WorldWideScience

Sample records for biotransformation

  1. Silica ecosystem for synergistic biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Baris R.; Sakkos, Jonathan K.; Yeom, Sujin; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2016-06-01

    Synergistical bacterial species can perform more varied and complex transformations of chemical substances than either species alone, but this is rarely used commercially because of technical difficulties in maintaining mixed cultures. Typical problems with mixed cultures on scale are unrestrained growth of one bacterium, which leads to suboptimal population ratios, and lack of control over bacterial spatial distribution, which leads to inefficient substrate transport. To address these issues, we designed and produced a synthetic ecosystem by co-encapsulation in a silica gel matrix, which enabled precise control of the microbial populations and their microenvironment. As a case study, two greatly different microorganisms: Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 were encapsulated. NCIB 9816 can aerobically biotransform over 100 aromatic hydrocarbons, a feat useful for synthesis of higher value commodity chemicals or environmental remediation. In our system, NCIB 9816 was used for biotransformation of naphthalene (a model substrate) into CO2 and the cyanobacterium PCC 7942 was used to provide the necessary oxygen for the biotransformation reactions via photosynthesis. A mathematical model was constructed to determine the critical cell density parameter to maximize oxygen production, and was then used to maximize the biotransformation rate of the system.

  2. Enantioselective Biotransformation of Chiral Persistent Organic Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ye, Jing; Liu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Enantiomers of chiral compounds commonly undergo enantioselective transformation in most biologically mediated processes. As chiral persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are extensively distributed in the environment, differences between enantiomers in biotransformation should be carefully considered to obtain exact enrichment and specific health risks. This review provides an overview of in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs currently indicated in the Stockholm Convention and their chiral metabolites. Peer-reviewed journal articles focused on the research question were thoroughly searched. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed to identify relevant studies. We mainly compared the results from different animal models under controlled laboratory conditions to show the difference between enantiomers in terms of distinct transformation potential. Interactions with enzymes involved in enantioselective biotransformation, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP), were discussed. Further research areas regarding this issue were proposed. Limited evidence for a few POPs has been found in 30 studies. Enantioselective biotransformation of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), heptachlor, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and toxaphene, has been investigated using laboratory mammal, fish, bird, and worm models. Tissue and excreta distributions, as well as bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics after administration of racemate and pure enantiomers, have been analyzed in these studies. Changes in enantiomeric fractions have been considered as an indicator of enantioselective biotransformation of chiral POPs in most studies. Results of different laboratory animal models revealed that chiral POP biotransformation is seriously affected by chirality. Pronounced results of species-, tissue-, gender-, and individual-dependent differences are observed in in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs

  3. Biotransformation of digitoxigenin by Cochliobolus lunatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padua, Rodrigo M.; Oliveira, Alaide B.; Braga, Fernao C.; Souza Filho, Jose D.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.; Silva, Mauricio de Abreu e

    2007-01-01

    The biotransformation of digitoxigenin (1) by Cochliobolus lunatus was investigated. The biotransformation reaction was carried out in a 4-day process, resulting in the isolation of four products, whose structures were elucidated as 1β-hydroxydigitoxigenin (2), 7β-hydroxydigitoxigenin (3), 8β-hydroxydigitoxigenin (4) and digitoxigenone (5). The production of these derivatives under the employed conditions has never been described so far. This is also the first report on the production of compound 4 by a biotransformation reaction. (author)

  4. Microbial biotransformation of bioactive flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Chen, Xiaoqing; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Xiao, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive flavonoids are considered as the most important phytochemicals in food, which exert a wide range of biological benefits for human being. Microbial biotransformation strategies for production of flavonoids have attracted considerable interest because they allow yielding novel flavonoids, which do not exist in nature. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the production and biotransformation of flavonoids by various microbes. The main reactions during microbial biotransformation are hydroxylation, dehydroxylation, O-methylation, O-demethylation, glycosylation, deglycosylation, dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, C ring cleavage of the benzo-γ-pyrone system, cyclization, and carbonyl reduction. Cunninghamella, Penicillium, and Aspergillus strains are very popular to biotransform flavonoids and they can perform almost all the reactions with excellent yields. Aspergillus niger is one of the most applied microorganisms in the flavonoids' biotransformation; for example, A. niger can transfer flavanone to flavan-4-ol, 2'-hydroxydihydrochalcone, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 6-hydroxyflavanone, and 4'-hydroxyflavanone. The hydroxylation of flavones by microbes usually happens on the ortho position of hydroxyl group on the A ring and C-4' position of the B ring and microbes commonly hydroxylate flavonols at the C-8 position. The microorganisms tend to hydroxylate flavanones at the C-5, 6, and 4' positions; however, for prenylated flavanones, dihydroxylation often takes place on the C4α=C5α double bond on the prenyl group (the side chain of A ring). Isoflavones are usually hydroxylated at the C-3' position of the B ring by microorganisms. The microbes convert flavonoids to their 7-O-glycosides and 3-O-glycosides (when flavonoids have a hydroxyl moiety at the C-3 position). The demethylation of multimethoxyl flavonoids by microbes tends to happen at the C-3' and C-4' positions of the B ring. Multimethoxyl flavanones and isoflavone are demethylated at

  5. Biotransformations of organic energetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matousek, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews data on the acute eco-toxicity and delayed effects (mutagenicity) of the model substance (TNT) and of a wide spectrum of its biodegradation products in the wastewaters. It also suggests main metabolic pathways of biotransformation, involving biological reduction. Some possibilities of remediation of contaminated soils utilising microbial catabolic pathways leading to the hydroxy derivatives and up to the cleavage of the aromatic ring system in the presence of the soil bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens are shown, as well as the practical utilisation of fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium under aerobic conditions

  6. Feline hepatic biotransformation and transport mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beusekom, C.D. van

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic biotransformation and drug transport mechanisms vary significantly between species. While these processes that determine largely the kinetic behavior of drugs have been studied abundantly in dogs, corresponding investigations in cats are hardly available, despite the increasing role of cats

  7. Biotransformation and Rearrangement of Laromustine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Alaa-Eldin F; Wisnewski, Adam V; King, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    This review highlights the recent research into the biotransformations and rearrangement of the sulfonylhydrazine-alkylating agent laromustine. Incubation of [(14)C]laromustine with rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes produced eight radioactive components (C-1 to C-8). There was little difference in the metabolite profile among the species examined, partly because NADPH was not required for the formation of most components, which instead involved decomposition and/or hydrolysis. The exception was C-7, a hydroxylated metabolite, largely formed by CYP2B6 and CYP3A4/5. Liquid chromatography-multistage mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) studies determined that collision-induced dissociation, and not biotransformation or enzyme catalysis, produced the unique mass spectral rearrangement. Accurate mass measurements performed with a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS) significantly aided determination of the elemental compositions of the fragments and in the case of laromustine revealed the possibility of rearrangement. Further, collision-induced dissociation produced the loss of nitrogen (N2) and methylsulfonyl and methyl isocyanate moieties. The rearrangement, metabolite/decomposition products, and conjugation reactions were analyzed utilizing hydrogen-deuterium exchange, exact mass, (13)C-labeled laromustine, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and LC-MS(n) experiments to assist with the assignments of these fragments and possible mechanistic rearrangement. Such techniques produced valuable insights into these functions: 1) Cytochrome P450 is involved in C-7 formation but plays little or no role in the conversion of [(14)C]laromustine to C-1 through C-6 and C-8; 2) the relative abundance of individual degradation/metabolite products was not species-dependent; and 3) laromustine produces several reactive intermediates that may produce the toxicities seen in the clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for

  8. Allometric scaling of hepatic biotransformation in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotransformation can markedly reduce the extent to which hydrophobic organic chemicals accumulate in fish. However, predicting the impacts of biotransformation on chemical accumulation is complicated by a number of factors, including the possible influence of differences in fis...

  9. Application of in Vitro Biotransformation Data and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adverse biological effects of toxic substances are dependent upon the exposure concentration and the duration of exposure. Pharmacokinetic models can quantitatively relate the external concentration of a toxicant in the environment to the internal dose of the toxicant in the target tissues of an exposed organism. The exposure concentration of a toxic substance is usually not the same as the concentration of the active form of the toxicant that reaches the target tissues following absorption, distribution, and biotransformation of the parent toxicant. Biotransformation modulates the biological activity of chemicals through bioactivation and detoxication pathways. Many toxicants require biotransformation to exert their adverse biological effects. Considerable species differences in biotransformation and other pharmacokinetic processes can make extrapolation of toxicity data from laboratory animals to humans problematic. Additionally, interindividual differences in biotransformation among human populations with diverse genetics and lifestyles can lead to considerable variability in the bioactivation of toxic chemicals. Compartmental pharmacokinetic models of animals and humans are needed to understand the quantitative relationships between chemical exposure and target tissue dose as well as animal to human differences and interindividual differences in human populations. The data-based compartmental pharmacokinetic models widely used in clinical pharmacology ha

  10. Biotransformation of Food Dyes by Human Intestinal Bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotransformation of food dyes (Tartrazine and Quinoline yellow) by Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli isolated from human intestinal microflora was investigated. Decolourisation of the media containing the dyes was used as an index of biotransformation. Biotransformation was higher under aerobic than under ...

  11. Biotransformation of an uncured composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Clement J.; Glass, Michael J.; Cheslack, Brian; Pryor, Robert; Tran, Duan K.; Bowers-Irons, Gail

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of biologically degrading prepreg wastes was studied. The work was conducted with the intention of obtaining baseline data that would facilitate the achievement of two long-range goals. These goals are: (1) the biological remediation of the hazardous components in the prepreg wastes, and (2) providing the potential for recycling the prepreg waste fibers. The experiments examined a prepreg that employs an bismaleimide resin system. Initial results demonstrated an obvious deterioration of the prepreg material when incubated with several bacterial strains. The most active cultures were identified as a mixture of 'Bacillus cereus' and 'Pseudomonas sp'. Gas chromatography analyses revealed seven primary compounds in the resin mixture. Biotransformation studies, using the complete prepreg material, demonstrated on obvious loss of all seven organic compounds. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses resulted in structure assignments for the two primary components of the resin. Both were analogs of Bisphenol A; one being bismaleimide, and the other being Bisphenol A containing a diglycidyl moiety. The 'diglycidyl analog' was purified using thin-layer chromatography and the biotransformation of this compound (at 27 ug/ml bacterial culture) was monitored. After a seven-day incubation, approximately 40% of the organic compound was biotransformed. These results demonstrate the biotransformation of the prepreg resin and indicate that biological remediation of the prepreg wastes is feasible.

  12. Biotransformation of daidzein ditiglate by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Koji; Araki, Hideo

    2006-03-01

    Biotransformation of the daidzein ditiglate (2) by fungi, Aspergillus niger and Glomerella cingulata was investigated. Compound 2 was transformed to daidzein (1) by A. niger and G. cingulata. This suggested that compound 2 was converted to compound 1 by hydrolysis at both of the C-7 and C-4' positions.

  13. Biotransformation of myrcene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Elham

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrolinalool and terpineol are sources of fragrances that provide a unique volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity and thus are widely used in the perfumery industry, in folk medicine, and in aromatherapy. They are important chemical constituents of the essential oil of many plants. Previous studies have concerned the biotransformation of limonene by Pseudomonas putida. The objective of this research was to study biotransformation of myrcene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The culture preparation was done using such variables as different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain maximum cells of P. aeruginosa for myrcene biotransformation. Results It was found that myrcene was converted to dihydrolinalool and 2,6-dimethyloctane in high percentages. The biotransformation products were identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, ultraviolet (UV analysis, gas chromatography (GC, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Comparison of the different incubation times showed that 3 days was more effective, the major products being 2,6-dimethyloctane (90.0% and α-terpineol (7.7% and comprising 97.7%. In contrast, the main compounds derived for an incubation time of 1.5 days were dihydrolinalool (79.5% and 2,6-dimethyloctane (9.3%, with a total yield of 88.8%.

  14. Biotransformering af pyren i havbørsteormen Nereis virens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Giessing, Anders; Juul Rasmussen, Lene

    føden og ved overførsel over epithelet. Graden af systemisk akkumulering af PAHer afhænger af optaget men ligeledes af effektiviteten af biotransformering i den pågældende organisme. N. virens er kendt for effektivt at biotransformere PAHer. I nærværende undersøgelse blev biotransformering undersøgt med......-glucuronid er den fase II metabolit der primært produceres ved biotransformering af pyren. Dette indikerer at de vigtigste enzymer i biotransformering af pyren i N. virens er CYP enzymer og glucuronosyl transferase enzymer....

  15. Biotransformation of Silybin and its Congeners

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, Vladimír; Marhol, Petr; Purchartová, Kateřina; Gabrielová, E.; Modrianský, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 10 (2013), s. 1009-1021 ISSN 1389-2002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0662; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11051 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Biotransformation * cytochrome P450 * diastereoisomers Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.487, year: 2013 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24261705

  16. Novel biotransformation and physiological properties of norursodeoxycholic acid in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, AF; Zakko, SF; Lira, M; Clerici, C; Hagey, LR; Lambert, KK; Steinbach, JH; Schteingart, CD; Olinga, P; Groothuis, GMM

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were performed in 2 volunteers to define the biotransformation and physiological properties of norursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA), the C(23) (C(24)-nor) homolog of UDCA. To complement the in vivo studies, the biotransformation of norUDCA ex vivo using precision-cut human liver slices was

  17. Biotransformation of ferulic acid to 4-vinyl guaiacol by Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuously growing demand for natural flavors has led to a tremendous increase in biotransformation process employing microorganisms of different genera using ferulic acid (FA) as the precursor. In this study, potential of Lactobacillus farciminis (ATCC 29644) for biotransformation of FA to 4-vinyl guaiacol (4VG) was ...

  18. Nitroreductase catalyzed biotransformation of CL-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Halasz, Annamaria; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we reported that a salicylate 1-monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 29352 biotransformed CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaaza-isowurtzitane) (C 6 H 6 N 12 O 12 ) and produced a key metabolite with mol. wt. 346Da corresponding to an empirical formula of C 6 H 6 N 10 O 8 which spontaneously decomposed in aqueous medium to produce N 2 O, NH4+, and HCOOH [Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004)]. In the present study, we found that nitroreductase from Escherichia coli catalyzed a one-electron transfer to CL-20 to form a radical anion (CL-20 - ) which upon initial N-denitration also produced metabolite C 6 H 6 N 10 O 8 . The latter was tentatively identified as 1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,3a,4,4a,5,7a,8,8a-octahydro-diimidazo[4,5-b:4',5'-e] pyrazine [IUPAC] which decomposed spontaneously in water to produce glyoxal (OHCCHO) and formic acid (HCOOH). The rates of CL-20 biotransformation under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were 3.4+/-0.2 and 0.25+/-0.01nmolmin -1 mg of protein -1 , respectively. The product stoichiometry showed that each reacted CL-20 molecule produced about 1.8 nitrite ions, 3.3 molecules of nitrous oxide, 1.6 molecules of formic acid, 1.0 molecule of glyoxal, and 1.3 ammonium ions. Carbon and nitrogen products gave mass-balances of 60% and 81%, respectively. A comparative study between native-, deflavo-, and reconstituted-nitroreductase showed that FMN-site was possibly involved in the biotransformation of CL-20

  19. Biotransformation of phytosterols under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Christy M; Giles, Hamilton D; Banerjee, Sujit; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2014-07-01

    Phytosterols are plant-derived sterols present in pulp and paper wastewater and have been implicated in the endocrine disruption of aquatic species. Bioassays were performed to assess the effect of an additional carbon source and/or solubilizing agent on the aerobic biotransformation of a mixture of three common phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol). The aerobic biotransformation of the phytosterol mixture by a mixed culture developed from a pulp and paper wastewater treatment system was examined under three separate conditions: with phytosterols as the sole added carbon source, with phytosterols and dextrin as an additional carbon source, and with phytosterols added with ethanol as an additional carbon source and solubilizing agent. Significant phytosterol removal was not observed in assays set up with phytosterol powder, either with or without an additional carbon source. In contrast, all three phytosterols were aerobically degraded when added as a dissolved solution in ethanol. Thus, under the experimental conditions of this study, the bioavailability of phytosterols was limited without the presence of a solubilizing agent. The total phytosterol removal rate was linear for the first six days before re-spiking, with a rate of 0.47 mg/L-d (R(2) = 0.998). After the second spiking, the total phytosterol removal rate was linear for seven days, with a rate of 0.32 mg/L-d (R(2) = 0.968). Following the 7th day, the phytosterol removal rate markedly accelerated, suggesting two different mechanisms are involved in phytosterol biotransformation, more likely related to the production of enzyme(s) involved in phytosterol degradation, induced under different cell growth conditions. β-sitosterol was preferentially degraded, as compared to stigmasterol and campesterol, although all three phytosterols fell below detection limits by the 24th day of incubation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Somatic and gastrointestinal in vivo biotransformation rates of hydrophobic chemicals in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Justin C; Campbell, David A; Kennedy, Christopher J; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2015-10-01

    To improve current bioaccumulation assessment methods, a methodology is developed, applied, and investigated for measuring in vivo biotransformation rates of hydrophobic organic substances in the body (soma) and gastrointestinal tract of the fish. The method resembles the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 305 dietary bioaccumulation test but includes reference chemicals to determine both somatic and gastrointestinal biotransformation rates of test chemicals. Somatic biotransformation rate constants for the test chemicals ranged between 0 d(-1) and 0.38 (standard error [SE] 0.03)/d(-1) . Gastrointestinal biotransformation rate constants varied from 0 d(-1) to 46 (SE 7) d(-1) . Gastrointestinal biotransformation contributed more to the overall biotransformation in fish than somatic biotransformation for all test substances but 1. Results suggest that biomagnification tests can reveal the full extent of biotransformation in fish. The common presumption that the liver is the main site of biotransformation may not apply to many substances exposed through the diet. The results suggest that the application of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for somatic biotransformation rates and hepatic in vitro models to assess the effect of biotransformation on bioaccumulation can underestimate biotransformation rates and overestimate the biomagnification potential of chemicals that are biotransformed in the gastrointestinal tract. With some modifications, the OECD 305 test can generate somatic and gastrointestinal biotransformation data to develop biotransformation QSARs and test in vitro-in vivo biotransformation extrapolation methods. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Biotransformation of furanocoumarins by Cunninghamella elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Ismail El-shahat Ali Attia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation of Furanocoumarins; psoralen (1, bergapten (2, xanthotoxin (3 and imperatorin (4 was explored by Cunninghamella elegans NRRL 1392, revealing the metabolism of psoralen (1 and bergapten (2 into bergaptol (5, while xanthotoxin (3 and imperatorin (4 were converted into xanthotoxol (6. On the other hand unexpected conversion of xanthotoxin (3 into 3,4 dihydroxanthotoxin (7 occurred. The structure of the isolated pure metabolites was established using physical and spectroscopic techniques including, melting points, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy.

  2. Microbial Biotransformation to Obtain New Antifungals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Luiz F.; Arruda, Maria F. C.; Vieira, Sergio R.; Campelo, Patrícia M. S.; Grégio, Ana M. T.; Rosa, Edvaldo A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal drugs belong to few chemical groups and such low diversity limits the therapeutic choices. The urgent need of innovative options has pushed researchers to search new bioactive molecules. Literature regarding the last 15 years reveals that different research groups have used different approaches to achieve such goal. However, the discovery of molecules with different mechanisms of action still demands considerable time and efforts. This review was conceived to present how Pharmaceutical Biotechnology might contribute to the discovery of molecules with antifungal properties by microbial biotransformation procedures. Authors present some aspects of (1) microbial biotransformation of herbal medicines and food; (2) possibility of major and minor molecular amendments in existing molecules by biocatalysis; (3) methodological improvements in processes involving whole cells and immobilized enzymes; (4) potential of endophytic fungi to produce antimicrobials by bioconversions; and (5) in silico research driving to the improvement of molecules. All these issues belong to a new conception of transformation procedures, so-called “green chemistry,” which aims the highest possible efficiency with reduced production of waste and the smallest environmental impact. PMID:26733974

  3. Enantioselective biotransformations of nitriles in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2015-03-17

    The hydration and hydrolysis of nitriles are valuable synthetic methods used to prepare carboxamides and carboxylic acids. However, chemical hydration and hydrolysis of nitriles involve harsh reaction conditions, have low selectivity, and generate large amounts of waste. Therefore, researchers have confined the scope of these reactions to simple nitrile substrates. However, biological transformations of nitriles are highly efficient, chemoselective, and environmentally benign, which has led synthetic organic chemists and biotechologists to study these reactions in detail over the last two decades. In nature, biological systems degrade nitriles via two distinct pathways: nitrilases catalyze the direct hydrolysis of nitriles to afford carboxylic acids with release of ammonia, and nitrile hydratases catalyze the conversion of nitriles into carboxamides, which then furnish carboxylic acids via hydrolysis in the presence of amidases. Researchers have subsequently developed biocatalytic methods into useful industrial processes for the manufacture of commodity chemicals, including acrylamide. Since the late 1990s, research by my group and others has led to enormous progress in the understanding and application of enantioselective biotransformations of nitriles in organic synthesis. In this Account, I summarize the important advances in enantioselective biotransformations of nitriles and amides, with a primary focus on research from my laboratory. I describe microbial whole-cell-catalyzed kinetic resolution of various functionalized nitriles, amino- and hydroxynitriles, and nitriles that contain small rings and the desymmetrization of prochiral and meso dinitriles and diamides. I also demonstrate how we can apply the biocatalytic protocol to synthesize natural products and bioactive compounds. These nitrile biotransformations offer an attractive and unique protocol for the enantioselective synthesis of polyfunctionalized organic compounds that are not readily obtainable by

  4. Biotransformation of major ginsenosides into compound K by a new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotransformation of major ginsenosides into compound K by a new Penicillium dipodomyicola ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... ginsenoside Rb1 to minor ginsenosides compound K. The transformation products were identified by thin ...

  5. Incremental improvements to the trout S9 biotransformation assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro substrate depletion methods have been used in conjunction with computational models to predict biotransformation impacts on chemical accumulation by fish. There is a consistent trend, however, toward overestimation of measured chemical residues resulting from controlled...

  6. Arsenite tolerance and biotransformation potential in estuarine bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagvenkar, G.S.; Ramaiah, N.

    and Acinetobacter strains. From these observations it is clear that many environmental strains are capable of quite rapid biotransformation of As. Contamination of drinking water by toxic metalloid arsenic affects thousands of people worldwide. Many environmental...

  7. Biotransformation of plutonium complexed with citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of organic ligands in radioactive wastes is a major concern because of their potential for increasing the transport of radionuclides from disposal sites. Biotransformation of radionuclides complexed with organic ligands should precipitate the radionuclides and retard their migration. We investigated the biotransformation of Pu(IV) (10 -8 to 10 -5 M), by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the presence of excess citric acid. Analysis of 242 Pu-citrate by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) indicated the presence of biligand Pu-cit 2 as the predominant complex. XANES and EXAFS analyses showed that Pu was in the +4 oxidation state and associated with citric acid as a mononuclear complex. Citric acid was metabolized by P. fluorescens at a rate of 4.9 μM/h, but in the presence of 10 -8 and 10 -6 M Pu, this rate decreased to 4.0 and 3.8 μM/h, respectively. An increase in the ionic strength of the medium from 0.18 M to 0.9 M lowered citrate metabolism by ∝ 65%. Pu added to the growth medium in the absence of bacteria remained as Pu(IV) in solution as a complex with citric acid. However, solvent extraction by thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) and microfiltration (0.03 μm) of the medium containing bacteria after citrate biodegradation revealed the presence of polymeric Pu. The extent of formation of the Pu polymer depended on the Pu: citrate ratio, the extent of citrate metabolism, and the ionic strength of the medium. (orig.)

  8. Biotransformation and bioactivation reactions - 2016 literature highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, S Cyrus; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Dalvie, Deepak; Miller, Grover

    2017-08-01

    We are pleased to present a second annual issue highlighting a previous year's literature on biotransformation and bioactivation. Each contributor to this issue worked independently to review the articles published in 2016 and proposed three to four articles, which he or she believed would be of interest to the broader research community. In each synopsis, the contributing author summarized the procedures, analyses and conclusions as described in the original manuscripts. In the commentary sections, our authors offer feedback and highlight aspects of the work that may not be apparent from an initial reading of the article. To be fair, one should still read the original article to gain a more complete understanding of the work conducted. Most of the articles included in this review were published in Drug Metabolism and Disposition or Chemical Research in Toxicology, but attempts were made to seek articles in 25 other journals. Importantly, these articles are not intended to represent a consensus of the best papers of the year, as we did not want to make any arbitrary standards for this purpose, but rather they were chosen by each author for their notable findings and descriptions of novel metabolic pathways or biotransformations. I am pleased that Drs. Rietjens and Dalvie have again contributed to this annual review. We would like to welcome Grover P Miller as an author for this year's issue, and we thank Tom Baillie for his contributions to last year's edition. We have intentionally maintained a balance of authors such that two come from an academic setting and two come from industry. Finally, please drop us a note if you find this review helpful. We would be pleased to hear your opinions of our commentary, and we extend an invitation to anyone who would like to contribute to a future edition of this review. This article is dedicated to Professor Thomas Baillie for his exceptional contributions to the field of drug metabolism.

  9. Biotransformation of selected anthelmintics in sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa)

    OpenAIRE

    Bečanová, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Aneta Bečanová Supervisor: Mgr. Hana Bártíková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Biotransformation of selected anthelmintics in sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) Biotransformation of anthelmintics is a process that prevents the parasite from adverse effects of xenobiotics. Therefore, it is the main factor that causes the reduction of an anthelmintic effect, resistance development and...

  10. Biotransformation of pharmaceuticals under nitrification, nitratation and heterotrophic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Fontaina, E.; Gomes, I.B.; Aga, D.S.; Omil, F.; Lema, J.M.; Carballa, M.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of nitrification, nitratation and heterotrophic conditions on the biotransformation of several pharmaceuticals in a highly enriched nitrifying activated sludge was evaluated in this study by selective activation of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and heterotrophic bacteria. Nitrifiers displayed a noticeable capacity to process ibuprofen due to hydroxylation by ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) to produce 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen. Naproxen was also biotransformed under nitrifying conditions. On the other hand, heterotrophic bacteria present in the nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) biotransformed sulfamethoxazole. In contrast, both nitrifying and heterotrophic activities were ineffective against diclofenac, diazepam, carbamazepine and trimethoprim. Similar biotransformation rates of erythromycin, roxithromycin and fluoxetine were observed under all conditions tested. Overall, results from this study give more evidence on the role of the different microbial communities present in activated sludge reactors on the biological removal of pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: • The removal of pharmaceuticals in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) was studied. • Nitrifying activity increases biotransformation rate of ibuprofen and naproxen. • Hydroxylation of ibuprofen by ammonia monooxygenase of ammonia oxidizing bacteria • Heterotrophic activity enhances biotransformation of sulfamethoxazole in NAS. • Recalcitrance of trimethoprim, diclofenac, carbamazepine and diazepam in NAS

  11. Biotransformation of pharmaceuticals under nitrification, nitratation and heterotrophic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Fontaina, E., E-mail: eduardo.fernandez.fontaina@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gomes, I.B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aga, D.S. [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Omil, F.; Lema, J.M.; Carballa, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    The effect of nitrification, nitratation and heterotrophic conditions on the biotransformation of several pharmaceuticals in a highly enriched nitrifying activated sludge was evaluated in this study by selective activation of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and heterotrophic bacteria. Nitrifiers displayed a noticeable capacity to process ibuprofen due to hydroxylation by ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) to produce 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen. Naproxen was also biotransformed under nitrifying conditions. On the other hand, heterotrophic bacteria present in the nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) biotransformed sulfamethoxazole. In contrast, both nitrifying and heterotrophic activities were ineffective against diclofenac, diazepam, carbamazepine and trimethoprim. Similar biotransformation rates of erythromycin, roxithromycin and fluoxetine were observed under all conditions tested. Overall, results from this study give more evidence on the role of the different microbial communities present in activated sludge reactors on the biological removal of pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: • The removal of pharmaceuticals in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) was studied. • Nitrifying activity increases biotransformation rate of ibuprofen and naproxen. • Hydroxylation of ibuprofen by ammonia monooxygenase of ammonia oxidizing bacteria • Heterotrophic activity enhances biotransformation of sulfamethoxazole in NAS. • Recalcitrance of trimethoprim, diclofenac, carbamazepine and diazepam in NAS.

  12. Evaluation of Predicted and Observed Data on Biotransformation of Twenty-Nine Trace Organic Chemicals

    KAUST Repository

    Bertolini, Maria

    2011-01-01

    activated sludge treatment systems. Predominant attenuation processes such as biotransformation and sorption for the target compounds were identified. Biotransformation rate constants determined in this study were used to assess removal of compounds from

  13. Interactions of [alpha,beta]-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with the glutathione-related biotransformation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.L.P.S.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction
    Modulation of glutathione-related biotransformation steps may play a role in important phenomena as anticarcinogenicity and multidrug resistance. Glutathione-related biotransformation comprises three main aspects i.e. glutathione, the

  14. Biotransformation and bioactivation reactions - 2015 literature highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Thomas A; Dalvie, Deepak; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Cyrus Khojasteh, S

    2016-05-01

    Since 1972, Drug Metabolism Reviews has been recognized as one of the principal resources for researchers in pharmacological, pharmaceutical and toxicological fields to keep abreast of advances in drug metabolism science in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. With a distinguished list of authors and editors, the journal covers topics ranging from relatively mature fields, such as cytochrome P450 enzymes, to a variety of emerging fields. We hope to continue this tradition with the current compendium of mini-reviews that highlight novel biotransformation processes that were published during the past year. Each review begins with a summary of the article followed by our comments on novel aspects of the research and their biological implications. This collection of highlights is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to be illustrative of recent research that provides new insights or approaches that advance the field of drug metabolism. Abbreviations NAPQI N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine ALDH aldehyde dehydrogenase AO aldehyde oxidase AKR aldo-keto reductase CES carboxylesterase CSB cystathionine β-synthase CSE cystathionine γ-lyase P450 cytochrome P450 DHPO 2,3-dihydropyridin-4-one ESI electrospray FMO flavin monooxygenase GSH glutathione GSSG glutathione disulfide ICPMS inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry i.p. intraperitoneal MDR multidrug-resistant NNAL 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol NNK 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone oaTOF orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight PBK physiologically based kinetic PCP pentachlorophenol SDR short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase SULT sulfotransferase TB tuberculosis.

  15. Biotransformation and biomonitoring of phenylurea herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Suri, C Raman

    2011-02-01

    A Gram-positive, Micrococcus sp. strain PS-1 isolated from diuron storage site was studied for its capability of biotransformation of phenylurea herbicide diuron to a secondary metabolite, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (DCPU) for bioconjugation and antibody development applications. The metabolite formed associated with profound changes in bacterial cell morphology demonstrated increase in the degradation kinetics of diuron in presence of small quantity of a surfactant. The synthesized metabolite identified by chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques was conjugated with carrier protein, and used as an immunogen for antibodies production. The generated antibody was highly specific, demonstrating excellent sensitivity against diuron. The antibody was used as receptor molecules in standard fluorescence immunoassay (FIA) format showing detection limit of 0.01 ng/mL in the optimum working concentration range of diuron with good signal precision (∼2%). The study presented first time the degradation pathway of herbicide by specific microorganism to synthesize hapten for bioconjugation and immunoassay development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Arsenic biotransformation and volatilization in transgenic rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Yan; Qin, Jie; Wang, Li-Hong; Duan, Gui-Lan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Hui-Lan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Ling, Hong-Qing; Rosen, Barry P.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Biotransformation of arsenic includes oxidation, reduction, methylation and conversion to more complex organic arsenicals. Members of the class of arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethyltransferase enzymes catalyze As(III) methylation to a variety of mono-, di- and trimethylated species, some of which are less toxic than As(III) itself. However, no methyltransferase gene has been identified in plants. Here, an arsM gene from the soil bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was expressed in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare, and the transgenic rice produced methylated arsenic species, which were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Both monomethylarsenate [MAs(V)] and dimethylarsenate [DMAs(V)] were detected in the root and shoot of transgenic rice. After 12-d exposure to As(III), the transgenic rice gave off 10-fold more volatile arsenicals. The present study demonstrates that expression of an arsM gene in rice induces arsenic methylation and volatilization, providing a potential stratagem for phytoremediation theoretically. PMID:21517874

  17. Biotransformation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, H.A.; Reinhard, M.; McCarty, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons contained in gasoline are environmental pollutants of particular concern since they are relatively soluble in water, many are toxic, and some are confirmed carcinogens, (e.g., benzene). Although most gasoline constituents are readily degraded in aerobic surface water systems, the groundwater environment associated with hydrocarbon spills is typically anaerobic, thus precluding aerobic degradation pathways. In the absence of oxygen, degradation of gasoline components can take place only with the utilization of alternate electron acceptors such as nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and possibly ferric iron or other metal oxides. Benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers were completely degraded by aquifer- or sewage sludge-derived microorganisms under dentrifying and methanogenic conditions. Recently, a pure culture was found to degrade toluene and m-xylene nitrate or nitrous oxide as an electron acceptor. This paper presents initial results of ongoing study to develop and characterize microbial consortia capable of transforming aromatic hydrocarbons under nitrate-reducing conditions, and understand the effect of environmental factors on the biotransformation processes

  18. Biotransformation pathways of fluorotelomer-based polyfluoroalkyl substances: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Craig M; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2014-02-01

    The study reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the biotransformation of fluorotelomer-based compounds, with a focus on compounds that ultimately degrade to form perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs). Most metabolism studies have been performed with either microbial systems or rats and mice, and comparatively few studies have used fish models. Furthermore, biotransformation studies thus far have predominately used the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) as the substrate. However, there have been an increasing number of studies investigating 6:2 FTOH biotransformation as a result of industry's transition to shorter-chain fluorotelomer chemistry. Studies with the 8:2 FTOH metabolism universally show the formation of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and, to a smaller fraction, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and lower-chain-length PFCAs. In general, the overall yield of PFOA is low, presumably because of the multiple branches in the biotransformation pathways, including conjugation reactions in animal systems. There have been a few studies of non-FTOH biotransformation, which include polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), 8:2 fluorotelomer acrylate (8:2 FTAC), and fluorotelomer carboxylates (FTCAs, FTUCAs). The PAPs compounds and 8:2 FTAC were shown to be direct precursors to FTOHs and thus follow similar degradation pathways. © 2013 SETAC.

  19. Comparison of biotransformation and efficacy of aminoacetonitrile anthelmintics in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlíková, Lucie; Lecová, Lenka; Jirásko, Robert; Lamka, Jiří; Vokřál, Ivan; Szotáková, Barbora; Holčapek, Michal; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-02-01

    The present in vitro study was designed to test and compare anthelmintic activity, hepatotoxicity, and biotransformation of four selected aminoacetonitrile derivatives (AADs): monepantel (MOP, anthelmintic approved for the treatment), AAD-970, AAD-1154, and AAD-1336. Micro-agar larval development test, MTT test of cytotoxicity, and biotransformation study coupled with Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) technique were used for this purpose. Larvae of two Haemonchus contortus strains (drug susceptible and multi-drug resistant) and primary cultures of rat and ovine hepatocytes served as model systems. All AADs (including MOP) exhibited significant larvicidal effect in H. contortus susceptible as well as multi-resistant strains, much higher than those of reference anthelmintics thiabendazole and flubendazole. AAD-1154 provides the best results for most tested parameters among all AADs in this study. The cytotoxicity test showed that all AADs can be considered as nontoxic for hepatocytes. In the biotransformation study, Phase I and Phase II metabolites of AADs were identified and schemes of possible metabolic pathways in ovine hepatocytes were proposed. Biotransformation of MOP was much more extensive than biotransformation of other AADs. Based on obtained results, AAD-1154 and AAD-1336 can be considered as promising candidates for further in vivo testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Giessing, Anders; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2008-01-01

    Deposit-feeding polychaetes constitute the dominant macrofauna in marine environments that tend to be depositional centers for organic matter and contaminants. Polychaetes are known to accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from both particulate and dissolved phases but less is known...... about the mechanisms underlying elimination of accumulated PAHs. An important pathway of elimination is through biotransformation which results in increased aqueous solubility of the otherwise hydrophobic PAHs. Biotransformation in marine polychaetes proceeds in a two phased process similar to those...... well studied in vertebrates, phase I enzymes belonging to the Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme family, along with a few phase II enzymes have been identified in marine polychaetes. In this review we aim at highlighting advances in the mechanistic understanding of PAH biotransformation in marine polychaetes...

  1. Biotransformation and Production from Hansenula Anomala to Natural Ethyl Phenylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl phenylacetate can be widely applied in many industries, such as food, medicines, cosmetics and medicinal herbs. At the moment, the production of natural ethyl phenylacetate is very limited. However, the biotransformation production of natural ethyl phenylacetate has an very extensive application prospect. This paper is written by taking the phenylacetic acid tolerance and the esterifying enzyme activity as the two indexes for screening the HA14 strain of hansenula anomala mutagenic which is regarded as the microorganism of ethyl phenylacetate production through biotransformation. By optimizing the production condition of phenylacetic acid and the esterification condition of ethyl phenylacetate, the production of ethyl phenylacetate accomplished through biotransformation within 72 hours can reach 864mg/L which is 171% of that of the initial bacterial strain.

  2. Trypsin inhibitory activity of artemisinin and its biotransformed product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahwar, D.; Raza, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Artemisinin (1 ), a sesquiterpene lactone is an important constituent of anti-malarial drugs. In the present study, it was extracted from aerial parts of Artemisia roxburghiana Besser. Biotransformation of artemisinin ( 1 ) was carried out in the culture of Aspergillus niger GC-4 which yielded 5-hydroxy artemisinin (2 ) The structures of 1-2 were confirmed through spectral studies. Both compounds were screened against trypsin using colorimetric method. The biotransformed product 2 showed significant protease inhibitory activity with 53.5 +- 1.6% inhibition and IC/sub 50/ = 0.29 +- 0.02 mM as compared to artemisinin (20.4 +- 0.3% inhibition). (author)

  3. Perspective on Biotransformation and De Novo Biosynthesis of Licorice Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yujia; Lv, Bo; Feng, Xudong; Li, Chun

    2017-12-27

    Licorice, an important herbal medicine, is derived from the dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza genus plants. It has been widely used in food, pharmaceutical, tobacco, and cosmetics industries with high economic value. However, overexploitation of licorice resources has severely destroyed the local ecology. Therefore, producing bioactive compounds of licorice through the biotransformation and bioengineering methods is a hot spot in recent years. In this perspective, we comprehensively summarize the biotransformation of licorice constituents into high-value-added derivatives by biocatalysts. Furthermore, successful cases and the strategies for de novo biosynthesizing compounds of licorice in microbes have been summarized. This paper will provide new insights for the further research of licorice.

  4. Biotransformation of uranium and other actinides in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Microorganisms affect the solubility, bioavailability, and mobility of actinides in radioactive wastes. Under appropriate conditions, actinides are solubilized or stabilized by the direct enzymatic or indirect nonenzymatic actions of microorganisms. Biotransformation of various forms of uranium (ionic, inorganic, and organic complexes) by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms has been extensively studied, whereas limited information is available on other important actinides (Th, Np, Pu, and Am). Fundamental information on the mechanisms of biotransformation of actinides by microbes under various environmental conditions will be useful in predicting the long-term performance of waste repositories and in developing strategies for waste management and remediation of contaminated sites. (orig.)

  5. Biotransformation of (+)-cycloisolongifolol by plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Sakata, Kazuki

    2007-05-01

    The biotransformation of terpenoids using the plant pathogenic fungus as a biocatalyst to produce useful novel organic compounds was investigated. The biotransformation of sesquiterpen alcohol, (+)-cycloisolongifolol (1) was investigated using plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. Compound 1 gave one major metabolic product and a number of minor metabolic products. Major product was dehydration at the C-8 position to (+)-dehydrocycloisolongifolene (2). The structure of the product was determined by their spectroscopic data. Glomerella cingulata gave dehydration in the specifically and over 70% conversion.

  6. Biotransformation of pesticides in saturated-zone materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Blythe L.; Arthur, Ellen L.

    Many studies have been conducted to evaluate pesticide contamination of groundwater in the United States, but investigations of pesticide biotransformation in saturated zones are much less numerous than in surface soils. Because results of studies using soils are not directly applicable to the subsurface, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate examples of pesticide biotransformation in saturated-zone materials. Although it must be considered with caution, the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) "Pesticides in Ground Water Database" was used to focus the discussion on the biotransformation potential of dibromoethane (EDB), atrazine, acetanilide herbicides, and aldicarb, all of which have been detected in groundwater in the United States. Results of more than two dozen studies indicate that a biotransformation potential for these pesticides exists in saturated-zone materials, although for any given pesticide substantial differences in biotransformation occurred. These variations were due both to differences in experimental methods and to heterogeneities in the subsurface materials under investigation. However, because biotransformation mechanisms were not well investigated, it is generally not possible to extrapolate predictions of biotransformation potential beyond the specific sites investigated. These results highlight the need to better understand microbial genetic regulation of biotransformation processes so that genetic information may be effectively incorporated into future investigations of biotransformation potential in the subsurface. Résumé De nombreuses études ont été réalisées pour évaluer le degré de pollution des aquifères par les pesticides aux États-Unis, mais les recherches concernant la biotransformation des pesticides dans les eaux souterraines sont beaucoup moins nombreuses que dans les sols. Du fait que les résultats des études concernant les sols ne sont pas directement applicables au milieu souterrain, le propos de cet

  7. Physiologically based modeling of hepatic and gastrointestinal biotransformation in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fish, as in mammals, the liver generally viewed as the principal site of chemical biotransformation. For waterborne exposures, such as those conducted in support of standardized BCF testing, the effects of hepatic metabolism on chemical accumulation can be simulated using rela...

  8. Identification of bottlenecks for P450 biotransformation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Marie Therese; Törnvall, Ulrika; Tufvesson, Pär

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450 or CYP) is a group of heme-containing enzymes hydroxylating non-activated hydrocarbons in a stereospecific manner, something that is hard to achieve via classical chemistry. The importance of these reactions can be stressed by the hydroxylation of steroids, bu...... biotransformation process identifying the limiting parameters and defining relevant targets....

  9. Critical Evaluation of a Human In Vitro Biotransformation Rate Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical biotransformation is critical information in the understanding of how a chemical may elicit health effects in humans or in the environment. Despite the fundamental value of these data, very relatively few measured in vivo data are available for humans compared to the tho...

  10. The role of biotransformation in dietary (anti)carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.L.P.S. van; Verhagen, H.; Bladeren, P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The fact that dietary compounds influence the susceptibility of human beings to cancer, is widely accepted. One of the possible mechanisms that is responsible for these (anti)carcinogenic effects is that dietary constituents may modulate biotransformation enzymes, thereby affecting the

  11. Toxicity, Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Marine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity, bioaccumulation and biotransformation of citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped silver nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs in marine organisms via marine sediment exposure were investigated. Results from 7-d sedimen...

  12. Enhanced biotransformation of TCE using plant terpenoids in contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J R-M; Thompson, I P; Paton, G I; Singer, A C

    2009-12-01

    To examine plant terpenoids as inducers of TCE (trichloroethylene) biotransformation by an indigenous microbial community originating from a plume of TCE-contaminated groundwater. One-litre microcosms of groundwater were spiked with 100 micromol 1(-1) of TCE and amended weekly for 16 weeks with 20 microl 1(-1) of the following plant monoterpenes: linalool, pulegone, R-(+) carvone, S-(-) carvone, farnesol, cumene. Yeast extract-amended and unamended control treatments were also prepared. The addition of R-carvone and S-carvone, linalool and cumene resulted in the biotransformation of upwards of 88% of the TCE, significantly more than the unamendment control (61%). The aforementioned group of terpenes also significantly (P TCE to be degraded than the remaining two terpenes (farnesol and pulegone), and the yeast extract treatment which biotransformed 74-75% of the TCE. The microbial community profile was monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and demonstrated much greater similarities between the microbial communities in terpene-amended treatments than in the yeast extract or unamended controls. TCE biotransformation can be significantly enhanced through the addition of selected plant terpenoids. Plant terpenoid and nutrient supplementation to groundwater might provide an environmentally benign means of enhancing the rate of in situ TCE bioremediation.

  13. Biotransformation of limonene by bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duetz, W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Beilen, J.B.; Witholt, B.

    2003-01-01

    The past 5 years have seen significant progress in the field of limonene biotransformation, especially with regard to the regiospecificity of microbial biocatalysts. Whereas earlier only regiospecific biocatalysts for the 1,2 position (limonene-1,2-diol) and the 8-position (¿±-terpineol) were

  14. The use of pig hepatocytes for biotransformation and toxicity studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    1991-01-01

    The three main objectives of this study were, (1) to investigate the possibility to isolate viable hepatocytes from liver samples of pigs, (2) to study their use for biotransformation and toxicity studies, and (3) to demonstrate the value of this model, in particular in the field of residue

  15. Endophytic fungi as models for the stereoselective biotransformation of thioridazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Keyller Bastos; Borges, Warley De Souza; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2007-12-01

    The stereoselective kinetic biotransformation of thioridazine, a phenothiazine neuroleptic drug, by endophytic fungi was investigated. In general, the sulfur of lateral chain (position 2) or the sulfur of phenothiazinic ring (position 5) were oxidated yielding the major human metabolites thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide. The quantity of metabolites biosynthesized varied among the 12 endophytic fungi evaluated. However, mono-2-sulfoxidation occurred in higher ratio and frequency. Among the 12 fungi evaluated, 4 of them deserve prominence for presenting an evidenced stereoselective biotransformation: Phomopsis sp. (TD2), Glomerella cingulata (VA1), Diaporthe phaseolorum (VR4), and Aspergillus fumigatus (VR12). Both enantiomers of thioridazine were consumed by the fungi; however, the 2-sulfoxidation yielded preferentially the R configuration at the sulfur atom.

  16. Kombucha - functional beverage: Composition, characteristics and process of biotransformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Siniša L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a refreshing beverage obtained by the proces of biotransformation of sugared tea with a tea fungus. Kombucha is also frequently called "tea fungus" in the literature, although there is actually no fungus involved in the fermentation. The tea fungus is a symbiotic association of native yeasts and Acetobacteriaceae species fermenting sugared (5-10% black tea (0.2-0.5% into a kombucha beverage. After about 7-10 days incubation at room temperature, kombucha is ready. Growth patterns of tea fungus microorganisms during the biotransformation process of kombucha are not well documented. Tea fungus produces many substances, which with the supply of tea nutrients, give the drink its unusual flavour and healthy properties.

  17. Biotransformation of steviol derivatives by Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bras H. de; Leal, Paulo C. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: bho@ufpr.br; Souza Filho, Jose Dias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-04-01

    Steviol derivatives have been submitted to biotransformations by fungi. Methyl ent-11{beta},13-dihydroxy-15,16-epoxikauran-19-oate was hydroxylated at C-11 by Aspergillus niger, whereas ent-16{beta}-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid was hydroxylated at C-6 and C-7 by Fusarium moniliforme. The hydroxylation at non-activated positions at the carbon skeleton is discussed in connection with the properties of important polyhydroxylated diterpenoids described in the literature. (author)

  18. SEASONAL INFLUENCES ON PCB RETENTION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION IN FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Margaret O.; Kleinow, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that fish from waters with PCB-contaminated sediments accumulate PCBs and related chemicals, and that people who eat fish from contaminated waters have higher body burdens of PCBs and PCB metabolites than those who do not. PCBs and their metabolites are potentially toxic, thus it is important to human health to understand the uptake, biotransformation and elimination of PCBs in fish, since these processes determine the extent of accumulation. The intestinal uptake of PCBs present in the diet of fish into fish tissues is a process that is influenced by the lipid composition of the diet. Biotransformation of PCBs in fish, as in mammals, facilitates elimination, although many PCB congeners are recalcitrant to biotransformation in fish and mammals. Sequential biotransformation of PCBs by cytochrome P450 and conjugation pathways is even less efficient in fish than in mammalian species, thus contributing to the retention of PCBs in fish tissues. A very important factor influencing overall PCB disposition in fish is water temperature. Seasonal changes in water temperature produce adaptive physiological and biochemical changes in fish. While uptake of PCBs from the diet is similar in fish acclimated to winter or summer temperatures, there is evidence that elimination of PCBs occurs much more slowly when the fish is acclimated at low temperatures than at warmer temperatures. Research to date suggests that the processes of elimination of PCBs are modulated by several factors in fish including seasonal changes in water temperature. Thus, the body burden of PCBs in fish from a contaminated location is likely to vary with season. PMID:23494683

  19. Biotransformation of steviol derivatives by Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bras H. de; Leal, Paulo C.; Souza Filho, Jose Dias

    2005-01-01

    Steviol derivatives have been submitted to biotransformations by fungi. Methyl ent-11β,13-dihydroxy-15,16-epoxikauran-19-oate was hydroxylated at C-11 by Aspergillus niger, whereas ent-16β-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid was hydroxylated at C-6 and C-7 by Fusarium moniliforme. The hydroxylation at non-activated positions at the carbon skeleton is discussed in connection with the properties of important polyhydroxylated diterpenoids described in the literature. (author)

  20. Biotransformation, distribution and toxicity of carbon disulfide in immature rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 24-hour LD-50 values of CS 2 in 1-, 5-, 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-day-old rats were 583, 974, 1119, 1545, 1237, and 1183 mg/kg, respectively. Twenty-four hours after CS 2 exposure, decreases in aniline hydroxylation and cytochrome P-450 were observed in rats older than one day of age. Hepatic microsomes from rats of all ages biotransformed CS 2 to COS in vitro in the presence of NADPH. Inhibition of the hepatic mixed-function oxidase enzyme system (HMFOES) was observed after incubation of hepatic microsomes from rats as young as one day of age with CS 2 and NADPH. Studies with radiolabelled CS 2 showed that a covalently binding sulfur metabolite, free from the carbon atom of CS 2 , was formed in vitro during the metabolism of CS 2 to COS which appeared to be responsible for the inhibition of the HMFOES. Three hours after 14 C-CS 2 administration in vivo to rats, between 58 and 83% of the dose of 14 C-CS 2 was expired; 4-9% of the dose was expired as 14 C-CO 2 depending on age. One to 2% of the dose of 14 C-CS 2 , and 1 to 6% of the dose of 35 S-CS 2 remained as biotransformation products in tissues. Biotransformation products of CS 2 were identified as either acid-labile or covalently bound. The results of the study implicated CS 2 biotransformation to sulfur metabolites as an important mechanism of CS 2 toxicity, particularly to 1-day-old rats which had the lowest capacity to eliminate these metabolites

  1. Indolealkylamines: Biotransformations and Potential Drug–Drug Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Ai-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Indolealkylamine (IAA) drugs are 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) analogs that mainly act on the serotonin system. Some IAAs are clinically utilized for antimigraine therapy, whereas other substances are notable as drugs of abuse. In the clinical evaluation of antimigraine triptan drugs, studies on their biotransformations and pharmacokinetics would facilitate the understanding and prevention of unwanted drug–drug interactions (DDIs). A stable, principal metabolite of an IAA drug of ab...

  2. Biotransformation of citrus aromatics nootkatone and valencene by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Mai; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Noma, Yoshiaki; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-11-01

    Biotransformations of the sesquiterpene ketone nootkatone from the crude drug Alpiniae Fructus and grapefruit oil, and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon valencene from Valencia orange oil were carried out with microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Fusarium culmorum to afford structurally interesting metabolites. Their stereostructures were established by a combination of high-resolution NMR spectral and X-ray crystallographic analysis and chemical reaction. Metabolic pathways of compounds and by A. niger are proposed.

  3. Biotransformation potential of phytosterols under anoxic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, C M; Giles, H D; Banerjee, S; Pavlostathis, S G

    2014-01-01

    The biotransformation potential of three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol) under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and fermentative/methanogenic conditions was assessed. Using a group contribution method, the standard Gibbs free energy of phytosterols was calculated and used to perform theoretical energetic calculations. The oxidation of phytosterols under aerobic, nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions was determined to be energetically feasible. However, using semi-continuously fed cultures maintained at 20-22 °C over 16 weekly feeding cycles (112 days; retention time, 21 days), phytosterol removal was observed under nitrate-reducing and sulfate-reducing conditions, but not under fermentative/methanogenic conditions. Under sulfate-reducing conditions, stigmast-4-en-3-one was identified as an intermediate of phytosterol biotransformation, a reaction more likely carried out by dehydrogenases/isomerases, previously reported to act on cholesterol under both oxic and anoxic (denitrifying) conditions. Further study of the biotransformation of phytosterols under anoxic/anaerobic conditions is necessary to delineate the factors and conditions leading to enhanced phytosterol biodegradation and the development of effective biological treatment systems for the removal of phytosterols from pulp and paper wastewaters and other phytosterol-bearing waste streams.

  4. Biotransformation and bioactivation reactions of alicyclic amines in drug molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolleddula, Jayaprakasam; DeMent, Kevin; Driscoll, James P; Worboys, Philip; Brassil, Patrick J; Bourdet, David L

    2014-08-01

    Aliphatic nitrogen heterocycles such as piperazine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, morpholine, aziridine, azetidine, and azepane are well known building blocks in drug design and important core structures in approved drug therapies. These core units have been targets for metabolic attack by P450s and other drug metabolizing enzymes such as aldehyde oxidase and monoamine oxidase (MAOs). The electron rich nitrogen and/or α-carbons are often major sites of metabolism of alicyclic amines. The most common biotransformations include N-oxidation, N-conjugation, oxidative N-dealkylation, ring oxidation, and ring opening. In some instances, the metabolic pathways generate electrophilic reactive intermediates and cause bioactivation. However, potential bioactivation related adverse events can be attenuated by structural modifications. Hence it is important to understand the biotransformation pathways to design stable drug candidates that are devoid of metabolic liabilities early in the discovery stage. The current review provides a comprehensive summary of biotransformation and bioactivation pathways of aliphatic nitrogen containing heterocycles and strategies to mitigate metabolic liabilities.

