carbon dynamics and aggregation in a Vicia faba crop: influence of management practice and cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Fernández, Juan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we assessed the influence of a legume crop (Vicia faba) on the soil properties related to the carbon (C) cycle and soil aggregation, taking into account two cultivars (Muchamiel and Palenca) and two different management practices (conventional and organic). The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. Faba bean crop spanned from 24 November 2014 to 2 March 2015. We took a soil sampling (0-30 cm) from each plot at the end of the cycle to measure soil organic C, recalcitrant C, labile C fractions, microbial biomass C (MBC), aggregate stability and the enzyme activities β-glucosidase, β-glucosaminidase, dehydrogenase, cellulose and arylesterase. Results showed that the cultivar and the management practice had no significant effect on any of the analyzed properties. Significant positive correlations were only observed between soil organic C and arylesterase activity, recalcitrant C and labile C fractions, and recalcitrant C with arylesterase and cellulase activities. So, it seems that the selected cultivars and management practices had similar effects on C dynamics and aggregation. Both management practices maintain the same levels of soil organic C, the different organic C pools, and aggregate stability. In addition, soil microorganisms are responding to the recalcitrant fraction of the organic carbon by release of cellulases and arylesterases. Acknowledgements: This research was financed by the FP7 European Project Eurolegume (FP7-KBBE- 613781).

  2. SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE WITH PEA PLANTS AS INFLUENCED BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the effects of A. chroococcum on the proliferation of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv in a solid-carrier inoculant and on symbiotic effectiveness of Rlv with pea plants grown under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory experiment it was found that proliferation of both bacterial species, Rlv and A. chroococcum, in the dual-culture inoculants was efficient, and that A. chroococcum had no adverse effects on the development of the rhizobia (Rlv in the solid-carrier inoculant. In a pot experiment the highest number of nodules was detected on roots of pea plants inoculated with the dual-culture inoculant containing Rlv and A. chroococcum, slightly lower numbers on pea roots inoculated with the mono-culture inoculum of Rlv and almost no nodules were found on the roots of pea un-inoculated (control treatment with the bacteria. In the micro-plot experiment conducted in the years 2011–2012 pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds with the mono-culture inoculant of Rlv or with the mixed inoculant of Rlv and A. chroococcum slightly increased nodule numbers/plant, pod numbers/plant and seed numbers/pod, as compared to the un-inoculated control, but these differences were not reflected in pea seed yields/m2, which were similar in all treatments.

  3. Effects of Glomus mosseae on the toxicity of heavy metals to Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu-hong; LIN Ai-jun; CHEN Bao-dong; WANG You-shan; SMITH Sally E; SMITH F Andrew

    2006-01-01

    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on the growth of Vicia faba and toxicity induced by heavy metals (HMs) (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) in a field soil contaminated by a mixture of these metals. There was also uninoculation treatment (NM) simultaneously. Mycorrhizal (GM) plants have significantly increased growth and tolerance to toxicity induced by heavy metals compared with NM plants. P uptake was significantly increased in GM plants. Mycorrhizal symbiosis reduced the transportation of HMs from root to shoot by immobilizing HMs in the mycorrhizal, shown by increasing the ratios of HMs from root to shoot. Oxidative stress, which can induce DNA damage, is an important mechanism of heavy metal toxicity. GM treatment decreased oxidative stress by intricating antioxidative systems such as peroxidases and non-enzymic systems including soluble protein. The DNA damage induced by heavy metals was detected using comet assay, which showed DNA damage in the plants was decreased by the GM treatment.

  4. Cytotoxic effects of cylindrospermopsin in mitotic and non-mitotic Vicia faba cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garda, Tamás; Riba, Milán; Vasas, Gábor; Beyer, Dániel; M-Hamvas, Márta; Hajdu, Gréta; Tándor, Ildikó; Máthé, Csaba

    2015-02-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin known as a eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor. We aimed to study its effects on growth, stress responses and mitosis of a eukaryotic model, Vicia faba (broad bean). Growth responses depended on exposure time (3 or 6d), cyanotoxin concentration, culture conditions (dark or continuous light) and V. faba cultivar ("Standard" or "ARC Egypt Cross"). At 6d of exposure, CYN had a transient stimulatory effect on root system growth, roots being possibly capable of detoxification. The toxin induced nucleus fragmentation, blebbing and chromosomal breaks indicating double stranded DNA breaks and programmed cell death. Root necrotic tissue was observed at 0.1-20 μg mL(-1) CYN that probably impeded toxin uptake into vascular tissue. Growth and cell death processes observed were general stress responses. In lateral root tip meristems, lower CYN concentrations (0.01-0.1 μg mL(-1)) induced the stimulation of mitosis and distinct mitotic phases, irrespective of culture conditions or the cultivar used. Higher cyanotoxin concentrations inhibited mitosis. Short-term exposure of hydroxylurea-synchronized roots to 5 μg mL(-1) CYN induced delay of mitosis that might have been related to a delay of de novo protein synthesis. CYN induced the formation of double, split and asymmetric preprophase bands (PPBs), in parallel with the alteration of cell division planes, related to the interference of cyanotoxin with protein synthesis, thus it was a plant- and CYN specific alteration.

  5. Nitric oxide mitigates arsenic-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, A K

    2015-09-01

    The protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) against arsenic (As)-induced structural disturbances in Vicia faba have been investigated. As treatment (0.25, 0.50, and 1 mM) resulted in a declined growth of V. faba seedlings. Arsenic treatment stimulates the activity of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST content were decreased. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX, and GST activity), mitotic index, and induction of different chromosomal abnormalities, hence led to oxidative stress. The concentration of SNP (0.02 mM) was very effective in counteracting the adverse effect of As toxicity. These abnormalities use partially or fully reversed by a simultaneous application of As and NO donor and sodium nitroprusside and has an ameliorating effect against As-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in V. faba roots.

  6. [Broad beans (Vicia fava, L.) as an alternative source of protein in chick diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezares, A; Cuca, M; Avila, E; Velásquez, C

    1980-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the possibility of improving the nutritive value of broad beans (Vicia faba, L.) in poultry diets. In the first experiment, raw and autoclaved (1.0 kg/cm2/15 min) beans, with and without antibiotic supplementation, were studied. The results after 21 days showed no significant differences among treatments in regard to body weight. In feed conversion, however, a significant difference was observed when diets prepared with raw beans were supplemented with 20 ppm of flavomycin. In the second experiment raw and autoclaved beans were supplemented with 0, 10, and 20 ppm of virginiamycin and 200 and 400 ppm of flavomycin to study the effect of these two antibiotics. After 28 days, the results indicated no significant differences with antibiotic supplementation in either raw or autoclaved beans. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in body weight was found when beans were autoclaved. In the third experiment, two levels, 31 and 76% of raw and autoclaved beans, were included in the chick diets. The results in body weight, after 28 days, did not show any significant differences between raw and autoclaved beans fed at a 31% level. With the 76% level the autoclaved treatment, however, induced a significantly higher body weight than the diets containing raw beans. PMID:7447590

  7. Purification and modes of antifungal action by Vicia faba cv. Egypt trypsin inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Hassanien, Abdallah Abd Elazeem; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Soliman, Saeed Saad; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-10-13

    A new 15 kDa Bowman-Birk type trypsin inhibitor (termed VFTI-E1) from fava beans (Vicia faba cv. Egypt 1) was isolated using liquid chromatography. Though it exhibited substantial homology in N-terminal amino acid sequence to other protease inhibitors, VFTI-E1 showed antiproteolytic activity against trypsin (K(i) 11.9 × 10(-9) M) but hardly any activity against chymotrypsin. It demonstrated antifungal activity toward the filamentous fungus Valsa mali with an IC(50) of 20 μM. The mechanism of its antifungal action toward V. mali included (1) induction of alteration of hyphal morphology, (2) growth inhibition by chitin deposition at hyphal tips, and (3) permeabilization of fungal membrane. The antifungal activity of VFTI-E1 was dependent on the ambient ionic strength as increasing concentrations of NaCl, CaCl(2), and MgCl(2) diminished the activity. The membranolytic action of VFTI-E1 was confined to fungus, but not exerted on human and rabbit erythrocytes. This study sheds light on the mode of hyphal growth inhibitory activity of protease inhibitors with antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of VFTI-E1 amplifies the scope of its potential applications. PMID:20836498

  8. Ecología, caracterización y evaluación agronómica del taxon "Vicia Amphicarpa" Dorthes

    OpenAIRE

    Tardío Pato, Francisco Javier

    1997-01-01

    El taxon Vicia amphicarpa ha despertado un gran interés, por su capacidad de producir flores y frutos subterráneos, tanto desde el punto de vista taxonómico, como por su posible utilización agronómica. Taxonómicamente, el interés radica en su posición dentro del complejo grupo Vicia sativa L., habiendo sido tratada de forma diferente por diversos autores (especie, subespecie, variedad, forma). Desde el punto de vista agronómico el interés se basa en la posibilidad de producir un pasto de cali...

  9. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  10. Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Vicia dadianorum Extracted by Hydro and Microwave Distillations

    OpenAIRE

    Nuran Kahriman; Büşra Yaylı; Murat Yücel; Şengül Alpay Karaoğlu; Nurettin Yaylı

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of extraction methods on yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of Vicia dadianorum Somm. & Lev. The volatiles of V. dadianorum have been isolated by hydro and microwave distillations (HD and MD). The compositions of the essential oils were characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of seventy-six and fifty-six compounds were identified, constituting over 90.9%, and 80.1% of oil composition of V. dadianorum, respectively. ...

  11. Influence of low temperature and yeast extract after gamma-irradiation of seeds of Vicia faba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of Vicia faba L. with moisture of 10.25%, which were irradiated with 5 and 10 krad gamma-rays, respectively, showed a decrease in radiation effect when exposed to a low temperature of -40C and to the influence of 7% yeast extract. The results are interpreted in the light of the theory of potential changes, the structure-metabolism theory about the action of radiation and the possibilities to modify the radiation effect under the influence of temperature of -40C and yeast extract. (M.Ts.)

  12. Influence of low temperature and yeast extract after gamma-irradiation of seeds of Vicia faba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of Vicia faba L. with moisture of 10.25%, which were irradiated with 5, respectively 10 krad gamma-rays, showed a decrease of the radiation effect when exposed to low temperature of -4 deg C and to the influence of 7% yeast extract. The results are interpreted in the light of the theory of potential changes, the structure-metabolism theory about the action of radiation, and the possibilities to modify the radiation effect under the influence of temperature of -4 deg C and yeast extract. (author)

  13. Inhibitory effect of cheese and some food constituents on mutagenicity generated in Vicia faba after treatment with nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, W M; van Boekel, M A; van Broekhoven, L W

    1987-02-01

    The inhibitory potential of various food constituents on the mutagenicity generated in fava beans after treatment with nitrite has been investigated. Cheese was able to inhibit this direct-acting mutagenicity. The antimutagenic factor was not extractable from cheese; solvents of different polarity were used for the extraction. Casein, pectin, gelatin, Vicia faba protein and, to a lesser extent, whey protein and starch could also inhibit mutagenicity. A decrease in mutagenicity was always accompanied by a decrease in total N-nitroso content, as measured analytically. The mutagenic principles appeared to bind more strongly onto cheese than onto V. faba. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:3557236

  14. Multilevel UV-B Attenuance : Morphological and Chemical Adaptations of Vicia faba to Ultraviolet-B Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Meijkamp, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic reduction of stratospheric ozone, levels of potentially harmful solar UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) have been increasing on earth during the last three decades. The main aim of this thesis was to study growth responses and morphological and chemical adaptation mechanisms to harmful UV-B radiation. Two cultivars of Vicia faba, differing in UV-B sensitivity were used as a model system. Constitutive defence mechanisms appeared to function very well; even in the sensitive cv. P...

  15. Genome-Enabled Phylogeographic Investigation of the Quarantine Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2 and Screening for Sources of Resistance Against Its Core Effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christopher R; Studholme, David J; Hayes, Byron; Runde, Brendan; Weisberg, Alexandra; Cai, Rongman; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Wicker, Emmanuel; Castillo, Jose A; Vinatzer, Boris A

    2015-05-01

    Phylogeographic studies inform about routes of pathogen dissemination and are instrumental for improving import/export controls. Genomes of 17 isolates of the bacterial wilt and potato brown rot pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2), a Select Agent in the United States, were thus analyzed to get insight into the phylogeography of this pathogen. Thirteen of fourteen isolates from Europe, Africa, and Asia were found to belong to a single clonal lineage while isolates from South America were genetically diverse and tended to carry ancestral alleles at the analyzed genomic loci consistent with a South American origin of R3bv2. The R3bv2 isolates share a core repertoire of 31 type III-secreted effector genes representing excellent candidates to be targeted with resistance genes in breeding programs to develop durable disease resistance. Toward this goal, 27 R3bv2 effectors were tested in eggplant, tomato, pepper, tobacco, and lettuce for induction of a hypersensitive-like response indicative of recognition by cognate resistance receptors. Fifteen effectors, eight of them core effectors, triggered a response in one or more plant species. These genotypes may harbor resistance genes that could be identified and mapped, cloned, and expressed in tomato or potato, for which sources of genetic resistance to R3bv2 are extremely limited. PMID:25710204

  16. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.; conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila Carmen M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of genetic markers is complex and costly in species with little pre-existing genomic information. Faba bean possesses one of the largest and least studied genomes among cultivated crop plants and no gene-based genetic maps exist. Gene-based orthologous markers allow chromosomal regions and levels of synteny to be characterised between species, reveal phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal evolution, and enable targeted identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba, using an F6 population developed from a cross between the lines Vf6 (equina type and Vf27 (paucijuga type. Results Of 796 intron-targeted amplified polymorphic (ITAP markers screened, 151 markers could be used to construct a comparative genetic map. Linkage analysis revealed seven major and five small linkage groups (LGs, one pair and 12 unlinked markers. Each LG was comprised of three to 30 markers and varied in length from 23.6 cM to 324.8 cM. The map spanned a total length of 1685.8 cM. A simple and direct macrosyntenic relationship between faba bean and Medicago truncatula was evident, while faba bean and lentil shared a common rearrangement relative to M. truncatula. One hundred and four of the 127 mapped markers in the 12 LGs, which were previously assigned to M. truncatula genetic and physical maps, were found in regions syntenic between the faba bean and M. truncatula genomes. However chromosomal rearrangements were observed that could explain the difference in chromosome numbers between these three legume species. These rearrangements suggested high conservation of M. truncatula chromosomes 1, 5 and 8; moderate conservation of chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 7 and no conservation with M. truncatula chromosome 6. Multiple PCR amplicons and comparative mapping were suggestive of

  17. Characterization of genes involved in erythritol catabolism in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Christopher K; Rath, Amber M; Noel, Tanya C; Hynes, Michael F

    2006-07-01

    A genetic locus encoding erythritol uptake and catabolism genes was identified in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, and shown to be plasmid encoded in a wide range of R. leguminosarum strains. A Tn5-B22 mutant (19B-3) unable to grow on erythritol was isolated from a mutant library of R. leguminosarum strain VF39SM. The mutated gene eryF was cloned and partially sequenced, and determined to have a high homology to permease genes of ABC transporters. A cosmid complementing the mutation (pCos42) was identified and was shown to carry all the genes necessary to restore the ability to grow on erythritol to a VF39SM strain cured of pRleVF39f. In the genomic DNA sequence of strain 3841, the gene linked to the mutation in 19B-3 is flanked by a cluster of genes with high homology to the known erythritol catabolic genes from Brucella spp. Through mutagenesis studies, three distinct operons on pCos42 that are required for growth on erythritol were identified: an ABC-transporter operon (eryEFG), a catabolic operon (eryABCD) and an operon (deoR-tpiA2-rpiB) that encodes a gene with significant homology to triosephosphate isomerase (tpiA2). These genes all share high sequence identity to genes in the erythritol catabolism region of Brucella spp., and clustalw alignments suggest that horizontal transfer of the erythritol locus may have occurred between R. leguminosarum and Brucella. Transcription of the eryABCD operon is repressed by EryD and is induced by the presence of erythritol. Mutant 19B-3 was impaired in its ability to compete against wild-type for nodulation of pea plants but was still capable of forming nitrogen-fixing nodules.

  18. In vitro translation and processing of a precursor form of favin, a lectin from Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemperly, J J; Mostov, K E; Cunningham, B A

    1982-07-10

    Favin, the glucose- and mannose-binding lectin isolated from fava (Vicia faba) beans, consists of two polypeptide chains (alpha, Mr = 5,571; beta, Mr = 20,700). Translation of fava bean mRNA in vitro in a wheat germ-derived system yields a single favin polypeptide chain of Mr = 29,000. This molecule appears to consist of a hydrophobic 29-amino acid residue signal sequence at the NH2 terminus followed by the beta chain sequence; it also includes the alpha chain sequence. These results suggest that the alpha and beta chains arise by post-translational cleavage of a single precursor polypeptide: signal-beta chain-alpha chain. The signal peptide is similar in sequence to those seen in animal and prokaryotic systems, suggesting that translocation mechanisms are highly conserved. Translation of favin mRNA in the presence of dog pancreas microsomal membranes yields at least three polypeptides in addition to the presumed precursor chain. The largest of these molecules is translocated into the lumen of the membrane vesicles and glycosylated but its signal sequence remains intact. The two other species are translocated and glycosylated, but their signal sequences have been removed; they appear to differ from each other in that one begins with the beta chain sequence and the other begins one residue after the NH2-terminal threonine of the beta chain. These three variants could reflect normal features of the processing of the favin precursor but more likely result from aberrant processing of the plant protein by dog pancreas membranes. PMID:7085653

  19. Lipochito-oligosaccharides re-initiate root hair tip growth in Vicia sativa with high calcium and spectrin-like antigen at the tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Rook, M.B.; Bisseling, T.; Emons, A.M.C.

    1998-01-01

    Lipochitooligosaccharides, Nod factors secreted by Rhizobium bacteria, are signal molecules that induce deformation of root hairs of their host plant. A bioassay was used for deformation, and the cytological changes induced by specific lipochitooligosaccharides in root hairs of Vicia sativa L. (vetc

  20. VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Yang, W C; Pallisgård, N;

    1995-01-01

    We isolated ENOD5, ENOD12 and ENOD40 homologues from Vicia sativa and studied their expression pattern during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Comparison of the VsENOD40 nucleotide sequence with the pea, soybean and alfalfa ENOD40 sequences showed that the sequences contain two conserved regions...

  1. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management. PMID:26914511

  2. Effects of ecological factors on the survival and physiology of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 in agricultural drainage water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsas, van J.D.; Kastelein, P.; Vries, de P.M.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of Ralstonia solanacearum bv. 2, the causative agent of brown rot in potato, in aquatic habitats of temperate climate regions is still poorly understood. In this study, the population dynamics and the physiological response of R. solanacearum bv. 2 were tested in sterile pure water and in a

  3. Nutritional response of growing rats to faba beans (Vicia faba L., minor) and faba bean fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Bardocz, S; Dewey, P; Pusztai, A

    1991-11-01

    The effects of raw faba bean (Vicia faba L., minor) meal (VFM) and its fractions on the growth and nitrogen utilization of rats have been determined in two experiments. Two commercial varieties of VFM were tested, local VFM (409-439 g/kg diet) and Troy VFM (439 g/kg diet). The bean fractions tested were V. faba lectin-depleted protein (VFDP), V. faba lectin (VFL) and V. faba cotyledon residue (VFCR). All diets were supplemented with amino acids to target requirements. Body-weight, body N and lipid contents of rats fed on VFM were reduced significantly in comparison with control rats fed on lactalbumin. This was due, in part, to the lower digestibility of the protein, lipid and dry matter (DM) of VFM diets. As a result, net protein utilization (NPU) and biological value (BV) of faba bean proteins were less than expected. Urine and urea-N outputs of the VFM-fed rats were also elevated in both experiments. Increasing the energy content of local VFM diets led to significantly higher dry body-weight, body N and lipid contents, with the result that the NPU and BV values of the protein also increased. However, the NPU values for VFM-fed rats were still significantly lower than those for the controls in both experiments. In contrast, true N, lipid and DM digestibilities in rats given local VFM were not significantly affected by the difference in the energy content of the diets. The replacement of two-thirds of the lactalbumin in the diet with VFDP (65 g/kg) reduced dry body-weight, N and lipid contents, NPU and BV compared with the control rats, even though N, lipid and DM digestibilities were not significantly different. The nutritional performance of rats fed on lactalbumin-based diets containing 7 g VFL/kg was similar to that of the controls. Similarly, the inclusion of the cotyledon residue (237 g VFCR/kg diet) had no appreciable effect on any of the variables studied. As VFL and VFCR had no antinutritional effects in these rats, it appears that the low nutritional

  4. Reporte histórico: Primer Aislamiento de Vibrio cholera serogrupo O1 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba durante la epidemia de cólera en el Perú ‑ 1991 Historical report: first isolation of Vibrio cholera serogroup O1 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba during the cholerae epidemic in Perú ‑ 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Bravo Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hace 20 años apareció una enfermedad diarreica nueva en el Perú y el Laboratorio de Referencia de Enteropatógenos del Instituto Nacional de Salud, cumplió una labor destacada en el aislamiento e identificación rápida y oportuna del Vibrio cholerae. La enfermedad del cólera no se había presentado anteriormente, pero en la última semana de enero de 1991 se detectó un brote epidémico de diarrea aguda con deshidratación intensa y algunos casos de fallecidos. La epidemia afectó, al comienzo, varias localidades del litoral peruano. Equipos de trabajo de la Oficina General de Epidemiología y de los laboratorios del Instituto Nacional de Salud obtuvieron muestras fecales de pacientes con diarrea aguda procedentes de las ciudades de Chancay, Chimbote, Piura y algunos hospitales de Lima. Las muestras colectadas en el medio de transporte de Cary y Blair fueron procesadas en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Enteropatógenos (LANARE del Instituto Nacional de Salud. De todas las muestras se aisló e identificó Vibrio cholerae serogrupo O1 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba que mostró ser sensible a la tetraciclina y a otros antibióticos. Esta investigación confirmó el primer brote epidémico de cólera en el Perú.20 years ago, a new diarrheal disease was introduced in Peru and the Enteropathogens Reference Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Salud had an outstanding role in the isolation and rapid and timely identification of Vibrio cholerae. Cholera had not been seen before, but during the last week of January 1991 an outbreak of acute diarrhea was detected, presenting intense dehydration and some deaths. The epidemic affected, in the beginning, many locations of the peruvian coast. Some working teams of the General Office of Epidemiology and of the Instituto Nacional de Salud obtained fecal samples from patients with acute diarrhea coming from the cities of Chancay, Chimbote, Piura and some hospitals in Lima. The collected samples

  5. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagi, Hossam E. S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Vicia faba L. Giza 834 were exposed to γ-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He–Ne (632.8 nm or diode (650.0 nm laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He- Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy of γ-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of γ-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (3.9 μmol/g d.w. Laser treatment by He–Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P 2O2 content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (2.3 μmol/g d.w.. On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with γ-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with γ-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by γ-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of γ-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone.Semillas de Vicia faba L. Giza 834 fueron expuestas a γ-irradiación a dosis de 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 y 20.0 kGy y después expuesta a una radiación laser de He–Ne (632.8 nm o de diodo (650.0 nm durante 5 minutos. Las actividades de las enzimas POD, APOX, CAT, SOD y GST fueron favorecidas significativamente, y éstas alcanzaron un máximo a una dosis de 5.0 kGy para las enzimas

  6. Granulomatous myelitis associated with hemorrhagic syndrome due to consumption of Vicia villosa by cattle Mielite granulomatosa associada à síndrome hemorrágica devido ao consumo de Vicia villosa em um bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sonne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of spontaneous Vicia villosa poisoning affected a 6-year-old Holstein cow. Although the most striking findings included a generalized hemorrhagic condition associated with granulomatous myelitis, histological lesions typically seen with the vetch-associated systemic granulomatous syndrome were also present. Prominent gross findings were bloody nasal and oral discharges, disseminated hemorrhages, and bloody feces. Generalized hemorrhages associated with infiltration of numerous organs by lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, multinucleated giants cells, and eosinophils were the main microscopic findings. Anti-CD68 immunostaining confirmed the presence of moderate histiocytic infiltrate and multinucleated giant cells in the bone marrow. These changes in the bone marrow probably caused the generalized hemorrhagic changes described here.Um bovino Holandês de seis anos naturalmente intoxicado pela Vicia villosa apresentou lesões não comumente encontradas nessa intoxicação. Embora a lesão mais evidente fosse hemorragia generalizada associada à mielite granulomatosa, as lesões granulomatosas típicas da intoxicação pela ervilhaca também estavam presentes histologicamente. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram hemorragias nasal e oral, hemorragias generalizadas e fezes com sangue. Lesões hemorrágicas generalizadas associadas com infiltrado inflamatório de linfócitos, plasmócitos, macrófagos, células gigantes multinucleadas e eosinófilos foram os principais achados microscópicos encontrados. O teste imuno-histoquímico anti-CD68 confirmou a presença de infiltrado moderado de macrófagos e de células gigantes multinucleadas na medula óssea. As alterações na medula óssea provavelmente constituem a causa da hemorragia generalizada descrita nesse caso.

  7. Effect of gamma rays and growth regulators on seed germination and seedling growth of Vicia faba D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 75 KR doses of gamma rays and of 10 KR and 25 KR doses along with IAA, GA3KN, COU, MH and CCC on seed germination and seedling growth of Vicia faba were studied. Seed germination was affected differently on days 1 to 5 by 5 KR dose but seedling growth got increased. Affected by 10 to 75 KR treatments, seed germination decreased and so also the radicle and hypocotyle, but the effect on epicotyl was variable. The application of GA3, KN, CCC, MR and COU caused an increase in the germination of 10 KR irradiated seeds. Development of lateral roots was totally inhibited by all the irradiations (except in 5 KR) as well as irradiation +growth regulators treatments (except in 5 KR and 10 KR +IAA treatments). (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Effect of Flower Removal on Senescence and Metabolism of Faba Bean (Vicia Faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaMingzhong

    1999-01-01

    In pot experiments of Xichang,China,during 1989-1994,visual scnescence symptoms and associated changes in constituent contents and activities of leaves of faba bean(Vicia faba L.)were compared in respones to flower removal.the leaves from upper, middle and lower positions were sampled six times during reproductive development phase.At 70 DAP flower removal had caused 37%-189% and 82%-197% increase of green leaf area and green leaf dry weight per plant respectively.Flower removal led to a significant increase in the chlorophyll,soluble surar and protein contents and the catalase activity.The leaf cell relative electroconductivity of those plants was maintained at a lower level,relative to the control,during the late growing stage.These results certainly implied that the leaves of flower removal plants were still fully functional at a very late growing stage,consequently the plants increased many new branches per plant.

  9. Effect of crude seaweed extracts on seed germination, seedling growth and some metabolic processes of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sheekh, M M; el-Saied A el-D

    2000-01-01

    Crude extracts from three green seaweeds (Cladophora dalmatica, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca) and the three red algae (Corallina mediterranea, Jania rubens, Pterocladia pinnate) were prepared. Their effects on germination, growth of seedlings, chlorophyll content and other metabolic activities of Vicia faba were investigated. The crude extract of C. dalmatica showed maximal activity, and it increased seed germination, length of main root and shoot systems and the number of lateral roots. All the crude extracts of seaweed increased protein content in both root and shoot systems, total soluble sugars and chlorophyll content in leaves. The cytokinin content of the green algae was higher than that in red algae. Growth of seedlings of V. faba was stimulated but to different degrees. PMID:10697743

  10. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  11. The Effects of Mineral Nitrogen on the Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen by Vicia Faba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1964 to 1966 a systematic research vas carried out at the Central Research Institute for Plant Production in Prague - Ruzyně, aimed at examining the effect of gradually increased levels of nitrogen and various forms of nitrogen in nitrogen fertilizers on the yield, nitrogen content and the nodulation of the roots of horse bean (Vicia faba LQ. By means of 15N, the proportion of the total nitrogen content of the plant derived from the fertilizer as well as the total utilization of the nitrogen fertilizer by the plant were determined. The experiments were carried out in a series of greenhouse pot tests using a brown soil type, with ammonium sulphate and potassium nitrate as the nitrogen sources. Gradually-increased-levels of nitrogen in ammonium sulphate (0, 5.2, 26.2, 52.5 and 105.0 mgN/kg of soil) applied to the horse bean did not exert any substantial effect on the yield of fresh aerial parts of the horse bean, when harvested at the flowering period. The nitrogen content of tissues of the fertilized plants differed from the control plants (without nitrogen addition) only at the highest nitrogen level (2.7% compared to 3.4% N). The proportion of nitrogen absorbed from the nitrogen fertilizer by whole plant, increased almost as a linear function of nitrogen supplied. Thus the whole plant consumed 51 to 57% of the nitrogen from the first two fertilizer levels, and 64 to 69% from the last two levels of fertilizer, the 52.5-mg and 105-mg levels. In comparing nitrogen supplied as potassium nitrate with nitrogen in ammonium sulphate, at a level of 26.2 mg N/kg of soil, no difference of yield and of percentage nitrogen content in the aerial part of horse bean was found between the plants grown with the nitrogen fertilizers and control plants. The isotopical analysis of nitrogen showed that in the aerial part of horse bean plant the percentage proportion of nitrogen deriving from the fertilizer was higher when potassium nitrate was used (10.8%), than in case of

  12. Doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos no estado de Santa Catarina associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E Mendes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intoxication in three dairy cows grazing pasture contaminated with Vicia villosa in two different farms was reported. Hyperthermia, skin alopecia and pruritus were the main clinical signs. Macroscopically, gray to white up to 5cm nodules were detected, especially in kidney and lymph nodes, which correspond to mild to severe multifocal granulomatous infiltrate. This is the first report of systemic granulomatous disease due to consumption of hairy vetch in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

  13. Relations between the crude protein content and the amino acid profile of organically produced field beans (Vicia faba L.) and field peas (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Witten, Stephanie; Aulrich, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In Organic Farming, grain legumes are important protein feedstuffs. There are hints indicating that the amino acid (AA) profile is affected by factors associated with varying crude protein (CP) contents of crops. The knowledge on this relationship between CP and AA profile needs to be extended to optimize feeding strategies for monogastrics as well as the selection of cultivars and varieties in fodder crop cultivation. Therefore, samples of 67 field beans (Vicia faba L.) and 86 field peas (Pi...

  14. Determination of ACC-induced cell-programmed death in roots of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining

    OpenAIRE

    Byczkowska, Anna; Kunikowska, Anita; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence staining with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) showed that nuclei of cortex root cells of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-treated Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings differed in color. Measurement of resultant fluorescence intensity (RFI) showed that it increased when the color of nuclear chromatin was changed from green to red, indicating that EB moved to the nuclei via the cell membrane which lost its integrity and stained nuclei red. AO/EB staining showed...

  15. Vicia L. Cinsine Ait Bazı Taksonların Karyolojik Yönden Araştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    Gedik, Osman; Kıran, Yaşar; Şahin, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The chromosome number and morphology on some taxonsof the genus Vicia L. (Fabaceae) (V. cappadocica Boiss., & Balansa, V. cracca L. subsp. cracca, V. cracca L. subsp. stenophylla Vel., V. cuspidata Boiss., V. ervilia (L.) Wılld., V. hybrida L., V. michauxii Sprengel. var. stenophylla Boiss., V. narbonensis L. var. serratifolia (Jacq.) Ser., V. noeana Boiss.& Reut. ex Boiss. var. megalodonta Rech. Fıl., V. noeana Boiss.& Reut. ex Boiss. var. noeana, V. sativa L. subsp. sativa, V. sericocarpa F...

  16. Earthworms Eisenia fetida affect the uptake of heavy metals by plants Vicia faba and Zea mays in metal-contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lemtiri, Aboulkacem; Liénard, Amandine; Alabi, Taofic; Brostaux, Yves; Cluzeau, Daniel; Francis, Frédéric; Colinet, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms increase the availability of heavy metals in some situations and aid in maintaining the structure and quality of soil. The introduction of earthworms into metal-contaminated soils has been suggested as an aid for phytoremediation processes. In Wallonia, Belgium, a century of industrial metallurgic activities has led to the substantial pollution of soils by heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), due to atmospheric dusts. Two plant species, Vicia ...

  17. Assessment of the genotoxicity of 137Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minouflet, Marion; Ayrault, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including 137Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of 137Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to 137Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid 137Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive 137Cs pollution.

  18. Influence of dose rate on fast neutron OER and biological effectiveness determined for growth inhibition in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of dose rate on the effectiveness of a neutron irradiation was investigated using growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots as biological system. d(50)+Be neutron beams produced at the cyclotron CYCLONE of the University of Louvain-la-Neuve were used, at high and low dose rate, by modifying the deuteron beam current. When decreasing the dose rate from 0.14 Gy.min-1 to 0.2 Gy.h-1, the effectiveness of the neutrons decreased down to 0.84+-0.05 (dose ratio, at high and low dose rate, Dsub(high)/Dsub(low), producing equal biological effect). Control irradiation, with 60Co γ-rays, indicated a similar reduction in effectiveness (0.84+-0.03) when decreasing dose rate from 0,6 Gy.min-1 to 0.7 Gy.h-1. In previous experiments, on the same Vicia faba system, higher RBE values were observed for 252Cf neutrons, at low dose rate (RBE=8.3), compared to different neutron beams actually used in external beam therapy (RBE=3.2-3.6 for d(50)+Be, p(75)+Be and 15 MeV (d, T) neutrons). According to present results, this higher RBE has to be related to lower energy of the 252Cf neutron spectrum (2 MeV), since the influence of dose rate was shown to be small. As far as OER is concerned, for d(50)+Be neutrons, it decreases from 1.65+-0.12 to 1.59+-0.09 when decreasing close rate from 0.14 Gy.min-1 to 0.2 Gy.h-1. Control irradiations with 60Co γ-rays have shown an OER decrease from 2.69+-0.08 to 2.55+-0.11 when decreasing dose rate from 0.6 Gy.min-1 to 0.7 Gy.h-1. These rather small OER reductions are within the statistical fluctuations. (orig.)

  19. 布鲁氏菌种及种内部分生物型快速PCR鉴定方法的建立及应用研究%Development and application of one-step polymerase chain reaction(PCR) for rapid identification of Brucella species and some biovars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振军; 侯雪新; 孙渭歌; 贾雪; 田国忠

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立一步法PCR快速鉴定布鲁氏菌种及种内部分生物型.方法 设计6对引物,建立一步法PCR反应,将布鲁氏菌6个种和种内某些生物型进行鉴定,应用该方法检测了27株布鲁氏菌参考菌株和239株临床分离的布鲁氏菌,并与生物学分型方法进行比较.结果 通过一步法PCR能够将待检菌株准确的鉴定到布鲁氏菌种,对于猪种可以定位到生物型和疫苗株;对于牛种可以鉴定到牛种生物型1、3、4 与2、5、6、7、9两组生物型;对于羊种可以鉴定到1与2、3两组生物型和羊种疫苗株.生物学分型方法和PCR方法准确鉴定到种水平的符合率分别为98.33%和100%.结论 一步法PCR是一种快速、特异、简便而低费用的鉴定布鲁氏菌种的分子分型方法.%Objective To develop a one-step PCR assay for rapid discrimination of six Brucella species and some intraspecific biovars.Methods Using 6 pairs of primers in one-step PCR to differentiate six classical Brucella species and some biovar in ordinary PCR instrument.The tested strains including 27 reference strains of six Brucella species and 239 Brucella strains were estimated by the PCR assay and biological identification methods.Results The six Brucella species could be precisely differentiated by the onestep PCR assay from the tested strains.Five biovars and vaccine strain of B.suis species could be determined,and biovars 1,3,4 and biovars 2,5,6,7,9 of B.abortus species could be identified at the level of their biovar,moreover,biovars 1,2 and 3,and vaccine strain Rev 1 of B.melitensis species were also discriminated at the biovar and strain level.The accurate rates of the biological identification method and the PCR assay were 98.33% and 100% respectively.Conclusion One-step PCR assay was a rapid,specific,and low cost method for identification of Brucella species and discriminating biovars in ordinary PCR instrument.