  5. Sublethal toxicity and biotransformation of pyrene in Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, K.; Leppaenen, M.T.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the toxicity and biotransformation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene in the oligochaete aquatic worm, Lumbriculus variegatus. PAHs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that pose a hazard to aquatic organisms, and metabolizing capability is poorly known in the case of many invertebrate species. To study the toxicity and biotransformation of pyrene, the worm was exposed for 15 days to various concentrations of water-borne pyrene. The dorsal blood vessel pulse rate was used as a sublethal endpoint. Pyrene biotransformation by L. variegatus was studied and the critical body residues (CBR) were estimated for pyrene toxicity. The toxicokinetics of pyrene uptake was evaluated. A combination of radiolabeled ( 14 C) and nonlabeled pyrene was used in the exposures, and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography were employed in both water and tissue residue analyses. The results showed that L. variegatus was moderately able to metabolize pyrene to 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), thus demonstrating that the phase-I-like oxidizing enzyme system metabolizes pyrene in L. variegatus. The amount of the 1-HP was 1-2% of the amount of pyrene in the worm tissues. The exposure to pyrene reduced the blood vessel pulse rate significantly (p < 0.05), showing that pyrene had a narcotic effect. The estimated CBRs remained constant during the exposure time, varying from 0.120 to 0.174 mmol pyrene/kg worm wet weight. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) decreased as exposure concentration increased. It was suggested that the increased toxicity of pyrene accounted for the decrease in BCFs by lowering the activity of the organism

  6. Biotransformation of Lactones with Methylcyclohexane Ring and Their Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to obtain biological active compounds during biotransformation. Three bicyclic halolactones with methylcyclohexane ring (2-chloro-4-methyl-9-oxabicyclo-[4.3.0]nonan-8-one, 2-bromo-4-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nona- -8-one and 2-iodo-4-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one obtained from the corresponding γ,δ-unsaturated acid were subjected to a screening biotransformation using 22 fungal strains. Two of these strains (Cunninghamella japonica AM472 and Fusarium culmorum AM10 were able to transform halolactones into 2-hydroxy-4-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one by hydrolytic dehalogenation with good yield. The biotransformation product was structurally different from its synthetically prepared analog. All halolactones and hydroxylactones were tested for their biological activity. The chlorolactone inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus (max ΔOD = 0, Escherichia coli (max ΔOD = 0.3 and Candida albicans (max ΔOD = 0 strains. Bromolactone caused inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus (max ΔOD = 0 and Fusarium linii (max ΔOD = 0 strains. Iodolactone limited growth of Staphylococcus aureus (max ΔOD = 0, Escherichia coli (max ΔOD = 0.25, Candida albicans (max ΔOD = 0.45 and Pseudomonas fluorescens (max ΔOD = 0.42 strains. Hydroxylactone caused inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus (max ΔOD = 0.36 and Pseudomonas fluorescens (max ΔOD = 0.39 strains only. The test performed on aphids Myzus persicae (Sulz. showed that chloro- and bromolactone exhibited deterrent activity after 24 h (ID = 0.5 and 0.4, respectively, while hydroxylactone was a weak attractant (ID = −0.3.

  7. Microbial-Catalyzed Biotransformation of Multifunctional Triterpenoids Derived from Phytonutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Tan, Huey Ling; Sultan, Sadia; Mohd Faridz, Muhammad Afifi Bin; Mohd Shah, Mohamad Azlan Bin; Nurfazilah, Sharifah; Hussain, Munawar

    2014-01-01

    Microbial-catalyzed biotransformations have considerable potential for the generation of an enormous variety of structurally diversified organic compounds, especially natural products with complex structures like triterpenoids. They offer efficient and economical ways to produce semi-synthetic analogues and novel lead molecules. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi could catalyze chemo-, regio- and stereospecific hydroxylations of diverse triterpenoid substrates that are extremely difficult to produce by chemical routes. During recent years, considerable research has been performed on the microbial transformation of bioactive triterpenoids, in order to obtain biologically active molecules with diverse structures features. This article reviews the microbial modifications of tetranortriterpenoids, tetracyclic triterpenoids and pentacyclic triterpenoids. PMID:25003642

  8. Biotransformation of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan by bacteria and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supreeth, M; Raju, N S

    2017-08-01

    Large quantities of pesticides are applied on crops to protect them from pests in modern agricultural practices around the globe. The two insecticides, chlorpyrifos, belonging to the organophosphorous group and endosulfan, belonging to the organochlorine group, are vastly used insecticides on agricultural crops in the last three decades. Hence, both these insecticides are ubiquitous in the environment. Once applied, these two insecticides undergo transformation in the environment either biologically or non-biologically. Microbial degradation has been considered a safe and cost-effective method for removing contaminants from the environment. Both the insecticides have been subjected to biodegradation studies using various bacteria and fungi by the researchers. Here, in this review, we report on biotransformed products formed during the course of biodegradation of these two insecticides and also discuss about the aftereffects of their transformed metabolites. This is important, because the primary biotransformed metabolites 3,5,6, trichloro-2-pyridinol of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan sulfate of endosulfan are toxic as their parent compounds and are noxious to variety of organisms. In conclusion, it is recommended to obtain microbial cultures capable of mineralizing pesticides completely without formation of any such toxic by-product before adopting bioremediation or bioaugmentation technology.

  9. Land scale biogeography of arsenic biotransformation genes in estuarine wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Yu; Su, Jian-Qiang; Sun, Guo-Xin; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhao, Yi; Ding, Junjun; Chen, Yong-Shan; Shen, Yu; Zhu, Guibing; Rensing, Christopher; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-06-01

    As an analogue of phosphorus, arsenic (As) has a biogeochemical cycle coupled closely with other key elements on the Earth, such as iron, sulfate and phosphate. It has been documented that microbial genes associated with As biotransformation are widely present in As-rich environments. Nonetheless, their presence in natural environment with low As levels remains unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the abundance levels and diversities of aioA, arrA, arsC and arsM genes in estuarine sediments at low As levels across Southeastern China to uncover biogeographic patterns at a large spatial scale. Unexpectedly, genes involved in As biotransformation were characterized by high abundance and diversity. The functional microbial communities showed a significant decrease in similarity along the geographic distance, with higher turnover rates than taxonomic microbial communities based on the similarities of 16S rRNA genes. Further investigation with niche-based models showed that deterministic processes played primary roles in shaping both functional and taxonomic microbial communities. Temperature, pH, total nitrogen concentration, carbon/nitrogen ratio and ferric iron concentration rather than As content in these sediments were significantly linked to functional microbial communities, while sediment temperature and pH were linked to taxonomic microbial communities. We proposed several possible mechanisms to explain these results. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Biotransformation of ginsenosides F4 and Rg6 in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Qiu, Shou-Bei; Wei, Ying-Jie; Zhu, Fen-Xia; Wang, Jing; Wang, Dan-Dan; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Tang, Dao-Quan; Chen, Bin

    2017-03-28

    Ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 (GF 4 and GRg 6 ), two main active components of steamed notoginseng or red ginseng, are dehydrated disaccharide saponins. In this work, biotransformation of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 in zebrafish was investigated by qualitatively identifying their metabolites and then proposing their possible metabolic pathways. The prediction of possible metabolism of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 using zebrafish model which can effectively simulate existing mammals model was early and quickly performed. Metabolites of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 after exposing to zebrafish for 24 h were identified by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. A total of 8 and 6 metabolites of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 were identified in zebrafish, respectively. Of these, 7 and 5, including M1, M3-M5, M7-M9 and N1 (N5), N2, N4 (N9), N7-N8 were reported for the first time as far as we know. The mechanisms of their biotransformation involved were further deduced to be desugarization, glucuronidation, sulfation, dehydroxylation, loss of C-17 and/or C-23 residue pathways. It was concluded that loss of rhamnose at position C-6 and glucuronidation at position C-3 in zebrafish were considered as the main physiologic and metabolic processes of ginsenosides F 4 and ginsenosides Rg 6 , respectively.

  11. Is arsenic biotransformation a detoxification mechanism for microorganisms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M. Azizur; Hassler, Christel

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentration. In aquatic systems, As exists in different chemical forms. The two major inorganic As (iAs) species are As V , which is thermodynamically stable in oxic waters, and As III , which is predominant in anoxic conditions. Photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., phytoplankton and cyanobacteria) take up As V , biotransform it to As III , then biomethylate it to methylarsenic (MetAs) forms. Although As III is more toxic than As V , As III is much more easily excreted from the cells than As V . Therefore, majority of researchers consider the reduction of As V to As III as a detoxification process. The biomethylation process results in the conversion of toxic iAs to the less toxic pentavalent MetAs forms (monomethylarsonate; MMA V , dimethylarsonate; DMA V , and trimethylarsenic oxide; TMAO V ) and trimethylarsine (TMAO III ). However, biomethylation by microorganisms also produces monomethylarsenite (MMA III ) and dimethylarsenite (DMA III ), which are more toxic than iAs, as a result of biomethylation by the microorganisms, demonstrates the need to reconsider to what extent As biomethylation contributes to a detoxification process. In this review, we focused on the discussion of whether the biotransformation of As species in microorganisms is really a detoxification process with recent data

  12. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beusekom, Cyrina D; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Koenderink, Jan B; Russel, Frans G M; Schrickx, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the feline-specific biotransformation of diazepam was studied with liver microsomes obtained from cats and dogs and the possible inhibition of the bile salt export pump (Bsep) was measured in isolated membrane vesicles overexpressing feline and canine Bsep. In line with previous in vivo studies, the phase I metabolites nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam were measurable in microsomal incubations, although enzyme velocity of demethylases and hydroxylases differed significantly between cats and dogs. In cats, the main metabolite was temazepam, which also could be glucuronidated. In contrast to dogs, no other glucuronidated metabolites could be observed. In addition, in the membrane vesicles an inhibition of the transport of the Bsep substrate taurocholic acid could be observed in the presence of diazepam and its metabolites. It was concluded that both mechanisms, the slow biotransformation of diazepam as well the inhibition of the bile acid efflux that results in an accumulation of bile acids in the hepatocytes, seem to contribute to the liver injury observed in cats following repetitive treatment with diazepam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Is arsenic biotransformation a detoxification mechanism for microorganisms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M. Azizur, E-mail: Mohammad.Rahman@uts.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Sustainability, School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Hassler, Christel [Marine and Lake Biogeochemistry, Institute F. A. Forel, University of Geneva, 10 rte de Suisse, Versoix, 1290 Switzerland (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentration. In aquatic systems, As exists in different chemical forms. The two major inorganic As (iAs) species are As{sup V}, which is thermodynamically stable in oxic waters, and As{sup III}, which is predominant in anoxic conditions. Photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., phytoplankton and cyanobacteria) take up As{sup V}, biotransform it to As{sup III}, then biomethylate it to methylarsenic (MetAs) forms. Although As{sup III} is more toxic than As{sup V}, As{sup III} is much more easily excreted from the cells than As{sup V}. Therefore, majority of researchers consider the reduction of As{sup V} to As{sup III} as a detoxification process. The biomethylation process results in the conversion of toxic iAs to the less toxic pentavalent MetAs forms (monomethylarsonate; MMA{sup V}, dimethylarsonate; DMA{sup V}, and trimethylarsenic oxide; TMAO{sup V}) and trimethylarsine (TMAO{sup III}). However, biomethylation by microorganisms also produces monomethylarsenite (MMA{sup III}) and dimethylarsenite (DMA{sup III}), which are more toxic than iAs, as a result of biomethylation by the microorganisms, demonstrates the need to reconsider to what extent As biomethylation contributes to a detoxification process. In this review, we focused on the discussion of whether the biotransformation of As species in microorganisms is really a detoxification process with recent data.

  14. Development of human biotransformation QSARs and application for PBT assessment refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Ester; Sangion, Alessandro; Arnot, Jon A; Gramatica, Paola

    2018-02-01

    Toxicokinetics heavily influence chemical toxicity as the result of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism (Biotransformation) and Elimination (ADME) processes. Biotransformation (metabolism) reactions can lead to detoxification or, in some cases, bioactivation of parent compounds to more toxic chemicals. Moreover, biotransformation has been recognized as a key process determining chemical half-life in an organism and is thus a key determinant for bioaccumulation assessment for many chemicals. This study addresses the development of QSAR models for the prediction of in vivo whole body human biotransformation (metabolism) half-lives measured or empirically-derived for over 1000 chemicals, mainly represented by pharmaceuticals. Models presented in this study meet regulatory standards for fitting, validation and applicability domain. These QSARs were used, in combination with literature models for the prediction of biotransformation half-lives in fish, to refine the screening of the potential PBT behaviour of over 1300 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs). The refinement of the PBT screening allowed, among others, for the identification of PPCPs, which were predicted as PBTs on the basis of their chemical structure, but may be easily biotransformed. These compounds are of lower concern in comparison to potential PBTs characterized by large predicted biotransformation half-lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-01-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT_5_0 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. - Highlights: • Biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs in an aerobic soil was investigated.

  16. Enantioselective biotransformation of propranolol to the active metabolite 4-hydroxypropranolol by endophytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyller Bastos Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The enantioselective biotransformation of propranolol (Prop by the endophytic fungi Phomopsis sp., Glomerella cingulata, Penicillium crustosum, Chaetomium globosum and Aspergillus fumigatus was investigated by studying the kinetics of the aromatic hydroxylation reaction with the formation of 4-hydroxypropranolol (4-OH-Prop. Both Prop enantiomers were consumed by the fungi in the biotransformation process, but the 4-hydroxylation reaction yielded preferentially (--(S-4-OH-Prop. The quantity of metabolites biosynthesized varied slightly among the evaluated endophytic fungi. These results show that all investigated endophytic fungi could be used as biosynthetic tools in biotransformation processes to obtain the enantiomers of 4-OH-Prop.

  17. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-05-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling of Pharmaceutical Biotransformation by Enriched Nitrifying Culture under Different Metabolic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yifeng; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-01-01

    Pharmaceutical removal could be significantly enhanced through cometabolism during nitrification processes. To date, pharmaceutical biotransformation models have not considered the formation of transformation products associated with the metabolic type of microorganisms. Here we report a comprehe......Pharmaceutical removal could be significantly enhanced through cometabolism during nitrification processes. To date, pharmaceutical biotransformation models have not considered the formation of transformation products associated with the metabolic type of microorganisms. Here we report...... a comprehensive model to describe and evaluate the biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and the formation of their biotransformation products by enriched nitrifying cultures. The biotransformation of parent compounds was linked to the microbial processes via cometabolism induced by ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB......) growth, metabolism by AOB, cometabolism by heterotrophs (HET) growth, and metabolism by HET in the model framework. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data from pharmaceutical biodegradation experiments at realistic levels, taking two pharmaceuticals as examples, i.e., atenolol...

  19. Dynamic Passive Dosing for Studying the Biotransformation of Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals: Microbial Degradation as an Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kilian E. C.; Rein, Arno; Trapp, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Biotransformation plays a key role in hydrophobic organic compound (HOC) fate, and understanding kinetics as a function of (bio)availability is critical for elucidating persistence, accumulation, and toxicity. Biotransformation mainly occurs in an aqueous environment, posing technical challenges...... for producing kinetic data because of low HOC solubilities and sorptive losses. To overcome these, a new experimental approach based on passive dosing is presented. This avoids using cosolvent for introducing the HOC substrate, buffers substrate depletion so biotransformation is measured within a narrow...... also similar for both PAHs, but decreased by around 2 orders of magnitude with increasing dissolved concentrations. Dynamic passive dosing is a useful tool for measuring biotransformation kinetics at realistically low and defined dissolved HOC concentrations....

  20. BIOACCUMULATION AND ENANTIOSELECTIVE BIOTRANSFORMATION OF FIPRONIL BY RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary accumulation and enantioselective biotransformation was determined for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to fipronil, a widely used chiral pesticide. Measurement of the fish carcass tissue (whole fish minus GI tract and liver) showed a rapid accumulation of fip...

  1. EFFECTS OF ANESTHESIA (MS222) ON LIVER BIOTRANSFORMATION IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (3-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfonate; MS222) is a widely used fish anaesthetic. While there have been several studies addressing the impact of its use on subsequently measured biotransformation rates, the measured influence on normal functio...

  2. Biotransformation of (+)-isofraxinellone by Aspergillus niger and insect antifeedant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Yoshiharu; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Tsurumi, Jun; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2018-01-24

    The biotransformation of (+)-isofraxinellone (1) by Aspergillus niger was investigated. Compound 1 was transformed to only one new compound 2. The structure of 2 was identified as (-)-(4S)-4-hydroxyisofraxinellone which was regio- and stereo-selective hydroxylated at the C-4 position by IR, EI-MS 1D and 2D NMR. Absolute configuration of hydroxyl group at the C-4 position was detected by modified Mosher's method. Antifeedant activity of compounds 1 and 2 against larvae of Spodoptera litura was assayed. These compounds showed potent antifeedant activity and ED 50 (50% of effective dose) values were 3.91 and 4.43 μg/cm 2 , respectively.

  3. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyanada S. Khanolkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM. Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2 through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites.

  4. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanolkar, Dnyanada S.; Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM). Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2) through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites. PMID:25763027

  5. Biotransformation of bergapten and xanthotoxin by Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2010-07-14

    The biotransformation of bergapten (1) by the fungus Glomerella cingulata gave the corresponding reduced acid, 6,7-furano-5-methoxy hydrocoumaric acid (2), a new compound. Xanthotoxin (3) was also converted to the corresponding reduced acid cnidiol b (4) and demethylated metabolite xanthotoxol (5) by G. cingulata. The structure of the new compound 2 was elucidated by high-resolution mass spectrometry, extensive NMR techniques, including (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteonuclear multiple bond coherence. The methyl ester or methyl ether or methyl ester and ether derivatives of 2 and 4 were synthesized. All compounds were tested for the beta-secretase (BACE1) inhibitory activity in vitro. The methyl ester and ether derivative 8 was shown to possess BACE1 inhibitory activity, and a IC(50) value was 0.64 +/- 0.04 mM.

  6. Consequences of bile salt biotransformations by intestinal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridlon, Jason M.; Harris, Spencer C.; Bhowmik, Shiva; Kang, Dae-Joong; Hylemon, Phillip B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Emerging evidence strongly suggest that the human “microbiome” plays an important role in both health and disease. Bile acids function both as detergents molecules promoting nutrient absorption in the intestines and as hormones regulating nutrient metabolism. Bile acids regulate metabolism via activation of specific nuclear receptors (NR) and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The circulating bile acid pool composition consists of primary bile acids produced from cholesterol in the liver, and secondary bile acids formed by specific gut bacteria. The various biotransformation of bile acids carried out by gut bacteria appear to regulate the structure of the gut microbiome and host physiology. Increased levels of secondary bile acids are associated with specific diseases of the GI system. Elucidating methods to control the gut microbiome and bile acid pool composition in humans may lead to a reduction in some of the major diseases of the liver, gall bladder and colon. PMID:26939849

  7. Biotransformation of Organic Waste into High Quality Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Sofie

    Agriculture faces several challenges of future provision of nutrients such as limited P reserves and increasing prices of synthetic fertilizers and recycling of nutrients from organic waste can be an important strategy for the long-term sustainability of the agricultural systems. Organically...... and S, is often low; and (3) the unbalanced composition of nutrients rarely matches crop demands. Therefore the objective of this project was to investigate the potential for (1) recycling nutrients from agro-industrial wastes and (2) compost biotransformation into high-quality organic fertilizers...... other uses into fertilizer use would be unlikely. An estimated ~50 % of the total organic waste pool, primarily consisting of animal manure and waste from the processing of sugar cane, coffee, oil palm and oranges, is currently being re-used as “fertilizers”, meaning it is eventually returned...

  8. [Synthesis, biotransformation and pharmacodynamics of a new theophylline derivative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschläger, H; Harsche, C; Engel, J

    1991-09-01

    7-[(RS)2-((S)-1-Methyl-2-phenyl-ethylamino)propyl]-theophylline (3) was not described until now. This fenetylline analogue is available by reaction of 7 with an excess of 2 at 150 degrees C. If 2 reacts with 4, an E2-elimination overwhelms SN-nucleophilic displacement yielding compound 5. In vivo studies with male White-Wistar rats, comparing biotransformation of 3 and 1, demonstrate, that the amount of 2 is decreased from 4.7% of (RS)-2 to 1%, probably due to steric hindrance of the attacking monooxygenases by the methyl group at C-11 of 3. Pharmacodynamic studies of 3, tested with mice, gave similar results to those obtained with 1.

  9. In vitro and biotransformational studies of aloe barbadensis mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badar, Z.; Khan, S.; Ali, S.K.; Choudhary, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue culture technology can play an important role in the yield improvement of active ingredients of medicinal plants. In the present study, the potential of regeneration system of Aloe barbadensis along with biotransformational ability was explored. The maximum calli (5.65+-1.90; fresh weight) were induced under the dark condition on MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of NAA (alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid), as compared to light. The highest number of shoots (12.725) were proliferated on MS regeneration medium, containing 1.0 mg/L of BAP (6-Benzyl Aminopurine) and 0.1 mg/L of IBA (Indole-3-Butyric Acid) incubated at 22 +- 2 degree C and 16/8 hr photoperiod provided by white fluorescent tube lights. These plantlets were then transferred onto root inducing medium and maximum number of roots (8.0 +- 0.70) with longer length (6.38 +- 0.34 cm) acquired at 1.0 mg/L of IBA within 14-20 days. The regenerated plants were shifted to green house for acclimatization. Effect of plant growth regulators and light was also assessed on callus cultures produced from conventionally propagated and in-vitro regenerated A. barbadensis plants. Biotransformation ability of Aloe barbadensis cell suspension culture was studied by incubation with (+)-adrenosterone (1), which afforded three products; D1-2-dehydroadrenosterone (2), 5a-androst-1-ene-3, 11, 17-trione (3) and 17b-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3, 11-dione (4). These metabolites were structurally characterized on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. (author)

  10. In vitro biotransformation rates in fish liver S9: effect of dosing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Shan; Lee, Danny H Y; Delafoulhouze, Maximilien; Otton, S Victoria; Moore, Margo M; Kennedy, Chris J; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2014-08-01

    In vitro biotransformation assays are currently being explored to improve estimates of bioconcentration factors of potentially bioaccumulative organic chemicals in fish. The present study compares thin-film and solvent-delivery dosing techniques as well as single versus multiple chemical dosing for measuring biotransformation rates of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver S9. The findings show that biotransformation rates of very hydrophobic substances can be accurately measured in thin-film sorbent-dosing assays from concentration-time profiles in the incubation medium but not from those in the sorbent phase because of low chemical film-to-incubation-medium mass-transfer rates at the incubation temperature of 13.5 °C required for trout liver assays. Biotransformation rates determined by thin-film dosing were greater than those determined by solvent-delivery dosing for chrysene (octanol-water partition coefficient [KOW ] =10(5.60) ) and benzo[a]pyrene (KOW  =10(6.04) ), whereas there were no statistical differences in pyrene (KOW  =10(5.18) ) biotransformation rates between the 2 methods. In sorbent delivery-based assays, simultaneous multiple-chemical dosing produced biotransformation rates that were not statistically different from those measured in single-chemical dosing experiments for pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene but not for chrysene. In solvent-delivery experiments, multiple-chemical dosing produced biotransformation rates that were much smaller than those in single-chemical dosing experiments for all test chemicals. While thin-film sorbent-phase and solvent delivery-based dosing methods are both suitable methods for measuring biotransformation rates of substances of intermediate hydrophobicity, thin-film sorbent-phase dosing may be more suitable for superhydrophobic chemicals. © 2014 SETAC.

  11. Biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bioformation of hydroxylated PCBs in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckman, Andrea H. [Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada); National Waters Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ont., Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Wong, Charles S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta. (Canada); Chow, Elaine A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta. (Canada); Brown, Scott B. [National Waters Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ont., L7R 4A6 (Canada); Solomon, Keith R. [Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada); Fisk, Aaron T. [Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152 (United States)]. E-mail: afisk@smokey.forestry.uga.edu

    2006-06-15

    Hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) are a class of organic contaminants that have been found recently in the plasma of Great Lakes fish, the source of which is either bioformation from PCBs or accumulation from the environment. To address the potential for fish to biotransform PCBs and bioform OH-PCBs juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; {approx}80 g) were exposed to dietary concentrations of an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Eight OH-PCBs were found in the plasma of rainbow trout after 30 days of exposure to the PCBs, the relative pattern of which was similar to those observed in wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario. Hydroxylated-PCBs were not found (detection limit 0.02 pg/g) in the food or control (not PCB-exposed) fish. A curvilinear log t {sub 1/2}-log K {sub ow} relationship for recalcitrant PCBs was found, similar to previously reported relationships, although t {sub 1/2} values were longer and shorter than studies using smaller fish or cooler temperatures, respectively. A number of PCB congeners fell below the log t {sub 1/2}-log K {sub ow} relationship providing the first estimates of non-chiral PCB biotransformation rates in fish. Enantioselective degradation of the chiral congeners PCBs 91 and 136, also indicated biotransformation. Biotransformation of PCBs was structure-dependent with greater biotransformation of PCBs with vicinal hydrogen atoms in the meta/para positions, suggesting CYP 2B-like biotransformation. Other chiral congeners with a meta/para substitution pattern showed no enantioselective degradation but were biotransformed based on the log t {sub 1/2}-log K {sub ow} relationship. The results of this study demonstrate that laboratory held rainbow trout can biotransform a number of PCB congeners and that bioformation is likely an important source of OH-PCBs in wild salmonids of the Great Lakes.

  12. Biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bioformation of hydroxylated PCBs in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, Andrea H.; Wong, Charles S.; Chow, Elaine A.; Brown, Scott B.; Solomon, Keith R.; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) are a class of organic contaminants that have been found recently in the plasma of Great Lakes fish, the source of which is either bioformation from PCBs or accumulation from the environment. To address the potential for fish to biotransform PCBs and bioform OH-PCBs juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; ∼80 g) were exposed to dietary concentrations of an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Eight OH-PCBs were found in the plasma of rainbow trout after 30 days of exposure to the PCBs, the relative pattern of which was similar to those observed in wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario. Hydroxylated-PCBs were not found (detection limit 0.02 pg/g) in the food or control (not PCB-exposed) fish. A curvilinear log t 1/2 -log K ow relationship for recalcitrant PCBs was found, similar to previously reported relationships, although t 1/2 values were longer and shorter than studies using smaller fish or cooler temperatures, respectively. A number of PCB congeners fell below the log t 1/2 -log K ow relationship providing the first estimates of non-chiral PCB biotransformation rates in fish. Enantioselective degradation of the chiral congeners PCBs 91 and 136, also indicated biotransformation. Biotransformation of PCBs was structure-dependent with greater biotransformation of PCBs with vicinal hydrogen atoms in the meta/para positions, suggesting CYP 2B-like biotransformation. Other chiral congeners with a meta/para substitution pattern showed no enantioselective degradation but were biotransformed based on the log t 1/2 -log K ow relationship. The results of this study demonstrate that laboratory held rainbow trout can biotransform a number of PCB congeners and that bioformation is likely an important source of OH-PCBs in wild salmonids of the Great Lakes

  13. Energy metabolism and biotransformation as endpoints to pre-screen hepatotoxicity using a liver spheroid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jinsheng; Purcell, Wendy M.

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated liver spheroid culture as an in vitro model to evaluate the endpoints relevant to the status of energy metabolism and biotransformation after exposure to test toxicants. Mature rat liver spheroids were exposed to diclofenac, galactosamine, isoniazid, paracetamol, m-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB) and 3-nitroaniline (3-NA) for 24 h. Pyruvate uptake, galactose biotransformation, lactate release and glucose secretion were evaluated after exposure. The results showed that pyruvate uptake and lactate release by mature liver spheroids in culture were maintained at a relatively stable level. These endpoints, together with glucose secretion and galactose biotransformation, were related to and could reflect the status of energy metabolism and biotransformation in hepatocytes. After exposure, all of the test agents significantly reduced glucose secretion, which was shown to be the most sensitive endpoint of those evaluated. Diclofenac, isoniazid, paracetamol and galactosamine reduced lactate release (P < 0.01), but m-DNB increased lactate release (P < 0.01). Diclofenac, isoniazid and paracetamol also reduced pyruvate uptake (P < 0.01), while galactosamine had little discernible effect. Diclofenac, galactosamine, paracetamol and m-DNB also reduced galactose biotransformation (P < 0.01), by contrast, isoniazid did not. The metabolite of m-DNB, 3-NA, which served as a negative control, did not cause significant changes in lactate release, pyruvate uptake or galactose biotransformation. It is concluded that pyruvate uptake, galactose biotransformation, lactate release and glucose secretion can be used as endpoints for evaluating the status of energy metabolism and biotransformation after exposure to test agents using the liver spheroid model to pre-screen hepatotoxicity

  14. Biotransformation and sorption of trace organic compounds in biological nutrient removal treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarasimman, Narasimman; Quiñones, Oscar; Vanderford, Brett J; Campo-Moreno, Pablo; Dickenson, Eric V; McAvoy, Drew C

    2018-05-28

    This study determined biotransformation rates (k bio ) and sorption-distribution coefficients (K d ) for a select group of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) in anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic activated sludge collected from two different biological nutrient removal (BNR) treatment systems located in Nevada (NV) and Ohio (OH) in the United States (US). The NV and OH facilities operated at solids retention times (SRTs) of 8 and 23 days, respectively. Using microwave-assisted extraction, the biotransformation rates of the chosen TOrCs were measured in the total mixed liquor. Sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and atenolol biotransformed in all three redox regimes irrespective of the activated sludge source. The biotransformation of N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), triclosan, and benzotriazole was observed in aerobic activated sludge from both treatment plants; however, anoxic biotransformation of these three compounds was seen only in anoxic activated sludge from NV. Carbamazepine was recalcitrant in all three redox regimes and both sources of activated sludge. Atenolol and DEET had greater biotransformation rates in activated sludge with a higher SRT (23 days), while trimethoprim had a higher biotransformation rate in activated sludge with a lower SRT (8 days). The remaining compounds did not show any dependence on SRT. Lyophilized, heat inactivated sludge solids were used to determine the sorption-distribution coefficients. Triclosan was the most sorptive compound followed by carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, DEET, and benzotriazole. The sorption-distribution coefficients were similar across redox conditions and sludge sources. The biotransformation rates and sorption-distribution coefficients determined in this study can be used to improve fate prediction of the target TOrCs in BNR treatment systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Influence of Aroclor 1242 Concentration on Polychlorinated Biphenyl Biotransformations in Hudson River Test Tube Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    When 93.3 to 933 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added to Hudson River sediment test tube microcosms, the rates of polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations increased with increasing Aroclor 1242 concentration after a 4- to 8-week acclimation period. In contrast, when 37.3 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added, polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations occurred at slow constant rates. PMID:16535387

  16. Biotransformation of tetracycline by a novel bacterial strain Stenotrophomonas maltophilia DT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yifei; Bao, Jianguo; Chang, Gaofeng; Zheng, Han; Li, Xingxing; Du, Jiangkun; Snow, Daniel; Li, Xu

    2016-11-15

    Although several abiotic processes have been reported that can transform antibiotics, little is known about whether and how microbiological processes may degrade antibiotics in the environment. This work isolated one tetracycline degrading bacterial strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain DT1, and characterized the biotransformation of tetracycline by DT1 under various environmental conditions. The biotransformation rate was the highest when the initial pH was 9 and the reaction temperature was at 30°C, and can be described using the Michaelis-Menten model under different initial tetracycline concentrations. When additional substrate was present, the substrate that caused increased biomass resulted in a decreased biotransformation rate of tetracycline. According to disk diffusion tests, the biotransformation products of tetracycline had lower antibiotic potency than the parent compound. Six possible biotransformation products were identified, and a potential biotransformation pathway was proposed that included sequential removal of N-methyl, carbonyl, and amine function groups. Results from this study can lead to better estimation of the fate and transport of antibiotics in the environment and has the potential to be utilized in designing engineering processes to remove tetracycline from water and soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Monte Carlo simulation method for assessing biotransformation effects on groundwater fuel hydrocarbon plume lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, W.W. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Biotransformation of dissolved groundwater hydrocarbon plumes emanating from leaking underground fuel tanks should, in principle, result in plume length stabilization over relatively short distances, thus diminishing the environmental risk. However, because the behavior of hydrocarbon plumes is usually poorly constrained at most leaking underground fuel tank sites in terms of release history, groundwater velocity, dispersion, as well as the biotransformation rate, demonstrating such a limitation in plume length is problematic. Biotransformation signatures in the aquifer geochemistry, most notably elevated bicarbonate, may offer a means of constraining the relationship between plume length and the mean biotransformation rate. In this study, modeled plume lengths and spatial bicarbonate differences among a population of synthetic hydrocarbon plumes, generated through Monte Carlo simulation of an analytical solute transport model, are compared to field observations from six underground storage tank (UST) sites at military bases in California. Simulation results indicate that the relationship between plume length and the distribution of bicarbonate is best explained by biotransformation rates that are consistent with ranges commonly reported in the literature. This finding suggests that bicarbonate can indeed provide an independent means for evaluating limitations in hydrocarbon plume length resulting from biotransformation. (Author)

  18. pH-dependent biotransformation of ionizable organic micropollutants in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulde, Rebekka; Helbling, Damian E; Scheidegger, Andreas; Fenner, Kathrin

    2014-12-02

    Removal of micropollutants (MPs) during activated sludge treatment can mainly be attributed to biotransformation and sorption to sludge flocs, whereby the latter process is known to be of minor importance for polar organic micropollutants. In this work, we investigated the influence of pH on the biotransformation of MPs with cationic-neutral speciation in an activated sludge microbial community. We performed batch biotransformation, sorption control, and abiotic control experiments for 15 MPs with cationic-neutral speciation, one control MP with neutral-anionic speciation, and two neutral MPs at pHs 6, 7, and 8. Biotransformation rate constants corrected for sorption and abiotic processes were estimated from measured concentration time series with Bayesian inference. We found that biotransformation is pH-dependent and correlates qualitatively with the neutral fraction of the ionizable MPs. However, a simple speciation model based on the assumption that only the neutral species is efficiently taken up and biotransformed by the cells tends to overpredict the effect of speciation. Therefore, additional mechanisms such as uptake of the ionic species and other more complex attenutation mechanisms are discussed. Finally, we observed that the sorption coefficients derived from our control experiments were small and showed no notable pH-dependence. From this we conclude that pH-dependent removal of polar, ionizable organic MPs in activated sludge systems is less likely an effect of pH-dependent sorption but rather of pH-dependent biotransformation. The latter has the potential to cause marked differences in the removal of polar, ionizable MPs at different operational pHs during activated sludge treatment.

  19. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and Pu-EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, H. Jr.; Rai, D.; Xun, L.

    2005-01-01

    The complexation of radionuclides (e.g., plutonium (Pu) and 60 Co) by codisposed ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) has enhanced their transport in sediments at DOE sites. Our previous NABIR research investigated the aerobic biodegradation and biogeochemistry of Pu(IV)-EDTA. Plutonium(IV) forms stable complexes with EDTA under aerobic conditions and an aerobic EDTA degrading bacterium can degrade EDTA in the presence of Pu and decrease Pu mobility. However, our recent studies indicate that while Pu(IV)-EDTA is stable in simple aqueous systems, it is not stable in the presence of relatively soluble Fe(III) compounds (i.e., Fe(OH) 3 (s)--2-line ferrihydrite). Since most DOE sites have Fe(III) containing sediments, Pu(IV) in likely not the mobile form of Pu-EDTA in groundwater. The only other Pu-EDTA complex stable in groundwater relevant to DOE sites would be Pu(III)-EDTA, which only forms under anaerobic conditions. Research is therefore needed in this brand new project to investigate the biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under anaerobic conditions. The biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under various anaerobic regimes is poorly understood including the reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) from soluble (Pu(IV)-EDTA) and insoluble Pu(IV) as PuO2(am) by metal reducing bacteria, the redox conditions required for this reduction, the strength of the Pu(III)-EDTA complex, how the Pu(III)-EDTA complex competes with other dominant anoxic soluble metals (e.g., Fe(II)), and the oxidation kinetics of Pu(III)-EDTA. Finally, the formation of a stable soluble Pu(III)-EDTA complex under anaerobic conditions would require degradation of the EDTA complex to limit Pu(III) transport in geologic environments. Anaerobic EDTA degrading microorganisms have not been isolated. These knowledge gaps preclude the development of a mechanistic understanding of how anaerobic conditions will influence Pu and Pu-EDTA fate and transport to assess, model, and design approaches to stop Pu

  20. Biotransformation and nephrotoxicity of ochratoxin B in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mally, Angela; Keim-Heusler, Heike; Amberg, Alexander; Kurz, Michael; Zepnik, Herbert; Mantle, Peter; Voelkel, Wolfgang; Hard, Gordon C.; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Ochratoxin B (OTB), a secondary metabolite of Aspergillus ochraceus, is the nonchlorinated analogue of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), which is one of the most potent renal carcinogens in rodents. Despite the closely related structure, OTB is considered to be of much lower toxicity. OTA is poorly metabolized and slowly eliminated, and this may play an important role in OTA toxicity, carcinogenicity, and organ specificity. Since little is known regarding biotransformation and renal toxicity of OTB, the aim of this study was to investigate biotransformation of OTB in rats and to characterize the nephrotoxicity and cytotoxicity of OTB. Male F344 rats were administered either a single dose of OTB (10 mg/kg bw) or repeated doses (2 mg/kg bw, 5 days/week for 2 weeks) and euthanized 72 h after the last dosing. In proximal tubule cells of animals treated with a single high dose of OTB, a slight increase in mitotic figures was observed, but no treatment-related changes were evident in clinical chemistry, in renal function, and histopathology after repeated administration. Excretion of OTB and metabolites in urine and feces was analyzed using both HPLC with fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. Ochratoxin beta, which results from cleavage of the peptide bond, was the major metabolite excreted in urine in addition to small amounts of 4-hydroxy-OTB. In total, 19% of the administered dose was recovered as OTB and ochratoxin beta in urine and feces within 72 h after a single dose. In contrast to OTA, no tissue-specific retention of OTB was evident after single and repeated administration. In LLC-PK1 cells, a renal cell culture system that retains much of the specific features of the proximal tubule, only minor differences in the extent of cytotoxicity of OTA and OTB were observed. At low concentrations (< 25 μM), treatment with OTA was slightly more toxic, whereas reduction in cell viability was similar at concentrations up to 100 μM. In summary, these data suggest that OTA

  1. Microbial biotransformation of DON: molecular basis for reduced toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Alix; Mimoun, Sabria; Murate, Leticia S.; Loiseau, Nicolas; Lippi, Yannick; Bracarense, Ana-Paula F. L.; Schatzmayr, Gerd; He, Jian Wei; Zhou, Ting; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria are able to de-epoxidize or epimerize deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, to deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (deepoxy-DON or DOM-1) or 3-epi-deoxynivalenol (3-epi-DON), respectively. Using different approaches, the intestinal toxicity of 3 molecules was compared and the molecular basis for the reduced toxicity investigated. In human intestinal epithelial cells, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON were not cytotoxic, did not change the oxygen consumption or impair the barrier function. In intestinal explants, exposure for 4 hours to 10 μM DON induced intestinal lesions not seen in explants treated with deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON. A pan-genomic transcriptomic analysis was performed on intestinal explants. 747 probes, representing 323 genes, were differentially expressed, between DON-treated and control explants. By contrast, no differentially expressed genes were observed between control, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON treated explants. Both DON and its biotransformation products were able to fit into the pockets of the A-site of the ribosome peptidyl transferase center. DON forms three hydrogen bonds with the A site and activates MAPKinases (mitogen-activated protein kinases). By contrast deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON only form two hydrogen bonds and do not activate MAPKinases. Our data demonstrate that bacterial de-epoxidation or epimerization of DON altered their interaction with the ribosome, leading to an absence of MAPKinase activation and a reduced toxicity.

  2. Disposition and biotransformation of the acetylenic retinoid tazarotene in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Mayssa; Yu, Dale; Ni, Jinsong; Yu, Zhiling; Ling, Kah-Hiing John; Tang-Liu, Diane D-S

    2005-10-01

    Oral tazarotene, an acetylenic retinoid, is in clinical development for the treatment of psoriasis. The disposition and biotransformation of tazarotene were investigated in six healthy male volunteers, following a single oral administration of a 6 mg (100 microCi) dose of [14C]tazarotene, in a gelatin capsule. Blood levels of radioactivity peaked 2 h postdose and then rapidly declined. Total recovery of radioactivity was 89.2+/-8.0% of the administered dose, with 26.1+/-4.2% in urine and 63.0+/-7.0% in feces, within 7 days of dosing. Only tazarotenic acid, the principle active metabolite formed via esterase hydrolysis of tazarotene, was detected in blood. One major urinary oxidative metabolite, tazarotenic acid sulfoxide, accounted for 19.2+/-3.0% of the dose. The majority of radioactivity recovered in the feces was attributed to tazarotenic acid representing 46.9+/-9.9% of the dose and only 5.82+/-3.84% of dose was excreted as unchanged tazarotene. Thus following oral administration, tazarotene was rapidly absorbed and underwent extensive hydrolysis to tazarotenic acid, the major circulating species in the blood that was then excreted unchanged in feces. A smaller fraction of tazarotenic acid was further metabolized to an inactive sulfoxide that was excreted in the urine. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  3. Biotransformation of hydralazine (HDZ) in monolayer cultures of rabbit hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQueen, C.A.; Rosado, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Adverse reactions to HDZ have been associated with the acetylator polymorphism; slow acetylators are more likely to develop HDZ-induced lupus erythematosus. In studying the role of this polymorphism in susceptibility to HDZ toxicity, the biotransformation of HDZ was investigated in rabbit hepatocytes. New Zealand white rabbits, like humans, are classified as rapid or slow acetylators. Heptocytes were isolated from rapid acetylator rabbits by collagenase perfusion. Monolayer cultures were initiated and exposed to 14 C-HDZ. Since HDZ is unstable at neutral pH, parallel incubations were done in the absence of cells. Metabolites in the media were determined by reverse phase HPLC. Phthalazine (P), phthalazinone (PZ), triazoloph-thalazine (TP), methyl TP (MTP) and 3-hydroxy MTP were identified. In the absence of cells, more TP was formed than MTP, probably resulting from reaction of HDZ with components in the medium. In the presence of cells, there was a three-fold increase in MTP, while the amount of TP was relatively constant. Only trace amounts of P, PZ 3-hydroxy MTP were detected. These data indicate that monolayer cultures of rapid acetylator rabbit hepatocytes were capable of metabolizing HDZ with acetylation playing a major role. These studies are being extended to cells from slow acetylator rabbits

  4. Biotransformation of cannabidiol in mice. Identification of new acid metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B R; Harvey, D J; Paton, W D

    1977-01-01

    The in vivo metabolism of cannabidiol (CBD) was investigated in mice. Following the ip administration of CBD to mice, livers were removed and metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate prior to partial purification on Sephadex LH-20 columns. Fractions from the columns were converted into trimethylsilyl, d9-trimethylsilyl, and methylester-trimethylsilyl derivatives for analysis by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, metabolites containing carboxylic acid and ketone functional groups were reduced to alcohols with lithium aluminum deuteride before trimethylsilation. A total of 22 metabolites were characterized, 14 of which had not been reported previously. The metabolites could be categorized as follows: monohydroxylated (N=2), dihydroxylated (N=3), CBD-7-oic acid, side chain hydroxy-GBD-7-oic acids (N=3), side-chain acids (N=3), 7-hydroxy-side-chain acids (N=4), 6-oxo-side-chain acids (N=3) and glucuronide conjugates (N=3). The most significant biotransformations were glucuronide conjugation and, to a lesser extent, formation of CBD-7-oic acid.

  5. Indolealkylamines: biotransformations and potential drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ai-Ming

    2008-06-01

    Indolealkylamine (IAA) drugs are 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) analogs that mainly act on the serotonin system. Some IAAs are clinically utilized for antimigraine therapy, whereas other substances are notable as drugs of abuse. In the clinical evaluation of antimigraine triptan drugs, studies on their biotransformations and pharmacokinetics would facilitate the understanding and prevention of unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs). A stable, principal metabolite of an IAA drug of abuse could serve as a useful biomarker in assessing intoxication of the IAA substance. Studies on the metabolism of IAA drugs of abuse including lysergic acid amides, tryptamine derivatives and beta-carbolines are therefore emerging. An important role for polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in the metabolism of IAA drugs of abuse has been revealed by recent studies, suggesting that variations in IAA metabolism, pharmaco- or toxicokinetics and dynamics can arise from distinct CYP2D6 status, and CYP2D6 polymorphism may represent an additional risk factor in the use of these IAA drugs. Furthermore, DDIs with IAA agents could occur additively at the pharmaco/toxicokinetic and dynamic levels, leading to severe or even fatal serotonin toxicity. In this review, the metabolism and potential DDIs of these therapeutic and abused IAA drugs are described.

  6. Biotransformation of an africanane sesquiterpene by the fungus Mucor plumbeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Braulio M; Díaz, Carmen E; Amador, Leonardo J; Reina, Matías; López-Rodriguez, Matías; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one angelate by the fungus Mucor plumbeus afforded as main products 6α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate and 1α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate, which had been obtained, together with the substrate, from transformed root cultures of Bethencourtia hermosae. This fact shows that the enzyme system involved in these hydroxylations in both organisms, the fungus and the plant, acts with the same regio- and stereospecificity. In addition another twelve derivatives were isolated in the incubation of the substrate, which were identified as the (2'R,3'R)- and (2'S,3'S)-epoxy derivatives of the substrate and of the 6α- and 1α-hydroxy alcohols, the 8β-(2'R,3'R)- and 8β-(2'S,3'S)-epoxyangelate of 8β,15-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one, the hydrolysis product of the substrate, and three isomers of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 2ξ,3ξ-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate. The insect antifeedant effects of the pure compounds were tested against chewing and sucking insect species along with their selective cytotoxicity against insect (Sf9) and mammalian (CHO) cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biotransformation and detoxication of molinate (Ordram) in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjeerdema, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Bioconcentration, deputation, and biotransformation of molinate were compared in common carp (cyprinus carpio), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and white sturgeon (acipenser transmontanus) using a flow-through metabolism system. When compared to static conditions, flowing water improved oxygenation, decreased chemical volatilization and remetabolism, and run through a macroreticular resin, improved waste-product collection. Metabolite analysis employed gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography. Exposure to 100 μg L -1 [ring- 14 C]molinate for 24 h resulted in bioconcentration factors of 30.5 (carp), 25.3 (bass), and 19.7 (sturgeon); differences were not significant (all, P > 0.05). 14 C depuration by common carp was significantly slower than that by either striped bass or white sturgeon (both, P < 0.01). All three species oxidized molinate to a number of products and hydrolyzed, or conjugated with glutathione (GSH), the sulfoxide or sulfone, ultimately producing the mercapturic acid; carp and sturgeon also formed a D-glucuronic acid conjugate. Common carp were significantly less capable of sulfoxidation and GSH conjugation than either striped bass (P < 0.05) or white sturgeon (P < 0.01). Therefore, the selective toxicity of molinate in carp may be due to less efficient depuration and metabolic deactivation

  8. Aerobic biotransformation of 3-methylindole to ring cleavage products by Cupriavidus sp. strain KK10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Kimiko; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    3-Methylindole, also referred to as skatole, is a pollutant of environmental concern due to its persistence, mobility and potential health impacts. Petroleum refining, intensive livestock production and application of biosolids to agricultural lands result in releases of 3-methylindole to the environment. Even so, little is known about the aerobic biodegradation of 3-methylindole and comprehensive biotransformation pathways have not been established. Using glycerol as feedstock, the soil bacterium Cupriavidus sp. strain KK10 biodegraded 100 mg/L of 3-methylindole in 24 h. Cometabolic 3-methylindole biodegradation was confirmed by the identification of biotransformation products through liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses. In all, 14 3-methylindole biotransformation products were identified which revealed that biotransformation occurred through different pathways that included carbocyclic aromatic ring-fission of 3-methylindole to single-ring pyrrole carboxylic acids. This work provides first comprehensive evidence for the aerobic biotransformation mechanisms of 3-methylindole by a soil bacterium and expands our understanding of the biodegradative capabilities of members of the genus Cupriavidus towards heteroaromatic pollutants.

  9. Optimisation of α-terpineol production by limonene biotransformation using Penicillium digitatum DSM 62840.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Ya-Nan; Xu, Min; Ren, Jing-Nan; Dong, Man; Yang, Zi-Yu; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2016-02-01

    In this study, (R)-(+)-limonene biotransformation using three fungal strains was compared. Penicillium digitatum DSM 62840 was distinguished for its capacity to transform limonene into α-terpineol with high regioselectivity. Growth kinetics in submerged liquid culture and the effects of growth phase and contact time on biotransformation were studied using this strain. Substrate concentration, co-solvent selection, and cultivation conditions were subsequently optimised. The maximum concentration of α-terpineol (833.93 mg L(-1)) was obtained when the pre-culture medium was in medium log-phase by adding 840 mg L(-1) substrate dissolved in ethanol and cultivation was performed at 24 °C, 150 rpm, and pH 6.0 for 12 h. Addition of small amounts of (R)-(+)-limonene (84 mg L(-1)) at the start of fungal log-phase growth yielded a 1.5-fold yield of α-terpineol, indicating that the enzyme was inducible. Among these three strains tested, P. digitatum DSM 62840 was proved to be an efficient biocatalyst to transform (R)-(+)-limonene to α-terpineol. Further studies revealed that the optimal growth phase for biotransformation was in the medium log phase of this strain. The biotransformation represented a wide tolerance of temperature; α-terpineol concentration underwent no significant change at 8-32 °C. The biotransformation could also be performed using resting cells. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Formation of harmful compounds in biotransformation of lilial by microorganisms isolated from human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Afshari, Shima; Esmaeili, Davood

    2015-01-01

    The biotransformation of lilial results in an acid that is used in the dairy industry, in perfumery, as an intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and as a food additive for enhancing taste. This study investigates the biotransformation of lilial by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, two bacterial species isolated from human skin. Both species of Staphylococcus were isolated in samples taken from the skin of individuals living in a rural area of Iran. The pH of the culture medium was optimized, and after culturing the microorganisms, the bacteria were added to a flask containing a nutrient broth and incubated for several hours. The flasks of bacteria were combined with lilial, and various biochemical tests and diagnostics were performed, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The S. aureus produced isobutyric acid (2-methylpropanoic acid) after 72 h (71% of the total products yielded during biotransformation), whereas the S. epidermidis produced terpenoid alcoholic media after 24 h (90% of total products obtained). The results obtained indicate that biotransformation of lilial by S. aureus is more desirable than by S. epidermidis due to the highly efficient production of a single product. Bourgeonal and liliol were two toxic compounds produced during biotransformation, which indicates that the use of lilial in cosmetics can be harmful to the skin.

  11. Applications and Mechanisms of Ionic Liquids in Whole-Cell Biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lin-Lin; Li, Hong-Ji; Chen, Qi-He

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs), entirely composed of cations and anions, are liquid solvents at room temperature. They are interesting due to their low vapor pressure, high polarity and thermostability, and also for the possibility to fine-tune their physicochemical properties through modification of the chemical structures of their cations or anions. In recent years, ILs have been widely used in biotechnological fields involving whole-cell biotransformations of biodiesel or biomass, and organic compound synthesis with cells. Research studies in these fields have increased from the past decades and compared to the typical solvents, ILs are the most promising alternative solvents for cell biotransformations. However, there are increasing limitations and new challenges in whole-cell biotransformations with ILs. There is little understanding of the mechanisms of ILs’ interactions with cells, and much remains to be clarified. Further investigations are required to overcome the drawbacks of their applications and to broaden their application spectrum. This work mainly reviews the applications of ILs in whole-cell biotransformations, and the possible mechanisms of ILs in microbial cell biotransformation are proposed and discussed. PMID:25007820

  12. Applications and mechanisms of ionic liquids in whole-cell biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lin-Lin; Li, Hong-Ji; Chen, Qi-He

    2014-07-09

    Ionic liquids (ILs), entirely composed of cations and anions, are liquid solvents at room temperature. They are interesting due to their low vapor pressure, high polarity and thermostability, and also for the possibility to fine-tune their physicochemical properties through modification of the chemical structures of their cations or anions. In recent years, ILs have been widely used in biotechnological fields involving whole-cell biotransformations of biodiesel or biomass, and organic compound synthesis with cells. Research studies in these fields have increased from the past decades and compared to the typical solvents, ILs are the most promising alternative solvents for cell biotransformations. However, there are increasing limitations and new challenges in whole-cell biotransformations with ILs. There is little understanding of the mechanisms of ILs' interactions with cells, and much remains to be clarified. Further investigations are required to overcome the drawbacks of their applications and to broaden their application spectrum. This work mainly reviews the applications of ILs in whole-cell biotransformations, and the possible mechanisms of ILs in microbial cell biotransformation are proposed and discussed.

  13. Biotransformation of trace organic compounds by activated sludge from a biological nutrient removal treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Flowers, Riley; McAvoy, Drew; Dickenson, Eric

    2016-09-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) and their biotransformation rates, kb (LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) was investigated across different redox zones in a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system using an OECD batch test. Biodegradation kinetics of fourteen TOrCs with initial concentration of 1-36μgL(-)(1) in activated sludge were monitored over the course of 24h. Degradation kinetic behavior for the TOrCs fell into four groupings: Group 1 (atenolol) was biotransformed (0.018-0.22LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions. Group 2 (meprobamate and trimethoprim) biotransformed (0.01-0.21LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anoxic and aerobic conditions, Group 3 (DEET, gemfibrozil and triclosan) only biotransformed (0.034-0.26LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under aerobic conditions, and Group 4 (carbamazepine, primidone, sucralose and TCEP) exhibited little to no biotransformation (<0.001LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under any redox conditions. BNR treatment did not provide a barrier against Group 4 compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mixed function oxidase dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls by different species of fish from the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrtens, G.; Laturnus, F.

    1999-01-01

    Mixed function oxidase (MFO) dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in three different fish species from the North Sea. Liver microsomes of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), dab (Limanda limanda) and cod (Gadus morhua) were isolated and incubated with different....... Biotransformations were also species dependent. The flatfish dab and plaice exhibited higher metabolic rates than cod (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Biotransformation of soy flour isoflavones by Aspergillus niger NRRL 3122 β-glucosidase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdella, Asmaa; El-Baz, Ashraf F; Ibrahim, Ibrahim A; Mahrous, Emad Eldin; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-12-11

    β-glucosidase enzyme produced from Aspergillus niger NRRL 3122 has been partially purified and characterised. Its molecular weight was 180 KDa. The optimal pH and temperature were 3.98 and 55 °C, respectively. It promoted the hydrolysis of soy flour isoflavone glycosides to their aglycone. Two-level Plackett-Burman design was applied and effective variables for genistein production were determined. Reaction time had a significant positive effect, and pH had a significant negative effect. They were further evaluated using Box-Behnken model. Accordingly, the optimal combination of the major reaction affecting factors was reaction time, 5 h and pH, 4. The concentration of genistein increased by 11.73 folds using this optimal combination. The antioxidant activity of the non-biotransformed and biotransformed soy flour extracts was determined by DPPH method. It was found that biotransformation increased the antioxidant activity by four folds.

  16. Biotransformation of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in isolated bovine pulmonary artery (BPA) and bovine pulmonary vein (BPV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A proposed mechanism of GTN-induced vasodilation requires biotransformation of GTN to glyceryl dinitrate (GDN). They have previously shown that GTN is metabolized to GDN during relaxation of isolated rabbit aorta. The authors have extended this study to include BPA and BPV and to determine if their sensitivity to GTN correlates with their ability to metabolize GTN. Strips of BPA and BPV were contracted submaximally with KCl and then incubated with 0.5 μM 14 C-GTN for 2 min. GTN-induced relaxation of these vessels was monitored and tissue GTN and metabolite concentrations were measured. Data are presented which support the above hypothesis that GTN biotransformation and relaxation occur together in vascular smooth muscle; however, there appear to be factors other than extent of GTN biotransformation that account for the difference in sensitivity to GTN of the artery and vein

  17. Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives.

  18. Phenolic biotransformations during conversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kumar, Balvir

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives.

  19. Production of biovanillin by one-step biotransformation using fungus Pycnoporous cinnabarinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilay, Ashwini; Bule, Mahesh; Annapure, Uday

    2010-04-14

    The current study proposes a one-step biotransformation process for vanillin production from ferulic acid using the wild fungal strain Pycnoporous cinnabarinus belonging to the family Basidiomycete. Improvement of biotransformation conditions was performed in two steps; initially a one factor at a time method was used to investigate effects of medium composition variables (i.e., carbon, nitrogen) and environmental factors such as pH on vanillin production. Subsequently, concentrations of medium components were optimized using an orthogonal matrix method. After primary screening, glucose as carbon source and corn steep liquor and ammonium chloride as organic and inorganic nitrogen source, respectively, supported maximum biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin. Under statistically optimum conditions vanillin production from ferulic acid by P. cinnabarinus was 126 mg/L with a molar yield of 54%. The overall molar yield of vanillin production increased by 4 times.

  20. Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives. PMID:24066293

  1. The potential of cloud point system as a novel two-phase partitioning system for biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilong

    2007-05-01

    Although the extractive biotransformation in two-phase partitioning systems have been studied extensively, such as the water-organic solvent two-phase system, the aqueous two-phase system, the reverse micelle system, and the room temperature ionic liquid, etc., this has not yet resulted in a widespread industrial application. Based on the discussion of the main obstacles, an exploitation of a cloud point system, which has already been applied in a separation field known as a cloud point extraction, as a novel two-phase partitioning system for biotransformation, is reviewed by analysis of some topical examples. At the end of the review, the process control and downstream processing in the application of the novel two-phase partitioning system for biotransformation are also briefly discussed.

  2. Effect of cystamine on postirradiation changes in action and biotransformation of hexobarbital (Narcosan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciak, Z.; Kozaryn, I.; Szczawinska, K.; Ratka, A.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of cystamine (100 mg/kg i.p.) on hypnotic potency and biotransformation of hexobarbital (180 mg/kg i.p.) in irradiated rats was examined. Cystamine used as a radioprotector shortend duration of hexobarbital-induced sleep, which is prolonged during radiation sickness. Although in normal rats cystamine has no effect on the activity of hexobarbital oxidase and hexobarbital biotransformation, higher activity of the enzyme and increased elimination of hexobarbital metabolites after cystamine were observed in irradiated rats. Such results confirmed radioprotective action of cystamine. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  3. Biotransformation of chalcones by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from Paspalum maritimum trin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Marivaldo J.C.; Nunes, Fatima M.; Bitencourt, Heriberto R.; Borges, Fabio C.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P.; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Marinho, Andrey M. R.; Santos, Alberdan S.; Alves, Claudio N.; Santos, Lourivaldo S., E-mail: lss@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (IQ/FEQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Brasil, Davi S.B. [Universidade Federal do Para (PPGQ/IQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated as endophytic of the plant Paspalum maritimum Trin. was evaluated for its potential application in biotransformation reactions. The compounds chalcone (1), 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone (2) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxy chalcone (3) were biotransformed, respectively, in dihydrochalcone (4), 3,4,5-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (5) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxydihydrochalcone (6). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and MS analysis. The dihydrochalcones 5 and 6 are new compounds. (author)

  4. Biotransformation of chalcones by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from Paspalum maritimum trin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Marivaldo J.C.; Nunes, Fatima M.; Bitencourt, Heriberto R.; Borges, Fabio C.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P.; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Marinho, Andrey M. R.; Santos, Alberdan S.; Alves, Claudio N.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Brasil, Davi S.B.

    2011-01-01

    The fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated as endophytic of the plant Paspalum maritimum Trin. was evaluated for its potential application in biotransformation reactions. The compounds chalcone (1), 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone (2) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxy chalcone (3) were biotransformed, respectively, in dihydrochalcone (4), 3,4,5-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (5) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxydihydrochalcone (6). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and MS analysis. The dihydrochalcones 5 and 6 are new compounds. (author)

  5. Biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene by the marine polychaete Nereis virens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Giessing, Anders M. B.; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2005-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene was investigated in the marine polychaete Nereis virens. Assays were designed to characterize phase I and II enzymes isolated from gut tissue. High-pressure liquid chromatography measurement of 1-hydroxypyr......In vivo and in vitro biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene was investigated in the marine polychaete Nereis virens. Assays were designed to characterize phase I and II enzymes isolated from gut tissue. High-pressure liquid chromatography measurement of 1...

  6. Concentration dependence of biotransformation in fish liver S9: Optimizing substrate concentrations to estimate hepatic clearance for bioaccumulation assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Justin C; Allard, Gayatri N; Otton, S Victoria; Campbell, David A; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2015-12-01

    In vitro bioassays to estimate biotransformation rate constants of contaminants in fish are currently being investigated to improve bioaccumulation assessments of hydrophobic contaminants. The present study investigates the relationship between chemical substrate concentration and in vitro biotransformation rate of 4 environmental contaminants (9-methylanthracene, pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver S9 fractions and methods to determine maximum first-order biotransformation rate constants. Substrate depletion experiments using a series of initial substrate concentrations showed that in vitro biotransformation rates exhibit strong concentration dependence, consistent with a Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. The results indicate that depletion rate constants measured at initial substrate concentrations of 1 μM (a current convention) could underestimate the in vitro biotransformation potential and may cause bioconcentration factors to be overestimated if in vitro biotransformation rates are used to assess bioconcentration factors in fish. Depletion rate constants measured using thin-film sorbent dosing experiments were not statistically different from the maximum depletion rate constants derived using a series of solvent delivery-based depletion experiments for 3 of the 4 test chemicals. Multiple solvent delivery-based depletion experiments at a range of initial concentrations are recommended for determining the concentration dependence of in vitro biotransformation rates in fish liver fractions, whereas a single sorbent phase dosing experiment may be able to provide reasonable approximations of maximum depletion rates of very hydrophobic substances. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Biotransformation of (1S)-2-Carene and (1S)-3-Carene by Picea abies Suspension Culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková, Marcela; Valterová, Irena; Šaman, David; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 12 (2011), s. 10541-10555 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08070; GA MŠk 2B08058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : biotransformation * carene * oxidation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2011

  8. Engineering Issue Paper: Biotransformation Pathways of Dimethylarsinic (Cacodylic) Acid in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EIP summarizes the state of the science regarding the biotransformation of DMA(V) and was developed from peer-reviewed literature, scientific documents, EPA reports, internet sources, input from experts in the field, and other pertinent sources. This EIP includes a review o...

  9. Sex differences in hepatic and intestinal contributions to nevirapine biotransformation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, P F; Marinho, A T; Antunes, A M M; Marques, M M; Pereira, S A; Miranda, J P

    2015-05-25

    The understanding of the intestine contribution to drug biotransformation improved significantly in recent years. However, the sources of inter-individual variability in intestinal drug biotransformation, namely sex-differences, are still elusive. Nevirapine (NVP) is an orally taken anti-HIV drug associated with severe idiosyncratic reactions elicited by toxic metabolites, with women at increased risk. As such, NVP is a good model to assess sex-dimorphic metabolism. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative profiling of NVP biotransformation in rat intestine and liver and evaluate whether or not it is organ- and sex-dependent. Therefore, nevirapine-containing solutions were perfused through the intestine, in a specially designed chamber, or incubated with liver slices, from male and female Wistar rats. The levels of NVP and its Phase I metabolites were quantified by HPLC-UV. Liver incubation experiments yielded the metabolites 2-, 3-, 8-, and 12-OH-NVP, being 12-OH-NVP and 2-OH-NVP the major metabolites in males and females, respectively. Inter-sex differences in the metabolic profile were also detected in the intestine perfusion experiments. Herein, the metabolites 3- and 12-OH-NVP were only found in male rats, whereas 2-OH-NVP levels were higher in females, both in extraluminal (pbiotransformation was observed, strengthening the relevance of the intestinal contribution in the biotransformation of orally taken-drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A new technique for promoting cyclic utilization of cyclodextrins in biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanbing; Yu, Ziqi; Yang, Xu; Wang, Fang; Luo, Jianmei; Wang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) can improve the productivity of steroid biotransformation by enhancing substrate solubility. CDs can be recycled by grafting them with appropriate carriers. Loofah fiber is an excellent grafting material for CDs, and can be applied to the biotransformation and recycling of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). In this work, a technique for recycling β-CD in cortisone acetate (CA) biotransformation by Arthrobacter simplex CPCC 140451 was studied. Loofah fiber-grafted β-CD (LF-β-CD) was prepared using epichlorohydrin, which is a cross-linking agent. The grafting yield of β-CD was 74.8 mg g -1 dried fibers. LF-β-CD could increase the solubility of CA and enhance biotransformation. The initial conversion rate of CA was 1.5-fold higher than that of the blank group. LF-β-CD was also used in biocatalytic reactions for eight cycles, and it maintained the conversion ratio of CA at approximately 90%. Given the above positive results, LF-β-CD can be utilized in biotechnological recycling applications. This method can also be applied to CD derivatives and hydrophobic compounds.

  11. Biotransformation of limonene by an endophytic fungus using synthetic and orange residue-based media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Mário Cesar Jucoski; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-02-01

    Aroma and fragrances have high commercial value for use in food, cosmetics and perfumes. The biotransformation of terpenes by microorganisms represents an attractive alternative method for production of flavourings. Endophytic fungi offer a great potential for the production of several groups of compounds; however, few studies have evaluated the biotransformation of limonene. Following preliminary studies on the biotransformation of limonene, submerged fermentation was carried out using an endophytic fungus isolated from Pinus taeda and identified as Phomopsis sp. The presence of several biotransformation products was detected and identified by mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The studied strain showed a divergent metabolic behaviour, as compounds of interest such as α-terpineol, carvone, and limoneno-1,2-diol were produced under different conditions. In addition to the minor metabolites terpinen-4-ol, menthol and carveol, this strain also produced major metabolites, including 0.536 g L -1 carvone and 2.08 g L -1 limonene-1,2-diol in synthetic medium and 2.10 g L -1 limonene-1,2-diol in a natural orange extract medium with single fed-batch, while the cyclic fed-batch resulted in concentrations less than 1 g L -1 . Therefore, our study produced a wide variety of limonene derivatives at a high concentration using a natural medium and a newly isolated endophytic fungal strain. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biotransformation of codeine to 14-OH-codeine derivatives by Rhizobium radiobacter R89-1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyslíková, Eva; Babiak, Petr; Štěpánek, Václav; Zahradník, Jiří; Palyzová, Andrea; Marešová, Helena; Valešová, Renata; Hájíček, J.; Kyslík, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, MAR 2013 (2013), s. 1-5 ISSN 1381-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Biotransformation * codeine * morphine Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.745, year: 2013

  13. Characterization of biotransformation enzyme activities in primary rat proximal tubular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, G.; de Groene, E.M.; Maas, R.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2001-01-01

    The proximal tubule is a frequent target for nephrotoxic compounds due to it's ability to transport and accumulate xenobiotics and their metabolites, as well as by the presence of an organ-selective set of biotransformation enzymes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the activities of

  14. Developmental and genetic modulation of arsenic biotransformation: A gene by environment interaction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meza, Mercedes; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2007-01-01

    The complexity of arsenic toxicology has confounded the identification of specific pathways of disease causation. One focal point of arsenic research is aimed at fully characterizing arsenic biotransformation in humans, a process that appears to be quite variable, producing a mixture of several arsenic species with greatly differing toxic potencies. In an effort to characterize genetic determinants of variability in arsenic biotransformation, a genetic association study of 135 subjects in western Sonora, Mexico was performed by testing 23 polymorphic sites in three arsenic biotransformation candidate genes. One gene, arsenic 3 methyltransferase (AS3MT), was strongly associated with the ratio of urinary dimethylarsinic acid to monomethylarsonic acid (D/M) in children (7-11 years) but not in adults (18-79 years). Subsequent analyses revealed that the high D/M values associated with variant AS3MT alleles were primarily due to lower levels of monomethylarsonic acid as percent of total urinary arsenic (%MMA5). In light of several reports of arsenic-induced disease being associated with relatively high %MMA5 levels, these findings raise the possibility that variant AS3MT individuals may suffer less risk from arsenic exposure than non-variant individuals. These analyses also provide evidence that, in this population, regardless of AS3MT variant status, children tend to have lower %MMA5 values than adults, suggesting that the global developmental regulation of arsenic biotransformation may interact with genetic variants in metabolic genes to result in novel genetic effects such as those in this report

  15. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY OF AROMATIC AEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN BLUEGILL SUNFISH BF-2 CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toluene (methylbenzene) is a common environmental pollutant that is found in many hazardous waste sites and it is an aquifer contaminant. A concern is the potential risk to human and ecosystem health due to exposure to toluene and its major biotransformation products. The cytotox...

  16. Biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin in the packed bed-stirred fermentors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Suyue; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-10-06

    We performed the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) in the stirring packed-bed reactors filled with carbon fiber textiles (CFT). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), HPLC, qRT-PCR and ATP assay indicated that vanillin biotransformation is tightly related to cell growth, cellar activity and the extent of biofilm formation. The biotransformation was affected by hydraulic retention time (HRT), temperature, initial pH, stirring speed and ferulic acid concentration, and the maximum vanillin production was obtained at 20 h, 35 °C, 9.0, 200 rpm, 1.5 g/L, respectively. Repeated batch biotransformation performed under this optimized condition showed that the maximum productivity (0.047 g/L/h) and molar yield (60.43%) achieved in immobilized cell system were 1.84 and 3.61 folds higher than those achieved in free cell system. Therefore, the stirring reactor packed with CFT carrier biofilm formed by B. subtilis represented a valid biocatalytic system for the production of vanillin.

  17. ANAEROBIC DDT BIOTRANSFORMATION: ENHANCEMENT BY APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AND LOW OXIDATION REDUCTION POTENTIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhancement of anaerobic DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane) biotransformation by mixed cultures was studied with application of surfactants and oxidation reduction potential reducing agents. Without amendments, DDT transformation resulted mainly in the pr...

  18. Biotransformation of mercury in pH-stat cultures of eukaryotic freshwater algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David J A; Budd, Kenneth; Lefebvre, Daniel D

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic algae were studied to determine their ability to biotransform Hg(II) under aerated and pH controlled conditions. All algae converted Hg(II) into beta-HgS and Hg(0) to varying degrees. When Hg(II) was administered as HgCl(2) to the algae, biotransformation by species of Chlorophyceae (Selenastrum minutum and Chlorella fusca var. fusca) was initiated with beta-HgS synthesis (K (1/2) of hours) and concomitant Hg degrees evolution occurred in the first hour. Hg degrees synthesis was impeded by the formation of beta-HgS and this inhibition was released in C. fusca var. fusca when cellular thiols were oxidized by the addition of dimethylfumarate (DMF). The diatom, Navicula pelliculosa (Bacillariophyceae), converted a substantially greater proportion of the applied Hg(II) into Hg(0), whereas the thermophilic alga, Galdieria sulphuraria (Cyanidiophyceae), rapidly biotransformed as much as 90% of applied Hg(II) into beta-HgS (K (1/2) approximately 20 min). This thermophile was also able to generate Hg(0) even after all exogenously applied HgCl(2) had been biotransformed. The results suggest that beta-HgS may be the major dietary mercurial for grazers of contaminated eukaryotic algae.

  19. Study on the cytochrome P-450- and glutathione-dependent biotransformation of trichloroethylene in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, L. J.; Monster, A. C.; Kezic, S.; Commandeur, J. N.; Veulemans, H.; Vermeulen, N. P.; Wilmer, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate in humans the contribution of the cytochrome P-450- and glutathione-dependent biotransformation of trichloroethylene (TRI) under controlled repeated exposure in volunteers, and under occupational conditions. Volunteers were exposed to TRI, using repeated 15 min exposures at 50 and 100

  20. Biotransformation and Incorporation into Proteins along a Simulated Terrestrial Food Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrine, J.M., B.P. Jackson and W.A. Hopkins

    2007-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element in vertebrates, but there is a narrow concentration range between dietary requirement and toxicity threshold. Although a great deal is known about the biochemistry of Se from a nutritional perspective, considerably less attention has been focused on the specific biochemistry of Se as an environmental toxicant. Recent advances in hyphenated analytical techniques have provided the capability of quantifying specific chemical forms of Se in biological tissues as well as the distribution of Se among macromolecules. We applied liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to investigate biotransformations of selenomethionine along a simulated terrestrial food chain consisting of selenomethionine exposed crickets (Acheta domesticus) fed to western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis). Evidence was obtained for selenomethionine biotransformation as well as for sex-specific differences in the metabolism of Se compounds and their subsequent incorporation into proteins in the lizard. The results demonstrate the complexities involved in trophic transfer of Se due to the potential for extensive biotransformation and the species- and even sex-specific nature of these biotransformations.

  1. Biotransformation of alpha-bulnesene using a plant pathogenic fungus, Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Sugawara, Atsushi

    2005-02-01

    The biotransformation of a sesquiterpene having a guaiane skeleton, namely (+)-alpha-bulnesene was investigated using the plant pathogenic fungus, Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. (+)-alpha-Bulnesene was oxidized at the double bond of the isopropenyl group and hydroxylated at the allylic methyl group to (4S,5S,7R)-1(10)-guaien-11,13,15-triol.

  2. Biotransformation of rutin to isoquercitrin using recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase from Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; Xie, Tao; Li, Gu-Cai; Tuo, Yi; Xiang, Yu-Ting

    2015-06-01

    To biotransform rutin into isoquercitrin. A α-L-rhamnosidase from Bifidobacterium breve was produced by using Escherichia coli BL21 for biotransformation of rutin to isoquercitrin. The enzyme was purified by Ni(2+)-NTA chromatography to yield a soluble protein with a specific activity of 56 U protein mg(-1). The maximum enzyme activities were at pH 6.5, 55 °C, 20 mM rutin, and 1.2 U enzyme ml(-1). Under optimal conditions, the half-life of the enzyme was 96 h. The K m and V max values were 2.2 mM, 56.4 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) and 2.1 mM, 57.5 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) using pNP-Rha and rutin as substrates, respectively. The kinetic behavior indicated that the recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase has good catalytic performance for producing isoquercitrin. 20 mM rutin was biotransformed into 18.25 and 19.87 mM isoquercitrin after 60 and 240 min. The specific biotransformation of rutin to isoquercitrin using recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase from B. breve is a feasible method for use in industrial processes.

  3. Highly efficient production of nootkatone, the grapefruit aroma from valencene, by biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Mai; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Noma, Yoshiaki; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-11-01

    Nootkatone, the most important and expensive aromatic of grapefruit, decreases the somatic fat ratio, and thus its demand is increasing in the cosmetic and fiber sectors. A sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, (+)-valencene, which is cheaply obtained from Valencia orange, was biotransformed by the green algae Chlorella species and fungi such as Mucor species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Botryodiplodia theobromae to afford nootkatone in high yield.

  4. BIOACCUMULATION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION OF CHIRAL TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are very little data on the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of current-use pesticides (CUPs) despite the fact that such data are critical in assessing their fate and potential toxic effects in aquatic organisms. To help address this issue, juvenile rainbow trout (Onco...

  5. Lignin peroxidase mediated biotransformations useful in the biocatalytic production of vanillin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten R.

    2000-01-01

    This research concentrates on lignin peroxidase (LiP) mediated biotrans-formations that are useful in producing vanillin.

    In order to obtain this extracellular enzyme, the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was cultivated on nitrogen rich

  6. Effects of antibacterial agents on in vitro ovine ruminal biotransformation of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid jacobine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wachenheim, D E; Blythe, L L; Craig, A M

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, naturally occurring plant toxins, causes illness and death in a number of animal species. Senecio jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause significant economic losses due to livestock poisoning, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Some sheep are resistant to pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, because ovine ruminal biotransformation detoxifies free pyrrolizidine alkaloids in digesta. Antibacterial agents modify ruminal fermentation. Pretreatment with antib...

  7. Evaluation of methylmercury biotransformation using rat liver slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutake, A. [Biochemistry Section, National Inst. for Minamata Disease, Minamata, Kumamoto (Japan); Hirayama, K. [Kumamoto University College of Medical Science, Kuhonji (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    effective in cleaving the C-Hg bond in the aqueous media, might be minimal. Here, we also demonstrated that liver slices are a useful experimental model for mimicking the MeHg biotransformation reaction. (orig.)

  8. Biotransformation model of neutral and weakly polar organic compounds in fish incorporating internal partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Dave T F; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2013-08-01

    A model for whole-body in vivo biotransformation of neutral and weakly polar organic chemicals in fish is presented. It considers internal chemical partitioning and uses Abraham solvation parameters as reactivity descriptors. It assumes that only chemicals freely dissolved in the body fluid may bind with enzymes and subsequently undergo biotransformation reactions. Consequently, the whole-body biotransformation rate of a chemical is retarded by the extent of its distribution in different biological compartments. Using a randomly generated training set (n = 64), the biotransformation model is found to be: log (HLφfish ) = 2.2 (±0.3)B - 2.1 (±0.2)V - 0.6 (±0.3) (root mean square error of prediction [RMSE] = 0.71), where HL is the whole-body biotransformation half-life in days, φfish is the freely dissolved fraction in body fluid, and B and V are the chemical's H-bond acceptance capacity and molecular volume. Abraham-type linear free energy equations were also developed for lipid-water (Klipidw ) and protein-water (Kprotw ) partition coefficients needed for the computation of φfish from independent determinations. These were found to be 1) log Klipidw  = 0.77E - 1.10S - 0.47A - 3.52B + 3.37V + 0.84 (in Lwat /kglipid ; n = 248, RMSE = 0.57) and 2) log Kprotw  = 0.74E - 0.37S - 0.13A - 1.37B + 1.06V - 0.88 (in Lwat /kgprot ; n = 69, RMSE = 0.38), where E, S, and A quantify dispersive/polarization, dipolar, and H-bond-donating interactions, respectively. The biotransformation model performs well in the validation of HL (n = 424, RMSE = 0.71). The predicted rate constants do not exceed the transport limit due to circulatory flow. Furthermore, the model adequately captures variation in biotransformation rate between chemicals with varying log octanol-water partitioning coefficient, B, and V and exhibits high degree of independence from the choice of training chemicals. The

  9. Biotransformation of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany); Bertermann, Rüdiger [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Rusch, George M.; Tveit, Ann [Honeywell, P.O. Box 1057, Morristown, NJ 07962-1057 (United States); Dekant, Wolfgang, E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany)

    2013-05-01

    trans-1-Chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd) is a novel foam blowing and precision cleaning agent with a very low impact for global warming and ozone depletion. trans-HCFO-1233zd also has a low potential for toxicity in rodents and is negative in genotoxicity testing. The biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd and kinetics of metabolite excretion with urine were assessed in vitro and in animals after inhalation exposures. For in vitro characterization, liver microsomes from rats, rabbits and humans were incubated with trans-HCFO-1233zd. Male Sprague Dawley rats and female New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000 ppm for 6 h and urine was collected for 48 h after the end of the exposure. Study specimens were analyzed for metabolites using {sup 19}F NMR, LC-MS/MS and GC/MS. S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-glutathione was identified as predominant metabolite of trans-HCFO-1233zd in all microsomal incubation experiments in the presence of glutathione. Products of the oxidative biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd were only minor metabolites when glutathione was present. In rats, both 3,3,3-trifluorolactic acid and N-acetyl-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-L-cysteine were observed as major urinary metabolites. 3,3,3-Trifluorolactic acid was not detected in the urine of rabbits. Quantitation showed rapid excretion of both metabolites in both species (t{sub 1/2} < 6 h) and the extent of biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd was determined as approximately 0.01% of received dose in rabbits and approximately 0.002% in rats. trans-HCFO-1233zd undergoes both oxidative biotransformation and glutathione conjugation at very low rates. The low extent of biotransformation and the rapid excretion of metabolites formed are consistent with the very low potential for toxicity of trans-HCFO-1233zd in mammals. - Highlights: ► No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ► Glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P-450 dependent

  10. Biotransformation of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol by Mucor racemosus and the anti-cancer activities of some products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangtong; Ge, Hongjuan; Song, Yan; Li, Jianlin; Zhai, Xuguang; Wu, Juanjuan; Ling, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    To produce new derivatives of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol by fungal biotransformation. Biotransformation of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (1) by Mucor racemosus AS 3.205 afforded six products. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. M. racemosus could selectively catalyze dehydrogenation at C-12 and further hydroxylation at C-7, C-11, and C-15, as well as rearrangement of double bond at C-26. Two of these new compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activity against SH-SY5Y and HepG2 cell lines. Biotransformation by M. racemosus AS 3.205 was an effective approach to produce new derivatives of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol.

  11. Polymorphisms of genes involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons’ biotransformation and atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Natalija; Pašalić, Daria; Potočki, Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most prevalent environmental pollutants and result from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons (coal and gasoline, fossil fuel combustion, byproducts of industrial processing, natural emission, cigarette smoking, etc.). The first phase of xenobiotic biotransformation in the PAH metabolism includes activities of cytochrome P450 from the CYP1 family and microsomal epoxide hydrolase. The products of this biotransformation are reactive oxygen species that are transformed in the second phase through the formation of conjugates with glutathione, glucuronate or sulphates. PAH exposure may lead to PAH-DNA adduct formation or induce an inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. Several genetic polymorphisms of genes encoded for enzymes involved in PAH biotransformation have been proven to lead to the development of diseases. Enzyme CYP P450 1A1, which is encoded by the CYP1A1 gene, is vital in the monooxygenation of lipofilic substrates, while GSTM1 and GSTT1 are the most abundant isophorms that conjugate and neutralize oxygen products. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 gene as well as the deletion polymorphisms of GSTT1 and GSTM1 may alter the final specific cellular inflammatory respond. Occupational exposure or conditions from the living environment can contribute to the production of PAH metabolites with adverse effects on human health. The aim of this study was to obtain data on biotransformation and atherosclerosis, as well as data on the gene polymorphisms involved in biotransformation, in order to better study gene expression and further elucidate the interaction between genes and the environment. PMID:24266295

  12. Single step biotransformation of corn oil phytosterols to boldenone by a newly isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Eisa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new potent Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate capable for biotransformation of corn oil phytosterol (PS to 4-androstene-3, 17-dione (AD, testosterone (T and boldenone (BOL was identified by phenotypic analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequential statistical strategy was used to optimize the biotransformation process mainly concerning BOL using Factorial design and response surface methodology (RSM. The production of BOL in single step microbial biotransformation from corn oil phytosterols by P. aeruginosa was not previously reported. Results showed that the pH concentration of the medium, (NH42SO4 and KH2PO4 were the most significant factors affecting BOL production. By analyzing the statistical model of three-dimensional surface plot, BOL production increased from 36.8% to 42.4% after the first step of optimization, and the overall biotransformation increased to 51.9%. After applying the second step of the sequential statistical strategy BOL production increased to 53.6%, and the overall biotransformation increased to 91.9% using the following optimized medium composition (g/l distilled water (NH42SO4, 2; KH2PO4, 4; Na2HPO4. 1; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.3; NaCl, 0.1; CaCl2·2H2O, 0.1; FeSO4·7H2O, 0.001; ammonium acetate 0.001; Tween 80, 0.05%; corn oil 0.5%; 8-hydroxyquinoline 0.016; pH 8; 200 rpm agitation speed and incubation time 36 h at 30 °C. Validation experiments proved the adequacy and accuracy of model, and the results showed the predicted value agreed well with the experimental values.

  13. (Bio)transformation of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, Christopher I., E-mail: olivarec@email.arizona.edu [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210011, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Abrell, Leif [Department of Soil, Water & Environmental Science, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210011, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210011, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Khatiwada, Raju; Chorover, Jon [Department of Soil, Water & Environmental Science, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210011, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210011, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • DNAN anaerobic transformation was faster than aerobic conversion. • Anaerobic DNAN conversion rate correlated well with soil organic carbon (≤2.07%). • H{sub 2} added as electron donor enhanced DNAN biotransformation. • DNAN nitroreduction lead to monomer products which coupled to form azo dimers. • Anaerobic transformation pathway and azo dimer formation mechanism were proposed. - Abstract: Recent studies have begun to assess the environmental fate and toxicity of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), an insensitive munition compound of interest to defense agencies. Aerobic and anaerobic DNAN biotransformation in soils was evaluated in this study. Under aerobic conditions, there was little evidence of transformation; most observed removal was attributed to adsorption and subsequent slow chemical reactions. Under anaerobic conditions, DNAN was reductively (bio)transformed and the rate of the transformation was positively correlated with soil organic carbon (OC) up to a threshold of 2.07% OC. H{sub 2} addition enhanced the nitroreduction rate compared to endogenous treatments lacking H{sub 2}. Heat-killed treatments provided rates similar to the endogenous treatment, suggesting that abiotic factors play a role in DNAN reduction. Ten (bio)transformation products were detected by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The proposed transformation pathway involves reduction of DNAN to aromatic amines, with putative reactive nitroso-intermediates coupling with the amines to form azo dimers. Secondary reactions include N-alkyl substitution, O-demethylation (sometimes followed by dehydroxylation), and removal of an N-containing group. Globally, our results suggest that the main reaction DNAN undergoes in anaerobic soils is nitroreduction to 2-methoxy-5-nitroaniline (MENA) and 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN), followed by anaerobic coupling reactions yielding azo-dimers. The dimers were subsequently subject to further (bio)transformations.

  14. Quantitative structure activity relationships for the biotransformation and toxicity of halogenated benzene - derivatives : implications for enzyme catalysis and reaction mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnubben, N.H.P.

    1996-01-01


    Organisms are frequently exposed to low molecular weight xenobiotic compounds. An advanced enzymatic machinery modifies these compounds into more hydrophilic metabolites which are subsequently excreted from the body. This process of biotransformation aims to detoxify bodyforeign

  15. A framework for establishing predictive relationships between specific bacterial 16S rRNA sequence abundances and biotransformation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, Damian E; Johnson, David R; Lee, Tae Kwon; Scheidegger, Andreas; Fenner, Kathrin

    2015-03-01

    The rates at which wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) microbial communities biotransform specific substrates can differ by orders of magnitude among WWTP communities. Differences in taxonomic compositions among WWTP communities may predict differences in the rates of some types of biotransformations. In this work, we present a novel framework for establishing predictive relationships between specific bacterial 16S rRNA sequence abundances and biotransformation rates. We selected ten WWTPs with substantial variation in their environmental and operational metrics and measured the in situ ammonia biotransformation rate constants in nine of them. We isolated total RNA from samples from each WWTP and analyzed 16S rRNA sequence reads. We then developed multivariate models between the measured abundances of specific bacterial 16S rRNA sequence reads and the ammonia biotransformation rate constants. We constructed model scenarios that systematically explored the effects of model regularization, model linearity and non-linearity, and aggregation of 16S rRNA sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as a function of sequence dissimilarity threshold (SDT). A large percentage (greater than 80%) of model scenarios resulted in well-performing and significant models at intermediate SDTs of 0.13-0.14 and 0.26. The 16S rRNA sequences consistently selected into the well-performing and significant models at those SDTs were classified as Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira groups. We then extend the framework by applying it to the biotransformation rate constants of ten micropollutants measured in batch reactors seeded with the ten WWTP communities. We identified phylogenetic groups that were robustly selected into all well-performing and significant models constructed with biotransformation rates of isoproturon, propachlor, ranitidine, and venlafaxine. These phylogenetic groups can be used as predictive biomarkers of WWTP microbial community activity towards these specific

  16. Factors impacting biotransformation kinetics of trace organic compounds in lab-scale activated sludge systems performing nitrification and denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Lijuan; Aga, Diana; Chandran, Kartik; Khunjar, Wendell O.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We examined TOrC biotransformation kinetics in nitrifying and denitrifying reators. • TOrC biotransformation was linked to heterotrophic and autotrophic activity. • TOrC biotransformation rates were not sensitive to the initial TOrC concentration. • Readily biodegradable organic matter suppressed TOrC biotransformation rates. - Abstract: To predict TOrC fate in biological activated sludge systems, there is a need to accurately determine TOrC biodegradation kinetics in mixed microbial cultures. Short-term batch tests with salicylic acid, 17α-ethinylestradiol, nonylphenol, trimethoprim and carbamazepine were conducted with lab-scale activated sludge cultures in which the initial TOrC concentration (1 mg/L and 0.0005 mg/L) and readily biodegradable substrate concentrations were varied. The results indicate that pseudo-first order kinetic estimates of TOrC are not sensitive (p > 0.05) to the initial TOrC concentration as long as the initial TOrC concentration (S 0 ) to biomass (X 0 ) ratio (on COD basis) is below 2 × 10 −3 . The presence of readily biodegradable organic matter suppresses TOrC biotransformation rates under nitrifying and denitrifying conditions, and this impact can be adequately described using a reversible non-competitive inhibition equation. These results demonstrate the importance of closely mimicking parent reactor conditions in batch testing because biotransformation parameters are impacted by in-situ carbon loading and redox conditions

  17. Factors impacting biotransformation kinetics of trace organic compounds in lab-scale activated sludge systems performing nitrification and denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Lijuan; Aga, Diana [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Chandran, Kartik [Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Khunjar, Wendell O., E-mail: wkhunjar@hazenandsawyer.com [Hazen and Sawyer P.C., Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • We examined TOrC biotransformation kinetics in nitrifying and denitrifying reators. • TOrC biotransformation was linked to heterotrophic and autotrophic activity. • TOrC biotransformation rates were not sensitive to the initial TOrC concentration. • Readily biodegradable organic matter suppressed TOrC biotransformation rates. - Abstract: To predict TOrC fate in biological activated sludge systems, there is a need to accurately determine TOrC biodegradation kinetics in mixed microbial cultures. Short-term batch tests with salicylic acid, 17α-ethinylestradiol, nonylphenol, trimethoprim and carbamazepine were conducted with lab-scale activated sludge cultures in which the initial TOrC concentration (1 mg/L and 0.0005 mg/L) and readily biodegradable substrate concentrations were varied. The results indicate that pseudo-first order kinetic estimates of TOrC are not sensitive (p > 0.05) to the initial TOrC concentration as long as the initial TOrC concentration (S{sub 0}) to biomass (X{sub 0}) ratio (on COD basis) is below 2 × 10{sup −3}. The presence of readily biodegradable organic matter suppresses TOrC biotransformation rates under nitrifying and denitrifying conditions, and this impact can be adequately described using a reversible non-competitive inhibition equation. These results demonstrate the importance of closely mimicking parent reactor conditions in batch testing because biotransformation parameters are impacted by in-situ carbon loading and redox conditions.

  18. A field experiment for the anaerobic biotransformation of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds at Seal Beach, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, M.; Wills, L.E.; Ball, H.A.; Harmon, T.

    1991-01-01

    Biotransformation of aromatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic conditions is of interest because dissolved oxygen is rapidly consumed in groundwater contaminant plumes of hydrocarbon fuel. Anaerobic biotransformation of aromatic hydrocarbons has been demonstrated under different redox regimes including nitrate-reducing iron-reducing and fermentative-methanogenic conditions. Recently, laboratory evidence has been obtained for the degradation of alkylbenzenes including toluene under sulfate-reducing conditions. The long-term objective of this study is to determine transformation rates under the conditions of the Seal Beach site, and second to explore the feasibility of inducing nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions and fermentative-methanogenic conditions in field bioreactors. Both laboratory studies and field studies in bioreactors are being conducted. This paper reports on the experimental design of the bioreactors and initial results

  19. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF FERULIC ACID BY THE PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI Colletotrichum acutatum AND Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Numpaque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial transformation of ferulic acid (FA offers a cleaner, more economical alternative for the natural production of flavorings and fragrances. In the present study, the biotransformation of FA using the filamentous phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum acutatum and Lasiodiplodia theobromae was researched. Initially, the toxicity of FA against both fungi was evaluated; the FA displayed a moderate toxicity (total inhibition at concentrations ≥ 2000 mg L-1 and apparently a detoxification mechanism was present. Afterwards, the microorganisms were incubated with the substrate at room conditions using a Czapek-Dox culture medium. The results demonstrated that the FA was mainly converted to 4-vinylguaiacol, reaching the highest abundance within the first 48 hours. To a lesser extent, acetovanillone, ethylguaiacol, and vanillin, among others, were produced. Interestingly, the compounds generated in the biotransformation of FA with C. acutatum and L. theobromae have been used as flavorings. Based on the identified metabolites, a possible metabolic pathway was proposed.

  20. Modulation of porcine biotransformation enzymes by anthelmintic therapy with fenbendazole and flubendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savlík, M; Fimanová, K; Szotáková, B; Lamka, J; Skálová, L

    2006-06-01

    Fenbendazole (FEN) and flubendazole (FLU) are benzimidazole anthelmintics often used in pig management for the control of nematodoses. The in vivo study presented here was designed to test the influence of FLU and FEN on cytochrome P4501A and other cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and several carbonyl reducing enzymes. The results indicated that FEN (in a single therapeutic dose as well as in repeated therapeutic doses) caused significant induction of pig CYP1A, while FLU did not show an inductive effect towards this isoform. Some of the other hepatic and intestinal biotransformation enzymes that were assayed were moderately influenced by FEN or FLU. Strong CYP1A induction following FEN therapy in pigs may negatively affect the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of FEN itself or other simultaneously or consecutively administered drugs. From the perspective of biotransformation enzyme modulation, FLU would appear to be a more convenient anthelmintic therapy of pigs than FEN.

  1. Biotransformation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in the benthic polychaete, Nereis succinea: quantitative estimation by analyzing the partitioning of chemicals between gut fluid and lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Pei, Yuan-yuan; You, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Biotransformation plays an important role in the bioaccumulation and toxicity of a chemical in biota. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) commonly co-occurs with its metabolites (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD] and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE]), in the environment; thus it is a challenge to accurately quantify the biotransformation rates of DDT and distinguish the sources of the accumulated metabolites in an organism. The present study describes a method developed to quantitatively analyze the biotransformation of p,p'-DDT in the benthic polychaete, Nereis succinea. The lugworms were exposed to sediments spiked with DDT at various concentrations for 28 d. Degradation of DDT to DDD and DDE occurred in sediments during the aging period, and approximately two-thirds of the DDT remained in the sediment. To calculate the biotransformation rates, residues of individual compounds measured in the bioaccumulation testing (after biotransformation) were compared with residues predicted by analyzing the partitioning of the parent and metabolite compounds between gut fluid and tissue lipid (before biotransformation). The results suggest that sediment ingestion rates decreased when DDT concentrations in sediment increased. Extensive biotransformation of DDT occurred in N. succinea, with 86% of DDT being metabolized to DDD and biotransformation, and the remaining 30% was from direct uptake of sediment-associated DDD. In addition, the biotransformation was not dependent on bulk sediment concentrations, but rather on bioaccessible concentrations of the chemicals in sediment, which were quantified by gut fluid extraction. The newly established method improved the accuracy of prediction of the bioaccumulation and toxicity of DDTs. © 2014 SETAC.

  2. Effective biotransformation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 by using aerobic bacterial granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ashvini U; Paul, Dhiraj; Dhotre, Dhiraj; Kodam, Kisan M

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of textile wastewater containing anthraquinone dye is quite a huge challenge due to its complex aromatic structure and toxicity. Present study deals with the degradation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 using aerobic bacterial granules. Bacterial granules effectively decolorized reactive blue 4 at wide range of pH (4.0-11.0) and temperature (20-55 °C) as well as decolorized and tolerated high concentration of reactive blue 4 dye upto 1000 mg l -1 with V max 6.16 ± 0.82 mg l -1 h -1 and K m 227 ± 41 mg l -1 . Metagenomics study evaluates important role of Clostridia, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacterial members in biotransformation and tolerance of high concentrations of reactive blue 4 dye. Up-regulation of xenobiotic degradation and environmental information processing pathways during dye exposure signifies their noteworthy role in dye degradation. Biotransformation of dye was confirmed by significant decrease in the values of total suspended solids, biological and chemical oxygen demand. The metabolites formed after biotransformation was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The reactive blue 4 dye was found to be phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic whereas its biotransformed product were non-toxic. This study comprehensively illustrates that, bacterial aerobic granules can be used for eco-friendly remediation and detoxification of wastewater containing high organic load of anthraquinone dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biotransformation of 2-(4-methoxybenzyl)cyclopentanone by Solanum aviculare and Rheum palmatum plant cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, 3-4 (2014), s. 213-216 ISSN 1459-0255 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12162 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Solanum aviculare * Rheum palmatum * plant cell culture Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2012 http://world-food.net/ biotransformation -of-2-4-methoxybenzylcyclopentanone-by-solanum-aviculare-and-rheum-palmatum-plant-cells/

  4. Biotransformation of a monoterpene mixture by in vitro cultures of selected conifer species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková, Marcela; Valterová, Irena; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2007), s. 233-238 ISSN 1934-578X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04OC926.001; GA MŠk 1P05ME731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : biotransformation * monoterpenes * P. abies * P. baccata Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2007

  5. Biotransformation of glyceryl trinitrate occurs concurrently with relaxation of rabbit aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brien, J.F.; McLaughlin, B.E.; Breedon, T.H.; Bennett, B.M.; Nakatsu, K.; Marks, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that biotransformation of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is involved in GTN-induced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Isolated rabbit aortic strips (RAS) were contracted submaximally with phenylephrine (PE) and then were incubated with 0.5 microM [ 14 C]GTN in a time course study. GTN-induced relaxation (inhibition of PE-induced tone) of RAS was monitored and tissue GTN and glyceryl-1,2- and 1,3-dinitrate (GDN) concentrations were measured by thin-layer chromatography and liquid scintillation spectrometry at 0.5, 1, 2 and 20 min after incubation. Biotransformation of GTN to GDN occurred during GTN-induced relaxation of RAS. The tissue GDN concentration was dependent on the time duration of incubation with GTN and was related to the magnitude of GTN-induced tissue relaxation. At the 20-min interval, the GDN concentration in the incubation medium indicated appreciable efflux of GDN metabolites from the RAS. In the biotransformation of GTN by RAS, there was about 4-fold preferential formation of 1,2-GDN compared with 1,3-GDN. RAS were made tolerant to GTN in vitro by incubation with 500 microM GTN for 1 hr. After washing, GTN-tolerant and nontolerant (incubation with vehicle for 1 hr) RAS were contracted submaximally with PE, and then were incubated with 0.5 microM [ 14 C]GTN for 2 min. GTN-induced relaxation of RAS and tissue GDN concentration were significantly less for GTN-tolerant tissue compared with nontolerant tissue. Tissue GTN concentration was similar for both GTN-tolerant and nontolerant RAS, which indicated that the tissue uptake of GTN was similar and that GTN biotransformation was diminished in tolerant tissue.(ABST

  6. RESEARCH OF BIOTRANSFORMATION PROCESS OF CONTAINING SUGAR RAW FOR ISOMALTULOSE RECEIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Korneeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of biotransformation containing sugar raw isomaltulosesynthase bacteria of the genus Erwinia to produce isomaltulose - natural sugars substitute. Raw cane sugar, beet molasses and sweet sorghum syrup used for isomaltulose. It was established that cane sugar may serve as a substrate for the enzymatic reaction together with biotransformation of pure sucrose. Yield of isomaltulose in the transformation of raw sugar was comparable to the control and was 97% for 3,5 hours at the optimal isomerization conditions (pH 6,0, 30 º C, the enzyme dosage of 5 U / mg of sucrose. Scientifically substantiated reasons for reducing the degree of transformation of molasses, sugar syrup strength sorghum. The influence of non-sugars accompanying basic substrates - raw cane sugar, molasses, sweet sorghum syrup, when biocatalytic transformation. Proved inhibitory effect of metal ion (aluminum , iron , anions of inorganic acids ( nitrate , chloride, phosphate , amino acids (serine , aspartic acid -hand , organic acids ( citric acid, acetic acid, the process of biotransformation , the formation of sucrose. Reducing the degree of isomerization in the presence of sucrose was observed in the study of non-sugars from 50 to 65 % compared with the control. Isomaltulosesynthase activating effect on , and consequently , the yield of isomaltulose to set calcium and manganese in the form of their sulfates. The introduction of these components into a solution of pure sucrose increases the yield of isomaltulose by 30.5 and 13.2 % respectively. The data obtained will be the basis of studies to optimize the process of biotransformation of various sources of vegetable raw materials rich in sucrose to produce isomaltulose.

  7. Biotransformation of (S)-cis-verbenol with Nocardia corallina B-276

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjarrez, Norberto; Perez, Herminia I.; Solis, Aida; Luna, Hector; Lievano, Ricardo; Ramirez, Mario [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Unidad Xochimilco. Dept. de Sistemas Biologicos]. E-mail: maan@correo.xoc.uam.mx

    2007-07-01

    The biotransformation of (S)-cis-verbenol with Nocardia corallina was investigated using two methods: Suspension of cells in a phosphate buffer (pH 7) with various substrate:cells ratios; and bioreactor of 3-L with cells in the culture media. Both gave (1S)-(-)-verbenone with excellent yields ranging from >99 to 98%, at scale of 0.7 and 7 mmol respectively. (author)

  8. Biotransformation of (S)-cis-verbenol with Nocardia corallina B-276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjarrez, Norberto; Perez, Herminia I.; Solis, Aida; Luna, Hector; Lievano, Ricardo; Ramirez, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The biotransformation of (S)-cis-verbenol with Nocardia corallina was investigated using two methods: Suspension of cells in a phosphate buffer (pH 7) with various substrate:cells ratios; and bioreactor of 3-L with cells in the culture media. Both gave (1S)-(-)-verbenone with excellent yields ranging from >99 to 98%, at scale of 0.7 and 7 mmol respectively. (author)

  9. Vigna radiata as a New Source for Biotransformation of Hydroquinone to Arbutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tofighi, Mohsen Amini, Mahzad Shirzadi, Hamideh Mirhabibi, Negar Ghazi Saeedi, Narguess Yassa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The suspension culture of Vigna radiata was selected for biotransformation of hydroquinone to its β-D-glucoside form (arbutin as an important therapeutic and cosmetic compound. Methods: The biotransformation efficiency of a Vigna radiata cell culture in addition to different concentrations of hydroquinone (6-20 mg/100 ml was investigated after 24 hours in comparison to an Echinacea purpurea cell culture and attempts were made to increase the efficacy of the process by adding elicitors. Results: Arbutin was accumulated in cells and found in the media only in insignificant amounts. The arbutin content of the biomass extracts of V. radiata and E. purpurea was different, ranging from 0.78 to 1.89% and 2.00 to 3.55% of dry weight, respectively. V. radiata demonstrated a bioconversion efficiency of 55.82% after adding 8 mg/100 ml precursor, which was comparable with result of 69.53% for E. purpurea cells after adding 10 mg/100 ml hydroquinone (P>0.05. In both cultures, adding hydroquinone in two portions with a 24-hour interval increased the biotransformation efficiency. Different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (25, 50, and 100 µM and chitosan (50 and 100 µg/ml as elicitors increased the bio-efficiency percentage of the V. radiata culture in comparison with the flask containing only hydroquinone. Conclusion: This is the first report of the biotransformation possibility of V. radiata cultures. It was observed the bioconversion capacity increased by adding hydroquinone in two portions, which was comparable to adding an elicitor.

  10. Production of enterodiol from defatted flaxseeds through biotransformation by human intestinal bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Miao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of enterolignans, e.g., enterodiol (END and particularly its oxidation product, enterolactone (ENL, on prevention of hormone-dependent diseases, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipemia, breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer and menopausal syndrome, have attracted much attention. To date, the main way to obtain END and ENL is chemical synthesis, which is expensive and inevitably leads to environmental pollution. To explore a more economic and eco-friendly production method, we explored biotransformation of enterolignans from precursors contained in defatted flaxseeds by human intestinal bacteria. Results We cultured fecal specimens from healthy young adults in media containing defatted flaxseeds and detected END from the culture supernatant. Following selection through successive subcultures of the fecal microbiota with defatted flaxseeds as the only carbon source, we obtained a bacterial consortium, designated as END-49, which contained the smallest number of bacterial types still capable of metabolizing defatted flaxseeds to produce END. Based on analysis with pulsed field gel electrophoresis, END-49 was found to consist of five genomically distinct bacterial lineages, designated Group I-V, with Group I strains dominating the culture. None of the individual Group I-V strains produced END, demonstrating that the biotransformation of substrates in defatted flaxseeds into END is a joint work by different members of the END-49 bacterial consortium. Interestingly, Group I strains produced secoisolariciresinol, an important intermediate of END production; 16S rRNA analysis of one Group I strain established its close relatedness with Klebsiella. Genomic analysis is under way to identify all members in END-49 involved in the biotransformation and the actual pathway leading to END-production. Conclusion Biotransformation is a very economic, efficient and environmentally friendly way of mass

  11. Structural Characterization of Silica Particles Extracted from Grass Stenotaphrum secundatum: Biotransformation via Annelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Espíndola-Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the structural characterization of silica particles extracted from Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustine grass using an annelid-based biotransformation process. This bioprocess starts when St. Augustine grass is turned into humus by vermicompost, and then goes through calcination and acid treatment to obtain silica particles. To determine the effect of the bioprocess, silica particles without biotransformation were extracted directly from the sample of grass. The characterization of the silica particles was performed using Infrared (FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS, and Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS. Both types of particles showed differences in morphology and size. The particles without biotransformation were essentially amorphous while those obtained via annelids showed specific crystalline phases. The biological relationship between the metabolisms of worms and microorganisms and the organic-mineral matter causes changes to the particles' properties. The results of this study are important because they will allow synthesis of silica in cheaper and more ecofriendly ways.

  12. Cunninghamella Biotransformation--Similarities to Human Drug Metabolism and Its Relevance for the Drug Discovery Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piska, Kamil; Żelaszczyk, Dorota; Jamrozik, Marek; Kubowicz-Kwaśny, Paulina; Pękala, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Studies of drug metabolism are one of the most significant issues in the process of drug development, its introduction to the market and also in treatment. Even the most promising molecule may show undesirable metabolic properties that would disqualify it as a potential drug. Therefore, such studies are conducted in the early phases of drug discovery and development process. Cunninghamella is a filamentous fungus known for its catalytic properties, which mimics mammalian drug metabolism. It has been proven that C. elegans carries at least one gene coding for a CYP enzyme closely related to the CYP51 family. The transformation profile of xenobiotics in Cunninghamella spp. spans a number of reactions catalyzed by different mammalian CYP isoforms. This paper presents detailed data on similar biotransformation drug products in humans and Cunninghamella spp. and covers the most important aspects of preparative biosynthesis of metabolites, since this model allows to obtain metabolites in sufficient quantities to conduct the further detailed investigations, as quantification, structure analysis and pharmacological activity and toxicity testing. The metabolic activity of three mostly used Cunninghamella species in obtaining hydroxylated, dealkylated and oxidated metabolites of different drugs confirmed its convergence with human biotransformation. Though it cannot replace the standard methods, it can provide support in the field of biotransformation and identifying metabolic soft spots of new chemicals and in predicting possible metabolic pathways. Another aspect is the biosynthesis of metabolites. In this respect, techniques using Cunninghamella spp. seem to be competitive to the chemical methods currently used.

  13. Biotransformation of isofraxetin-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside by Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Di; Zhang, Yuhua; Jiang, Zhe; Hou, Yue; Jiao, Kun; Yan, Chunyan; Li, Ning

    2017-01-15

    Isofraxetin-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, identified from traditional medicinal herbal Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, has been demonstrated to be a natural neuroinflammatory inhibitor. In order to obtain more derivatives with potential anti-neuroinflammatory effects, biotransformation was carried out. According to the characteristics of coumarin skeleton, suspension cultures of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels callus (A. sinensis callus) were employed because of the presence of diverse phenylpropanoids biosynthetic enzymes. As a result, 15 products were yielded from the suspension cultures, including a new coumarin: 8'-dehydroxymethyl cleomiscosin A (1), together with 14 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, the biotransformed pathways were discussed. Among them, compound 13 was transformed from isofraxetin-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, while compounds 1-6, 10-12, 14-15 were derived from the culture medium stimulated by the substrate. The biotransformation processes include hydroxylation, oxidation and esterification. Furthermore, their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated nitric oxide (NO) production were evaluated in BV2 microglial cells. It is worth noting that, 1, 1'-methanediylbis(4-methoxybenzene) (3), obtucarbamates A (5), 2-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (10) and 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (11) exhibited significant inhibitory effect against neuroinflammation with IC 50 values at 1.22, 10.57, 1.02 and 0.76μM respectively, much stronger than that of the positive control minocycline (IC 50 35.82μM). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening of intact yeasts and cell extracts to reduce Scrapie prions during biotransformation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyben, David; Boqvist, Sofia; Passoth, Volkmar; Renström, Lena; Allard Bengtsson, Ulrika; Andréoletti, Olivier; Kiessling, Anders; Lundh, Torbjörn; Vågsholm, Ivar

    2018-02-08

    Yeasts can be used to convert organic food wastes to protein-rich animal feed in order to recapture nutrients. However, the reuse of animal-derived waste poses a risk for the transmission of infectious prions that can cause neurodegeneration and fatality in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of yeasts to reduce prion activity during the biotransformation of waste substrates-thereby becoming a biosafety hurdle in such a circular food system. During pre-screening, 30 yeast isolates were spiked with Classical Scrapie prions and incubated for 72 h in casein substrate, as a waste substitute. Based on reduced Scrapie seeding activity, waste biotransformation and protease activities, intact cells and cell extracts of 10 yeasts were further tested. Prion analysis showed that five yeast species reduced Scrapie seeding activity by approximately 1 log10 or 90%. Cryptococcus laurentii showed the most potential to reduce prion activity since both intact and extracted cells reduced Scrapie by 1 log10 and achieved the highest protease activity. These results show that select forms of yeast can act as a prion hurdle during the biotransformation of waste. However, the limited ability of yeasts to reduce prion activity warrants caution as a sole barrier to transmission as higher log reductions are needed before using waste-cultured yeast in circular food systems.