  20. Structures of two cell wall-associated polysaccharides of a Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 strain. A unique teichoic acid-like polysaccharide and the group O antigen which is a C-polysaccharide in common with pneumococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, N; Jansson, P.-E.; Kilian, Mogens;

    2000-01-01

    be partially separated by gel chromatography. The structures of the two polysaccharides were determined by chemical methods and by NMR spectroscopy. The teichoic acid-like polymer has a heptasaccharide phosphate repeating unit with the following structure: The structure neither contains ribitol nor glycerol......The cell wall of Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 strain SK137 contains the C-polysaccharide known as the common antigen of a closely related species Streptococcus pneumoniae, and a teichoic acid-like polysaccharide with a unique structure. The two polysaccharides are different entities and could...... phosphate as classical teichoic acids do, thus we have used the expression teichoic acid-like for this polysaccharide. The following structure of the C-polysaccharide repeating unit was established: where AAT is 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4, 6-trideoxy-D-galactose. It has a carbohydrate backbone identical...

  1. Glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure is mediated by ROS production, Ca(2+) and water channel in Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xu, ShanShan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, GenXuan

    2016-03-01

    Sugars act as vital signaling molecules that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses. However, the effects of sugars on stomatal movement have been unclear. In our study, we explored the effects of monosaccharides such as glucose and mannose on stomatal aperture. Here, we demonstrate that glucose and mannose trigger stomatal closure in a dose- and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of broad bean (Vicia faba). Pharmacological studies revealed that glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was almost completely inhibited by two reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH), was significantly abolished by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), whereas they were hardly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). Furthermore, glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was strongly inhibited by a Ca(2+) channel blocker, LaCl3 , a Ca(2+) chelator, ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and two water channel blockers, HgCl2 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); whereas the inhibitory effects of the water channel blockers were essentially abolished by the reversing agent β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME). These results suggest that ROS production mainly via NADPH oxidases, Ca(2+) and water channels are involved in glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure. PMID:26046775

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean(Vicia faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaojiao; Wang; Hao; Liu; Guixing; Ren

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean(Vicia faba L.) seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS). Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares(PLS) regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation(r2) of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  3. Biochemical toxicity and DNA damage of imidazolium-based ionic liquid with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Omim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg-1 were assessed for the first time at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the toxicity of these three ionic liquids (ILs) was evaluated, and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs was assessed. The results showed that even at 100 mg kg-1, the growth of V. faba seedlings was inhibited after exposure to the three ILs, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing concentrations of the three ILs. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased after exposure to the three ILs, which resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage in the cells of the V. faba seedlings. In addition, the anion structure could influence the toxicity of ILs, and toxicity of the three tested ILs decreased in the following order: [Omim]BF4 > [Omim]Br > [Omim]Cl. Moreover, oxidative damage is the primary mechanism by which ILs exert toxic effects on crops, and ILs could reduce the agricultural productivity.

  4. Purification and characterization of a new dimeric mannose/glucose-binding isolectin from Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Sanjenbam Kunjeshwori; Devi, Langoljam Inaotombi; Singh, Laishram Rupachandra

    2009-01-01

    A new mannose/glucose specific isolectin VTL-II has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the seeds of Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreber through successive steps of (i) lectin extraction, (ii) ammonium sulfate fractionation (30-50%), and (iii) affinity chromatography on a column of Sephadex G-50 covalently coupled with D-mannose. The isolectin was found to be a dimeric protein of molecular weight 62 kDa made up of apparently chemically identical subunits unlike the tetrameric isolectins reported earlier from the same plant source. It was found to exhibit (i) 8-16 times higher specificity for rabbit RBC than human RBC, though it showed unspecificity with respect to the different human blood groups, (ii) non-dependence on divalent metal ion for its hemagglutinating activity, (iii) relatively broad pH optimum ranging from pH 7.0 to 8.0, and (iv) thermal inactivation behavior characterized by t(1/2) of 50 degrees C.

  5. Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Vicia dadianorum Extracted by Hydro and Microwave Distillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran Kahriman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of extraction methods on yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of Vicia dadianorum Somm. & Lev. The volatiles of V. dadianorum have been isolated by hydro and microwave distillations (HD and MD. The compositions of the essential oils were characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of seventy-six and fifty-six compounds were identified, constituting over 90.9%, and 80.1% of oil composition of V. dadianorum, respectively. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of volatiles (HD: 26.2% and MD: 15.9%. The major terpene constituent of the essential oils of V. dadianorum was γ-elemene (HD, 13.7% and MD, 8.4%. Comparative study showed that the amount of total volatiles (90.9% and the major constituent (26.2% were found to be better in HD of V. dadianorum. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated essential oils of the plant was also investigated, and it showed moderate antimicrobial and antifungal activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus , Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans .

  6. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of pRb-like protein in root meristem cells of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) regulates cell cycle progression by controlling the G1-to-S phase transition. As evidenced in mammals, pRb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with a number of proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, proteins with a conserved LxCxE motif (D-type cyclin), and c-Abl tyrosine kinase. CDK-mediated phosphorylation of pRb inhibits its ability to bind target proteins, thus enabling further progression of the cell cycle. As yet, the roles of pRb and pRb-binding factors have not been well characterized in plants. By using antibody which specifically recognizes phosphorylated serines (S807/811) in the c-Abl tyrosine kinase binding C-domain of human pRb, we provide evidence for the cell cycle-dependent changes in pRb-like proteins in root meristems cells of Vicia faba. An increased phosphorylation of this protein has been found correlated with the G1-to-S phase transition.

  7. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. PMID:26775956

  8. Regulating role of acetylcholine and its antagonists in inward rectified K+ channels from guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The inward rectified potassium current of Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts treated with acetylcholine (ACh) or the antagonists of its receptors were recorded by employing the patch clamp technique. The results show that ACh at lower concentrations increases the inward K+ current, in contrast, ACh at higher concentrations inhibits it. Treated with d-Tubocurarine (d-Tub), an antagonist of the nicotine ACh receptor (nAChR) inhibits the inward K+ current by 30%. Treated with atropine (Atr), an antagonist of the muscarine (Mus) ACh receptor (mAChR) also inhibits it by 36%.However,if guard cell protoplasts are treated with d-Tub and Atr together, the inward K+ current is inhibited by 60%-75%. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a strong inhibitor of K+ channels has no effect on the inward K+ current regulated by ACh, suggesting that there are inward K+ channels modulated by AChRs on the membrane of the guard cell protoplasts. These data demonstrate an ACh-regulated mechanism for stomatal movement.

  9. Regulating role of acetylcholine and its antagonists in inward rectified K~+ channels from guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷强; 花宝光; 郭玉海; 娄成后

    2000-01-01

    The inward rectified potassium current of Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts treated with acetylcholine (ACh) or the antagonists of its receptors were recorded by employing the patch clamp technique. The results show that ACh at lower concentrations increases the inward K+ current, in contrast, ACh at higher concentrations inhibits it. Treated with d-Tubocurarine (d-Tub), an antagonist of the nicotine ACh receptor (nAChR) inhibits the inward K+ current by 30%. Treated with atropine (Atr), an antagonist of the muscarine (Mus) ACh receptor (mAChR) also inhibits it by 36%. However, if guard cell protoplasts are treated with d-Tub and Atr together, the inward K+ current is inhibited by 60%-75%. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a strong inhibitor of K+ channels has no effect on the inward K+ current regulated by ACh, suggesting that there are inward K+ channels modulated by AChRs on the membrane of the guard cell protoplasts. These data demonstrate an ACh-regulated mechanism for stomatal movement.

  10. Ca2+ is involved in muscarine-acetylcholine-receptor-mediated acetylcholine signal transduction in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fanxia; MIAO Long; ZHANG Shuqiu; LOU Chenghou

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important neurochemical transmitter in animals; it also exists in plants and plays a significant role in various kinds of physiological functions in plants. ACh has been known to induce the stomatal opening. By monitoring the changes of cytosolic Ca2+ with fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM under the confocal microscopy,we found that exogenous ACh increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of guard cells of Vicia faba L. Muscarine, an agonist of muscarine acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), could do so as well. In contrast, atropine, the antagonist of mAChR abolished the ability of ACh to increase Ca2+ in guard cells.This mechanism is similar to mAChR in animals. When EGTA was used to chelate Ca2+ or ruthenium red to block Ca2+ released from vacuole respectively, the results showed that the increased cytosolic Ca2+ mainly come from intracellular Ca2+ store. The evidence supports that Ca2+ is involved in guard-cell response to ACh and that Ca2+ signal is coupled to mAChRs in ACh signal transduction in guard cells.

  11. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy) approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Hamid; Street, Kenneth; Bari, Abdallah; Mackay, Michael; Stoddard, Frederick L

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  12. VARIABILITY OF PRODUCTIVITY ELEMENTS AT VICIA FABA L. GENOTYPES AFTER GAMMA-RAY TREATMENT ON M3 GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TAMAS

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic effect and the mutations frequency very much depend on the genetic background in which they produce and become manifest, as well as on the gene nature or the genetic material upon which the inductive agent drives. There were taken under study two Vicia faba L. genotypes. There were applied mutagen treatments with gamma rays in seven doses, both at dry seeds and wet seeds. The observations were carried out on three generations. The following features were tracked down: the plant height, the number of fertile pods/plant, the number of sterile pods/plant and the seed weight/plant. In the present paper the data obtained in the M3 generation are displayed. The study has revealed some negative effects, such as the increase of the number of sterile pods, but at the same time some favorable changes. Hence, statistically insured differences were obtained for the plant height, the number of seeds/plant or their weight. The positive values were recorded at the level DL 50 %. One can notice the differentiated reaction of the two genotypes at the dose of the mutagen agent and the different reaction to the type of the treatment applied (at dry or wet seeds.

  13. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  14. Actin Dynamics Regulates Voltage-Dependent Calcium-Permeable Channels of the Vicia faba Guard Cell Plasma Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Liu-Min Fan

    2009-01-01

    Free cytosolic Ca~(2+) ([Ca~(2+)]_(cyt)) is an ubiquitous second messenger in plant cell signaling, and [Ca~(2+)]_(cyt) elevation is associated with Ca~(2+)-permeable channels in the plasma membrane and endomembranes regulated by a wide range of stimuli. However, knowledge regarding Ca~(2+) channels and their regulation remains limited in planta. A type of voltage-dependent Ca~(2+)-permeable channel was identified and characterized for the Vicia faba L. guard cell plasma membrane by using patch-clamp techniques. These channels are permeable to both Ba~(2+) and Ca~(2+), and their activities can be inhibited by micromolar Gd~(3+). The unitary conductance and the reversal potential of the channels depend on the Ca~(2+) or Ba~(2+) gradients across the plasma membrane. The inward whole-cell Ca~(2+) (Ba~(2+)) current, as well as the unitary current amplitude and NP. of the single Ca~(2+) channel, increase along with the membrane hyperpolarization. Pharmacological experiments suggest that actin dynamics may serve as an upstream regulator of this type of calcium channel of the guard cell plasma membrane. Cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization blocker, activated the NP_o of these channels at the single channel level and increased the current amplitude at the whole-cell level. But these channel activations and current increments could be restrained by pretreatment with an F-actin stabilizer, phalloidin. The potential physiological significance of this regulatory mechanism is also discussed.

  15. Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein source for organic chickens: performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Castellini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of transgenic feed and synthetic amino acids in organic chicken diets has made necessary to find protein-rich feedstuffs which do not alter productive performance. The effect of the faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a partial substitute for soybean on the performance and carcass traits of slow-growing chickens of both sexes reared under the organic method was assessed. The experiment was carried out in the spring and autumn; one thousand birds per season were split into 8 groups (4 groups of males and 4 groups of females, each duplicated and fed a double phase diet: a common starter diet for 20 days and two different growing-finisher diets containing either soybean (24%; S or faba bean (16%; F till the end of the rearing period (120 d. Average values of final live weight, feed intake and daily weight gain were significantly affected by sex, being higher in males than in females; the diets affected performance only in the 21-60 days of age period when the F group grew less and had poorer feed efficiency compared to the S group. Successively, the compensatory growth eliminated differences in slaughter weight. Regarding carcass traits, the diet affected only the ready- to-cook carcass percentage and the carena length, both of which were higher in S birds. Faba beans could be a valuable protein source in the diet of organic chickens when used after the critical starter period.

  16. Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Pinelli, E; Pourrut, B; Silvestre, J; Dumat, C

    2011-01-01

    Formation of organometallic complexes in soil solution strongly influence metals phytoavailability. However, only few studies deal with the influence of metal speciation both on plant uptake and genotoxicity. In the present study, Vicia faba seedlings were exposed for 6h in controlled hydroponic conditions to 5 μM of lead nitrate alone and chelated to varying degrees by different organic ligands. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid were, respectively, chosen as models of humic substances and low weight organic acids present in natural soil solutions. Visual Minteq software was used to estimate free lead cations concentration and ultimately to design the experimental layout. For all experimental conditions, both micronucleus test and measure of lead uptake by plants were finally performed. Chelation of Pb by EDTA, a strong chelator, dose-dependently increased the uptake in V. faba roots while its genotoxicity was significantly reduced, suggesting a protective role of EDTA. A weak correlation was observed between total lead concentration absorbed by roots and genotoxicity (r(2)=0.65). In contrast, a strong relationship (r(2)=0.93) exists between Pb(2+) concentration in exposure media and genotoxicity in the experiment performed with EDTA. Citric acid induced labile organometallic complexes did not demonstrate any significant changes in lead genotoxicity or uptake. These results demonstrate that metal speciation knowledge could improve the interpretation of V. faba genotoxicity test performed to test soil quality. PMID:20851467

  17. Efecto de la acetilación sobre las propiedades funcionales y nutricionales de almidones de haba (VICIA FABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron algunas propiedades funcionales del almidón de haba (Vicia faba, con dos niveles de proteína -12,89% y 4,41%-, obtenido por fraccionamiento por vía húmeda de las semillas secas. Se comparan el secado en rodillos y la liofilización como métodos para deshidratar la muestra, así como las propiedades funcionales del almidón antes y después de acetilarlo con anhídrido acético. También se investigaron ciertas propiedades de interés nutricional con el fin de observar la influencia de la modificación química en la biodisponibilidad del almidón de haba. Se realizó la determinación de almidón total, almidón resistente por retrogradación (AR3, almidón disponible y la velocidad de hidrólisis enzimática en el almidón nativo y en el modificado.

  18. Cd-induced oxidative stress and lignification in the roots of two Vicia sativa L. varieties with different Cd tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Haiyun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Zhenguo; Zhang, Fenqin

    2016-01-15

    We examined the effects of Cd on growth, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, antioxidant enzymatic activity, and lignin content in the roots of two varieties of Vicia sativa. Treatment with Cd decreased plant growth and increased ROS and lipid peroxidation levels to a greater extent in the Cd-sensitive variety ZM than in the Cd-tolerant variety L3. Most hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2(•-)) were accumulated in the cell walls and extracellular spaces in response to Cd treatments. Chemical assays and experiments using inhibitors showed that larger increases in H2O2 and O2(•-) production in ZM than in L3 were probably attributed to elevated Cd-induced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-peroxidase (NADH-POD) activity. Cd treatment increased the accumulation of lignin and the guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) activities in the apoplast more significantly in ZM root than in L3. Howerver, root laccase activity was higher in L3 than in ZM. Thus Cd toxicity induced significant lignification in the roots of V. sativa, and increases in H2O2 accumulation and apoplastic GPOD activity were likely responsible for this effect.

  19. Factors influencing diamine oxidase activity and γ-aminobutyric acid content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runqiang; Chen, Hui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2011-11-01

    Factors (germination time, spectra, temperature, pH, and chemical inhibitors) influencing diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) activity and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination were investigated in this study. DAO activity significantly increased in germinating seeds but varied with different organs. The enzyme activity was higher in shoot than that in cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radicle. When seeds were germinated in the dark, DAO activity was 2.35-, 2.00-, 2.36-, 4.40-, and 1.67-fold of that under white, red, blue, green, and yellow spectra, respectively. The optimum germination temperature and pH value for increasing DAO activity were 30 °C and 3.0, respectively. The DAO activity was inhibited significantly by aminoguanidine and sodium ethylenediamine tetracetate, while it was activated by CuCl(2) and CaCl(2). Germinating at an appropriate temperature and pH, 30% of GABA formation was supplied by DAO. Calcium was related to the regulation of DAO activity and GABA accumulation. PMID:21942768

  20. De novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map of Vicia faba (L. for transfer cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruba Shankari eArun Chinnappa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba (L. is an important cool-season grain legume species used widely in agriculture but also in plant physiology research, particularly as an experimental model to study transfer cell (TC development. Adaxial epidermal cells of isolated cotyledons can be induced to form functional TCs, thus providing a valuable experimental system to investigate genetic regulation of TC development. The genome of V. faba is exceedingly large (ca. 13 Gb, however, and limited genomic information is available for this species. To provide a resource for transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, we have undertaken de novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map for V. faba. Illumina paired-end sequencing of total RNA pooled from different tissues and different stages, including isolated cotyledons induced to form TCs, generated 69.5M reads, of which 65.8M were used for assembly following trimming and quality control. Assembly using a De-Bruijn graph-based approach within CLC Genomics Workbench v6.1 generated 21,297 contigs, of which 80.6% were successfully annotated against GO terms. The assembly was validated against known V. faba cDNAs held in GenBank, including transcripts previously identified as being specifically expressed in epidermal cells across TC trans-differentiation. This cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map therefore provides a valuable tool for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, and also enriches the genetic resources available for this important legume crop species.

  1. Localization of NOS-like protein in guard cells of Vicia faba L. And its possible function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; WANG YouQun; JIA WenSuo; LOU ChengHou; ZHANG ShuQiu

    2007-01-01

    Using the immuno-fluorescence and immuno-gold electron microscope technology, localization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like proteins was determined in guard cells of Vicia faba L. NOS is mainly localized in nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplast, mitochondria and the cell wall of guard cells. Scorch and exogenous JA can enhance the level of nitric oxide (NO) and increase NOS activity in both leaf and epidermis, and the changing pattern of NOS activity was consistent with the change of NO. NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, inhibited JA-induced NO generation. From the results, we presumed that NO generation from NOS pathway is the main pathway in the stress and JA responses. The pharmacological experiment showed that increasing the Ca2+ at a suitable concentration promoted leaf NOS activity and the NO level, indicating that NOS activity together with the distribution of NO is Ca2+-dependent. NOS and NO are possibly involved in the regulation of stomatal movement thus playing an important role in plant stress responses.

  2. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tett, Adrian J; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Poole, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  3. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J Tett

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  4. Effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of Vicia faba: A mid-infrared spectroscopic study supported by two-dimensional correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Sturchio, Elena

    2015-02-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of the Vicia faba roots, a bioindicator plant, in order to obtain information for the potential allelopathic uses of these oils as alternative to the use of pesticides in agriculture. We tested two mixtures of essential oils consisting of Tween 20-emulsions of tea tree oil (TTO) and Tween 20-emulsion of Clove and Rosemary (GARROM) essential oils respectively at three different oil concentrations each. The molecular modifications caused in Vicia faba by exposure to oil emulsions were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) mode. We considered the specific Amide I, Amide II and Amide VI bands by ordinary and second derivative spectroscopy and the results showed that both Tween 20-emulsion of GARROM and Tween 20-emulsion of TTO oils cause transitions among the secondary (α-helix, β-sheet and β-turn) structures with in addition the appearance of random coil structures in exposed samples. The Amide VI bands, placed between 500 and 600 cm-1, confirmed the structural transitions observed for the Amide I bands. In addition we observed the presence of a protein oxidation effect for TTO treated samples, oxidation which resulted negligible instead for the GARROM oil samples. At last, FTIR spectra were also submitted to two-dimensional correlation analysis (2DCORR) and double two-dimensional correlation analysis (D2DCORR); the results confirmed the different effects caused by the two typologies of essential oils on the secondary protein structures of Vicia faba roots.

  5. Doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp Systemic granulomatous disease in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associated with grazing vetch (Vicia spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S. L. Barros

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois surtos de uma doença associada ao pastoreio de duas espécies de ervilhaca (predominantemente Vicia villosa e, em menor grau, V. sativa foram observados em agosto-setembro de 2001, em vacas Holandesas adultas de duas propriedades rurais do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram afetadas, em uma das propriedades, quatro de 42 vacas (9,5% e, na outra, uma de oito vacas (12,5%. Os sinais clínicos incluíam, embora não em todos os casos, febre, prurido, espessamento e enrugamento da pele com placas multifocais de alopecia, conjuntivite, corrimento nasal seroso, perda de peso, acentuada queda na produção de leite e diarréia. O curso clínico foi de aproximadamente duas semanas. Todas as vacas afetadas clinicamente morreram, uma foi sacrificada; três foram necropsiadas. Em cada um desses animais havia um padrão de lesões sistêmicas que consistiam de nódulos multifocais ou coalescentes, macios ou moderadamente firmes e branco-acinzentados, que infiltravam vários órgãos, mas eram particularmente proeminentes no miocárdio, nos linfonodos, no baço, na glândula adrenal e no córtex renal. Essas lesões resultavam em aumento de volume e alteração na arquitetura do órgão invadido. Microscopicamente, as lesões consis-tiam de extensa infiltração celular composta de proporções variáveis de macrófagos epitelióides, linfócitos, plasmócitos, células gigantes multinucleadas e eosinófilos. Os números de eosinófilos eram geralmente altos. Essa infiltração granulomatosa causava degeneração e perda de células parenquimatosas no órgão afetado. A intensidade das lesões variou entre as três vacas e entre os vários órgãos de cada animal. Essa é a primeira documentação no Brasil de doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca.Two outbreaks of a disease associated with grazing vetch species (predominantly Vicia villosa and to a lesser extent V. sativa were observed during August-September 2001, in

  6. Physiological response of vicia faba to prohexadione-calcium under saline conditions Resposta fisiológica de vicia faba a prohexadiona-cálcio sob condições salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bekheta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the activities of oxidative enzymes (indole acetic acid oxidase, peroxidase and catalase, endogenous hormones (gibberellic acid (GA3, indole acetic acid (IAA, abscisic acid (ABA and cytokinins (AsZeatin, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, total carbohydrates, total soluble sugars, amino acid proline and vegetative growth parameters were used as indicators to explain the physiological role of the growth retardant prohexadione-calcium on Vicia faba seedlings 40 days after sowing under salinity stress for 30 days. The obtained results show that soaking faba bean seeds prior to sowing at different concentrations of prohexadione-calcium (0, 10, 20 and 30 ppm significantly increased the activities of indole acetic acid oxidase (IAA-oxidase and peroxidase enzymes, but decreased the catalase enzyme activity as compared with their respective control. Application of prohexadione-Ca caused markedly decreases in the endogenous contents of gibberellins and indole acetic acid (IAA but increased the levels of natural growth inhibitor abscisic acid (ABA and cytokinins in the shoots of faba bean seedlings. All the prohexadione-Ca concentrations increased the contents of amino acid proline, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, total carbohydrates and total soluble sugars in faba bean seedlings grown under salt stress. Application of prohexadione-Ca decreased significantly seedling height and shoot fresh weight but significantly increased shoot dry weight.Mudanças nas atividades de enzimas oxidativas (oxidase, peroxidase e catalase do ácido indol-acético, hormônios endógenos (ácido giberélico (GA3, ácido indol-acético (AIA, ácido abscísico (ABA e citocininas (AsZeatin, pigmentos fotossintéticos (clorofila a, clorofila b e carotenóides, carboidratos totais, açúcares solúveis totais, aminoácido prolina e parâmetros de crescimento vegetativo foram usados como

  7. RBE and OER values from 10-day growth inhibition of Vicia faba roots exposed to high-energy neutron and pion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiobiological studies using beams of 172 MeV/c negative and positive pions and 600 MeV neutrons are reported, using growth inhibition of Vicia faba primary roots as the test system. Particular emphasis is put on an investigation of the variation of the RBE and OER values along the beams absorbed in water. The effects of position in the beam, of the dose rate, and of the nuclear-interaction dose component are considered, and comparisons made using 60Co gamma-rays as the reference radiation. The observed biological effects are discussed in the light of their possible radiobiological and radiotherapeutic applications. (Auth.)

  8. Characterization and functional analysis of seven flagellin genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. Characterization of R. leguminosarum flagellins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambalo Dinah D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae establishes symbiotic nitrogen fixing partnerships with plant species belonging to the Tribe Vicieae, which includes the genera Vicia, Lathyrus, Pisum and Lens. Motility and chemotaxis are important in the ecology of R. leguminosarum to provide a competitive advantage during the early steps of nodulation, but the mechanisms of motility and flagellar assembly remain poorly studied. This paper addresses the role of the seven flagellin genes in producing a functional flagellum. Results R. leguminosarum strains 3841 and VF39SM have seven flagellin genes (flaA, flaB, flaC, flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG, which are transcribed separately. The predicted flagellins of 3841 are highly similar or identical to the corresponding flagellins in VF39SM. flaA, flaB, flaC, and flaD are in tandem array and are located in the main flagellar gene cluster. flaH and flaG are located outside of the flagellar/motility region while flaE is plasmid-borne. Five flagellin subunits (FlaA, FlaB, FlaC, FlaE, and FlaG are highly similar to each other, whereas FlaD and FlaH are more distantly related. All flagellins exhibit conserved amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminal ends and are variable in the central regions. Strain 3841 has 1-3 plain subpolar flagella while strain VF39SM exhibits 4-7 plain peritrichous flagella. Three flagellins (FlaA/B/C and five flagellins (FlaA/B/C/E/G were detected by mass spectrometry in the flagellar filaments of strains 3841 and VF39SM, respectively. Mutation of flaA resulted in non-motile VF39SM and extremely reduced motility in 3841. Individual mutations of flaB and flaC resulted in shorter flagellar filaments and consequently reduced swimming and swarming motility for both strains. Mutant VF39SM strains carrying individual mutations in flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG were not significantly affected in motility and filament morphology. The flagellar filament and the motility of 3841 strains

  9. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet tolerance and glutathione redox system significance assessment in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Naser A. [University of Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) and Department of Chemistry (Portugal); Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K. [University of Aveiro, Center for Mechanical Technology and Automation (TEMA) and Department of Mechanical Engineering (Portugal); Shah, Zahoor A. [University of Toledo, Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal, E-mail: ahmadr@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) and Department of Chemistry (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    Adsorbents based on single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter termed 'graphene oxide') are widely used in contaminated environments cleanup which may easily open the avenues for their entry to different environmental compartments, exposure to organisms and their subsequent transfer to human/animal food chain. Considering a common food crop-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germinating seedlings as a model plant system, this study assesses the V. faba-tolerance to different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg L{sup -1}) of graphene oxide (0.5-5 {mu}m) and evaluates glutathione ({gamma}-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) redox system significance in this context. The results showed significantly increased V. faba sensitivity under three graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 1,600 > 200 > 100 mg graphene oxide L{sup -1}), which was accompanied by decreased glutathione redox (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione) ratio, reduced glutathione pool, as well as significant and equally elevated activities of glutathione-regenerating (glutathione reductase) and glutathione-metabolizing (glutathione peroxidase; glutathione sulfo-transferase) enzymes. Contrarily, the two graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 800 > 400 graphene oxide mg L{sup -1}) yielded promising results; where, significant improvements in V. faba health status (measured as increased graphene oxide tolerance) were clearly perceptible with increased ratio of the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione pool and glutathione reductase activity but decreased activities of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes. It is inferred that V. faba seedlings-sensitivity and/or tolerance to graphene oxide concentrations depends on both the cellular redox state (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio) and the reduced glutathione pool which in turn are controlled by a finely tuned modulation of the coordination between glutathione-regenerating and

  10. Cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumula-tion under water stress in Vicia faba leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Water stress-induced ABA accumulation is a cellular signaling process from water stress perception to activation of genes encoding key enzymes of ABA biosynthesis, of which the water stress-signal perception by cells or triggering mechanism of the ABA accumulation is the center in the whole process of ABA related-stress signaling in plants. The cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumulation under water stress was studied in leaves of Vicia faba. Mannitol at 890 mmol· kg-1 osmotic concentration induced an increase of more than 5 times in ABA concentra-tion in detached leaf tissues, but the same concentration of mannitol only induced an increase of less than 40 % in ABA concentration in protoplasts. Like in detached leaf tissues, ABA concentra-tion in isolated cells increased more than 10 times under the treatment of mannitol at 890 mmol·kg-1 concentration, suggesting that the interaction between plasmalemma and cell wall was essential to triggering of the water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Neither Ca2+-che- lating agent EGTA nor Ca2+ channel activator A23187 nor the two cytoskeleton inhibitors, colchicine and cyto-chalasin B, had any effect on water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Interestingly water stress-induced ABA accumulation was effectively inhibited by a non-plasmalemma-perme- able sulfhy-dryl-modifier PCMBS (p-chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonic acid), suggesting that plasmalemma pro-tein(s) may be involved in the triggering of water stress-induced ABA accumulation, and the protein may contain sulfhydryl group at its function domain.

  11. Potential impact of CO{sub 2} leakage from carbon capture and storage systems on field bean (Vicia faba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Traboulsi, M.; Sjoegersten, S.; Colls, J.; Black, C. [Univ. of Nottingham. School of Biosciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Steven, M. [Univ. of Nottingham. School of Geography, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Capture and geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has been suggested to be essential to reduce emissions to the atmosphere and aid mitigation of global climate change. However, leakage from transport pipelines or carbon capture and storage (CCS) reservoirs may pose risks to vegetation and contribute to rising atmospheric concentrations [CO{sub 2}]. This study examined effects on seedling emergence and growth when field bean plants (Vicia faba cv. Wizard) grown under field conditions were subjected to elevated soil [CO{sub 2}] for 39 days after planting. The strong negative correlation between soil [CO{sub 2}] and [O{sub 2}] during the injection period created a hypoxic soil environment under conditions of elevated soil [CO{sub 2}]. The damaging impact of this treatment became apparent early in the experiment as no seeds exposed to soil [CO{sub 2}] >50% emerged, even after injection was discontinued. Some seeds exposed to soil [CO{sub 2}] <50% produced seedlings, but many did not survive. Seedling emergence and survival in the gassed plots was greatest at [CO{sub 2}] of 5-20%, but root and shoot growth was reduced relative to control plants. Seedling emergence and growth were negatively related to soil [CO{sub 2}] and positively related to [O{sub 2}], although it is not known which was more important in inducing the observed effects. These findings suggest that leakage of CO{sub 2} from transport pipelines or CCS sites may greatly reduce seedling emergence and crop establishment in the vicinity of such infrastructures. (Author)

  12. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Pickett, John A.; Johnson, David

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. PMID:25200735

  13. Comparative transcriptional profiling provides insights into the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vicia sativa (the common vetch possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae.

  14. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khazaei

    Full Text Available Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L. collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  15. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  16. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments. PMID:26866755

  17. Bacillus simplex—A Little Known PGPB with Anti-Fungal Activity—Alters Pea Legume Root Architecture and Nodule Morphology When Coinoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Hirsch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two strains, 30N-5 and 30VD-1, identified as Bacillus simplex and B. subtilis, were isolated from the rhizospheres of two different plants, a Podocarpus and a palm, respectively, growing in the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden. B. subtilis is a well-known plant-growth promoting bacterial species, but B. simplex is not. B. simplex 30N-5 was initially isolated on a nitrogen-free medium, but no evidence for nitrogen fixation was found. Nevertheless, pea plants inoculated with B. simplex showed a change in root architecture due to the emergence of more lateral roots. When Pisum sativum carrying a DR5::GUSA construct, an indicator for auxin response, was inoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or its symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, GUS expression in the roots was increased over the uninoculated controls. Moreover, when pea roots were coinoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or B. subtilis 30VD-1 and R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, the nodules were larger, clustered, and developed more highly branched vascular bundles. Besides producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphate, the two Bacillus spp., especially strain 30VD-1, exhibited anti-fungal activity towards Fusarium. Our data show that combining nodulating, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia with growth-promoting bacteria enhances plant development and strongly supports a coinoculation strategy to improve nitrogen fixation, increase biomass, and establish greater resistance to fungal disease.

  18. Protein tyrosine phosphatases involved in signaling of the ABA-induced H2O2generation in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wuliang; JlA Wensuo; LIU Xin; ZHANG Shuqiu

    2004-01-01

    Although protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) play an important role in signal transduction in animal cells, little is known about the function of PTPases in higher plants. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are the critical components of ABA signaling pathway in guard cells. PTPase is an important regulator of MAPK, which is believed to mediate ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells of Viciafaba L. Here, we investigate the possible role of PTPases in stomatal movement process. Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a specific inhibitor of PTPases, could prevent ABA or H2O2-induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L; furthermore, it could promote opening of the stomata closed by ABA or H2O2. The activity of PTPases can be effectively inhibited by PAO and H2O2. DTT had no effect on the PAO-induced inhibition of PTPases activity, but it could relieve the inhibition of H2O2 on PTPases activity. PAO could also inhibit the ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells of Vicia faba L. These results suggested that PTPases is a critical signaling component in ABA-induced stomatal closure, and serve as targets for H2O2 lying on the signaling pathways downstream of ABA induced H2O2 generation.

  19. Inheritance and performance of the stiff-strawed mutant in Vicia faba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The tall and leafy types are considered to produce more vegetative mass than is necessary for high grain yield. A mutant with stunted growth, smaller leaves with dark green colour, and a stiff stem showing excellent lodging resistance, found special interest among breeders. This stiff-stem growth-type was selected as a spontaneous mutation in a breeding population. A stiff-stem line was crossed with the varieties 'Alfred' and 'Minica'. The stiff-stem recombinants showed a 20% shorter plant height, excellent lodging resistance, higher harvest index and a promise of 30% yield increase. The monogenic inheritance of the mutant trait is an advantage for further breeding work. We propose the symbol st for the new allele. (author)

  20. Formation of an activated N-nitroso compound in nitrite-treated fava beans (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacek-Llanes, B G; Tannenbaum, S R

    1982-01-01

    Fava beans are prominent in the diet of the Colombian population at high gastric cancer risk. Upon nitrite treatment under simulated gastric conditions, a potent mutagen was formed as detected by a forward mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium TM677 without microsomal activation. The promutagen was partially purified by preparative t.l.c. and normal phase h.p.l.c. of the acetone-soluble portion of a dried aqueous extract. The nitrosated promutagen fully accounted for the mutagenicity observed with whole fava beans. One gram of fresh fava beans yielded approximately 0.35 nmol of mutagen. Mutagenicity data indicated that this mutagen was more potent than N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The characteristics of the mutagen were typical of an activated N-nitroso compound, that is a compound in which the N-nitroso moiety is attached to an activating group, such as a carbonyl group. Irradiation of the mutagen yielded a Griess positive reaction. By reverse-phase h.p.l.c. photohydrolysis, a single peak could be ascribed to the mutagen. Its stability varied as a function of pH, being most unstable under alkaline conditions. Cysteine and phosphate concentration had no effect on its rate of decomposition, thereby strongly suggesting that the mutagen is an N-nitrosourea. The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis of carcinogenesis via the intragastric production of activated N-nitroso compounds. PMID:7151253

  1. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayssam M. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b ,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  2. Effect of some physical treatments on anti nutritional factors and fatty acids composition of Vicia faba L. seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of irradiation (gamma irradiation at dose levels of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 or 20.0 kGy, He-Ne and their combination) on nutritive characteristics of Vicia faba L. seeds (Giza 843). Analyses included levels of anti-nutrients (total phenolic compounds, tannins, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor and vicine), chemical composition (sugars, crude proteins, fat, dry matter and ash) and fatty acids profile. All treatments caused significant (P<0.05) decreases in the antinutrational factors under investigation. The reduction in the content of tannins and phenolic compounds were more pronounced with He-Ne alone or He-Ne in combination with gamma irradiation. At dose levels 10.0 and 20.0 kGy without or with combination of He-Ne were more efficiency in the reduction of phytic acid content by 24.3, 32.8, 34.5 and 45.5 %, respectively. Also, for trypsin inhibitor activity, the maximum inhibition was observed with the treatment of 20 kGy + He-Ne (36.7 %). In addition, in case of He-Ne alone or in combination with gamma irradiation at different dose levels used, the decrease of vicine content was more pronounced. On the other hand, no major difference was observed for sugars between the treatments tested. There were slight significant changes were observed for crude fat and crude protein by the all treatments used, compared to control. While insignificant changes in dry matter and ash contents (P < 0.05) were observed by the all treatments used. Moreover, He-Ne alone or combined with gamma irradiation caused increases in the ratio of USFA/SFA but, gamma irradiation alone at all dose levels used, caused decreases. The results obtained in this study suggest that gamma irradiation with laser irradiation may be chosen as a future method that allows a reasonable improvement in the quality of broad bean seeds

  3. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba) Integração de resíduos de girassol (Helianthus annuus) com herbicida pré-emergente na supressão de plantas daninhas na cultura da fava (Vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    I.S Alsaadawi; A Khaliq; A.A Al-Temimi; A Matloob

    2011-01-01

    Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba) fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin) at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was ...