  15. Unveiling the biotransformation mechanism of indole in a Cupriavidus sp. strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Qiao; Liu, Ziyan; Wang, Weiwei; Tang, Hongzhi; Zhou, Jiti; Xu, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Indole, an important signaling molecule as well as a typical N-heterocyclic aromatic pollutant, is widespread in nature. However, the biotransformation mechanisms of indole are still poorly studied. Here, we sought to unlock the genetic determinants of indole biotransformation in strain Cupriavidus sp. SHE based on genomics, proteomics and functional studies. A total of 177 proteins were notably altered (118 up- and 59 downregulated) in cells grown in indole mineral salt medium when compared with that in sodium citrate medium. RT-qPCR and gene knockout assays demonstrated that an indole oxygenase gene cluster was responsible for the indole upstream metabolism. A functional indole oxygenase, termed IndA, was identified in the cluster, and its catalytic efficiency was higher than those of previously reported indole oxidation enzymes. Furthermore, the indole downstream metabolism was found to proceed via the atypical CoA-thioester pathway rather than conventional gentisate and salicylate pathways. This unusual pathway was catalyzed by a conserved 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA gene cluster, among which the 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA ligase initiated anthranilate transformation. This study unveils the genetic determinants of indole biotransformation and will provide new insights into our understanding of indole biodegradation in natural environments and its functional studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Role of biotransformation, sorption and mineralization of (14)C-labelled sulfamethoxazole under different redox conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarino, T; Nastold, P; Suarez, S; Omil, F; Corvini, P F X; Bouju, H

    2016-01-15

    (14)C-sulfamethoxazole biotransformation, sorption and mineralization was studied with heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass under aerobic and anoxic conditions, as well as with anaerobic biomass. The (14)C-radiolabelled residues distribution in the solid, liquid and gas phases was closely monitored along a total incubation time of 190 h. Biotransformation was the main removal mechanism, mineralization and sorption remaining below 5% in all the cases, although the presence of a carbon source exerted a positive effect on the mineralization rate by the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. In fact, an influence of the type of primary substrate and the redox potential was observed in all cases on the biotransformation and mineralization rates, since an enhancement of the removal rate was observed when an external carbon source was used as a primary substrate under aerobic conditions, while a negligible effect was observed under nitrifying conditions. In the liquid phases collected from all assays, up to three additional peaks corresponding to (14)C-radiolabelled residues were detected. The highest concentration was observed under anaerobic conditions, where two radioactive metabolites were detected representing each around 15% of the total applied radioactivity after 180 h incubation. One of the metabolites detected under anoxic and anaerobic conditions, is probably resulting from ring cleavage of the isoxazole ring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biotransformation and recovery of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein from industrial antibiotic fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. Mark; Reeves, Andrew R.; Seshadri, Ramya; Cernota, William H.; Gonzalez, Melissa C.; Gray, Danielle L.; Wesley, Roy K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to follow the metabolic fate of isoflavone glucosides from the soybean meal in a model industrial fermentation to determine if commercially useful isoflavones could be harvested as coproducts from the spent broth at the end of the fermentation. The isoflavone aglycones, genistein and daidzein, together make up 0.1 - 0.2% of the soybean meal by weight but serve no known function in the manufacturing process. After feeding genistein to washed cells of the erythromycin-producing organism, Saccharopolyspora erythraea, the first biotransformation product (Gbp1) was determined by x-ray crystallography to be genistein-7-O-α-rhamnoside (rhamnosylgenistein). Subsequent feeding of rhamnosylgenistein to growing cells of S. erythraea led to the production of a second biotransformation product, Gbp2. Chromatographic evidence suggested that Gbp2 accumulated in the spent broth of the erythromycin fermentation. When the spent broth was hydrolyzed with acid or industrial enzyme preparations the isoflavone biotransformation products were returned back to their parental forms, genistein and daidzein, which were then recovered as coproducts. Desirable features of this method are that it does not require modification of the erythromycin manufacturing process or genetic engineering of the producing organism to be put into practice. A preliminary investigation of five additional antibiotic fermentations of industrial importance were also found to have isoflavone coproduct potential. PMID:23604533

  18. Optimization of biotransformation from phytosterol to androstenedione by a mutant Mycobacterium neoaurum ZJUVN-08*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-yan; Peng, Yong; Su, Zhong-rui; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2013-01-01

    Biotransformation of phytosterol (PS) by a newly isolated mutant Mycobacterium neoaurum ZJUVN-08 to produce androstenedione has been investigated in this paper. The parameters of the biotransformation process were optimized using fractional factorial design and response surface methodology. Androstenedione was the sole product in the fermentation broth catalyzed by the mutant M. neoaurum ZJUVN-08 strain. Results showed that molar ratio of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to PS and substrate concentrations were the two most significant factors affecting androstenedione production. By analyzing the statistical model of three-dimensional surface plot, the optimal process conditions were observed at 0.1 g/L inducer, pH 7.0, molar ratio of HP-β-CD to PS 1.92:1, 8.98 g/L PS, and at 120 h of incubation time. Under these conditions, the maximum androstenedione yield was 5.96 g/L and nearly the same with the non-optimized (5.99 g/L), while the maximum PS conversion rate was 94.69% which increased by 10.66% compared with the non-optimized (84.03%). The predicted optimum conditions from the mathematical model were in agreement with the verification experimental results. It is considered that response surface methodology was a powerful and efficient method to optimize the parameters of PS biotransformation process. PMID:23365012

  19. Optimization of biotransformation from phytosterol to androstenedione by a mutant Mycobacterium neoaurum ZJUVN-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-yan; Peng, Yong; Su, Zhong-rui; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2013-02-01

    Biotransformation of phytosterol (PS) by a newly isolated mutant Mycobacterium neoaurum ZJUVN-08 to produce androstenedione has been investigated in this paper. The parameters of the biotransformation process were optimized using fractional factorial design and response surface methodology. Androstenedione was the sole product in the fermentation broth catalyzed by the mutant M. neoaurum ZJUVN-08 strain. Results showed that molar ratio of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to PS and substrate concentrations were the two most significant factors affecting androstenedione production. By analyzing the statistical model of three-dimensional surface plot, the optimal process conditions were observed at 0.1 g/L inducer, pH 7.0, molar ratio of HP-β-CD to PS 1.92:1, 8.98 g/L PS, and at 120 h of incubation time. Under these conditions, the maximum androstenedione yield was 5.96 g/L and nearly the same with the non-optimized (5.99 g/L), while the maximum PS conversion rate was 94.69% which increased by 10.66% compared with the non-optimized (84.03%). The predicted optimum conditions from the mathematical model were in agreement with the verification experimental results. It is considered that response surface methodology was a powerful and efficient method to optimize the parameters of PS biotransformation process.

  20. The Remarkable Structural Diversity Achieved in ent-Kaurane Diterpenes by Fungal Biotransformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline A. Takahashi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of biotransformations in organic chemistry is widespread, with highlights of interesting applications in the functionalization of natural products containing unactivated carbons, like the kaurane diterpenes. A number of compounds with kaurane skeletons can be isolated in large amounts from several plant species and a myriad of biological activities has been related to these compounds. Studies on structure versus activity have showed that, in most cases, in kaurane diterpenes, activity increases with the increase of functionalization. Since naturally occurring kaurane diterpenes usually have limited functional groups to be used as targets for semi-synthetic modifications, production of more polar derivatives from kaurane diterpenes have been achieved mostly through the use of fungal biotransformations. In this review, selected examples the wonderful chemical diversity produced by fungi in kaurane diterpenes is presented. This diversity includes mainly hydroxylation of nearly all carbon atoms of the kaurane molecule, many of them carried out stereoselectively, as well as ring rearrangements, among other chemical modifications. Sources of starting materials, general biotransformation protocols employed, fungi with most consistent regioselectivity towards kaurane skeleton, as well as biological activities associated with starting materials and products are also described.

  1. Biotransformation effect of Bombyx Mori L. may play an important role in treating diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Li, Yin; Guo, Xin-Feng; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Compared with herbal drugs, medicine processed from animals (animal medicine) was thought to have more bioactive substances and higher activities. Biotransformation effect often plays an important role in their effect. However, researches about effect of animal medicine on diabetic nephropathy and applying animal medicine as natural bio-transformer were seldom reported. The purpose of this paper was to reveal the use of Bombyx Mori L. on diabetic nephropathy from ancient to modern times. The classical literature indicated that Saosi Decoction (), which contains Bombyx Mori L. or silkworm cocoon, was applied to treat disorders congruent with modern disease diabetic nephropathy from the Ming to Qing Dynasty in ancient China. Modern studies showed that Bombyx Mori L. contains four main active constituents. Among these, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) and quercetin showed promising potential to be new agents in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The concentrations of 1-DNJ and the activities of quercetin in Bombyx Mori L. are higher than in mulberry leaves, because of the biotransformation in the Bombyx Mori L. body. However, these specifific components need further human and mechanistic studies to determine their therapeutic potential for this challenging condition.

  2. A bibliometric analysis of research updates and tendencies on steroid biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoyu

    2018-03-01

    Steroid biotransformation, as a powerful tool for generation of steroid active pharmaceutical ingredients and key intermediates, has received widespread attention with increasing market demand for steroid-based drugs. In our study, a bibliometric analysis of steroid biotransformation was performed to trace the research updates and tendencies from 1993 to 2016, based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. Results showed a notable growth trend in publication outputs. Although the USA was the most productive country between 1993 and 2016, developing nations, including China and India, contributed the prominent growth in recent years (2005–2016). Steroids was the leading journal in this field, and the research outputs had notably increased in the field of ‘Chemistry’, ‘Pharmacology and Pharmacy’ and ‘Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology’. Finally, research focused mainly on the efficient production of novel steroid active pharmaceutical ingredients and key intermediates through steroid biotransformation. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 involved in the side-chain oxidation of sterols has gradually become a hotspot issue in recent years.

  3. Modulation of hepatic biotransformation and biliary excretion of bile acid by age and sinusoidal bile acid load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, U.; Miyai, K.; Hardison, W.G.M.

    1987-01-01

    Pericentral hepatocytes excrete bile acids more slowly and biotransform them more than periportal cells. This may reflect adaptation to low pericentral bile acid concentration or may be intrinsic. The authors studied two models in which pericentral bile acid concentrations are high: the 72-h choledocho-caval shunt (CCS) rat and the 3- to 4-wk-old rat. Livers were perfused forward or backward to assess periportal or pericentral hepatocyte function. Taurodeoxycholate (TDC) was infused at 32 nmol x min -1 x g liver -1 , and a bolus of [ 3 H]TDC was given to assess metabolism and excretion of bile acids. In CCS livers perfused backward, pericentral cells resembled periportal cells of controls in that time to excrete 50% of administered [ 3 H]-TDC (t 50 ) was reduced by two-thirds and [ 3 H]TDC biotransformation was reduced by about half. In young livers t 50 was half that of adult livers when perfused backward. Biotransformation, however, was not reduced. Young livers biotransformed more than adult controls for any given residence time of bile acid in the liver. They conclude that the difference between pericentral and perioportal cells as regards bile acid processing is adaptive. Livers from young rats biotransform more bile acid than those from controls under similar conditions

  4. Biotransformation of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing pollutants during coking wastewater treatment: Correspondence of performance to microbial community functional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yinxin; Liu, Yuan; Yang, Min

    2017-09-15

    Although coking wastewater is generally considered to contain high concentration of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing pollutants, the biotransformation processes of these compounds have not been well understood. Herein, a high throughput functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) in combination with Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to identify microbial functional traits and their role in biotransformation of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds in a bench-scale aerobic coking wastewater treatment system operated for 488 days. Biotransformation of nitrogen and sulfur-containing pollutants deteriorated when pH of the bioreactor was increased to >8.0, and the microbial community functional structure was significantly associated with pH (Mantels test, P functional microbial community structure (P functional genes for biotransformation of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing pollutants. Functional characterization of taxa and network analysis suggested that Burkholderiales, Actinomycetales, Rhizobiales, Pseudomonadales, and Hydrogenophiliales (Thiobacillus) were key functional taxa. Variance partitioning analysis showed that pH and influent ammonia nitrogen jointly explained 25.9% and 35.5% of variation in organic pollutant degrading genes and microbial community structure, respectively. This study revealed a linkage between microbial community functional structure and the likely biotransformation of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing pollutants, along with a suitable range of pH (7.0-7.5) for stability of the biological system treating coking wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased Yield of Biotransformation of Androsta-1, 4-Dien-3, 17-Dione from Β-Sitosterol by Using Sulfobutyl Ether-Β-Cyclodextrin Complexation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jingwen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Substrate solubility in steroid biotransformation is critical for enhancing the biotransformation of hydrophobic compounds. In this study, the sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD complexation technique was used for the biotransformation of β-sitosterol to androsta-1, 4-diene-3, 17-dione with Mycobacterium ATCC25795. The production yield was increased by 26.72%, and the biotransformation course was shortened by 24h using β-sitosterol/SBE-β-CD inclusion complexes as substrates (1.0 g/L. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that an inclusion complex was formed between SBE-β-CD and β-sitosterol. The complex significantly increased the solubility of β-sitosterol and improved the biotransformation efficiency of the substrate.

  6. Studies on the Diels-Alder adduct from cyclopentadiene and p-benzoquinone: Biotransformation, enantiomeric excess and absolute configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Camargo Braga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of microorganisms or isolated enzymes in synthetic routes has been extensively used by industry and academic research. A great advantage of biotransformation in a synthetic route is highly regio- and enatiosselective control, which can be achieved through microbial catalyzed reaction. Biotransformation is one of the most efficient methods in a production of high purity optical compounds and development of efficient routes for target molecules. Biotransformation by Mucor ramosissimus of enedione 1 gave the keto-alcohol (--2 with enantiomeric excess (ee>99,9% (determined by 1H NMR with [(+-Eu(hfc]3 and their epimer (--3. Determination of the absolute configuration of epimer (--3 was accomplished by controlled reaction and measuring of optical rotation (scheme 1. The fungus M. ramosissimus is a promising species to perform desymmetrization of diketones with high enantioselectivity.

  7. Role of Free Radicals and Biotransformation in Trichloronitrobenzene-Induced Nephrotoxicity In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Gary O; Tyree, Connor; Pope, Deborah; Tate, Jordan; Racine, Christopher; Anestis, Dianne K; Brown, Kathleen C; Dial, Mason; Valentovic, Monica A

    2017-05-31

    This study determined the comparative nephrotoxic potential of four trichloronitrobenzenes (TCNBs) (2,3,4-; 2,4,5-; 2,4,6-; and 3,4,5-TCNB) and explored the effects of antioxidants and biotransformation inhibitors on TCNB-induced cytotoxicity in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) from male Fischer 344 rats. IRCC were incubated with a TCNB up to 1.0 mM for 15-120 min. Pretreatment with an antioxidant or cytochrome P450 (CYP), flavin monooxygenase (FMO), or peroxidase inhibitor was used in some experiments. Among the four TCNBs, the order of decreasing nephrotoxic potential was approximately 3,4,5- > 2,4,6- > 2,3,4- > 2,4,5-TCNB. The four TCNBs exhibited a similar profile of attenuation of cytotoxicity in response to antioxidant pretreatments. 2,3,4- and 3,4,5-TCNB cytotoxicity was attenuated by most of the biotransformation inhibitors tested, 2,4,5-TCNB cytotoxicity was only inhibited by isoniazid (CYP 2E1 inhibitor), and 2,4,6-TCNB-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by one CYP inhibitor, one FMO inhibitor, and one peroxidase inhibitor. All of the CYP specific inhibitors tested offered some attenuation of 3,4,5-TCNB cytotoxicity. These results indicate that 3,4,5-TCNB is the most potent nephrotoxicant, free radicals play a role in the TCNB cytotoxicity, and the role of biotransformation in TCNB nephrotoxicity in vitro is variable and dependent on the position of the chloro groups.

  8. Biotransformation of Bisphenol AF to Its Major Glucuronide Metabolite Reduces Estrogenic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Yixing; Shao, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF), an endocrine disrupting chemical, can induce estrogenic activity through binding to estrogen receptor (ER). However, the metabolism of BPAF in vivo and the estrogenic activity of its metabolites remain unknown. In the present study, we identified four metabolites including BPAF diglucuronide, BPAF glucuronide (BPAF-G), BPAF glucuronide dehydrated and BPAF sulfate in the urine of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. BPAF-G was further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After treatment with a single dose of BPAF, BPAF was metabolized rapidly to BPAF-G, as detected in the plasma of SD rats. Biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G was confirmed with human liver microsomes (HLM), and Vmax of glucuronidation for HLM was 11.6 nmol/min/mg. We also found that BPAF glucuronidation could be mediated through several human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) including UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, among which UGT2B7 showed the highest efficiency of glucuronidation. To explain the biological function of BPAF biotransformation, the estrogenic activities of BPAF and BPAF-G were evaluated in ER-positive breast cancer T47D and MCF7 cells. BPAF significantly stimulates ER-regulated gene expression and cell proliferation at the dose of 100 nM and 1 μM in breast cancer cells. However, BPAF-G did not show any induction of estrogenic activity at the same dosages, implying that formation of BPAF-G is a potential host defense mechanism against BPAF. Based on our study, biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G can eliminate BPAF-induced estrogenic activity, which is therefore considered as reducing the potential threat to human beings. PMID:24349450

  9. Embryonic turkey liver: activities of biotransformation enzymes and activation of DNA-reactive carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Duan, Jian Dong; Jeffrey, Alan M.; Williams, Gary M.; Ahr, Hans-Juergen; Schmidt, Ulrich; Enzmann, Harald H.

    2004-01-01

    Avian embryos are a potential alternative model for chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity research. Because the toxic and carcinogenic effects of some chemicals depend on bioactivation, activities of biotransformation enzymes and formation of DNA adducts in embryonic turkey liver were examined. Biochemical analyses of 22-day in ovoturkey liver post-mitochondrial fractions revealed activities of the biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase (ECOD), 7-ethoxyresorufin de-ethylase (EROD), aldrin epoxidase (ALD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (GLUT). Following the administration of phenobarbital (24 mg/egg) on day 21, enzyme activities of ECOD, EROD, ALD, EH and GLUT, but not of GST, were increased by two-fold or higher levels by day 22. In contrast, acute administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (5 mg/egg) induced only ECOD and EROD activities. Bioactivation of structurally diverse pro-carcinogens was also examined using 32 P-postlabeling for DNA adducts. In ovoexposure of turkey embryos on day 20 of gestation to 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) resulted in the formation of DNA adducts in livers collected by day 21. Some of the DNA adducts had 32 P-postlabeling chromatographic migration patterns similar to DNA adducts found in livers from Fischer F344 rats exposed to the same pro-carcinogens. We conclude that 21-day embryonic turkey liver is capable of chemical biotransformation and activation of genotoxic carcinogens to form DNA adducts. Thus, turkey embryos could be utilized to investigate potential chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity. (orig.)

  10. Uptake, accumulation, and biotransformation of metal oxide nanoparticles by a marine suspension-feeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Milka O.; Hanna, Shannon K.; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Keller, Arturo A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Suspension-feeding by mussels can greatly alter mobility and fate of metal oxide nanoparticles. ► Bioprocessing of metal oxide nanoparticles by mussels removes large fraction from water column. ► Mussels repackage metal oxide nanoparticles in highly concentrated pseudofeces. ► Novel biological pathway between major compartments in marine systems. ► Very different outcome for ZnO and CeO 2 nanoparticles based on their solubility. - Abstract: A growing body of evidence indicates that some engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are toxic to organisms that perform important ecosystem services in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, toxicity can be influenced by the biotransformation of contaminants, including ENPs, as it may alter the fate and transport of these substances. In turn, fate and transport can influence their bioavailability. To understand how biotransformation influences the fate and transport of ENPs in marine ecosystems, we exposed suspension-feeding mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to two common nano-metal oxides, CeO 2 and ZnO, over a range of concentrations from 1 mg L −1 to 10 mg L −1 , in a laboratory experiment. Mussels exposed to 10 mg L −1 accumulated 62 μg g −1 of Ce and 880 μg g −1 of Zn on a dry tissue basis but rejected 21,000 μg g −1 for Ce and 63,000 μg g −1 for Zn in pseudofeces. Scanning electron microscope evidence indicates CeO 2 remained as ENPs but ZnO did not after being rejected by the mussels. Mussels filtered most of the CeO 2 from the aqueous media, while a significant fraction of Zn remained in solution. Differences in ENP solubility affect ENP uptake, excretion, and accumulation in mussels. Our study highlights the potential role of marine suspension feeders in biotransformation of ENPs.

  11. A new enantioselective CE method for determination of oxcarbazepine and licarbazepine after fungal biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocato, Mariana Zuccherato; Bortoleto, Marcela Armelim; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; de Oliveira, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes

    2014-10-01

    The present work describes, for the first time, the simultaneous separation of oxcarbazepine (OXC) and its active metabolite 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine (licarbazepine, Lic) by chiral CE. The developed method was employed to monitor the enantioselective biotransformation of OXC into its active metabolite by fungi. The electrophoretic separations were performed using 10 mmol/L of a Tris-phosphate buffer solution (pH 2.5) containing 1% w/v of β-CD phosphate sodium salt (P-β-CD) as running electrolyte, -20 kV of applied voltage and a 15°C capillary temperature. The method was linear over the concentration range of 1000-30 000 ng/mL for OXC and 75-900 ng/mL for each Lic enantiomer (r ≥ 0.9952). Within-day precision and accuracy evaluated by RSD and relative errors, respectively, were lower than 15% for all analytes. The validated method was used to evaluate the enantioselective biotransformation of OXC, mediated by fungi, into its active metabolite Lic. This study showed that the fungi Glomerella cingulata (VA1) and Beuveria bassiana were able to enantioselectively metabolize the OXC into Lic after 360 h of incubation. Biotransformation by the fungus Beuveria bassiana showed 79% enantiomeric excess for (S)-(+)-Lic, while VA1 gave an enantiomeric excess of 100% for (S)-(+)-Lic. This study opens a new route to the drug (S)-(+)-licarbazepine. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Two compartment model of diazepam biotransformation in an organotypical culture of primary human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acikgoez, Ali; Karim, Najibulla; Giri, Shibashish; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Bader, Augustinus

    2009-01-01

    Drug biotransformation is one of the most important parameters of preclinical screening tests for the registration of new drug candidates. Conventional existing tests rely on nonhuman models which deliver an incomplete metabolic profile of drugs due to the lack of proper CYP450 expression as seen in human liver in vivo. In order to overcome this limitation, we used an organotypical model of human primary hepatocytes for the biotransformation of the drug diazepam with special reference to metabolites in both the cell matrix phase and supernatant and its interaction of three inducers (phenobarbital, dexamethasone, aroclor 1254) in different time responses (1, 2, 4, 8, 24 h). Phenobarbital showed the strongest inducing effect in generating desmethyldiazepam and induced up to a 150 fold increase in oxazepam-content which correlates with the increased availability of the precursor metabolites (temazepam and desmethyldiazepam). Aroclor 1254 and dexamethasone had the strongest inducing effect on temazepam and the second strongest on oxazepam. The strong and overlapping inductive role of phenobarbital strengthens the participation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A in diazepam N-demethylation and CYP3A in temazepam formation. Aroclor 1254 preferentially generated temazepam due to the interaction with CYP3A and potentially CYP2C19. In parallel we represented these data in the form of a mathematical model with two compartments explaining the dynamics of diazepam metabolism with the effect of these other inducers in human primary hepatocytes. The model consists of ten differential equations, with one for each concentration c i,j (i = diazepam, temazepam, desmethyldiazepam, oxazepam, other metabolites) and one for each compartment (j = cell matrix phase, supernatant), respectively. The parameters p k (k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 13) are rate constants describing the biotransformation of diazepam and its metabolites and the other parameters (k = 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15) explain the

  13. Embryonic turkey liver: activities of biotransformation enzymes and activation of DNA-reactive carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Duan, Jian Dong; Jeffrey, Alan M.; Williams, Gary M. [New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Valhalla (United States); Ahr, Hans-Juergen; Schmidt, Ulrich [Bayer AG, Institute of Toxicology, Wuppertal (Germany); Enzmann, Harald H. [Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, Bonn (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Avian embryos are a potential alternative model for chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity research. Because the toxic and carcinogenic effects of some chemicals depend on bioactivation, activities of biotransformation enzymes and formation of DNA adducts in embryonic turkey liver were examined. Biochemical analyses of 22-day in ovoturkey liver post-mitochondrial fractions revealed activities of the biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase (ECOD), 7-ethoxyresorufin de-ethylase (EROD), aldrin epoxidase (ALD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (GLUT). Following the administration of phenobarbital (24 mg/egg) on day 21, enzyme activities of ECOD, EROD, ALD, EH and GLUT, but not of GST, were increased by two-fold or higher levels by day 22. In contrast, acute administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (5 mg/egg) induced only ECOD and EROD activities. Bioactivation of structurally diverse pro-carcinogens was also examined using {sup 32}P-postlabeling for DNA adducts. In ovoexposure of turkey embryos on day 20 of gestation to 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) resulted in the formation of DNA adducts in livers collected by day 21. Some of the DNA adducts had {sup 32}P-postlabeling chromatographic migration patterns similar to DNA adducts found in livers from Fischer F344 rats exposed to the same pro-carcinogens. We conclude that 21-day embryonic turkey liver is capable of chemical biotransformation and activation of genotoxic carcinogens to form DNA adducts. Thus, turkey embryos could be utilized to investigate potential chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity. (orig.)

  14. Isolation and biotransformation of goniothalamin in the production of goniothalamin analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Izzatul Hidayah; Khalid, Rozida Mohd; Din, Laily; Latip, Jalifah

    2016-11-01

    Goniothalamin is a pharmacologically active styrylpyrone compound extracted from Goniothalamus species. It was found to be selectively preventing proliferation of several cancer cell lines without being cytotoxic towards normal cells. Further research on this compound and its derivatives revealed that some of the derivatives also possess anti proliferative activity. The purpose of this study is to synthesise goniothalamin derivatives via biotransformation of goniothalamin using an enzyme assay. Goniothalamin which was isolated from Goniothalamus andersonii, was allowed to react with dienelactone hydrolase for 30 minutes. The enzyme reaction's product was extracted and analysed using LC-MS. Based on the pseudomelecular ion, one goniothalamin analogue with dihydro functionality was obtained.

  15. Lignin peroxidase mediated biotransformations useful in the biocatalytic production of vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    Have, ten, R.

    2000-01-01

    This research concentrates on lignin peroxidase (LiP) mediated biotrans-formations that are useful in producing vanillin.

    In order to obtain this extracellular enzyme, the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was cultivated on nitrogen rich medium. This procedure resulted in a successful LiP production of 600 U/L. Peptone in the culture medium was shown to interfere with the standard LiP assay in which the formation of veratraldehyde (V...

  16. Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on in vitro hormonal and biotransformation responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Anne S; Arukwe, Augustine

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the biocide tributyltin (TBT) and its metabolites affect the hormonal and xenobiotic biotransformation pathways in aquatic species are not well understood. In this study hepatocytes isolated from salmon were used to evaluate the mechanistical effects of TBT on fish hormonal and xenobiotic biotransformation pathways. Cells were exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1, or 5 microM TBT and samples were collected at 0, 12, 24, or 48 h following exposure. Gene expression patterns were evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-mediated enzyme activities were evaluated by ethoxyresorufin, benzyloxyresorufin, and pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD, BROD, and PROD, respectively) activity assays. Generally, exposure of hepatocytes to 1 microM (at 48 h) and 5 microM TBT (at 12, 24, and 48 h) consistently produced reductions in all mRNA species investigated. TBT produced significant decreases of vitellogen (Vtg) expression at 48 h and modified the expression patterns of estrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) and androgen receptor-beta (ARbeta) that were dependent on time and TBT concentration. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, TBT produced differential expression patterns that were dependent on exposure time and concentration for all salmonid AhR2 isoforms (AhR2alpha, AhR2beta, AhR2delta, and AhR2gamma). For CYP1A1, CYP3A, AhRR, and Arnt mRNA, TBT produced exposure- and time-specific modulations. Catalytic CYP activities showed that BROD activity increased in an apparent concentration-specific manner in cells exposed to TBT for 12 h. Interestingly, EROD activity showed a TBT concentration-dependent increase at 24 h and PROD at 12 and 48 h of exposure. In general our data show that TBT differentially modulated hormonal and biotransformation responses in the salmon in vitro system. The apparent and consistent decrease of the studied responses with time in 1 and 5 microM exposed hepatocytes suggest a possible

  17. Prediction of reacting atoms for the major biotransformation reactions of organic xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudik, Anastasia V; Dmitriev, Alexander V; Lagunin, Alexey A; Filimonov, Dmitry A; Poroikov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of drug metabolite structures is essential at the early stage of drug discovery to understand the potential liabilities and risks connected with biotransformation. The determination of the site of a molecule at which a particular metabolic reaction occurs could be used as a starting point for metabolite identification. The prediction of the site of metabolism does not always correspond to the particular atom that is modified by the enzyme but rather is often associated with a group of atoms. To overcome this problem, we propose to operate with the term "reacting atom", corresponding to a single atom in the substrate that is modified during the biotransformation reaction. The prediction of the reacting atom(s) in a molecule for the major classes of biotransformation reactions is necessary to generate drug metabolites. Substrates of the major human cytochromes P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases from the Biovia Metabolite database were divided into nine groups according to their reaction classes, which are aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation, N- and O-glucuronidation, N-, S- and C-oxidation, and N- and O-dealkylation. Each training set consists of positive and negative examples of structures with one labelled atom. In the positive examples, the labelled atom is the reacting atom of a particular reaction that changed adjacency. Negative examples represent non-reacting atoms of a particular reaction. We used Labelled Multilevel Neighbourhoods of Atoms descriptors for the designation of reacting atoms. A Bayesian-like algorithm was applied to estimate the structure-activity relationships. The average invariant accuracy of prediction obtained in leave-one-out and 20-fold cross-validation procedures for five human isoforms of cytochrome P450 and all isoforms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase varies from 0.86 to 0.99 (0.96 on average). We report that reacting atoms may be predicted with reasonable accuracy for the major classes of metabolic reactions

  18. Biotransformação de limoneno: uma revisão das principais rotas metabólicas Biotransformation of limonene: a review of the main metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Roberto Maróstica Júnior

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable progress in the study of the biotransformation of limonene. Extensive research on the biotransformation of limonene has resulted in the elucidation of new metabolic pathways. Natural flavors can be produced via biotransformation, satisfying consumer demand for natural products. This review presents some elements concerning the biotransformation of limonene with emphasis on the metabolic pathways. Some comments are also made on problems related to biocatalysis as well as on the application of some compounds originating from the biotransformation of the inexpensive limonene.

  19. Evaluation of the inorganic selenium biotransformation in selenium-enriched yogurt by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate, Adriana; Cañas, Benito; Pérez-Munguía, Sandra; Hernández-Mendoza, Hector; Pérez-Conde, Concepción; Gutiérrez, Ana Maria; Cámara, Carmen

    2007-11-28

    Selenium is an essential element in the human diet. Interestingly, there has been an increased consumption of dietary supplements containing this element in the form of either inorganic or organic compounds. The effect of using selenium as a dietary supplement in yogurt has been evaluated. For this purpose, different concentrations of inorganic Se (ranging from 0.2 to 5000 microg g(-1)) have been added to milk before the fermentation process. Biotransformation of inorganic Se into organic species has been carefully evaluated by ion-exchange, reversed-phase, or size-exclusion chromatography, coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Yogurt fermentation in the presence of up to 2 microg g(-1) of Se(IV) produces a complete incorporation of this element into proteins as has been demonstrated applying a dialysis procedure. Analysis by SEC-ICP-MS showed that most of them have a molecular mass in the range of 30-70 kDa. Species determination after enzymatic hydrolysis has allowed the identification of Se-cystine using two different chromatographic systems. The biotransformation process that takes place during yogurt fermentation is very attractive because yogurt can act as a source of selenium supplementation.

  20. Biotransformation of sclareolide by filamentous fungi: cytotoxic evaluations of the derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Arturo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza; Ramirez-Apan, Maria Teresa; Delgado, Guillermo, E-mail: delgado@unam.m [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    Sclareolide (1) was incubated with eight different species of filamentous fungi conventionally used for bio-oxidations. Compound 1 was metabolized with Aspergillus niger in medium A to yield 3-ketosclareolide (2) and 3b-hydroxysclareolide (4), while in medium B (containing major number of nutrients with respect to medium A), compounds 2, 4, 3{alpha},6{beta}-dihydroxysclareolide (16), 1-ketosclareolide (17), 3-keto-15-hydroxysclareolide (18) and 3{beta},15-dihydroxysclareolide (19) were obtained. The biotransformation products 16-19 were found to be new substances. Fermentation of 1 with Cunninghamella blackesleeana using medium A afforded 2 and 4, while using medium B yielded 2, 4, 16 and 17. Compounds 2, 4 and 17 were also obtained with Curvularia lunata. Biotransformation of 1 with Beauveria bassiana yielded 4 in satisfactory yield, with Rhizopus oligosporus and Mucor miehei afforded 2 and 4, while with R. nigricans and Fusarium moliniforme yielded 2, 4 and 16. Cytotoxic evaluation of 1 and the obtained products against selected human cancer cell lines (U251, PC-3, K562, HCT-15, MCF-7 and SKUL-1) indicated that 16 (3{alpha},6{beta}-dihydroxysclareolide) displayed moderate cytotoxic (IC{sub 50} < 100 {mu}M) against U251, PC-3, HCT-15 and MCF-7. (author)

  1. Biotransformation of fluorophenyl pyridine carboxylic acids by the model fungus Cunninghamella elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Brown, William; Dunne, Brian; Ortin, Yannick; Fox, Mark A; Sandford, Graham; Murphy, Cormac D

    2017-09-01

    1. Fluorine plays a key role in the design of new drugs and recent FDA approvals included two fluorinated drugs, tedizolid phosphate and vorapaxar, both of which contain the fluorophenyl pyridyl moiety. 2. To investigate the likely phase-I (oxidative) metabolic fate of this group, various fluorinated phenyl pyridine carboxylic acids were incubated with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans, which is an established model of mammalian drug metabolism. 3.  19 F NMR spectroscopy established the degree of biotransformation, which varied depending on the position of fluorine substitution, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified alcohols and hydroxylated carboxylic acids as metabolites. The hydroxylated metabolites were further structurally characterised by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), which demonstrated that hydroxylation occurred on the 4' position; fluorine in that position blocked the hydroxylation. 4. The fluorophenyl pyridine carboxylic acids were not biotransformed by rat liver microsomes and this was a consequence of inhibitory action, and thus, the fungal model was crucial in obtaining metabolites to establish the mechanism of catabolism.

  2. Biotransformation and induction: implications for toxicity, bioaccumulation and monitoring of environmental xenobiotics in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinow, K.M.; Melancon, M.J.; Lech, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Biotransformation of xenobiotics in fish occurs by many of the same reactions as in mammals. These reactions have been shown to affect the bioaccumulation, persistence, residue dynamics, and toxicity of select chemicals in fish. P-450-dependent monooxygenase activity of fish can be induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but phenobarbital-type agents induce poorly, if at all. Fish monooxygenase activity exhibits ideal temperature compensation and sex-related variation. Induction of monooxygenase activity by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can result in qualitative as well as quantitative changes in the metabolic profile of a chemical. Induction can also alter toxicity. In addition, multiple P-450 isozymes have been described for several fish species. The biotransformation productions of certain chemicals have been related to specific P-450 isozymes, and the formation of these products can be influenced by induction. Exposure of fish to low levels of certain environmental contaminants has resulted in induction of specific monooxygenase activities and monitoring of such activities has been suggested as a means of identifying areas of pollutant exposure in the wild

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Hydroxylactone obtained by Biotransformation of Bromo- and Iodolactone with Gem-Dimethylcyclohexane Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabarczyk, Małgorzata; Mączka, Wanda; Wińska, Katarzyna; Anioł, Mirosław; Żarowska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Two bicyclic lactones with gem-dimethylcyclohexane rings (δ-bromo-γ-lactone and δ-iodo-γ-lactone) were used as substrates for biotransformation by whole cells of several fungal strains (five cepas Fusarium, Nigrospora oryzae, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Stemphylium botryosum, Cunninghamella japonica and Acremonium sp). Some of the selected microorganisms (mainly Fusarium strains) transformed these lactones by hydrolytic dehalogenation into cis-(‑)-2-hydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one. The conversion of the substrate was equal or close to 100%, showing that this method allows for the complete removal of the halogen atom from the molecule, replacing it by a hydroxy group. The structures of all substrates and products were established on the basis of their spectral data. Hydroxylactone obtained as http://jbcs.sbq.org.br/audiencia_pdf.asp?aid2=3794&nomeArquivo=v24n12a05.pdf a result of biotransformation was examined for its biological activity against bacteria, yeasts and fungi. This compound inhibits the growth of some tested microorganisms. (author)

  4. Arsenate biotransformation by Microcystis aeruginosa under different nitrogen and phosphorus levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Feifei; Du, Miaomiao; Yan, Changzhou

    2018-04-01

    The arsenate (As(V)) biotransformation by Microcystis aeruginosa in a medium with different concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) has been studied under laboratory conditions. When 15μg/L As(V) was added, N and P in the medium showed effective regulation on arsenic (As) metabolism in M. aeruginosa, resulting in significant differences in the algal growth among different N and P treatments. Under 0.2mg/L P treatment, increases in N concentration (4-20mg/L) significantly stimulated the cell growth and therefore indirectly enhanced the production of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), the main As metabolite, accounting for 71%-79% of the total As in the medium. Meanwhile, 10-20mg/L N treatments accelerated the ability of As metabolization by M. aeruginosa, leading to higher contents of DMA per cell. However, As(V) uptake by M. aeruginosa was significantly impeded by 0.5-1.0mg/L P treatment, resulting in smaller rates of As transformation in M. aeruginosa as well as lower contents of As metabolites in the medium. Our data demonstrated that As(V) transformation by M. aeruginosa was significantly accelerated by increasing N levels, while it was inhibited by increasing P levels. Overall, both P and N play key roles in As(V) biotransformation processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Efficient Biotransformation of Astragaloside IV to Cycloastragenol by Bacillus sp. LG-502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Cycloastragenol (CA), an exclusive telomerase activator, was derived from the Astragali Radix which is widely distributed in Turkey. Until now, there is no report to produce CA with effective and environment-friendly methods. Biotransformation is considered to be a promising technology. Thus, the present study was aimed to establish a biotransformation technology that could efficiently produce CA. In this paper, a microorganism, LG-502, was used to successfully transform astragaloside IV (ASI) to CA by analysis of thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA indicated that this strain belongs to Bacillus sp. Three metabolites were separated during the fermentation and characterized to be cyclogaleginoside B, CA, and 20R, 24S-epoxy-6α, 16β, 25-trihydroxy-9, 19-cycloartan-3-one based on NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. The conversion rate of ASI and yield rate of CA were achieved as high as 89 and 84%, respectively, under optimized conditions. Enzymatic analysis showed that the glycosidases were mainly located inside the bacterial body, and the activities of glucosidases were much higher than the xylosidases under the experimental conditions. This study provides a feasible, effective, and eco-friendly way to prepare CA from ASI, which might greatly contribute to the applications of ASI.

  6. Rapid identification of herbal compounds derived metabolites using zebrafish larvae as the biotransformation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Yin, Ying-Hao; Wei, Ying-Jie; Shi, Zi-Qi; Liu, Jian-Qun; Liu, Li-Fang; Xin, Gui-Zhong

    2017-09-15

    Metabolites derived from herbal compounds are becoming promising sources for discovering new drugs. However, the rapid identification of metabolites from biological matrixes is limited by massive endogenous interference and low abundance of metabolites. Thus, by using zebrafish larvae as the biotransformation system, we herein proposed and validated an integrated strategy for rapid identification of metabolites derived from herbal compounds. Two pivotal steps involved in this strategy are to differentiate metabolites from herbal compounds and match metabolites with their parent compounds. The differentiation step was achieved by cross orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Automatic matching analysis was performed on R Project based on a self-developed program, of which the number of matched ionic clusters and its corresponding percentage between metabolite and parent compound were taken into account to assess their similarity. Using this strategy, 46 metabolites screened from incubation water samples of zebrafish treated with total Epimedium flavonoids (EFs) could be matched with their corresponding parent compounds, 37 of them were identified and validated by the known metabolic pathways and fragmentation patterns. Finally, 75% of the identified EFs metabolites were successfully detected in urine samples of rats treated with EFs. These experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy using zebrafish larvae as the biotransformation system will facilitate the rapid identification of metabolites derived from herbal compounds, which shows promising perspectives in providing additional resources for pharmaceutical developments from natural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of human milk oligosaccharides by enzymatic and whole-cell microbial biotransformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Georg A; Baumgärtner, Florian; Albermann, Christoph

    2017-09-20

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are almost unique constituents of breast milk and are not found in appreciable amounts in cow milk. Due to several positive aspects of HMO for the development, health, and wellbeing of infants, production of HMO would be desirable. As a result, scientists from different disciplines have developed methods for the preparation of single HMO compounds. Here, we review approaches to HMO preparation by (chemo-)enzymatic syntheses or by whole-cell biotransformation with recombinant bacterial cells. With lactose as acceptor (in vitro or in vivo), fucosyltransferases can be used for the production of 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, or more complex fucosylated core structures. Sialylated HMO can be produced by sialyltransferases and trans-sialidases. Core structures as lacto-N-tetraose can be obtained by glycosyltransferases from chemical donor compounds or by multi-enzyme cascades; recent publications also show production of lacto-N-tetraose by recombinant Escherichia coli bacteria and approaches to obtain fucosylated core structures. In view of an industrial production of HMOs, the whole cell biotransformation is at this stage the most promising option to provide human milk oligosaccharides as food additive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Responses of the antioxidative and biotransformation enzymes in the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis exposed to cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsano, Evelyn; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Hoque, Enamul; Lima, Stephan Pflugmacher

    2017-08-01

    To investigate antioxidative and biotransformation enzyme responses in Mucor hiemalis towards cyanotoxins considering its use in mycoremediation applications. Catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in M. hiemalis maintained their activities at all tested microcystin-LR (MC-LR) exposure concentrations. Cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity decreased with exposure to 100 µg MC-LR l -1 while microsomal GST remained constant. Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) at 100 µg l -1 led to an increase in CAT activity and inhibition of GR, as well as to a concentration-dependent GPx inhibition. Microsomal GST was inhibited at all concentrations tested. β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) inhibited GR activity in a concentration-dependent manner, however, CAT, GPx, and GST remained unaffected. M. hiemalis showed enhanced oxidative stress tolerance and intact biotransformation enzyme activity towards MC-LR and BMAA in comparison to CYN, confirming its applicability in bioreactor technology in terms of viability and survival in their presence.

  9. Lipases and whole cell biotransformations of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid and its ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Paulina; Serafin, Monika; Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Brzezińska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Żymańczyk-Duda, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    A wide spectrum of commercially available lipases and microbial whole cells catalysts were tested for biotransformations of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid 1 and its butyryl ester. The best results were achieved for biocatalytic hydrolysis of ester: 2-butyryloxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid 2 performed by lipase from Candida cylindracea, what gave optically active products with 85% enantiomeric excess, 50% conversion degree and enantioselectivity 32.9 for one pair of enantiomers. Also enzymatic systems of Penicillium minioluteum and Fusarium oxysporum were able to hydrolyze tested compound with high enantiomeric excess (68-93% ee), enantioselectivity (44 for one pair of enantiomers) and conversion degree about 50-55%. Enzymatic acylation of hydroxyphosphinate was successful in case when porcine pancreas lipase was used. After 4days of biotransformation the conversion reaches 45% but the enantiomeric enrichment of the isomers mixture do not exceed 43%. Obtained chiral compounds are valuable derivatizing agents for spectroscopic (NMR) evaluation of enantiomeric excess for particular compounds (e.g. amino acids). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Obtaining Low Rank Coal Biotransforming Bacteria from Microhabitats Enriched with Carbonaceous Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero Valero, Nelson; Rodriguez Salazar, Luz Nidia; Mancilla Gomez, Sandra; Contreras Bayona, Leydis

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria capable of low rank coal (LRC) biotransform were isolated from environmental samples altered with coal in the mine The Cerrejon. A protocol was designed to select strains more capable of LRC biotransform, the protocol includes isolation in a selective medium with LRC powder, qualitative and quantitative tests for LRC solubilization in solid and liquid culture medium. Of 75 bacterial strains isolated, 32 showed growth in minimal salts agar with 5 % carbon. The strains that produce higher values of humic substances (HS) have a mechanism of solubilization associated with pH changes in the culture medium, probably related to the production of extracellular alkaline substances by bacteria. The largest number of strains and bacteria with more solubilizing activity on LRC were isolated from sludge with high content of carbon residue and rhizosphere of Typha domingensis and Cenchrus ciliaris grown on sediments mixed with carbon particles, this result suggests that obtaining and solubilization capacity of LRC by bacteria may be related to the microhabitat where the populations originated.

  11. Biotransformation of hexavalent chromium into extracellular chromium(III) oxide nanoparticles using Schwanniomyces occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Pallavi T; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita S

    2016-03-01

    To demonstrate biotransformation of toxic Cr(VI) ions into Cr2O3 nanoparticles by the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis. Reaction mixtures containing S. occidentalis NCIM 3459 and Cr(VI) ions that were initially yellow turned green after 48 h incubation. The coloration was due to the synthesis of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles (Cr2O3NPs). UV-Visible spectra of the reaction mixtures showed peaks at 445 and 600 nm indicating (4)A2g → (4)T1g and (4)A2g → (4)T2g transitions in Cr2O3, respectively. FTIR profiles suggested the involvement of carboxyl and amide groups in nanoparticle synthesis and stabilization. The Cr2O3NPs ranged between 10 and 60 nm. Their crystalline nature was evident from the selective area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction patterns. Energy dispersive spectra confirmed the chemical composition of the nanoparticles. These biogenic nanoparticles could find applications in different fields. S. occidentalis mediated biotransformation of toxic Cr(VI) ions into crystalline extracellular Cr2O3NPs under benign conditions.

  12. Uptake, Translocation, and Biotransformation of Organophosphorus Esters in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weining; Huang, Honglin; Lv, Jitao; Han, Ruixia; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2017-12-05

    The uptake, translocation and biotransformation of organophosphate esters (OPEs) by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated by a hydroponic experiment. The results demonstrated that OPEs with higher hydrophobicity were more easily taken up by roots, and OPEs with lower hydrophobicity were more liable to be translocated acropetally. A total of 43 metabolites including dealkylated, oxidatively dechlorinated, hydroxylated, methoxylated, and glutathione-, and glucuronide- conjugated products were detected derived from eight OPEs, with diesters formed by direct dealkylation from the parent triesters as the major products, followed with hydroxylated triesters. Molecular interactions of OPEs with plant biomacromolecules were further characterized by homology modeling combined with molecular docking. OPEs with higher hydrophobicity were more liable to bind with TaLTP1.1, the most important wheat nonspecific lipid transfer protein, consistent with the experimental observation that OPEs with higher hydrophobicity were more easily taken up by wheat roots. Characterization of molecular interactions between OPEs and wheat enzymes suggested that OPEs were selectively bound to TaGST4-4 and CYP71C6v1 with different binding affinities, which determined their abilities to be metabolized and form metabolite products in wheat. This study provides both experimental and theoretical evidence for the uptake, accumulation and biotransformation of OPEs in plants.

  13. Effect of alkyl side chain location and cyclicity on the aerobic biotransformation of naphthenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiti, Teresa M; Tezel, Ulas; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2014-07-15

    Aerobic biodegradation of naphthenic acids is of importance to the oil industry for the long-term management and environmental impact of process water and wastewater. The effect of structure, particularly the location of the alkyl side chain as well as cyclicity, on the aerobic biotransformation of 10 model naphthenic acids (NAs) was investigated. Using an aerobic, mixed culture, enriched with a commercial NA mixture (NA sodium salt; TCI Chemicals), batch biotransformation assays were conducted with individual model NAs, including eight 8-carbon isomers. It was shown that NAs with a quaternary carbon at the α- or β-position or a tertiary carbon at the β- and/or β'-position are recalcitrant or have limited biodegradability. In addition, branched NAs exhibited lag periods and lower degradation rates than nonbranched or simple cyclic NAs. Two NA isomers used in a closed bottle, aerobic biodegradation assay were mineralized, while 21 and 35% of the parent compound carbon was incorporated into the biomass. The NA biodegradation probability estimated by two widely used models (BIOWIN 2 and 6) and a recently developed model (OCHEM) was compared to the biodegradability of the 10 model NAs tested in this study as well as other related NAs. The biodegradation probability estimated by the OCHEM model agreed best with the experimental data and was best correlated with the measured NA biodegradation rate.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Hydroxylactone obtained by Biotransformation of Bromo- and Iodolactone with Gem-Dimethylcyclohexane Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Malgorzata; Maczka, Wanda; Winska, Katarzyna; Aniol, Miroslaw, E-mail: magrab@onet.pl [Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland); Zarowska, Barbara [Department of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2013-12-01

    Two bicyclic lactones with gem-dimethylcyclohexane rings ({delta}-bromo-{gamma}-lactone and {delta}-iodo-{gamma}-lactone) were used as substrates for biotransformation by whole cells of several fungal strains (five cepas Fusarium, Nigrospora oryzae, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Stemphylium botryosum, Cunninghamella japonica and Acremonium sp). Some of the selected microorganisms (mainly Fusarium strains) transformed these lactones by hydrolytic dehalogenation into cis-(-)-2-hydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one. The conversion of the substrate was equal or close to 100%, showing that this method allows for the complete removal of the halogen atom from the molecule, replacing it by a hydroxy group. The structures of all substrates and products were established on the basis of their spectral data. Hydroxylactone obtained as http://jbcs.sbq.org.br/audiencia{sub p}df.asp?aid2=3794&nomeArquivo=v24n12a05.pdf a result of biotransformation was examined for its biological activity against bacteria, yeasts and fungi. This compound inhibits the growth of some tested microorganisms. (author)

  15. Biotransformation of monoaromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons at an aviation-gasoline spill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.H.; Wilson, J.T.; Kampbell, D.H.; Bledsoe, B.E.; Armstrong, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Loss of petroleum products from underground storage tanks, pipelines, and accidental spills are major sources of contamination of unsaturated soils, aquifer solids, and a shallow water table aquifer under the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station at Traverse City, MI, has acclimated to the aerobic and anaerobic transformation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTX) released from an aviation gasoline spill. The aquifer also exhibits reductive dechlorination of a chlorinated solvent spill adjacent to the aviation gasoline spill. The groundwater is buffered near neutrality. The aviation gasoline plume is methanogenic and the aquifer contains enough iron minerals to support significant iron solubilization. Field evidence of both aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation of monoaromatics was confirmed by laboratory studies of aquifer material obtained from the site. In the laboratory studies, the removal of the monoaromatics in the anaerobic material was rapid and compared favorable with removal in the aerobic material. The kinetics of anaerobic removal of monoaromatics in the laboratory were similar to the kinetics at field scale in the aquifer. Biotransformation of the chlorinated solvents was not observed until late in the study, when daughter products from reductive dechlorination of the chlorinated solvents were identified by GC/MS

  16. Genetic variation in biotransformation enzymes, air pollution exposures, and risk of spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M; Yang, Wei; Schultz, Kathleen; Lurmann, Fred; Hammond, S Katharine; Shaw, Gary M

    2018-05-01

    Spina bifida is a birth defect characterized by incomplete closure of the embryonic neural tube. Genetic factors as well as environmental factors have been observed to influence risks for spina bifida. Few studies have investigated possible gene-environment interactions that could contribute to spina bifida risk. The aim of this study is to examine the interaction between gene variants in biotransformation enzyme pathways and ambient air pollution exposures and risk of spina bifida. We evaluated the role of air pollution exposure during pregnancy and gene variants of biotransformation enzymes from bloodspots and buccal cells in a California population-based case-control (86 cases of spina bifida and 208 non-malformed controls) study. We considered race/ethnicity and folic acid vitamin use as potential effect modifiers and adjusted for those factors and smoking. We observed gene-environment interactions between each of the five pollutants and several gene variants: NO (ABCC2), NO 2 (ABCC2, SLC01B1), PM 10 (ABCC2, CYP1A1, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, NAT2, SLC01B1, SLC01B3), PM 2.5 (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2). These analyses show positive interactions between air pollution exposure during early pregnancy and gene variants associated with metabolizing enzymes. These exploratory results suggest that some individuals based on their genetic background may be more susceptible to the adverse effects of pollution. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Extractive biotransformation for production of metabolites of poorly soluble compounds: synthesis of 32-hydroxy-rifalazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhaev, Vadim V; Mozhaeva, Lyudmila V; Michels, Peter C; Khmelnitsky, Yuri L

    2008-10-01

    A novel reaction system was developed for the production of metabolites of poorly water-soluble parent compounds using mammalian liver microsomes. The system includes the selection and use of an appropriate hydrophobic polymeric resin as a reservoir for the hydrophobic parent compounds and its metabolites. The utility of the extractive biotransformation approach was shown for the production of a low-yielding, synthetically challenging 32-hydroxylated metabolite of the antibiotic rifalazil using mouse liver microsomes. To address the low solubility and reactivity of rifalazil in the predominantly aqueous microsomal catalytic system, a variety of strategies were tested for the enhanced delivery of hydrophobic substrates, including the addition of mild detergents, polyvinylpyrrolidone, glycerol, bovine serum albumin, and hydrophobic polymeric resins. The latter strategy was identified as the most suitable for the production of 32-hydroxy-rifalazil, resulting in up to 13-fold enhancement of the volumetric productivity compared with the standard aqueous system operating at the solubility limit of rifalazil. The production process was optimized for a wide range of reaction parameters; the most important for improving volumetric productivity included the type and amount of the polymeric resin, cofactor recycling system, concentrations of the biocatalyst and rifalazil, reaction temperature, and agitation rate. The optimized extractive biotransformation system was used to synthesize 32-hydroxy-rifalazil on a multimilligram scale.

  18. Biotransformation of sclareolide by filamentous fungi: cytotoxic evaluations of the derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    Sclareolide (1) was incubated with eight different species of filamentous fungi conventionally used for bio-oxidations. Compound 1 was metabolized with Aspergillus niger in medium A to yield 3-ketosclareolide (2) and 3b-hydroxysclareolide (4), while in medium B (containing major number of nutrients with respect to medium A), compounds 2, 4, 3α,6β-dihydroxysclareolide (16), 1-ketosclareolide (17), 3-keto-15-hydroxysclareolide (18) and 3β,15-dihydroxysclareolide (19) were obtained. The biotransformation products 16-19 were found to be new substances. Fermentation of 1 with Cunninghamella blackesleeana using medium A afforded 2 and 4, while using medium B yielded 2, 4, 16 and 17. Compounds 2, 4 and 17 were also obtained with Curvularia lunata. Biotransformation of 1 with Beauveria bassiana yielded 4 in satisfactory yield, with Rhizopus oligosporus and Mucor miehei afforded 2 and 4, while with R. nigricans and Fusarium moliniforme yielded 2, 4 and 16. Cytotoxic evaluation of 1 and the obtained products against selected human cancer cell lines (U251, PC-3, K562, HCT-15, MCF-7 and SKUL-1) indicated that 16 (3α,6β-dihydroxysclareolide) displayed moderate cytotoxic (IC 50 < 100 μM) against U251, PC-3, HCT-15 and MCF-7. (author)

  19. Arsenic in the human food chain, biotransformation and toxicology--Review focusing on seafood arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Marianne; Ulven, Stine Marie; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Fish and seafood are main contributors of arsenic (As) in the diet. The dominating arsenical is the organoarsenical arsenobetaine (AB), found particularly in finfish. Algae, blue mussels and other filter feeders contain less AB, but more arsenosugars and relatively more inorganic arsenic (iAs), whereas fatty fish contain more arsenolipids. Other compounds present in smaller amounts in seafood include trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), trimethylarsoniopropionate (TMAP), dimethylarsenate (DMA), methylarsenate (MA) and sulfur-containing arsenicals. The toxic and carcinogenic arsenical iAs is biotransformed in humans and excreted in urine as the carcinogens dimethylarsinate (DMA) and methylarsonate (MA), producing reactive intermediates in the process. Less is known about the biotransformation of organoarsenicals, but new insight indicates that bioconversion of arsenosugars and arsenolipids in seafood results in urinary excretion of DMA, possibly also producing reactive trivalent arsenic intermediates. Recent findings also indicate that the pre-systematic metabolism by colon microbiota play an important role for human metabolism of arsenicals. Processing of seafood may also result in transformation of arsenicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing analysis provides preliminary insights into the biotransformation mechanism of Rhodopseudomonas palustris treated with alpha-rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Guan, Chun-jie; Yang, Guan-e; Yang, Fei; Yan, Hong-yu; Li, Qing-shan

    2016-04-01

    The purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris has been widely applied to enhance the therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine using novel biotransformation technology. However, comprehensive studies of the R. palustris biotransformation mechanism are rare. Therefore, investigation of the expression patterns of genes involved in metabolic pathways that are active during the biotransformation process is essential to elucidate this complicated mechanism. To promote further study of the biotransformation of R. palustris, we assembled all R. palustris transcripts using Trinity software and performed differential expression analysis of the resulting unigenes. A total of 9725, 7341 and 10,963 unigenes were obtained by assembling the alpha-rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside-treated R. palustris (RPB) reads, control R. palustris (RPS) reads and combined RPB&RPS reads, respectively. A total of 9971 unigenes assembled from the RPB&RPS reads were mapped to the nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) (E-value biotransformation in R. palustris. Furthermore, we propose two putative ARR biotransformation mechanisms in R. palustris. These analytical results represent a useful genomic resource for in-depth research into the molecular basis of biotransformation and genetic modification in R. palustris. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Shifts in Soil Chemical Properties and Bacterial Communities Responding to Biotransformed Dry Olive Residue Used as Organic Amendment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siles, J. A.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Hernandez, P.; Perez-Mendoza, D.; Garcia-Romera, I.; Sampedro, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 1 (2015), s. 231-243 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020218 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bioremediation * Biotransformation * Mediterranean soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.232, year: 2015

  2. Biotransformation of catechin and extraction of active polysaccharide from green tea leaves via simultaneous treatment with tannase and pectinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Joo Hyun; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Park, Yooheon; Yu, Kwang-Won; Suh, Hyung Joo; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2015-08-30

    Green tea is a dietary source of bioactive compounds for human health. Enzymatic treatments induce the bioconversion of bioactive components, which can improve biological activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of simultaneous treatment with tannase and Rapidase on biotransformation of catechins and extraction of polysaccharide from green tea extract (GTE). Tannase and pectinase treatments induced the biotransformation of catechins and altered tea polysaccharide () content. The addition of GTE to the enzyme reaction resulted in a significant increase in degallated catechins, including gallic acid, a product of the tannase reaction (314.5-4076.0 µg mL(-1)) and a reduction in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Biotransformation of catechins improved the radical scavenging activity of GTE. Pectinase treatment led to change of TPS composition in GTE by hydrolyzing polysaccharides. In addition, pectinase-driven hydrolysis in polysaccharides significantly increased TPS-induced Interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in macrophages. In particular, treatment of Rapidase (TPS-Ra) led to the highest IL-6 production among TPS samples, similar to treatment of highly purified pectinase (TPS-GTE), a positive control. Simultaneous processing with tannase and Rapidase can be an efficient method for the extraction of bioactive polysaccharides and biotransformation of catechins with enhanced radical scavenging activity from green tea. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. A biotransformation process for the production of cucurbitacin B from its glycoside using a selected Streptomyces sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jianfeng; Li, Sha; Jin, Hang; Tang, Lan; Yi, Yu; Wang, Hong; Ying, Guoqing

    2016-09-01

    Cucurbitacin B (CuB) and its glycoside, cucurbitacin B 2-o-β-D-glucoside (CuBg), abundantly occur in the pedicels of Cucumis melo. Compared with CuB, CuBg is not efficiently extracted from the pedicels. Furthermore, the anticancer activity of CuBg is lower than that of the aglycone. A process for CuBg biotransformation to CuB was developed for the first time. A strain of Streptomyces species that converts CuBg into CuB was isolated from an enrichment culture of C. melo pedicels. After optimization of conditions for enzyme production and biotransformation, a maximum conversion rate of 92.6 % was obtained at a CuBg concentration of 0.25 g/L. When biotransformation was performed on C. melo pedicel extracts, the CuB concentration in the extracts increased from 1.50 to 3.27 g/L. The conversion rate was almost 100 %. The developed process may be an effective biotransformation method for industrial production CuB from C. melo pedicels for pharmaceuticals.

  4. Influence of temperature on nucleus degradation of 4-androstene-3, 17-dione in phytosterol biotransformation by Mycobacterium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X W; Gao, X Q; Feng, J X; Wang, X D; Wei, D Z

    2015-07-01

    One of the steroid intermediates, 4-androstene-3, 17-dione (AD), in the biotransformation of phytosterols is valuable for the production of steroid medicaments. However, its degradation during the conversion process is one of the main obstacles to obtain high yields. In this study, the effect of temperature on nucleus degradation during microbial biotransformation of phytosterol was investigated. The results indicated that microbial degradation of phytosterol followed the AD-ADD-'9-OH-ADD' pathway, and that two important reactions involved in nucleus degradation, conversions of AD to ADD and ADD to 9-OH-ADD, were inhibited at 37°C. With a change in the culture temperature from 30 to 37°C, nucleus degradation was reduced from 39·9% to 17·6%, due to inhibition of the putative KstD and Ksh. These results suggested a simple way to decrease the nucleus degradation in phytosterol biotransformation and a new perspective on the possibilities of modifying the metabolism of strains used in industrial applications. Nucleus degradation of products is one of the main problems encountered during phytosterol biotransformation. To solve this problem, the effect of temperature on nucleus degradation was investigated in the industrial production of steroid intermediates. The results are also helpful to the genetic modification of sterol-producing strains. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Fate of cocaine drug biomarkers in sewer system: the role of suspended solids in biotransformation and sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio

    on the fate of illicit drugs in sewer systems. This study aims at assessing the role of suspended solids on the biotransformation and sorption in raw sewage of eight illicit drug biomarkers (cocaine, heroin, methadone, mephedrone, ketamine, methamphetamine, MDMA and THC and their urinary metabolites...

  6. Biotransformation kinetics and sorption of cocaine and its metabolites and the factors influencing their estimation in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plósz, Benedek G.; Reid, Malcolm J.; Borup, Morten

    2013-01-01

    and ecgonine methyl ester. The activated sludge modelling framework for xenobiotic organic micro-pollutants (ASM-X) is used for model structure identification and calibration. Biotransformation was observed to follow pseudo first-order kinetics. The biodegradation kinetics of cocaine, benzoylecgonine...

  7. Sex-specific biotransformation and detoxification after xenobiotic exposure of primary cultured hepatocytes of European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winzer, Katja; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Köhler, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Sex-specific effects of sublethal concentrations of known effective pro-oxidants such as 100, 200 and 400 muM benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]p), 50 M nitrofurantoin (NF) and 100 muM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on biotransformation pathways were studied in isolated hepatocytes of immature female and male European

  8. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of biotransformation rates for assessing bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic chemicals in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Shan; Lo, Justin C; Otton, S Victoria; Moore, Margo M; Kennedy, Chris J; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2017-07-01

    Incorporating biotransformation in bioaccumulation assessments of hydrophobic chemicals in both aquatic and terrestrial organisms in a simple, rapid, and cost-effective manner is urgently needed to improve bioaccumulation assessments of potentially bioaccumulative substances. One approach to estimate whole-animal biotransformation rate constants is to combine in vitro measurements of hepatic biotransformation kinetics with in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) and bioaccumulation modeling. An established IVIVE modeling approach exists for pharmaceuticals (referred to in the present study as IVIVE-Ph) and has recently been adapted for chemical bioaccumulation assessments in fish. The present study proposes and tests an alternative IVIVE-B technique to support bioaccumulation assessment of hydrophobic chemicals with a log octanol-water partition coefficient (K OW ) ≥ 4 in mammals. The IVIVE-B approach requires fewer physiological and physiochemical parameters than the IVIVE-Ph approach and does not involve interconversions between clearance and rate constants in the extrapolation. Using in vitro depletion rates, the results show that the IVIVE-B and IVIVE-Ph models yield similar estimates of rat whole-organism biotransformation rate constants for hypothetical chemicals with log K OW  ≥ 4. The IVIVE-B approach generated in vivo biotransformation rate constants and biomagnification factors (BMFs) for benzo[a]pyrene that are within the range of empirical observations. The proposed IVIVE-B technique may be a useful tool for assessing BMFs of hydrophobic organic chemicals in mammals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1934-1946. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Characterization of new recombinant 3-ketosteroid-Δ1-dehydrogenases for the biotransformation of steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Feng, Jinhui; Zhang, Dalong; Wu, Qiaqing; Zhu, Dunming; Ma, Yanhe

    2017-08-01

    3-Ketosteroid-Δ 1 -dehydrogenases (KstDs [EC 1.3.99.4]) catalyze the Δ 1 -dehydrogenation of steroids and are a class of important enzymes for steroid biotransformations. In this study, we cloned 12 putative KstD-encoding (kstd) genes from both fungal and Gram-positive microorganisms and attempted to overproduce the recombinant proteins in E. coli BL21(DE3). Five successful recombinant enzymes catalyzed the Δ 1 -desaturation of a variety of steroidal compounds such as 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD), 9α-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (9-OH-AD), hydrocortisone, cortisone, and cortexolone. However, the substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency of the enzymes differ depending on their sources. The purified KstD from Mycobacterium smegmatis mc 2 155 (MsKstD1) displayed high catalytic efficiency toward hydrocortisone, progesterone, and 9-OH-AD, where it had the highest affinity (K m 36.9 ± 4.6 μM) toward 9-OH-AD. On the other hand, the KstD from Rhodococcus erythropolis WY 1406 (ReKstD) exhibited high catalytic efficiency toward androst-4,9(11)-diene-3,17-dione (Diene), 21-acetoxy-pregna-4,9(11),16-triene-3,20-dione (Triene), and cortexolone, where in all three cases the K m values (12.3 to 17.8 μM) were 2.5-4-fold lower than that toward hydrocortisone (46.3 μM). For both enzymes, AD was a good substrate although ReKstD had a 3-fold higher affinity than MsKstD1. Reaction conditions were optimized for the biotransformation of AD or hydrocortisone in terms of pH, temperature, and effects of hydrogen peroxide, solvent, and electron acceptor. For the biotransformation of hydrocortisone with 20 g/L wet resting E. coli cells harboring MsKstD1 enzyme, the yield of prednisolone was about 90% within 3 h at the substrate concentration of 6 g/L, demonstrating the application potential of the newly cloned KstDs.

  10. Uptake, accumulation, and biotransformation of metal oxide nanoparticles by a marine suspension-feeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Milka O. [University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); University of Texas of the Permian Basin, 4901 E. University, Odessa, TX 79762 (United States); Hanna, Shannon K.; Lenihan, Hunter S. [University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Keller, Arturo A., E-mail: keller@bren.ucsb.edu [University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suspension-feeding by mussels can greatly alter mobility and fate of metal oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioprocessing of metal oxide nanoparticles by mussels removes large fraction from water column. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mussels repackage metal oxide nanoparticles in highly concentrated pseudofeces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel biological pathway between major compartments in marine systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very different outcome for ZnO and CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles based on their solubility. - Abstract: A growing body of evidence indicates that some engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are toxic to organisms that perform important ecosystem services in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, toxicity can be influenced by the biotransformation of contaminants, including ENPs, as it may alter the fate and transport of these substances. In turn, fate and transport can influence their bioavailability. To understand how biotransformation influences the fate and transport of ENPs in marine ecosystems, we exposed suspension-feeding mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to two common nano-metal oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZnO, over a range of concentrations from 1 mg L{sup -1} to 10 mg L{sup -1}, in a laboratory experiment. Mussels exposed to 10 mg L{sup -1} accumulated 62 {mu}g g{sup -1} of Ce and 880 {mu}g g{sup -1} of Zn on a dry tissue basis but rejected 21,000 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Ce and 63,000 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Zn in pseudofeces. Scanning electron microscope evidence indicates CeO{sub 2} remained as ENPs but ZnO did not after being rejected by the mussels. Mussels filtered most of the CeO{sub 2} from the aqueous media, while a significant fraction of Zn remained in solution. Differences in ENP solubility affect ENP uptake, excretion, and accumulation in mussels. Our study highlights the potential role of marine suspension feeders in biotransformation of ENPs.

  11. [THE SYSTEM OF XENOBIOTICS BIOTRANSFORMATION OF HELMINTHS. RESEMBLANCE AND DIFFERENSES FROM SIMILAR HOST SYSTEMS (REWEW)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, L P; Borvinskaya, E V; Suhovskaya, I V

    2016-01-01

    The three phases system xenobiotic biotransformation in cells as prokaryotes as eukaryotes was formed during the process of evolution. Clear and managed function of all three links of this system guarantee the survival of living organisms at alteration of chemical component of environment. Oxidation, reduction or hydrolysis of xenobiotics realize in phase I by insertion or opening reactive and hydrophilic groups in structure of drug molecule. In phase II xenobiotics or their metabolites from phase I conjugate with endogenic compounds, main of there are glutathione, glucuronic acid, amino acids and sulphates. Active transport of substrata, metabolites and conjugates through cell lipid membranes special transport proteins carry out (phase III). The system of xenobiotics biotransformation of helminths has essential differences from the same of vertebrate hosts. In particular, parasites do not reveal the activity of prime oxidases of phase I, such as CYP or FMO, in spite of the genes of these enzymes in DNA. As this phenomenon displays mainly in adult helminths, living in guts of vertebrates, then the hypothesis was formulated that this effect is related with adaptation to conditions of strong deficiency of oxygen, arise in a process of evolution (Kotze et al., 2006). Literature data testify the existence in helminths of unique forms of enzymes of phase II, the investigation of which present doubtless interest in relation with possible role in adaptation to parasitic mode of life. Notwithstanding that many of helminths GST in greater or lesser degree similar with enzymes of M, P, S and О classes of other organisms, nevertheless they have essential structural differences as compared with enzymes of hosts that makes perspective the search of specific anthelminthics vaccines. Transport of xenobiotics is now considered phase III of biotransformation. It was shown that proteins of this phase (ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC ) of parasites) play a key role in efflux

  12. Cofactor engineering to regulate NAD+/NADH ratio with its application to phytosterols biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liqiu; Shen, Yanbing; Zhang, Wenkai; Gao, Tian; Shang, Zhihua; Wang, Min

    2017-10-30

    Cofactor engineering is involved in the modification of enzymes related to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NADH and NAD + ) metabolism, which results in a significantly altered spectrum of metabolic products. Cofactor engineering plays an important role in metabolic engineering but is rarely reported in the sterols biotransformation process owing to its use of multi-catabolic enzymes, which promote multiple consecutive reactions. Androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione (AD) and androst-1, 4-diene-3, 17-dione (ADD) are important steroid medicine intermediates that are obtained via the nucleus oxidation and the side chain degradation of phytosterols by Mycobacterium. Given that the biotransformation from phytosterols to AD (D) is supposed to be a NAD + -dependent process, this work utilized cofactor engineering in Mycobacterium neoaurum and investigated the effect on cofactor and phytosterols metabolism. Through the addition of the coenzyme precursor of nicotinic acid in the phytosterols fermentation system, the intracellular NAD + /NADH ratio and the AD (D) production of M. neoaurum TCCC 11978 (MNR M3) were higher than in the control. Moreover, the NADH: flavin oxidoreductase was identified and was supposed to exert a positive effect on cofactor regulation and phytosterols metabolism pathways via comparative proteomic profiling of MNR cultured with and without phytosterols. In addition, the NADH: flavin oxidoreductase and a water-forming NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis, were successfully overexpressed and heterologously expressed in MNR M3 to improve the intracellular ratio of NAD + /NADH. After 96 h of cultivation, the expression of these two enzymes in MNR M3 resulted in the decrease in intracellular NADH level (by 51 and 67%, respectively) and the increase in NAD + /NADH ratio (by 113 and 192%, respectively). Phytosterols bioconversion revealed that the conversion ratio of engineered stains was ultimately improved by 58 and 147%, respectively. The highest AD (D

  13. Evaluation of Predicted and Observed Data on Biotransformation of Twenty-Nine Trace Organic Chemicals

    KAUST Repository

    Bertolini, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Trace organic chemicals present in household products, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products may have adverse ecotoxicological effects once they are released to the environment. These chemicals are usually transported with the sewage to wastewater treatment facilities, where they might be attenuated depending on the degree of treatment applied prior to discharge to receiving streams. This study evaluates the removal performance of 29 trace organic compounds during two different activated sludge treatment systems. Predominant attenuation processes such as biotransformation and sorption for the target compounds were identified. Biotransformation rate constants determined in this study were used to assess removal of compounds from other treatment plants with similar operational conditions, using data gathered from the literature. The commercial software Catalogic was applied to predict environmental fate of chemicals. The software program consisted of four models able to simulate molecular transformations and to generate degradation trees. In order to assess the accuracy of this program in predicting biotransformation, one biodegradation model is used to contrast predicted degradation pathway with metabolic pathways reported in the literature. The predicted outcome was correct for more than 40 percent of the 29 targeted substances, while 38 percent of the chemicals exhibited some degree of lower agreement between predicted and observed pathways. Percent removal data determined for the two treatment facilities was compared with transformation probability output from Catalogic. About 80 percent of the 29 compounds exhibited a good correlation between probability of transformation of the parent compound and percent removal data from the two treatment plants (R2 = 0.82 and 0.9). Based upon findings for 29 trace organic chemicals regarding removal during activated sludge treatment, attacked fragments present in their structures, predicted data from

  14. High‐resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    High‐resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales pr...

  15. Cell foundry with high product specificity and catalytic activity for 21-deoxycortisol biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuting; Wang, Ying; Yao, Mingdong; Liu, Hong; Zhou, Xiao; Xiao, Wenhai; Yuan, Yingjin

    2017-06-13

    21-deoxycortisol (21-DF) is the key intermediate to manufacture pharmaceutical glucocorticoids. Recently, a Japan patent has realized 21-DF production via biotransformation of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) by purified steroid 11β-hydroxylase CYP11B1. Due to the less costs on enzyme isolation, purification and stabilization as well as cofactors supply, whole-cell should be preferentially employed as the biocatalyst over purified enzymes. No reports as so far have demonstrated a whole-cell system to produce 21-DF. Therefore, this study aimed to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst to achieve 21-DF transformation with high catalytic activity and product specificity. In this study, Escherichia coli MG1655(DE3), which exhibited the highest substrate transportation rate among other tested chassises, was employed as the host cell to construct our biocatalyst by co-expressing heterologous CYP11B1 together with bovine adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase. Through screening CYP11B1s (with mutagenesis at N-terminus) from nine sources, Homo sapiens CYP11B1 mutant (G25R/G46R/L52 M) achieved the highest 21-DF transformation rate at 10.6 mg/L/h. Furthermore, an optimal substrate concentration of 2.4 g/L and a corresponding transformation rate of 16.2 mg/L/h were obtained by screening substrate concentrations. To be noted, based on structural analysis of the enzyme-substrate complex, two types of site-directed mutations were designed to adjust the relative position between the catalytic active site heme and the substrate. Accordingly, 1.96-fold enhancement on 21-DF transformation rate (to 47.9 mg/L/h) and 2.78-fold improvement on product/by-product ratio (from 0.36 to 1.36) were achieved by the combined mutagenesis of F381A/L382S/I488L. Eventually, after 38-h biotransformation in shake-flask, the production of 21-DF reached to 1.42 g/L with a yield of 52.7%, which is the highest 21-DF production as known. Heterologous CYP11B1 was manipulated to construct E. coli

  16. Zearalenone Uptake and Biotransformation in Micropropagated Triticum durum Desf. Plants: A Xenobolomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolli, Enrico; Righetti, Laura; Galaverna, Gianni; Suman, Michele; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Bruni, Renato

    2018-02-14

    A model was set up to elucidate the uptake, translocation, and metabolic fate of zearalenone (ZEN) in durum wheat. After treatment with ZEN, roots and shoots were profiled with LC-HRMS. A comprehensive description of in planta ZEN biotransformation and a biotechnological evaluation of the model were obtained. Up to 200 μg ZEN were removed by each plantlet after 14 days. Most ZEN and its masked forms were retained in roots, while minimal amounts were detected in leaves. Sixty-two chromatographic peaks were obtained, resulting in 7 putative phase I and 18 putative phase II metabolites. ZEN16Glc and ZEN14Glc were most abundant in roots, sulfo-conjugates and zearalenol derivatives were unable to gain systemic distribution, while distinct isomers of malonyl conjugates were found in leaves and roots. This study underlines the potential ZEN occurrence in plants without an ongoing Fusarium infection. Micropropagation may represent a tool to investigate the interplay between mycotoxins and wheat.

  17. Biotransformation of Dioscorea nipponica by Rat Intestinal Microflora and Cardioprotective Effects of Diosgenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Fu Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the biotransformation of natural products by intestinal microflora is an important approach to understanding how and why some medicines—particularly natural medicines—work. In many cases, the active components are generated by metabolic activation. This is critical for drug research and development. As a means to explore the therapeutic mechanism of Dioscorea nipponica (DN, a medicinal plant used to treat myocardial ischemia (MI, metabolites generated by intestinal microflora from DN were identified, and the cardioprotective efficacy of these metabolites was evaluated. Our results demonstrate that diosgenin is the main metabolite produced by rat intestinal microflora from DN. Further, our results show that diosgenin protects the myocardium against ischemic insult through increasing enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels in vivo and by decreasing oxidative stress damage. These mechanisms explain the clinical efficacy of DN as an anti-MI drug.

  18. Biotransformation of natural gas and oil compounds associated with marine oil discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd Gunnar; Almås, Inger K; Krause, Daniel Franklin

    2017-09-01

    Field data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) suggested that oxidation of gas compounds stimulated biodegradation of oil compounds in the deep sea plume. We performed experiments with local seawater from a Norwegian fjord to examine if the presence of dissolved gas compounds (methane, ethane and propane) affected biodegradation of volatile oil compounds, and if oil compounds likewise affected gas compound oxidation. The results from the experiment showed comparable oil compound biotransformation rates in seawater at 5 °C between seawater with and without soluble gases. Gas oxidation was not affected by the presence of volatile oil compounds. Contrary to DWH deep sea plume data, propane oxidation was not faster than methane oxidation. These data may reflect variations between biodegradation of oil and gas in seawater environments with different history of oil and gas exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biotransformation of Geniposide into Genipin by Immobilized Trichoderma reesei and Conformational Study of Genipin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishun Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma reesei QM9414, Trichoderma viride 3.316, Aspergillus niger M85, and Aspergillus niger M92 were screened for hydrolyzing geniposide into genipin. T. reesei was selected according to the β-glucosidase activity of the fermentation broths using geniposide as a substrate. T. reesei was immobilized by embedding method using sodium alginate as the carrier. Geniposide was hydrolyzed by immobilized T. reesei at 28°C (200 rpm for 34 h, and the yield of genipin was 89%. The product was purified and identified by UV, IR, EIMS, and 1H-NMR. Since there were two sets of signals in 1H-NMR spectra, a series of experiments were performed and verified that the existence of two conformations was the main reason. Generally, biotransformation of geniposide into genipin by immobilized T. reesei provides a promising solution to the genipin production.

  20. [Determination of glycyrrhizinic acid in biotransformation system by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Lu, Dingqiang; Liu, Weimin

    2004-05-01

    A method for determining glycyrrhizinic acid in the biotransformation system by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed. The HPLC conditions were as follows: Hypersil C18 column (4.6 mm i.d. x 250 mm, 5 microm) with a mixture of methanol-water-acetic acid (70:30:1, v/v) as the mobile phase; flow rate at 1.0 mL/min; and UV detection at 254 nm. The linear range of glycyrrhizinic acid was 0.2-20 microg. The recoveries were 98%-103% with relative standard deviations between 0.16% and 1.58% (n = 3). The method is simple, rapid and accurate for determining glycyrrhizinic acid.

  1. Biotransformation of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol in Fusarium Resistant and Susceptible Near Isogenic Wheat Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Bernhard; Bueschl, Christoph; Lemmens, Marc; Michlmayr, Herbert; Malachova, Alexandra; Koutnik, Andrea; Maloku, Imer; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a total of nine different biotransformation products of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) formed in wheat during detoxification of the toxin are characterized by liquid chromatography—high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The detected metabolites suggest that DON is conjugated to endogenous metabolites via two major metabolism routes, namely 1) glucosylation (DON-3-glucoside, DON-di-hexoside, 15-acetyl-DON-3-glucoside, DON-malonylglucoside) and 2) glutathione conjugation (DON-S-glutathione, “DON-2H”-S-glutathione, DON-S-cysteinyl-glycine and DON-S-cysteine). Furthermore, conjugation of DON to a putative sugar alcohol (hexitol) was found. A molar mass balance for the cultivar ‘Remus’ treated with 1 mg DON revealed that under the test conditions approximately 15% of the added DON were transformed into DON-3-glucoside and another 19% were transformed to the remaining eight biotransformation products or irreversibly bound to the plant matrix. Additionally, metabolite abundance was monitored as a function of time for each DON derivative and was established for six DON treated wheat lines (1 mg/ear) differing in resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Fhb1 and/or Qfhs.ifa-5A. All cultivars carrying QTL Fhb1 showed similar metabolism kinetics: Formation of DON-Glc was faster, while DON-GSH production was less efficient compared to cultivars which lacked the resistance QTL Fhb1. Moreover, all wheat lines harboring Fhb1 showed significantly elevated D3G/DON abundance ratios. PMID:25775425

  2. Elucidation of biotransformation of diclofenac and 4′hydroxydiclofenac during biological wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouju, Helene; Nastold, Peter; Beck, Birgit; Hollender, Juliane; Corvini, Philippe F.-X.; Wintgens, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The presence of DF specific degraders in activated sludge was confirmed. • The hydroxylation of DF to 4′OHDF is a bottleneck in diclofenac biodegradation. • Two biotransformation end products of DF and 4'OHDF were identified. • In wastewater treatment plants 4′-OHDF can be of both human and microbial origin. • A tentative biotransformation pathway for DF and 4′OHDF was proposed. - Abstract: This study aimed at gaining knowledge on the degradation pathway during biological treatment of wastewater of diclofenac and 4′-hydroxydiclofenac, its main human metabolite. For that purpose, an aerobic MBR was acclimatised to diclofenac, and the MBR biomass subsequently incubated with "1"4C-diclofenac or "1"4C-4′hydroxydiclofenac over 25 days. It was demonstrated that diclofenac degradation was much slower and limited than that of 4′-hydroxydiclofenac. Indeed, after 18 days of batch incubation, diclofenac was removed up to 40%, this rate remained stable till the end of the experiment, while 4′-hydroxydiclofenac was completely degraded within nine days. The analyses of supernatant samples have shown that diclofenac degradation led to four transformation products, more polar than the parent compound, one of them being 4′-hydroxydiclofenac. The degradation of 4′-hydroxydiclofenac led to the formation of the same metabolites than those detected during diclofenac degradation. With these results, the hydroxylation of diclofenac to 4′-hydroxydiclofenac was identified as one major bottleneck in diclofenac degradation during biological treatment of wastewater.

  3. Biotransformation of cholesterol and 16,17-alpha epoxypregnenolone by novel Cladosporium sp. strain IS547.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Cuiping; Cao, Yuting; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a few steroid drugs or intermediates that have been obtained via the transformation of microorganisms, and many strains of transformed steroids have not been found yet. Therefore, it is very significant to screen for the strains that have the abilities to transform steroids to produce valuable products. This study has focused on the screen and identification of strains, the structural identification of converted products, and the optimization of transformation conditions, as well as the establishment of transformation systems. A soil microbiota was screened for strain involved in the biotransformation of steroids. A new isolate IS547 is capable of converting a variety of steroids (such as cholesterol, ergosterol, hydrocortisone, progesterone, pregnenolone, and 16,17-alpha-epoxypregnenolone). Based on the 18S rDNA gene sequence comparison, the isolate IS547 has been demonstrated to be very closely related to Cladosporium sp. genus. Present paper is the first report regarding the microbial transformation by Cladosporium sp. to produce active intermediates, which include 7-hydroxy cholesterol, 20-droxyl-16α,17α-epoxypregna-4-dien-3-one, 7-ketocholesterol, and 7-droxyl-16α,17α-epoxypregna-4-dien-3,20-dione. Under the optimum conditions, the yields of product 3 and product 4 were 20.58 and 17.42%, respectively, higher than that prior to the optimization. The transformation rate increased significantly under the optimum fermentation conditions. This study describes an efficient, rapid, and inexpensive biotransformation system for the production of active pharmaceutical intermediates. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Vanillin production by biotransformation of phenolic compounds in fungus, Aspergillus luchuensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Junsei; Toyoshima, Rin; Ameku, Nana; Iguchi, Akira; Tamaki, Yasutomo

    2018-03-13

    Vanillin is valuable and popular flavor used in foods and cosmetics. Many bacteria species have the ability to decarboxylate substituted cinnamic acids in order to form vanillin. However, the phenolic biotransformation including vanillin production in a common fungus, the Aspergillus luchuensis, which is used in distilled beverages, has not yet been clarified. This study focused on elucidating the vanillin production due to phenolic biotransformation in A. luchuensis during fermentation. The phenolic metabolites were extracted by a solid phase column and they were determined using on LC/MS and LC/MS/MS in a selective ion mode. As a result, ferulic acid, vanillin and vanillic acid, were detected in the rice koji fermentationed by A. luchuensis and also fermentated with yeast. In addition, the accurate molecular formula of vanillin glucoside (C 14 H 17 O 8 , 313.0927, (M-H) - and its production ions was also determined by HRESI-mass spectrometry. Based on the results including the phenolic metabolites and related genes found in A. luchuensis genome, this study proposed the vanillin production mechanism due to the side chain cleavage of ferulic acid through Coenzyme A (CoA) and feruloyl-CoA hydratase/lyase, to form vanillin and acetyl-COA. In this study, another possible vanillin production pathway also was proposed due to the neutral hexose hydrolysis of vanillin glucoside. The subsequent dehydrogenation of vanillin produced vanillic acid. In addition, vanillin was detected in the distilled alcohol indicating its contribution to the aroma profile of beverages. It has been unknown that the vanillin in the distilled solution is derived from the vanillin produced during rice-koji and/or moromi mash fermentations.

  5. Bio-transformation of selenium in Se-enriched bacterial strains of Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Eliza; Ruszczyńska, Anna; Wojciechowski, Marcin; Łuciuk, Anna; Michalska-Kacymirow, Magdalena; Motyl, Ilona; Bulska, Ewa

    Selenium is an element of very great importance for the proper functioning of the human body, mainly due to its antioxidant properties. Selenium exhibits a preventive effect in the case of cardiovascular disease, the immune system, male infertility and inhibits the toxic action of other agents. Selenium is important for Hashimoto's disease. Intake of selenium in the diet slows the aging process. The biological and toxicological effects of selenium strongly depend on its chemical form. Some organisms for example: plant, yeast, are capable of metabolizing low bioavailable selenium compounds (inorganic selenium) into its high bioavailable forms (organic selenium). The aim of this study was to investigate the bio-transformation of selenium by Lactobacillus bacteria towards the characterisation of selenium metabolites. The speciation of selenium was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detector. The extraction of selenium species from lyophilized bacteria was executed with water, the mixture of lipase and protease, as well as lisozyme and sodium dodecyl sulphate. All investigated bacteria strains cultivated in the presence of Na2SeO3 effectively uptake selenium. Surprisingly, none of the applied extraction media exhibited a strong power to release the majority of the uptaken selenium compounds. Thus a maximum of 10% of the selenium was extracted from bacteria exposed to the enzymes. However, it was found that Lactobacillus bacteria are able to metabolize inorganic ions of selenium (IV) into Se-methionine, Se-methyloselenocysteine and other unidentified forms. The study confirmed the ability of probiotic bacteria to biotransform inorganic selenium into its organic derivatives. Therefore, Se-enriched bacteria can be considered as an addition to the functional food. selenium speciation, extraction procedure, Lactobacillus casei bacteria, Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), HPLC ICP-MS, functional food.

  6. Biotransformation of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M.; Tveit, Ann; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    trans-1-Chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd) is a novel foam blowing and precision cleaning agent with a very low impact for global warming and ozone depletion. trans-HCFO-1233zd also has a low potential for toxicity in rodents and is negative in genotoxicity testing. The biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd and kinetics of metabolite excretion with urine were assessed in vitro and in animals after inhalation exposures. For in vitro characterization, liver microsomes from rats, rabbits and humans were incubated with trans-HCFO-1233zd. Male Sprague Dawley rats and female New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000 ppm for 6 h and urine was collected for 48 h after the end of the exposure. Study specimens were analyzed for metabolites using 19 F NMR, LC-MS/MS and GC/MS. S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-glutathione was identified as predominant metabolite of trans-HCFO-1233zd in all microsomal incubation experiments in the presence of glutathione. Products of the oxidative biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd were only minor metabolites when glutathione was present. In rats, both 3,3,3-trifluorolactic acid and N-acetyl-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-L-cysteine were observed as major urinary metabolites. 3,3,3-Trifluorolactic acid was not detected in the urine of rabbits. Quantitation showed rapid excretion of both metabolites in both species (t 1/2 1/2 < 6 h). ► Glutathione adduct as predominant in vitro metabolite in all tested species. ► Toxic metabolites could not be detected in any great extent

  7. Evaluation of hepatic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lisa K; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2016-03-01

    Polar bears are at the top of the Arctic marine food chain and are subject to exposure and bioaccumulation of environmental chemicals of concern such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were widely used as flame retardants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro oxidative metabolism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-99) by polar bear liver microsomes. The identification and quantification of the hydroxy-brominated diphenyl ethers formed were assessed using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method. Incubation of BDE-47 with archived individual liver microsomes, prepared from fifteen polar bears from northern Canada, produced a total of eleven hydroxylated metabolites, eight of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites were 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether and 5'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether. Incubation of BDE-99 with polar bear liver microsomes produced a total of eleven hydroxylated metabolites, seven of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites were 2,4,5-tribromophenol and 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether. Among the CYP specific antibodies tested, anti-rat CYP2B was found to be the most active in inhibiting the formation of hydroxylated metabolites of both BDE-47 and BDE-99, indicating that CYP2B was the major CYP enzyme involved in the oxidative biotransformation of these two congeners. Our study shows that polar bears are capable of forming multiple hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in vitro and demonstrates the role of CYP2B in the biotransformation and possibly in the toxicity of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in polar bears. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Beta-endorphin 1-31 biotransformation and cAMP modulation in inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Hajarol Asvadi

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence now exists for the immune cell expression, production, and the release of beta-endorphin (BE 1-31 within inflamed tissue. The inflammatory milieu is characterised by increased acidity, temperature and metabolic activity. Within these harsh conditions BE 1-31 is even more susceptible to increased enzymatic degradation over that of plasma or other non-injured tissue. To elucidate the biotransformation pathways of BE 1-31 and provide an insight to the impact of inflamed tissue environments, BE 1-31 and three of its major N-terminal fragments (BE 1-11, BE 1-13 and BE 1-17 were incubated in inflamed tissue homogenates at pH 5.5 for 2 hrs. In addition, the potency of BE 1-31 and five main N--terminal fragments (BE 1-9, BE 1-11, BE 1-13, BE 1-17, BE 1-20 was assessed at mu-opioid receptors (MOR, delta-opioid receptors (DOR, and kappa-opioid receptors (KOR. Opioid receptor potency was investigated by examining the modulation of forskolin induced cAMP accumulation. The majority of the N-terminal fragment of BE 1-31 had similar efficacy to BE 1-31 at MOR. The shortest of the major N-terminal fragments (BE 1-9, had partial agonist activity at MOR but possessed the highest potency of all tested peptides at DOR. There was limited effect for BE 1-31 and the biotransformed peptides at KOR. Major N-terminal fragments produced within inflamed tissue have increased presence within inflamed tissue over that of the parent molecule BE 1-31 and may therefore contribute to BE 1-31 efficacy within disease states that involve inflammation.

  9. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Arctic seabirds: influence of dietary exposure and congener biotransformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borga, Katrine; Wolkers, Hans; Skaare, Janneche U.; Hop, Haakon; Muir, Derek C.G.; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

    2005-01-01

    Four seabird species and their prey (zooplankton or fish) were collected in the Barents Sea to determine how dietary exposure, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities and sex influenced their hepatic PCB concentrations and accumulation patterns. Five males and five females from each seabird species (little auk (Alle alle), Bruennich's guillemot (Uria lomvia), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)) were analysed. PCB concentrations could not be explained directly by carbon source (δ 13 C) or trophic position (δ 15 N), but by a combination of dietary parameters (δ 13 C, δ 15 N, migratory pattern, age) and contaminant metabolism. Contrary to previous studies, the PCB pattern differed among seabirds, with a higher proportion of persistent congeners (% of PCB-153, R PCB-153 ) in black-legged kittiwake than in auks. The PCB pattern also differed among auks, with little auk as the most efficient biotransformer (highest R PCB-153 values of persistent congeners). Based on high R PCB-153 values, Bruennich's guillemot poorly metabolised ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners, whereas black guillemot poorly metabolised meta-para unsubstituted congeners. Species-specific differences in PCB biotransformation were confirmed by metabolic indices, where PCB patterns in seabirds were adjusted for PCB pattern in prey. The relative contribution of ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners to ΣPCBsdecreased with increasing EROD activity. There were no differences in PCB concentrations, PCB patterns or cytochrome P450 enzyme activities between males and females. CYP P450 activities (CYP1A- and CYP2B/3A-like: EROD and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, respectively) were low and did not correlate with concentrations of non- or mono-ortho Cl-substituted PCBs (NO- and MO-PCBs), or with total toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for dioxin-like effects of NO- and MO-PCBs. - Contaminant patterns is linked to phylogeny and species-specific differences in

  10. Elucidation of biotransformation of diclofenac and 4′hydroxydiclofenac during biological wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouju, Helene; Nastold, Peter [Institute for Ecopreneurship, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Gründenstrasse 40, CH 4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Beck, Birgit; Hollender, Juliane [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Corvini, Philippe F.-X. [Institute for Ecopreneurship, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Gründenstrasse 40, CH 4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wintgens, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wintgens@fhnw.ch [Institute for Ecopreneurship, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Gründenstrasse 40, CH 4132 Muttenz (Switzerland)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The presence of DF specific degraders in activated sludge was confirmed. • The hydroxylation of DF to 4′OHDF is a bottleneck in diclofenac biodegradation. • Two biotransformation end products of DF and 4'OHDF were identified. • In wastewater treatment plants 4′-OHDF can be of both human and microbial origin. • A tentative biotransformation pathway for DF and 4′OHDF was proposed. - Abstract: This study aimed at gaining knowledge on the degradation pathway during biological treatment of wastewater of diclofenac and 4′-hydroxydiclofenac, its main human metabolite. For that purpose, an aerobic MBR was acclimatised to diclofenac, and the MBR biomass subsequently incubated with {sup 14}C-diclofenac or {sup 14}C-4′hydroxydiclofenac over 25 days. It was demonstrated that diclofenac degradation was much slower and limited than that of 4′-hydroxydiclofenac. Indeed, after 18 days of batch incubation, diclofenac was removed up to 40%, this rate remained stable till the end of the experiment, while 4′-hydroxydiclofenac was completely degraded within nine days. The analyses of supernatant samples have shown that diclofenac degradation led to four transformation products, more polar than the parent compound, one of them being 4′-hydroxydiclofenac. The degradation of 4′-hydroxydiclofenac led to the formation of the same metabolites than those detected during diclofenac degradation. With these results, the hydroxylation of diclofenac to 4′-hydroxydiclofenac was identified as one major bottleneck in diclofenac degradation during biological treatment of wastewater.

  11. Microsomal biotransformation of chlorpyrifos, parathion and fenthion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): mechanistic insights into interspecific differences in toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Lavado, Ramon; Schlenk, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Rainbow trout often serve as a surrogate species evaluating xenobiotic toxicity in cold-water species including other salmonids of the same genus, which are listed as threatened or endangered. Biotransformation tends to show species-specific patterns that influence susceptibility to xenobiotic toxicity, particularly organophoshpate insecticides (OPs). To evaluate the contribution of biotransformation in the mechanism of toxicity of three organophosphate (phosphorothionate) insecticides, chlor...

  12. Biotransformation enzymes for xenobiotics and personalization of treatment regimens for tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Mozhokina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the literature on specific metabolism of anti-tuberculosis drugs depending on polymorphism of genes controlling synthesis and action of biotransformation enzymes, in particular cytochrome P-450 isozymes and enzymes of the IInd phase of biotransformation (N-acetyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase respective adverse reactions development, first of  all hepatotoxic ones. The  possibility of pharmacogenetic studies with the evaluation of genetic predisposition to developing adverse reactions to medications has been discussed in respect of personalized approach to effective and safe treatment of tuberculosis patients.

  13. Characterization of newly isolated Lactobacillus delbrueckii-like strain MF-07 isolated from chicken and its role in isoflavone biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Farooq; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2009-02-01

    Cecal microbiota of chicken was screened for bacteria involved in the biotransformation of isoflavones. A new facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of deglycosylation of the isoflavone genistin, was isolated and identified as a Lactobacillus delbrueckii-like strain. The isolate MF-07 was Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, catalase negative, non-spore-forming, nonmotile and a straight rod. The polyphasic taxonomic data, along with 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, demonstrated that the isolate MF-07 was most closely related to L. delbrueckii group of the Lactobacillus genus. Considerable amounts of genistein were accumulated with genistin as a substrate within the first 12 h of fermentation. Formononetin and daidzein were not metabolized. The influence of several carbon sources on the growth of the isolate MF-07 and biotransformation of genistin was also investigated. This is the first study in which an anaerobic Lactobacillus bacterium from the chicken intestinal tract that metabolizes genistin to produce its bioactive metabolite was identified and characterized.

  14. Evaluation of Diuron Tolerance and Biotransformation by Fungi from a Sugar Cane Plantation Sandy-Loam Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissini-Lopes, Bruna; Egea, Tássia Chiachio; Monteiro, Diego Alves; Vici, Ana Cláudia; Da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Lisboa, Daniela Correa de Oliveira; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Parsons, John Robert; Da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni

    2016-12-14

    Microorganisms capable of degrading herbicides are essential to minimize the amount of chemical compounds that may leach into other environments. This work aimed to study the potential of sandy-loam soil fungi to tolerate the herbicide Herburon (50% diuron) and to degrade the active ingredient diuron. Verticillium sp. F04, Trichoderma virens F28, and Cunninghamella elegans B06 showed the highest growth in the presence of the herbicide. The evaluation of biotransformation showed that Aspergillus brasiliensis G08, Aspergillus sp. G25, and Cunninghamella elegans B06 had the greatest potential to degrade diuron. Statistical analysis demonstrated that glucose positively influences the potential of the microorganism to degrade diuron, indicating a cometabolic process. Due to metabolites founded by diuron biotransformation, it is indicated that the fungi are relevant in reducing the herbicide concentration in runoff, minimizing the environmental impact on surrounding ecosystems.

  15. Postnatal modulation of hepatic biotransformation system enzymes via translactational exposure of F1 mouse pups to turmeric and curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Singh, S P; Bamezai, R

    1995-09-04

    The potential for the transfer of active principle(s) of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and curcumin (major pigment in turmeric) via translactational route and its modulatory influence on the hepatic biotransformation system enzymes in the lactating dams and their suckling offspring was assessed. Turmeric (4 g/kg b.w. per day) and curcumin (0.4 g/kg b.w. per day) induced significant (P curcumin (0.2 g/kg b.w. per day) could modulate hepatic GST activity (P curcumin (0.4 g/kg b.w.). The induction in hepatic biotransformation system enzymes in lactating dams and F1 progeny suggests the passage of active constituents and/or metabolites of turmeric and curcumin via the translactational route.

  16. Crosses between monokaryons of Pleurotus sapidus or Pleurotus florida show an improved biotransformation of (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarini, Alejandra B; Plagemann, Ina; Schimanski, Silke; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2014-11-01

    Several hundred monokaryotic and new dikaryotic strains derived thereof were established from (+)-valencene tolerant Pleurotus species. When grouped according to their growth rate on agar plates and compared to the parental of Pleurotus sapidus 69, the slowly growing monokaryons converted (+)-valencene more efficiently to the grapefruit flavour compound (+)-nootkatone. The fast growing monokaryons and the slow×slow and the fast×fast dikaryotic crosses showed similar or inferior yields. Some slow×fast dikaryons, however, exceeded the biotransformation capability of the parental dikaryon significantly. The activity of the responsible enzyme, lipoxygenase, showed a weak correlation with the yields of (+)-nootkatone indicating that the determination of enzyme activity using the primary substrate linoleic acid may be misleading in predicting the biotransformation efficiency. This exploratory study indicated that a classical genetics approach resulted in altered and partly improved terpene transformation capability (plus 60%) and lipoxygenase activity of the strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Complementation of biotransformations with chemical C-H oxidation: copper-catalyzed oxidation of tertiary amines in complex pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovino, Julien; Lütz, Stephan; Sames, Dalibor; Touré, B Barry

    2013-08-21

    The isolation, quantitation, and characterization of drug metabolites in biological fluids remain challenging. Rapid access to oxidized drugs could facilitate metabolite identification and enable early pharmacology and toxicity studies. Herein, we compared biotransformations to classical and new chemical C-H oxidation methods using oxcarbazepine, naproxen, and an early compound hit (phthalazine 1). These studies illustrated the low preparative efficacy of biotransformations and the inability of chemical methods to oxidize complex pharmaceuticals. We also disclose an aerobic catalytic protocole (CuI/air) to oxidize tertiary amines and benzylic CH's in drugs. The reaction tolerates a broad range of functionalities and displays a high level of chemoselectivity, which is not generally explained by the strength of the C-H bonds but by the individual structural chemotype. This study represents a first step toward establishing a chemical toolkit (chemotransformations) that can selectively oxidize C-H bonds in complex pharmaceuticals and rapidly deliver drug metabolites.

  18. Role of biotransformation, sorption and mineralization of "1"4C-labelled sulfamethoxazole under different redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarino, T.; Nastold, P.; Suarez, S.; Omil, F.; Corvini, P.F.X.; Bouju, H.

    2016-01-01

    "1"4C-sulfamethoxazole biotransformation, sorption and mineralization was studied with heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass under aerobic and anoxic conditions, as well as with anaerobic biomass. The "1"4C-radiolabelled residues distribution in the solid, liquid and gas phases was closely monitored along a total incubation time of 190 h. Biotransformation was the main removal mechanism, mineralization and sorption remaining below 5% in all the cases, although the presence of a carbon source exerted a positive effect on the mineralization rate by the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. In fact, an influence of the type of primary substrate and the redox potential was observed in all cases on the biotransformation and mineralization rates, since an enhancement of the removal rate was observed when an external carbon source was used as a primary substrate under aerobic conditions, while a negligible effect was observed under nitrifying conditions. In the liquid phases collected from all assays, up to three additional peaks corresponding to "1"4C-radiolabelled residues were detected. The highest concentration was observed under anaerobic conditions, where two radioactive metabolites were detected representing each around 15% of the total applied radioactivity after 180 h incubation. One of the metabolites detected under anoxic and anaerobic conditions, is probably resulting from ring cleavage of the isoxazole ring. - Highlights: • New procedure based on "1"4C to determine sulfamethoxazole (SMX) removal • Complete SMX mass balances in solid, liquid and gas phases • Quantification of SMX biotransformation, mineralization and sorption • Influence of the primary metabolism and redox potential on SMX removal • SMX metabolites have been detected and a possible chemical structure was proposed.

  19. Enhanced Biotransformation of Fluoranthene by Intertidally Derived Cunninghamella elegans under Biofilm-Based and Niche-Mimicking Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sayani; Pramanik, Arnab; Banerjee, Srijoni; Haldar, Saubhik; Gachhui, Ratan

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the investigation were to ascertain if surface attachment of Cunninghamella elegans and niche intertidal conditions provided in a bioreactor influenced biotransformation of fluoranthene by C. elegans. A newly designed polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) conico-cylindrical flask (CCF) holding eight equidistantly spaced rectangular strips mounted radially on a circular disc allowed comparison of fluoranthene biotransformation between CCFs with a hydrophobic surface (PMMA-CCF) and a hydrophilic glass surface (GS-CCF) and a 500-ml Erlenmeyer flask (EF). Fluoranthene biotransformation was higher by 22-fold, biofilm growth was higher by 3-fold, and cytochrome P450 gene expression was higher by 2.1-fold when C. elegans was cultivated with 2% inoculum as biofilm culture in PMMA-CCF compared to planktonic culture in EF. Biotransformation was enhanced by 7-fold with 10% inoculum. The temporal pattern of biofilm progression based on three-channel fluorescence detection by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated well-developed, stable biofilm with greater colocalization of fluoranthene within extracellular polymeric substances and filaments of the biofilm grown on PMMA in contrast to a glass surface. A bioreactor with discs rotating at 2 revolutions per day affording 6-hourly emersion and immersion mimicked the niche intertidal habitat of C. elegans and supported biofilm formation and transformation of fluoranthene. The amount of transformed metabolite was 3.5-fold, biofilm growth was 3-fold, and cytochrome P450 gene expression was 1.9-fold higher in the process mimicking the intertidal conditions than in a submerged process without disc rotation. In the CCF and reactor, where biofilm formation was comparatively greater, higher concentration of exopolysaccharides allowed increased mobilization of fluoranthene within the biofilm with consequential higher gene expression leading to enhanced volumetric productivity. PMID:24038685

  20. Impacts of environmental factors on arsenate biotransformation and release in Microcystis aeruginosa using the Taguchi experimental design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhong; Luo, Zhuanxi; Yan, Changzhou; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-07-01

    Very limited information is available on how and to what extent environmental factors influence arsenic (As) biotransformation and release in freshwater algae. These factors include concentrations of arsenate (As(V)), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and ambient pH. This study conducted a series of experiments using Taguchi methods to determine optimum conditions for As biotransformation. We assessed principal effective factors of As(V), N, P, and pH and determined that As biotransformation and release actuate at 10.0 μM As(V) in dead alga cells, the As efflux ratio and organic As efflux content actuate at 1.0 mg/L P, algal growth and intracellular arsenite (As(III)) content actuate at 10.0 mg/L N, and the total sum of As(III) efflux from dead alga cells actuates at a pH level of 10. Moreover, N is the critical component for As(V) biotransformation in M. aeruginosa, specifically for As(III) transformation, because N can accelerate algal growth, subsequently improving As(III) accumulation and its efflux, which results in an As(V) to As(III) reduction. Furthermore, low P concentrations in combination with high N concentrations promote As accumulation. Following As(V), P was the primary impacting factor for As accumulation. In addition, small amounts of As accumulation under low concentrations of As and high P were securely stored in living algal cells and were easily released after cell death. Results from this study will help to assess practical applications and the overall control of key environmental factors, particularly those associated with algal bioremediation in As polluted water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enantioselective analysis of propranolol and 4-hydroxypropranolol by CE with application to biotransformation studies employing endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Keyller Bastos; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2009-11-01

    A CE method is described for the enantioselective analysis of propranolol (Prop) and 4-hydroxypropranolol (4-OH-Prop) in liquid Czapek medium with application in the study of the enantioselective biotransformation of Prop by endophytic fungi. The electrophoretic conditions previously optimized were as follows: an uncoated fused-silica capillary, 4% w/v carboxymethyl-beta-CD in 25 mmol/L triethylamine/phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) buffer at pH 9 as running electrolyte and 17 kV of voltage. UV detection was carried out at 208 nm. Liquid-liquid extraction using diethyl ether: ethyl acetate (1:1 v/v) as extractor solvent was employed for sample preparation. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 0.25-10.0 microg/mL for each 4-OH-Prop enantiomer and 0.10-10.0 microg/mL for each Prop enantiomer (r>or=0.995). Within-day and between-day relative standard deviations and relative errors for precision and accuracy were lower than 15% for all the enantiomers. Finally, the validated method was used to evaluate Prop biotransformation in its mammalian metabolite 4-OH-Prop by some selected endophytic fungi. The screening of five strains of endophytic fungi was performed and all of them could biotransform Prop to some extent. Specifically, Glomerella cingulata (VA1) biotransformed 47.8% of (-)-(S)-Prop to (-)-(S)-4-OH-Prop with no formation of (+)-(R)-4-OH-Prop in 72 h of incubation.

  2. Role of biotransformation, sorption and mineralization of {sup 14}C-labelled sulfamethoxazole under different redox conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarino, T., E-mail: teresa.alvarino@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Nastold, P. [Institute for Ecopreneurship, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, 40 Grundenstrasse, CH 4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Suarez, S.; Omil, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Corvini, P.F.X. [Institute for Ecopreneurship, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, 40 Grundenstrasse, CH 4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); State Key Laboratory for Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Bouju, H. [Institute for Ecopreneurship, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, 40 Grundenstrasse, CH 4132 Muttenz (Switzerland)

    2016-01-15

    {sup 14}C-sulfamethoxazole biotransformation, sorption and mineralization was studied with heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass under aerobic and anoxic conditions, as well as with anaerobic biomass. The {sup 14}C-radiolabelled residues distribution in the solid, liquid and gas phases was closely monitored along a total incubation time of 190 h. Biotransformation was the main removal mechanism, mineralization and sorption remaining below 5% in all the cases, although the presence of a carbon source exerted a positive effect on the mineralization rate by the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. In fact, an influence of the type of primary substrate and the redox potential was observed in all cases on the biotransformation and mineralization rates, since an enhancement of the removal rate was observed when an external carbon source was used as a primary substrate under aerobic conditions, while a negligible effect was observed under nitrifying conditions. In the liquid phases collected from all assays, up to three additional peaks corresponding to {sup 14}C-radiolabelled residues were detected. The highest concentration was observed under anaerobic conditions, where two radioactive metabolites were detected representing each around 15% of the total applied radioactivity after 180 h incubation. One of the metabolites detected under anoxic and anaerobic conditions, is probably resulting from ring cleavage of the isoxazole ring. - Highlights: • New procedure based on {sup 14}C to determine sulfamethoxazole (SMX) removal • Complete SMX mass balances in solid, liquid and gas phases • Quantification of SMX biotransformation, mineralization and sorption • Influence of the primary metabolism and redox potential on SMX removal • SMX metabolites have been detected and a possible chemical structure was proposed.