  4. Lesões de pele em bovinos com doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Claudio Severo Lombardo de; Fighera Rafael Almeida; Souza Tatiana Mello de

    2005-01-01

    Descrevem-se as lesões cutâneas macroscópicas em 10 e histológicas em 8 vacas afetadas por doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp.). Em todos os casos, as lesões cutâneas eram caracterizadas por múltiplas áreas coalescentes de alopecia, liquenificação e descamação. Os locais mais atingidos pela lesão de pele foram: cabeça e pescoço (10/10), tronco (4/10), períneo (3/10) e mama (2/10). Em todos os 8 casos avaliados histologicamente, as lesões se caracteri...

  5. Variación en el contenido de L-dopa y compuestos fenólicos durante el desarrollo de semilla de Vicia faba L.

    OpenAIRE

    García Sánchez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Estudios recientes han demostrado que el haba además de su alto contenido de proteína, posee otras sustancias benéficas para la salud, como son los compuestos fenólicos que actúan como antioxidantes y la L-dopa, aminoácido que retrasa los síntomas severos del síndrome de Parkinson. Por lo que el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar la variación de componentes químicos como proteína soluble, compuestos fenólicos, L-dopa y L-tirosina de colectas de Vicia faba L. provenientes de la...

  6. Desenvolvimento inicial da fava (Vicia faba l.) e do milho (Zea mays l.) em dois tipos de solos, a diferentes temperaturas e teores de humidade

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, José

    2001-01-01

    A emergência e a produção das primeiras folhas da fava (Vicia faba L. var. favel) e do milho (Zea mays L. var. lorena) foram estudados em função da temperatura e do teor de água de dois solos diferentes, entre Novembro de 1993 e Novembro de 1996: um solo Cb (Lisboa) e um solo Pmg (Évora). A temperatura do solo foi medida a 2 cm e a 4 cm por termopares tipo-T e a humidade do solo foi avaliada pelo método gravimétrico. A relação entre a taxa de emergência da fava ou a do milho e a tempera...

  7. Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum race 3 (biovar 2) in surface water and natural weed hosts: First report on stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Verdel, M.S.W.; Groeneveld, R.M.W.; Kempenaar, C.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Janse, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The population dynamics of the brown rot bacterium Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum in surface water of two selected water-areas were monitored over a two-year period. In some cases during summer, high bacterial numbers (up to 106 cfu l−1) were observed. In a host plant survey a few plants of st

  8. Humoral Immunity to Commensal Oral Bacteria in Human Infants: Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Antibodies Reactive with Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis during the First Two Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael F.; Bryan, Stacey; Evans, Mishell K.; Pearce, Cheryl L.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Sura, Patricia A.; Wientzen, Raoul L.; Bowden, George H. W.

    1999-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies reactive with the pioneer oral streptococci Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and Streptococcus oralis, the late oral colonizer Streptococcus mutans, and the pioneer enteric bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in saliva samples from 10 human infants from birth to age 2 years were analyzed. Low levels of salivary SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of all four species were detected within the first month after birth, even though S. mutans and E. faecalis were not recovered from the mouths of the infants during the study period. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with the four species over this time period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with all four species were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with these bacteria showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. Adsorption of each infant’s saliva with cells of one species produced a dramatic reduction of antibodies recognizing the other three species. Sequential adsorption of saliva samples removed all SIgA antibody to the bacteria, indicating that the SIgA antibodies were directed to antigens shared by all four species. The induction by the host of a limited immune response to common antigens that are likely not involved in adherence may be among the mechanisms that commensal streptococci employ to persist in the oral cavity. PMID:10085031

  9. Effect of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum allelopathy on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells%宜宾油樟的化感作用对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓骛远; 罗通; 郑田喜

    2011-01-01

    利用油樟水浸提液作用蚕豆根尖研究了油樟化感作用对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响.结果表明:油樟对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的化感作用和浸提液浓度、作用时间有密切关系.在实验设计的范围内,随油樟水浸提液浓度的加大,蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数显著减小,而细胞微核率显著提高;油樟浸提液作用48 h时,对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的化感作用最强;油樟水浸提液诱导蚕豆根尖细胞产生染色体断片和滞后染色体等多种畸变染色体,并使有丝分裂各时期的分裂相减少.说明油樟化感物质抑制了细胞的有丝分裂,促进微核的产生,从而影响蚕豆根尖的生长和细胞的遗传稳定性.%The effect of Youzhang [Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble), N.Chan]allelopathy on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells was studied with Youzhang water extracts acting Vicia faba root tips.The result shows the allelopathy has a close relation to the extract concentration and treating time.Within designed range of the experiment, the mitosis index of Vicia faba root tip cells decreases obviously, and the micronucleus frequency rises remarkably along with the increase of Youzhang extract concentrations.When acting time comes to 48 hours, the allelopathy of Youzhang extracts on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells is the strongest.Youzhang water extracts induce a variety of aberrant chromosomes, such as chromosome fregments and delaying chromosomes, and inhibit mitosis different phases.It is implied that Youzhang's allelopthy matter inhibits cell mitosis, and promotes micronucleus generation of cells, and finally affects the growth of Vicia faba root tips and the genetic stability of cells.

  10. Study of Micronucleus Phenomenon of Vicia faba Induced by Four lnvorment Pollution Reagent%4种环境污染试剂诱导蚕豆微核现象的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓓; 许守明; 赵丽芸; 苏思

    2011-01-01

    [目的]检测4种试剂处理后蚕豆的微核情况,以此评估一些污染物的危害性.[方法]通过蚕豆根尖微核试验,根据微核出现的频率来评价环境诱变因子对蚕豆微核的损害程度,镜捡计数后计算微核率.[结果]甲醛、丙烯酰胺、硝酸铅、O2衍生物可导致蚕豆根尖细胞间期细胞微核频率明显升高,但每种污染物在不同浓度会有不同程度的微核现象,且在一定浓度范围内微核率上升,浓度达到一定值时下降.[结论]丙烯酰胺、甲醛对蚕豆根尖细胞具有明显的遗传毒性效应;硝酸铅对蚕豆根尖细胞不具有明显的遗传毒性效应;SO2衍生物低浓度时对蚕豆根尖细胞有一定遗传毒性效应,高浓度效应明显.%[Objective] The aim was to study micronucleus phenomenon of Vicia faba induced by four invorment pollution reagent in order to assess some of the dangers of pollution. [ Method] By the mature root tip cells of Vicia faba micronucleus in substantial progress in water pollution monitoring, micronucleus phenomenon of Vicia faba induced by four invorment pollution reagent was studied. [Result] It was found that a representative of the environmental pollutants such as formaldehyde, acrylamide, lead nitrate, SO, derivatives could result in root tip cells of Vicia faba micronucleus frequency of interphase cells to increase significantly, but different pollutants at different concentrations varied degrees of micro-nuclear phenomenon, and in a certain range of concentration would increase the micronucleus rate, but would decline. [ Conclusion] Formaldehyde and acrylamide had evident genotoxic effects on root tip cells of Vicia faba, lead nitrate had not evident genotoxic effects, and S02 derivatives had a certain genotoxic effect at low concentration, and had evident genotoxic effects at high concentration.

  11. Evaluation of the ability of two multiplex PCR assays (Bruce-ladder and Suis-ladder) to distinguish six Brucella species and Brucella suis at the biovar level%应用多重PCR鉴别布鲁氏菌种及猪种5个生物型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 崔步云; 赵鸿雁; 朴东日; 姜海; 邰新平; 田国忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of two types of multiplex PCR assays (Bruce-ladder and Suis-ladder) to distinguish six Brucella species and five biovars of Brucella suis. Methods A Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR assay was performed using 8 pairs of primers to distinguish six Brucella species. A Suis-ladder multiplex PCR assay was performed using 4 pairs of primers to distinguish five biovars of B. suis. The tested strains, which consisted of 27 reference strains of six Brucella species and 239 Brucella isolates, were examined using PCR assays and methods of biological identification. Results The Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR assay differentiated six Brucella species, including Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis , Brucella suis , Brucella canis , Brucella ovis , and Brucella neotomae , in a single step. The Suis-ladder multiplex PCR assay differentiated five biovars of B. suis in a single step. The electrophoresis patterns of the vaccine strain S2 and biovar 1 of B. suis were identical. The total rate of concordance between methods of biological identification and multiplex PCR assays was 100%. Conclusion The Bruce-ladder and Suis-ladder multiplex PCR assays are rapid and specific methods of respectively identifying Brucella species and B. suis at the biovar level.%目的 应用布鲁氏菌种多重PCR和猪种多重PCR对布鲁氏菌进行鉴定. 方法 对两套多重PCR方法进行条件优化,应用布鲁氏菌参考菌株、疫苗株和临床分离菌株进行评价,并与生物学分型方法进行比较. 结果 布鲁氏菌种多重PCR扩增(包括牛种布鲁氏菌8个生物型,猪种5个生物型,羊种3个生物型,以及绵羊附睾、犬和沙漠森林野鼠种各1个生物型)可获得152~1 682 bp的8个DNA片段,但种间DNA片段数不一.猪种多重PCR扩增猪种5个生物型菌株得到197~774 bp的7个DNA片段,不同生物型的DNA扩增图谱不同;猪种疫苗株S2扩增图谱与猪种生物1型相同,多重PCR分型方法与生物学

  12. Does ascorbate in the mesophyll cell walls form the first line of defence against ozone? Testing the concept using broad bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsányi, E; Lyons, T; Plöchl, M; Barnes, J

    2000-05-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants were exposed, in duplicate controlled environment chambers, to charcoal/Purafil-filtered air (CFA-grown plants) or to 75 nmol mol(-1) ozone (O(3)) for 7 h d(-1) (O(3)-grown plants) for 28 d, and then exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3 )for 8 h. The concentration of ascorbate (ASC) was determined in leaf extracellular washing fluid (apoplast) and in the residual leaf tissue (symplast) after 0, 4 and 8 h acute fumigation, and after a 16 h "recovery" period in CFA. Changes in stomatal conductance were measured in vivo in order to model pollutant uptake, while the light-saturated rate of CO(2) assimilation (A:(sat)) was recorded as an indicator of O(3)-induced intracellular damage. Measurements of A:(sat) revealed enhanced tolerance to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3) in plants pre-exposed to the pollutant compared with equivalent plants grown in CFA, consistent with the observed reduction in pollutant uptake due to lower stomatal conductance. The concentration of ASC in the leaf apoplast (ASC(apo)) declined upon O(3)-treatment in both CFA- and O(3)-grown plants, consistent with the oxidation of ASC(apo) under O(3)-stress. Furthermore, the decline in ASC(apo) was reversible in O(3)-grown plants after a 16 h "recovery" period, but not in plants grown in CFA. No significant change in the level and/or redox state of ASC in the symplast (ASC(symp)) was observed in plants exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3), and there was no difference in the constitutive level of ASC(symp) between CFA- and O(3)-grown plants. Model calculations indicated that the reaction of O(3) with ASC(apo) in the leaves of Vicia faba is potentially sufficient to intercept a substantial proportion (30-40%) of the O(3)entering the plant under environmentally-relevant conditions. The potential role of apoplastic ASC in mediating the tolerance of leaves to O(3) is discussed.

  13. Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes aggravated biochemical and subcellular damages in leaves of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings under combined stress of lead and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chengrun, E-mail: chengrunwang@163.com [School of Life Science, Huainan Normal University, Huainan 232001 (China); Liu, Haitao; Chen, Jinyun [School of Life Science, Huainan Normal University, Huainan 232001 (China); Tian, Yuan [Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Shi, Jian; Li, Dongdong; Guo, Chen; Ma, Qingping [School of Life Science, Huainan Normal University, Huainan 232001 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • MWCNTs-COOH disturb mineral elements and cause oxidative damages in the leaves. • Cd and Pb combination result in reduction of mineral elements and enrichment of Na, involving in toxicity mechanisms. • MWCNTs-COOH facilitate Cd and Pb uptake, and aggravate biochemical and subcellular damages. - Abstract: Increasing industrialization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would inevitably lead to their release into the environment and combination with heavy metals. However, studies concerning the combined effects of MWCNTs and heavy metals on agricultural crops are limited. Herein, effects and mechanisms of carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L) and their combination with 20 μM Pb and 5 μM Cd (shortened as Pb + Cd) on Vicia faba L. seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the MWCNTs-COOH disturbed the imbalance of nutrient elements, and caused oxidative stress and damages in the leaves. Additionally, the combination of MWCNTs-COOH with Pb + Cd resulted in enrichment of Pb and Cd, and deterioration of oxidative damages compared with the treatments of MWCNTs-COOH or Pb + Cd alone in the leaves. As the results, the concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH not only caused oxidative stress, but also exacerbated the biochemical and subcellular damages due to the treatment of Pb + Cd in the leaves. It also suggests that persistent release of MWCNTs-COOH into the environment may cause phytotoxicity and aggravate ecological risks due to combination of heavy metals.

  14. A New Mechanism for the Regulation of Stomatal Aperture Size in Intact Leaves (Accumulation of Mesophyll-Derived Sucrose in the Guard-Cell Wall of Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw Jr, W. H.; Smith, B. G.; Freed, G. A.

    1997-05-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with 14CO2, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol-1) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the 14C content and Sucspecific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO2 incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol-1) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma-1 min-1). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 [mu]m. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  15. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ping; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1997-05-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol{sup -1}) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and Suc-specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO, incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol{sup -1}) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma{sup -1} min{sup -1}). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, M a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 pm. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and N high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism. 50 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Electrophoretic assay for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in guard cells and other leaf cells of Vicia faba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarczynski, M.C.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Arold, N.; Neuhoff, V.; Hampp, R. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA) Max-Planck-Institute fuer Experimentelle Medizin, Goettingen (West Germany) Universitaet Tuebingen (West Germany))

    1989-04-01

    The ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) contents of guard cells and other cells of Vicia faba L. leaflet were determined. To prevent proteolysis, proteins of frozen protoplast preparations or of cells excised from freeze-dried leaf were extracted directly in a sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-containing solution which was heated immediately after sample addition. Protein profiles of the different cell types were obtained by electrophoresis of the extracts and subsequent densitometry of the stained protein bands. About one-third of the protein of palisade parenchyma and of spongy parenchyma was Rubisco large subunit. Using chlorophyll (Chl):protein ratios previously obtained, we calculate mesophyll contained ca. 22 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. In contrast, guard-cell protoplast preparations were calculated to contain from 0.7 to 2.2 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. The upper end of this range is an overestimate resulting from contamination by mesophyll and to the method of peak integration. Extracts of excised guard cells were calculated to contain 0.05 to 0.17 millimole Rubisco per mole Chl. We conclude that Rubisco is absent, or virtually so, in guard cells of V. faba.

  17. Chemical control of wild sorghum (sorghum arundinaceum Del. Stapf. in faba bean (vicia faba L.) in the Northern State of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted at Merowe Research Station farm, in the Northern State, Sudan, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the damage inflicted by a wild sorghum species (Sorghum arundinaceum (Del.) Stapf. ) on the yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and to evaluate the efficacy of the post-emergence herbicide clodinafop-propargyl (Topik) on wild sorghum and its effect on faba bean yield. The wild sorghum reduced faba bean crop stand and straw and seed yields by 53% - 76%, 76% - 79% and 88% - 91%, respectively, compared with the hand-weeded control. Faba bean was tolerant to the herbicide. The herbicide, at all rates, effected complete (100%) and persistent control of the wild sorghum and resulted in faba bean seed yield comparable to the hand-weeded control. The lowest dose (0.075 kg a.i/ha) of the herbicide used was equal to 75% of the dose recommended for the control of wild sorghum in wheat. It is concluded that clodinafop-propargyl at 0.075 kg a.e/ha could be used in controlling wild sorghum in faba bean. At this rate, the marginal rate of return was about 35 which indicating that every monetary unit (SDG 1) invested in the mentioned treatment would be returned back, plus additional amount of 35 SDG.(Author)

  18. The effects of nano-TiO{sub 2} on seed germination, development and mitosis of root tip cells of Vicia narbonensis L. and Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica, E-mail: mruffini@biologia.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy); Giorgetti, Lucia; Geri, Chiara [Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology (IBBA/CNR), UOS Pisa (Italy); Cremonini, Roberto [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    This study aimed to provide new information about phyto-toxicology of nano-TiO{sub 2} on plant systems. To contribute to the evaluation of the potential harmful effects of the nanoparticles on monocots and dicots we considered their effects on seed germination and root elongation applying a concentration range from 0.2 to 4.0 Per-Mille-Sign in the plants Zea mays L. and Vicia narbonensis L. Moreover, we achieved a genotoxicity study at cytological level in root meristems by means of traditional cytogenetic approach, to evidence possible alterations in mitotic activity, chromosomal aberrations, and micronuclei release. From these analyses it comes out that nano-TiO{sub 2} particles, after short-term exposure and under our experimental conditions, delayed germination progression for the first 24 h in both materials. Root elongation was affected only after treatment with the higher nano-TiO{sub 2} concentration. Further significant effects were detected showing mitotic index reduction and concentration-dependent increase in the aberration emergence that evidenced a nano-TiO{sub 2}-induced genotoxic effect for both species.

  19. Application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the estimation of protein and L-canavanine contents in seeds of one-flowered vetch (Vicia articulate Hornem.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vioque, R.; Rodriguez Conde, M. F.; Mozos Pascual, M. de los

    2009-07-01

    In this work it has been evaluated the effectiveness of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the estimation of two constituents affecting the nutritional quality of the seeds of one-flowered vetch (Vicia articulate Hornem.): protein and L-canavanine, a toxic non-protein amino acid. The NIRS calibrations showed good statistics with coefficients of multiple determination (R{sup 2}) of 0.97 for total protein and 0.95 for L-canavanine. The developed equations were further used to estimate the contents of protein and L-canavanine of a set of unknown samples (external validation). The equation for total protein was able to predict with an accuracy similar to that of the reference method showing a correlation (r{sup 2}) between the reference and predicted values of 0.95. In the case of L-canavanine, r{sup 2} was only 0.72 and the equation was only effective to discriminate samples into groups of low, medium and high contents. (Author) 20 refs.

  20. Three major nucleolar proteins migrate from nucleolus to nucleoplasm and cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. exposed to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rong; Zhang, Huaning; Li, Shaoshan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-09-01

    Results from our previous investigation indicated that Al could affect the nucleolus and induce extrusion of silver-staining nucleolar particles containing argyrophilic proteins from the nucleolus into the cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. So far, the nucleolar proteins involved have not been identified. It is well known that nucleophosmin (B23), nucleolin (C23), and fibrillarin are three major and multifunctional nucleolar proteins. Therefore, effects of Al on B23, C23, and fibrillarin in root tip cells of V. faba exposed to 100 μM Al for 48 h were observed and analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. The results from this work demonstrated that after 100 μM of Al treatment for 48 h, B23 and C23 migrated from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm and fibrillarin from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. In some cells, fibrillarin was present only in the cytoplasm. Western blotting data revealed higher expression of the three major nucleolar proteins in Al-treated roots compared with the control and that the B23 content increased markedly. These findings confirmed our previous observations.

  1. Cadmium-induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the leaf apoplast of Phaseolus aureus and Vicia sativa and the roles of different antioxidant enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fenqin [Department of Life Science and Engineering, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China); Zhang Hongxiao; Wang Guiping; Xu Langlai [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shen Zhenguo, E-mail: zgshen@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2009-08-30

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) in leaves of Phaseolus aureus and Vicia sativa were investigated. Cadmium at 100 {mu}M significantly increased the production of O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, as well as the activities of plasma membrane-bound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and the symplastic and apoplastic activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase in the leaves of both species. Apoplastic guaiacol peroxidase activity was significantly induced in the leaves of both species, particularly in P. aureus exposed to 100 {mu}M Cd. Experiments with diphenylene iodonium as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase and NaN{sub 3} as an inhibitor of peroxidase showed that the majority of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species production in the leaves of both species may involve plasma membrane-bound NADPH oxidase and apoplastic peroxidase. Compared to V. sativa, increases in Cd-induced production of O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and activities of NADPH oxidase and apoplastic peroxidase were more pronounced in P. aureus. In contrast, V. sativa had higher leaf symplastic superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities than P. aureus. The results indicated that V. sativa was more tolerant to Cd than P. aureus.

  2. AMPLIFICATION OF MICRODISSECTED CHROMOSOMES FROM VICIA FABA BY TWO PCR TECHNIQUES%2种PCR技术扩增微分离的蚕豆染色体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽华; 陈正华

    2004-01-01

    用接头介导的PCR (polymerase chain reaction, LA-PCR) 和简并寡核苷酸PCR(DOP-PCR)2种技术对微分离的蚕豆(vicia faba)大M染色体进行了扩增,并对扩增结果及2种PCR技术的优缺点进行了比较.结果表明,LA-PCR的扩增产物大小为0.3~3kb, 而DOP-PCR的扩增产物大小为0.3~1.3kb. LA-PCR的对照中未观察到扩增产物,而DOP-PCR的对照中却明显观察到扩增产物,此扩增产物是由于引物之间相互退火而形成的二聚体或更高级的聚合体. LA-PCR的Southern杂交信号明显强于DOP-PCR,可见LA-PCR的扩增效率明显高于DOP-PCR.

  3. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Rybaczek

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD was a secondary result of caffeine (CF induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU [double-stranded breaks (DSBs mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant-DSBs versus alkaline-DSBs or SSBs. The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i extensive vacuolization; (ii abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv protoplast shrinkage (v fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD.

  4. Cadmium-induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the leaf apoplast of Phaseolus aureus and Vicia sativa and the roles of different antioxidant enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2·-) in leaves of Phaseolus aureus and Vicia sativa were investigated. Cadmium at 100 μM significantly increased the production of O2·- and H2O2, as well as the activities of plasma membrane-bound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and the symplastic and apoplastic activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase in the leaves of both species. Apoplastic guaiacol peroxidase activity was significantly induced in the leaves of both species, particularly in P. aureus exposed to 100 μM Cd. Experiments with diphenylene iodonium as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase and NaN3 as an inhibitor of peroxidase showed that the majority of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species production in the leaves of both species may involve plasma membrane-bound NADPH oxidase and apoplastic peroxidase. Compared to V. sativa, increases in Cd-induced production of O2·- and H2O2 and activities of NADPH oxidase and apoplastic peroxidase were more pronounced in P. aureus. In contrast, V. sativa had higher leaf symplastic superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities than P. aureus. The results indicated that V. sativa was more tolerant to Cd than P. aureus.

  5. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of urban surface waters using freshwater luminescent bacteria Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 and Vicia faba root tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Ma; Xiaochang Wang; Yongjun Liu

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater luminescent bacteria Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 test and the Vicia faba root tip test associated with solid-phase extraction were applied for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of organic substances in three rivers,two lakes and effluent flows from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Xi'an,China.Although the most seriously polluted river with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) showed high cytotoxicity (expressed as TH50,the toxicity impact index) and genotoxicity (expressed as RMCN,the relative frequency of micronucleus),no correlative relation was found between the ecotoxicity and organic content of the water samples.However,there was a linear correlative relation between TⅡ50 and RMCN for most water samples except that from the Zaohe River,which receives discharge from WWTP and untreated industrial wastewaters.The ecotoxicity of the organic toxicants in the Chanhe River and Zaohe River indicated that cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were related to the pollutant source.The TⅡ50 and RMCN were also found to correlate roughly to the dissolved oxygen concentration of the water.Sufficient dissolved oxygen in surface water is thus proved to be an indicator of a healthy water environmental condition.

  6. Exploiting Illumina Sequencing for the Development of 95 Novel Polymorphic EST-SSR Markers in Common Vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa, a self-pollinating and diploid species, is one of the most important annual legumes in the world due to its short growth period, high nutritional value, and multiple usages as hay, grain, silage, and green manure. The available simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for common vetch, however, are insufficient to meet the developing demand for genetic and molecular research on this important species. Here, we aimed to develop and characterise several polymorphic EST-SSR markers from the vetch Illumina transcriptome. A total number of 1,071 potential EST-SSR markers were identified from 1025 unigenes whose lengths were greater than 1,000 bp, and 450 primer pairs were then designed and synthesized. Finally, 95 polymorphic primer pairs were developed for the 10 common vetch accessions, which included 50 individuals. Among the 95 EST-SSR markers, the number of alleles ranged from three to 13, and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.09 to 0.98. The observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, and the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.11 to 0.98. These 95 EST-SSR markers developed from the vetch Illumina transcriptome could greatly promote the development of genetic and molecular breeding studies pertaining to in this species.

  7. A study of arsenic speciation in soil, irrigation water and plant tissue: A case study of the broad bean plant, Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-11-01

    Samples of soil, the broad bean plant, Vicia faba and irrigation water were collected from the same agricultural site in Dokan, in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation were determined in all materials by ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively. Available arsenic (11%) was also determined within the soil, together with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of total arsenic were: soil (5.32μgg(-1)), irrigation water (1.06μgL(-1)), roots (2.065μgg(-1)) and bean (0.133μgg(-1)). Stems, leaves and pods were also measured. Inorganic As(V) dominated soil (90%) and root (78%) samples. However, organo-arsenic (MMA, 48% and DMA, 19%) was the more dominant species in the edible bean. The study provides an insight into the uptake, preferred disposal route, speciation changes and loss mechanism involved for arsenic with this food source. PMID:27211659

  8. The effects of nano-TiO2 on seed germination, development and mitosis of root tip cells of Vicia narbonensis L. and Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to provide new information about phyto-toxicology of nano-TiO2 on plant systems. To contribute to the evaluation of the potential harmful effects of the nanoparticles on monocots and dicots we considered their effects on seed germination and root elongation applying a concentration range from 0.2 to 4.0‰ in the plants Zea mays L. and Vicia narbonensis L. Moreover, we achieved a genotoxicity study at cytological level in root meristems by means of traditional cytogenetic approach, to evidence possible alterations in mitotic activity, chromosomal aberrations, and micronuclei release. From these analyses it comes out that nano-TiO2 particles, after short-term exposure and under our experimental conditions, delayed germination progression for the first 24 h in both materials. Root elongation was affected only after treatment with the higher nano-TiO2 concentration. Further significant effects were detected showing mitotic index reduction and concentration-dependent increase in the aberration emergence that evidenced a nano-TiO2-induced genotoxic effect for both species.

  9. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (Pfava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (Pfava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens. PMID:20852122

  10. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 Adapts to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid with "Auxin-Like" Morphological Changes, Cell Envelope Remodeling and Upregulation of Central Metabolic Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya V Bhat

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to characterize the effects of environmental stressors at the molecular level on model organisms with the ever increasing number and variety of anthropogenic chemical pollutants. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, as one of the most widely applied pesticides in the world, is one such example. This herbicide is known to have non-targeted undesirable effects on humans, animals and soil microbes, but specific molecular targets at sublethal levels are unknown. In this study, we have used Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (Rlv as a nitrogen fixing, beneficial model soil organism to characterize the effects of 2,4-D. Using metabolomics and advanced microscopy we determined specific target pathways in the Rlv metabolic network and consequent changes to its phenotype, surface ultrastructure, and physical properties during sublethal 2,4-D exposure. Auxin and 2,4-D, its structural analogue, showed common morphological changes in vitro which were similar to bacteroids isolated from plant nodules, implying that these changes are related to bacteroid differentiation required for nitrogen fixation. Rlv showed remarkable adaptation capabilities in response to the herbicide, with changes to integral pathways of cellular metabolism and the potential to assimilate 2,4-D with consequent changes to its physical and structural properties. This study identifies biomarkers of 2,4-D in Rlv and offers valuable insights into the mode-of-action of 2,4-D in soil bacteria.

  11. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal aperture size in intact leaves: accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with 14CO2, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol-1) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the 14C content and Suc-specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO2 incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol-1) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma-1 min-1). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 micrometers. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism

  12. Indirect semiquantitative determination of p34cdc2 levels in G1 and G2 cells of the carbohydrate-starved root meristems in Vicia faba var. minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Polit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, the 34kDa kinase (p34 encoded by the cdc2 gene is a key regulator of both the onset of DNA synthesis (G1 to S phase transition and the onset of mitosis (G1 to M phase transition. Using mouse anti-human PSTAIRE and FITClabelled goat antibodies, indirect semiquantitative determination of p34cdc2 levels was performed in meristematic cells from the control (intact and excised, carbohydrate-starved main roots of Vicia faba var. minor. No evident differences in the intensity of fluorescence was found either between the G1 and G2 cells or between the control cells and the cells arrested at both Principal Control Points by carbohydrate starvation. It seems thus, that the cell cycle block induced in meristematic cells of V. faba var. minor is not correlated with the absolute level of the key cell cycle enzyme responsible for phosphory-lution of cellular proteins, but primarily with the altered activity of p34cdc2.

  13. Variaciones en el pH de la rizosfera y en el porcentaje de materia seca de Vicia sativa al aplicar dos fuentes fosfatadas de baja solubilidad en un andisol del departamento de Nariño, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Menjivar F Juan Carlos; Castillo F. Jesús; Vélez L. Jorge; Arteaga M Germán

    2006-01-01

    En el estudio se utilizaron seis tratamientos: el testigo (T0), sin fuentes fosfatadas (T1) y con adiciones de 25 y 50 kg/ha de P como fosforita Huila (T2 y T3) y calfós (T4 y T5). Los cambios generados por la raíz se evaluaron utilizando la solución nutritiva de Marschner Römheld y Ossenberg-Neuhaus, acondicionada con agar. El porcentaje de materia seca parcial de Vicia sativa se incrementó significativamente al aplicar 25 y 50 kg/ha de P como fos...

  14. Efecto de la densidad de siembra sobre las interacciones biológicas entre las leguminosas Lupinus bogotensis y Vicia benghalensis con las nativas Solanum oblongifolium y Viburnum tinoides en parcelas experimentales de restauración ecológica del bosque altoandino / Effect of plant density on the biological interactions between the legume Lupinus bogotensis and Vicia benghalensis with natives Solanum oblongifolium and Viburnum tinoides in experimental plots of ecological restoration of the high Andean forest

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ruiz, Pilar Angélica

    2011-01-01

    Durante nueve meses, se evaluó la interacción entre las especies leguminosas Lupinus bogotensis y Vicia benghalensis, con las especies arbóreas nativas Solanum oblongifolium y Viburnum tinoides, en parcelas experimentales de restauración ecológica ubicadas en los alrededores del embalse de Chisacá (vereda El Hato, Usme, Bogotá). Las variables evaluadas en las especies nativas fueron: altura, diámetro, número de hojas o ramas y supervivencia. Los tratamientos corresponden a las especies le...

  15. Cd Hyperaccumulation Characteristics of Vicia Sativa L%救荒野豌豆对污染土壤中Cd的富集特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 魏昌华; 薛海英; 李小华

    2008-01-01

    研究了Cd单一和Cd、Zn复合污染对救荒野豌豆(Vicia Sativa L)生长及吸收富集重金属元素Cd的影响.以武汉市郊某蔬菜基地的农田土为试验土壤,分别加入5种质量分数的Cd(5,20,50,100,200 mg/kg),Zn的添加质量分数为150 mg/kg,模拟污染土壤进行盆栽试验,每盆移栽生长一致、数量相同的植株幼苗.结果表明:植株根、茎、叶、豆中的w(Cd)随着土壤中w(Cd)的增加而增加,且根>茎>叶>豆.当土壤中的w(Cd)=5 mg/kg时,根部的富集系数达到了17.18.但是,随着w(Cd)的增加,富集系数逐渐减小.在Cd、Zn复合污染的情况下,植物对Cd、Zn的吸收存在着协同效应,尤其是根部对镉的吸收有显著的提高.救荒野豌豆不仅能在高含量的镉污染土壤中正常生长,而且其根部的w(Cd)要远远大于地上部分,说明它是一种镉的排异植物.

  16. Determination of ACC-induced cell-programmed death in roots of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byczkowska, Anna; Kunikowska, Anita; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescence staining with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) showed that nuclei of cortex root cells of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-treated Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings differed in color. Measurement of resultant fluorescence intensity (RFI) showed that it increased when the color of nuclear chromatin was changed from green to red, indicating that EB moved to the nuclei via the cell membrane which lost its integrity and stained nuclei red. AO/EB staining showed that changes in color of the nuclear chromatin were accompanied by DNA condensation, nuclei fragmentation, and chromatin degradation which were also shown after 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining. These results indicate that ACC induced programmed cell death. The increasing values of RFI together with the corresponding morphological changes of nuclear chromatin were the basis to prepare the standard curve; cells with green unchanged nuclear chromatin were alive while those with dark orange and bright red nuclei were dead. The cells with nuclei with green-yellow, yellow-orange, and bright orange chromatin with or without their condensation and fragmentation chromatin were dying. The prepared curve has became the basis to draw up the digital method for detection and determination of the number of living, dying, and dead cells in an in planta system and revealed that ACC induced death in about 20% of root cortex cells. This process was accompanied by increase in ion leakage, shortening of cells and whole roots, as well as by increase in weight and width of the apical part of roots and appearance of few aerenchymatic spaces while not by internucleosomal DNA degradation. PMID:22350735

  17. Analysis of inhibition of photosynthesis due to water stress in the C3 species Hordeum vulgare and Vicia faba: Electron transport, CO 2 fixation and carboxylation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, A; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E

    1996-07-01

    A C3 monocot, Hordeum vulgare and C3 dicot, Vicia faba, were studied to evaluate the mechanism of inhibition of photosynthesis due to water stress. The net rate of CO2 fixation (A) and transpiration (E) were measured by gas exchange, while the true rate of O2 evolution (J O2) was calculated from chlorophyll fluorescence analysis through the stress cycle (10 to 11 days). With the development of water stress, the decrease in A was more pronounced than the decrease in J O2 resulting in an increased ratio of Photosystem II activity per CO2 fixed which is indicative of an increase in photorespiration due to a decrease in supply of CO2 to Rubisco. Analyses of changes in the J O2 A ratios versus that of CO2 limited photosynthesis in well watered plants, and RuBP pool/RuBP binding sites on Rubisco and RuBP activity, indicate a decreased supply of CO2 to Rubisco under both mild and severe stress is primarily responsible for the decrease in CO2 fixation. In the early stages of stress, the decrease in C i (intercellular CO2) due to stomatal closure can account for the decrease in photosynthesis. Under more severe stress, CO2 supply to Rubisco, calculated from analysis of electron flow and CO2 exchange, continued to decrease. However, C i, calculated from analysis of transpiration and CO2 exchange, either remained constant or increased which may be due to either a decrease in mesophyll conductance or an overestimation of C i by this method due to patchiness in conductance of CO2 to the intercellular space. When plants were rewatered after photosynthesis had dropped to 10-30% of the original rate, both species showed near full recovery within two to four days. PMID:24271534

  18. Variaciones en el pH de la rizosfera y en el porcentaje de materia seca de Vicia sativa al aplicar dos fuentes fosfatadas de baja solubilidad en un andisol del departamento de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjivar F. Juan Carlos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En el estudio se utilizaron seis tratamientos: el testigo (T0, sin fuentes fosfatadas (T1 y con adiciones de 25 y 50 kg/ha de P como fosforita Huila (T2 y T3 y calfós (T4 y T5. Los cambios generados por la raíz se evaluaron utilizando la solución nutritiva de Marschner Römheld y Ossenberg-Neuhaus, acondicionada con agar. El porcentaje de materia seca parcial de Vicia sativa se incrementó significativamente al aplicar 25 y 50 kg/ha de P como fosforita Huila (T2 y T3 y calfos (T5 y T6 en la localidad de Genoy. El pH de la solución agarizada sufrió disminuciones significativas a través del tiempo especialmente en los tratamientos T3 y T2.