  3. Use of Resting Cells of Native Screened Rhodotorula sp. CW03 in Biotransformation of Caffeine to Theophylline and Paraxanthine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashengroph

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In recent years, microorganisms have been applied as biocatalysts for making pharmaceutically natural products. Microbial biotransformation of caffeine suggests a dual approach for biodegradation of toxic caffeine from polluted environments and a method for the production of medically and pharmaceutically valuable dimethylxanthines. The present work describes the identification of native yeasts capable of biotransformation of caffeine into theophylline and paraxanthine. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study fourteen yeast strains which were able to de-grade caffeine isolated based on their morphology were selected as biocatalysts for biotrans-formation of caffeine as a low-cost substrate to high value added dimethylxanthines such as theophylline and theobromine. The selected strains were characterized based on phenotypic and genetic tests. Screening was performed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analyses. Results: The results obtained using TLC and HPLC analyses suggest formation of two main metabolites of theophylline and paraxanthine from biotransformation of caffeine under resting cells of Rhodotorula sp. CW03 (GenBank accession number KF414531. The results showed that under resting cell conditions a maximum concentration of theophylline 380 mg/l (molar yield of 16.4% and paraxanthine 880 mg/l (molar yield of 37.9% were obtained after 72 h and 120 h of conversion time, respectively. Conclusion: In the current investigation, done for the first time in Iran, we describe the isola-tion and identification of yeast strains with caffeine degradation ability which can be proposed as safe and cost-effective biocatalysts in production of value added dimethylxanthines from caffeine as a low-cost substrate.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 83-92

  4. Salinivibrio costicola GL6, a Novel Isolated Strain for Biotransformation of Caffeine to Theobromine Under Hypersaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashengroph, Morahem

    2017-01-01

    The present study has been conducted towards isolation of moderately halophilic bacteria capable of transforming caffeine into theobromine. A total of 45 caffeine-degrading moderate halophiles were enriched from hypersaline lakes and examined for the biotransformation of caffeine to theobromine by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. Strain GL6, giving the highest yield of theobromine, was isolated from the Hoz Soltan Lake, 20 % w/v salinity, central Iran, and identified as Salinivibrio costicola based on morphological and biochemical features as well as its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank Accession No. KT378066) and DNA-DNA relatedness. The biotransformation of caffeine with strain GL6 leads to the formation of two metabolites, identified as theobromine and paraxanthine, but the yield of paraxanthine was much lower. Further study on the production of theobromine from caffeine under resting cell experiment was carried out subsequently. The optimal yield of theobromine (56 %) was obtained after a 32-h incubation using 5 mM of caffeine and 15 g l -1 (wet weight) of biomass in 0.1 M saline phosphate buffer (pH 7.0 and 10 % w/v NaCl) under agitation 180 rpm at 30 °C. The biotransformed theobromine was purified by preparative TLC and subjected to FTIR and mass spectroscopy for chemical identification. This is the first evidence for biotransformation of caffeine into theobromine by strains of the genus Salinivibrio.

  5. New method for the study of Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis using biotransformation of deuterium-labeled precursor in tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahchy, A. E.; Boisbrun, M.; Chretien, F.; Henry, M.; Chapleur, Y.; Laurain-Mattar, D.; Ptak, A.; Dupire, F.

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformation of deuterated-4'-O-methylnorbelladine into alkaloids galanthamine and lycorine in tissue cultures of Leucojum aestivum was demonstrated using HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. GC-MS screening was also carried to investigate other native and deuterated alkaloids. A total of six labeled alkaloids were identified indicating that 4'-O-methyl-d3-norbelladine is incorporated into three different groups of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids that are biosynthesized by three modes of intramolecular oxidative phenol coupling. (authors)

  6. Aphids transform and detoxify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol via a type II biotransformation mechanism yet unknown in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zutter, N; Audenaert, K; Arroyo-Manzanares, N; De Boevre, M; Van Poucke, C; De Saeger, S; Haesaert, G; Smagghe, G

    2016-12-08

    Biotransformation of mycotoxins in animals comprises phase I and phase II metabolisation reactions. For the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), several phase II biotransformation reactions have been described resulting in DON-glutathiones, DON-glucuronides and DON-sulfates made by glutathione-S-transferases, uridine-diphosphoglucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases, respectively. These metabolites can be easily excreted and are less toxic than their free compounds. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in the animal kingdom the conversion of DON to DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G) via a model system with plant pathogenic aphids. This phase II biotransformation mechanism has only been reported in plants. As the DON-3G metabolite was less toxic for aphids than DON, this conversion is considered a detoxification reaction. Remarkably, English grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) which co-occur with the DON producer Fusarium graminearum on wheat during the development of fusarium symptoms, tolerate DON much better and convert DON to DON-3G more efficiently than pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the latter being known to feed on legumes which are no host for F. graminearum. Using a non-targeted high resolution mass spectrometric approach, we detected DON-diglucosides in aphids probably as a result of sequential glucosylation reactions. Data are discussed in the light of an eventual co-evolutionary adaptation of S. avenae to DON.

  7. In vitro and in vivo biotransformation of WMS-1410, a potent GluN2B selective NMDA receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Evamaria; Begrow, Frank; Verspohl, Eugen J; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    Structural modification of the GluN2B selective NMDA receptor antagonist ifenprodil led to the 3-benzazepine WMS-1410 with similar GluN2B affinity but higher receptor selectivity. Herein the in vitro and in vivo biotransformation of WMS-1410 is reported. Incubation of WMS-1410 with rat liver microsomes and different cofactors resulted in four hydroxylated phase I metabolites, two phase II metabolites and five combined phase I/II metabolites. With exception of catechol 4, these metabolites were also identified in the urine of a rat treated with WMS-1410. However the metabolites 7, 8 and 12 clearly show that the catechol metabolite 4 was also formed in vivo. As shown for ifenprodil the phenol of WMS-1410 represents the metabolically most reactive structural element. The biotransformation of WMS-1410 is considerably slower than the biotransformation of ifenprodil indicating a higher metabolic stability. From the viewpoint of metabolic stability the bioisosteric replacement of the phenol of WMS-1410 by a metabolically more stable moiety should be favourable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In Vitro Biotransformation of Two Human CYP3A Probe Substrates and Their Inhibition during Early Zebrafish Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbueken, Evy; Alsop, Derek; Saad, Moayad A; Pype, Casper; Van Peer, Els M; Casteleyn, Christophe R; Van Ginneken, Chris J; Wilson, Joanna; Van Cruchten, Steven J

    2017-01-22

    At present, the zebrafish embryo is increasingly used as an alternative animal model to screen for developmental toxicity after exposure to xenobiotics. Since zebrafish embryos depend on their own drug-metabolizing capacity, knowledge of their intrinsic biotransformation is pivotal in order to correctly interpret the outcome of teratogenicity assays. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to assess the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-a group of drug-metabolizing enzymes-in microsomes from whole zebrafish embryos (ZEM) of 5, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-fertilization (hpf) by means of a mammalian CYP substrate, i.e., benzyloxy-methyl-resorufin (BOMR). The same CYP activity assays were performed in adult zebrafish liver microsomes (ZLM) to serve as a reference for the embryos. In addition, activity assays with the human CYP3A4-specific Luciferin isopropyl acetal (Luciferin-IPA) as well as inhibition studies with ketoconazole and CYP3cide were carried out to identify CYP activity in ZLM. In the present study, biotransformation of BOMR was detected at 72 and 96 hpf; however, metabolite formation was low compared with ZLM. Furthermore, Luciferin-IPA was not metabolized by the zebrafish. In conclusion, the capacity of intrinsic biotransformation in zebrafish embryos appears to be lacking during a major part of organogenesis.

  9. In Vitro Biotransformation of Two Human CYP3A Probe Substrates and Their Inhibition during Early Zebrafish Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Verbueken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the zebrafish embryo is increasingly used as an alternative animal model to screen for developmental toxicity after exposure to xenobiotics. Since zebrafish embryos depend on their own drug-metabolizing capacity, knowledge of their intrinsic biotransformation is pivotal in order to correctly interpret the outcome of teratogenicity assays. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to assess the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP—a group of drug-metabolizing enzymes—in microsomes from whole zebrafish embryos (ZEM of 5, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-fertilization (hpf by means of a mammalian CYP substrate, i.e., benzyloxy-methyl-resorufin (BOMR. The same CYP activity assays were performed in adult zebrafish liver microsomes (ZLM to serve as a reference for the embryos. In addition, activity assays with the human CYP3A4-specific Luciferin isopropyl acetal (Luciferin-IPA as well as inhibition studies with ketoconazole and CYP3cide were carried out to identify CYP activity in ZLM. In the present study, biotransformation of BOMR was detected at 72 and 96 hpf; however, metabolite formation was low compared with ZLM. Furthermore, Luciferin-IPA was not metabolized by the zebrafish. In conclusion, the capacity of intrinsic biotransformation in zebrafish embryos appears to be lacking during a major part of organogenesis.

  10. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Paul; Bertermann, Ruediger; Snow, Timothy A.; Han Xing; Rusch, George M.; Jepson, Gary W.; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a non-ozone-depleting fluorocarbon replacement with a low global warming potential which has been developed as refrigerant. The biotransformation of HFO-1234yf was investigated after inhalation exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to air containing 2000, 10,000, or 50,000 ppm HFO-1234yf for 6 h and male B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 50,000 ppm HFO-1234yf for 3.5 h in a dynamic exposure chamber (n = 5/concentration). After the end of the exposure, animals were individually housed in metabolic cages and urines were collected at 6 or 12-hour intervals for 48 h. For metabolite identification, urine samples were analyzed by 1 H-coupled and decoupled 19 F-NMR and by LC/MS-MS or GC/MS. Metabolites were identified by 19 F-NMR chemical shifts, signal multiplicity, 1 H- 19 F coupling constants and by comparison with synthetic reference compounds. In all urine samples, the predominant metabolites were two diastereomers of N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-propyl)-L-cysteine. In 19 F-NMR, the signal intensity of these metabolites represented more than 85% (50,000 ppm) of total 19 F related signals in the urine samples. Trifluoroacetic acid, 3,3,3-trifluorolactic acid, 3,3,3-trifluoro-1-hydroxyacetone, 3,3,3-trifluoroacetone and 3,3,3-trifluoro-1,2-dihydroxypropane were present as minor metabolites. Quantification of N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-propyl)-L-cysteine by LC/MS-MS showed that most of this metabolite (90%) was excreted within 18 h after the end of exposure (t 1/2 app. 6 h). In rats, the recovery of N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-propyl)-L-cysteine excreted within 48 h in urine was determined as 0.30 ± 0.03, 0.63 ± 0.16, and 2.43 ± 0.86 μmol at 2000, 10,000 and 50,000 ppm, respectively suggesting only a low extent (<< 1% of dose received) of biotransformation of HFO-1234yf. In mice, the recovery of this metabolite was 1.774 ± 0.4 μmol. Metabolites identified after in vitro incubations of HFO

  11. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats after oral administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkel, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas; Schauer, Ute M.D.; Broschard, Thomas H.; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) is an UV-filter frequently used in sunscreens and cosmetics. Equivocal findings in some screening tests for hormonal activity initiated a discussion on a possible weak estrogenicity of 4-MBC. In this study, the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 4-MBC were characterized in rats after oral administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group) were administered single oral doses of 25 or 250 mg/kg bw of 4-MBC in corn oil. Metabolites formed were characterized and the kinetics of elimination for 4-MBC and its metabolites from blood and with urine were determined. Metabolites of 4-MBC were characterized by 1 H NMR and LC-MS/MS as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and as four isomers of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor containing the hydroxyl group located in the camphor ring system with 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor as the major metabolite. After oral administration of 4-MBC, only very low concentrations of 4-MBC were present in blood and the peak concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were approximately 500-fold above those of 4-MBC; blood concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were below the limit of detection. Blood concentration of 4-MBC and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor peaked within 10 h after 4-MBC administration and then decreased with half-lives of approximately 15 h. No major differences in peak blood levels between male and female rats were seen. In urine, one isomer of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor was the predominant metabolite [3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor], the other isomers and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were only minor metabolites excreted with urine. However, urinary excretion of 4-MBC-metabolites represents only a minor pathway of elimination for 4-MBC, since most of the applied dose was recovered in feces as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and, to a smaller extent, as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor

  12. Drug and xenobiotic biotransformation in the blood-brain barrier: A neglected issue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A.G. Agúndez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drug biotransformation is a crucial mechanism for facilitating the elimination of chemicals from the organism and for decreasing their pharmacological activity. Published evidence suggests that brain drug metabolism may play a role in the development of adverse drug reactions and in the clinical response to drugs and xenobiotics. The blood-brain barrier (BBB has been regarded mainly as a physical barrier for drugs and xenobiotics, and little attention has been paid to BBB as a drug-metabolizing barrier. The presence of drug metabolizing enzymes in the BBB is likely to have functional implications because local metabolism may inactivate drugs or may modify the drug's ability to cross the BBB, thus modifying the drug response and the risk of developing adverse drug reactions. In this perspective paper, we discuss the expression of relevant xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in the brain and in the BBB, and we cover current advances and future directions on the potential role of these BBB drug-metabolizing enzymes as modifiers of drug response.

  13. Expanding the chemical space for natural products by Aspergillus-Streptomyces co-cultivation and biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changsheng; Zacchetti, Boris; Ram, Arthur F.J.; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Claessen, Dennis; Hae Choi, Young

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycetes and filamentous fungi produce a wide range of bioactive compounds, with applications as antimicrobials, anticancer agents or agrochemicals. Their genomes contain a far larger number of gene clusters for natural products than originally anticipated, and novel approaches are required to exploit this potential reservoir of new drugs. Here, we show that co-cultivation of the filamentous model microbes Streptomyces coelicolor and Aspergillus niger has a major impact on their secondary metabolism. NMR-based metabolomics combined with multivariate data analysis revealed several compounds that correlated specifically to co-cultures, including the cyclic dipeptide cyclo(Phe-Phe) and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, both of which were produced by A. niger in response to S. coelicolor. Furthermore, biotransformation studies with o-coumaric acid and caffeic acid resulted in the production of the novel compounds (E)-2-(3-hydroxyprop-1-en-1-yl)-phenol and (2E,4E)-3-(2-carboxy-1-hydroxyethyl)-2,4-hexadienedioxic acid, respectively. This highlights the utility of microbial co-cultivation combined with NMR-based metabolomics as an efficient pipeline for the discovery of novel natural products. PMID:26040782

  14. Statistical media and process optimization for biotransformation of rice bran to vanillin using Pediococcus acidilactici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar

    2013-11-01

    An isolate of P. acidilactici capable of producing vanillin from rice bran was isolated from a milk product. Response Surface Methodology was employed for statistical media and process optimization for production of biovanillin. Statistical medium optimization was done in two steps involving Placket Burman Design and Central Composite Response Designs. The RSM optimized vanillin production medium consisted of 15% (w/v) rice bran, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.1% (w/v) ammonium nitrate, 0.005% (w/v) ferulic acid, 0.005% (w/v) magnesium sulphate, and 0.1% (v/v) tween-80, pH 5.6, at a temperature of 37 degrees C under shaking conditions at 180 rpm. 1.269 g/L vanillin was obtained within 24 h of incubation in optimized culture medium. This is the first report indicating such a high vanillin yield obtained during biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a Pediococcal isolate.

  15. Immobilized Trienzymatic System with Enhanced Stabilization for the Biotransformation of Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Torres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of ketohexose isomerases is a powerful tool in lactose whey processing, but these enzymes can be very sensitive and expensive. Development of immobilized/stabilized biocatalysts could be a further option to improve the process. In this work, β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans, l-arabinose (d-galactose isomerase from Enterococcus faecium, and d-xylose (d-glucose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus were immobilized individually onto Eupergit C and Eupergit C 250 L. Immobilized activity yields were over 90% in all cases. With the purpose of increasing thermostability of derivatives, two post-immobilization treatments were performed: alkaline incubation to favor the formation of additional covalent linkages, and blocking of excess oxirane groups by reacting with glycine. The greatest thermostability was achieved when alkaline incubation was carried out for 24 h, producing l-arabinose isomerase-Eupergit C derivatives with a half-life of 379 h and d-xylose isomerase-Eupergit C derivatives with a half-life of 554 h at 50 °C. Preliminary assays using immobilized and stabilized biocatalysts sequentially to biotransform lactose at pH 7.0 and 50 °C demonstrated improved performances as compared with soluble enzymes. Further improvements in ketohexose productivities were achieved when the three single-immobilizates were incubated simultaneously with lactose in a mono-reactor system.

  16. Biotransformation of furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during butanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Han, Bei; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2012-02-15

    The ability of fermenting microorganisms to tolerate furan aldehyde inhibitors (furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF)) will enhance efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates to fuels and chemicals. The effect of furfural and HMF on butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum 824 was investigated. Whereas specific growth rates, μ, of C. acetobutylicum in the presence of furfural and HMF were in the range of 15-85% and 23-78%, respectively, of the uninhibited Control, μ increased by 8-15% and 23-38% following exhaustion of furfural and HMF in the bioreactor. Using high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric assays, batch fermentations revealed that furfural and HMF were converted to furfuryl alcohol and 2,5-bis-hydroxymethylfuran, respectively, with specific conversion rates of 2.13g furfural and 0.50g HMF per g (biomass) per hour, by exponentially growing C. acetobutylicum. Biotransformation of these furans to lesser inhibitory compounds by C. acetobutylicum will probably enhance overall fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to butanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biotransformation of petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial communities in seawater with oil dispersions and copepod feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-12-30

    To determine biotransformation of components in crude oil dispersions in the presence of feces from marine copepods, dispersed oil was incubated alone, with the addition of clean or oil-containing feces. We hypothesized that the feces would contribute with nutrients to bacteria, and higher concentrations of oil-degrading bacteria, respectively. Presence of clean feces resulted in higher degradation of aromatic oil compounds, but lower degradation of n-alkanes. Presence of oil-containing feces resulted in higher degradation of n-alkanes. The effect of clean feces on aromatic compounds are suggested to be due to higher concentrations of nutrients in the seawater where aromatic degradation takes place, while the lower degradation of n-alkanes are suggested to be due to a preference by bacteria for feces over these compounds. Large aggregates were observed in oil dispersions with clean feces, which may cause sedimentation of un-weathered lipophilic oil compounds towards the seafloor if formed during oil spills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biotransformation of enoximone, a new cardiotonic agent, in man and laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.Y.; Lang, J.F.; Coutant, J.E.; Okerholm, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Enoximone, 1,3-dihydro-4-methyl-5-[4-(methylthio)benzoyl]-2H-imidazol-2-one is a new cardiotonic agent which is currently undergoing clinical evaluation in patients with congestive heart failure. Biotransformation of enoximone was studied in man, rat, monkey and dog by means of 14 C-labelled material, HPLC and GC/MS techniques. Metabolic conversions were qualitatively similar in all species. The parent compound was found to be extensively metabolized. Generally less than 1% of the dose was recovered as enoximone in urine. The sulfoxide was the major metabolite in all species, accounting for over 90% of the dose in the urine of the monkey and greater than 75% in man and the rat. The sulfone was present in trace quantities, except in the rats, where it accounted for 5-8% of the dose. A glycine conjugate of 4-methylthiobenzoic acid was also identified as a urinary metabolite; and the dog seems to favor this pathway more than the other 3 species; as it accounted for over 30% of the dose. The two stereoisomers of synthetic sulfoxide were separated by HPLC, and examination of urine from patients receiving enoximone therapy suggested that the metabolic conversion of enoximone to sulfoxide was stereospecific, as only one isomeric peak was observed in the HPLC system

  19. Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and their tolerance to aromatic amines, a major class of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Dairou, Julien

    2013-08-01

    Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that enables acetyl coenzyme A-dependent detoxification of AA. To assess whether the N-acetylation pathway enables AA tolerance in Trichoderma spp., we cloned and characterized NATs from T. virens and T. reesei. We characterized recombinant enzymes by determining their catalytic efficiencies toward several toxic AA. Through a complementary approach, we also demonstrate that both Trichoderma species efficiently metabolize 3,4-DCA. Finally, we provide evidence that NAT-independent transformation is solely (in T. virens) or mainly (in T. reesei) responsible for the observed removal of 3,4-DCA. We conclude that T. virens and, to a lesser extent, T. reesei likely utilize another, unidentified, metabolic pathway for the detoxification of AA aside from acetylation. This is the first molecular and functional characterization of AA biotransformation in Trichoderma spp. Given the potential of Trichoderma for cleanup of contaminated soils, these results reveal new possibilities in the fungal remediation of AA-contaminated soil.

  20. Influence of rye flour enzymatic biotransformation on the antioxidant capacity and transepithelial transport of phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Fabíola Aliaga; Martins, Isabela Mateus; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição; Azevedo, Joana; Fernandes, Iva; Mateus, Nuno; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2018-03-01

    Phenolic acids have been reported to play a role on the antioxidant activity and other important biological activities. However, as most polyphenolics in food products are either bound to cellular matrices or present as free polymeric forms, the way they are absorbed has not been totally clear until now. Hydrolytic enzymes may act to increase functionalities in polyphenolic-rich foods, enhancing the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and minerals from whole grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of tannin acyl hydrolase (tannase) on the total phenols, phenolic acid profile, antioxidant capacity and in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids found in whole rye flour (RF). Besides increasing total phenols and the antioxidant capacity, tannase treatment increased the amounts of ferulic, sinapic and vanillic acids identified in RF, evidencing a new type of feruloyl esterase catalytic action of tannase. Vanillic and sinapic acids in tannase-treated whole rye flour (RFT) were higher than RF after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and higher amounts of transported vanillic acid through the Caco-2 monolayer were detected in RFT. However, the bioaccessibility and the transport efficiency of RF phenolic acids were higher than RFT. Underutilized crops like rye and rye-derived products may be an important source of phenolic acids. The tannase biotransformation, even influencing the total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of RF, did not increase the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids under the experimental conditions of this study.

  1. Isolation of Arsenic Resistant Escherichia coli from Sewage Water and Its Potential in Arsenic Biotransformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanta Bista

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination in drinking water from ground water poses a threat to the health of a large population in developing countries in Asia. This has sparked great interests in the potential of different microbes in arsenic resistance and removal from water. This study involves isolation of arsenic resistant Escherichia coli from sewage water from Kathmandu University and investigation of its attributes. Arsenic resistant E. coli was successfully isolated which could survive in high concentration of arsenic. The maximum tolerance of arsenite was 909.79 mg/L (sodium arsenite and 3120.1 mg/L arsenate (sodium arsenate which is well above most natural concentration of arsenic in ground water. This particular E. coli tolerated multiple heavy metal like silver nitrate, cobalt sulphate, cadmium chloride, nickel chloride, mercury chloride, copper sulphate, and zinc chloride at concentration 20 µM, 1 mM, 0.5mM, 1mM, 0.01 mM, 1 mM, and 1 mM respectively which are concentrations known to be toxic to E. coli. Biotransformation of arsenite to arsenate was also checked for by a qualitative silver nitrate technique. This E. coli was able to transform arsenate to arsenite. It showed some sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin and Nalidixic Acid. As E. coli and its genome are very widely studied, these particular properties have a lot of potential in microbial remediation or microbial recovery of metals and possible recombination approaches.

  2. Biotransformation of tetrachloroethylene to trichloroethylene, dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and carbon dioxide under methanogenic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, T.M.; McCarty, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), common industrial solvents, are among the most frequent contaminants found in groundwater supplies. Due to the potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of chlorinated ethylenes, knowledge about their transformation potential is important in evaluating their environmental fate. The results of this study confirm that PCE can be transformed by reductive dehalogenation to TCE, dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride (VC) under anaerobic conditions. In addition, [ 14 C]PCE was at least partially mineralized to CO 2 . Mineralization of 24% of the PCE occurred in a continuous-flow fixed-film methanogenic column with a liquid detention time of 4 days. TCE was the major intermediate formed, but traces of dichloroethylene isomers and VC were also found. In other column studies under a different set of methanogenic conditions, nearly quantitative conversion of PCE to VC was found. These studies clearly demonstrate that TCE and VC are major intermediates in PCE biotransformation under anaerobic conditions and suggest that the potential exists for the complete mineralization of PCE to CO 2 in soil and aquifer systems and in biological treatment processes

  3. Biotransformation of isoimperatorin and imperatorin by Glomerella cingulata and beta-secretase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformation studies conducted on the furanocoumarins isoimperatorin (1) and imperatorin (3) have revealed that 1 was metabolized by Glomerella cingulata to give the corresponding reduced acid, 6,7-furano-5-prenyloxy hydrocoumaric acid (2), and 3 was transformed by G. cingulata to give the dealkylated metabolite, xanthotoxol (4) in high yields (83% and 81%), respectively. The structures of the new compound 2 have been established on the basis of spectral data. The metabolites 2 and 4 were tested for the beta-secretase (BACE1) inhibitory activity in vitro, and metabolite 2 slightly inhibited the beta-secretase activity with an IC(50) value of 185.6+/-6.8 microM. The metabolite 4 was less potent activity than compounds 1-3. In addition, methyl ester (2Me), methyl ether (2a) and methyl ester and ether (2aMe) of 2 were synthesized, and investigated for the ability to inhibit beta-secretase. Compound 2aMe exhibited the best beta-secretase inhibitory activity at the IC(50) value 16.2+/-1.2 microM and found to be the 2aMe showed competitive mode of inhibition against beta-secretase with K(i) value 11.3+/-2.8 microM. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biotransformation of 2,4-dinitroanisole by a fungal Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Hunter W; Langenfeld, Kathryn L; Li, Xueshu; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Just, Craig L

    2017-02-01

    Insensitive munitions explosives are new formulations that are less prone to unintended detonation compared to traditional explosives. While these formulations have safety benefits, the individual constituents, such as 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), have an unknown ecosystem fate with potentially toxic impacts to flora and fauna exposed to DNAN and/or its metabolites. Fungi may be useful in remediation and have been shown to degrade traditional nitroaromatic explosives, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene, that are structurally similar to DNAN. In this study, a fungal Penicillium sp., isolated from willow trees and designated strain KH1, was shown to degrade DNAN in solution within 14 days. Stable-isotope labeled DNAN and an untargeted metabolomics approach were used to discover 13 novel transformation products. Penicillium sp. KH1 produced DNAN metabolites resulting from ortho- and para-nitroreduction, demethylation, acetylation, hydroxylation, malonylation, and sulfation. Incubations with intermediate metabolites such as 2-amino-4-nitroanisole and 4-amino-2-nitroanisole as the primary substrates confirmed putative metabolite isomerism and pathways. No ring-cleavage products were observed, consistent with other reports that mineralization of DNAN is an uncommon metabolic outcome. The production of metabolites with unknown persistence and toxicity suggests further study will be needed to implement remediation with Penicillium sp. KH1. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biotransformation of DNAN by a fungus.

  5. Biotransformation of soy whey into soy alcoholic beverage by four commercial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Jian-Yong; Lu, Yuyun; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2017-12-04

    Soy whey is a liquid waste stream generated from tofu and soy protein manufacturing, and is commonly disposed of into the drainage system in food industry. Instead of disposing of soy whey as a waste, it could be used to produce alcoholic beverages. This study investigated the feasibility of converting soy whey into soy alcoholic beverage using four commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as a zero-waste approach to tackle the soy whey disposal issue. The four Saccharomyces yeasts grew by approximately 2logCFU/mL and produced approximately 7-8% (v/v) of ethanol. Isoflavone glucosides were hydrolyzed and transformed into isoflavone aglycones, increasing the antioxidant capacity. New aroma-active volatiles, especially esters and higher alcohols, were produced and imparted fruity and floral notes to the soy alcoholic beverage. Therefore, alcoholic fermentation would serve as a solution toward zero-waste manufacturing by biotransforming soy whey into a world's first novel functional alcoholic beverage naturally enriched with free isoflavones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. New cryptotanshinone derivatives with anti-influenza A virus activities obtained via biotransformation by Mucor rouxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenni; Li, Yao; Qin, Yuejie; Tong, Xiaomei; Song, Zhijun; Zhao, Yu; Wei, Ran; Li, Li; Dai, Huanqin; Wang, Wenzhao; Luo, Houwei; Ye, Xin; Zhang, Lixin; Liu, Xueting

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides an efficient platform to diversify the structure and pharmaceutical potentials of known natural products. Seven metabolites were obtained via the biotransformation of cryptotanshinone by the fungus Mucor rouxii AS 3.3447, and assigned as 13R-14R-hydroxy-anhydride of 16R-cryptotanshinone (1), 1S-hydroxy-anhydride of 16R-cryptotanshinone (2), 1R-hydroxy-anhydride of 16R-cryptotanshinone (3), 3S-hydroxy-epicryptoacetalide (4), 3S-hydroxy-cryptoacetalide (5), epicryptoacetalide (6), and cryptoacetalide (7). Among these compounds, 1-5 are novel. The ortho-naphthoquinone chromophore of cryptotanshinone was degraded and rearranged by M. rouxii. 1 and 3 showed good anti-influenza A virus activities with the reduced cytotoxic activities compared to the parent substrate cryptotanshinone (8). The structures of all the new compounds were determined on the basis of HRESIMS (high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy) spectrometry, NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, ECD (electronic circular dichroism) calculations, and the CD (circular dichroism) of "in situ" method with [Rh 2 (OCOCF 3 ) 4 ].

  7. Mechanism study of sulfur fertilization mediating copper translocation and biotransformation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Yang, Jianjun; Fang, Huaxiang; Xu, Chen; Peng, Cheng; Huang, Haomin; Lu, Lingli; Duan, Dechao; Zhang, Xiangzhi; Shi, Jiyan

    2017-07-01

    Metabolism of sulfur (S) is suggested to be an important factor for the homeostasis and detoxification of Cu in plants. We investigated the effects of S fertilizers (S 0 , Na 2 SO 4 ) on Cu translocation and biotransformation in rice plants by using multiple synchrotron-based techniques. Fertilization of S increased the biomass and yield of rice plants, as well as the translocation factor of Cu from root to shoot and shoot to grain, resulting in enhanced Cu in grain. Sulfur K-edge X-ray near edge structure (XANES) analysis showed that fertilization of S increased the concentration of glutathione in different rice tissues, especially in rice stem and leaf. Copper K-edge XANES results indicated that a much higher proportion of Cu (I) species existed in rice grain than husk and leaf, which was further confirmed by soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy results. Sulfur increased the proportion of Cu (I) species in rice grain, husk and leaf, suggesting the inducing of Cu (II) reduction in rice tissues by S fertilization. These results suggested that fertilization of S in paddy soils increased the accumulation of Cu in rice grain, possibly due to the reduction of Cu (II) to Cu (I) by enhancing glutathione synthesis and increasing the translocation of Cu from shoot to grain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Arsenic biotransformation and release by bacteria indigenous to arsenic contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Dhiraj; Kazy, Sufia K; Banerjee, Tirtha Das; Gupta, Ashok K; Pal, Taraknath; Sar, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) biotransformation and release by indigenous bacteria from As rich groundwater was investigated. Metabolic landscape of 173 bacterial isolates indicated broad catabolic repertoire including abundance of As(5+) reductase activity and abilities in utilizing wide ranges of organic and inorganic respiratory substrates. Abundance of As homeostasis genes and utilization of hydrocarbon as carbon/electron donor and As(5+) as electron acceptor were noted within the isolates. Sediment microcosm study (for 300 days) showed a pivotal role of metal reducing facultative anaerobic bacteria in toxic As(3+) release in aqueous phase. Inhabitant bacteria catalyze As transformation and facilitate its release through a cascade of reactions including mineral bioweathering and As(5+) and/or Fe(3+) reduction activities. Compared to anaerobic incubation with As(5+) reducing strains, oxic state and/or incubation with As(3+) oxidizing bacteria resulted in reduced As release, thus indicating a strong role of such condition or biocatalytic mechanism in controlling in situ As contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biotransformation of vinclozolin in rat precision-cut liver slices: comparison with in vivo metabolic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyka, Julian; Debrauwer, Laurent; Perdu, Elisabeth; Jouanin, Isabelle; Jaeg, Jean-Philippe; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre

    2008-06-25

    Vinclozolin is a dicarboxymide fungicide that presents antiandrogenic properties through its two hydrolysis products M1 and M2, which bind to the androgen receptor. Because of the lack of data on the biotransformation of vinclozolin, its metabolism was investigated in vitro in precision-cut rat liver slices and in vivo in male rat using [ (14)C]-vinclozolin. Incubations were performed using different concentrations of substrate, and the kinetics of formation of the major metabolites were studied. Three male Wistar rats were fed by gavage with [ (14)C]-VZ. Urine was collected for 24 h and analyzed by radio-HPLC for metabolic profiling. Metabolite identification was carried out on a LCQ ion trap mass spectrometer. In rat liver slices and in vivo, the major primary metabolite has been identified as 3',5'-dichloro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutyranilide (M5) and was mainly present as glucuronoconjugates. M5 is produced by dihydroxylation of the vinyl group of M2. Other metabolites have been identified as 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione (M4), a dihydroxylated metabolite of vinclozolin, which undergoes further conjugation to glucuronic acid, and 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3,4-dihydroxy-butanoic acid (M6), a dihydroxylated metabolite of M1.

  10. Screening for strains with 11α-hydroxylase activity for 17α-hydroxy progesterone biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Qiao, Yuqian; Shen, Yanbing; Wang, Min; Wang, Xibo; Liu, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Various corticosteroids are prepared by using 11α,17α-diOH-progesterone (11α,17α-diOH-PROG) as an important intermediate and raw material. Hence, strains that can improve the yields of 11α,17α-diOH-PROG should be screened. Cunninghamella elegans CICC40250 was singled out from five common 11α hydroxylation strains. The reaction parameters of 11α,17α-diOH-PROG production were also investigated. C. elegans CICC40250 could efficiently catalyze the hydroxylation of 17α-hydroxy progesterone (17α-OH-PROG) at C-11α position. This strain could also effectively convert 11α,17α-diOH-PROG at high substrate concentrations (up to 30g/L). After the coenzyme precursor glucose was added, the rate of 11α,17α-diOH-PROG formation reached 84.2%, which was 11.4% higher than that of the control group. Our study established a simple and feasible mechanism to increase 11α,17α-diOH-PROG production levels. This mechanism involves C. elegans CICC40250 that can be efficiently applied to induce the biotransformation of 17α-OH-PROG with a hydroxylation biocatalytic ability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effect of Phellinus baumii-Biotransformed Soybean Powder on Lipid Metabolism in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Ik; Kim, Kil Soo; Kang, Ji Hyuk; Kim, Hye Jeong

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of biotransformed soybean powder (BTS; Phellinus baumii-fermented soybean) on lipid metabolism in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were divided into basal diet group (BA), high fat diet group (HF), high fat diet containing 10% BTS group (10 BTS), and high fat diet containing 20% BTS group (20 BTS). Changes in the content of various isoflavones, including daidzein and genistein, within the soybean after fermentation to BTS were investigated. The levels of daidzein and genistein were 149.28 μg/g and 364.31 μg/g, respectively. After six weeks experimental period, Food efficiency ratio in the 10 and 20 BTS group was significantly lower than the HF group (PBTS group were significantly lower than the HF group. The levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were significantly lower in the groups that received 10% and 20% BTS than the HF. The activities of SOD and CAT were significantly higher in the 10 and 20 BTS group than the HF group. The activity of XO in the 10 and 20 BTS group was significantly lower than in the HF group by 20% and 23%, respectively. In conclusion, these data suggest that BTS is an effective agent in improving lipid metabolism and antioxidant enzyme system.

  12. Redox self-sufficient whole cell biotransformation for amination of alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Stephanie; Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-10-15

    Whole cell biotransformation is an upcoming tool to replace common chemical routes for functionalization and modification of desired molecules. In the approach presented here the production of various non-natural (di)amines was realized using the designed whole cell biocatalyst Escherichia coli W3110/pTrc99A-ald-adh-ta with plasmid-borne overexpression of genes for an l-alanine dehydrogenase, an alcohol dehydrogenase and a transaminase. Cascading alcohol oxidation with l-alanine dependent transamination and l-alanine dehydrogenase allowed for redox self-sufficient conversion of alcohols to the corresponding amines. The supplementation of the corresponding (di)alcohol precursors as well as amino group donor l-alanine and ammonium chloride were sufficient for amination and redox cofactor recycling in a resting buffer system. The addition of the transaminase cofactor pyridoxal-phosphate and the alcohol dehydrogenase cofactor NAD(+) was not necessary to obtain complete conversion. Secondary and cyclic alcohols, for example, 2-hexanol and cyclohexanol were not aminated. However, efficient redox self-sufficient amination of aliphatic and aromatic (di)alcohols in vivo was achieved with 1-hexanol, 1,10-decanediol and benzylalcohol being aminated best. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biotransformation of flubendazole and fenbendazole and their effects in the ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlíková, Lucie Raisová; Skálová, Lenka; Szotáková, Barbora; Syslová, Eliška; Vokřál, Ivan; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2018-01-01

    Although veterinary anthelmintics represent an important source of environmental pollution, the fate of anthelmintics and their effects in plants has not yet been studied sufficiently. The aim of our work was to identify metabolic pathways of the two benzimidazole anthelmintics fenbendazole (FBZ) and flubendazole (FLU) in the ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.). Plants cultivated as in vitro regenerants were used for this purpose. The effects of anthelmintics and their biotransformation products on plant oxidative stress parameters were also studied. The obtained results showed that the enzymatic system of the ribwort plantain was able to uptake FLU and FBZ, translocate them in leaves and transform them into several metabolites, particularly glycosides. Overall, 12 FLU and 22 FBZ metabolites were identified in the root, leaf base and leaf top of the plant. Concerning the effects of FLU and FBZ, both anthelmintics in the ribwort plantain cells caused significant increase of proline concentration (up to twice), a well-known stress marker, and significant decrease of superoxide dismutase activity (by 50%). In addition, the activities of four other antioxidant enzymes were significantly changed after either FLU or FBZ exposition. This could indicate a certain risk of oxidative damage in plants influenced by anthelmintics, particularly when they are under other stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Unexpected Biotransformation of the HDAC Inhibitor Vorinostat Yields Aniline-Containing Fungal Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adpressa, Donovon A; Stalheim, Kayla J; Proteau, Philip J; Loesgen, Sandra

    2017-07-21

    The diversity of genetically encoded small molecules produced by filamentous fungi remains largely unexplored, which makes these fungi an attractive source for the discovery of new compounds. However, accessing their full chemical repertoire under common laboratory culture conditions is a challenge. Epigenetic manipulation of gene expression has become a well-established tool for overcoming this obstacle. Here, we report that perturbation of the endophytic ascomycete Chalara sp. 6661, producer of the isofusidienol class of antibiotics, with the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat resulted in the production of four new modified xanthones. The structures of chalanilines A (1) and B (2) and adenosine-coupled xanthones A (3) and B (4) were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic analyses, and the bioactivities of 1-4 were tested in antibiotic and cytotoxicity assays. Incorporation studies with deuterium-labeled vorinostat indicate that the aniline moiety in chalalanine A is derived from vorinostat itself. Our study shows that Chalara sp. is able to metabolize the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat to release aniline. This is a rare report of fungal biotransformation of the popular epigenetic modifier vorinostat into aniline-containing polyketides.

  15. The impact of different proportions of a treated effluent on the biotransformation of selected micro-contaminants in river water microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nödler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Licha, Tobias

    2014-10-10

    Attenuation of micro-contaminants is a very complex field in environmental science and evidence suggests that biodegradation rates of micro-contaminants in the aqueous environment depend on the water matrix. The focus of the study presented here is the systematic comparison of biotransformation rates of caffeine, carbamazepine, metoprolol, paracetamol and valsartan in river water microcosms spiked with different proportions of treated effluent (0%, 0.1%, 1%, and 10%). Biotransformation was identified as the dominating attenuation process by the evolution of biotransformation products such as atenolol acid and valsartan acid. Significantly decreasing biotransformation rates of metoprolol were observed at treated effluent proportions ≥ 0.1% whereas significantly increasing biotransformation rates of caffeine and valsartan were observed in the presence of 10% treated effluent. Potential reasons for the observations are discussed and the addition of adapted microorganisms via the treated effluent was suggested as the most probable reason. The impact of additional phosphorus on the biodegradation rates was tested and the experiments revealed that phosphorus-limitation was not responsible.

  16. Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON), Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Ilse; De Mets, Laura; De Boevre, Marthe; Uka, Valdet; Di Mavungu, José Diana; De Saeger, Sarah; De Gelder, Leen; Audenaert, Kris

    2017-02-13

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON) biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L. was developed. A dose-response analysis revealed significant inhibition in the growth of L. minor exposed to DON concentrations of 0.25 mg/L and higher. Concentrations above 1 mg/L were lethal for the plant. This bioassay is far more sensitive than previously described systems. The bioassay was implemented to screen microbial enrichment cultures, originating from rumen fluid, soil, digestate and activated sludge, on their biotransformation and detoxification capability of DON. The enrichment cultures originating from soil and activated sludge were capable of detoxifying and degrading 5 and 50 mg/L DON. In addition, the metabolites 3-epi-DON and the epimer of de-epoxy-DON (3-epi-DOM-1) were found as biotransformation products of both consortia. Our work provides a new valuable tool to screen microbial cultures for their detoxification capacity.

  17. Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON, Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Vanhoutte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L. was developed. A dose–response analysis revealed significant inhibition in the growth of L. minor exposed to DON concentrations of 0.25 mg/L and higher. Concentrations above 1 mg/L were lethal for the plant. This bioassay is far more sensitive than previously described systems. The bioassay was implemented to screen microbial enrichment cultures, originating from rumen fluid, soil, digestate and activated sludge, on their biotransformation and detoxification capability of DON. The enrichment cultures originating from soil and activated sludge were capable of detoxifying and degrading 5 and 50 mg/L DON. In addition, the metabolites 3-epi-DON and the epimer of de-epoxy-DON (3-epi-DOM-1 were found as biotransformation products of both consortia. Our work provides a new valuable tool to screen microbial cultures for their detoxification capacity.

  18. Process for Biotransformation of Androsta-4-ene-3, 17-Dione (4-AD) to Androsta-1,4-Diene-3,17-Dione (ADD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Surya; Bajaj, Abhay

    2017-01-01

    Androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (androstadienedione, ADD) is key intermediate for the organic synthesis of a variety of female sex hormones such as estrone, estradiol, estriol and other related derivatives. De novo synthesis of this molecule is not yet reported in any form of living system, i.e., microbial, plant, and animal. The structural complexities due to presence of several chiral carbon centers create significant hurdles in chemical synthesis of such molecules. Microbe-mediated biotransformation offer a highly reliable, cost-effective, and relatively non hazardous way for commercial manufacturing of steroidal key intermediates. Currently microbial biotransformations are extensively being exploited for large-scale production of basic intermediates such as androstenedione (AD), ADD, and several types of hydroxylated derivatives of androstane compounds. In this chapter several aspects of microbial biotransformation process of AD to ADD are discussed.

  19. Studies on the microbial biotransformation of the novel psychoactive substance methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in wastewater by means of liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardal, Marie; Meyer, Markus R

    2014-09-15

    Sewage profiling as a mean to estimate consumption of drugs of abuse is gaining increasing attention. However, only scarce data are available so far on the impact of microbial biotransformation on the presence and hence detectability of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in wastewater (WW) samples. The aim of this work was therefore to study the biotransformation pathways of the novel psychoactive substance 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MPDV) in WW by incubating it, based on the OECD guideline 314 A. MDPV was incubated (100 μg/L) for 10d at 22 °C in WW from a local WW treatment plant. Furthermore, urine and feces collected from rats administered 20mg MDPV/kg BW were incubated correspondingly. Samples were worked-up either by centrifugation/filtration and solid-phase (HCX) extraction or QuEChERS. High resolution (HR) mass spectra (MS) were recorded using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. All products were identified via their HR-MS(2) spectra and chromatographic properties. The observed biotransformations in WW were: demethylenation and subsequent O-methylation, hydroxylation at the phenyl part, hydroxylation at the pyrrolidine part with subsequent methylation or oxidation, N-demethylation, and hydroxylation at the alkyl part as well as combination of them. In total, 12 biotransformation products were identified after 10 days of incubation. Three of these biotransformation products were previously reported to be also rat and human metabolites. No additional MDPV biotransformation products could be found after incubating the rat urine and feces samples. Instead, the urinary phase II glucuronides were nearly completely cleaved after one day of WW incubation. The presented study indicates that demethylenyl-methyl MDPV, the most abundant metabolite in human urine, should be the best indicator in WW to estimate its use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Benz[a]anthracene Biotransformation and Production of Ring Fission Products by Sphingobium sp. Strain KK22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunihiro, Marie; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Nogi, Yuichi; Hamamura, Natsuko

    2013-01-01

    A soil bacterium, designated strain KK22, was isolated from a phenanthrene enrichment culture of a bacterial consortium that grew on diesel fuel, and it was found to biotransform the persistent environmental pollutant and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benz[a]anthracene. Nearly complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of strain KK22 and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this organism is a new member of the genus Sphingobium. An 8-day time course study that consisted of whole-culture extractions followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses with fluorescence detection showed that 80 to 90% biodegradation of 2.5 mg liter−1 benz[a]anthracene had occurred. Biodegradation assays where benz[a]anthracene was supplied in crystalline form (100 mg liter−1) confirmed biodegradation and showed that strain KK22 cells precultured on glucose were equally capable of benz[a]anthracene biotransformation when precultured on glucose plus phenanthrene. Analyses of organic extracts from benz[a]anthracene biodegradation by liquid chromatography negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry [LC/ESI(−)-MS/MS] revealed 10 products, including two o-hydroxypolyaromatic acids and two hydroxy-naphthoic acids. 1-Hydroxy-2- and 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acids were unambiguously identified, and this indicated that oxidation of the benz[a]anthracene molecule occurred via both the linear kata and angular kata ends of the molecule. Other two- and single-aromatic-ring metabolites were also documented, including 3-(2-carboxyvinyl)naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid and salicylic acid, and the proposed pathways for benz[a]anthracene biotransformation by a bacterium were extended. PMID:23686261

  1. Estimation of biotransformation and sorption of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) during artificial recharge through a reactive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, C.; Martinez-Landa, L.; Carrera, J.; Hidalgo, J. J.; Ayora, C.

    2016-12-01

    The reuse of lesser quality water such as effluents from wastewater treatment plants or effluent-receiving water bodies has been promoted due to the water shortages affecting many regions of the world. Artificial recharge through infiltration basins is known to improve several water quality parameters including the attenuation of emerging organic compounds (EOCs). Many of these contaminants exhibit redox dependent biotransformation because the redox state is one of the factors controlling microbial community development. Together with biotransformation, sorption also affects the behavior of EOCs in their passage through the soil. We studied EOCs attenuation in an infiltration system is located in Sant Vicenç dells Horts on the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain), where the local water agency has an artificial recharge pilot project . The Llobregat river water used for the artificial recharge is affected by treatment plant effluents which contain EOCs. A reactive barrier consisting of vegetable compost, clay, and iron oxide was installed in the bottom of the infiltration basin to enhance biotransformation and sorption of EOCs. The barrier releases dissolved organic carbon, which favors the development of a broad range of redox environments, and supplies neutral, cationic, and anionic surfaces to favor sorption of different types of contaminants. Results were excellent, but quantitative evaluation of the EOCs attenuation requires knowledge of the residence time distribution of infiltrated water. A tracer test was performed by adding tracers to the infiltration water and interpreting the breakthrough curves at diverse monitoring points with a 2D multilayer numerical model. The calibrated model quantify degradation, as a first order law, and sorption through a linear distribution coefficient for ten selected EOCs. Results indicate higher degradation rates and sorption coefficients in the reactive barrier than in the rest of the aquifer for nine and eight of the ten

  2. Immobilization of biogenic Pd(0) in anaerobic granular sludge for the biotransformation of recalcitrant halogenated pollutants in UASB reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Espadas, Aurora M; Razo-Flores, Elías; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Ascacio-Valdes, Juan A; Aguilar, Cristobal N; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2015-10-19

    The capacity of anaerobic granular sludge to reduce Pd(II), using ethanol as electron donor, in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was demonstrated. Results confirmed complete reduction of Pd(II) and immobilization as Pd(0) in the granular sludge. The Pd-enriched sludge was further evaluated regarding biotransformation of two recalcitrant halogenated pollutants: 3-chloro-nitrobenzene (3-CNB) and iopromide (IOP) in batch and continuous operation in UASB reactors. The superior removal capacity of the Pd-enriched biomass when compared with the control (not exposed to Pd) was demonstrated in both cases. Results revealed 80 % of IOP removal efficiency after 100 h of incubation in batch experiments performed with Pd-enriched biomass whereas only 28 % of removal efficiency was achieved in incubations with biomass lacking Pd. The UASB reactor operated with the Pd-enriched biomass achieved 81 ± 9.5 % removal efficiency of IOP and only 61 ± 8.3 % occurred in the control reactor lacking Pd. Regarding 3-CNB, it was demonstrated that biogenic Pd(0) promoted both nitro-reduction and dehalogenation resulting in the complete conversion of 3-CNB to aniline while in the control experiment only nitro-reduction was documented. The complete biotransformation pathway of both contaminants was proposed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis evidencing a higher degree of nitro-reduction and dehalogenation of both contaminants in the experiments with Pd-enriched anaerobic sludge as compared with the control. A biotechnological process is proposed to recover Pd(II) from industrial streams and to immobilize it in anaerobic granular sludge. The Pd-enriched biomass is also proposed as a biocatalyst to achieve the biotransformation of recalcitrant compounds in UASB reactors.

  3. On-line near-infrared spectroscopy optimizing and monitoring biotransformation process of γ-aminobutyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with its fast and nondestructive advantages can be qualified for the real-time quantitative analysis. This paper demonstrates that NIRS combined with partial least squares (PLS regression can be used as a rapid analytical method to simultaneously quantify l-glutamic acid (l-Glu and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in a biotransformation process and to guide the optimization of production conditions when the merits of NIRS are combined with response surface methodology. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC reference analysis was performed by the o-phthaldialdehyde pre-column derivatization. NIRS measurements of two batches of 141 samples were firstly analyzed by PLS with several spectral pre-processing methods. Compared with those of the HPLC reference analysis, the resulting determination coefficients (R2, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP and residual predictive deviation (RPD of the external validation for the l-Glu concentration were 99.5%, 1.62 g/L, and 11.3, respectively. For the GABA concentration, R2, RMSEP, and RPD were 99.8%, 4.00 g/L, and 16.4, respectively. This NIRS model was then used to optimize the biotransformation process through a Box-Behnken experimental design. Under the optimal conditions without pH adjustment, 200 g/L l-Glu could be catalyzed by 7148 U/L glutamate decarboxylase (GAD to GABA, reaching 99% conversion at the fifth hour. NIRS analysis provided timely information on the conversion from l-Glu to GABA. The results suggest that the NIRS model can not only be used for the routine profiling of enzymatic conversion, providing a simple and effective method of monitoring the biotransformation process of GABA, but also be considered to be an optimal tool to guide the optimization of production conditions.

  4. Investigation of biotransformation, sorption, and desorption of multiple chemical contaminants in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Katherine E; Lew, Julia; Dickenson, Eric R V; Wert, Eric C

    2018-06-01

    The evolving demands of drinking water treatment necessitate processes capable of removing a diverse suite of contaminants. Biofiltration can employ biotransformation and sorption to remove various classes of chemicals from water. Here, pilot-scale virgin anthracite-sand and previously used biological activated carbon (BAC)-sand dual media filters were operated for ∼250 days to assess removals of 0.4 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen, 50-140 μg/L manganese, and ∼100 ng/L each of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) spiked into pre-ozonated Colorado River water. Anthracite achieved complete nitrification within 200 days and started removing ibuprofen at 85 days. Limited manganese (10%) removal occurred. In contrast, BAC completely nitrified ammonia within 113 days, removed all manganese at 43 days, and exhibited steady state removal of most TOrCs by 140 days. However, during the first 140 days, removal of caffeine, DEET, gemfibrozil, naproxen, and trimethoprim decreased, suggesting a shift from sorption to biotransformation. Acetaminophen and sulfamethoxazole were removed at consistent levels, with complete removal of acetaminophen achieved throughout the study; ibuprofen removal increased with time. When subjected to elevated (1 μg/L) concentrations of TOrCs, BAC removed larger masses of chemicals; with a subsequent decrease and ultimate cease in the TOrCs spike, caffeine, DEET, gemfibrozil, and trimethoprim notably desorbed. By the end of operation, anthracite and BAC exhibited equivalent quantities of biomass measured as adenosine triphosphate, but BAC harbored greater microbial diversity (examined with 16S rRNA sequencing). Improved insight was gained regarding concurrent biotransformation, sorption, and desorption of multiple organic and inorganic contaminants in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary modulation of the biotransformation and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Steinmeyer, Kerstin; Eaton, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Diet and its various components are consistently identified as among the most important ‘risk factors’ for cancer worldwide, yet great uncertainty remains regarding the relative contribution of nutritive (e.g., vitamins, calories) vs. non-nutritive (e.g., phytochemicals, fiber, contaminants) factors in both cancer induction and cancer prevention. Among the most potent known human dietary carcinogens is the mycotoxin, aflatoxin B 1 (AFB). AFB and related aflatoxins are produced as secondary metabolites by the molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that commonly infect poorly stored foods including peanuts, pistachios, corn, and rice. AFB is a potent hepatocarcinogenic agent in numerous animal species, and has been implicated in the etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent research has shown that many diet-derived factors have great potential to influence AFB biotransformation, and some efficiently protect from AFB-induced genotoxicity. One key mode of action for reducing AFB-induced carcinogenesis in experimental animals was shown to be the induction of detoxification enzymes such as certain glutathione-S-transferases that are regulated through the Keap1–Nrf2–ARE signaling pathway. Although initial studies utilized the dithiolthione drug, oltipraz, as a prototypical inducer of antioxidant response, dietary components such as suforaphane (SFN) are also effective inducers of this pathway in rodent models. However, human GSTs in general do not appear to be extensively induced by SFN, and GSTM1 – the only human GST with measurable catalytic activity toward aflatoxin B 1 -8,9-epoxide (AFBO; the genotoxic metabolite of AFB), does not appear to be induced by SFN, at least in human hepatocytes, even though its expression in human liver cells does appear to offer considerable protection against AFB–DNA damage. Although induction of detoxification pathways has served as the primary mechanistic focus of chemoprevention studies, protective

  6. Biotransformation of two furanocoumarins by the fungi species Aspergillus sp. PTCC 5266 and Aspergillus niger PTCC 5010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Saba; Habibi, Zohreh; Mohajeri, Maryam; Yousefi, Maryam

    2018-02-22

    The microbial transformations of peucedanin and oreoselon by the fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus sp. were investigated for the first time. Incubation of peucedanin with A. niger yielded a new hydroxylated metabolite with high yield (56%), which was characterized as 2-(1-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-3-methoxy-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one. Oreoselon was converted to a new reduced metabolite methyl 3-(2,3-dihydro-6-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-3-oxobenzofuran-5-yl)propanoate in biotransformation by Aspergillus sp. The structures of the metabolites were determined by spectroscopic methods including IR, EI-MS, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, and elemental analysis.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load, lipid reserves and biotransformation activity in migrating Atlantic salmon from River Moerrum, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Maria C.; Persson, Maria E.; Larsson, Per; Schantz, Torbjoern von

    2009-01-01

    Atlantic salmon accumulate high levels of contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in their lipids during the adult growth phase spent at sea. The lipids are later utilized during migration for swimming and biological adaptations. We hypothesize that migrating salmons' biotransformation processes are affected by the high levels of built-up PCBs compared to salmon that in a pre-migrational stage. For these analyses we sampled adult Atlantic salmon during migration in the Swedish River Moerrum and measured the 21 most common PCB congeners (ΣPCB) and lipid levels in muscle tissue, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR2) and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) transcript levels as well as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver. We also determined which AHR2 genotypes the salmon carried. We show that EROD activity is correlated to CYP1A1 level but not to ΣPCB concentration. ΣPCB concentration does not predict levels of neither the AHR2 nor CYP1A1 genes. We find no associations between specific AHR2 transcription levels and AHR2 genotypes or a correlation between AHR2 and CYP1A1 transcription levels, which is in direct contrast to pre-migrational adult salmon from the Baltic Sea. When we compare River Moerrum to salmon we have previously sampled in the Baltic Sea we show that migrating salmon have significantly lower lipid levels in their muscles; higher muscle concentrations of ΣPCB on a lipid basis; and significantly lower CYP1A1 and EROD levels compared to salmon from the Baltic Sea. Also, transcript levels of three out of four AHR2 genes are significantly different. In conclusion, migrating Swedish Atlantic salmon carry higher concentrations of PCBs in their lipids compared to salmon in the Baltic Sea, but have lower activation of biotransformation genes and enzymes. Our results indicate that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea are deactivated inside the migrating salmon's lipid tissues and increase in concentration when migration is initiated

  8. Biotransformation of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol by Enterobacter soli and E. aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William J; Manter, Daniel K; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid by five Enterobacter strains. These high-value chemicals are usually synthesized by chemical methods but biological synthesis adds market value. Ferulic acid, a relatively inexpensive component of agricultural crops, is plentiful in corn hulls, cereal bran, and sugar-beet pulp. Two Enterobacter strains, E. soli, and E. aerogenes, accumulated 550-600 ppm amounts of 4-VG when grown in media containing 1,000 ppm ferulic acid; no accumulations were observed with the other strains. Decreasing the amount of ferulic acid present in the media increased the conversion efficiency. When ferulic acid was supplied in 500, 250, or 125 ppm amounts E. aerogenes converted ~72 % of the ferulic acid present to 4-VG while E. soli converted ~100 % of the ferulic acid to 4-VG when supplied with 250 or 125 ppm amounts of ferulic acid. Also, lowering the pH improved the conversion efficiency. At pH 5.0 E. aerogenes converted ~84 % and E. soli converted ~100 % of 1,000 ppm ferulic acid to 4-VG. Only small, 1-5 ppm, accumulations of vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid were observed. E. soli has a putative phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) that is 168 amino acids long and is similar to PADs in other enterobacteriales; this protein is likely involved in the bioconversion of ferulic acid to 4-VG. E. soli or E. aerogenes might be useful as a means of biotransforming ferulic acid to 4-VG.