    Palabras claves: pH rizosférico, Vicia sativa, Papilionoidea, fuentes fosfatadas, solubilidad

  19. Caractérisation phéno-morphologique de quelques lignées de fève (Vicia faba L. sélectionnées et adaptées aux conditions de culture dans les régions arides en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Mohandes Dridi, Bouthaina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude avait pour objectif la caractérisation phéno-morphologique de 13 lignées de fève sélectionnées à l'Institut des Régions Arides de Medenine (Tunisie à partir de 42 populations traditionnelles. La variabilité phéno-morphologique de ces lignées a été documentée et suivie du semis jusqu’à la maturité des graines par des mesures biométriques et des évaluations qualitatives sur différentes parties des plantes. Les caractères morphologiques ont été décrits en se basant sur le descripteur de l’UPOV (2000 pour l’espèce Vicia faba L. L'analyse des résultats permet de distinguer 2 groupes en se basant sur le critère précocité et le poids de cent graines. Le premier groupe est constitué par la lignée 8 et se distingue par le fait qu'elle est la plus précoce et présente le poids de cent graines le plus élevé. Le deuxième groupe se subdivise en 3 sous-groupes qui diffèrent entre eux par la vigueur et la productivité de la plante. Le premier sous-groupe renferme les lignées 5, 10, 11, 12 et 13 se caractérise par un nombre de fleurs par racème plus faible, avec un poids moyen de cent graines variant de 162,96 à 165,24 g et des nombres de graines par gousse les plus élevés. Le deuxième sous-groupe englobe les lignées 6, 7, et 9 qui sont les plus homogènes du point de vue de la date de 50 % floraison, hauteur finale de la plante et longueur de la foliole. Le dernier sous-groupe inclus les lignées 1, 2, 3 et 4 qui sont caractérisées par un nombre de gousses par plante, un nombre de tiges par plante, et un nombre de fleurs par racème les plus élevés. Ces lignées devraient être conservées et valorisées pour les programmes d’amélioration variétale de l’espèce Vicia faba par des sélections successives jusqu’à l’obtention d’une variété synthétique plus productive et mieux adaptée aux conditions arides du Sud Tunisien.

  20. Evaluation of microbial biomass C and N content of the soils cultivated with vetch (Vicia sativa L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Bolat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume forage crops have the ability of retaining free nitrogen in the air through symbiotic Rhizobium bacteria found in their roots. Additionally, microbial biomass (MB–an essential living component of soil and a significant factor influencing plant nutrient dynamics–is considered to be accurate indicator of soil’s biological condition. Given the aforementioned aspects, soil MB C (Cmic and MB N (Nmic of different legume forage crops were investigated in this study. Soil samples were taken in order to identify certain physical and chemical characteristics of the soil using volume cylinders (0 – 6.5 cm depth from Vicia sativa L. (VSP and Medicago sativa L. planted (MSP areas. To determine the Cmic and Nmic contents, topsoil samples were also taken from 0 – 6.5 cm depth. Cmic and Nmic contents were identified using chloroform – fumigation – extraction method. There was no statistical significance for particle density, bulk density, electrical conductivity, CaCO3 %, and decomposition ratio (Corg/Ntotal of the VSP and MSP soil (P > 0.05. However, some other soil characteristics such as temperature, porosity, sand, silt and clay contents, pH, organic C and total N differed significantly (P < 0.05. Compared to VSP soil, the Cmic contents were determined to be 27 % higher (P < 0.05 in MSP soil. In VSP soil, the soil Nmic content ranged from 83.38 µg g-1 to 124.67 µg g-1, while it ranged from 91.62 µg g-1 to 187.07 µg g-1 in MSP soil. The Nmic content of the MSP soil was observed to be approximately 35 % higher than VSP soil, and a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 was noticed between the two. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found not only between the Cmic and organic C contents (r = 0.667; P < 0.05 but also between the Nmic and total N contents of MSP and VSP soil (r = 0.881; P < 0.01. The results of the study revealed that soil Cmic and Nmic values differ as the types of planted legume forage crops

  1. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens B. Hafke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Apart from a few using cut aphid stylets, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (-130 mV to -110 mV, while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. -100 mV. In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to -55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H+-induced depolarisations were recorded. Data analysis by nonlinear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie-Hofstee (EH -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: Km1 1.2-1.8 mM, Km2 6.6-9.0 mM of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC favoured single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, Km values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher Km values (EH: Km1 10 mM, Km2 70 mM as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (-0.1 to -0.3 pA/ pF were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a Km values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in-situ determination of Km values, (c As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved in sucrose uptake by sieve

  2. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  3. Nitric Oxide Blocks Blue Light-Induced K+ Influx by Elevating the Cytosolic Ca2+ Concentration in Vicia faba L.Guard Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zhao; Yuan-Yuan Li; Hui-Li Xiao; Chang-Shui Xu; Xiao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ plays a pivotal role in nitric oxide (NO)-promoted stomatal closure.However,the function of Ca2+ in NO inhibition of blue light (BL)-induced stomatal opening remains largely unknown.Here,we analyzed the role of Ca2+ in the crosstalk between BL and NO signaling in Vicia faba L.guard cells.Extracellular Ca2+ modulated the BL-induced stomatal opening in a dose-dependent manner,and an application of 5 μM Ca2+ in the pipette solution significantly inhibited BL-activated K+ influx.Sodium nitroprusside (SNP),a NO donor,showed little effect on BL-induced K+ influx and stomatal opening response in the absence of extracellular Ca2+,but K+ influx and stomatal opening were inhibited by SNP when Ca2+ was added to the bath solution.Interestingly,although both SNP and BL could activate the plasma membrane Ca2+ channels and induce the rise of cytosolic Ca2+,the change in levels of Ca2+ channel activity and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration were different between SNP and BL treatments.SNP at 100 μM obviously activated the plasma membrane Ca2+ channels and induced cytosolic Ca2+ rise by 102.4%.In contrast,a BL pulse (100 μmol/m2 per s for 30 s) slightly activated the Ca2+ channels and resulted in a Ca2+ rise of only 20.8%.Consistently,cytosolic Ca2+ promoted K+ influx at 0.5 μM or below,and significantly inhibited K+ influx at 5 μM or above.Taken together,our findings indicate that Ca2+ plays dual and distinctive roles in the crosstalk between BL and NO signaling in guard cells,mediating both the BL-induced K+ influx as an activator at a lower concentration and the NO-blocked K+ influx as an inhibitor at a higher concentration.

  4. Germination Test on Vicia angustifolia Linn. ex Reichard seeds with concentrated sulfuric acid%用浓硫酸处理窄叶野豌豆种子的发芽试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全群燕; 段林东; 胡双

    2014-01-01

    窄叶野豌豆种子存在硬实现象,硬实种子不透水,在不经过处理的情况下,发芽率极低(8%)。为提高窄叶野豌豆种子的发芽率,采用98%的浓硫酸对窄叶野豌豆种子进行浸种处理。通过在不同温度下进行发芽可知,窄叶野豌豆种子发芽最适温度为10℃。在10℃温度条件下,经浓硫酸浸种处理10 min的种子发芽率达到100%,发芽势达到82%。用浓硫酸处理5~50 min的种子平均发芽率为95.8%,平均发芽势为68%;而不经浓硫酸处理的空白对照试验组发芽率仅为8%。%The hard seeds of Vicia angustifolia Linn. ex Reichard are impermeable. Under non-treated conditions, the germination rate is very low (8%). To improve the seed germination rate, 98%concentrated sulfuric acid were used for Vicia angustifolia seed soaking treatment. The germination treatments in different temperatures were carried out. Results indicated that the optimum temperature for Vicia angustifolia seed was 10℃. Under conditions of 10℃, after 10 min soaking by concentrated sulfuric acid, the germination rate reached 100%, and the germination potential reached 82%. After 5~50 min soaking by concentrated sulfuric acid, the germination rate was 95.8%on average, and the germination potential was 68%on average. And for the blank control without concentrated sulfuric acid, the germination rate was 8%.

  5. [The assessment of no adverse effect doses for plant populations chronically exposed to radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Belykh, E S; Geras'kin, S A

    2010-01-01

    Dose rates cause no adverse effects on natural populations of Pinus sylvestris L. and Vicia cracca L. inhabiting territories contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes (Vodny settlement, Komi Republic) were determined. A significant increase in embryonic lethal mutation frequency in V. cracca legumes and decrease in seedlings survival rate as compared with control values were registered at dose rate equal to 1.67 mGy/day, that is 280 times higher than the one calculated for the reference site. The adverse effects in P. sylvestris expressed in increased frequency of chromosome aberrations in meristematic root tips and decreased reproductive capacity of seeds were determined at absorbed dose rate equal to 0.083 mGy/day. Data obtained show that the decrease in plant reproductive capacity in case of chronic exposure of radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series can observe at lower weighted absorbed dose rates than in case of environmental contamination by artificial radionuclides.

  6. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba Integração de resíduos de girassol (Helianthus annuus com herbicida pré-emergente na supressão de plantas daninhas na cultura da fava (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Alsaadawi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was even better than herbicide used alone. Integration of recommended dose of Treflan with sunflower residue at 1,400 g m-² produced maximum (987.5 g m-2 aboveground biomass of broad bean, which was 74 and 36% higher than control and recommended herbicide dose applied alone, respectively. Combination of herbicide and sunflower residue appeared to better enhance pod number and yield per unit area than herbicide alone. Application of 50% dose of Treflan in plots amended with sunflower residue resulted in similar yield advantage as was noticed with 100% herbicide dose. Chromatographic analysis of residue-infested field soil indicated the presence of several phytotoxic compounds of phenolic nature. Periodic data revealed that maximum suppression in weed density and dry weight synchronized with peak values of phytotoxins observed 4 weeks after incorporation of sunflower residues. Integration of sunflower residues with lower herbicide rates can produce effective weed suppression without compromising yield as a feasible and environmentally sound approach in broad bean fields.O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de utilizar resíduos agrícolas com potencial alelopático para reduzir o uso de herbicidas sintéticos em fava (Vicia faba. Resíduos de girassol (600 e 1,400 g m-2 e Treflan (50, 75 e 100% da dose recomendada foram incorporados ao solo isoladamente ou em combinação uns com os outros. Parcelas não tratadas foram mantidas como controle. A aplicação de

  7. Promoting Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THE world's population reached 5 billion in 1987,then 6 billion in 1999;now,in 2011,it is 7 billion.For a country with a set birth control policy,the way in which Chinese people and the media view this number has greatly changed.People are increasingly reflecting on the concept of population from a more scientific and rational perspective.This shift is a change from how people perceived population in the past.

  8. Modulation de l’expression du pouvoir pathogène de Botrytis fabae Sard. et de Botrytis cinerea Pers. par des bactéries du phylloplan de Vicia faba L.

    OpenAIRE

    Vedie, R.; Le Normand, M.

    1984-01-01

    La formation et le développement de lésions nécrotiques par Botrytis fabae et B. cinerea sur feuilles détachées de Vicia faba sont inhibés par la présence de sulfate ferrique dans la goutte d’inoculum. Le sulfate ferrique n’a pas d’effet sur la germination des conidies de Botrytis sur lames de verre, mais entraîne une forte stimulation de la croissance des tubes germinatifs. L’inhibition observée sur les feuilles détachées ne s’explique pas par la production de phytoalexines ni par la stim...

  9. 基于大蒜‖蚕豆间作模式环境效益分析%Economic and Environmental Benefits of Vicia fava and Garlic Intercropping Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤秋香; 任天志; 雷宝坤; 翟丽梅; 胡万里; 罗新华; 张继宗; 刘宏斌

    2013-01-01

    We research for the environmental benefit intercropping patterns of vicia fava and garlic in Northern Yunnan Province Erhai Lake Basin.economic benefits,crop nutrient utilization,soil nutrient residue,groundwater nitrogen and phosphorus contents of intercropping patterns,and paddy field soil nutrient and the nitrogen and phosphorus contents of surface water in next season.The results showed that:the land equivalent ratio(LER) is greater than 1 of intercropping patterns of vicia fava and garlic,that means high efficiency intercropping than monoculture.The intercropping patterns of vicia fava and garlic significantly increased the nitrogen absorption and utilization,reduced soil nitrate residues,simultaneously,reduced nitrate and soluble nitrogen residues in groundwater.And intercropping mode could reduce the residual of inorganic nitrogen in the soil in the next quarter,also,reduced nitrogen and phosphorus loss risk in surface water of the next season.In this study,the intercropping modes of vicia fava and garlic was not only had better economic benefits but also had better environmental benefits in the local.It would provide reference for popularizing the reasonable planting structure and reducing the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in farmland,reducing non-point source pollution of farmland.%于滇北洱海流域田间小区试验研究了大蒜‖蚕豆间作模式的环境效益,分析了不同种植模式的经济效益、作物养分利用状况、土壤养分残留状况、地下水氮磷含量、后茬水稻田土壤养分和田面水氮磷含量的变化.结果显示:大蒜‖蚕豆土地当量比(LER)为1.15,增产效果显著.大蒜‖蚕豆间作模式显著提高大蒜和蚕豆对氮的吸收利用,降低土壤硝态氮残留量,也显著降低地下水的硝态氮和可溶性氮的残留量,并且减少了后茬的土壤中无机氮残留,降低后茬水稻泡田期的氮磷流失风险.研究结果证实大蒜‖蚕豆间作模式是适宜当地种

  10. VICIA FABA L. (FABACEAE) KÖK UCU HÜCRELERİNDE FENOL TARAFINDAN TEŞVİK EDİLEN SİTOTOKSİSİTENİN BELİRLENMESİ

    OpenAIRE

    Çavuşoğlu, Kültiğin

    2009-01-01

    Özet: Bu çalışmada, Vicia faba L. kök ucu hücrelerine fenol'ün farklı konsantrasyonlarının sitotoksik etkileri araştırıldı. Test materyali olarak bakla tohumları kullanıldı. Çimlenme yüzdesi, kök uzunluğu ve mikronukleus (MN) sıklığı sitotoksisitenin indikatörleri olarak kullanıldı ve bu veriler istatistiksel parametreler ile ilişkilendirildi. Sitogenetik analizlere ilaveten, fenol ile muamele edilen bakla tohumlarının kök ucu meristemlerinde DNA analizleri gerçekleştirildi. To...

  11. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  12. LC-MSdetermination of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean (Vicia fabaL. lines with common and rare flowercolors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of muscle control, which causes trembling of the limbs and head as well as impaired balance. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine is the major ingredient of several prescription drugs used to treat PD. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the few plant species that is known to produce L-DOPA and has the potential to be developed as a functional food crop for people suffering with PD. Objective: Aimed to provide needed information for people who want to use faba bean as a natural remedy or functional food to relieve PD symptoms, this study analyzed the variation of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean lines with common and rare flower colors. Methods: Leaf and flower samples were taken from field grown plants with different flower colors, namely, pink with purple lines and black dots, pure white, brown, and crimson. Samples were freeze-dried and L-DOPA was quantified by a LC-MS system consisting of an ACQUITY UPLC in line with a Synapt G2 HDMS quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This experiment was carried out in two consecutive years (2012 and 2013 and the plants used in the second year were grown from the seeds harvested from the plants used in the first year. Results and Discussion: Our two-year study revealed a high level of variation in L-DOPA concentration for leaf and flower tissues among the six faba bean lines studied. The average L-DOPA concentration based on dry weight (DW in flowers ranged from 27.8 to 63.5 mg/g and 18.2 to 48.7 mg/g for leaf tissues. There was no significant correlation between L-DOPA concentrations in flowers and leaves. The L-DOPA concentration in flowers and in leaves of the same line varied but were not statistically significant between the two years. Ideally, the genotype with the highest average L-DOPA concentration in both flowers and leaves would be grown

  13. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  14. Phylogeny and population structure of brown rot- and Moko disease-causing strains of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, G; Remenant, B; Chiroleu, F; Lefeuvre, P; Prior, P

    2012-04-01

    The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools.

  15. Phylogeny and population structure of brown rot- and Moko disease-causing strains of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, G; Remenant, B; Chiroleu, F; Lefeuvre, P; Prior, P

    2012-04-01

    The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools. PMID:22286995

  16. Imaginary populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez–Abraín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002 wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002, that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologists often forget "to acknowledge that many study units are neither natural nor even units in terms of constituting a population system", and hence claimed that we "require much more accuracy than in past decades in order to be more effective to characterize populations and predict their behaviour". They stated that this is especially necessary "in disciplines such as conservation biology or resource pest management, to avoid reaching wrong conclusions or making inappropriate decisions". As a population ecologist and conservation biologist I totally agree with these authors and, like them, I be¬lieve that greater precision and care is needed in the use and definition of ecological terms. The point I wish to stress here is that we ecologists tend to forget that when we use statistical tools to infer results from our sample to a population we work with what statisticians term "imaginary", "hypothetical" or "potential" popula¬tions. As Zar (1999 states, if our sample data consist of 40 measurements of growth rate in guinea pigs "the population about which conclusions might be drawn is the growth rates of all the guinea pigs that conceivably might have been administered the same food supplement under identical conditions". Such a population does not really exist, and hence it is considered a hypothetical or imaginary population. Compare that definition with the population concept that would be in our minds when performing such measurements. We would probably

  17. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  18. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  19. Population neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paus, T

    2016-01-01

    Population neuroscience endeavors to identify influences shaping the human brain from conception onwards, thus generating knowledge relevant for building and maintaining brain health throughout the life span. This can be achieved by studying large samples of participants drawn from the general population and evaluated with state-of-the-art tools for assessing (a) genes and their regulation; (b) external and internal environments; and (c) brain properties. This chapter reviews the three elements of population neuroscience (principles, tools, innovations, limitations), and discusses future directions in this field. PMID:27637950

  20. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases or decreases in the size of populations over space and time are, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change over time in the abundance of some population is the simple difference between the number of additions (individuals entering the population minus the number of subtractions (individuals leaving the population. Of course, the precise nature of the pattern and process of these additions and subtractions is often complex, and population biology is often replete with fairly dense mathematical representations of both processes. While there is no doubt that analysis of such abstract descriptions of populations has been of considerable value in advancing our, there has often existed a palpable discomfort when the ‘beautiful math’ is faced with the often ‘ugly realities’ of empirical data. In some cases, this attempted merger is abandoned altogether, because of the paucity of ‘good empirical data’ with which the theoretician can modify and evaluate more conceptually–based models. In some cases, the lack of ‘data’ is more accurately represented as a lack of robust estimates of one or more parameters. It is in this arena that methods developed to analyze multiple encounter data from individually marked organisms has seen perhaps the greatest advances. These methods have rapidly evolved to facilitate not only estimation of one or more vital rates, critical to population modeling and analysis, but also to allow for direct estimation of both the dynamics of populations (e.g., Pradel, 1996, and factors influencing those dynamics (e.g., Nichols et al., 2000. The interconnections between the various vital rates, their estimation, and incorporation into models, was the general subject of our plenary presentation by Hal Caswell (Caswell & Fujiwara, 2004. Caswell notes that although interest has traditionally

  1. Analysis on Suitability of Economic Feasibility and Characteristic of Growth and Development under Garlic and Vicia fava Intercropping Mode in Northern Region of Erhai Lake%洱海北部地区大蒜Ⅱ蚕豆模式作物生长发育规律及经济效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤秋香; 雷宝坤; 任天志; 翟丽梅; 胡万里; 罗新华; 张继宗; 刘宏斌

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the field experiments were carried out to investigate the suitability of economic feasibility and ecological adaptability of Garlic ⅡVicia fava mode local suitability on Luoshijiang edge of the northern region of Erhai Lake in Zhaoyi village of Shangguan towns. Accumulation of dry matter, rhizobium change, root distribution, crop population growth rate and land equivalent ratio situation were studied with data obtained from the field experiment and the laboratory. The results showed that intercropping could increase the dry matter accumulation , enhance garlic chlorophyll content, and improve the efficiency of post-photosynthetic use. Intercropping model could promote the down growth of the roots of the garlic and beans. The efficiency of intercropping was higher than that of monocropping, intercropping yield and increased 15 %. The conclusion provided a reference to increase the local farmland biodiversity, reasonable arrangements for local planting structure.%本文从经济可行性和生态适应性角度分析了大蒜Ⅱ蚕豆模式在当地种植的适宜性.在洱海北部地区罗时江边上关镇兆邑村开展田间小区试验,经田间测定和样品经室内分析化验后,依据所得数据分析干物质累积规律、根瘤菌变化、根系分布、作物群体生长率土地当量比等状况.结果表明,间作能增加后期干物质累积量,能提高大蒜叶绿素含量,提高后期光合利用效率.间作模式可以促使大蒜和蚕豆的根系向下生长.间作比单作效率高,间作的增产率为15%.本研究为增加当地农田生物多样性,合理安排当地种植结构提供参考.

  2. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida.

  3. Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  4. Stellar Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-01-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on ne

  5. Population success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    "The commitment to population programs is now widespread," says Rafael Salas, Executive Director of the UNFPA, in its report "State of World Population." About 80% of the total population of the developing world live in countries which consider their fertility levels too high and would like them reduced. An important impetus came from the World Conference of 1974. The Plan of Action from the conference projected population growth rates in developing countries of 2.0% by 1985. Today it looks as though this projection will be realized. While in 1969, for example, only 26 developing countries had programs aimed at lowering or maintaining fertility levels, by 1980 there were 59. The International Population Conference, recently announced by the UN for 1984, will, it is hoped, help sustain that momentum. Cuba is the country which has shown the greatest decline in birth rate so far. The birth rate fell 47% between 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Next came China with a 34% decline in the same period. After these came a group of countries--each with populations of over 10 million--with declines of between 15 and 25%: Chile, Colombia, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Though birth rates have been dropping significantly the decline in mortality rates over recent years has been less than was hoped for. The 1974 conference set 74 years as the target for the world's average expectation of life, to be reached by the year 2000. But the UN now predicts that the developing countries will have only reached 63 or 64 years by then. High infant and child mortality rates, particularly in Africa, are among the major causes. The report identifies the status of women as an important determinant of family size. Evidence from the UNFPA-sponsored World Fertility Survey shows that in general the fertility of women decreases as their income increases. It also indicates that women who have been educated and who work outside the home are likely to have smaller families

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide Mediates ABA-induced Stomatal Closure of Vicia faba L.%H2S介导ABA诱导蚕豆气孔运动的生理机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁; 侯智慧; 赵方贵; 刘新

    2011-01-01

    Through pharmacological combined with spectrophotography to study the effects of ABA and ABA with inhibitors of H2S synthesis on stomatal closure of Vicia faba L., H2S generation and L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase (pyridoxalphosphate dependent enzymes) activity.The results showed that AOA and NH2OH, inhibitors of pyridoxal-5 ‘-phosphate-dependent enzymes, C3H3KO3 + NH3, products of L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase all inhibited ABA- induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L.obviously under light condition.Treatment with ABA induced H2S generation and increased L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase activity.AOA,NH2OH,C3H3KO3+NH3 reduced H2S generation induced by ABA and the activity increase of L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase.Those results suggested that ABA enhanced the activity of L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase,inducing the accumulation of H2S via L-/D-cysteine resolving, and finally induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L..%以蚕豆为实验材料,利用药理学实验和分光光度法,研究了ABA处理及ABA与H2S合成抑制剂共处理对蚕豆气孔运动的影响,以及体内H2S水平、H2S合成酶L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶(磷酸吡哆盐依赖性酶)活性变化.结果表明:(1)光下H2S的合成抑制剂羧甲氧基胺半盐酸盐(AOA)、羟氨(NH2OH)、L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶分解产物C3H3KO3+NH3均明显抑制ABA诱导的蚕豆气孔关闭;(2)外源ABA能够明显提高叶片的H2S水平及L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶活性;(3)AOA、NH2OH、C3H3KO3和NH3均可以逆转ABA所引起的H2S水平及L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶活性的升高.研究发现,ABA可通过增强L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶活性,促进L-/D-半胱氨酸分解生成H2S,进而诱导蚕豆气孔关闭.

  7. Ca2+对蚕豆种子萌发及根生长的影响%Effects of Ca2+ on the Germination and Root Growth of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英慧

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To study the effects of Ca2+ on seed germination, root length, and mitotic index of root tip cells of Vicia faba. [ Method] Vicia faba seeds were cultured with CaCl2 solutions at different concentration using distilled water treatment as CK. Germination rates were counted;root lengths were measured;and the root tips were fixed,dyed and squashed for microscopic examination,and mitotic index of its root tip cells were calculated. [ Result ] There was no effect on germination of Vicia faba seeds treated with 1.0 - 5.0 mmol/L Ca2+.The speed of germination decreased when the seeds were treated with Ca2+ above 10.0 mmol/L,but at last there was no effect on the rate of germination. The root length and mitotic index of root tip cells were increased after the treatment with Ca2+ at concentration of 1.0 - 10.0 mmol/L. When the root tips were treated with Ca2+ at higher concentration ,the root length and mitotic index decreased, and even the growth of root and cell division were inhibited. [ Conclusion ] Ca2+ is an essential element for plants ,but the application of excessive Ca2+ would generate toxicity. This study provides scientific evidence for rational application of calcium fertilizer.%[目的]研究不同浓度Ca对蚕豆种子萌发、根长以及根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响.[方法]用不同浓度的CaCl 溶液培养蚕豆种子,以蒸馏水培养为对照,统计不同处理下蚕豆种子萌发率;测量根长;根尖固定、染色、压片后进行观察,计算有丝分裂指数.[结果]1.0-5.0 mmol/L Ca 对蚕豆种子萌发没有影响.当Ca 浓度超过10.0 mmol/L后,随着Ca浓度的增高,蚕豆种子萌发速率降低,但对最终萌发率没有影响;1.0-10.0mmol/L Ca 能不同程度地促进蚕豆根生长和细胞分裂,其中5.0mmol/L Ca 处理的蚕豆根长和有丝分裂指数最高,之后随着Ca 浓度的继续增高,根生长和细胞分裂速度开始下降,甚至受到抑制.[结论]Ca 是植物体生长的必需元素,但Ca

  8. 孔雀石绿对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响%Effect of Malachite Green on Mitosis of Vicia faba Root Tip Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淑池; 沈燕霞; 池玥兰; 吴霞

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the effect of malachite green (MG) on mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cell. [Method] Dif ferent concentrations of malachite green were used to treat Viciafaba root lip cell for 12.24,36,48 and 72 h.The mitosis of Vieia fa a root tip ceil was observed by conventional chromosome compression technology ,and the mitotic index ( MI) of each treatment group was counted. [ Re sult] As the treated time prolonged,MI presented the M-shaped variation trend,which illustrated that Vicia faba root tip had a adaptive process to MC. As the concentration of MC increased,Ml gradually rote. When the concentration of MG was during 0.50 - 1. 00 mg/L, Ml was the maximum. When the concentration of MG further increased,MI decreased. It showed that MG was favorable for the plant growth in the certain concentration range. [Conclusion] The research could provide the basis for the reasonable utilization of MG,and the reference for evaluating the environmental harm of MG.%[目的]研究孔雀石绿对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响.[方法]采用不同浓度的孔雀石绿溶液处理蚕豆根尖细胞12、24、36、48和72 h,通过常规染色体压片技术,观察蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂,并计算各处理组的有丝分裂指数.[结果]随着处理时间的延长,有丝分裂指数呈M型变化趋势,说明蚕豆根尖对孔雀石绿有一个适应过程.随着孔雀石绿浓度的升高,有丝分裂指数逐渐升高,在浓度为0.50~1.00 mg/L时,有丝分裂指数整体达到顶点;随着孔雀石绿浓度的进一步升高,有丝分裂指数有所下降,说明孔雀石绿在一定浓度范围内对植物生长有利.[结论]该研究可以为孔雀石绿的合理利用提供依据,并为评价孔雀石绿对环境的危害提供参考.

  9. Effect of phthalate esters on micronuclei rates in vicia faba root tip cells%邻苯二甲酸酯类物质对蚕豆根尖细胞微核率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段丽菊; 王海雪; 高留闯; 唐智敏; 吉宗慧; 范清堂; 崔留欣

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study the mutagenicity of some kinds of phthalate esters. METHODS:Vicia faba root tips were exposed to different concentrations of phthalate esters including dimethyl phthalate,dibuthyl phthalate,bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate,diethyl phthalate and dipropyl phthalate for 24 hours. Number of micronuclei of vicia faba root tips cells was observed. RESULTS:Compared with the negative control group,while dimethyl phthalate at the concentration of 0.008,0.016,0.032 mg/L,phthalate dibutyl and phthalate dioctyl at the concentration of 0.016,0.032 mg/L,respectively, there were significant differences in micronucleus rate (P0.05). CONCLUSION:The present study demonstrats that dimethyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate,dioctyl phthalate displayed genetic toxicity and low concentration of diethyl phthalate and phthalate dipropyl showed no genotoxicity.%目的:研究几种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质的遗传毒性。方法:用不同浓度邻苯二甲酸二甲酯、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯、邻苯二甲酸二丙酯、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯和邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯对蚕豆根尖染毒24 h后,观察蚕豆根尖细胞的微核数。结果:邻苯二甲酸二甲酯在浓度为0.008、0.016和0.032 mg/L,邻苯二甲酸二丁酯和邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯在浓度为0.016和0.032 mg/L时,所致蚕豆根尖细胞微核率均显著高于阴性对照组(P0.05)。结论:在本实验条件下,邻苯二甲酸二甲酯、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯、邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯对蚕豆根尖具有遗传毒性,低浓度邻苯二甲酸二乙酯和邻苯二甲酸二丙酯对蚕豆根尖不具有遗传毒性。

  10. 局部灼伤对茉莉酸在蚕豆幼苗中运输和分配的影响%Effect of Localized Scorch on the Transport and Distribution of Exogenous Jasmonic Acid in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 张蜀秋; 娄成后; 于风义

    2002-01-01

    用示踪技术研究了3H-JA (jasmonic acid)在双子叶植物蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)中的运输和分配规律以及局部灼伤对其运输与分配的影响.外源3H-JA 能够以高于4~5 cm*min-1的速率在蚕豆幼苗体内向上和向下运输.幼叶局部灼伤能提高3H-JA的向上运输能力,促进3H-JA向受伤部位的调运;增加3H-JA向成熟叶片下表皮的运输分配比率;阻止3H-JA从受伤部位的向外输出.据此推测,伤胁迫下JA的运输与分配的改变可能与植物体防御伤反应密切相关,并有可能参与了对气孔运动的调控.%Exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) has been showed to be able to induce stomatal closure in Vicia faba L. in previous investigations. The transport and distribution of 3H_JA affected by localized scorch on V. faba seedling were studied with radioisotope technique. The results showed that 3H_JA could be transported up or down at the rate of 4-5 cm*min-1 following feeding into root or shoot tip. The transport of 3H_JA in shoot reached a relative stable rate at 30 min after being fed through root. Wounding by scorch in the youngest leaf caused an increase in the transport of 3H_JA from root to shoot and enhanced the distribution of 3H_JA in the wounded leaf. However, distribution of 3H_JA in unwounded leaves increased after 5 h being fed through the youngest leaf. It was noticed that wounding improved accumulation of 3H_JA in abaxial epidermis. Consistent results were obtained: wounding prevented transport of 3H_JA out from the youngest leaf to root; These observations suggest that JA plays an important role as a defense signal and might be involved in the regulation of the stomatal movement in response to wounding stress.

  11. Population Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Population aging is primarily the result of past declines in fertility, which produced a decades long period in which the ratio of dependents to working age adults was reduced. Rising old-age dependency in many countries represents the inevitable passing of this %u201Cdemographic dividend.%u201D Societies use three methods to transfer resources to people in dependent age groups: government, family, and personal saving. In developed countries, families are predominant in supporting children, w...

  12. Indian populations

    CERN Multimedia

    Spahni,J

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. J.C. Spahni qui a parcouru les Andes, Vénezuela etc. parle de ses expériences et connaissances qu'il a vécu au cours des 14 ans parmi les populations indiennes de la Cordillière des Andes. Il a ramené des objets artisanals indiens lesquels l'auditoire peut acquérir. L'introduction-conférence est suivi d'un film, commenté par lui-même; après l'entracte il y un débat-dialogue avec le public.

  13. Dynamics of endogenous phytohormone in broad bean leaf infected by Olpidium Viciae%巢豆油壶菌与蚕豆相互作用下植物内源激素的动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严吉明; 叶华智

    2013-01-01

    To understand the physiological mechanism of induced histopathology and symptom of broad bean blister caused by Olpidium Viciae,the endogenous phytohormone levels of Zeatin (ZT),Indoleacetic acid (IAA),Gibberellin (GA),Cytokinins (KT) and Abscisic acid (ABA) in diseased and healthy tissues of leaves were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HLPC).The results showed that the levels of five endogenous hormones were higher in diseased tissues than in healthy tissues.At the early period of symptom development,a large increase in level of five hormones in the diseased tissue was detected along with active the cell division.At the late period of symptom development,the cell division in tumor tissues gradually stopped with the exception of a continuous increase in the rate of GA in tumor tissue.The increase rate of other hormones in tumor tissues decreased obviously but the contents of those hormones were still higher in diseased tissues than in healthy tissues.Changes in level of five endogenous hormones in diseased tissues reflected physiological mechanism of inducing histopathological change and symptom of broad bean blister.

  14. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of neutron beams produced by 50 Mev deuterons and 34, 45, 65, 75 MeV protons in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation of neutron RBE and OER, as a function of energy, was determined for differrent neutron beams produced at the cyclotron ''Cyclone'' of Louvain-la-Neuve. The biological system was growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. RBE of neutron beams produced by bombarding a beryllium target by 34, 45, 65 and 75 MeV proton (2 cm thick polythene additional filter) was found equal to 1.15 +- 0.13, 1.02 +- 0.10, 0.85 +- 0.08 and 0.83 +- 0.09, for absorbed doses of 0.39 Gy, 0.44 Gy, 0.53 Gy and 0.54 Gy respectively. These doses correspond to 50 % growth inhibition. Neutrons produced by 50 MeV deuterons on beryllium are taken as reference. For the same beams, OER value are equal to 1.55 +- 0.13, 1.38 +- 0.12, 1.29 +- 0.12 and 1.41 +- 0.11 respectively. OER is equal to 1.60 +- 0.15 for neutrons produced by 50 MeV deuterons (P = 0.05)

  15. Population Genetics with Fluctuating Population Sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Chotibut, Thiparat

    2016-01-01

    Standard neutral population genetics theory with a strictly fixed population size has important limitations. An alternative model that allows independently fluctuating population sizes and reproduces the standard neutral evolution is reviewed. We then study a situation such that the competing species are neutral at the equilibrium population size but population size fluctuations nevertheless favor fixation of one species over the other. In this case, a separation of timescales emerges naturally and allows adiabatic elimination of a fast population size variable to deduce the fluctuations-induced selection dynamics near the equilibrium population size. The results highlight the incompleteness of the standard population genetics with a strictly fixed population size.

  16. Population, Population Density, and Technological Change

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan; Nestmann, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    In a model on population and endogenous technological change, Kremer combines a short-run Malthusian scenario where income determines the population that can be sustained, with the Boserupian insight that greater population spurs technological change and can therefore lift a country out of its Malthusian trap. We show that a more realistic version of the model, which combines population and population density, allows deeper insights into these processes. The incorporation of population densit...

  17. Mutation of the Sensor Kinase chvG in Rhizobium leguminosarum Negatively Impacts Cellular Metabolism, Outer Membrane Stability, and Symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M.; Yost, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) are a main strategy used by bacteria to sense and adapt to changes in their environment. In the legume symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae VF39, mutation of chvG, a histidine kinase, caused a number of pleiotropic phenotypes. ChvG mutants are unable to grow on proline, glutamate, histidine, or arginine as the sole carbon source. The chvG mutant secreted smaller amounts of acidic and neutral surface polysaccharides and accumulated abno...

  18. Effects of Pb2+ on the Germination and Root Growth of Vicia faba L.%铅对蚕豆种子萌发及根生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英慧; 韩善华

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究铅对蚕豆种子萌发、根生长以及细胞分裂的影响.[方法]用不同浓度的PbCl溶液培养蚕豆种子,以蒸馏水培养作为对照,统计蚕豆种子萌发率,测量根长,根尖固定、染色、压片后镜检,计算有丝分裂指数.[结果]1.0×10~5.0×10mol/L Pb处理第1、2天,蚕豆种子萌发率稍高于对照,培养第3、4天则与对照相当,Pb对蚕豆种子的萌发没有显著影响.Pb对蚕豆根尖生长产生抑制作用,随着浓度增加,根的生长速率递减,随着处理时间延长,每单位时间的根生长速度递减或停止.根尖细胞有丝分裂指数随Pb浓度的增高和处理时间的延长而递减.[结论]Pb对蚕豆根尖生长发育有影响,其影响程度与Pb处理浓度、处理时间有关.%[ Objective ] The aim was to study the effects of Pb2+ on the seed germination, root length,and mitotic of Viciafaba L.. [ Method ] With the distilled water treatment as the control, Viciafaba L. seeds were cultured with PbCl2 solutions at different concentration,and then their germination rate and root lengths were measured,and their root tips were fixed,dyed and squashed for microscopic examination,and the mitotic index (%) of root tip cells was calculated. [Result]When seeds were treated with 1 × 10-4 -5 × 10-4 mol/L Pb2+ for 1 and 2 days,the germination percentage of seeds lightly increased. But 3 and 4 days later,there was no difference between the seeds treated by Pb2+ and the control. Pb2+ had no significant influence on seed germination. Pb2+ inhibited root growth of Vicia faba L.. The rate of root growth decreased successively with the increasing Pb2+ concentration. The speed of the root growth per time unit also decreased successively or stopped with the increasing treatment duration. The mitotic index decreased progressively with both the increasing Pb2 + concentration and treatment duration. [ Conclusion ] Pb2 + showed effects on the root growth of Vicia faba L. in a dose

  19. Exogenously applied D-pinitol and D-chiro-inositol modifies the accumulation of α-D-galactosides in developing tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have investigated the effect of exogenous cyclitols on the accumulation of their galactosides and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs, as well as on some enzymes important for their biosynthesis in seeds of tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray. Immature seeds during 6-day incubation with D-chiro-inositol (naturally does not appear in seeds of tiny vetch were accumulated cyclitol and its galactosides (fagopyritols: B1 and B2. Short 4-hour incubation with D-chiro-inositol, and subsequent slow desiccation process caused accumulation of free cyclitol only, without biosynthesis of its galactosides. Feeding D-chiro-inositol to pods of tiny vetch induced accumulation of high levels of its galactosides (fagopyritol B1, B2 and B3 in maturing seeds. Similarly, feeding D-pinitol increased accumulation of its mono-, di- and tri-galactosides: GPA, GPB, DGPA and TGPA in tiny vetch seed. Accumulation of both cyclitols and their galactosides drastically reduced accumulation of verbascose. Inhibition of RFOs biosynthesis by elevated levels of free cyclitols suggests some competition between formation of both types of galactosides and similarity of both biosynthetic routes in tiny vetch seeds. Galactinol synthase (GolS from tiny vetch seeds demonstrated ability to utilize D-chiro-inositol as galactosyl acceptor, instead of myo-inositol. Presence of both cyclitols, as substrates for GolS, caused synthesis of their galactosides: fagopyritol B1 and galactinol. However, formation of galactinol was more efficient than fagopyritol B1. D-chiro-Inositol and D-pinitol at concentrations several-fold higher than myo-inositol had inhibitory effect on GolS. Thus, we suggest that a level of free cyclitols can have an influence on the rate of galactinol biosynthesis and further accumulation of RFOs and galactosyl cyclitols in tiny vetch seeds.

  20. 4-Chloro-6-methoxyindole is the precursor of a potent mutagen (4-chloro-6-methoxy-2-hydroxy-1-nitroso-indolin-3-one oxime) that forms during nitrosation of the fava bean (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Tannenbaum, S R; Büchi, G; Lee, G C

    1984-10-01

    Fava beans (Vicia faba) upon treatment with nitrite under simulated gastric conditions, form a direct-acting bacterial mutagen, comparable in specific activity to the most potent known mutagens for several strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The precursor of the mutagen was isolated and identified as 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole by u.v., i.r., m.s. and n.m.r. The precursor was dechlorinated with NaBH4 and PdCl2 as the catalyst and the product obtained from this reaction was identified as 6-methoxyindole. Since synthetic 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole was not available, structure activity studies were conducted on substituted indoles. Nitrosation of 4-chloroindole closely follows the results for nitrosation of 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole. The major product of nitrosation of 4-chloroindole is 4-chloro-2-hydroxy-N1-nitroso-indolin-3-one oxime. Thus, it appears that the major nitrosation product of 4-chloroindole and of 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole is a stable alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compound. This is the first reported case of stable alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compounds. In the presence of N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NEDD), the alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compound rearranges to an aromatic diazonium ion which couples with the diamine to form an azo dye. Studies on nitrosation kinetics indicate that the nitrosation of indoles are relatively fast reactions. Both the structural and rate studies give strong support to the hypothesis that intragastric nitrosation of fava beans yield the putative gastric carcinogen in the high-risk area in Colombia. PMID:6548421

  1. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Annual report, September 15, 1990--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  2. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  3. Genetic Damage of Root Tip Cells in Broad Bean Plant (Vicia faba) Induced by Water in Liao River Valley%辽河流域水诱发蚕豆根尖细胞遗传损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利红; 徐成斌; 陈忠林; 苏丹; 王家懿

    2009-01-01

    以辽河流域12个不同断面的河水为诱变剂,运用蚕豆根尖微核检测技术和染色体畸变实验方法,测定蚕豆根尖细胞的有丝分裂指数、微核率和染色体畸变率.结果表明:不同断面的河水均能降低蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数,能诱发较高频率的微核和染色体畸变,产生染色体断片、核突起和核碎裂.所有样点微核率和染色体畸变率均高于对照组.根据采样点水质污染指数分析町知,福德店水质属重度污染,东辽河、条子河、红庙子水质属中度污染,招苏台河水质属轻度污染.%Water in 12 sections of Liao River Valley was sampled as mutagen and micronucleus test and chromosome aberration assay were used to detect mitotic index,micronucleus ratio and chromosome aberration ratio of root tip cells in broad bean plant(Viciafaba).Results showed that water in different sections can decrease the mitotic index in Vicia faba root tip ceHs,induce higher raftos of either micronucleus or chromosome aberration and produce chromosomal segments,nuclear protuberances and fragments.Micronucleus ratio and chromosome aberration ratio in different sections were higher than those of the control group.Analysis of pollution index in 12 sections showed that water quality Was graded as heavy pollution in Fudedian River,moderate pollution in Dongliao River,Tiaozi River and Hongmiaozi River and light pollution in Zhaosutai River.

  4. Effects of UV-B radiation on the growth and reproduction of Vicia angustifolia%UV-B辐射对窄叶野豌豆生长繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 王兴安; 王仁君; 邱念伟; 马宗琪; 杜国祯

    2012-01-01

    A simulation experiment with supplementation and exclusion of solar ultraviolet-B ( UV-B) radiation was conducted to study the effects of enhanced and near ambient UV-B radiation on the growth and reproduction of alpine annual pasture Vicia angustifolia on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Enhanced UV-B decreased the plant height and biomass, biomass allocation to fruit, flower number, and 100-seed mass significantly, delayed flowering stage, increased the concentration degree of flowering and success rate of reproduction, but had little effect on seed yield. Near ambient UV-B radiation made the plant height increased after an initial decrease, decreased biomass allocation to fruit and 100-seed mass, but little affected flowering duration, flower number, and seed yield. Both enhanced and near ambient UV-B radiation could inhibit the growth and production of V. angustifolia, and the effect of enhanced UV-B radiation was even larger.%采用增补和滤除掉部分自然UV-B辐射的模拟试验,研究了增强和近环境UV-B辐射对高寒草甸一年生牧草窄叶野豌豆生长和繁殖的影响.结果表明:增补UV-B辐射处理后,窄叶野豌豆的株高、生物量、分配向果实的生物量、总花数和种子百粒重均显著下降,花期延迟,开花集中度和繁殖成功率有所提高,而种子产量无显著变化.相对于减弱UV-B辐射处理,近环境UV-B辐射使窄叶野豌豆的株高先降后升,分配向果实的生物量减少,花期、花数和种子产量无显著变化,种子百粒重减小.增强和近环境UV-B辐射对窄叶野豌豆的生长和繁殖有一定的抑制作用,且增强UV-B辐射的影响更大.

  5. Education Vital Signs: Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariya, Sally Banks

    1985-01-01

    Population changes and demographics shape the future of public schools. Includes statistics on ethnic makeup of student population, the projected baby boomlet, children of working mothers, households without children, and the aging population. (MD)

  6. Simulating Population Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Presents a strategy to help students grasp the important implications of population growth. Involves an interactive demonstration that allows students to experience exponential and logistic population growth followed by a discussion of the implications of population-growth principles. (JRH)

  7. 4种典型PPCPs对蚕豆和大蒜根尖细胞微核率的影响%Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兰君; 王金花; 朱鲁生; 王军; 赵祥

    2016-01-01

    药物及个人护理品( PPCPs)对生态环境的潜在风险受到世界各国科学家的广泛关注.为评价典型 PPCPs对植物细胞遗传物质的损伤程度,该试验以青皮蚕豆和大蒜为试验生物材料,分析强力霉素( DOX)、环丙沙星( CIP)、三氯卡班( TCC)和卡马西平( CBZ)在12.5~100 mg•L-1的浓度范围内对蚕豆和大蒜根尖细胞微核率及微核指数的影响.结果表明:① DOX、CIP、TCC和CBZ分别作用于蚕豆根尖细胞时,细胞微核率均明显高于对照组( CK1)1.67‰,差异显著( P﹤0.05);微核指数均大于3.5,属于重度损伤;随染毒浓度的增大微核率均呈先增后减的趋势.②DOX、CIP、TCC和CBZ分别作用于大蒜根尖细胞时,产生微核数量较少,微核率均大于对照组(CK2)0.67‰,部分浓度组与 CK2相比差异显著(P﹤0.05),仅当 CIP浓度为25、50、100 mg•L-1, TCC和CBZ浓度为25 mg•L-1时微核指数大于3.5;随染毒浓度的增大微核率均呈先增后减的趋势.③供试化合物引起大蒜根尖细胞的微核率均明显低于蚕豆,两组之间差异显著(P﹤0.05).④4种化合物处理蚕豆和大蒜根尖细胞产生的微核指数整体对比大小均为 CIP﹥CBZ﹥TCC﹥DOX.研究显示,4种化合物达到一定浓度时均对蚕豆和大蒜根尖细胞造成了遗传损伤,对大蒜造成的损伤程度明显低于蚕豆,4种化合物性质不同对两种植物产生的损伤程度也不同.%In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline ( DOX) , ciprofloxacin ( CIP) , triclocarban ( TCC) and carbamazepine ( CBZ) in the concentration range of 12. 5-100 mg•L-1 were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-faba and garlic. The results showed that:①When the Vicia-faba root-tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1. 67‰( CK1 ) , it was significantly different from that of the

  8. 蚕豆微核技术检测药厂废水的遗传及生理毒性%Study on the Genetic and Physiological Toxicity of Wastewater from a Pharmaceutical Factory Using Root Tip Micronucleus Technology of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈枫; 朱铁钢

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to assess genetic and physiological toxicity of wastewater from a pharmaceutical factory using root tip micronucleus technology of Vicia faba.[Method] The pollution of wastewater from a pharmaceutical factory was detected by using root tip micronucleus technology of Vicia faba,and the genetic and physiological toxicity of the wastewater to Vicia faba was assessed.[Result]Non-processed wastewater had an extremely high level of biological toxicity; the cells were unable to live with the wastewater at a high concentration; the cells were able to grow with the wastewater at a low concentration,though the micronucleus ratio was extremely high.The processed wastewater had no significant impact on cell growth,but the micronucleus ratio was extremely high,showing that the processed water also had a high pollution index.[Conclusion] The research could provide scientific references for the national treatment of wastewater from a pharmaceutical factory.%[目的]利用蚕豆微技术评估药厂废水对蚕豆根尖的遗传及生理毒性.[方法]利用蚕豆根尖微核检测技术,检测苏州市某制药厂(以生产抗生素为主)废水及经处理后出水的污染情况,并评估该废水对蚕豆根尖的遗传毒性.[结果]未作处理的原水具有极高的生物毒性,细胞在高浓度情况下无法存活,较低浓度下细胞虽能生长但有极高的微核率.经处理后的出水,虽然对细胞生长并没有显著影响,但微核率仍较高,说明出水具有较高的污染指数.[结论]该研究为药厂废水的合理处理提供了科学依据.

  9. Estimating Population Dynamics without Population Data

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Chambers; Vangelis Tzouvelekas

    2012-01-01

    We develop a biologically correct cost system for production systems facing invasive pests that allows the estimation of population dynamics without a priori knowledge of their true values. We apply that model to a data set for olive producers in Crete and derive from it predictions about the underlying populations dynamics. Those dynamics are compared to information on population dynamics obtained from pest sampling with extremely favorable results.

  10. Human Population Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  11. Some Current Population Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeuber, Conrad

    Population trends in the 1960's and early 1970's are examined in this 1972 speech in terms of overall national trends, the growth of metropolitan areas, the rural population, geographic shifts, internal migration, the black population, and living arrangements. It is noted that population growth in the 1960's was unevenly distributed within age…

  12. 饲喂蚕豆的草鱼肠道细菌群落的PCR-DGGE 分析%PCR-DGGE analysis of intestinal microecology of Ctenopharyngodon idellus fed with Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴康; 胡俊; 黄晓声; 夏虎; 陈亮; 李男; 张学振

    2014-01-01

    为探讨饲喂蚕豆( Vicia faba)对草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道菌群的影响,采用PCR-DGGE技术比较了饲喂蚕豆的草鱼(脆肉鲩组)及饲喂配合饲料的草鱼(普通草鱼组)肠道微生物菌群的异同。结果显示, DGGE图谱上出现了20条明显条带,表明脆肉鲩组及普通草鱼组肠道中均存在大量细菌群落。对这20条条带测序后,获得了其中17条条带的序列,这17条条带中有9条是尚未被培养的细菌。经分析发现,这17条条带分属于变形菌门( Proteobacteria )、放线菌门( Actinobacteria )、厚壁菌门( Firmicutes )、拟杆菌门( Bacteroidetes )及未分类的细菌,其中变形菌门为两组肠道的优势菌。实验还发现,饲喂蚕豆对肠内容物菌群的影响大于对肠壁菌群的影响。结果表明,饲喂蚕豆不改变草鱼肠道菌群的种类,但对肠道菌群的相对丰度有一定影响。%To evaluate the effect of faba bean on intestinal flora , the intestinal microbiota of crisp grass carp group ( grass carp fed with faba bean ) and grass carp group ( grass carp fed with formula feed ) were investigated using 16S rDNA PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology.Twenty DGGE bands appearing in DGGE fingerprint re-vealed that there were numerous intestinal microbiota in the two groups .Seventeen DGGE bands were successfully se-quenced.However, nine of these bands were classified as unculturable according to the phylogenetic analysis .The domi-nant bacteria in the fore-gut and mid-gut of the two groups all belonged to Proteobacteria , and other bacteria identified be-longed to actinobacteria, firmicutes, bacteroidetes and unclassified-bacteria.The result also showed that the influence caused by faba bean on intestinal microbiota was more remarkable in intestinal content than in intestinal wall .These results suggested that feeding faba bean did not change the microbial

  13. 秋水仙素对蚕豆胚根生长的影响及多倍体诱导效应分析%Influence of colchicine on radicle growth of Vicia faba and the polyploid inductive effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫秋洁; 杨琼

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the optimum induction combination(time and concentration), and analyse the inductive effects of colchicine induced the radicle polyploid in Vicia faba. The radicle cells were treated with the colchicine of five concentrations (0.025%,0. 050%,0.100%,0.150% ,0. 200%,respectively) combining various culture time (12,24, 48,60 h,respectively). And the radicle cell were treated with distilled water simultaneously,which were taken as the control. The optimum induction combination induced by colchicine was confirmed by significant difference of the root tip inductivity and the radicle expanding ratio. And the chromosome number of radicle cells and stoma number of seedling were detected to identify the induction effect. The radicle amount and seeding height were analized subsequently. The optimum inductive condition was 48 h combining colchicine concentration of 0.100%. There were significant differences in stoma number between inducted time and inducted concentration, however, the radicle number and height of V. faba seedling showed significant difference in inductive concentration but no significant difference in culture time.%筛选秋水仙素诱导蚕豆胚根多倍体的最适诱导处理组合并分析其诱导效应.以秋水仙素5个浓度 (0.025%、0.050%、0.100%、0.150%、0.200%)和4个诱导时间(12、24、48、60 h)正交组合(蒸馏水处理为对照)分别处理蚕豆胚根.以根尖诱导率和胚根膨大率的显著性差异确定蚕豆胚根多倍体的最适诱导处理组合,并以胚根细胞染色体数目和幼叶气孔数目的变化对诱导效果进行鉴定,分析其幼苗期的胚根数目和幼苗长度.结果表明:秋水仙素最适诱导时间为48 h和浓度为0.100%;气孔数量在诱导时间和诱导浓度之间均有显著差异,但幼苗期的胚根数量和幼苗长度在不同的诱导时间之间无显著差异,诱导浓度之间差异显著.

  14. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  15. Estimating Ancestral Population Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeley, J.; Hey, J.

    1997-01-01

    The expected numbers of different categories of polymorphic sites are derived for two related models of population history: the isolation model, in which an ancestral population splits into two descendents, and the size-change model, in which a single population undergoes an instantaneous change in size. For the isolation model, the observed numbers of shared, fixed, and exclusive polymorphic sites are used to estimate the relative sizes of the three populations, ancestral plus two descendent...

  16. Teaching Population Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, George W.; Schwartzberg, Julie

    Written under the sponsorship of the Population Council, with the financial support of the Population Instructional Materials Project, this work is intended to provide the thoughtful teacher of the social sciences with some suggestions and techniques for introducing population study to students in terms of concrete case studies which explore the…

  17. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  18. Controlling Population with Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  19. [Population policies and population trends in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressat, R

    1983-04-01

    Although relatively little has been known about the Chinese population in recent centuries, figures are available for more remote times. In the year 2 the Chinese population was recorded at 60 million. In 1928, when the last pre-Revolution census was conducted, China had a population of 475 million. The population was not believed to have grown very much due to internal disorders, war, and foreigh invasion, but the 1953 census counted 582 million to which were added 18 million to include Taiwan and overseas Chinese. The figure of 600 million appears to mark the beginning of concern over demographic problems. The crude birth rate was estimated at 37/1000 and the death rate at 17/1000. The 1953 census was conducted with Soviet aid and was given some publicity. The period 1953-58 was marked by a mortality decline and a steady fertility rate, but the population is believed to have declined from 647 million in 1958 to 643 million in 1962, the end of the Great Leap Forward. A census suppressed until recently gave a total of 694 million for 1964. Population growth was considerable from 1961-66. In the 1st part of the Cultural Revolution from 1966-70, no effort was made to control population growth; in 1971, the crude birth rate was estimated at 30-35/1000, the mortality rate was 8/1000, and the growth rate was 2.6%. 1971-79 marked the 1st phase of birth limitation, which became more pressing with time. The population was counted at 1 billion 8 million in 1982, with a birth rate of 21/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and a growth rate of 1.5%. Because of China's comprehensive system of population registration, the results of the 1982 census were not completely unexpected. Wide differences in growth rates were noted between provinces, and the minorities grew at a faster rate than the Han majority. Immediately after the Revolution, population was relatively neglected in China in favor of greater attention to economic growth. The 1st warnings about the consequences of overly

  20. [Population programme of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Z

    1982-01-29

    Results of population programs started in China during the last decade have attracted worldwide attention. The Chinese population issues are important due to the following characteristics: 1) China is the most populated country in the world, with over 1 billion people (22% of world population), by the end of 1980; 2) its population is 80% rural; 3) despite improved living conditions that have helped lower the mortality rate from over 20/1000 before Liberation to 10/1000 in the 1960s and finally 6-8/1000 during the last decade, the Chinese population has increased from 540 million soon after Liberation to the current 1 billion, with an average yearly growth rate of 2%; 4) China has a young population, with 36.8% under 14 years old and less than 5% over 65, hence education and employment are big issues; and 5) due to longterm backward economy resulting from feudal and colonial influence before Liberation, efforts in developing a strong Chinese economy have met with many obstacles. The above 5 features of the Chinese population have important bearing on solving China's population problems and in building its economy, developing its society, and realizing its 4 modernizations. Although China is self-sufficient despite its large population, it faces many problems and challenges especially in the areas of educating its young population and subsequent employment. To achieve a strong economy and to improve the welfare of its people, China has put efforts into controlling the size and improving the quality of its population during the past decade. Programs in population control will continue to take priority in China. PMID:12338284

  1. Population education country programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Population education country programs in the countries of India, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka are reviewed. In India the machinery is beginning to roll for the nationwide implementation of a 3-year national population education project. A variety of strategies will be used at the national and state levels using existing facilities and infrastructure for implementing various aspects of the program. Recommendations and proposed project activities arrived at during 2 workshop/training programs are outlined. The Malaysian population education program recently developed a working draft of the scope, content, and objectives of population education at the primary and lower and upper secondary levels. This working draft is being pretested among teachers and curriculum developers, and, once revised, it will serve as the overall guiding framework for those responsible for preparing curriculum and instructional materials on population education. The population education program in Nepal will be implemented by 3 units: Curriculum, Textbook, Supervision, and Development Center; Tribhuvan University; and Division of Adult Education. The longterm objective is to institutionalize population education in the formal and nonformal education programs including the university. The Population Education Program of the Philippines has prepared a reader in Filipino for grade 3 pupils. Population education in the country has been promoted to a lesser degree in private than in public schools. the Institutional Development Program of the Population Center Foundation conducted a Summer Institute in Instructional Product Development for the primary purpose of institutionalizing population in the social science curriculum at the tertiary level. The population education program of Sri Lanka will undergo a revival in the recently approved 2-year project agreement between Sri Lanka's government and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

  2. Understanding Population Health Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Kindig, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Population health is a relatively new term, with no agreement about whether it refers to a concept of health or a field of study of health determinants. There is debate, sometimes heated, about whether population health and public health are identical or different. Discussions of population health involve many terms, such as outcomes, disparities, determinants, and risk factors, which may be used imprecisely, particularly across different disciplines, such as medicine, epidemiology, economics...

  3. Population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, S

    1989-03-01

    This speech on the life and work of Rafael Salas, who had been the first executive director of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and who contributed immensely to global awareness of population as a vital issue, inaugurated the Rafael M. Salas Lecture Series at the UN. Salas was concerned with individual rights and socioeconomic development while maintaining a balance between population and the environment. He built a large multinational assistance program for population activities and increased funding from $2.5 million in 1969 to $175 million to support 2500 projects in 130 developing countries. He organized both the 1974 World Population Conference and the 1984 International Conference on Population. In developing countries malnutrition and poverty are intertwined, lowering productivity and making people prone to diseases. Infant and child mortality rises with the malnutrition of mothers, therefore campaigns modelled after the postwar Japanese efforts are needed to improve nutrition, to train dietitians, and to introduce school lunch programs. Population stabilization could also be achieved in developing countries by raising income levels, although in Latin American countries birth rates have stayed the same despite increasing income. Direct measures are effective in reducing the birth rate: primary school education, increased income, improved nutrition, decline in infant mortality, higher status of women, and decisive governmental population policy. The Club of Rome report The Limits to Growth predicted that sometime in the 21st century a sudden decline in both population and industrial capacity will be reached at the present growth trends. PMID:12282132

  4. The Population Activist's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Inst., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is a guide to effective action strategies on dealing with overpopulation. Divided into five sections, the book outlines programs, suggests references, and lists resources that are helpful for thinking and for planning action on population issues. Section one focuses on strategies to change the current population policy choices made…

  5. Dimensions of Philippine population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Major findings of a 2 1/2 year research program on Philippine population are presented. The population situation is described with respect to fertility, mortality, life expectancy, migration, labor force, and family formation. Policy recommendations addressing problems in each of these areas are made.

  6. Population Education Regional News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) a comparative study on managing population education programs; (2) a South Pacific workshop in which training materials on sex education, family life education, and nutrition-oriented mixed gardening were developed; and (3) a workshop on evaluative research, the focus of national population education programs in Asia. (JN)

  7. Population Education Country Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights various population education programs in Afghanistan, China, India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Also describes population education programs at primary and secondary levels in Thailand, curriculum and instructional materials development in this country, and teaching units and curriculum outlines developed from a workshop for…

  8. POPULATION TURNING POINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Latest census shows structural imbalance of population has replaced explosive growth to become China’s top challenge China’s population grew by less than 1 percent annually in the last decade,but it still remains the world’s largest at 1.37 billion people,according to results

  9. Negative Drift in Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian

    2011-01-01

    An important step in gaining a better understanding of the stochastic dynamics of evolving populations, is the development of appropriate analytical tools. We present a new drift theorem for populations that allows properties of their long-term behaviour, e.g. the runtime of evolutionary algorithms...

  10. Population dynamics of reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Baskin

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Five types of reindeer populations are distinguished in terms of population dynamics, population density, social structure and migration distance. Differences in the biological rhythms of the populations result in calving occuring 20 days before snow melting in all populations as well as maximal utilization by the deer of young green vegetation in summer. The growth of antlers may serve as a regulatior of biological rhytms. Populations differ in the level of social motivation. Formation of groups of not less than 30-35 animals ensures cooperative protection from insects and management of the group by man. The fidelity to the calving sites, summer ranges and constant migration routes is based on the common orientation reactions of the animals and social attraction. The direction and migration routes are detemined by obligate learning. The dynamics of populations depends on the fertility of 2 and 3 year old females which is determined by feeding conditions in summer and the activity of males during the rut. Migration plays an important role in the population dynamics.

  11. Evolutionary Population Synthesis for Single Stellar Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奉辉; 韩占文; 李立芳; Jarrod R.Hurley

    2002-01-01

    Using the evolutionary population synthesis technique, we present the latest integrated colours for instantaneous burst single stellar populations (SSPs) of different metallicities and we investigate their colour evolution. Unlike previous research, we adopt the stellar evolutionary models that employ, amongst other things, recent opacities and a revised equation of state (EOS), and include evolutionary processes such as convective overshooting, thermal pulses and dredge-up. The models are used in the convenient form of analytical fitting functions. In addition, we use the BaSeL model for the library of stellar spectra. This model provides an extensive low-resolution theoretical flux distribution and UB VRIJHKLM colours, which have been calibrated empirically or semi-empirically, for a wide range of stellar parameters.

  12. Diversity of Poissonian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations—Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring the diversity of Poissonian populations depends on the lower-bound cut-off applied. This research characterizes the classes of Poissonian populations whose diversities are invariant with respect to the cut-off level applied and establishes an elemental connection between these classes and extreme-value theory. The measures of diversity considered are variance and dispersion, Simpson’s index and inverse participation ratio, Shannon’s entropy and Rényi’s entropy, and Gini’s index.

  13. Shifts that divide population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Qubbaj, Murad; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Anderies, John M.; Janssen, Marco

    2014-05-01

    How does a population of organisms in an ecosystem or of people in a society respond to rapid shifts in the environment? Answers to this question are critical to our ability to anticipate and cope with a changing ecohydrological system. We have developed a generic model of adaptation mechanisms, based on replicator dynamics, in which we derive a simple and insightful threshold condition that separates two important types of responses: 'cohesive transition' in which the whole population changes gradually together, and 'population-dividing transition' in which the population splits into two groups with one eventually dominating the other. The threshold depends on the magnitude of the shift and the shape of the fitness landscape. Division in populations can fundamentally alter the functioning of and induce subsequent feedbacks within the system; knowing the condition that gives rise to such division is thus fundamentally important.

  14. Global population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmore, J

    1992-07-01

    The global population passed 5 billion in 1987. In the year 2000 the world's population will be more than 6 billion, increasing by 90-100 million each year. About 95% of future demographic growth will take place in developing countries. The number of school age children is projected to increase from 940 million in 1980 to 1280 million by the year 2000. Under current labor force growth projections in developing countries, around 1.6 billion new jobs will have to be created between 1980 and 2025, with nearly 1 billion of them in Asia. Population often increases at a more rapid rate than agricultural growth. Food production per capita has declined in 70 developing countries. Much of the projected population increase will take place in environmentally fragile regions of the developing world. Population pressures contribute to deforestation, desertification, and scarcity of clean water. The United Nations Population Fund has estimated that in Asia over 43% of women not using family planning would like to postpone, space, or limit their childbearing. Over half of the world's couples of reproductive age are now using contraception. Family planning to postpone the first birth and to eliminate late child bearing would reduce both child loss and maternal illness and death. Both infant and maternal mortality are greater with higher order births. Reducing average family size is an effective way of reducing infant and maternal mortality. The World Bank has given high priority to population assistance, with large programs in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Population assistance provided by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau totaled about $4.5 million during 1989-90 and is expected to be about $8 million during 1991-92. Australia should increase the proportion of its development assistance budget devoted to population, and family planning programs should increase to around $26 million in line with other major donors.

  15. The population threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  16. Predation and caribou populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Seip

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Predation, especially wolf (Canis lupus predation, limits many North American caribou (Rangifer tarandus populations below the density that food resources could sustain. The impact of predation depends on the parameters for the functional and numerical response of the wolves, relative to the potential annual increment of the caribou population. Differences in predator-avoidance strategies largely explain the major differences in caribou densities that occur naturally in North America. Caribou migrations that spatially separate caribou from wolves allow relatively high densities of caribou to survive. Non-migratory caribou that live in areas where wolf populations are sustained by alternate prey can be eliminated by wolf predation.

  17. The population threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  18. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Torres

    Full Text Available Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population.

  19. Parallel grid population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  20. AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture has contributed to loss of vertebrate biodiversity in many regions, including the U.S. Corn Belt. Amphibian populations, in particular, have experienced widespread and often inexplicable declines, range reductions, and extinctions. However, few attempts have been made...

  1. Market Squid Population Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains population dynamics data on paralarvae, juvenile and adult market squid collected off California and the US Pacific Northwest. These data were...

  2. Populated Places of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains points that represent populated places, ie. cities, towns, villages or any other named place where people live. The coverage was developed...

  3. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  4. Exploding Increase of Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H. [Sunmoon University, Chonan (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Until 1650, the population of the world did not increase properly. According to studies of the demography, the annual increase rate of the world population during 2500 years, from 850 B.C. to 1650 A.D., was just 0.07%. Currently, however, the world population, which has exceptionally rapidly increased from 1900, is more than 6 billion as of 2000. After World War II, especially, the increase rate of the population has risen to about 1.8%, so we can use the word, explosion of the population. The explosion of the population accompanies the increase of energy consumption. The energy production of every year cannot sufficiently meet the energy demand, so we can face the grand energy crisis someday. The date might be a someday after 2020. According to the future forecasting of Shell, one of the majors, the peak of oil supply will be between 2015 and 2020. Unless the alternative energy is developed, the whole world will suffer the serious oil crisis.

  5. Extinction of oscillating populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Naftali R; Meerson, Baruch

    2016-03-01

    Established populations often exhibit oscillations in their sizes that, in the deterministic theory, correspond to a limit cycle in the space of population sizes. If a population is isolated, the intrinsic stochasticity of elemental processes can ultimately bring it to extinction. Here we study extinction of oscillating populations in a stochastic version of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model. To this end we develop a WKB (Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) approximation to the master equation, employing the characteristic population size as the large parameter. Similar WKB theories have been developed previously in the context of population extinction from an attracting multipopulation fixed point. We evaluate the extinction rates and find the most probable paths to extinction from the limit cycle by applying Floquet theory to the dynamics of an effective four-dimensional WKB Hamiltonian. We show that the entropic barriers to extinction change in a nonanalytic way as the system passes through the Hopf bifurcation. We also study the subleading pre-exponential factors of the WKB approximation. PMID:27078294

  6. Normative population theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, T

    1989-01-01

    This article finds utilitarian and contractarian approaches to solving the problem of optimal population unacceptable. The principles of utility refer to the best population as the one which contains the greatest sum of utility or the one with the highest average utility. Yet Parfits's repugnant conclusion states that these can imply a very large population at a very low standard of living. Cowen's Methuselah's Paradox says that for any possible happy and meaningful life, we can imagine another, much longer life which demonstrates the absurdity of the utility principles. Lewis argues for a conception of well being based upon choices over whole irreducible states of affairs, i.e., an ordinal concept of value. The contractarian approach assumes that we would rationally choose what type of life we were to live if the choice were made without anyone knowing his particular standing in the world--the veil of ignorance. This requires the individuals to choose on the basis of self interest, but gives too much weight to the individuals actually being born. The most promising population theory appears to be the ideal participant method. Simply stated the optimal population is what an individual would prefer if he had to sequentially live out each life in his choice. Further, this method may be able to reduce the difficulties with evaluating alternate populations to the common problem of aggregating disparate preferences.

  7. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal-aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    At various times after pulse labeling Vicia faba L. leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents whereas those from rinsed peels contained only cytoplastic contents. Sucrose specific radioactivity peaked in palisade cells, 111 GBq{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and sucrose specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO{sub 2} incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum sucrose specific radioactivity and a high sucrose influx rate. These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple sucrose pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived sucrose in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by {approximately} 4 {micro}m. Factors expected to enhance sucrose accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic sucrose concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll-sucrose efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal-aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  8. On the evolutionary history, population genetics and diversity among isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis PFGE pattern JEGX01.0004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc W Allard

    Full Text Available Facile laboratory tools are needed to augment identification in contamination events to trace the contamination back to the source (traceback of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis. Understanding the evolution and diversity within and among outbreak strains is the first step towards this goal. To this end, we collected 106 new S. Enteriditis isolates within S. Enteriditis Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE pattern JEGX01.0004 and close relatives, and determined their genome sequences. Sources for these isolates spanned food, clinical and environmental farm sources collected during the 2010 S. Enteritidis shell egg outbreak in the United States along with closely related serovars, S. Dublin, S. Gallinarum biovar Pullorum and S. Gallinarum. Despite the highly homogeneous structure of this population, S. Enteritidis isolates examined in this study revealed thousands of SNP differences and numerous variable genes (n = 366. Twenty-one of these genes from the lineages leading to outbreak-associated samples had nonsynonymous (causing amino acid changes changes and five genes are putatively involved in known Salmonella virulence pathways. While chromosome synteny and genome organization appeared to be stable among these isolates, genome size differences were observed due to variation in the presence or absence of several phages and plasmids, including phage RE-2010, phage P125109, plasmid pSEEE3072_19 (similar to pSENV, plasmid pOU1114 and two newly observed mobile plasmid elements pSEEE1729_15 and pSEEE0956_35. These differences produced modifications to the assembled bases for these draft genomes in the size range of approximately 4.6 to 4.8 mbp, with S. Dublin being larger (∼4.9 mbp and S. Gallinarum smaller (4.55 mbp when compared to S. Enteritidis. Finally, we identified variable S. Enteritidis genes associated with virulence pathways that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance

  9. Quenched effective population size

    CERN Document Server

    Sagitov, Serik; Vatutin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    We study the genealogy of a geographically - or otherwise - structured version of the Wright-Fisher population model with fast migration. The new feature is that migration probabilities may change in a random fashion. Applying Takahashi's results on Markov chains with random transition matrices, we establish convergence to the Kingman coalescent, as the population size goes to infinity. This brings a novel formula for the coalescent effective population size (EPS). We call it a quenched EPS to emphasize the key feature of our model - random environment. The quenched EPS is compared with an annealed (mean-field) EPS which describes the case of constant migration probabilities obtained by averaging the random migration probabilities over possible environments.

  10. A "prolife" population delegation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1984-06-22

    The White House has been circulating drafts of a controversial position paper to be presented at the August 1984 United Nations world population conference in Mexico City. The paper dismisses population growth in developing countries as a cause of unemployment, illegal migration, or famine, and asserts that population programs are no substitute for ending government controls that stifle economic growth. It also contains a strong statement against abortion, states the U.S. position against coercion in family planning, and declares the Reagan administration's resolve not to fund programs advocating abortion. The U.S. stance is expected to antagonize developing countries and isolate the United States at the U.N. conference. PMID:11644140

  11. Constructing populations in biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement with publics to ensure legitimacy, different biobanks conceptualize their engagement strategies very differently. We suggest that biobanks undertake a broad range of different strategies with regard to engagement. We argue that these different approaches to engagement strategies are contributing to the construction of populations, whereby specific nationalities, communities, societies, patient groups and political systems become imbued or bio-objectified with particular characteristics, such as compliant, distant, positive, commercialized or authoritarian. This bio-objectification process is problematic in relation to policy aspirations ascribed to biobanking engagement since it gives rise to reified notions of different populations. PMID:26194269

  12. Asymetric Pavlovian Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Bournez, Olivier; Cohen, Johanne; Koegler, Xavier; Rabie, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Population protocols have been introduced by Angluin et al. as a model of networks consisting of very limited mobile agents that interact in pairs but with no control over their own movement. A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact pairwise according to some rules that update their states. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized as semi-linear predicates. In an orthogonal way, several distributed systems have been termed in literature as being realizations of games in the sense of game theory. We investigate under which conditions population protocols, or more generally pairwise interaction rules, correspond to games. We show that restricting to asymetric games is not really a restric- tion: all predicates computable by protocols can actually be computed by protocols corresponding to games, i.e. any semi-linear predicate can be computed by a Pavlovian population multi-protocol.