  9. Effects of metals on enantioselective toxicity and biotransformation of cis-bifenthrin in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Ji, Dapeng; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Co-occurrence of pyrethroids and metals in watersheds previously has been reported to pose great risk to aquatic species. Pyrethroids are a class of chiral insecticides that have been shown to have enantioselective toxicity and biotransformation. However, the influence of metals on enantioselectivity of pyrethroids has not yet been evaluated. In the present study, the effects of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) on the enantioselective toxicity and metabolism of cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF) were investigated in zebrafish at environmentally relevant concentrations. The addition of Cd, Cu, or Pb significantly increased the mortality of zebrafish in racemate and R-enantiomer of cis-BF-treated groups. In rac-cis-BF- or 1R-cis-BF-treated groups, the addition of Cd, Cu, or Pb caused a decrease in enantiomeric fraction (EF) and an increased ratio of R-enantiomer residues in zebrafish. In 1S-cis-BF-treated groups, coexposure to Cd led to a lower EF and decreased residue levels of S-enantiomer. In addition, coexposure to the 3 metals resulted in different biodegradation characteristics of each enantiomer accompanied with differential changes in the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP)1, CYP2, and CYP3 genes, which might be responsible for the enantioselective biodegradation of cis-BF in zebrafish. These results suggest that the influence of coexistent metals should be considered in the ecological risk assessment of chiral pyrethroids in aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2139-2146. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. Elucidation of the Biotransformation Pathways of a Galnac3-conjugated Antisense Oligonucleotide in Rats and Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby S Shemesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triantennary N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc3 is a high-affinity ligand for hepatocyte-specific asialoglycoprotein receptors. Conjugation with GalNAc3 via a trishexylamino (THA-C6 cluster significantly enhances antisense oligonucleotide (ASO potency. Herein, the biotransformation, disposition, and elimination of the THA cluster of ION-681257, a GalNAc3-conjugated ASO currently in clinical development, are investigated in rats and monkey. Rats were administered a single subcutaneous dose of 3H-radiolabeled (3H placed in THA or nonradiolabeled ION-681257. Mass balance included radiometric profiling and metabolite fractionation with characterization by mass spectrometry. GalNAc3-conjugated ASOs were extensively distributed into liver. The THA-C6 triantenerrary GalNAc3 conjugate at the 5′-end of the ASO was rapidly metabolized and excreted with 25.67 ± 1.635% and 71.66 ± 4.17% of radioactivity recovered in urine and feces within 48 hours postdose. Unchanged drug, short-mer ASOs, and linker metabolites were detected in urine. Collectively, 14 novel linker associated metabolites were discovered including oxidation at each branching arm, initially by monooxidation at the β-position followed by dioxidation at the α-arm, and lastly, tri and tetra oxidations on the two remaining β-arms. Metabolites in bile and feces were identical to urine except for oxidized linear and cyclic linker metabolites. Enzymatic reaction phenotyping confirmed involvement of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, deoxyribonuclease II, alkaline phosphatase, and alcohol + aldehyde dehydrogenases on the complex metabolism pathway for THA supplementing in vivo findings. Lastly, excreta from monkeys treated with ION-681257 revealed the identical series as observed in rat. In summary, our findings provide an improved understanding of GalNAc3-conjugated-ASO metabolism pathways which facilitate similar development programs.

  11. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis modulate soy bean derived isoflavone biotransformation in diary cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk-Zieba, I; Woclawek-Potocka, I; Piskula, M K; Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Boruszewska, D; Bah, M M; Siemieniuch, M J; Skarzynski, D J

    2011-12-01

    The present study compared the changes in isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) and their metabolite (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) concentrations in the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis after feeding with soy bean. Sixteen cows were divided into four groups: control for mastitis group, cows with induced mastitis group, control for metritis group, and cows with induced metritis group. All cows were fed a single dose of 2.5 kg of soy bean and then blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for 8 h at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of soy bean-derived isoflavones and their active metabolites were measured in the blood plasma on HPLC system. β-Glucuronidase activity in the blood plasma of cows was measured by fluorometric method. In the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis, we found considerably higher concentrations and time-dependent increase in isoflavone metabolites (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) with reference to cyclic cows (P < 0.05). Moreover, we noticed significant decrease of genistein in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In addition, in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis, we found an increase in β-glucuronidase activity compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In conclusion, health status of the females influenced the concentrations of isoflavone metabolites in the blood plasma of the cows. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis increased isoflavone absorption, biotransformation and metabolism. Therefore, we suggest that cows with induced mastitis and metritis are more exposed to active isoflavone metabolite actions than healthy cows. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. A comparison of zero-order, first-order, and Monod biotransformation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekins, B.A.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Under some conditions, a first-order kinetic model is a poor representation of biodegradation in contaminated aquifers. Although it is well known that the assumption of first-order kinetics is valid only when substrate concentration, S, is much less than the half-saturation constant, K S , this assumption is often made without verification of this condition. The authors present a formal error analysis showing that the relative error in the first-order approximation is S/K S and in the zero-order approximation the error is K S /S. They then examine the problems that arise when the first-order approximation is used outside the range for which it is valid. A series of numerical simulations comparing results of first- and zero-order rate approximations to Monod kinetics for a real data set illustrates that if concentrations observed in the field are higher than K S , it may be better to model degradation using a zero-order rate expression. Compared with Monod kinetics, extrapolation of a first-order rate to lower concentrations under-predicts the biotransformation potential, while extrapolation to higher concentrations may grossly over-predict the transformation rate. A summary of solubilities and Monod parameters for aerobic benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) degradation shows that the a priori assumption of first-order degradation kinetics at sites contaminated with these compounds is not valid. In particular, out of six published values of K S for toluene, only one is greater than 2 mg/L, indicating that when toluene is present in concentrations greater than about a part per million, the assumption of first-order kinetics may be invalid. Finally, the authors apply an existing analytical solution for steady-state one-dimensional advective transport with Monod degradation kinetics to a field data set

  13. Comparison of nicotinic receptor binding and biotransformation of coniine in the rat and chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, C S; Speth, R C; Wecker, L; Galey, F D; Frank, A A

    1996-12-31

    Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is a known teratogen in many domestic species with maternal ingestion resulting in arthrogryposis of the offspring. We have previously shown that rats are not susceptible and rabbits only weakly susceptible to coniine-induced arthrogryposis. However, the chick embryo does provide a reproducible laboratory animal model of coniine-induced teratogenesis. The reason for this cross-species variation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine binding to nicotinic receptors and to measure coniine metabolism in vitro between susceptible and non-susceptible species. Using the chick model, neither the peripheral nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine chloride nor the central nicotinic receptor antagonist trimethaphan camsylate blocked the teratogenesis or lethality of 1.5% coniine (50 microliters/egg). Trimethaphan camsylate enhanced coniine-induced lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Neither nicotinic receptor blocker prevented nicotine sulfate-induced malformations but d-tubocurarine chloride did block lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Competition by coniine for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin to nicotinic receptors isolated from adult rat diaphragm and chick thigh muscle and competition by coniine for [3H]-cytisine to receptors from rat and chick brain were used to assess coniine binding to nicotinic receptors. The IC50 for coniine in rat diaphragm was 314 microM while that for chick leg muscle was 70 microM. For neuronal nicotinic receptors, the IC50s of coniine for maternal rat brain, fetal rat brain, and chick brain were 1100 microM, 820 microM, and 270 microM, respectively. There were no differences in coniine biotransformation in vitro by microsomes from rat or chick livers. Differences in apparent affinity of coniine for nicotinic receptors or differences in the quantity of the nicotinic receptor between the rat and chick may explain, in part, the differences in susceptibility of

  14. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    KAUST Repository

    Regnery, J.

    2015-05-29

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory-scale soil column experiments simulating MAR. The results revealed that MAR performance in terms of TOrC attenuation is primarily determined by key environmental parameters (i.e. redox, primary substrate). Soil columns with suboxic and anoxic conditions performed poorly (i.e. less than 30% attenuation of moderately degradable TOrC) in comparison to oxic conditions (on average between 70-100% attenuation for the same compounds) within a residence time of three days. Given this dependency on redox conditions, it was investigated if key parameter-dependent rate constants are more suitable for contaminant transport modeling to properly capture the dynamic TOrC attenuation under field-scale conditions. Laboratory-derived first-order removal kinetics were determined for 19 TOrC under three different redox conditions and rate constants were applied to MAR field data. Our findings suggest that simplified first-order rate constants will most likely not provide any meaningful results if the target compounds exhibit redox dependent biotransformation behavior or if the intention is to exactly capture the decline in concentration over time and distance at field-scale MAR. However, if the intention is to calculate the percent removal after an extended time period and subsurface travel distance, simplified first-order rate constants seem to be sufficient to provide a first estimate on TOrC attenuation during MAR.

  15. Hepatic biotransformation pathways and ruminal metabolic stability of the novel anthelmintic monepantel in sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballent, M; Virkel, G; Maté, L; Viviani, P; Lanusse, C; Lifschitz, A

    2016-10-01

    Monepantel (MNP) is a new amino-acetonitrile derivative anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in sheep. The present work investigated the main enzymatic pathways involved in the hepatic biotransformation of MNP in sheep and cattle. The metabolic stability in ruminal fluid of both the parent drug and its main metabolite (monepantel sulphone, MNPSO2 ) was characterized as well. Additionally, the relative distribution of both anthelmintic molecules between the fluid and particulate phases of the ruminal content was studied. Liver microsomal fractions from six (6) rams and five (5) steers were incubated with a 40 μm of MNP. Heat pretreatment (50 °C for 2 min) of liver microsomes was performed for inactivation of the flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) system. Additionally, MNP was incubated in the presence of 4, 40, and 80 μm of methimazole (MTZ), a FMO inhibitor, or equimolar concentrations of piperonyl butoxide (PBx), a well-known general cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor. In both ruminant species, MNPSO2 was the main metabolite detected after MNP incubation with liver microsomes. The conversion rate of MNP into MNPSO2 was fivefold higher (P ruminal contents of both species showed a high chemical stability without evident metabolism and/or degradation as well as an extensive degree of adsorption (83% to 90%) to the solid phase of the ruminal content. Overall, these results are a further contribution to the understanding of the metabolic fate of this anthelmintic drug in ruminants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The impact of microbial biotransformation of catechin in enhancing the allelopathic effects of Rhododendron formosanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Min; Li, Tsai-Chi; Jhan, Yun-Lian; Weng, Jen-Hsien; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rhododendron formosanum is distributed widely in the central mountains in Taiwan and the major allelopathic compound in the leaves has been identified as (-)-catechin, which is also a major allelochemical of an invasive spotted knapweed in North America. Soil microorganisms play key roles in ecosystems and influence various important processes, including allelopathy. However, no microorganism has been identified as an allelochemical mediator. This study focused on the role of microorganisms in the allelopathic effects of R. formosanum. The microorganism population in the rhizosphere of R. formosanum was investigated and genetic analysis revealed that the predominant genera of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of R. formosanum were Pseudomonas, Herbaspirillum, and Burkholderia. The dominant genera Pseudomonas utilized (-)-catechin as the carbon source and catalyzed the conversion of (-)-catechin into protocatechuic acid in vitro. The concentrations of allelochemicals in the soil were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of (-)-catechin in the soil increased significantly during the extreme rainfall in the summer season and suppressed total bacterial populations. Protocatechuic acid accumulation was observed while total bacterial populations increased abundantly in both laboratory and field studies. Allelopathic interactions were tested by evaluating the effects of different allelochemicals on the seed germination, radicle growth, and photosynthesis system II of lettuce. Protocatechuic acid exhibited higher phytotoxicity than (-)-catechin did and the effect of (-)-catechin on the inhibition of seed germination was enhanced by combining it with protocatechuic acid at a low concentration. This study revealed the significance of the allelopathic interactions between R. formosanum and microorganisms in the rhizosphere. These findings demonstrate that knowledge regarding the precise biotransformation

  17. The impact of microbial biotransformation of catechin in enhancing the allelopathic effects of Rhododendron formosanum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Min Wang

    biotransformation process of (--catechin by microorganisms in the environment is necessary to increase our understanding of allelopathy.

  18. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, J; Wing, A D; Alidina, M; Drewes, J E

    2015-08-01

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory-scale soil column experiments simulating MAR. The results revealed that MAR performance in terms of TOrC attenuation is primarily determined by key environmental parameters (i.e., redox, primary substrate). Soil columns with suboxic and anoxic conditions performed poorly (i.e., less than 30% attenuation of moderately degradable TOrC) in comparison to oxic conditions (on average between 70-100% attenuation for the same compounds) within a residence time of three days. Given this dependency on redox conditions, it was investigated if key parameter-dependent rate constants are more suitable for contaminant transport modeling to properly capture the dynamic TOrC attenuation under field-scale conditions. Laboratory-derived first-order removal kinetics were determined for 19 TOrC under three different redox conditions and rate constants were applied to MAR field data. Our findings suggest that simplified first-order rate constants will most likely not provide any meaningful results if the target compounds exhibit redox dependent biotransformation behavior or if the intention is to exactly capture the decline in concentration over time and distance at field-scale MAR. However, if the intention is to calculate the percent removal after an extended time period and subsurface travel distance, simplified first-order rate constants seem to be sufficient to provide a first estimate on TOrC attenuation during MAR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Statistically optimized biotransformation protocol for continuous production of L-DOPA using Mucuna monosperma callus culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Shrirang Appasaheb; Surwase, Shripad Nagnath; Jadhav, Shekhar Bhagwan; Bapat, Vishwas Anant; Jadhav, Jyoti Prafull

    2013-01-01

    L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine), a modified amino acid, is an expansively used drug for the Parkinson's disease treatment. In the present study, optimization of nutritional parameters influencing L-DOPA production was attempted using the response surface methodology (RSM) from Mucuna monosperma callus. Optimization of the four factors was carried out using the Box-Behnken design. The optimized levels of factors predicted by the model include tyrosine 0.894 g l(-1), pH 4.99, ascorbic acid 31.62 mg l(-1)and copper sulphate 23.92 mg l(-1), which resulted in highest L-DOPA yield of 0.309 g l(-1). The optimization of medium using RSM resulted in a 3.45-fold increase in the yield of L-DOPA. The ANOVA analysis showed a significant R (2) value (0.9912), model F-value (112.465) and probability (0.0001), with insignificant lack of fit. Optimized medium was used in the laboratory scale column reactor for continuous production of L-DOPA. Uninterrupted flow column exhibited maximum L-DOPA production rate of 200 mg L(-1) h(-1) which is one of the highest values ever reported using plant as a biotransformation source. L-DOPA production was confirmed by HPTLC and HPLC analysis. This study demonstrates the synthesis of L- DOPA using Mucuna monosperma callus using a laboratory scale column reactor.

  20. The simultaneous detection and quantification of p-aminobenzoic acid and its phase 2 biotransformation metabolites in human urine using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortje, Carla; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet; Cooke, Cecile; Erasmus, Elardus

    2015-01-01

    p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) can be used as a probe substance to investigate glycine conjugation, a reaction of phase 2 biotransformation. An LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of PABA and its metabolites from human urine was developed and validated. The metabolites can be quantified with acceptable precision and accuracy directly from human urine samples after ingestion of 550 mg PABA. The developed LC-MS/MS assay is to our knowledge the first method available for the simultaneous quantification of PABA and its glycine conjugation metabolites in human urine and provides important quantitative data for studies of this phase 2 biotransformation pathway.

  1. Microbial Biotransformation of a Polyphenol-Rich Potato Extract Affects Antioxidant Capacity in a Simulated Gastrointestinal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Khairallah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A multistage human gastrointestinal model was used to digest a polyphenol-rich potato extract containing chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin as the primary polyphenols, to assess for their microbial biotransformation and to measure changes in antioxidant capacity in up to 24 h of digestion. The biotransformation of polyphenols was assessed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Among the colonic reactors, parent (polyphenols were detected in the ascending (AC, but not the transverse (TC or descending (DC colons. The most abundant microbial phenolic metabolites in all colonic reactors included derivatives of propionic acid, acetic acid, and benzoic acid. As compared to the baseline, an earlier increase in antioxidant capacity (T = 8 h was seen in the stomach and small intestine vessels as compared to the AC (T = 16 h and TC and DC (T = 24 h. The increase in antioxidant capacity observed in the DC and TC can be linked to the accumulation of microbial smaller-molecular-weight phenolic catabolites, as the parent polyphenolics had completely degraded in those vessels. The colonic microbial digestion of potato-based polyphenols could lead to improved colonic health, as this generates phenolic metabolites with significant antioxidant potential.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation enzymes in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, K L; Lopez Castro, M; Gardner, S C; Schlenk, D

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as the expression patterns of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were measured in livers of loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green (Chelonia mydas), and olive ridley (Lepidocheyls olivacea) sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula of Mexico. The mean concentrations of total PCBs were 18.1, 10.5, and 15.2 ng/g wet weight (ww) respectively for the three species and PCB 153 was the dominant congener in all samples. Total PCB concentrations were dominated by penta- and hexa-chlorinated biphenyls. The mean estimated TEQs were 42.8, 22.9, and 10.4 pg/g (ww) for loggerhead, green, and olive ridley, respectively, and more than 70% was accounted for by non-ortho PCBs. Western blots revealed the presence of hepatic microsomal proteins that cross-reacted with anti-CYP2K1 and anti-CYP3A27 antibodies but not with anti-CYP1A antibody. There were no significant differences in GST activities between species. Grouping congeners based on structure-activity relationships for CYP isoenzymes suggested limited activity of CYP1A contribution to PCB biotransformation in sea turtles. These results suggest potential accumulation of PCBs that are CYP1A substrates and provide evidence for biotransformation capacity, which differs from known animal models, highlighting the need for further studies in reptiles, particularly those threatened with extinction.

  3. The biotransformation of tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) in cultured hepatocytes as the cause for relative cytotoxicity in 3 species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolarek, T.A.; Higgins, C.V.; Amacher, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    THA, a centrally acting anticholinesterase, shows promise for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, its use has been associated with suspected human hepatotoxicity through an unknown mechanism. In this study, the cytotoxicity and biotransformation of THA was studied in rat, canine, and monkey primary hepatocyte cultures. Cytotoxicity was indicated by the release of ALT, AST, or LDH into culture medium over 24 hours. THA biotransformation was studied by exposing cells to 100 nM [ 3 H]-THA and then analyzing culture medium for labelled moieties by reversed-phase HPLC after 1,2, and 24 hrs in culture. THA was toxic to rat and canine cells at 200 μg/ml and to monkey cells at 100 μg/ml. About 98% of the THA was transformed by canine and rat cells to 3 metabolites in 2 hrs, but in monkey cell cultures, only 55% of THA was transformed to 2 metabolites in 2 hrs and 95% to 3 metabolites in 24 hrs. Quantitative differences were also noted in metabolite profiles between monkey and rat or canine cell cultures. The predominant metabolite at 2 hours, tentatively identified as 1-OH-THA, was greatly diminished or absent in canine and rat but not monkey cell cultures after 18 hours. Thus, unchanged THA or this 1-OH-THA metabolite may be responsible for the greater cytotoxicity in the monkey hepatocyte cultures

  4. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska [Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: contardo@igb-berlin.de; Klingelmann, Eva [Technische Universitaet Berlin/Berlin Institute of Technology, Department of Ecology, Chair of Soil Protection, Salzufer 12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: eva.klingelmann@TU-Berlin.de; Wiegand, Claudia [Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Humboldt University Berlin, Faculty of Biology, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: cwiegand@igb-berlin.de

    2009-01-15

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L{sup -1} pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using {sup 14}C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from log P{sub ow}. Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself. - Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the active ingredient, glyphosate, to Lumbriculus variegatus regarding accumulation potential and enzymatic responses.

  5. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Klingelmann, Eva; Wiegand, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L -1 pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using 14 C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from log P ow . Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself. - Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the active ingredient, glyphosate, to Lumbriculus variegatus regarding accumulation potential and enzymatic responses

  6. Aerobic biotransformation of N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrodimethylamine in methane and benzene amended soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidhaas, Jennifer; Dupont, R. Ryan

    2013-07-01

    Aerobic biotransformation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), an emerging contaminant of concern, and its structural analog N-nitrodimethylamine (DMN), was evaluated in benzene and methane amended groundwater passed through laboratory scale soil columns. Competitive inhibition models were used to model the kinetics for NDMA and DMN cometabolism accounting for the concurrent degradation of the growth and cometabolic substrates. Transformation capacities for NDMA and DMN with benzene (13 and 23 μg (mg cells)- 1) and methane (0.14 and 8.4 μg (mg cells)- 1) grown cultures, respectively are comparable to those presented in the literature, as were first order endogenous decay rates estimated to be 2.1 × 10- 2 ± 1.7 × 10- 3 d- 1 and 6.5 × 10- 1 ± 7.1 × 10- 1 d- 1 for the methane and benzene amended cultures, respectively. These studies highlight possible attenuation mechanisms and rates for NDMA and DMN biotransformation in aerobic aquifers undergoing active remediation, natural attenuation or managed aquifer recharge with treated wastewater (i.e., reclaimed water).

  7. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) and Lavandula officinalis (L.) cell suspension cultures-based biotransformation of β-artemether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Upadhyaya, Mohita; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay K; Bhakuni, Rajendra S

    2011-07-01

    The biotransformation of β-artemether (1) by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Lavandula officinalis is reported here for the first time. The major biotransformed product appeared as a grayish-blue color spot on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with transparent crystal-like texture. Based on its infrared (IR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the product was characterized as a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetate derivative (2). The highest conversion efficiencies of 57 and 60% were obtained when 8-9-day-old cell suspensions of G. glabra and L. officinalis were respectively fed with 4-7 mg of compound 1 in 40 ml of medium per culture and the cells were harvested after 2-5 days of incubation. The addition of compound 1 at the beginning of the culture cycle caused severe growth depression in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in poor bioconversion efficiency of ~25% at 2-5 mg/culture dose only.

  8. Proteomic Insights on the Metabolism of Penicillium janczewskii during the Biotransformation of the Plant Terpenoid Labdanolic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant terpenoids compose a natural source of chemodiversity of exceptional value. Many of these compounds own biological/pharmacological activity, others are regarded as unique chemical skeletons for the synthesis of derivatives with improved properties. Functional chemical modification of terpenoids through biotransformation frequently relies on the use of Ascomycota strains, but information on major cellular responses is still largely lacking. Penicillium janczewskii mediates a stereo-selective hydroxylation of labdanolic acid (LA—terpenoid found abundantly in Cistus ladanifer—producing 3β-hydroxy-labdanolic acid with yields >90%. Herein, combined analyses of mycelial and extracellular differential proteomes demonstrated that the plant terpenoid increased stress responses, especially against oxidative stress (e.g., accumulation of superoxide dismutase and apparently altered mitochondria functioning. One putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase differentially accumulated in the secretome and the terpenoid bioconversion was inhibited in vivo in the presence of a P450 inhibitor. The stereo-selective hydroxylation of the plant terpenoid is likely mediated by P450 enzymes, yet its unequivocal identity remains unclear. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that proteomics was used to investigate how a plant terpenoid impacts the metabolism of a filamentous fungus during its efficiently biotransformation. Our findings may encourage the development of new strategies for the valorization of plant natural resources through biotechnology.

  9. White rot fungi and advanced combined biotechnology with nanomaterials: promising tools for endocrine-disrupting compounds biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danlian; Guo, Xueying; Peng, Zhiwei; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Piao; Gong, Xiaomin; Deng, Rui; Xue, Wenjing; Wang, Rongzhong; Yi, Huan; Liu, Caihong

    2017-10-29

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) can interfere with endocrine systems and bio-accumulate through the food chain and even decrease biodiversity in contaminated areas. This review discusses a critical overview of recent research progress in the biotransformation of EDCs (including polychlorinated biphenyl and nonylphenol, and suspected EDCs such as heavy metals and sulfonamide antibiotics) by white rot fungi (WRF) based on techniques with an emphasis on summarizing and analyzing fungal molecular, metabolic and genetic mechanisms. Not only intracellular metabolism which seems to perform essential roles in the ability of WRF to transform EDCs, but also advanced applications are deeply discussed. This review mainly reveals the removal pathway of heavy metal and antibiotic pollutants because the single pollution almost did not exist in a real environment while the combined pollution has become more serious and close to people's life. The trends in WRF technology and its related advanced applications which use the combined technology, including biocatalysis of WRF and adsorption of nanomaterials, to degrade EDCs have also been introduced. Furthermore, challenges and future research needs EDCs biotransformation by WRF are also discussed. This research, referring to metabolic mechanisms and the combined technology of WRF with nanomaterials, undoubtedly contributes to the applications of biotechnology. This review will be of great benefit to an understanding of the trends in biotechnology for the removal of EDCs.

  10. Biotransformation of (±)-4,8-dimethylcyclodeca-3(E),7(E)-dien-1β-ol and (+)-Hedycaryol by Cichorium intybus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, Dennis P.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Heyden, Karel A. van der; Franssen, Maurice C.R.; Wijnberg, Joannes B.P.A.; Groot, Aede de

    1995-01-01

    The biotransformation of the synthetic (E,E)-1,5-cyclodecadienol 5 and (+)-hedycaryol (11) by a root suspension of fresh chicory has been investigated. Incubation of 5 with a root suspension gave a 2 : 1 mixture of the epimeric eudesmanediols 7a and 7b whereas 11 was selectively converted into

  11. Accumulation, Biotransformation, Histopathology and Paralysis in the Pacific Calico Scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the Paralyzing Toxins of the Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo-Lozano, Amada Y.; Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Contreras, Gerardo; Alonso-Rodriguez, Rosalba

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopic...

  12. Biotransformation of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge by Two-Stage Integrated Processes -Lsb & Ssb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zahangir Alam, A. H. Molla and A. Fakhru’l-Razi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of biotransformation of domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWTP sludge was conducted in laboratory-scale by two-stage integrated process i.e. liquid state bioconversion (LSB and solid state bioconversion (SSB processes. The liquid wastewater sludge [4% w/w of total suspended solids (TSS] was treated by mixed filamentous fungi Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger, isolated, screened and mixed cultured in terms of their higher biodegradation potential to wastewater sludge. The biosolids was increased to about 10% w/w. Conversely, the soluble [i.e. Total dissolve solid (TDS] and insoluble substances (TSS in treated supernatant were decreased effectively in the LSB process. In the developed LSB process, 93.8 g kg-1of biosolids were enriched with fungal biomass protein and nutrients (NPK, and 98.8% of TSS, 98.2% of TDS, 97.3% of turbidity, 80.2% of soluble protein, 98.8% of reducing sugar and 92.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD in treated sludge supernatant were removed after 8 days of treatment. Specific resistance to filtration (1.39x1012 m/kg was decreased tremendously by the microbial treatment of DWTP sludge after 6 days of fermentation. The treated biosolids in DWTP sludge was considered as pretreated resource materials for composting and converted into compost by SSB process. The SSB process was evaluated for composting by monitoring the microbial growth and its subsequent roles in biodegradation in composting bin (CB. The process was conducted using two mixed fungal cultures, Trichoderma harzianum with Phanerochaete chrysosporium 2094 and (T/P and T. harzianum and Mucor hiemalis (T/M; and two bulking materials, sawdust (SD and rice straw (RS. The most encouraging results of microbial growth and subsequent solid state bioconversion were exhibited in the RS than the SD. Significant decrease of the C/N ratio and germination index (GI were attained as well as the higher value of glucosamine was exhibited in compost; which

  13. Xylitol production from waste xylose mother liquor containing miscellaneous sugars and inhibitors: one-pot biotransformation by Candida tropicalis and recombinant Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengwei; Li, Lijuan; Zhang, Lebin; An, Jin; Cheng, Hairong; Deng, Zixin

    2016-05-16

    The process of industrial xylitol production is a massive source of organic pollutants, such as waste xylose mother liquor (WXML), a viscous reddish-brown liquid. Currently, WXML is difficult to reuse due to its miscellaneous low-cost sugars, high content of inhibitors and complex composition. WXML, as an organic pollutant of hemicellulosic hydrolysates, accumulates and has become an issue of industrial concern in China. Previous studies have focused only on the catalysis of xylose in the hydrolysates into xylitol using one strain, without considering the removal of other miscellaneous sugars, thus creating an obstacle to subsequent large-scale purification. In the present study, we aimed to develop a simple one-pot biotransformation to produce high-purity xylitol from WXML to improve its economic value. In the present study, we developed a procedure to produce xylitol from WXML, which combines detoxification, biotransformation and removal of by-product sugars (purification) in one bioreactor using two complementary strains, Candida tropicalis X828 and Bacillus subtilis Bs12. At the first stage of micro-aerobic biotransformation, the yeast cells were allowed to grow and metabolized glucose and the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and converted xylose into xylitol. At the second stage of aerobic biotransformation, B. subtilis Bs12 was activated and depleted the by-product sugars. The one-pot process was successfully scaled up from shake flasks to 5, 150 L and 30 m(3) bioreactors. Approximately 95 g/L of pure xylitol could be obtained from the medium containing 400 g/L of WXML at a yield of 0.75 g/g xylose consumed, and the by-product sugars glucose, L-arabinose and galactose were depleted simultaneously. Our results demonstrate that the one-pot procedure is a viable option for the industrial application of WXML to produce value-added chemicals. The integration of complementary strains in the biotransformation of hemicellulosic hydrolysates is

  14. Effects of 17α-ethynylestradiol on hormonal responses and xenobiotic biotransformation system of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Anne S.; Arukwe, Augustine

    2007-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous pollutants in the aquatic environment where their potential effects on non-target species like fish has only recently become subject of systematic investigations. In the present study, experiments were undertaken to examine the effects of a synthetic pharmaceutical endocrine disruptor, ethynylestradiol (EE2), given in water at 5 or 50 ng/L and sampled at days 0 (control), 3 and 7 after exposure, on hepatic phase I and II biotransformation and hormonal pathways of juvenile salmon using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Vtg ELISA and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity. Our data show that EE2 produced time- and concentration-specific modulation of estrogen receptor isoforms (ERα, ERβ) and androgen receptor-β (ARβ). EE2 produced a concentration-specific induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zr-protein) at day 3 after exposure. At day 7, Vtg and Zr-protein mRNA (and plasma Vtg protein) expression were significantly decreased in the group given 5 ng EE2/L, compared to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control group. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, EE2 produced a significant increase of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-α (AhRα) at day 3 in the group given 5 ng EE2/L and AhRβ was decreased at the same concentration at day 7. While CYP3A was not significantly affected by EE2 exposure, the CYP1A1, AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt) and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA showed an apparent EE2 concentration and time-dependent decrease. The expression of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) and glutathione S-transferase class pi-like (GSTpi-like) mRNA were decreased after exposure to 50 ng EE2/L at both day 3 and 7 after exposure. The effect of EE2 on the CYP1A1 gene expressions paralleled effect on EROD and AhRR mRNA, suggesting a direct role of EE2 in controlling cellular detoxification machinery. Interestingly, the carrier vehicle, DMSO produced significant time

  15. Modulation of xenobiotic biotransformation system and hormonal responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after exposure to tributyltin (TBT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Anne Skjetne; Arukwe, Augustine

    2007-04-01

    Multiple biological effects of tributyltin (TBT) on juvenile salmon have been investigated. Fish were exposed for 7 days to waterborne TBT at nominal concentrations of 50 and 250 microg/L dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Hepatic samples were analyzed for gene expression patterns in the hormonal and xenobiotic biotransformation pathways using validated real-time PCR method. Immunochemical and several cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated enzyme activity (ethoxyresorufin: EROD, benzyloxyresorufin: BROD, methoxyresorufin: MROD and pentoxyresorufin: PROD) assays were analyzed. Our data show that TBT produced concentration-specific decrease of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata protein (Zr-protein) and increase of estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) and androgen receptor-beta (ARbeta) in the hormonal pathway. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, TBT produced apparent increase and decrease at respective low and high concentration, on aryl hydrocarbon receptor-alpha (AhRalpha), AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA. The expression of CYP1A1 and GST showed a TBT concentration-dependent decrease. The AhRbeta, CYP3A and uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) mRNA expressions were significantly induced after exposure to TBT. Immunochemical analysis of CYP3A and CYP1A1 protein levels confirmed the TBT effects observed at the transcriptional levels. The effect of TBT on the biotransformation enzyme gene expressions partially co-related but did not directly parallel enzyme activity levels for EROD, BROD, MROD and PROD. In general, these findings confirm previous reports on the endocrine effects of TBT, in addition to effects on hepatic CYP1A isoenzyme at the transcriptional level that transcends to protein and enzymatic levels. The induced expression patterns of CYP3A and UGT mRNA after TBT exposure, suggest the involvement of CYP3A and UGT in TBT metabolism in fish. The effect of TBT on CYP3A is proposed to

  16. Biotransformation of Pueraria lobata Extract with Lactobacillus rhamnosus vitaP1 Enhances Anti-Melanogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Eun; Lee, Jin Woo; Park, Yuna; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Choung, Eui Su; Jang, Seon-A; Kim, Inhye; Lee, Da Eun; Koo, Hyun Jung; Bak, Jong Phil; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kang, Se Chan

    2018-01-28

    Isoflavone itself is less available in the body without the aid of intestinal bacteria. In this study, we searched for isoflavone-transforming bacteria from human fecal specimens ( n = 14) using differential selection media. Isoflavone-transforming activity as the production of dihydrogenistein and dihydrodaidzein was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography and we found Lactobacillus rhamnosus , named L. rhamnosus vitaP1, through 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Extract from Pueraria lobata (EPL) and soy hypocotyl extract were fermented with L. rhamnosus vitaP1 for 24 and 48 h at 37°C. Fermented EPL (FEPL) showed enhanced anti-tyrosinase activity and antioxidant capacities, important suppressors of the pigmentation process, compared with that of EPL ( p Lactobacillus rhamnosus vitaP1 was found to be able to biotransform isoflavones in EPL. FEPL showed augmented anti-melanogenic potential.

  17. Effects of x-irradiation on steroid biotransformations by testicular tissue. Progress report, August 1, 1974--July 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    X irradiation of rat testicular tissue either in vivo or in vitro labilized the lysosomal membranes with a release of both acid phosphatase and phospholipase A 2 resulting in an increased lipid peroxidation. The results from these investigations suggest that the lipid endoperoxides and malonaldehyde are responsible for mediating the effects of radiation on steroid biotransformations. Estradiol, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, prolactin, acetylcholine, cGMP, H 2 O 2 , PUFA, ethanol and vitamin A increased lysosomal fragility and initiated enzyme release while ATP, cAMP, vitamin E, theophylline, indomethacin, caffeine, cortisol, epinephrine, NADPH, NDGA, FSH and Zn ++ decreased both phenomena. An increase in catalase activity was consistently observed after irradiation and by cAMP indicative of an increase in testicular cAMP content following irradiation. Seminiferous tubules were found to be dependent on prostaglandins for their contractions. (U.S.)

  18. Biotransformation modulation and genotoxicity in white seabream upon exposure to paralytic shellfish toxins produced by Gymnodinium catenatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Costa, Pedro; Pereira, Patrícia; Guilherme, Sofia; Barata, Marisa; Nicolau, Lídia; Santos, Maria Ana; Pacheco, Mário; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Fish are recurrently exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum. Nevertheless, the knowledge regarding metabolism of PSTs and their toxic effects in fish is scarce. Consequently, the current study aims to investigate the role of phase I and II detoxification enzymes on PST metabolism in the liver of white seabream (Diplodus sargus), assessing ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Moreover, the genotoxic potential of PSTs was examined through the erythrocytic nuclear abnormality (ENA) assay. Fish were intracoelomically (IC) injected with a nominal dose (expressed as saxitoxin equivalents) of 1.60 μg STXeq kg −1 semipurified from a G. catenatum cell culture with previously determined toxin profile. Fish were sacrificed 2 and 6 days after IC injection. PST levels determined in fish liver were15.2 and 12.2 μg STXeq kg −1 , respectively, at 2 and 6 days after the injection. Though several PSTs were administered, only dcSTX was detected in the liver after 2 and 6 days. This was regarded as an evidence that most of the N-sulfocarbamoyl and decarbamoyl toxins were rapidly biotransformed in D. sargus liver and/or eliminated. This was corroborated by a hepatic GST activity induction at 2 days after injection. Hepatic EROD activity was unresponsive to PSTs, suggesting that these toxins enter phase II of biotransformation directly. The genotoxic potential of PSTs was also demonstrated; these toxins were able to induce cytogenetic damage, such as chromosome (or chromatid) breaks or loss and segregational anomalies, measured by the ENA assay. Overall, this study pointed out the ecological risk associated with the contamination of fish with PSTs generated by G. catenatum blooms, providing the necessary first data for a proper interpretation of biomonitoring programs aiming to assess the impact of phytoplankton blooms in fish.

  19. Biotransformation modulation and genotoxicity in white seabream upon exposure to paralytic shellfish toxins produced by Gymnodinium catenatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis Costa, Pedro, E-mail: prcosta@ipimar.pt [IPIMAR - National Institute for Biological Resources (INRB/IPIMAR), Av. Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, Patricia [IPIMAR - National Institute for Biological Resources (INRB/IPIMAR), Av. Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Biology and CESAM, Aveiro University, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guilherme, Sofia [Department of Biology and CESAM, Aveiro University, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barata, Marisa; Nicolau, Lidia [IPIMAR - National Institute for Biological Resources (INRB/IPIMAR), Av. 5 Outubro, 8700-305 Olhao (Portugal); Santos, Maria Ana; Pacheco, Mario [Department of Biology and CESAM, Aveiro University, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pousao-Ferreira, Pedro [IPIMAR - National Institute for Biological Resources (INRB/IPIMAR), Av. 5 Outubro, 8700-305 Olhao (Portugal)

    2012-01-15

    Fish are recurrently exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum. Nevertheless, the knowledge regarding metabolism of PSTs and their toxic effects in fish is scarce. Consequently, the current study aims to investigate the role of phase I and II detoxification enzymes on PST metabolism in the liver of white seabream (Diplodus sargus), assessing ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Moreover, the genotoxic potential of PSTs was examined through the erythrocytic nuclear abnormality (ENA) assay. Fish were intracoelomically (IC) injected with a nominal dose (expressed as saxitoxin equivalents) of 1.60 {mu}g STXeq kg{sup -1} semipurified from a G. catenatum cell culture with previously determined toxin profile. Fish were sacrificed 2 and 6 days after IC injection. PST levels determined in fish liver were15.2 and 12.2 {mu}g STXeq kg{sup -1}, respectively, at 2 and 6 days after the injection. Though several PSTs were administered, only dcSTX was detected in the liver after 2 and 6 days. This was regarded as an evidence that most of the N-sulfocarbamoyl and decarbamoyl toxins were rapidly biotransformed in D. sargus liver and/or eliminated. This was corroborated by a hepatic GST activity induction at 2 days after injection. Hepatic EROD activity was unresponsive to PSTs, suggesting that these toxins enter phase II of biotransformation directly. The genotoxic potential of PSTs was also demonstrated; these toxins were able to induce cytogenetic damage, such as chromosome (or chromatid) breaks or loss and segregational anomalies, measured by the ENA assay. Overall, this study pointed out the ecological risk associated with the contamination of fish with PSTs generated by G. catenatum blooms, providing the necessary first data for a proper interpretation of biomonitoring programs aiming to assess the impact of phytoplankton blooms in fish.

  20. Highly Efficient Biotransformation of Eugenol to Ferulic Acid and Further Conversion to Vanillin in Recombinant Strains of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhage, Jörg; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Priefert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    The vaoA gene from Penicillium simplicissimum CBS 170.90, encoding vanillyl alcohol oxidase, which also catalyzes the conversion of eugenol to coniferyl alcohol, was expressed in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue under the control of the lac promoter, together with the genes calA and calB, encoding coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase and coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199, respectively. Resting cells of the corresponding recombinant strain E. coli XL1-Blue(pSKvaomPcalAmcalB) converted eugenol to ferulic acid with a molar yield of 91% within 15 h on a 50-ml scale, reaching a ferulic acid concentration of 8.6 g liter−1. This biotransformation was scaled up to a 30-liter fermentation volume. The maximum production rate for ferulic acid at that scale was 14.4 mmol per h per liter of culture. The maximum concentration of ferulic acid obtained was 14.7 g liter−1 after a total fermentation time of 30 h, which corresponded to a molar yield of 93.3% with respect to the added amount of eugenol. In a two-step biotransformation, E. coli XL1-Blue(pSKvaomPcalAmcalB) was used to produce ferulic acid from eugenol and, subsequently, E. coli(pSKechE/Hfcs) was used to convert ferulic acid to vanillin (J. Overhage, H. Priefert, and A. Steinbüchel, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:4837-4847, 1999). This process led to 0.3 g of vanillin liter−1, besides 0.1 g of vanillyl alcohol and 4.6 g of ferulic acid liter−1. The genes ehyAB, encoding eugenol hydroxylase of Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199, and azu, encoding the potential physiological electron acceptor of this enzyme, were shown to be unsuitable for establishing eugenol bioconversion in E. coli XL1-Blue. PMID:14602615

  1. Fate and biotransformation of phytosterols during treatment of pulp and paper wastewater in a simulated aerated stabilization basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Christy M; Giles, Hamilton D; Banerjee, Sujit; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2015-01-01

    Pulp and paper wastewater (PPW) contains significant concentrations of phytosterols, suspected of inducing endocrine disruption in aquatic species. Aerated stabilization basins (ASBs) are commonly used for the treatment of PPW, but phytosterol removal varies among treatment systems. The objective of this study was to better understand the removal processes and biotransformation of phytosterols within an ASB treatment system fed with untreated PPW. PPW settled solids and supernatant fractions showed that phytosterols are primarily associated with settleable solids, which carry phytosterols to ASB sediment where anoxic/anaerobic conditions prevail. Bioassays with supernatant and settled PPW fractions of the raw wastewater conducted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively, showed that solids disintegration and hydrolysis results in phytosterol release in ASBs. A simulated ASB, fed with PPW and operated for 2.4 years at three hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 22.2, 11.1 and 5.6 d) with total phytosterol and solids loading rates from 10 to 42 μg/L-d and 44-178 mg/L-d, respectively, was used to determine the steady-state effluent quality and sediment characteristics. Although effluent COD and phytosterol concentrations were relatively low and stable (84-88% total COD removal; 82-94% total phytosterol removal) across the range of HRTs tested, sediment COD and phytosterol concentrations increased with increasing loading rate. On average, 51% of the phytosterols entering the ASB were removed via biotransformation, 40% were retained in the sediment, and the remaining 9% exited with the effluent. This study demonstrates the role of sediment as a source of phytosterol release in ASBs and highlights the importance of HRT and the PPW characteristics for predicting phytosterol fate in ASBs.

  2. Biotransformation modulation and genotoxicity in white seabream upon exposure to paralytic shellfish toxins produced by Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro Reis; Pereira, Patrícia; Guilherme, Sofia; Barata, Marisa; Nicolau, Lídia; Santos, Maria Ana; Pacheco, Mário; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro

    2012-01-15

    Fish are recurrently exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum. Nevertheless, the knowledge regarding metabolism of PSTs and their toxic effects in fish is scarce. Consequently, the current study aims to investigate the role of phase I and II detoxification enzymes on PST metabolism in the liver of white seabream (Diplodus sargus), assessing ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Moreover, the genotoxic potential of PSTs was examined through the erythrocytic nuclear abnormality (ENA) assay. Fish were intracoelomically (IC) injected with a nominal dose (expressed as saxitoxin equivalents) of 1.60 μg STXeq kg⁻¹ semipurified from a G. catenatum cell culture with previously determined toxin profile. Fish were sacrificed 2 and 6 days after IC injection. PST levels determined in fish liver were 15.2 and 12.2 μg STXeq kg⁻¹, respectively, at 2 and 6 days after the injection. Though several PSTs were administered, only dcSTX was detected in the liver after 2 and 6 days. This was regarded as an evidence that most of the N-sulfocarbamoyl and decarbamoyl toxins were rapidly biotransformed in D. sargus liver and/or eliminated. This was corroborated by a hepatic GST activity induction at 2 days after injection. Hepatic EROD activity was unresponsive to PSTs, suggesting that these toxins enter phase II of biotransformation directly. The genotoxic potential of PSTs was also demonstrated; these toxins were able to induce cytogenetic damage, such as chromosome (or chromatid) breaks or loss and segregational anomalies, measured by the ENA assay. Overall, this study pointed out the ecological risk associated with the contamination of fish with PSTs generated by G. catenatum blooms, providing the necessary first data for a proper interpretation of biomonitoring programs aiming to assess the impact of phytoplankton blooms in fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biotransformation of (-)-(1R,4S)-Menthone and (+)-(1S,4R)-Menthone by the Common Cutworm Spodoptera litura Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Shinsuke; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Hagiwara, Yuki; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2017-08-01

    Using biotransformation as a biocatalytic process has the advantage of being able to proceed under mild conditions and with high regio- and enantioselectivity. This study investigated the biotransformation of (-)-(1R,4S)-menthone (1) and (+)-(1S,4R)-menthone (2) by Spodoptera litura larvae. Compound 1 was converted to (-)-(1R,4S)-7-hydroxymenthone (1-1), (+)-(1R,3S,4S)-7-hydroxyneomenthol (1-2) and (-)-(1R,4S,8R)-p-menth-3-one-9-oic acid (1-3). The metabolism of substrate 2 generated three enantiomers of the above metabolites, designated as 2-1 to 2-3, respectively. The C-9 position of (-)-menthone and (+)-menthone was oxidized to carboxylic acid by S. litura, which is a metabolic pathway not observed in any other example of biocatalysis.

  4. Synthesis of a new allelopathic agent from the biotransformation of ent-15α-hydroxy-16-kauren-19-oic acid with Fusarium proliferatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A D; Vieira, H da S; Takahashi, J A; Boaventura, M A D

    2017-11-01

    The use of kaurane diterpenes as substrates in fungal biotransformation to achieve bioactive compounds has been widely reported. In this work, the natural product kaurenoic acid, a diterpene widely distributed in the plant Kingdom, was chemically converted into ent-15α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (1). Substrate 1 was subjected to biotransformation by the fungus Fusarium proliferatum, furnishing a new derivative, ent-2α,15α-dihydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (2). The structure of metabolite 2 was deduced on the basis of spectroscopy and MS data. Derivative 2 showed allelopathic activity on germination and growth of root and stem of lettuce (Lactuca sativa), inhibiting 100% of germination and growth of roots and stem, at higher concentration assayed (10 -4  mol/L).

  5. Expression levels of chaperones influence biotransformation activity of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Micrococcus luteus alcohol dehydrogenase and Pseudomonas putida Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, A-Hyong; Jeon, Eun-Yeong; Lee, Sun-Mee; Park, Jin-Byung

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrated for the first time that the archaeal chaperones (i.e., γ-prefoldin and thermosome) can stabilize enzyme activity in vivo. Ricinoleic acid biotransformation activity of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Micrococcus luteus alcohol dehydrogenase and the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase improved significantly with co-expression of γ-prefoldin or recombinant themosome originating from the deep-sea hyperthermophile archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Furthermore, the degree of enhanced activity was dependent on the expression levels of the chaperones. For example, whole-cell biotransformation activity was highest at 12 µmol/g dry cells/min when γ-prefoldin expression level was approximately 46% of the theoretical maximum. This value was approximately two-fold greater than that in E. coli, where the γ-prefoldin expression level was zero or set to the theoretical maximum. Therefore, it was assumed that the expression levels of chaperones must be optimized to achieve maximum biotransformation activity in whole-cell biocatalysts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Uptake and biotransformation of 2,2‧,4,4‧-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in four marine microalgae species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, Beverly H. K.; Ho, Ka-Lok; Lam, Michael H. W.; Giesy, John P.; Chiu, Jill M. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxylated- and methoxylated- polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) are more toxic than PBDEs and occur widely in the marine environment, and yet their origins remain controversial. In this study, four species of microalgae (Isochrysis galbana, Prorocentrum minimum, Skeletonema grethae and Thalassiosira pseudonana) were exposed to BDE-47, which is synthetic and is the predominant congener of PBDEs in the environment. By chemical analysis after incubation of 2 to 6 days, the efficiency of uptake of BDE-47 and, more importantly, the potential of undergoing biotransformation to form OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs by the microalgae were investigated. Growth rates of these axenic microalgae were not affected upon exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations (0.2-20 μg BDE-47 L-1), and accumulation ranged from 0.772 ± 0.092 μg BDE-47 g-1 lipid to 215 ± 54 μg BDE-47 g-1 lipid within 2 days. Debromination of BDE-47 and formation of BDE-28 occurred in all microalgae species (0.01 to 0.87%), but biotransformation to OH-PBDEs was only found in I. galbana upon exposure to extremely high concentration. The results of this study showed that biotransformation of microalgae species is unlikely an explanation for the OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs found in the marine environment.

  7. Accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology and paralysis in the Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the paralyzing toxins of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Lozano, Amada Y; Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Contreras, Gerardo; Alonso-Rodriguez, Rosalba

    2012-05-01

    The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopically analyzed. Paralysis was observed and the time of recovery recorded. Accumulation and possible biotransformation of toxins were measured by HPLC analysis. Feeding activity in treated scallops showed that scallops produced pseudofeces, ingestion rates decreased at 8 h; approximately 60% of the scallops were paralyzed and melanin production and hemocyte aggregation were observed in several tissues at 15 h. HPLC analysis showed that the only toxins present in the dinoflagellates and scallops were the N-sulfo-carbamoyl toxins (C1, C2); after hydrolysis, the carbamate toxins (epimers GTX2/3) were present. C1 and C2 toxins were most common in the mantle, followed by the digestive gland and stomach-complex, adductor muscle, kidney and rectum group, and finally, gills. Toxin profiles in scallop tissue were similar to the dinoflagellate; biotransformations were not present in the scallops in this short-term feeding experiment.

  8. Biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a prospective consortium and its most effective isolate Serratia marcescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.M.; Ogden, K.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Unkefer, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.

    1997-03-05

    The biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) has been observed in liquid culture by a consortium of bacteria found in horse manure. Five types of bacteria were found to predominate in the consortium and were isolated. The most effective of these isolates at transforming RDX was Serratia marcescens. The biotransformation of RDX by all of these bacteria was found to occur only in the anoxic stationary phase. The process of bacterial growth and RDX biotransformation was quantified for the purpose of developing a predictive type model. Cell growth was assumed to follow Monod kinetics. All of the aerobic and anoxid growth parameters were determined: {mu}{sub max}, K{sub s}, and Y{sub x/s}. RDX was found to competitively inhibit cell growth in both atmospheres. Degradation of RDX by Serratia marcescens was found to proceed through the stepwise reduction of the three nitro groups to nitroso groups. Each of these reductions was found to be first order in both component and cell concentrations. The degradation rate constant for the first step in this reduction process by the consortium was 0.022 L/g cells {center_dot} h compared to 0.033 L/g cells {center_dot} h for the most efficient isolate.

  9. Stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide: an investigation of rac-thioridazine biotransformation by some endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Keyller Bastos; De Souza Borges, Warley; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2008-04-14

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide (THD-2-SO) and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide (THD-5-SO) in culture medium and to study the biotransformation of rac-thioridazine (THD) by some endophytic fungi. The simultaneous resolution of THD-2-SO and THD-5-SO diastereoisomers was performed on a CHIRALPAK AS column using a mobile phase of hexane:ethanol:methanol (92:6:2, v/v/v)+0.5% diethylamine; UV detection was carried out at 262 nm. Diethyl ether was used as extractor solvent. The validated method was used to evaluate the biotransformation of THD by 12 endophytic fungi isolated from Tithonia diversifolia, Viguiera arenaria and Viguiera robusta. Among the 12 fungi evaluated, 4 of them deserve prominence for presenting an evidenced stereoselective biotransformation potential: Phomopsis sp. (TD2) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the form (S)-(SE) (12.1%); Glomerella cingulata (VA1) presented greater mono-5-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE)+(R)-(FE) (10.5%); Diaporthe phaseolorum (VR4) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(FE) (84.4% and 82.5%, respectively) and Aspergillus fumigatus (VR12) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(SE) (31.5% and 34.4%, respectively).