  13. Distance Learning for Special Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Rodger A.

    2012-01-01

    Distance education strategies for remotely deployed, highly mobile, or institutionalized populations are reviewed and critiqued. Specifically, asynchronous, offline responses for special military units, Native Americans on remote reservations, prison populations and other geographically, temporally or technologically isolated niche populations are…

  14. Having quality population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, F V

    1993-06-01

    This speech was delivered during Population and Development Week in the Philippines. Attention was drawn to population statistics: an annual growth rate of 2.3%, density of 202 persons/sq km, and an expected population of 75 million by the year 2000. Coupled with rapid population growth is the uneven distribution of wealth: the top 20% have over 50% of the total income and the lowest 20% have only 5% of the income. In such a social situation, it is women and children who are the most vulnerable. In cities, unemployment is high due to population growth and the migration of the rural poor. The rural poor living in areas of declining resources also move onto marginal uplands, which adds pressure to the already fragile ecology. Everyone must accept that the nation's problems are due to overpopulation. The government's development plans aim for sustainable growth, poverty alleviation, reduction in equality, generation of job opportunities, and achievement of social justice. People in government are determined to lead the Philippines toward a higher standard comparable with other dynamic Asian neighbors. The strategy is empowerment of the people. THe value is in the welfare of individuals and their families and the welfare of the nation. Couples have the right to manage their family size voluntarily and responsibly. The government's role is to provide adequate information on family planning in accordance with individual's religious convictions. Policies will also be directed to improved access to quality education, child survival, and maternal health, employment opportunities, and access and control over resources for people. There must be fuller participation of women in development. Support for the government's population program is sought from government officials, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. All provincial governors, city and municipal mayors, and all local executives will be directed to formulate population plans and to provide family

  15. Befolkningsudviklingen (Population Development)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The article takes the 1972 report, The Limits to Growth as its starting point, briefly explaining the Systam Dynamics model used for the report's analyses. Focus is on the important role of population. The simple model of I = PxAxT, where I is the environmental Impact, P population......, A is the Affluence and T the ecoimpact-intensity of the Technology used. Various scenarios ar shown, illustrating how a choice of 1.6 birth per woman on average instead of 2.6 birth, will in 2150 result in 3.6 billion people on earth instead of 27 billions. The article warns against the believe that growth in GDP...

  16. China Population and Developmenl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) paid great attention to the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. One of the top priorities of the ICPD Programme of Action is to provide adolescents with necessary sexual and reproductive health information and services, ensure their right to reproductive health education and services, and help them develop risk-free behaviours and healthy lifestyles.

  17. Population and Development Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sharon; Garran, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes a unit on demographics for a high school world-history course that addresses questions of uneven population growth and the "problem of global overpopulation." Provides a detailed outline of the two-day unit including unit and daily goals and objectives, daily activities and questions, and ideas for further student research. (DSK)

  18. Constructing populations in biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose a.

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement w...

  19. Reconceptualization of Population Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, O. J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses eight aspects of the reorganization of population education: (1) need for clear objectives; (2) emerging concerns about content; (3) prioritization of contents; (4) involvement of parents; (5) approaches to teaching; (6) teacher training; (7) evaluation issues; and (8) institutionalization. (MDH)

  20. Charting Population Shifts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China is updating its demographic information through its once-in-adecade population census.The latest database will be used as an important reference for the country to draft its development plan for the next five years and deal with social problems,such as an aging society and imbalanced gender ratio,according to experts.

  1. The Problem of Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘香情; 钱丹

    2002-01-01

    With the population growing, a lot of problems have come out, Nowadays a lot of tall buildings have been built, but the houses are still very short; A lot of cars and buses have increased, but they are still crowded with people; A lot of schools have been built,

  2. Discussion Forum--Population Theories: Their Implications on Population Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Contends that unless population education programs have a clear conceptual framework built upon a consistent set of population theories, they will remain merely as appendices to established school projects. Several population theories and their implications for population education are described. These include Malthusian demographic transition,…

  3. [The Marxist outlook on population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, R

    1984-09-29

    Marxist population theory and world population are discussed. From his study of capitalist population theory Marx concluded, "In capitalist reproduction, poverty produces population," thus rejecting Malthusian population determinism theory and developing economic determinism. According to UN statistics, world population has stabilized since the middle of this century after having doubled every hundred years for the last 300; population in the developed countries showed a positive decrease and average net population growth of the developing countries also decreased. The premise of this paper is that population grows according to social economy development. During the last several hundred years, world wealth increased much faster than population; in the last 200 years alone, the population has increased fivefold, but wealth fortyfold. In addition, world population analysis reveals an inverse relationship between wealth and population in the developed and developing countries: the poorer the country, the greater the population. From this perspective, the study of population must begin with surplus labor. Accumulation of surplus production is the foundation of continuous social development and the basis for population growth. The major difference in methods between capitalist countries and China is that the capitalist-planned fertility affects the individual family while Chinese-planned fertility has the whole nation in mind. Human fertility is determined by the economic system. Private ownership determines the private nature of fertility and public ownership determines the public nature of fertility. Thus population development is determined by the accumulation of social wealth. PMID:12159280

  4. [Vietnam and its population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, J

    1993-01-01

    Viet Nam's 1993 population of 72 million makes it the second largest country of Southeast Asia after Indonesia. Viet Nam's demographic transition is underway, but growth is still a rapid 2% annually, a sufficiently high rate to hinder socioeconomic development. The 1979 and 1989 censuses and the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey are the major recent sources of data on Viet Nam's population. Marriage is universal in Viet Nam. Men marry at 24.5 and women at 23.2 years on average. Fertility estimates based on nonadjusted census data indicate a total fertility rate for 1988-89 of 3.8 overall, 2.2 in urban areas, and 4.3 in rural areas. Regional differences resulting from contraceptive usage, educational differentials, and tabus regarding spacing are strong. The average household size is 5. Viet Nam's first fertility reduction policy was announced in 1963 and sought to improve the welfare of women to increase their productivity for the war effort. More recent family planning policies are based on the view that rapid demographic growth is one of the great obstacles to development. The objectives of the current policy are to reduce the growth rate to 1% by the end of the century, increase contraceptive prevalence, delay arrival of the first child, limit family size to 2 children or 3 for ethnic minorities, and increase birth intervals from 3 to 5 years. The program is voluntarist in nature but includes incentives and disincentives. Life expectancy at birth in 1989 was 67.5 years for women and 63 for men. Infant mortality was 37/1000, with regional differentials. The principal causes of hospital deaths are tuberculosis, malaria, and diarrhea. Objectives of the current health policy are to prevent infectious diseases, reinforce primary health care services, promote traditional medicine, achieve self-sufficiency in basic medicines, and improve environmental health and access to clean water. Viet Nam is one of the most densely populated Southeast Asian countries and is still

  5. On optimal population paths

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, John S

    1977-01-01

    The overall purpose of this monograph is to integrate and critically evaluate the existing literature in the area of optimal joint savings population programs. The existing diverse presentations are all seen to be discussions within a unified framework. The central problem is to compare the desirability of alternative inter-temporal sequences of total savings and population sizes. Of critical importance is whether one regards persons as the fundamental moral entities or whether one takes Sidgwick's viewpoint that something good being the result of one's action is the baSic reason for dOing anything. The latter viewpoint is consistent with defining a complete social preference ordering over these alternative sequences. Since part of one's interest is to evaluate the consequences of various ethical beliefs a com­ parative study of several such orderings is presented; in particular the Mill-Wolfe average utilitarian, and Sidgwick-Meade classical utilitarian) formulations. A possible problem with the social pref...

  6. Population attribute compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1995-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  7. [Population, ethics and equity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer, G

    1997-01-01

    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT)

  8. [Population, ethics and equity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer, G

    1997-01-01

    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293335

  9. Population, desertification, and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westing, A H

    1994-01-01

    When an imbalance develops between population numbers and the carrying capacity of the land, the persons thereby displaced are referred to as environmental refugees. The utilization of the land beyond sustainability leads to land degradation and ultimately, desertification. The social and political impacts of long-term environmental migration can be distinguished: a) at the site of origin of the displaced persons by the residual population; b) at rural sites of destination within the nation between the new arrivals and preestablished populations; c) in the cities within the nation; d) in the nonindustrialized foreign countries; and e) in the industrialized foreign countries. In the event that an area which had previously been devoted to pastoralism is converted to agriculture, the displaced pastoralists might respond through armed rebellion. In some instances, the disenchanted urban squatters become a politically restive and even a destabilizing force, as occurred in Sudan in the 1980s, especially in Khartoum and Port Sudan. The foreign countries to which many of the displaced persons are migrating are subjected to increasing levels of migrant-induced economic, cultural, and political strains. The growing problems associated with south-to-north migration across the Mediterranean Sea have recently led France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain to enter into a consultative arrangement with Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. All foreign aid to the nonindustrialized countries that attempts to ameliorate the problem of desertification must adopt integrated approaches that: a) address population issues; b) support environmental education; c) provide for the protection of biodiversity; d) encourage participatory forms of local and national government; e) provide opportunities for income generation outside the livestock sector; and f) foster political security and facilitate ecogeographical (subregional) cooperation.

  10. Population, environment and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkal, M

    1994-06-01

    Western development models label subsistence economies, which do not participate in the market economy on a grand scale and do not consume commodities produced for and distributed through the market, to be poor. Yet, subsistence does not always indicate a low quality of life. The Western development process has destroyed wholesome and sustainable lifestyles. In India, the Green Revolution caused many small farmers to lose their land. In comparison to traditional economies, industrial economies have longer technological chains dependent on higher energy and resource inputs and exclude large numbers of people without power to buy goods. Further, they generate new and artificial needs, necessitating increased production of industrial goods and services. They erode resource bases for survival. This erosion is marginalizing people who were traditionally in nature's economy. Developed countries did not deliver 0.15% of their GNP to development projects in developing countries as promised. The US made population growth in these countries its cause. The UN and other multinational agencies during 1962-1972, at the US's request, began to support population and family planning programs in developing countries. These countries opposed the 1st draft at the 1974 Bucharest Population Conference, but by the conference in Mexico City, most supported the need for family planning. Yet, the US politicized this conference and had a greater say in the recommendations than did developing countries. Structural adjustments and external debt repayments required of developing countries in the 1980s set them back. In fact, the number of developing countries increased from 31 to 42. The UN recognizes the right to development, but social inequalities are barriers to this right. If environmental degradation continues, poverty will only increase. Women's groups are playing a great role in preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September 1994. PMID

  11. NO和H2O2在光/暗调控蚕豆气孔运动中的作用及其相互关系%Role and Relationship of Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide in Light/Dark-regulated Stomatal Movement in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘小平; 宋喜贵; 贺军民

    2004-01-01

    Role and relationship of NO and H2O2 in light/dark-regulated stomatal movement in Vicia faba L. were investigated by epidermal strip bioassay and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Results showed that the effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO-releasing compound) and H2O2 on stomatal closure were more significant in light than those in the dark. Dark-induced closure of stomata was largely prevented not only by 2,4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), a specific NO scavenger and NG-nitro-L-arg-methyl eater (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) in mammalian cells that also inhibits plant NOS, but also by addition of ascorbic acid (Vc) and exogenous catalase (CAT),which are an important reducing substrate for H2O2 removal and an H2O2 scavenger, respectively. Experiments based on fluorescent probe DAF-2 DA and H2DCF-DA showed that the level of endogenous NO and H2O2 in guard cells was greater in the dark than that in light. These results prove that light/dark regulates stomatal movement via influencing NO and H2O2 production. In addition, H2O2-induced NO production and stomatal closure in light were abolished partly by cPTIO and L-NAME. Interestingly, SNP-induced H2O2accumulation and stomatal closure were reversed by Vc and CAT in light. These show that NO and H2O2cross talk in light/dark-regulated stomatal movement. Furthermore, L-NAME could reverse stomatal closure and NO generation induced by darkness and H2O2 in light, we presume that the NO generation in guard cells of Vicia faba is likely related to NOS-like enzyme.%借助表皮条分析和激光扫描共聚焦显微镜技术,对NO和H2O2在光/暗调控蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)气孔运动中的作用及其相互关系进行了探索.结果显示,光下外源NO供体硝普钠(SNP)和H2O2促进气孔关闭的效应明显大于暗中,暗中NO专一性清除剂2,4-羧基苯-4,4,5,5-四甲基咪唑-1-氧-3-氧化物(cPTIO)、一氧化氮合酶(NOS)抑制剂NG-氮-L

  12. [Several problems concerning population investment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z

    1982-07-29

    Population investment is a major topic in the studies of population and economic relations. In this particular area, numerous theoretical and practical problems are still in need of solution. Concerning the problem of population concept, there are three different approaches: (1) to determine the definition of population investment from the relationship between the population growth and the capital from national income used for investment, including investment in the newly increased population and investment in the entire population; (2) to explain population investment from the economic viewpoint that people are producers; and (3) to explain population investment from the expense needed to change a simple labor force to a skillful labor force. The expenses include educational costs, maintanance spending, wages needed to compensate workers in labor, costs for workers to master and learn modern scientific techniques to be used for production, and the costs of keeping a young labor force in the next generation.

  13. High population increase rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems. PMID:12284289

  14. An optimum world population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, D

    2000-01-01

    The optimum population of the world is the one that is most likely to make the option of a good quality of life available to everyone everywhere, both now and in the future. Establishing a consensus about the size of such a population would be an important step towards achieving it. Estimates of an optimum involve three main steps. First, estimate the maximum (carrying capacity) assuming a specified lifestyle. The main criteria are the maintenance of biodiversity, the availability of freshwater, and the availability of land--for agriculture, forestry and artificial systems but above all for the conversion of energy. (In applying the criteria, there are always two questions to ask: 'What is the maximum amount of consumption that the biosphere can stand?' and 'What is an adequate share of such consumption per person?') Second, convert the maximum (two to three billion) into an optimum by applying a far wider range of criteria, including personal liberty, mobility, recreation and political representation. Third, consider just two criteria (economies of scale and technological innovation) in order to ensure that the optimum (one to two billion) has not fallen below the minimum (half to one billion). The estimates are so low because of the need for a huge increase in median per capita consumption if everyone is to have the option of an adequate material standard of living. Opinion-formers are likely not to take much notice of such estimates, but it is probable that minds will be concentrated by an energy shock some time during the next decade. Achieving an optimum world population will not solve the world's major problems, but it would make them solvable. PMID:10824524

  15. Population policies and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, B M

    1984-01-01

    This article critically examines 4 conceptual frameworks for Third World population policies: the family planning approach, beyond family planning measures, the development hypothesis and transition theory, and the distributive hypothesis and fertility. Although family planning is a basic human right and can lead to lower levels of population and improved maternal-child health, this approach alone does not always have a meaningful demographic impact. If high fertility is economically rational from the family viewpoint, the demand for family planning services will remain marginal. Other policies seek to go beyond the family planning approach and to directly influence the demand for reproductive control through provision of old age support, monetary incentives for reduced fertility or stringent and coercive measures. However, such policies can have adverse distributional effects and directly penalize the children of large families. The demographic transition theory lacks a measurable and specifiable causation mechanism, giving it little predictive value. It may be that economic growth increases fertility in the short run and reduces fertility only over the long run through indirect effects. The key issue is how the rate of growth is distributed across the population. The development and demographic transition hypothesis focuses mainly on aggregate economic and social measures rather than on their underlying distributions. The distributive hypothesis implies policies that promote a greater level of investment in human capital, with a wide distributional emphasis. Diffused investment in human capital is believed to indirectly influence the desire to control fertility. It is concluded that all 4 conceptual frameworks for analyzing fertility-related policies for the Third World are inadequate or seriously flawed. They are not pragmatic, do not identify or assign weights to the crucial causal variables, fail to specify thresholds or critical minimum levels, discount

  16. Investigation and genetic characteristic analysis of Brucella strain isolated from high-risk population in a human Brucellosis epidemic in Guizhou province%贵州省一起人间布鲁氏菌病疫情高危人群调查及分离菌遗传特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月; 王定明; 李世军; 陈红; 李沛丽; 刘英; 马青; 周敬祝; 余春; 黄艳; 唐光鹏

    2016-01-01

    Objective In order to provide scientific basis for Brucellosis control and prevention, sero⁃epidemiological survey, Brucella isolation and genetic characteristic analysis were conducted for the high⁃risk population in a human Brucellosis epidemic in Weining county of Guizhou province. Methods Tube agglutination test was used to detect the anti⁃Brucella antibody for the high⁃risk human population. Rose Bengal Plate Test was applied to detect the antibody in goat blood samples. The blood of antibody positive human population was collected for Brucella isolation. Conventional methods, genus specific BCSP31-PCR and species⁃specific AMOS⁃PCR were used to identify the bacteria strain, and the genetic characteristic was analyzed using MLVA and MLST techniques. Results Six people of 43 high⁃risk populations were confirmed as anti⁃Brucella antibody positive, 64 out of 302 goat blood samples were anti⁃Brucella antibody positive, with positive rate of 21.19%. A suspected Brucella strain were isolated from one of the high⁃risk human populations and wasidentified as B. melitensis biovar 3. MLVA-16 analysis indicated that the bacteria strain was most closely clustered with B. melitensis biovar 3. Multilocus sequence typing analysis indicated the strain was ST8. Conclusion Genetic characteristic of Brucella strain isolated from the Brucelosis epidemic was consistent with that of M. melitensis biovar 3. Although antibody and Brucella were detected, the high⁃risk populations did not displayed symptoms, so all of them were asymptomatic infections. The epidemic was seemingly imported due to goats trading, suggested that health and animal disease control and prevention departments and doctors should pay great attention to it.%目的:对贵州省威宁县一起人间布鲁氏菌病(布病)疫情中的高危人群进行血清学调查、菌株分离鉴定及遗传特征分析,为布病疫情的防控提供科学依据。方法采用试管

  17. OZ, POPULISM, AND INTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit S. Dighe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the lead of influential articles by Henry Littlefield (1964 and Hugh Rockoff (1990, teachers of economic history often relate the Populist movement of the 1890s to L. Frank Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. This paper reexamines the inevitable question of whether Baum intended his story as a parable on Populism. From other, more overtly political writing sof Baum’s, and from biographical information about Baum himself, the evidence suggests that Oz was not a Populist parable. We can still profitably read it as one, but we need to separate that interpretation from Baum’s intention.

  18. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  19. Diabetes in Population Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify...... on glucose-stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, and T2D. The variant defines a specific subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes characterized by decreased post-prandial glucose uptake and muscular insulin resistance. These and other recent findings in population isolates illustrate the value...

  20. Surgery and refugee populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, A L; Groen, R S; Kingham, T P

    2009-01-01

    Although infectious diseases, malnutrition and diarrhea account for the vast majority of deaths in many crisis situations, many individuals also suffer from traumatic injuries and other surgically treatable conditions. Understanding the determinants involved in surgical interventions is facilitated by defining baseline, emergent and chronic phases for refugees and internally displaced populations. International aid organizations often expend vast resources on surgical interventions. More detailed assessments and further study may help provide insight into optimizing the success and minimizing the cost of such interventions. This article is a review of the surgical and disaster literature and defines issues for further study. PMID:19447737

  1. Neoplasms in irradiated populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the results of three prospective studies which have been ongoing for 25 years. The study populations include: (1) persons treated with x rays in infancy for alleged enlargement of the thymus gland; (2) persons treated in childhood with x rays and/or radium for lymphoid hyperplasia of the nasopharynx; and (3) women treated with x rays for acute postpartum mastitis. The studies have resulted in the quantification of risk for radiogenic thyroid and breast cancer for periods up to 40 years post irradiation

  2. Density Estimation in Several Populations With Uncertain Population Membership

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2011-09-01

    We devise methods to estimate probability density functions of several populations using observations with uncertain population membership, meaning from which population an observation comes is unknown. The probability of an observation being sampled from any given population can be calculated. We develop general estimation procedures and bandwidth selection methods for our setting. We establish large-sample properties and study finite-sample performance using simulation studies. We illustrate our methods with data from a nutrition study.

  3. Innovations in Population Education: Conveying Population Education through Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The use of games and simulations is a method that educators are finding especially useful in presenting information about population concerns. The "Futures Wheels" is a participatory classroom exercise, designed to demonstrate probable consequences of future population increases and is also used to illustrate a wide range of population related…

  4. Correlations and Neuronal Population Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Adam; Coen-Cagli, Ruben; Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Pouget, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Brain function involves the activity of neuronal populations. Much recent effort has been devoted to measuring the activity of neuronal populations in different parts of the brain under various experimental conditions. Population activity patterns contain rich structure, yet many studies have focused on measuring pairwise relationships between members of a larger population-termed noise correlations. Here we review recent progress in understanding how these correlations affect population information, how information should be quantified, and what mechanisms may give rise to correlations. As population coding theory has improved, it has made clear that some forms of correlation are more important for information than others. We argue that this is a critical lesson for those interested in neuronal population responses more generally: Descriptions of population responses should be motivated by and linked to well-specified function. Within this context, we offer suggestions of where current theoretical frameworks fall short.

  5. CDC WONDER: Population (from Census)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population online databases contain data from the US Census Bureau. The Census Estimates online database contains contains county-level population counts for...

  6. CDC WONDER: Population (from Census)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population online databases contain data from the US Census Bureau. The Census Estimates online database contains county-level population counts for years 1970...

  7. Lithuanian Population Aging Factors Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Agnė Garlauskaitė; Rasa Zabarauskaitė

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify the factors that determine aging of Lithuania’s population and to assess the influence of these factors. The article shows Lithuanian population aging factors analysis, which consists of two main parts: the first describes the aging of the population and its characteristics in theoretical terms. Second part is dedicated to the assessment of trends that influence the aging population and demographic factors and also to analyse the determinants of the agin...

  8. Population, migration and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  9. Population genetics without intraspecific data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorne, Jeffrey L; Choi, Sang Chul; Yu, Jiaye;

    2007-01-01

    populations, and parameters of interspecific models should have population genetic interpretations. We show, with two examples, how population genetic interpretations can be assigned to evolutionary models. The first example considers the impact of RNA secondary structure on sequence change, and the second...... genetic interpretation. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug...

  10. A Population of Assessment Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."

  11. Population of the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new theory of the population of the Galaxy, based on the hypothesis of explosive: simultaneous and one-time-origination of life in the universe at a certain moment of its evolutionary development, is discussed in the report. According to the proposed theory, civilizations began to arise around the present moment of the history of the universe. Their possible number is limited even when their lifetime is unlimited. The age and number of simultaneously existing civilizations when their lifetime is unlimited is determined by the duration and dispersion of the time of evolution of life on different planets from the cell level to civilization. The proposed theory explains better than Drake's theory the negative results of the search for evidence of the existence of superpowerful extraterrestrial civilizations and the noncolonization of the earth

  12. Stochastic population theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, Donald

    1974-01-01

    These notes serve as an introduction to stochastic theories which are useful in population biology; they are based on a course given at the Courant Institute, New York, in the Spring of 1974. In order to make the material. accessible to a wide audience, it is assumed that the reader has only a slight acquaintance with probability theory and differential equations. The more sophisticated topics, such as the qualitative behavior of nonlinear models, are approached through a succession of simpler problems. Emphasis is placed upon intuitive interpretations, rather than upon formal proofs. In most cases, the reader is referred elsewhere for a rigorous development. On the other hand, an attempt has been made to treat simple, useful models in some detail. Thus these notes complement the existing mathematical literature, and there appears to be little duplication of existing works. The authors are indebted to Miss Jeanette Figueroa for her beautiful and speedy typing of this work. The research was supported by the Na...

  13. Population, food and knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strulik, Holger; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2008-01-01

    of population. London, printed for J. Johnson, 1798) so-called preventive check hypothesis-that fertility rates vary inversely with the price of food-the current study offers a new and straightforward explanation for the demographic transition and the break with the Malthusian era. Employing a two......-sector framework with agriculture and industry, we demonstrate how fertility responds differently to productivity and income growth, depending on whether it emerges in agriculture or industry. Agricultural productivity and income growth makes food goods, and therefore children, relatively less expensive....... Industrial productivity and income growth, on the other hand, makes food goods, and therefore children, relatively more expensive. The present framework lends support to existing unified growth theories and is well in tune with historical evidence about structural transformation....

  14. Population and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, E H

    1975-01-01

    Quality of population is as important as quantity when one is discussing public health needs or quality of the labor force. Population quality as measured by physical disease, mental disease, maternal death and morbidity rates, fetal and infant mortality rates, and family size and child health is discussed. Charts give figures for Korea from a variety of sample surveys and census studies for 1973. All developing countries have high child death rates from communicable diseases. Korea, in addition, suffers from several parasitic diseases. The problems of maternal death and morbidity are due to disease, hard physical labor during pregnancy, poorly attended births (26% were attended by a mother or mother-in-law and 11% by friends and relatives), and high parity. Figures show that the danger of childbirth is greatest for the 1st baby, lower for the 2nd and 3rd, then rises, climbing steeply after the 5th birth. Iron deficiency anemia and oxalic acid deficiency together with general malnutrition contribute to high maternal morbidity and mortality and fetal death or improper brain development. It is also well accepted that children from large families have slower physical and mental growth than children in smaller families. Family planning problems can best be solved by integrating birth spacing and birth limitation programs into a total maternal and child health scheme and emphasizing the health aspects of family planning. Maternity-centered family planning is but 1 example of such an integrated approach. This integration will make better use of personnel, result in better program supervision, and will help the mother understand it is in her best interest to practice family planning.

  15. Population and the World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, S

    1973-12-01

    The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program. PMID:12257161

  16. Language dynamics in finite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L; Nowak, Martin A

    2003-04-01

    Any mechanism of language acquisition can only learn a restricted set of grammars. The human brain contains a mechanism for language acquisition which can learn a restricted set of grammars. The theory of this restricted set is universal grammar (UG). UG has to be sufficiently specific to induce linguistic coherence in a population. This phenomenon is known as "coherence threshold". Previously, we have calculated the coherence threshold for deterministic dynamics and infinitely large populations. Here, we extend the framework to stochastic processes and finite populations. If there is selection for communicative function (selective language dynamics), then the analytic results for infinite populations are excellent approximations for finite populations; as expected, finite populations need a slightly higher accuracy of language acquisition to maintain coherence. If there is no selection for communicative function (neutral language dynamics), then linguistic coherence is only possible for finite populations.

  17. Stellar populations in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai

    2016-01-01

    Stellar populations contain the most important information about star clus- ter formation and evolution. Until several decades ago, star clusters were believed to be ideal laboratories for studies of simple stellar populations (SSPs). However, discoveries of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters have expanded our view on stellar populations in star clusters. They have simultaneously generated a number of controversies, particularly as to whether young star clusters may have the same origin as old globular clusters. In addition, extensive studies have revealed that the SSP scenario does not seem to hold for some intermediate-age and young star clusters either, thus making the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters even more complicated. Stellar population anomalies in numerous star clusters are well-documented, implying that the notion of star clusters as true SSPs faces serious challenges. In this review, we focus on stellar populations in massive clusters with different ...

  18. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function.

  19. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  20. European Population Substructure: Clustering of Northern and Southern Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Michael F; Shigeta, Russell; Villoslada, Pablo; Selmi, Carlo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K

    2006-01-01

    Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between “northern” and “southern” European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek) have >85% membership in the “southern” population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the “northern” population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the “southern” population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies. PMID:17044734

  1. A population genetics model of linkage disequilibrium in admixed populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) created in admixed population and the rate of decay in the disequilibrium over evolution is an important subject in population genetics theory and in disease gene mapping in human populations. The present study represents the theoretical investigation of effects of gene frequencies, levels of LD and admixture proportions of donor populations on the evolutionary dynamics of the LD of the admixed population. We examined the conditions under which the admixed population reached linkage equilibrium or the peak level of the LD. The study reveals the inappropriateness in approximating the dynamics of the LD generated by population admixture by the commonly used formula in literature. An appropriate equation for the dynamics is proposed. The distinct feature of the newly suggested formula is that the value of the nonlinear component of the LD remains constant in the first generation of the population evolution. Comparison between the predicted disequilibrium dynamics shows that the error will be caused by using the old formula, and thus resulting in a misguidance in using the evolutionary information of the admixed population in gene mapping.

  2. population in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dravecký Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available V rokoch 2011 – 2014 sa realizoval monitoring hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého (Aquila pomarina v ôsmich chránených vtáčích územiach na Slovensku. U 149 hniezdnych párov z celkových 272 úspešných hniezdení počas 4 hniezdnych sezón vyletelo 277 mláďat. Priemerná reprodukčná úspešnosť predstavovala 0,51 juv./prítomný pár, 0,69 juv./hniezdiaci pár a 1,37 juv./100 km2. V uvedenom období bolo okolo hniezd orlov krikľavých ustanovených celkom 151 ochranných zón, ktoré zabezpečili ochranu 119 hniezdnych teritórií, čo predstavuje cca 17 % hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého na Slovensku. Testovaním účinnosti ochranných zón sa zistilo, že v hniezdach s vyhlásenou ochrannou zónou je vyššia pravdepodobnosť úspešného odchovania mláďat v porovnaní s hniezdami bez takejto zóny. Pravdepodobnosť, že hniezdenie bude úspešné v hniezdach hniezdiacich párov bez ochrannej zóny bola 48.1% (95% confidence intervals (CIs: 37.4–59.0%, v hniezdach s ochrannou zónou 64.8% (95% CIs: 59.8–69.6%. Medzi 5 najčastejšie využívaných hniezdnych stromov na hniezdenie A. pomarina na Slovensku patrí Picea abies 61× (28,4%, Pinus sylvestris 45× (20,9%, Quercus sp. 36× (16,7%, Fagus sylvatica 25× (11,6% a Abies alba 18× (8,4%. Medzi zriedkavejšie druhy hniezdnych stromov patrí Larix decidua 12× (5,6% a Alnus glutinosa 3× (1,4%, ďalších 11 druhov hniezdnych stromov nedosiahli 1 %. Najvyšší počet hniezdnych stromov (n = 215, tj. 34 hniezd (15,8% sa nachádzal v intervale nadmorskej výšky 401 – 450 m a 29 hniezd (13,5% v intervale 351 – 400 m n. m. Ostatné výškové pásma boli pod hranicou 10%. 54% zistených hniezd (116 hniezd sa nachádza vo výškovom pásme 301 – 600 m n. m., 71 hniezd (33% v pásme 600 – 900 m n. m. Najnižšie situované hniezdo bolo v nadmorskej výške 150 m a najvyššie 950 m, priemer bol 595,01 m. Najvyšší počet hniezd (n = 209 bol na strome

  3. Wildlife Tunnel Enhances Population Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McCarthy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are pervasive components of landscapes throughout the world: they cause wildlife mortality, disrupt animal movements, and increase the risk of extinction. Expensive engineering solutions, such as overpasses and tunnels, are increasingly being adopted to mitigate these effects. Although some species readily use such structures, their success in preventing population extinction remains unknown. Here, we use population viability modeling to assess the effectiveness of tunnels for the endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus in Australia. The underpasses reduced, but did not completely remove, the negative effects of a road. The expected minimum population size of a “reconnected” population remained 15% lower than that of a comparable “undivided” population. We propose that the extent to which the risk of extinction decreases should be adopted as a measure of effectiveness of mitigation measures and that the use of population modeling become routine in these evaluations.

  4. Effective Sizes for Subdivided Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Chesser, R. K.; Rhodes-Jr., O. E.; Sugg, D. W.; Schnabel, A.(Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, D-10587, Germany)

    1993-01-01

    Many derivations of effective population sizes have been suggested in the literature; however, few account for the breeding structure and none can readily be expanded to subdivided populations. Breeding structures influence gene correlations through their effects on the number of breeding individuals of each sex, the mean number of progeny per female, and the variance in the number of progeny produced by males and females. Additionally, hierarchical structuring in a population is determined b...

  5. Population Dynamics of Bacterial Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Pintu; Klumpp, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Persistence is a prime example of phenotypic heterogeneity, where a microbial population splits into two distinct subpopulations with different growth and survival properties as a result of reversible phenotype switching. Specifically, persister cells grow more slowly than normal cells under unstressed growth conditions, but survive longer under stress conditions such as the treatment with bactericidal antibiotics. We analyze the population dynamics of such a population for several typical ex...

  6. Regulation of wolf spider populations

    OpenAIRE

    Rickers, Silke

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this study was to identify major regulatory mechanisms for wolf spider populations. Field and laboratory experiments focussed on the importance of prey availability (autochthonous & allochthonous), food quality and habitat heterogeneity on performance of individual wolf spiders or whole populations and on intra- (cannibalism) and interspecific (intraguild predation) relationships in wolf spiders. Wolf spider populations on xeric grasslands near Darmstadt (Germany) are increased on graz...

  7. Fishermen, markets, and population diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, SL; Sanchirico, JN

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Fishing impacts biodiversity on multiple levels, potentially resulting in unintended feedbacks to the economic performance of the fishery over time. For example, targeting observable traits within a population can impact genetic diversity and targeting valuable species can impact biodiversity at the ecosystem level. The bioeconomic literature, however, has given little attention to the effect of fishing on population diversity, even though population diversity contributes...

  8. Population in the classic economics

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Doğruyol

    2013-01-01

    Growth subject in economics is an important factor of development. Classic economics ecole indicates the population as main variable which tender of growth. On the other hand T. R. Malthus is known as economist who regards population as a problem and brings up it among the classical economists. However, Adam Smith is an intellectual who discussed population problem earlier on the classic economics theory. According to Adam Smith one of the main factors that realise the growth is labour. In ad...

  9. [Population control and environment protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, G

    1982-01-29

    Although many factors cause environmental pollution and damage, the most important and basic factor is a rapidly increasing population. Therefore, a balanced development of population and environment is essential. The pressure a rapidly increasing populaton exerts on the environment has many aspects. The pressure of population on land resources results in increased land use and increased insecticide use due to increased insect tolerance leading to decreased productivity of cultivated land, increased desert formation, and decreased food supply. Population pressure on forest resources leads to land erosion; one of the major causes of the 1981 flood in Sichuan was attributed to excessive logging activities. Demand for fuels (firewood, straws, animal manures) by an increasing population leads to decrease in natural fertilizers, decreased food production, and energy shortage in rural areas. Population pressure on cities leads to air, water, noise and other environmental pollution as well as decrease in housing facilities and in green vegetation. Problems resulting from population pressures on industrial development include industrial and environmental pollution and unemployment. Population increases and accompanying industrial activities affect the weather which in turn affects the quality of agriculture, forests, and lakes. Thus, if unchecked, atmospheric carbon dioxide level would double by the middle of the next century, which would lead to increase in atmospheric temperature with disastrous consequences. Therefore, a well planned program for population control is essential for achieving decent quality of life. PMID:12338285

  10. [Population control and environment protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, G

    1982-01-29

    Although many factors cause environmental pollution and damage, the most important and basic factor is a rapidly increasing population. Therefore, a balanced development of population and environment is essential. The pressure a rapidly increasing populaton exerts on the environment has many aspects. The pressure of population on land resources results in increased land use and increased insecticide use due to increased insect tolerance leading to decreased productivity of cultivated land, increased desert formation, and decreased food supply. Population pressure on forest resources leads to land erosion; one of the major causes of the 1981 flood in Sichuan was attributed to excessive logging activities. Demand for fuels (firewood, straws, animal manures) by an increasing population leads to decrease in natural fertilizers, decreased food production, and energy shortage in rural areas. Population pressure on cities leads to air, water, noise and other environmental pollution as well as decrease in housing facilities and in green vegetation. Problems resulting from population pressures on industrial development include industrial and environmental pollution and unemployment. Population increases and accompanying industrial activities affect the weather which in turn affects the quality of agriculture, forests, and lakes. Thus, if unchecked, atmospheric carbon dioxide level would double by the middle of the next century, which would lead to increase in atmospheric temperature with disastrous consequences. Therefore, a well planned program for population control is essential for achieving decent quality of life.

  11. Population dynamics and population control of Galium aparine L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, van der R.Y.

    1993-01-01

    The population biology of Galium aparine L. needs to be better understood, in order to be able to rationalize decisions about the short- and long-term control of this weed species for different cropping practices.A population dynamics model was developed to simulate the basic processes of the life c

  12. Population Education: A Critical Population and Development Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

    1991-01-01

    This review and assessment of population education programs demonstrates that, although population education has made many contributions to the overall education process, its success requires continual revision and review of existing conceptualizations and content. Outlines and discusses other critical factors, pertinent issues, and guidelines for…

  13. Detection, Diversity, and Population Dynamics of Waterborne Phytophthora ramorum Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, C A; Garbelotto, M

    2015-01-01

    Sudden oak death, the tree disease caused by Phytophthora ramorum, has significant environmental and economic impacts on natural forests on the U.S. west coast, plantations in the United Kingdom, and in the worldwide nursery trade. Stream baiting is vital for monitoring and early detection of the pathogen in high-risk areas and is performed routinely; however, little is known about the nature of water-borne P. ramorum populations. Two drainages in an infested California forest were monitored intensively using stream-baiting for 2 years between 2009 and 2011. Pathogen presence was determined both by isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from symptomatic bait leaves. Isolates were analyzed using simple sequence repeats to study population dynamics and genetic structure through time. Isolation was successful primarily only during spring conditions, while PCR extended the period of pathogen detection to most of the year. Water populations were extremely diverse, and changed between seasons and years. A few abundant genotypes dominated the water during conditions considered optimal for aerial populations, and matched those dominant in aerial populations. Temporal patterns of genotypic diversification and evenness were identical among aerial, soil, and water populations, indicating that all three substrates are part of the same epidemiological cycle, strongly influenced by rainfall and sporulation on leaves. However, there was structuring between substrates, likely arising due to reduced selection pressure in the water. Additionally, water populations showed wholesale mixing of genotypes without the evident spatial autocorrelation present in leaf and soil populations.

  14. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  15. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the "Testing Matrix Models" working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  16. [Population policy: speeches and actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Lopez, A

    1991-06-01

    Mexico's population policy was created almost 20 years ago in response to the need to regulate the country's population growth. Currently the policy stresses more balanced distribution of the population in accordance with realistic development possibilities. By 1986 it was recognized that population policy in Mexico had gone beyond mere control of fertility to encompass direct government intervention in more complex global problems. It was concluded that the possibility of achieving rational population distribution depended on balanced regional development. A strong family planning policy, efforts to integrate demographic programs into general development plans, employment policies, and measures to encourage harmonious spatial distribution were viewed as necessary, but it was also felt that greater speed was required and that the population policy should play a larger role in the development strategy. The National Population Program for 1989-94 has the objectives of promoting the integration of demographic objectives into economic and social planning and promoting a decline in the rate of population growth from 1.8% in 1995 to 1.5% in 2000 through fertility decline. It seeks a more rational population distribution in which the weight of large metropolitan zones would be reduced and growth of intermediate and small cities promoted. It seeks to encourage greater participation by women in the nation's life, and to contribute to integrated development and elevation in the living standards of indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. Greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous populations

  17. Stochastic delocalization of finite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyrhofer, Lukas; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2013-01-01

    The localization of populations of replicating bacteria, viruses or autocatalytic chemicals arises in various contexts, such as ecology, evolution, medicine or chemistry. Several deterministic mathematical models have been used to characterize the conditions under which localized states can form, and how they break down due to convective driving forces. It has been repeatedly found that populations remain localized unless the bias exceeds a critical threshold value, and that close to the transition the population is characterized by a diverging length scale. These results, however, have been obtained upon ignoring number fluctuations (‘genetic drift’), which are inevitable given the discreteness of the replicating entities. Here, we study the localization/delocalization of a finite population in the presence of genetic drift. The population is modeled by a linear chain of subpopulations, or demes, which exchange migrants at a constant rate. Individuals in one particular deme, called ‘oasis’, receive a growth rate benefit, and the total population is regulated to have constant size N. In this ecological setting, we find that any finite population delocalizes on sufficiently long time scales. Depending on parameters, however, populations may remain localized for a very long time. The typical waiting time to delocalization increases exponentially with both population size and distance to the critical wind speed of the deterministic approximation. We augment these simulation results by a mathematical analysis that treats the reproduction and migration of individuals as branching random walks subject to global constraints. For a particular constraint, different from a fixed population size constraint, this model yields a solvable first moment equation. We find that this solvable model approximates very well the fixed population size model for large populations, but starts to deviate as population sizes are small. Nevertheless, the qualitative behavior of the

  18. [Population science serves human happiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, X

    1983-03-29

    4 areas are covered in this speech delivered on January 10, 1983. 1) Looking back on China's post-Liberation population problems: as early as the 1950s, the Party and scholars such as Ma Yinchu recognized the need to control population growth. For instance, a 1952 directive instructed the Public Health Bureau to encourage the use of condoms and diaphrams. When Ma Yinchu's studies showing alarming population increases were made known to Mao Zedong and published in the People's Daily in 1957, the "new population theory" was formed, which advocated population control. But before this idea gained currency, Ma suffered criticism in 1958 and population studies was virtually halted. Between 1958-61, as China entered difficult times, the birthrate declined. By 1962 the rate increased, leading the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party to issue a directive to control population. Again in 1971 the Central Government set population goals and incorporated population policies into national economic planning. When the wrongs of the Cultural Revolution were redressed, Ma Yinchu regained favor and demography entered a new era. 2) The responsibility of demographic studies: one of the most important tasks of demography is to solve the problem of confining the birthrate to 16-17/1000 annually, so that by 2000 the total population would be 1,200,000,000. This can only be done by advocating 1 child per couple, closely con trolling a 2nd birth and discouraging all 3rd births. 3) The contents of demographic studies: both immediate and future problems must be addressed. Areas of study can include sex ratio, marriage, family, population and land distribution, fertility, or an aging society. 4) Science research must embody a scientific attitude: it is best to follow the example set by Ma Yinchu, whose work was based on actual investigations in the field. Any development and production of scientific theory must stem from practical experience. PMID:12313013

  19. Perfect Simulation From Nonneutral Population Genetic Models: Variable Population Size and Population Subdivision.

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnhead, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We show how the idea of monotone coupling from the past can produce simple algorithms for simulating samples at a nonneutral locus under a range of demographic models. We specifically consider a biallelic locus and either a general variable population size mode or a general migration model for population subdivision. We investigate the effect of demography on the efficacy of selection and the effect of selection on genetic divergence between populations.

  20. Perturbation Theory for Population Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, Francisco M

    2007-01-01

    We prove that a recently proposed homotopy perturbation method for the treatment of population dynamics is just the Taylor expansion of the population variables about initial time. Our results show that this perturbation method fails to provide the global features of the ecosystem dynamics.

  1. Kingman and mathematical population genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Ewens, Warren J.; Watterson, Geoffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical population genetics is only one of Kingman's many research interests. Nevertheless, his contribution to this field has been crucial, and moved it in several important new directions. Here we outline some aspects of his work which have had a major influence on population genetics theory.

  2. Food for the ageing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, M.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The world’s ageing population is increasing and food professionals will have to address the needs of older generations more closely in the future. This unique volume reviews the characteristics of the ageing population as food consumers, the role of nutrition in healthy ageing and the design of food

  3. Estimated population near uranium tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Craig, S.N.; Dirks, J.A.; Griffin, E.A.; Reis, J.W.; Young, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Population studies, which took place during the months of April, May, and June 1983, were performed for 27 active and 25 inactive mill sites. For each mill site, a table showing population by radius (1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 km) in 16 compass directions was generated. 22 references, 6 tables.

  4. Population and policy in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulkko, J

    1989-03-01

    Finland, with a population of 4.9 million, currently has an overall fertility rate of 1.6. There is a small population growth, but this is due to a large reproductive age group, return migration of Finns from Sweden, and a decrease in mortality that has increased the proportion of old people in the population. The state has no official population policy. A recommendation of the Finnish Committee on the World Population Year 1974 that the government establish an agency for population policy has not been adopted. The coalition government now in power has a program, however, aimed at influencing population growth. The program includes proposals to reduce work hours for parents with small children, increase the age limit for participation in the child allowance system, and increase the number of municipal day care facilities. Concerning regional policy, the government wants a balanced development of the country's different regions. Subsidiary industries of agriculture and forestry are being encouraged to preserve population levels in sparse areas. Finland also supports a health policy emphasizing preventive and non-institutional aspects of health care, with targets of life expectancy set at 82 years for women and 75 years for men by the year 2000. PMID:12222205

  5. Population in the classic economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Doğruyol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth subject in economics is an important factor of development. Classic economics ecole indicates the population as main variable which tender of growth. On the other hand T. R. Malthus is known as economist who regards population as a problem and brings up it among the classical economists. However, Adam Smith is an intellectual who discussed population problem earlier on the classic economics theory. According to Adam Smith one of the main factors that realise the growth is labour. In addition to population made it established. The aim of this study is analyzing the mental relationship between Malthus whose name has been identified with relation between population-growth and Smith who discussed this subject first time but put it off on process of theorisation.

  6. Population control in symbiotic corals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkowski, P.G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Dubinsky, Z. (Bar Ilan Univ., Ramat Gan (Israel)); Muscatine, L. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); McCloskey, L. (Walla Walla College, College Place, WA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Stability in symbiotic association requires control of population growth between symbionts. The population density of zooxanthellae per unit surface area of most symbiotic corals is remarkably consistant. How is the population density of zooxanthellae maintained and what happens to the symbiotic association if the balance between algae and host is perturbed. The answers to these question, examined in this paper, provide a framework for understanding how the size of the component populations is controlled in symbiotic associations. The topic areas covered include the following: carbon economy in a symbiotic coral; effects of nutrient enrichment; the chemostat model of population control; the effects of exposure to ammonium levels. Ammonium ions and organic materials are the factors which maintain the density of zooxanthellae. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Population problems and population research in a market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X

    1994-01-01

    A market driven economy has many effects on population growth. The laws of social production were explicated by Marx and Engels, and Comrade Deng Xiaoping presents his views on China's socialist market economy and population problems in this article. Modern market economies have changed greatly over time. Before the 1960s, the focus of the interaction between population and economic change was in macro control. Since the 1960s, the focus shifted to micro control. Theories on maximum growth and neomodern population theory provide only a few useful elements. Cost-benefit analysis of child production functions, despite limitations, has universal appeal. Western theories with sound scientific evidence and Marxist theories should be examined and integrated within the Chinese experience. Two areas of concern in China are the spatial imbalance between population and economic development and an appropriate time period for any research activity. Scientific research in China will be advanced by careful integration of theory and practice, careful study of the Chinese experience, in-depth analysis, and bold, practical approaches which incorporate existing research results from the West. There are three dominant views of economic reforms. 1) Economic development plans should include a market economy. 2) Chinese population control would depend upon administrative means rather than market forces. 3) There are indirect ways in which the market affects population production. The last position is favored. The conclusions are made that family planning has been and continues to be a driving force in declining birth rates and that a focus on government population control does not discount the importance of the influence of economic factors on changes in the birth rate. Market forces are beginning to show their impact on people's choice in reproduction, and the impact is increasing. Reforms must be made appropriate to both the position and the negative influence of the market economy on

  8. BIRTH AND DEATH RATES, NATIONAL POPULATION FORECAST AND POPULATION POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Merat

    1971-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is analyses of national population estimates and aims for the next 20 to 50 years. Calculations are based on the population of 32 million in 1973 with the relative growth rate of 32 in 1000 and death rate of 16 in 1000.Considering various aims, reduction in the growth rate, birth rate and populations in the future years have been calculated. The results showed the need for extensive efforts in reduction of fertility in order to reach zero growth rate in 50 years (2023.

  9. Tibet's population: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, D

    1997-08-01

    This article describes trends in population growth in Tibet during the Yuan Dynasty (1260-1287), the Qing Dynasty (1734-36), and during decennial periods after 1952, until 1994. Tibet was conquered by the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty in the 13th century. During 1260-87, 3 enumerations revealed a total population of about 559,962 Tibetans, of whom 70,000 were lamas. Enumeration during 1734-36, revealed a total population of 941,151 Tibetans and 138,617 households. Tibet's population increased to about 1 million in 1951, an addition of 60,000 persons over 210 years. During 1952-59, the rate of population growth was fairly low at 0.94%. The total increase was 78,000 persons, or 11,000/year. Population increased from 1.15 million to about 1.23 million during 1952-59. The Dalai Lama went into exile with about 74,000 Tibetans in March 1959. Population during 1960-69 increased from 1.23 million to 1.48 million. The annual growth rate was 1.89%. Population increased by 252,500 persons, or 25.300/year. Reforms were carried out during this period. The region shifted from feudalism to socialism. Tibetans obtained free medical care and access to land. The birth rate was 25/1000, and the death rate was 10/1000. During 1970-79, both economic and population growth increased. Population increased from 1.48 million to 1.83 million, or a rate of annual growth of 2.14%. Population during this period increased by 348,500 persons, or 34,900/year. This was the fastest period of population growth. During 1980-89, the total fertility rate was maintained at around 4 children/woman, and family planning was implemented in urban areas. The annual rate of growth was 1.85%. Population increased by 367,000 persons, or 36,700/year. During 1990-94, the annual growth rate was 1.76 with a total increase of 159,000 persons, or 39,800/year.

  10. Can human populations be stabilized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-02-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.

  11. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective. PMID:12339937

  12. Modern population trends in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-basher, M M

    1985-01-01

    Population growth trends in Bangladesh in the 1871-1981 period were analyzed, with emphasis on fertility and mortality differentials, to provide a basis for population planning. Following proclamation of British Imperial Rule in 1857, mortality rates in Bangladesh began to decline as a result of preventive measures against natural disasters such as draught and famine, but the fertility rate remained unaltered. The demographic pattern was unstable over time, reflecting the impact of the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, war, migration, and economic development. Population growth accelerated greatly during the 1961-74 period, when industrialization emerged and job opportunities were created in the urban centers. Economic hardship, food shortages, and the introduction of family planning curbed urban growth drastically and total growth to some extent in 1974-81. On the average, growth has been higher in the Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh than in the Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions. Differences in population growth among the regions are attributable largely to internal and external migration. The regression polynomial model best fits past population trends in Bangladesh and can reproduce the observed population by 99.60%. This polynomial is most suitable for graduation and prediction of population trends. PMID:12280834

  13. Population and Australian development assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  14. Food production and population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, H C

    1993-07-01

    Governments have frequently ignored the issue of population consumption exceeding the rates of renewal of natural resources. At the UN Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, the issue of population growth was ignored in the agenda and action plan. In 1974, the UN World Population Conference suggested population stability would be possible if standards of living were raised. Industrialized nations spent half a century of active interference with the stability of global populations and failed to slow growth. 27 countries, mainly in tropical and subtropical zones, have an average cereal yield of under 1 ton per hectare, when improved seed and basic minimum fertilizer could yield 2 tons per hectare. Efforts to increase yields by the Consultative Group for International Agricultural research in 13 international centers resulted in global annual increases of about 50 million tons of grain (wheat and rice). Rainfed agriculture did not benefit as much because of climatic conditions. Where varieties of triticale, sorghum, millet, groundnuts, chick peas, cowpeas, beans, and cassava have helped increase food production, population growth has outstripped the gains. Agricultural fertilizers have been unfairly blamed for soil nutrient losses. Because of the age structure of population, the expected population growth can only be addressed through development of higher yields, new strains resistant to disease, and fertilizers. Slow release phosphates for tropical soils are needed. Shortages of domestic fuel divert much needed farmyard manure and composted crop residues. About 400 million tons of dung are thus wasted annually; food grain harvests are thus reduced by 14 million tons. About 50% of the 1133 million poorest people will live in Asia and another 25% will live in Sub-Saharan Africa, living on a total degraded area of 1219 million hectares. Imbalance between food supply and population need to be addressed on an effective international scale.

  15. Simulation of population growth and structure of the population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymowicz, A. Z.

    2002-08-01

    A computer study of population growth and biological ageing in the Penna model is presented. The stress is put on the analysis of the age structure and the distribution of 'bad' mutations m in the population. Results of computer simulation are compared with the simplest logistic model approach which ignores genetic contribution to the life game and accounts only for death due to limited environmental capacity, the Verhulst factor. The Penna model accounts also for genetic load and results of the simulation show that the final population essentially consists of the fittest individuals, as is expected. A more detailed analysis of the genome structure Δ( m) discloses significant marks of the history. The main conclusions are: (a) there is a clear correlation between population n, age a and the number m of bad mutations and (b) there is no correlation between particular configurations Δ( m) of genomes of the same m and the fraction of the population of this characteristics Δ( m). A typical run takes a couple of hours on an HP EXEMPLAR machine, and for a population of about n=10 6.

  16. Population Issues. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents information about the problems caused by increasing population. Discusses the environmental impact and the ways that technology can be used to solve problems of overpopulation. Includes possible student outcomes and a student quiz. (JOW)

  17. Punctuated evolution of population genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Reuveni, Eli

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis I apply population genetics methods and genotype-phenotype mapping to show that evolution has more discrete rather than linear pace and that this finding may reconcile between two evolution theories (punctuated equilibrium and phyletic gradualism)

  18. Anomalous Growth of Aging Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider a discrete-time population dynamics with age-dependent structure. At every time step, one of the alive individuals from the population is chosen randomly and removed with probability q_k depending on its age, whereas a new individual of age 1 is born with probability r. The model can also describe a single queue in which the service order is random while the service efficiency depends on a customer's "age" in the queue. We propose a mean field approximation to investigate the long-time asymptotic behavior of the mean population size. The age dependence is shown to lead to anomalous power-law growth of the population at the critical regime. The scaling exponent is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the probabilities q_k at large k. The mean field approximation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. National workshop on population education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, M

    1979-01-01

    The First National Workshop on Population Education was held from 16 to 18 November 1978, involving principals and instructors in extension education of all the eight agricultural extension training institutes, regional directors of agriculture, some district extension officers and representatives from voluntary agencies involved in population education. The object of the Workshop was to discuss and modify the materials prepared for the introduction of the concept of population education in agricultural training institutes. Some materials were also adopted for training purposes of village extension agents. The World Bank project of the Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for introducing in Bangladesh the concept of population education to pre-service, village-level extension workers in the various agricultural extension institutes, and the first project to recruit female extension workers for service in rural areas. PMID:12309487

  20. The Veteran Population Projection 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VetPop2014 is an actuarial projection model developed by the Office of the Actuary (OACT) for Veteran population projection from Fiscal Year FY2014 to FY2043. Using...

  1. Effective sizes for subdivided populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R K; Rhodes, O E; Sugg, D W; Schnabel, A

    1993-12-01

    Many derivations of effective population sizes have been suggested in the literature; however, few account for the breeding structure and none can readily be expanded to subdivided populations. Breeding structures influence gene correlations through their effects on the number of breeding individuals of each sex, the mean number of progeny per female, and the variance in the number of progeny produced by males and females. Additionally, hierarchical structuring in a population is determined by the number of breeding groups and the migration rates of males and females among such groups. This study derives analytical solutions for effective sizes that can be applied to subdivided populations. Parameters that encapsulate breeding structure and subdivision are utilized to derive the traditional inbreeding and variance effective sizes. Also, it is shown that effective sizes can be determined for any hierarchical level of population structure for which gene correlations can accrue. Derivations of effective sizes for the accumulation of gene correlations within breeding groups (coancestral effective size) and among breeding groups (intergroup effective size) are given. The results converge to traditional, single population measures when similar assumptions are applied. In particular, inbreeding and intergroup effective sizes are shown to be special cases of the coancestral effective size, and intergroup and variance effective sizes will be equal if the population census remains constant. Instantaneous solutions for effective sizes, at any time after gene correlation begins to accrue, are given in terms of traditional F statistics or transition equations. All effective sizes are shown to converge upon a common asymptotic value when breeding tactics and migration rates are constant. The asymptotic effective size can be expressed in terms of the fixation indices and the number of breeding groups; however, the rate of approach to the asymptote is dependent upon dispersal

  2. Population size and environmental quality

    OpenAIRE

    Till Requate; Mark B. Cronshaw

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple general equilibrium analysis of first best allocations in an economy where a consumption good is produced using labor. Production results in pollution, which is a public bad. Pollution abatement can be achieved either by restricting production or by using additional labor. We consider how the first best allocation and Pigouvian tax vary with population size. Consumers are unambiguously worse off when the population is larger, but not necessarily due to increased p...

  3. Wildlife Tunnel Enhances Population Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Michael McCarthy; Dean Heinze; Rodney van der Ree; Ian Mansergh

    2009-01-01

    Roads and traffic are pervasive components of landscapes throughout the world: they cause wildlife mortality, disrupt animal movements, and increase the risk of extinction. Expensive engineering solutions, such as overpasses and tunnels, are increasingly being adopted to mitigate these effects. Although some species readily use such structures, their success in preventing population extinction remains unknown. Here, we use population viability modeling to assess the effectiveness of tunnels f...

  4. Eel population and solution model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liangming; Chen, Xinyu; Chen, Yu; Fang, Ping; Huang, Yuyu; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Mingyan; Wang, Cong

    2006-01-01

    Almost two decades before, eel population had not waved quite hugely, but in this twenty years, it is changed. Eel population decreases very obviously on account of five main reasons—pollution, barriers, the change of ocean currents, overfishing, diseases. Base on this phenomena, though our research, we would like to suggest two solution for changing the decline. In short-term, aquaculture should be utilized widely; on the other hand, re-stocking is a quiet nice method for long-term.

  5. Introduction. Population and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J; Zaba, B

    1992-01-01

    The complexity of the interrelationships between population growth and environmental concerns is often obscured when the global picture is presented. The variety and complexity of population-environment associations varies with spatial aggregation; analysis is needed at all levels. Of the many organizations involved in researching and discussing these associations, the International Social Science Council established a working committee on population and the environment, which held a symposium in January 1991. 9 papers were the topic of discussions and are summarized in this article. Attention was focused on pollution emissions and population growth by the environmental scientist Paul Harrison. The increased demand for water was discussed as it related to rapid urbanization and changes in agricultural production and industrial development policies. David Noin's paper was on the increased occurrence of natural disasters and mortality, i.e., cyclones and floods. The population densities surrounding areas of natural disasters excluding droughts have increased and contributed to greater impacts. Alina Potrykowska and Roger Bivend provided information on the trends and spatial patterns of mortality in Poland. Mortality increases have appeared during the course of industrialization. Data for Poland on environmental variables such as dust and gas emissions, volume of untreated waste, and hazardous waste are available for 49 voivodships. The most polluted areas show a statistically significant relationships with high morality. Ken Wilson presented his views on the contradiction that African famines did not cause population decline. The possible interpretations are misinterpretation of data, inappropriate scales of measurement, and a misspecification that social, economic, and political changes will improve the population environment links. Matthew Lockwood presented his findings on northern Nigeria that migration is an important cause of high density population, and that

  6. Genetic Structure of Chimpanzee Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Celine Becquet; Nick Patterson; Anne C Stone; Molly Przeworski; David Reich

    2007-01-01

    Author Summary Common chimpanzees have been traditionally classified into three populations: western, central, and eastern. While the morphological or behavioral differences are very small, genetic studies of mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome have supported the geography-based designations. To obtain a crisp picture of chimpanzee population structure, we gather far more data than previously available: 310 microsatellite markers genotyped in 78 common chimpanzees and six bonobos, allowing...

  7. Population Aging and Inventive Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Irmen, Andreas; Litina, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This research empirically establishes and theoretically motivates the hypothesis that population aging has a hump-shaped effect on inventive activity. We estimate this hump-shaped relationship in a panel of 33 OECD countries over the period 1960-2012. The increasing part of the hump captures the awareness that population aging requires inventive activity to guarantee current and future standards of living. The decreasing part reflects the tendency of aging societies to lose dynamism and the w...

  8. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  9. Environmental pollution and population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    There is a growing recognition in Malaysia of the interrelationship between population growth, population policies, development policies, and environmental pollution. In Malaysia, with a current population of 13,250,000 and an annual growth rate of 2.4%, economic development is leading to large scale deforestation which in turn is altering climatic conditions, reducing water supplies, and increasing erosion. According to estimates 750,000 acres of jungle were cleared in the last 10 years. Industrial wastes and domestic sewage discharged into rivers and lakes is endangering marine life and padilands. This is a serious problem, since 70% of the Malaysian population derives the bulk of their protein intake from marine life. Noise and carbon monoxide pollution in urban areas is increasing due to the 15% annual increase in the number of vehicles in the country. These dangers need to be taken into account as continuing efforts are made to increase industrialization in order to provide jobs for the 350,000 unemployed and underemployed youth in the country. Fortunately, government officials in Malaysia are giving consideration to energy, water and oil conservation in formulating development plans and are becoming increasingly aware that population growth and population policies have a direct impact on development planning and environmental pollution. PMID:12262045

  10. Relationship of Indirect Effects of UV-B Radiation on Stomatal Movement of Vicia faba Leaves with Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide%UV-B辐射对蚕豆叶片气孔运动的间接效应与NO和H2O2有关

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华; 贺军民; 黄辰; 佘小平

    2006-01-01

    0.2 W·m-2的UV-B辐射不仅能诱导整体蚕豆叶片气孔导度和开度的显著降低,而且能明显降低蚕豆叶肉光合活性,但该强度的UV-B辐射却不能明显影响离体表皮条的气孔开度.说明0.2 W·m-2的UV-B主要通过间接途径调控了蚕豆叶片气孔运动.借助药理学试验和激光扫描共聚焦显微镜技术,进一步对该间接效应过程中是否有NO和H2O2的参与进行了探讨.结果显示:NO专一性清除剂cPTIO和一氧化氮合酶(NOS)抑制剂L-NAME均能有效地抑制UV-B辐射诱导的叶片气孔关闭和保卫细胞内源NO水平的升高;H2O2清除剂抗坏血酸(ASC)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)也能有效地逆转UV-B辐射诱导的气孔关闭和保卫细胞内源H2O2含量的升高.另外,外源NO或H2O2处理也能有效地诱导叶片气孔关闭.结果说明0.2 W·m-2的UV-B辐射对蚕豆叶片气孔关闭的间接诱导与NO和H2O2有关.%0.2 W · m-2 UV-B radiation could induce Vicia faba leaves to not only significantly reduce their stomatal conductance and aperture as a whole but also significantly decrease photosynthetic activity of their leaf mesophyll,but this radiation could not exert significant influence on the stomatal aperture of excised epidermis strips. This indicated that 0. 2 W · m-2 UV-B ratiation adjusted the stomatal movement of V. faba leaves mainly in indirect ways. Whether NO and H2O2 were concerned with the adjustment in indirect ways was further explored by pharmaceutical experiment and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The results showed that cPTIO,a scavenger specific to No,and L-NAME,NO-synthase inhibitor,both effectively inhibited the closedown of the leaf stomata and the increase of endogenous NO in the guard cells,which were induced by UV-B radiation;ascorbic acid ,a H2O2 in the guard cells ,which were induced by UV-B radiation. In addition,exogenous NO or H2O2 could effectively induce the closedown of the leaf stomata. It was indicated that the indirect

  11. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  12. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  13. Population dynamics in variable environments

    CERN Document Server

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    1990-01-01

    Demography relates observable facts about individuals to the dynamics of populations. If the dynamics are linear and do not change over time, the classical theory of Lotka (1907) and Leslie (1945) is the central tool of demography. This book addresses the situation when the assumption of constancy is dropped. In many practical situations, a population will display unpredictable variation over time in its vital rates, which must then be described in statistical terms. Most of this book is concerned with the theory of populations which are subject to random temporal changes in their vital rates, although other kinds of variation (e. g. , cyclical) are also dealt with. The central questions are: how does temporal variation work its way into a population's future, and how does it affect our interpretation of a population's past. The results here are directed at demographers of humans and at popula­ tion biologists. The uneven mathematical level is dictated by the material, but the book should be accessible to re...

  14. Laplacian eigenfunctions learn population structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available Principal components analysis has been used for decades to summarize genetic variation across geographic regions and to infer population migration history. More recently, with the advent of genome-wide association studies of complex traits, it has become a commonly-used tool for detection and correction of confounding due to population structure. However, principal components are generally sensitive to outliers. Recently there has also been concern about its interpretation. Motivated from geometric learning, we describe a method based on spectral graph theory. Regarding each study subject as a node with suitably defined weights for its edges to close neighbors, one can form a weighted graph. We suggest using the spectrum of the associated graph Laplacian operator, namely, Laplacian eigenfunctions, to infer population structure. In simulations and real data on a ring species of birds, Laplacian eigenfunctions reveal more meaningful and less noisy structure of the underlying population, compared with principal components. The proposed approach is simple and computationally fast. It is expected to become a promising and basic method for population genetics and disease association studies.

  15. Impact of the population implosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, J.J.

    1978-03-01

    Mr. Kilpatrick evaluates Paul R. Ehrlich's thesis that mankind will breed itself into oblivion. Mr. Ehrlich in his book, ''The Population Bomb,'' sees population control as the only answer to mass starvation in such countries as India, Africa, Central America, and China. Mr. Kilpatrick says the U.S. has drifted toward the goal of zero population growth, where the total births per woman have dropped to 1.8. In Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Belgium, West Germany, Great Britain, and Austria, the births per woman have dropped even lower than in the U.S. The decline in births is attributed to women joining the workforce, advancement of birth control measures, and high costs of medical care, housing, and education. Women marrying later and fashion are also factors. Zero population growth will have gross implications on the financial markets in the U.S. Pension systems will be directly affected. The author cites the dilemma of the Social Security system when a smaller proportion of young people are contributing to it. Household savings trends will alter; new construction, new plant and equipment investment, and consumer loans will have to be reconsidered. If the trend toward implosion continues and social services demand an increasing share of the Federal budget, other interests will have to yield and the author cites the budget for national defense as declining. Some prophets feel the population decline is nothing of concern, the author concludes. (MCW)

  16. Political economy of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

    1987-01-01

    Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates.

  17. Population dynamics of bacterial persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintu Patra

    Full Text Available Persistence is a prime example of phenotypic heterogeneity, where a microbial population splits into two distinct subpopulations with different growth and survival properties as a result of reversible phenotype switching. Specifically, persister cells grow more slowly than normal cells under unstressed growth conditions, but survive longer under stress conditions such as the treatment with bactericidal antibiotics. We analyze the population dynamics of such a population for several typical experimental scenarios, namely a constant environment, shifts between growth and stress conditions, and periodically switching environments. We use an approximation scheme that allows us to map the dynamics to a logistic equation for the subpopulation ratio and derive explicit analytical expressions for observable quantities that can be used to extract underlying dynamic parameters from experimental data. Our results provide a theoretical underpinning for the study of phenotypic switching, in particular for organisms where detailed mechanistic knowledge is scarce.

  18. Keynes, population, and equity prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarascio, V J

    1985-01-01

    Keynes in 1937 examined the phenomenon of the Great Depression from a longrun perspective in contradiction to the "General Theory," where the focus was on the shortrun. "Some Economic Consequences of a Declining Population," Keynes' article, reveals the context in which the "General Theory" was written. In the "General Theory," the focus is on short-term fluctuations, i.e., business cycles, but Keynes fails to provide any theoretical explanation as to why the depression of the 1930s was so severe and intractable. In the 1937 article, the depression is seen as the result of the combined effects of a decline in longrun growth due to population growth decline and a shortrun cyclical decline, together producing severe economic consequences. What is important for the purposes of this discussion is the implication, within the context of the 1937 article, that not only was the stock market crash of 1929 related to population change (with its accompanying collapse in expectations) but that, in general, changes in the rate of growth of population are accompanied by stock price movements in the same direction. The remainder of the discussion is devoted to a simple empirical test of this relationship. The data used are population size (POP), defined as the total residential population in the US from 1870-1979, and the Standard and Poor 500 Stock index (SP) for the corresponding 109-year period. In addition, a 3rd series was constructed, a price deflated Standard and Poor index (RSP) with a base period of 1870, to account for possible inflationary distortion of the index. The empirical results do not invalidate the hypothesis that population growth rates affect equity markets. In fact, there seems to be strong evidence that they are related in a manner suggestive of Keynes' intutition, namely, that the stock market crash of 1929 was due to factors more fundamental than those often perceived from a shortrun perspective. According to Keynes (1937), population is the most

  19. Rapid population increase in an introduced muskox population, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Riis Olesen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1962 and 1965, 27 (13 and 14 muskox yearlings were translocated from East Greenland (71°N to the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland (67°N. Angujaartorfiup Nunaa is a 6600 km2 icefree, continental area where caribou are indigenous. The climate is strictly continental with a minimum of precipitation but with abundant vegetation. Aerial surveys in 1990 documented that the muskox population has increased to 2600 heads despite quota-based harvesting since 1988. The annual quota was 200, 300 and 400 for 1988, 1989 and 1990, respectively. Distribution of muskoxen shows a significant preference for low altitude habitats southeast of Kangerlussuaq Airport and around Arnangarnup Qoorua (Paradise valley. Annual population increment averages 30% and the calf crop is around 24% of the population. Yearling recruitment in the population reveals that calf mortality during winter is very limited. About half of the 1-year-old females are served and they eventually give birth to their first calf when they turn 2 years old. With half of the 2-year-old females reproducing, the calf/cow ration ranges between 0.9 and 1.0.

  20. The Why and How of Population Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffrin, John R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the importance of instructional programs concerning population education and describes population growth in the United States, the biological reasons for the overpopulation problem, and the role of the health educator in population education. (BD)

  1. A new population of FRIIs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambruna, Rita

    2006-10-01

    Unification scenarios explain various flavors of radio galaxies and quasars with orientation-dependent obscuration effects. Type-2 FRII galaxies contain a quasar seen through a dusty molecular torus aligned with the radio jet. However, there exist a population of FRIIs, found with Spitzer, that does not fit into this scheme. These FRIIs exhbit high-excitation nuclear optical emission lines, but weak 15um luminosities. One possibility is very large obscuration; alternatively, they may be a genuinely different population. XMM spectroscopy and Chandra imaging will discriminate between the two scenarios.

  2. Models of ungulate population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Eberhardt

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available A useful theory for analyzing ungulate population dynamics is available in the form of equations based on the work of A. J. Lotka. Because the Leslie matrix model yields identical results and is widely known, it is convenient to label the resulting equations as the "Lotka-Leslie" model. The approach is useful for assessing population trends and attempting to predict the outcomes of various management actions. A broad list of applications to large mammals, and two examples specific to caribou are presented with a simple spreadsheet approach to calculations.

  3. Population education for social betterment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, S

    1983-01-26

    In India primary education has increased 3 times in the last 30 years. Over this same period middle school education has increased 4 times, higher secondary education 5 times, and university level education over 6 times. The number of universities alone increased from 19 in 1950 to 118 by 1981. The inconsistencies brought about by rapid population growth may be judged by the fact that while the number of institutions and the enrollment of students has expanded beyond measure, the number of illiterate persons has risen from 386 million in 1971 to 446 million in 1981. Clearly, education is vital for human resource development. In political terms, human resource development prepares a population for adult participation in political processes. From social and cultural perspectives, the development of human resources helps people to lead fuller and richer lives. Population means people, and people need food, clothing, homes, education, transportation, health services, and jobs. As long as a country's resources can satisfy the essential needs of its population, there is no population problem. If the population grows faster than the rate at which the basic needs of each individual can be met, the buildup of such a situation produces a crisis of gigantic dimensions. To meet basic requirements, India needs to provide annually an additional 12 million tons of foodgrains, 188 million meters of cloth, 2.5 million houses, along with schools, teachers, and jobs over and above what is currently available. Another need is for fresh air, pure water, and space to live in. The question is how is this need to be met when the earth is a finite sphere. What will happen when the world's 3.5 billion people double into a staggering 7 billion by the end of the 20th century. It is because of this concern for family well being and the betterment of human resources that the Family Planning Association of India has since 1969 undertaken innovative pilot programs in popultion education for the

  4. Structure of African elephant populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegismund, H R; Arctander, P

    1996-01-01

    The structure of elephant populations from east and south Africa has been analyzed by Georgiadis et al. (1994) on the basis of restriction site variation of mitochondrial DNA. They used F statistics based on identity by descent in tests for subdivision and reached the conclusion that there was a ......The structure of elephant populations from east and south Africa has been analyzed by Georgiadis et al. (1994) on the basis of restriction site variation of mitochondrial DNA. They used F statistics based on identity by descent in tests for subdivision and reached the conclusion...

  5. Parallel gene loss and acquisition among strains of different Brucella species and biovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhijun; Wang, Yufei; Xu, Jie; Chen, Yanfen; Ke, Yuehua; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Xitong; Zhou, Dongsheng; Yang, Yi; Yang, Ruifu; Peng, Guangneng; Jiang, Hai; Yuan, Jing; Song, Hongbin; Cui, Buyun; Huang, Liuyu; Chen, Zeliang

    2012-08-01

    The genus Brucella is divided into six species; of these, B. melitensis and B. abortus are pathogenic to humans, and B. ovis and B. neotomae are nonpathogenic to humans. The definition of gene loss and acquisition is essential for understanding Brucella's ecology, evolutionary history, and host relationships. A DNA microarray containing unique genes of B. melitensis Type strain 16MT and B. abortus 9-941 was constructed and used to determine the gene contents of the representative strains of Brucella. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from sequences of housekeeping genes. Gene loss and acquisition of different Brucella species were inferred. A total of 214 genes were found to be differentially distributed, and 173 of them were clustered into 15 genomic islands (GIs). Evidence of horizontal gene transfer was observed for 10 GIs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 19 strains formed five clades, and some of the GIs had been lost or acquired independently among the different lineages. The derivation of Brucella lineages is concomitant with the parallel loss or acquisition of GIs, indicating a complex interaction between various Brucella species and hosts. PMID:22923103

  6. Capsules, toxins and AtxA as virulence factors of emerging Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brézillon, Christophe; Haustant, Michel; Dupke, Susann; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Lander, Angelika; Franz, Tatjana; Monot, Marc; Couture-Tosi, Evelyne; Jouvion, Gregory; Leendertz, Fabian H; Grunow, Roland; Mock, Michèle E; Klee, Silke R; Goossens, Pierre L

    2015-04-01

    Emerging B. cereus strains that cause anthrax-like disease have been isolated in Cameroon (CA strain) and Côte d'Ivoire (CI strain). These strains are unusual, because their genomic characterisation shows that they belong to the B. cereus species, although they harbour two plasmids, pBCXO1 and pBCXO2, that are highly similar to the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids of B. anthracis that encode the toxins and the polyglutamate capsule respectively. The virulence factors implicated in the pathogenicity of these B. cereus bv anthracis strains remain to be characterised. We tested their virulence by cutaneous and intranasal delivery in mice and guinea pigs; they were as virulent as wild-type B. anthracis. Unlike as described for pXO2-cured B. anthracis, the CA strain cured of the pBCXO2 plasmid was still highly virulent, showing the existence of other virulence factors. Indeed, these strains concomitantly expressed a hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule and the B. anthracis polyglutamate (PDGA) capsule. The HA capsule was encoded by the hasACB operon on pBCXO1, and its expression was regulated by the global transcription regulator AtxA, which controls anthrax toxins and PDGA capsule in B. anthracis. Thus, the HA and PDGA capsules and toxins were co-regulated by AtxA. We explored the respective effect of the virulence factors on colonisation and dissemination of CA within its host by constructing bioluminescent mutants. Expression of the HA capsule by itself led to local multiplication and, during intranasal infection, to local dissemination to the adjacent brain tissue. Co-expression of either toxins or PDGA capsule with HA capsule enabled systemic dissemination, thus providing a clear evolutionary advantage. Protection against infection by B. cereus bv anthracis required the same vaccination formulation as that used against B. anthracis. Thus, these strains, at the frontier between B. anthracis and B. cereus, provide insight into how the monomorphic B. anthracis may have emerged.

  7. Capsules, toxins and AtxA as virulence factors of emerging Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Brézillon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging B. cereus strains that cause anthrax-like disease have been isolated in Cameroon (CA strain and Côte d'Ivoire (CI strain. These strains are unusual, because their genomic characterisation shows that they belong to the B. cereus species, although they harbour two plasmids, pBCXO1 and pBCXO2, that are highly similar to the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids of B. anthracis that encode the toxins and the polyglutamate capsule respectively. The virulence factors implicated in the pathogenicity of these B. cereus bv anthracis strains remain to be characterised. We tested their virulence by cutaneous and intranasal delivery in mice and guinea pigs; they were as virulent as wild-type B. anthracis. Unlike as described for pXO2-cured B. anthracis, the CA strain cured of the pBCXO2 plasmid was still highly virulent, showing the existence of other virulence factors. Indeed, these strains concomitantly expressed a hyaluronic acid (HA capsule and the B. anthracis polyglutamate (PDGA capsule. The HA capsule was encoded by the hasACB operon on pBCXO1, and its expression was regulated by the global transcription regulator AtxA, which controls anthrax toxins and PDGA capsule in B. anthracis. Thus, the HA and PDGA capsules and toxins were co-regulated by AtxA. We explored the respective effect of the virulence factors on colonisation and dissemination of CA within its host by constructing bioluminescent mutants. Expression of the HA capsule by itself led to local multiplication and, during intranasal infection, to local dissemination to the adjacent brain tissue. Co-expression of either toxins or PDGA capsule with HA capsule enabled systemic dissemination, thus providing a clear evolutionary advantage. Protection against infection by B. cereus bv anthracis required the same vaccination formulation as that used against B. anthracis. Thus, these strains, at the frontier between B. anthracis and B. cereus, provide insight into how the monomorphic B. anthracis may have emerged.

  8. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi in horses by house flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The route of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in horses remains undetermined, but transmission by insects is suspected. Scientists from CMAVE and Auburn University investigated house flies (Musca domestica L.) as possible vectors. Three ponies were directly inoculated with C. pseudotuber...

  9. Seminar on Egypt population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, J F

    1984-01-01

    The information and viewpoints presented at the Seminar on Egypt Population Policy held in Cairo on October 16-18 were summariezed and critically assessed. The seminar was organized by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population's Committee on the Utilization ofDemographic Knowlege in Policy Formulation and Planning for the purpose of assessing the policy making the utility of social science and demographc knowledge with specific reference to Egypt's family planning program. The seminar was attended by demographers, social scientists, and experienced policy makers, and the discussion was highly focused. Seminar papers and discussions sought to clarify Egypt's current demographic situation, attempted to use sample survey data to identifyfertility determinants, analyzed Egypt's policyresponses to the population problem, assessed the national family planning program, identified the type of knowledge available for policy making, and noted areas where policy relevant information is lacking. Evidence presented at the seminar indicated that Egyptian fertility is still high and that corrected the total fertility rate for 1980 was close to 6. Since, 1960, fertility declined in all regions of the country, but between 1976-80 the decline decelerated. This deceleration appears to be a temporary phenonemon. There is evidence that the age at marriage is increasing, that the population is motivated to use contraception when desired family size is reached, that contraceptive use is cost sensitive, and that the overall decline in fertility since the 1960s occurred in all parts of the country. Papers which presented analyses of fertility determinants, based on sample survey data, provided little useful insight for policy formulation. The studies indicate that the impact of family planning services on different segments of the population varies, and that these impacts may be increased if social and economic development persists. The preception of the population

  10. Populism and Education in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauglo, Jon

    1995-01-01

    Examines the influence of Norwegian populism, with its emphasis on rural roots and community values, on the development of Norwegian education. Discusses populist traits in Norwegian society and populist educational features: strong common school, weak academic tradition, use of New Norse vernacular, importance of informal learning at home,…

  11. Populism in High School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiser, Andrew C.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether one area of United States history--Populism and Populists--is accurately presented in nine widely used current American history high school textbooks. Another objective was to devise a system that could be used to make such a determination for any history text. (Author)

  12. Better Reporting of Population Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter and Forum, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the focus and the annotated issues from a workshop on new perspectives in population education for 19 Pacific Island journalists, both print and broadcast, from government and nongovernment agencies. The regional workshop was jointly organized by UNESCO and the South Pacific Commission during February 1990, in Auckland, New Zealand.…

  13. [Nuptiality among Brazil's black population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquo, E

    1987-08-01

    Data from a three percent sample of the 1980 census of Brazil are used to analyze nuptiality trends by ethnic group. The focus is on the homogamy of marriage by color and age and on the marriage patterns of the black population.

  14. Gender, Education and Population Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Kathrine Bjerg; Faber, Stine Thidemann; Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    During the Danish Presidency for the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2015, attention was drawn towards challenges and best practice examples in relation to gender, education and population flows in peripheral areas throughout the Nordic countries - Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Iceland...

  15. Genetic structure of forensic populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, N. E.

    1992-01-01

    DNA-based identification depends on the probability that two different individuals have the same phenotype, which is given by kinship theory. Together with the large and consistent body of evidence on human population structure, kinship theory provides a sound basis for forensic use of DNA markers.

  16. Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Dolores E., Ed.

    This text on communication disorders in multicultural populations is intended to provide a framework for speech language pathologists and audiologists in providing services to persons from different cultures and racial backgrounds. The 11 papers are grouped into 2 parts. Papers in part I provide an overview of the major cultural groups in the…

  17. Genebanking seeds from natural populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional storage protocols have been developed to preserve genetic diversity of seeds of crops in genebanks. These same principles have been applied to preserve seeds from wild populations. While most principles for conventional storage protocols are applicable to a broad range of wild species...

  18. Synthetic population system user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.J.

    1998-03-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TRansportation Analysis SIMulatiuon System (TRANSIMS) synthetic population system (SYN) is designed to produce populations (family households, non-family households, and group quarters) that are statistically equivalent to actual populations when compared at the level of block group or higher. The methodology used by this system is described in a report entitled Creating Synthetic Baseline Populations. The inputs to the system are US Census Bureau data (STF3A and PUMS) and MABLE/GEOCORR data. Census Bureau STF3A and PUMS data formats are commonly used and are available on CD-ROM from the Census Bureau. These data inputs will not be described in any detail in this guide. The primary function of MABLE/GEOCORR data is to cross-reference STF3 block group data to PUMS areas. The outputs of the system are files that contain family household, non-family household, and group quarters data in the form of household and person records. SYN will run on a variety of Unix platforms.

  19. Flood trends and population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, G.

    2012-04-01

    Since the earliest recorded civilizations, such as those in Mesopotamia and Egypt that developed in the fertile floodplains of the Tigris and Euphrates and Nile rivers, humans tend to settle in flood prone areas as they offer favorable conditions for economic development. However, floodplains are also exposed to flood disasters that might cause severe socio-economic and environmental damages not to mention losses of human lives. A flood event turns to be a disaster when it coincides with a vulnerable environment exceeding society's capacity to manage the adverse consequences. This presentation discusses the link between hydrological risk and population change by referring to the outcomes of scientific works recently carried out in Africa and Europe. More specifically, it is shown that the severity of flood disasters, currently affecting more than 100 million people a year, might be seriously exacerbated because of population change. In fact, flood exposure and/or vulnerability might increase because of rapid population growth (and its spatial and temporal dynamics, e.g. urbanization) in the African continent and because of population ageing in many European countries. Lastly, timely and economically sustainable actions to mitigate this increasing hydrological risk are critically evaluated.

  20. Modeling Population Growth and Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2009-01-01

    The exponential growth model and the logistic model typically introduced in the mathematics curriculum presume that a population grows exclusively. In reality, species can also die out and more sophisticated models that take the possibility of extinction into account are needed. In this article, two extensions of the logistic model are considered,…

  1. Population, poverty, and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Das Gupta, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The literature is reviewed on the relationships between population, poverty, and climate change. While developed countries are largely responsible for global warming, the brunt of the fallout will be borne by the developing world, in lower agricultural output, poorer health, and more frequent natural disasters. Carbon emissions in the developed world have leveled off, but are projected to ...

  2. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    2000-01-01

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which beco

  3. Population conference: consensus and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, P D

    1984-01-01

    The United Nations-sponsored International Conference on Population held in Mexico City was both a rejection and an affirmation of a new policy of the Reagan administration. The policy denies international family planning funds to nongovernmental organizations that perform or actively promote abortion as a family planning method in other nations. A compromise statement was accepted urging governments to take appropriate measures to discourage abortion as a family planning method and when possible to provide for the humane treatment and counseling of women ho resorted to abortion. The statement on abortion was 1 of 88 reccomendations approved by the conference. The commitment expressed in the 10-year-old World Population Plan of Action to the rights and responsiblity to all people as reaffirmed. The conference also endorsed family life education and sex education as well as suitable family planning, information and services for adolescents, with due consideration given to the role, rights and obligations of parents. Increased support for international population and family planning programs was urged and World Bank President, Clausen, urged a 4-fold increase in international funding by the year 2000. Most of the conference's recommendations re devoted to the broad range of population policy issues, including morbidity and mortality, international and internal migration, the relationship between population and economic development and the status of women. The purpose of the recommendations is to increase the momentum of international support. The Mexico City conference was characterized by a remarkable degree of consensus about population policies with respect to integration with economic development, the need to respect individual rights and the recognition that all nations have sovereign rights to develop and implement their own population policies. Conflict and controversy arose in the areas of the arms race and the Middle East. The US position on abortion funding

  4. Population and the Colombian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  5. The Middle East population puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  6. Population and the Colombian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  7. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  8. Pharmacogenetics in the brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black - the major categories of the Brazilian Census "race/color" system - have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  9. Rising population and environmental degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A

    Environmental degradation is becoming an increasingly ominous threat to the well-being of India's population, and excessive population growth is the primary cause of environmental deterioration. Population growth increases the need to produce consumer products and this need, in turn, intensifies the trend to over-exploit and misuse environmental resources. Efforts to control population growth through contraceptive technology and the expansion of family planning services and to control environmental deterioration via technology and management will meet with little success. A prerequisite for controlling these dual problems is the improvement of living conditions for the masses. Only when individuals acquire a sense of security and have the prospect of acquiring a share in the resources of the country will they be willing to conserve and renew resources and to limit their fertility. Viewed from this prospective, various factors and trends in India can be assessed as either negative or positive. Positive factors, i.e., those which enhance economic oppotunities and security for the general population, include the recent achievement of economic grothw in the country's agricultural and industrial sectors, the growth in technological knowledge, and the expansion of the rural and urban infrastructure. Negative factors include 1) the increase in income inequality, 2) the refusal to grant distributive justice to the masses, 3) the lack of education which impedes public understanding and awareness of environmental issues and promotes under utilization of community and social services, 4) the high unemployment rate which prevents individuals from developing a sense of responsibility and self respect; and 5) the refusal of the government to establish fuel policies to halt the growing problem of deforestation. Major environmental problems include pollution and congestion associated with the geographical concentration of industry; the destruction of the forests which leads to

  10. Modeling Approaches for Describing Microbial Population Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Gernaey, Krist; Jensen, Anker Degn; Nopens, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Although microbial populations are typically described by averaged properties, individual cells present a certain degree of variability. Indeed, initially clonal microbial populations develop into heterogeneous populations, even when growing in a homogeneous environment. A heterogeneous microbial population consists of cells in different states, and it implies a heterogeneous distribution of activities (e.g. respiration, product yield), including different responses to extracellular stimuli. ...

  11. Developing STR databases on structured populations: the native South Siberian population versus the Russian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Malyarchuk, Boris A; Derenko, Miroslava V; Wozniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz

    2009-09-01

    Developing a forensic DNA database on a population that consists of local ethnic groups separated by physical and cultural barriers is questionable as it can be genetically subdivided. On the other side, small sizes of ethnic groups, especially in alpine regions where they are sub-structured further into small villages, prevent collecting a large sample from each ethnic group. For such situations, we suggest to obtain both a total population database on allele frequencies across ethnic groups and a list of theta-values between the groups and the total data. We have genotyped 558 individuals from the native population of South Siberia, consisting of nine ethnic groups, at 17 autosomal STR loci of the kit packages AmpFlSTR SGM Plus i, Cyrillic AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus. The groups differentiate from each other with average theta-values of around 1.1%, and some reach up to three to four percent at certain loci. There exists between-village differentiation as well. Therefore, a database for the population of South Siberia is composed of data on allele frequencies in the pool of ethnic groups and data on theta-values that indicate variation in allele frequencies across the groups. Comparison to additional data on northeastern Asia (the Chukchi and Koryak) shows that differentiation in allele frequencies among small groups that are separated by large geographic distance can be even greater. In contrast, populations of Russians that live in large cities of the European part of Russia are homogeneous in allele frequencies, despite large geographic distance between them, and thus can be described by a database on allele frequencies alone, without any specific information on theta-values.

  12. Stability of Evolving Agent Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, G

    2007-01-01

    Stability is perhaps the most desired feature in the systems that we design. It is important for us to be able to predict the response of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to various environmental conditions prior to its actual deployment. The Chli-DeWilde agent stability measure views a MAS as a discrete time Markov chain with a potentially unknown transition probabilities. A MAS is considered to be stable when its state, a stochastic process, has converged to an equilibrium distribution. We investigate an extension of their agent stability definition to include MASs with evolutionary dynamics, focusing on evolving agent populations. Additionally, using our extended agent stability measure, we construct an entropy-based definition for the degree of instability. An example system, the Digital Ecosystem, is considered in detail to investigate the stability of an evolving agent population through simulations. The results are consistent with the original Chli-DeWilde measure.

  13. Stochastic problems in population genetics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Takeo

    1977-01-01

    These are" notes based on courses in Theoretical Population Genetics given at the University of Texas at Houston during the winter quarter, 1974, and at the University of Wisconsin during the fall semester, 1976. These notes explore problems of population genetics and evolution involving stochastic processes. Biological models and various mathematical techniques are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the diffusion method and an attempt is made to emphasize the underlying unity of various problems based on the Kolmogorov backward equation. A particular effort was made to make the subject accessible to biology students who are not familiar with stochastic processes. The references are not exhaustive but were chosen to provide a starting point for the reader interested in pursuing the subject further. Acknowledgement I would like to use this opportunity to express my thanks to Drs. J. F. Crow, M. Nei and W. J. Schull for their hospitality during my stays at their universities. I am indebted to Dr. M. Kimura...

  14. Cancer patterns in Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbye, M.; Friborg, Jeppe Tang

    2008-01-01

    a distinct pattern, characterised by a high risk of Epstein-Barr virus-associated carcinomas of the nasopharynx and salivary glands, and a low risk of tumours common in white populations, including cancer of the prostate, testis, and haemopoietic system. Both genetic and environmental factors seem......, and reproductive factors. This Review will briefly summarise the current knowledge on cancer epidemiology in Inuit populations, with emphasis on the characteristic Inuit types of cancer Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9...... to be responsible for this pattern. During the second half of the 20th century, Inuit societies underwent major changes in lifestyle and living conditions, and the risk of lifestyle-associated tumours, especially cancers of the lung, colon, and breast, increased considerably after changes in smoking, diet...

  15. Dust Devil Populations and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Jackson, Brian K.

    2016-08-01

    The highly-skewed diameter and pressure drop distributions of dust devils on Earth and Mars are noted, and challenges of presenting and comparing different types of observations are discussed. The widely-held view that Martian dust devils are larger than Earth's is critically assessed: the question is confounded somewhat by different observation techniques, but some indication of a {˜} 3x larger population on Mars is determined. The largest and most intense (in a relative pressure sense) devils recorded are on Mars, although the largest reported number density is on Earth. The difficulties of concepts used in the literature of `average' diameter, pressure cross section, and area fraction are noted in the context of estimating population-integral effects such as dust lifting.

  16. Right wing populism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Meret, Susi

    2016-01-01

    Peoples’ Party managed to mobilise the Danish voters. But while scholarly literature mostly focussed on political parties we propose that an important contribution to the ideological development of populism also comes from movements, such as The Association for Freedom of Speech (Trykkefrihedsselskabet...... between Danish populism and welfare nationalism/national politics of belonging, focusing on the intersections of the nation, the people and the welfare state from historical perspectives. To what extent is it possible to identify a particular Nordic exceptionalism that links to Social democracy? To what...... and with accommodating ethno-cultural and religious diversity. Mainstream political parties have since the 1990s been engaged in re-thinking and reframing the relation between the national, the democratic and the social questions. Arguably, it is within these cleavages that the influential Scandinavian populist Danish...

  17. Statistical thermodynamics of clustered populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsoukas, Themis

    2014-08-01

    We present a thermodynamic theory for a generic population of M individuals distributed into N groups (clusters). We construct the ensemble of all distributions with fixed M and N, introduce a selection functional that embodies the physics that governs the population, and obtain the distribution that emerges in the scaling limit as the most probable among all distributions consistent with the given physics. We develop the thermodynamics of the ensemble and establish a rigorous mapping to regular thermodynamics. We treat the emergence of a so-called giant component as a formal phase transition and show that the criteria for its emergence are entirely analogous to the equilibrium conditions in molecular systems. We demonstrate the theory by an analytic model and confirm the predictions by Monte Carlo simulation.

  18. Hypernatremia in the geriatric population

    OpenAIRE

    Taffet, George

    2014-01-01

    Maulin K Shah,1 Biruh Workeneh,1,2 George E Taffet1,3 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Nephrology, 3Huffington Center on Aging, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Hypernatremia in the geriatric population is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Older people are predisposed to developing hypernatremia because of age-related physiologic changes such as decreased thirst drive, impaired urinary concentrating...

  19. Hypernatremia in the geriatric population

    OpenAIRE

    Shah MK; Workeneh B; Taffet GE

    2014-01-01

    Maulin K Shah,1 Biruh Workeneh,1,2 George E Taffet1,3 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Nephrology, 3Huffington Center on Aging, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Hypernatremia in the geriatric population is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Older people are predisposed to developing hypernatremia because of age-related physiologic changes such as decreased thirst drive, impaired urinary concentrating ability...

  20. Bioethics, population studies, and geneticophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Salzano, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group’s biological and cultural history; however, in their ur...

  1. Childhood gastroenteritis: a population study.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, D; Day, D.; Crook, S.

    1986-01-01

    A prospective study of gastroenteritis based on a population was carried out for 12 months on over 7000 children in general practice. The incidence of gastroenteritis was highest in the first year (127.7 children affected per 1000) and second year (90.8) of life, and gastroenteritis was rare after six years of age. Children from urban areas had gastroenteritis more commonly than children from semirural areas. A potential pathogen was isolated from half of the specimens: 78% were viruses, and ...

  2. Population Characteristics in Forensic Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Faltus, Václav

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present some methods used in forensic genetics. Forensic genetics is only one part of a wide spectrum of sciences called forensics. It includes identification of victims of natural disasters, mass transportation accidents and industry accidents. It also includes identification of offenders of a crime and determination of paternity. Our current work involves analysis of the genetic data from the Czech population. Therefore and in concordance with other international...

  3. Macroeconomic Populism in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Rudiger Dornbusch; Sebastian Edwards

    1989-01-01

    Macroeconomic populism is an approach to economics that emphasizes growth and income distribution and deemphasizes the risks of inflation and deficit finance, external constraints and the reaction of economic agents to aggressive non-market policies. The purpose of our paper is to show that policy experiences in different countries and periods share common features, from the initial conditions, the motivation for policies, the argument that the country's conditions are different, to the ultim...

  4. Population dynamics of bacterial persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Pintu

    2014-01-01

    The life of microorganisms is characterized by two main tasks, rapid growth under conditions permitting growth and survival under stressful conditions. The environments, in which microorganisms dwell, vary in space and time. The microorganisms innovate diverse strategies to readily adapt to the regularly fluctuating environments. Phenotypic heterogeneity is one such strategy, where an isogenic population splits into subpopulations that respond differently under identical environments. Bacteri...

  5. Understanding Adaptation in Large Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Talia Karasov; Messer, Philipp W.; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation in eukaryotes is generally assumed to be mutation-limited because of small effective population sizes. This view is difficult to reconcile, however, with the observation that adaptation to anthropogenic changes, such as the introduction of pesticides, can occur very rapidly. Here we investigate adaptation at a key insecticide resistance locus (Ace) in Drosophila melanogaster and show that multiple simple and complex resistance alleles evolved quickly and repeatedly within individua...

  6. Population Synthesis for Mira Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hua Zhu; Chao-Zheng Zha

    2005-01-01

    By means of a population synthesis code, we investigate the Mira variables. Their birth rate (over 0.65yr-1) and their number (~ 130000) in the Galaxy are estimated. For all possible Mira variables, ranges of their initial masses,pulsating periods, mass losses and lifetimes are given. We check our model with the observed Mira variables near the Sun and our results prove to be valid.

  7. Studying tactile sensitivity - population approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kozłowska, Agnieszka

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the basic characteristics of threshold tactile sensitivity in man. The study involved the examination of over 1500 people aged from 7 to 85 years, including 300 adult subjects aged over 21 years. 55% of the population under study were females. Digital pulps of the subjects were examined with the Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments aesthesiometer. The variability range of touch sensation was determined and the mean value and standard deviatio...

  8. The population question in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Population control programs were instituted in Brazil in the 1960s and resulted in as 50% reduction of the fertility rate in 20 years with a reduction in population growth from 2.9%/year in the 1960s to 2.1% in the 1980s. The rapid urbanization which has occurred in Brazil also contributed to this process. While the Brazilian government has eschewed foreign intervention, it encourages the population control programs which are funded by international agencies. The women's movement became involved in policies relating to reproductive rights in 1980, and attempts were made to change the focus of women's health care and the right of women to make reproductive choices. 71% of Brazilian women of reproductive age who are married or living in consensual union use contraception. This compares with 70% of women in developed countries. In Brazil, however, 44% of the women have been sterilized, 41% use oral contraceptives (OCs), and 12% use natural or barrier methods, compared to 7, 13, and 41%, respectively, in developed countries. Sterilization is illegal in Brazil, although it is widespread; the high number of Cesarean section births may determine a medical need for sterilization (after three such deliveries, for example). Abortion is also illegal (except in cases of rape or if the mother's life is in danger) and widespread. The 2 to 3 million abortions each year are thought to be the third cause of maternal mortality. Studies of OC use have shown that Brazilian women often use OCs without medical monitoring or in cases when the contraceptive is absolutely contraindicated. In the past few years, Brazilian women's groups have demanded that the government deal with the issue of family planning in order to stop the intervention of international population control agencies. Brazil has never had the sufficiently modern and effective policy to help women to use contraception safely during the various stages of their reproductive lives. PMID:12286343

  9. Metallicity dependence of HMXB populations

    CERN Document Server

    Douna, V M; Mirabel, I F; Pedrosa, S E

    2015-01-01

    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) might have contributed a non-negligible fraction of the energy feedback to the interstellar and intergalactic media at high redshift, becoming important sources for the heating and ionization history of the Universe. However, the importance of this contribution depends on the hypothesized increase in the number of HMXBs formed in low-metallicity galaxies and in their luminosities. In this work we test the aforementioned hypothesis, and quantify the metallicity dependence of HMXB population properties. We compile from the literature a large set of data on the sizes and X-ray luminosities of HMXB populations in nearby galaxies with known metallicities and star formation rates. We use Bayesian inference to fit simple Monte Carlo models that describe the metallicity dependence of the size and luminosity of the HMXB populations. We find that HMXBs are typically ten times more numerous per unit star formation rate in low-metallicity galaxies (12 + log(O/H) < 8, namely < 20% so...

  10. Fish populations in Plynlimon streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Crisp

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In Plynlimon streams, brown trout (Salmo trutta L. are widespread in the upper Wye at population densities of 0.03 to 0.32 fish m-2 and show evidence of successful recruitment in most years. In the upper Severn, brown trout are found only in an area of c. 1670 -2 downstream of Blaenhafren Falls at densities of 0.03 to 0.24 fish -2 and the evidence suggests very variable year to year success in recruitment (Crisp & Beaumont, 1996. Analyses of the data show that temperature differences between afforested and unafforested streams may affect the rates of trout incubation and growth but are not likely to influence species survival. Simple analyses of stream discharge data suggest, but do not prove, that good years for recruitment in the Hafren population were years of low stream discharge. This may be linked to groundwater inputs detected in other studies in this stream. More research is needed to explain the survival of the apparently isolated trout population in the Hafren.

  11. Population policy and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The secret of success of India's population policy is the multipronged approach. Conflicts between public beliefs, customs, and public interests in regard to family size must be resolved through effective educational measures. The state should avoid legal compulsion and rely on volumtary choice by married couples influenced by logical judgment, information, and persuasion. Instead of using coercion, research in specific regions, sub-regions, and local areas should assess feasibility in light of knowledge, attitude, and practice of birth control, and rational goals should be set. Health conditions, particularly of mother and child, are an important approach to fertility and family size. As long as the morbidity of infants is high, the motivation for small family size will be low. Women's education generally should be improved. Later age at marriage also contributed to small family size. Present population policy should be expanded to include a broad-based socioeconomic approach with a social security program. Development through improved agricultural and marketing conditions will distribute the economic benefits for and improve the welfare of the most backward people. Voluntary organizations must be involved in population programs because a wholly state-sponsored program will meet with apathy and disinterest.

  12. How Population Growth Affects Linkage Disequilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Alan R Rogers

    2014-01-01

    The “LD curve” relates the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between pairs of nucleotide sites to the distance that separates them along the chromosome. The shape of this curve reflects natural selection, admixture between populations, and the history of population size. This article derives new results about the last of these effects. When a population expands in size, the LD curve grows steeper, and this effect is especially pronounced following a bottleneck in population size. When a population ...

  13. Territoire et population de 1800 à 1890

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Les noms des fichiers de données commencent par le préfixe TERR. Fichier Labels Territoire et Population TERR_T85.xls Territoire et Population, 1824-1837 (Départements) TERR_T86.xls Territoire et Population, 1801-1836 (Départements) TERR_T116.xls Territoire et Population, 1801-1836 (Chefs-lieux et villes) TERR_T117.xls Territoire, Population, 1800-1890 (Arrondissements)

  14. A Tale of Two Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    VLT FLAMES Finds Hints of Helium-Richest Stars Ever Seen Summary On the basis of stellar spectra totalling more than 200 hours of effective exposure time with the 8.2-m VLT Kueyen telescope at Paranal (Chile), a team of astronomers [1] has made a surprising discovery about the stars in the giant southern globular cluster Omega Centauri. It has been known for some time that, contrary to other clusters of this type, this stellar cluster harbours two different populations of stars that still burn hydrogen in their centres. One population, accounting for one quarter of its stars, is bluer than the other. Using the FLAMES multi-object spectrograph that is particularly well suited to this kind of work, the astronomers found that the bluer stars contain more heavy elements than those of the redder population. This was exactly opposite to the expectation and they are led to the conclusion that the bluer stars have an overabundance of the light element helium of more than 50%. They are in fact the most helium rich stars ever found. But why is this so? The team suggests that this puzzle may be explained in the following way. First, a great burst of star formation took place during which all the stars of the red population were produced. As other normal stars, these stars transformed their hydrogen into helium by nuclear burning. Some of them, with masses of 10-12 times the mass of the Sun, soon thereafter exploded as supernovae, thereby enriching the interstellar medium in the globular cluster with helium. Next, the blue population stars formed from this helium-rich medium. This unexpected discovery provides important new insights into the way stars may form in larger stellar systems. PR Photo 08a/05: The Omega Centauri Globular Cluster and the Area Surveyed (DSS and ACS/HST) PR Photo 08b/05: The Double Main Sequence of Omega Centauri PR Photo 08c/05: Average Spectra of the Blue and Red Population Stars (FLAMES + VLT) PR Photo 08d/05: The Supernova Scenario Two Populations

  15. Microbial populations in contaminant plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation. La biodégradation efficace des polluants souterrains requiert deux éléments: des populations microbiennes possédant les aptitudes nécessaires à la dégradation, et des conditions géochimiques et hydrologiques souterraines favorables. Des contraintes pratiques sur la conception et l'interprétation des expériences à la fois en microbiologie et en hydrogéologie ont conduit à une connaissance limitée des interactions entre les

  16. Who fears and who welcomes population decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik P. Van Dalen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available European countries are experiencing population decline and the tacit assumption in most analyses is that the decline may have detrimental welfare effects. In this paper we use a survey among the population in the Netherlands to discover whether population decline is always met with fear. A number of results stand out: population size preferences differ by geographic proximity: at a global level the majority of respondents favors a (global population decline, but closer to home one supports a stationary population. Population decline is clearly not always met with fear: 31 percent would like the population to decline at the national level and they generally perceive decline to be accompanied by immaterial welfare gains (improvement environment as well as material welfare losses (tax increases, economic stagnation. In addition to these driving forces it appears that the attitude towards immigrants is a very strong determinant at all geographical levels: immigrants seem to be a stronger fear factor than population decline.

  17. Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengge; Zhao, Dong

    2016-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common autosomal disorder characterized by an elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and a high risk of premature cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarize information on FH studies in Asian countries, focusing on mean cholesterol level, FH frequency, diagnostic criteria, genotypes, and clinical care of FH patients in Asian populations. Compared with Western countries, most Asian countries had lower mean cholesterol levels, with a significant variation between different countries. In the limited studies reported, a frequency of 1/900 was reported in Hokuriku district, Japan in 1977 and a frequency of 1/85 among Christian Lebanese in 1979. Recently, a population study in China reported frequencies of 0.47% and 0.28%. However, the different FH frequencies reported were based on different diagnostic criteria. Of 28 publications from 16 Asian countries or regions, 14 used self-defined FH criteria. Only one specific guideline for FH was available, which was developed by Japanese scientists. Six Asian countries joined the Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Deaths program in the late 1990s, and the estimated diagnosis rates of FH ranged from 3% to 10% in these countries. A more recent study explored the awareness, knowledge, and perception of FH among practitioners in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The study found that the correct rates of these FH-related questions were low and concluded that lack of country-specific criteria and guidelines may contribute to the lack of FH knowledge in the present survey. More attention and resources should be focused on raising awareness, improving care, and increasing FH research in Asian populations. PMID:27075771

  18. Population genetics and cryptic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Does the definition of a species matter for pest management purposes? Taxonomists provide us with tools - usually morphological characters - to identify a group of organisms that we call a species. The implication of this identification is that all of the individuals that fit the provided description are members of the species in question. The taxonomists have considered the range of variation among individuals in defining the species, but this variation is often forgotten when we take the concept of species to the level of management. Just as there is morphological variation among individuals, there is also variation in practically any character we might imagine, which has implications for the short and long term success of our management tactics. The rich literature on insecticide resistance should be a constant reminder of the fact that the pressure on pest survival and reproduction applied by our management approaches frequently leads to evolutionary changes within the pest species. The degree of variation within a particular species is a defining characteristic of that species. This level of variability may have very important implications for successful management, so it is very important to measure variation and, whenever possible, the genetic basis of that variation, in a target species. Population genetic approaches can provide evidence of genetic structure (or lack thereof) among populations of a species. These types of data can be used to discuss the movement of pest populations on a local or global scale. In other cases, we may have a complex of species that share some, but not all, characteristics. Species complexes that share morphological characters (i.e., cannot be easily distinguished) but not biological characters are referred to as sibling or cryptic species

  19. Measuring happiness in large population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenas, Annabelle; Sjahputri, Smita; Takwin, Bagus; Primaldhi, Alfindra; Muhamad, Roby

    2016-01-01

    The ability to know emotional states for large number of people is important, for example, to ensure the effectiveness of public policies. In this study, we propose a measure of happiness that can be used in large scale population that is based on the analysis of Indonesian language lexicons. Here, we incorporate human assessment of Indonesian words, then quantify happiness on large-scale of texts gathered from twitter conversations. We used two psychological constructs to measure happiness: valence and arousal. We found that Indonesian words have tendency towards positive emotions. We also identified several happiness patterns during days of the week, hours of the day, and selected conversation topics.

  20. New Models for Population Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Michail, Othon

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are about to be part of everyday life. Homes and workplaces capable of self-controlling and adapting air-conditioning for different temperature and humidity levels, sleepless forests ready to detect and react in case of a fire, vehicles able to avoid sudden obstacles or possibly able to self-organize routes to avoid congestion, and so on, will probably be commonplace in the very near future. Mobility plays a central role in such systems and so does passive mobility, that is, mobility of the network stemming from the environment itself. The population protocol model was