  10. Biotransformation of the high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 and identification of new products of non-alternant PAH biodegradation by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Allyn H; Nishi, Shinro; Hatada, Yuji; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    A pathway for the biotransformation of the environmental pollutant and high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by a soil bacterium was constructed through analyses of results from liquid chromatography negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI(–)-MS/MS). Exposure of Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 to benzo[k]fluoranthene resulted in transformation to four-, three-and two-aromatic ring products. The structurally similar four-and three-ring non-alternant PAHs fluoranthene and acenaphthylene were also biotransformed by strain KK22, and LC/ESI(–)-MS/MS analyses of these products confirmed the lower biotransformation pathway proposed for benzo[k]fluoranthene. In all, seven products from benzo[k]fluoranthene and seven products from fluoranthene were revealed and included previously unreported products from both PAHs. Benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation proceeded through ortho-cleavage of 8,9-dihydroxy-benzo[k]fluoranthene to 8-carboxyfluoranthenyl-9-propenic acid and 9-hydroxy-fluoranthene-8-carboxylic acid, and was followed by meta-cleavage to produce 3-(2-formylacenaphthylen-1-yl)-2-hydroxy-prop-2-enoic acid. The fluoranthene pathway converged with the benzo[k]fluoranthene pathway through detection of the three-ring product, 2-formylacenaphthylene-1-carboxylic acid. Production of key downstream metabolites, 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and 1-naphthoic acid from benzo[k]fluoranthene, fluoranthene and acenaphthylene biotransformations provided evidence for a common pathway by strain KK22 for all three PAHs through acenaphthoquinone. Quantitative analysis of benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation by strain KK22 confirmed biodegradation. This is the first pathway proposed for the biotransformation of benzo[k]fluoranthene by a bacterium. PMID:24325265

  11. Biotransformation of the high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 and identification of new products of non-alternant PAH biodegradation by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Allyn H; Nishi, Shinro; Hatada, Yuji; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    A pathway for the biotransformation of the environmental pollutant and high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by a soil bacterium was constructed through analyses of results from liquid chromatography negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI(-)-MS/MS). Exposure of Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 to benzo[k]fluoranthene resulted in transformation to four-, three- and two-aromatic ring products. The structurally similar four- and three-ring non-alternant PAHs fluoranthene and acenaphthylene were also biotransformed by strain KK22, and LC/ESI(-)-MS/MS analyses of these products confirmed the lower biotransformation pathway proposed for benzo[k]fluoranthene. In all, seven products from benzo[k]fluoranthene and seven products from fluoranthene were revealed and included previously unreported products from both PAHs. Benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation proceeded through ortho-cleavage of 8,9-dihydroxy-benzo[k]fluoranthene to 8-carboxyfluoranthenyl-9-propenic acid and 9-hydroxy-fluoranthene-8-carboxylic acid, and was followed by meta-cleavage to produce 3-(2-formylacenaphthylen-1-yl)-2-hydroxy-prop-2-enoic acid. The fluoranthene pathway converged with the benzo[k]fluoranthene pathway through detection of the three-ring product, 2-formylacenaphthylene-1-carboxylic acid. Production of key downstream metabolites, 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and 1-naphthoic acid from benzo[k]fluoranthene, fluoranthene and acenaphthylene biotransformations provided evidence for a common pathway by strain KK22 for all three PAHs through acenaphthoquinone. Quantitative analysis of benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation by strain KK22 confirmed biodegradation. This is the first pathway proposed for the biotransformation of benzo[k]fluoranthene by a bacterium. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Ocean Acidification Experiments in Large-Scale Mesocosms Reveal Similar Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Matter Production and Biotransformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Zark

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM represents a major reservoir of carbon in the oceans. Environmental stressors such as ocean acidification (OA potentially affect DOM production and degradation processes, e.g., phytoplankton exudation or microbial uptake and biotransformation of molecules. Resulting changes in carbon storage capacity of the ocean, thus, may cause feedbacks on the global carbon cycle. Previous experiments studying OA effects on the DOM pool under natural conditions, however, were mostly conducted in temperate and coastal eutrophic areas. Here, we report on OA effects on the existing and newly produced DOM pool during an experiment in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean at the Canary Islands during an (1 oligotrophic phase and (2 after simulated deep water upwelling. The last is a frequently occurring event in this region controlling nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics. We manipulated nine large-scale mesocosms with a gradient of pCO2 ranging from ~350 up to ~1,030 μatm and monitored the DOM molecular composition using ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry via Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS. An increase of 37 μmol L−1 DOC was observed in all mesocosms during a phytoplankton bloom induced by simulated upwelling. Indications for enhanced DOC accumulation under elevated CO2 became apparent during a phase of nutrient recycling toward the end of the experiment. The production of DOM was reflected in changes of the molecular DOM composition. Out of the 7,212 molecular formulae, which were detected throughout the experiment, ~50% correlated significantly in mass spectrometric signal intensity with cumulative bacterial protein production (BPP and are likely a product of microbial transformation. However, no differences in the produced compounds were found with respect to CO2 levels. Comparing the results of this experiment with a comparable OA experiment in the Swedish Gullmar Fjord, reveals

  13. Organohalogen Compounds in Pet Dog and Cat: Do Pets Biotransform Natural Brominated Products in Food to Harmful Hydroxlated Substances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Nomiyama, Kei; Nakatsu, Susumu; Iwata, Hisato; Yoo, Jean; Kubota, Akira; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-01-05

    There are growing concerns about the increase in hyperthyroidism in pet cats due to exposure to organohalogen contaminants and their hydroxylated metabolites. This study investigated the blood contaminants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated and methoxylated derivatives (OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs, and MeO-PBDEs), in pet dogs and cats. We also measured the residue levels of these compounds in commercially available pet foods. Chemical analyses of PCBs and OH-PCBs showed that the OH-PCB levels were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower in cat and dog food products than in their blood, suggesting that the origin of OH-PCBs in pet dogs and cats is PCBs ingested with their food. The major congeners of OH-/MeO-PBDEs identified in both pet food products and blood were natural products (6OH-/MeO-BDE47 and 2'OH-/MeO-BDE68) from marine organisms. In particular, higher concentrations of 6OH-BDE47 than 2'OH-BDE68 and two MeO-PBDE congeners were observed in the cat blood, although MeO-BDEs were dominant in cat foods, suggesting the efficient biotransformation of 6OH-BDE47 from 6MeO-BDE47 in cats. We performed in vitro demethylation experiments to confirm the biotransformation of MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs using liver microsomes. The results showed that 6MeO-BDE47 and 2'MeO-BDE68 were demethylated to 6OH-BDE47 and 2'OH-BDE68 in both animals, whereas no hydroxylated metabolite from BDE47 was detected. The present study suggests that pet cats are exposed to MeO-PBDEs through cat food products containing fish flavors and that the OH-PBDEs in cat blood are derived from the CYP-dependent demethylation of naturally occurring MeO-PBDE congeners, not from the hydroxylation of PBDEs.

  14. Novel Tandem Biotransformation Process for the Biosynthesis of a Novel Compound, 4-(2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine-1)-4′-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ya-Jie; Zhao, Wei; Li, Hong-Mei

    2011-01-01

    According to the structure of podophyllotoxin and its structure-function relationship, a novel tandem biotransformation process was developed for the directional modification of the podophyllotoxin structure to directionally synthesize a novel compound, 4-(2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine-1)-4′-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-TMP-DMEP). In this novel tandem biotransformation process, the starting substrate of podophyllotoxin was biotransformed into 4′-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (product 1) with the demethylation of the methoxyl group at the 4′ position by Gibberella fujikuroi SH-f13, which was screened out from Shennongjia prime forest humus soil (Hubei, China). 4′-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin (product 1) was then biotransformed into 4′-demethylpodophyllotoxone (product 2) with the oxidation of the hydroxyl group at the 4 position by Alternaria alternata S-f6, which was screened out from the gathered Dysosma versipellis plants in the Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Finally, 4′-demethylpodophyllotoxone (product 2) and ligustrazine were linked with a transamination reaction to synthesize the target product 4-TMP-DMEP (product 3) by Alternaria alternata S-f6. Compared with podophyllotoxin (i.e., a 50% effective concentration [EC50] of 529 μM), the EC50 of 4-TMP-DMEP against the tumor cell line BGC-823 (i.e., 0.11 μM) was significantly reduced by 5,199 times. Simultaneously, the EC50 of 4-TMP-DMEP against the normal human proximal tubular epithelial cell line HK-2 (i.e., 0.40 μM) was 66 times higher than that of podophyllotoxin (i.e., 0.006 μM). Furthermore, compared with podophyllotoxin (i.e., log P = 0.34), the water solubility of 4-TMP-DMEP (i.e., log P = 0.66) was significantly enhanced by 94%. For the first time, the novel compound 4-TMP-DMEP with superior antitumor activity was directionally synthesized from podophyllotoxin by the novel tandem biotransformation process developed in this work. PMID:21398491

  15. Magnetized poly(STY-co-DVB) as a matrix for immobilizing microbial lipase to be used in biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, H. B. S.; de Castro, H. F.; de Oliveira, P. C.; Freitas, L.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetized hydrophobic polymeric particles were prepared by suspension polymerization of styrene and divinylbenzene with the addition of magnetite (Fe3O4) functionalized with oleic acid (OA). The magnetic poly(STY-co-DVB) particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the magnetic polymer particles fulfill the requirements for being used as matrix in the immobilization of microbial lipase from Candida rugosa by physical adsorption. The resulted immobilized derivative presented high catalytic activity in both aqueous and non-aqueous media. A comparative study between free and immobilized lipases showed a similar biochemical behavior, but with better hydrolytic activity at a pH range of 8.0-8.5. The patterns of heat stability indicated that the immobilization process also stabilizes the enzyme by a 50-fold improvement of thermal stability parameters (thermal deactivation and half-life time). Data on olive oil hydrolytic activities indicated that the Michaelis-Menten equation can be used to adjust data so as to calculate Km and Vmax, which attained values of 1766 mM and 5870 μM g-1 min-1, respectively. Such values indicated that the immobilized system was subjected to mass transfer limitations. High operational stability (t ½=1014 h) was achieved under repetitive batch runs in ester synthesis. The results indicated that the magnetized support particles can be very promising carriers for immobilizing enzymes in biotransformation reactions.

  16. Uptake, translocation and biotransformation of N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) by hydroponically grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Zhou, Tao; Zhu, Lingyan; Wang, Bohui; Li, Ze; Yang, Liping; Liu, Lifen

    2018-04-01

    N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) is an important perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) precursor (PreFOS) which is used in sulfluramid. The present work studied the uptake, translocation and metabolism of N-EtFOSA in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) by hydroponic exposure. Except for parent N-EtFOSA, its metabolites of perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) were detected in the roots and shoots of all the three plant species examined. This suggested that plant roots could take up N-EtFOSA from solutions efficiently, and translocate to shoots. A positive correlation was found between root concentration factors (RCFs) of N-EtFOSA and root lipid content. Much higher proportion of N-EtFOSA transformation products in plant tissues than in the solutions suggested that N-EtFOSA could be in vivo metabolized in plant roots and shoots to FOSAA, PFOSA and PFOS, and other additional shorter-chain perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs), including PFHxS and PFBS. The results suggested that plants had biotransformation pathways to N-EtFOSA that were different than those from microorganisms and animals. This study provides important information about the uptake and metabolism of PreFOSs in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mathematical modeling of biotransformations of oil hydrocarbons in the marine environment of Karkinitskii Bay in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, A.V.; Chicherina, O.V.; Fashchuk, D.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is routinely used to study the behaviour of oil hydrocarbons (OHCs) during spills. In this study, mathematical modelling was used to examine the conditions of marine environmental pollution by OHCs and its self-purification as a result of transport by water flows and biochemical decomposition. The waters of Karkinitskii Bay in the Black Sea was chosen as the study site the because the exploitation of gas deposits since the 1980s has resulted in higher OHC concentrations. The conditions of marine environmental pollution by OHCs and water self-purification were reproduced based on available data and estimates of long-term mean monthly values of temperature, transparency, total light intensity, atmospheric precipitation, photo-period, water regime, and data on concentrations of biogenic substances and OHCs in the Danube water. OHC biotransformations in the marine environment were simulated by reproducing the biochemical activity of microflora and effecting substrate consumption processes, metabolic product excretions and biomass decay. The model provided estimates of the rates of decomposition of OHCs and oxygen consumption. The model results were in good agreement with experimental data. The model estimated the time needed for OHC concentrations to reach the maximum admissible concentration after pollution of the marine environment. 41 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  18. Mathematical modeling of biotransformations of oil hydrocarbons in the marine environment of Karkinitskii Bay in the Black Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonov, A.V.; Chicherina, O.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Oceanology; Fashchuk, D.Y. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Geography

    2008-07-01

    Mathematical modelling is routinely used to study the behaviour of oil hydrocarbons (OHCs) during spills. In this study, mathematical modelling was used to examine the conditions of marine environmental pollution by OHCs and its self-purification as a result of transport by water flows and biochemical decomposition. The waters of Karkinitskii Bay in the Black Sea was chosen as the study site the because the exploitation of gas deposits since the 1980s has resulted in higher OHC concentrations. The conditions of marine environmental pollution by OHCs and water self-purification were reproduced based on available data and estimates of long-term mean monthly values of temperature, transparency, total light intensity, atmospheric precipitation, photo-period, water regime, and data on concentrations of biogenic substances and OHCs in the Danube water. OHC biotransformations in the marine environment were simulated by reproducing the biochemical activity of microflora and effecting substrate consumption processes, metabolic product excretions and biomass decay. The model provided estimates of the rates of decomposition of OHCs and oxygen consumption. The model results were in good agreement with experimental data. The model estimated the time needed for OHC concentrations to reach the maximum admissible concentration after pollution of the marine environment. 41 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  19. The Role of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Preadaptation in the Biotransformation of Trace Organic Chemicals during Aquifer Recharge and Recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ouf, Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) is a low-cost and environmentally-friendly treatment technology which uses conventionally treated wastewater effluent for groundwater recharge and subsequent recovery for agricultural, industrial or drinking water uses. This study investigated the effect of different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) composition in wastewater effluent on the fate of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) during ARR. Four biologically active columns were setup receiving synthetic wastewater effluent with varying DOC compositions. The difference in DOC composition triggered variations in the microbial community’s diversity and hence its ability to degrade TOrCs. It was found that the presence of protein-like DOC enhances the removal of DOC in comparison with the presence of humic-like DOC. On the other hand, the presence of humic-like DOC, which is more difficult to degrade, improved the removal of several degradable TOrCs. Other column experiments were also carried out to investigate the role of previous and continuous exposure to TOrCs in their removal. The use of soil pre-exposed to low concentrations of TOrCs and DOC provided better removal of both DOC and TOrCs. The findings of this study suggest that the presence of more humic-like DOC in the effluent enhances the biotransformation of TOrCs during ARR. In addition, long exposure to both DOC and TOrCs increases the degree of their removal over time

  20. Biotransformation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by Scheffersomyces stipitis during ethanol fermentation of hydrolysate of the seaweed Gelidium amansii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Shin, Myung Kyo; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2013-07-01

    The seaweed, Gelidium amansii, was fermented to produce bioethanol. Optimal pretreatment condition was determined as 94 mM H2SO4 and 10% (w/v) seaweed slurry at 121°C for 60 min. The mono sugars of 43.5 g/L with 57.4% of conversion from total carbohydrate of 75.8 g/L with G. amansii slurry 100g dcw/L were obtained by thermal acid hydrolysis pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. G. amansii hydrolysate was used as the substrate for ethanol production by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). The ethanol concentration of 20.5 g/L was produced by Scheffersomyces stipitis KCTC 7228. The effect of HMF on ethanol production by S. stipitis KCTC 7228 was evaluated and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was converted to 2,5-bis-hydroxymethylfuran. The accumulated 2,5-bis-hydroxymethylfuran in the medium did not affect galactose and glucose uptakes and ethanol production. Biotransformation of HMF to less inhibitory compounds by S. stipitis KCTC 7228 could enhance overall fermentation yields of seaweed hydrolysates to ethanol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biotransformation of Bicyclic Halolactones with a Methyl Group in the Cyclohexane Ring into Hydroxylactones and Their Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wińska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the chemical synthesis of a series of halo- and unsaturated lactones, as well as their microbial transformation products. Finally some of their biological activities were assessed. Three bicyclic halolactones with a methyl group in the cyclohexane ring were obtained from the corresponding γ,δ-unsaturated ester during a two-step synthesis. These lactones were subjected to screening biotransformation using twenty two fungal strains. These strains were tested on their ability to transform halolactones into new hydroxylactones. Among the six strains able to catalyze hydrolytic dehalogenation, only two (Fusarium equiseti, AM22 and Yarrowia lipolytica, AM71 gave a product in a high yield. Moreover, one strain (Penicillium wermiculatum, AM30 introduced the hydroxy group on the cyclohexane ring without removing the halogen atom. The biological activity of five of the obtained lactones was tested. Some of these compounds exhibited growth inhibition against bacteria, yeasts and fungi and deterrent activity against peach-potato aphid.

  2. The rabbit liver microsomal biotransformation of 1,1-dialkylethylenes: enantioface selection of epoxidation and enantioselectivity of epoxide hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, G; Chiappe, C; Cordoni, A; Marioni, F

    1994-01-01

    The rabbit liver microsomal biotransformation of alpha-methylstyrene (1a), 2-methyl-1-hexene (1b), 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene (1c), and 1,3,3-trimethyl-1-butene (1d) has been investigated with the aim at establishing the enantioface selection of the cytochrome P-450-promoted epoxidation of the double bond and the enantioselectivity of microsomal epoxide hydrolase(mEH)-catalyzed hydrolysis of the resulting epoxides. GLC on a Chiraldex G-TA (ASTEC) column was used to determine the enantiomeric composition of the products. The epoxides 2 first produced in incubations carried out in the presence of an NADPH regenerating system were not detected, being rapidly hydrolyzed by mEH to diols 3. The enantiomeric composition of the latter showed that no enantioface selection occurred in the epoxidation of 1c and 1d, and a very low (8%) ee of the (R)-epoxide was formed from 1b. Incubation of racemic epoxides 2b-d with the microsomal fraction showed that the mEH-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2c and 2d was practically nonenantioselective, while that of 2b exhibited a selectivity E = 4.9 favoring the hydrolysis of the (S)-enantiomer. A comparison of these results with those previously obtained for linear and branched chain alkyl monosubstituted oxiranes shows that the introduction of the second alkyl substituent suppresses the selectivity of the mEH reaction of the latter and reverses that of the former substrates.

  3. Biotransformation of Momordica charantia fresh juice by Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 and its putative anti-diabetic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhaneen Afzal Mazlan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 isolated from Momordica charantia fruit was used to ferment its juice. Momordica charantia fresh juice was able to support good growth of the lactic acid bacterium. High growth rate and cell viability were obtained without further nutrient supplementation. In stirred tank reactor batch fermentation, agitation rate showed significant effect on specific growth rate of the bacterium in the fruit juice. After the fermentation, initially abundant momordicoside 23-O-β-Allopyranosyle-cucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R,23(S-tetraol-3-O-β-allopyranoside was transformed into its corresponding aglycone in addition to the emergence of new metabolites. The fermented M. charantia juice consistently reduced glucose production by 27.2%, 14.5%, 17.1% and 19.2% at 15-minute intervals respectively, when compared against the negative control. This putative anti-diabetic activity can be attributed to the increase in availability and concentration of aglycones as well as other phenolic compounds resulting from degradation of glycosidic momordicoside. Biotransformation of M. charantia fruit juice via lactic acid bacterium fermentation reduced its bitterness, reduced its sugar content, produced aglycones and other metabolites as well as improved its inhibition of α-glucosidase activity compared with the fresh, non-fermented juice.

  4. Biotransformation of Momordica charantia fresh juice by Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 and its putative anti-diabetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Farhaneen Afzal; Annuar, M Suffian M; Sharifuddin, Yusrizam

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 isolated from Momordica charantia fruit was used to ferment its juice. Momordica charantia fresh juice was able to support good growth of the lactic acid bacterium. High growth rate and cell viability were obtained without further nutrient supplementation. In stirred tank reactor batch fermentation, agitation rate showed significant effect on specific growth rate of the bacterium in the fruit juice. After the fermentation, initially abundant momordicoside 23-O-β-Allopyranosyle-cucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R),23(S)-tetraol-3-O-β-allopyranoside was transformed into its corresponding aglycone in addition to the emergence of new metabolites. The fermented M. charantia juice consistently reduced glucose production by 27.2%, 14.5%, 17.1% and 19.2% at 15-minute intervals respectively, when compared against the negative control. This putative anti-diabetic activity can be attributed to the increase in availability and concentration of aglycones as well as other phenolic compounds resulting from degradation of glycosidic momordicoside. Biotransformation of M. charantia fruit juice via lactic acid bacterium fermentation reduced its bitterness, reduced its sugar content, produced aglycones and other metabolites as well as improved its inhibition of α-glucosidase activity compared with the fresh, non-fermented juice.

  5. Genotoxic activity and induction of biotransformation enzymes in two human cell lines after treatment by Erika fuel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat-Bronnert, Agnès; Castegnaro, Marcel; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie

    2007-01-01

    On 12 December 1999, the tanker Erika broke in two parts at about 60km from the Brittany French coasts (Point of Penmarc'h, Sud Finistère, France). About 10,000tonnes of heavy oil fuel were released in the sea. DNA adduct have been detected in fish liver and mussels digestive gland exposed to the Erika oil spill. In order to investigate the mechanism by which Erika fuel extract exhibits genotoxic effects the induction of DNA adducts by an Erika fuel extract have been analysed on two cell lines, human epithelial bronchial cells (WI) and human hepatoma cells. DNA adducts, reflected by a diagonal radioactive zone and individual adducts are detected only in hepatoma cells indicating biotransformation via CYP 1A2 and CYP 1B1. In addition, Erika fuel extract induces some metabolizing enzymes such CYP 1A2, COX2 and 5-LOX, the two later are involved in cancer processes. Formation of leucotrienes B4 (LTB(4)), a mediator playing a role in inflammation, is induced in epithelial bronchial cells. Since inhalation is one of the ways of contamination for human, the above results are important for human health and prevention. Copyright © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered intestinal bile salt biotransformation in a cystic fibrosis (Cftr-/-) mouse model with hepato-biliary pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Frank A J A; van der Wulp, Mariëtte Y M; Beharry, Satti; Doktorova, Marcela; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; James Phillips, M; Durie, Peter R; Verkade, Henkjan J

    2015-07-01

    Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) mice develop progressive hepato-biliary pathology. We hypothesize that this liver pathology is related to alterations in biliary bile hydrophobicity and bile salt metabolism in Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) mice. We determined bile production, biliary and fecal bile salt- and lipid compositions and fecal bacterial composition of C57BL/6J Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) and control mice. We found no differences between the total biliary bile salt or lipid concentrations of Cftr(-/-) and controls. Compared to controls, Cftr(-/-) mice had a ~30% higher bile production and a low bile hydrophobicity, related to a ~7 fold higher concentration of the choleretic and hydrophilic bile salt ursocholate. These findings coexisted with a significantly smaller quantity of fecal Bacteroides bacteria. Liver pathology in Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) is not related to increased bile hydrophobicity. Cftr(-/-) mice do however display a biliary phenotype characterized by increased bile production and decreased biliary hydrophobicity. Our findings suggest Cftr dependent, alterations in intestinal bacterial biotransformation of bile salts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Biotransformation of d-Limonene to (+) trans-Carveol by Toluene-Grown Rhodococcus opacus PWD4 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duetz, Wouter A.; Fjällman, Ann H. M.; Ren, Shuyu; Jourdat, Catherine; Witholt, Bernard

    2001-01-01

    The toluene-degrading strain Rhodococcus opacus PWD4 was found to hydroxylate d-limonene exclusively in the 6-position, yielding enantiomerically pure (+) trans-carveol and traces of (+) carvone. This biotransformation was studied using cells cultivated in chemostat culture with toluene as a carbon and energy source. The maximal specific activity of (+) trans-carveol formation was 14.7 U (g of cells [dry weight])−1, and the final yield was 94 to 97%. Toluene was found to be a strong competitive inhibitor of the d-limonene conversion. Glucose-grown cells did not form any trans-carveol from d-limonene. These results suggest that one of the enzymes involved in toluene degradation is responsible for this allylic monohydroxylation. Another toluene degrader (Rhodococcus globerulus PWD8) had a lower specific activity but was found to oxidize most of the formed trans-carveol to (+) carvone, allowing for the biocatalytic production of this flavor compound. PMID:11375201

  8. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and their role in uptake and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Vokřál, Ivan; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2015-08-01

    Many various xenobiotics permanently enter plants and represent potential danger for their organism. For that reason, plants have evolved extremely sophisticated detoxification systems including a battery of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Some of them are similar to those in humans and animals, but there are several plant-specific ones. This review briefly introduces xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and summarizes present information about their action toward veterinary drugs. Veterinary drugs are used worldwide to treat diseases and protect animal health. However, veterinary drugs are also unwantedly introduced into environment mostly via animal excrements, they persist in the environment for a long time and may impact on the non-target organisms. Plants are able to uptake, transform the veterinary drugs to non- or less-toxic compounds and store them in the vacuoles and cell walls. This ability may protect not only plant themselves but also other organisms, predominantly invertebrates and wild herbivores. The aim of this review is to emphasize the importance of plants in detoxification of veterinary drugs in the environment. The results of studies, which dealt with transport and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in plants, are summarized and evaluated. In conclusion, the risks and consequences of veterinary drugs in the environment and the possibilities of phytoremediation technologies are considered and future perspectives are outlined.

  9. Biotransformation of L-tyrosine to Dopamine by a Calcium Alginate Immobilized Mutant Strain of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sikander; Nawaz, Wajeeha

    2016-08-01

    The present research work is concerned with the biotransformation of L-tyrosine to dopamine (DA) by calcium alginate entrapped conidiospores of a mutant strain of Aspergillus oryzae. Different strains of A. oryzae were isolated from soil. Out of 13 isolated strains, isolate-2 (I-2) was found to be a better DA producer. The wild-type I-2 was chemically improved by treating it with different concentrations of ethyl methyl sulfonate (EMS). Among seven mutant variants, EMS-6 exhibiting maximal DA activity of 43 μg/ml was selected. The strain was further exposed with L-cysteine HCl to make it resistant against diversion and environmental stress. The conidiospores of selected mutant variant A. oryzae EMS-6 strain were entrapped in calcium alginate beads. Different parameters for immobilization were investigated. The activity was further improved from 44 to 62 μg/ml under optimized conditions (1.5 % sodium alginate, 2 ml inoculum, and 2 mm bead size). The best resistant mutant variable exhibited over threefold increase in DA activity (62 μg/ml) than did wild-type I-2 (21 μg/ml) in the reaction mixture. From the results presented in the study, it was observed that high titers of DA activity in vitro could effectively be achieved by the EMS-induced mutagenesis of filamentous fungus culture used.

  10. Biodegradation of nicotine by a novel nicotine-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida TND35 and its new biotransformation intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gurusamy; Mohan, KasiNadar; Manohar, Venkat; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2014-02-01

    Tobacco wastes that contain nicotine alkaloids are harmful to human health and the environment. In the investigation, a novel nicotine-biodegrading bacterium TND35 was isolated and identified as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida on the basis of phenotypic, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence homology. We have studied the nicotine biodegradation potential of strain TND35 by detecting the intermediate metabolites using an array of approaches such as HPLC, GC-MS, NMR and FT-IR. Biotransformation metabolites, N-methylmyosmine, 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB) and other three new intermediate metabolites namely, 3,5-bis (1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl) pyridine, 2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-(pyridin-3-yl)-1H-pyrrol-2-ol and 5-(pyridin-3-yl)-1H-pyrrol-2(3H)-one have been identified. Interestingly, these intermediate metabolites suggest that the strain TND35 employs a novel nicotine biodegradation pathway, which is different from the reported pathways of Aspergillus oryzae 112822, Arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1, Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 and other species of Pseudomonas. The metabolite, HPB reported in this study can also be used as biochemical marker for tobacco related cancer studies.

  11. Honokiol trimers and dimers via biotransformation catalyzed by Momordica charantia peroxidase: novel and potent α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Fan, Bo-Yi; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2014-01-15

    Ten honokiol oligomers (1-10), including four novel trimers (1-4) and four novel dimers (5-8), were obtained by means of biotransformation of honokiol catalyzed by Momordica charantia peroxidase (MCP) for the first time. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The biological results demonstrated that most of the oligomers were capable of inhibiting α-glucosidase with significant abilities, which were one to two orders of magnitude more potent than the substrate, honokiol. In particular, compound 2, the honokiol trimer, displayed the greatest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 1.38μM. Kinetic and CD studies indicated that 2 inhibited α-glucosidase in a reversible, mixed-type manner and caused conformational changes in the secondary structure of the enzyme protein. These findings suggested that 2 might be exploited as a promising drug candidate for the treatment of diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biotransformation of albendazole and activities of selected detoxification enzymes in Haemonchus contortus strains susceptible and resistant to anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokřál, Ivan; Jirásko, Robert; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Bártíková, Hana; Szotáková, Barbora; Lamka, Jiří; Várady, Marián; Skálová, Lenka

    2013-09-23

    The increased activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes can protect helminths against the toxic effect of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolism of the anthelmintic drug albendazole (ABZ) and the activities of selected biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in three different strains of Haemonchus contortus: the ISE strain (susceptible to common anthelmintics), the BR strain (resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics) and the WR strain (multi-resistant). H. contortus adults were collected from the abomasum of experimentally infected lambs. In vitro (subcellular fractions of H. contortus homogenate) as well as ex vivo (living nematodes cultivated in flasks with medium) experiments were performed. HPLC with spectrofluorimetric and mass-spectrometric detection was used in the analysis of ABZ metabolites. The in vitro activities of oxidation/antioxidation and conjugation enzymes toward model substrates were also assayed. The in vitro data showed significant differences between the susceptible (ISE) and resistant (BR, WR) strains regarding the activities of peroxidases, catalase and UDP-glucosyltransferases. S-oxidation of ABZ was significantly lower in BR than in the ISE strain. Ex vivo, four ABZ metabolites were identified: ABZ sulphoxide and three ABZ glucosides. In the resistant strains BR and WR, the ex vivo formation of all ABZ glucosides was significantly higher than in the susceptible ISE strain. The altered activities of certain detoxifying enzymes might partly protect the parasites against the toxic effect of the drugs as well as contribute to drug-resistance in these parasites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress Responses in Captive Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus Exposed to Organic Contaminants from the Natural Environment in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Arukwe

    Full Text Available In the present study, the biotransformation and oxidative stress responses in relation to chemical burden in the liver of male and female Nile crocodiles--Crocodylus niloticus--from a commercial crocodile farm passively exposed to various anthropogenic aquatic pollutants was investigated. In general, the data showed that male crocodiles consistently produced higher biotransformation and oxidative stress responses compared to females. Relationships between these responses and concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were also observed. Specifically, the catalytic assays for EROD and BROD (not PROD and MROD showed sex-differences between male and female crocodiles and paralleled immunochemically determined CYP1A and CYP3A protein levels; the relatively similar levels of PAHs in both sexes suggest an estrogen-mediated reduction of this pathway in females. The antioxidant system exhibited higher levels in male crocodiles with slight or significant higher values for catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidases-H2O2 (GPx-H2O2, glutathione peroxidases-Cu (GPx-Cu, total antioxidant capacity towards peroxyl radicals (TOSC-ROO and hydroxyl radicals (TOSC-HO, total glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA. On the other hand, the activities of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX and glutathione S-transferases (GST were significantly higher in females. Principal component analysis (PCA produced significant groupings that revealed correlative relationships (both positive and negative between biotransformation/oxidative stress variables and liver PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbon burden. The overall results suggest that these captive pre-slaughter crocodiles exhibited adverse exposure responses to anthropogenic aquatic contaminants with potentially relevant effects on key cellular pathways, and these responses may be established as relevant species biomarkers of exposure and effects in this endangered species.

  14. The participation of human hepatic P450 isoforms, flavin-containing monooxygenases and aldehyde oxidase in the biotransformation of the insecticide fenthion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoni, Claudia; Buratti, Franca M.; Testai, Emanuela

    2008-01-01

    Although fenthion (FEN) is widely used as a broad spectrum insecticide on various crops in many countries, very scant data are available on its biotransformation in humans. In this study the in vitro human hepatic FEN biotransformation was characterized, identifying the relative contributions of cytochrome P450 (CYPs) and/or flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOs) by using single c-DNA expressed human enzymes, human liver microsomes and cytosol and CYP/FMO-specific inhibitors. Two major metabolites, FEN-sulfoxide and FEN-oxon (FOX), are formed by some CYPs although at very different levels, depending on the relative CYP hepatic content. Formation of further oxidation products and the reduction of FEN-sulfoxide back to FEN by the cytosolic aldehyde oxidase enzyme were ruled out. Comparing intrinsic clearance values, FOX formation seemed to be favored and at low FEN concentrations CYP2B6 and 1A2 are mainly involved in its formation. At higher levels, a more widespread CYP involvement was evident, as in the case of FEN-sulfoxide, although a higher efficiency of CYP2C family was suggested. Hepatic FMOs were able to catalyze only sulfoxide formation, but at low FEN concentrations hepatic FEN sulfoxidation is predominantly P450-driven. Indeed, the contribution of the hepatic isoforms FMO 3 and FMO 5 was generally negligible, although at high FEN concentrations FMO's showed activities comparable to the active CYPs, accounting for up to 30% of total sulfoxidation. Recombinant FMO 1 showed the highest efficiency with respect to CYPs and the other FMOs, but it is not expressed in the adult human liver. This suggests that FMO 1 -catalysed sulfoxidation may represent the major extra-hepatic pathway of FEN biotransformation

  15. Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress Responses in Captive Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) Exposed to Organic Contaminants from the Natural Environment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Røsbak, Randi; Adeogun, Aina O.; Langberg, Håkon A.; Venter, Annette; Myburgh, Jan; Botha, Christo; Benedetti, Maura; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the biotransformation and oxidative stress responses in relation to chemical burden in the liver of male and female Nile crocodiles—Crocodylus niloticus—from a commercial crocodile farm passively exposed to various anthropogenic aquatic pollutants was investigated. In general, the data showed that male crocodiles consistently produced higher biotransformation and oxidative stress responses compared to females. Relationships between these responses and concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also observed. Specifically, the catalytic assays for EROD and BROD (not PROD and MROD) showed sex-differences between male and female crocodiles and paralleled immunochemically determined CYP1A and CYP3A protein levels; the relatively similar levels of PAHs in both sexes suggest an estrogen-mediated reduction of this pathway in females. The antioxidant system exhibited higher levels in male crocodiles with slight or significant higher values for catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidases-H2O2 (GPx-H2O2), glutathione peroxidases-Cu (GPx-Cu), total antioxidant capacity towards peroxyl radicals (TOSC-ROO) and hydroxyl radicals (TOSC-HO), total glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). On the other hand, the activities of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) were significantly higher in females. Principal component analysis (PCA) produced significant groupings that revealed correlative relationships (both positive and negative) between biotransformation/oxidative stress variables and liver PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbon burden. The overall results suggest that these captive pre-slaughter crocodiles exhibited adverse exposure responses to anthropogenic aquatic contaminants with potentially relevant effects on key cellular pathways, and these responses may be established as relevant species biomarkers of exposure and effects in this endangered species. PMID

  16. Isolated and mixed effects of diuron and its metabolites on biotransformation enzymes and oxidative stress response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felício, Andréia Arantes; Freitas, Juliane Silberschmidt; Scarin, Jéssica Bolpeti; de Souza Ondei, Luciana; Teresa, Fabrício Barreto; Schlenk, Daniel; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2018-03-01

    Diuron is one of the most used herbicide in the world, and its field application has been particularly increased in Brazil due to the expansion of sugarcane crops. Diuron has often been detected in freshwater ecosystems and it can be biodegraded into three main metabolites in the environment, the 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DCPU) and 3,4-dichlorophenyl-N-methylurea (DCPMU). Negative effects under aquatic biota are still not well established for diuron, especially when considering its presence in mixture with its different metabolites. In this study, we evaluated the effects of diuron alone or in combination with its metabolites, DCPMU, DCPU and 3,4-DCA on biochemical stress responses and biotransformation activity of the fish Oreochromis niloticus. Results showed that diuron and its metabolites caused significant but dispersed alterations in oxidative stress markers and biotransformation enzymes, except for ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, that presented a dose-dependent increase after exposure to either diuron or its metabolites. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was significant lower in gills after exposure to diuron metabolites, but not diuron. Diuron, DCPMU and DCA also decreased the multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) activity. Lipid peroxidation levels were increased in gill after exposure to all compounds, indicating that the original compound and diuron metabolites can induce oxidative stress in fish. The integration of all biochemical responses by the Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR) model indicated that all compounds caused significant alterations in O. niloticus, but DCPMU caused the higher alterations in both liver and gill. Our findings imply that diuron and its metabolites may impair the physiological response related to biotransformation and antioxidant activity in fish at field concentrations. Such alterations could interfere with the ability of aquatic animals to adapt to environments contaminated by

  17. Tissue-specific bioconcentration and biotransformation of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos in a native fish (Jenynsia multidentata) exposed to these insecticides singly and in mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonansea, Rocío Inés; Marino, Damián J G; Bertrand, Lidwina; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Amé, María Valeria

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accumulation of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos when the fish Jenynsia multidentata was exposed to these pesticides singly and in technical and commercial mixtures. Adult female fish were exposed over 96 h to 0.04 μg/L of cypermethrin; 0.4 μg/L of chlorpyrifos; 0.04 μg/L of cypermethrin + 0.4 μg/L of chlorpyrifos in a technical mixture; and 0.04 μg/L of cypermethrin + 0.4 μg/L of chlorpyrifos in a mixture of commercial products. Fish exposed to cypermethrin accumulated this compound only in muscle, probably because of the low biotransformation capacity of this organ and the induction of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) expression in the liver. The accumulation of chlorpyrifos occurred in fish exposed to the insecticide (intestine > liver > gills) even when these fish had higher gluthatione-S-transferase (GST) activity in gills and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in the liver, compared with the control. Fish exposed to the technical mixture showed cypermethrin accumulation (liver > intestine > gills) with higher levels than those measured in fish after only cypermethrin exposure. Higher expression levels of CYP1A1 in the liver were also observed compared with the Control. Fish exposed to the commercial mixture accumulated both insecticides (cypermethrin: intestine > gills and chlorpyrifos: liver > intestine > gills > muscle). In the organs where accumulation occurred, biotransformation enzymes were inhibited. Consequently, the commercial formulation exposure provoked the highest accumulation of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos in J. multidentata, possibly associated with the biotransformation system inhibition. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1764-1774. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Mercury analysis of acid- and alkaline-reduced biological samples: identification of meta-cinnabar as the major biotransformed compound in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Budd, Kenneth; Lefebvre, Daniel D

    2006-01-01

    The biotransformation of Hg(II) in pH-controlled and aerated algal cultures was investigated. Previous researchers have observed losses in Hg detection in vitro with the addition of cysteine under acid reduction conditions in the presence of SnCl2. They proposed that this was the effect of Hg-thiol complexing. The present study found that cysteine-Hg, protein and nonprotein thiol chelates, and nucleoside chelates of Hg were all fully detectable under acid reduction conditions without previous digestion. Furthermore, organic (R-Hg) mercury compounds could not be detected under either the acid or alkaline reduction conditions, and only beta-HgS was detected under alkaline and not under acid SnCl2 reduction conditions. The blue-green alga Limnothrix planctonica biotransformed the bulk of Hg(II) applied as HgCl2 into a form with the analytical properties of beta-HgS. Similar results were obtained for the eukaryotic alga Selenastrum minutum. No evidence for the synthesis of organomercurials such as CH3Hg+ was obtained from analysis of either airstream or biomass samples under the aerobic conditions of the study. An analytical procedure that involved both acid and alkaline reduction was developed. It provides the first selective method for the determination of beta-HgS in biological samples. Under aerobic conditions, Hg(II) is biotransformed mainly into beta-HgS (meta-cinnabar), and this occurs in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae. This has important implications with respect to identification of mercury species and cycling in aquatic habitats.

  19. Mercury Analysis of Acid- and Alkaline-Reduced Biological Samples: Identification of meta-Cinnabar as the Major Biotransformed Compound in Algae†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Budd, Kenneth; Lefebvre, Daniel D.

    2006-01-01

    The biotransformation of HgII in pH-controlled and aerated algal cultures was investigated. Previous researchers have observed losses in Hg detection in vitro with the addition of cysteine under acid reduction conditions in the presence of SnCl2. They proposed that this was the effect of Hg-thiol complexing. The present study found that cysteine-Hg, protein and nonprotein thiol chelates, and nucleoside chelates of Hg were all fully detectable under acid reduction conditions without previous digestion. Furthermore, organic (R-Hg) mercury compounds could not be detected under either the acid or alkaline reduction conditions, and only β-HgS was detected under alkaline and not under acid SnCl2 reduction conditions. The blue-green alga Limnothrix planctonica biotransformed the bulk of HgII applied as HgCl2 into a form with the analytical properties of β-HgS. Similar results were obtained for the eukaryotic alga Selenastrum minutum. No evidence for the synthesis of organomercurials such as CH3Hg+ was obtained from analysis of either airstream or biomass samples under the aerobic conditions of the study. An analytical procedure that involved both acid and alkaline reduction was developed. It provides the first selective method for the determination of β-HgS in biological samples. Under aerobic conditions, HgII is biotransformed mainly into β-HgS (meta-cinnabar), and this occurs in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae. This has important implications with respect to identification of mercury species and cycling in aquatic habitats. PMID:16391065

  20. Molecular modeling and simulation studies of recombinant laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica suggests significant role in the biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Deepti; Rawat, Surender [Laboratory of Enzymology and Recombinant DNA Technology, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Waseem, Mohd; Gupta, Sunita; Lynn, Andrew [School of Computational & Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Nitin, Mukesh; Ramchiary, Nirala [School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Krishna Kant, E-mail: kekulsharma@gmail.com [Laboratory of Enzymology and Recombinant DNA Technology, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2016-01-08

    The YacK gene from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7, cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), showed laccase activity when oxidized with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically with a molecular mass of ≈58 KDa on SDS-PAGE and showed positive zymogram with ABTS. The protein was highly robust with optimum pH 9.0 and stable at 70 °C upto 12 h with residual activity of 70%. Kinetic constants, K{sub m} values, for ABTS and guaiacol were 675 μM and 2070 μM, respectively, with corresponding Vmax values of 0.125 μmol/ml/min and 6500 μmol/ml/min. It also possess antioxidative property against BSA and Cu{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} model system. Constant pH MD simulation studies at different protonation states of the system showed ABTS to be most stable at acidic pH, whereas, diclofenac at neutral pH. Interestingly, aspirin drifted out of the binding pocket at acidic and neutral pH, but showed stable binding at alkaline pH. The biotransformation of diclofenac and aspirin by laccase also corroborated the in silico results. This is the first report on biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) using recombinant laccase from gut bacteria, supported by in silico simulation studies. - Highlights: • Laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). • Recombinant laccase was found to be thermostable and alkali tolerant. • The in silico and experimental studied proves the biotransformation of NSAIDs. • Laccase binds to ligands differentially under different protonation state. • Laccase also possesses free radical scavenging property.

  1. Molecular modeling and simulation studies of recombinant laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica suggests significant role in the biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Deepti; Rawat, Surender; Waseem, Mohd; Gupta, Sunita; Lynn, Andrew; Nitin, Mukesh; Ramchiary, Nirala; Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-01-01

    The YacK gene from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7, cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), showed laccase activity when oxidized with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically with a molecular mass of ≈58 KDa on SDS-PAGE and showed positive zymogram with ABTS. The protein was highly robust with optimum pH 9.0 and stable at 70 °C upto 12 h with residual activity of 70%. Kinetic constants, K m values, for ABTS and guaiacol were 675 μM and 2070 μM, respectively, with corresponding Vmax values of 0.125 μmol/ml/min and 6500 μmol/ml/min. It also possess antioxidative property against BSA and Cu 2+ /H 2 O 2 model system. Constant pH MD simulation studies at different protonation states of the system showed ABTS to be most stable at acidic pH, whereas, diclofenac at neutral pH. Interestingly, aspirin drifted out of the binding pocket at acidic and neutral pH, but showed stable binding at alkaline pH. The biotransformation of diclofenac and aspirin by laccase also corroborated the in silico results. This is the first report on biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) using recombinant laccase from gut bacteria, supported by in silico simulation studies. - Highlights: • Laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). • Recombinant laccase was found to be thermostable and alkali tolerant. • The in silico and experimental studied proves the biotransformation of NSAIDs. • Laccase binds to ligands differentially under different protonation state. • Laccase also possesses free radical scavenging property.

  2. Purification of liquid products of cotton wipes biotransformation with the aid of Trichoderma viridae in orbital flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis

    Recovery of various organic wastes in space flight is an actual problem of modern astronautics and future interplanetary missions. Currently, organic waste are incinerated in the dense layers of the Earth's atmosphere in cargo containers. However, this method of anthropogenic waste treatment is not environmentally compatible with future interplanetary missions, and is not suitable due to planetary quarantine requirements. Furthermore, the maintaining of a closed ecosystem in spaceship is considered as one of the main ways of ensuring the food and air crew in the long term fully autonomous space expedition. Such isolated ecosystem is not conceivable without biotransformation of organic waste. In this regard, currently new ways of recycling organic waste are currently developed. The most promising method is a method for processing organic waste using thermophilic anaerobic microbial communities.However, the products of anaerobic fermentation of solid organic materials contain significant amounts of organic impurities, which often give them sour pH. This presents a significant problem because it does not allow to use this fluid as process water without pretreatment. Fermentation products - alcohols, volatile fatty acids other carbonaceous substances must be withdrawn.One way to solve this problem may be the use of microorganisms biodestructors for recycling organic impurities in the products of anaerobic biodegradation Under the proposed approach, the metabolic products (having acidic pH) of primary biotransformation of solid organic materials are used as media for the cultivation of fungi. Thus, cellulosic wastes are recycled in two successive stages. The aim of this work was to test the effectiveness of post-treatment liquid products of biodegradation of hygienic cotton wipes (common type of waste on the ISS) by the fungus Trichoderma viridae under orbital flight. The study was conducted onboard biosatellite Bion -M1, where was placed a bioreactor, designed to carry

  3. Production of phenylpyruvic acid from L-phenylalanine using an L-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis: comparison of enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng

    2015-10-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is an important organic acid that has a wide range of applications. In this study, the membrane-bound L-amino acid deaminase (L-AAD) gene from Proteus mirabilis KCTC 2566 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and then the L-AAD was purified. After that, we used the purified enzyme and the recombinant E. coli whole-cell biocatalyst to produce PPA via a one-step biotransformation from L-phenylalanine. L-AAD was solubilized from the membrane and purified 52-fold with an overall yield of 13 %, which corresponded to a specific activity of 0.94 ± 0.01 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1). Then, the biotransformation conditions for the pure enzyme and the whole-cell biocatalyst were optimized. The maximal production was 2.6 ± 0.1 g·L(-1) (specific activity of 1.02 ± 0.02 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 86.7 ± 5 % mass conversion rate, and 1.04 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) and 3.3 ± 0.2 g L(-1) (specific activity of 0.013 ± 0.003 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 82.5 ± 4 % mass conversion rate, and 0.55 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) for the pure enzyme and whole-cell biocatalyst, respectively. Comparative studies of the enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation were performed in terms of specific activity, production, conversion, productivity, stability, need of external cofactors, and recycling. We have developed two eco-friendly and efficient approaches for PPA production. The strategy described herein may aid the biotransformational synthesis of other α-keto acids from their corresponding amino acids.

  4. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany); Bertermann, Rüdiger [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Rusch, George M. [Honeywell, P.O. Box 1057, Morristown, NJ 07962–1057 (United States); Hoffman, Gary M. [Huntingdon Life Sciences., East Millstone, NJ (United States); Dekant, Wolfgang, E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1 h. For metabolite identification by {sup 19}F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 μmol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 μmol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 μmol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. -- Highlights: ► No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ► No differences in metabolic pattern between pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits. ► Rapid and similar metabolite

  5. A new and fast DLLME-CE method for the enantioselective analysis of zopiclone and its active metabolite after fungal biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Nayara Cristina Perez; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto; de Oliveira, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes

    2015-05-10

    Zopiclone (ZO) is a chiral drug that undergoes extensive metabolism to N-desmethylzopiclone (N-Des-ZO) and zopiclone-N-oxide (N-Ox-ZO). Pharmacological studies have shown (S)-N-Des-ZO metabolite presents anxiolytic activity and a patent for this metabolite was requested for anxiety treatment and related disorders. In this context, biotransformation employing fungi may be a promising strategy to obtain N-Des-ZO. To perform the biotransformation study in this work, an enantioselective method based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed. CE analyses were carried out in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 2.5; 50mmolL(-1)) containing 0.5% (w/v) carboxymethyl-β-CD, at a constant voltage of +25kV. DLLME was conducted using 2mL of liquid culture medium pH 9.5. Chloroform (100μL) and methanol (300μL) were employed as extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. After CE and DLLME optimization, the analytical method was fully validated. The method was linear over a concentration range of 90-6000ngmL(-1) for each ZO enantiomer (r>0.999) and 50-1000ngmL(-1) for each N-Des-ZO enantiomer (r>0.998). Absolute recovery of 51 and 82% was achieved for N-Des-ZO and ZO, respectively. The accuracy and precision results agreed with the EMA (European Medicines Agency) guideline, and so did the stability study. Application of the developed method in a biotransformation study was conducted in order to investigate the ability of fungi, belonging to the genus Cunninghamella, in metabolizing ZO chiral drug. Fungi Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 10028B and Cunninghamella echinulata var elegans ATCC 8688A demonstrated to be able to enantioselectively biotransform ZO to its active metabolite, N-Des-ZO. Therefore, the proposed goals of this work, i.e. a fast DLLME-CE method and an outstanding strategy to obtain N-Des-ZO, were successfully attained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M.; Hoffman, Gary M.; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1 h. For metabolite identification by 19 F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 μmol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 μmol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 μmol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. -- Highlights: ► No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ► No differences in metabolic pattern between pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits. ► Rapid and similar metabolite

  7. Mercury Analysis of Acid- and Alkaline-Reduced Biological Samples: Identification of meta-Cinnabar as the Major Biotransformed Compound in Algae†

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, David; Budd, Kenneth; Lefebvre, Daniel D.

    2006-01-01

    The biotransformation of HgII in pH-controlled and aerated algal cultures was investigated. Previous researchers have observed losses in Hg detection in vitro with the addition of cysteine under acid reduction conditions in the presence of SnCl2. They proposed that this was the effect of Hg-thiol complexing. The present study found that cysteine-Hg, protein and nonprotein thiol chelates, and nucleoside chelates of Hg were all fully detectable under acid reduction conditions without previous d...

  8. Prospective role of indigenous Exiguobacterium profundum PT2 in arsenic biotransformation and biosorption by planktonic cultures and biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba; Andreasen, R; Li, Y; Rehman, Y; Ahmed, M; Meyer, R L; Sabri, A N

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse arsenic (As) transformation and biosorption by indigenous As-resistant bacteria both in planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. As-resistant bacteria were isolated from industrial waste water and strain PT2, and identified as Exiguobacterium profundum through 16S rRNA gene sequencing was selected for further study. As transformation and biosorption by E. profundumPT2 was determined by HPLC-ICP-MS analysis. Planktonic cultures reduced 3·73 mmol l -1 As 5+ into As 3+ from artificial waste water effluent after 48-h incubation. In case of biosorption, planktonic cultures and biofilms exhibited 25·2 and 29·4 mg g -1 biomass biosorption, respectively. As biosorption kinetics followed Freundlich isotherm and pseudo second-order model. Biofilm formation peaked after 3 days of incubation, and in the presence of As stress, biofilm formation was significantly affected in contrast to control (P biofilms with an increased demand of nutrients was revealed by minimum roughness and maximum surface to biovolume ratio measured through CLSM analysis. Indigenous As-resistant E. profundumPT2 was found capable of As transformation and biosorption both in the form of planktonic cultures and biofilms. Indigenous biofilm forming E. profundum PT2 revealing As biosorption and biotransformation potential is presented an eco-friendly and cost-effective source for As remediation that can be implemented for waste water treatment. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Magnetized poly(STY-co-DVB) as a matrix for immobilizing microbial lipase to be used in biotransformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bento, H.B.S.; Castro, H.F. de; Oliveira, P.C. de; Freitas, L., E-mail: larissafreitas@usp.br

    2017-03-15

    Magnetized hydrophobic polymeric particles were prepared by suspension polymerization of styrene and divinylbenzene with the addition of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) functionalized with oleic acid (OA). The magnetic poly(STY-co-DVB) particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the magnetic polymer particles fulfill the requirements for being used as matrix in the immobilization of microbial lipase from Candida rugosa by physical adsorption. The resulted immobilized derivative presented high catalytic activity in both aqueous and non-aqueous media. A comparative study between free and immobilized lipases showed a similar biochemical behavior, but with better hydrolytic activity at a pH range of 8.0–8.5. The patterns of heat stability indicated that the immobilization process also stabilizes the enzyme by a 50-fold improvement of thermal stability parameters (thermal deactivation and half-life time). Data on olive oil hydrolytic activities indicated that the Michaelis–Menten equation can be used to adjust data so as to calculate K{sub m} and V{sub max}, which attained values of 1766 mM and 5870 µM g{sup −1} min{sup −1}, respectively. Such values indicated that the immobilized system was subjected to mass transfer limitations. High operational stability (t {sub ½}=1014 h) was achieved under repetitive batch runs in ester synthesis. The results indicated that the magnetized support particles can be very promising carriers for immobilizing enzymes in biotransformation reactions. - Highlights: • Magnetized hydrophobic polymeric particles were prepared by suspension polymerization. • The incorporation of magnetic particles did not impair the biocatalyst performance. • The immobilization technique improved the stabilization of the enzyme. • The results showed high yields in n-butyl-butyrate synthesis.

  10. Arsenic bioaccumulation and biotransformation in deep-sea hydrothermal vent organisms from the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, Manus Basin, PNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Roy E.; Breuer, Christian; Reeves, Eoghan; Bach, Wolfgang; Pichler, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Hydrothermal vents are often enriched in arsenic, and organisms living in these environments may accumulate high concentrations of this and other trace elements. However, very little research to date has focused on understanding arsenic bioaccumulation and biotransformation in marine organisms at deep-sea vent areas; none to date have focused organisms from back-arc spreading centers. We present for the first time concentration and speciation data for As in vent biota from several hydrothermal vent fields in the eastern Manus basin, a back-arc basin vent field located in the Bismark Sea, western Pacific Ocean. The gastropods Alviniconcha hessleri and Ifremeria nautilei, and the mussel Bathymodiolus manusensis were collected from diffuse venting areas where pH was slightly lower (6.2-6.8), and temperature (26.8-10.5 °C) and arsenic concentrations (169.5-44.0 nM) were higher than seawater. In the tissues of these organisms, the highest total measured As concentrations were in the gills of A. hessleri (5580 mg kg-1), with 721 mg kg-1 and 43 mg kg-1 in digestive gland and muscle, respectively. I. nautilei contained 118 mg kg-1 in the gill, 108 mg kg-1 in the digestive gland and 22 mg kg-1 in the muscle. B. manusensis contained 15.7 mg kg-1 in the digestive gland, followed by 9.8 mg kg-1 and 4.5 mg kg-1 in its gill and muscle tissue, respectively. We interpret the decreasing overall total concentrations in each organism as a function of distance from the source of hydrothermally derived As. The high concentration of arsenic in A. hessleri gills may be associated with elemental sulfur known to occur in this organism as a result of symbiotic microorganisms. Arsenic extracted from freeze-dried A. hessleri tissue was dominated by AsIII and AsV in the digestive gland (82% and 16%, respectively) and gills (97% AsIII, 2.3% AsV), with only 1.8% and 0.2% arsenobetaine (As-Bet) in the digestive gland and gills, respectively. However, the muscle contained substantial amounts of

  11. Biotransformation of 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural into 2,5-furan-dicarboxylic acid by bacterial isolate using thermal acid algal hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chu-Fang; Huang, Ci-Ruei

    2016-08-01

    Thermal acid hydrolysis is often used to deal with lignocellulosic biomasses, but 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural (5-HMF) formed during hydrolysis deeply influences downstream fermentation. 2,5-Furan-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA), which is in the list of future important biomass platform molecules can be obtained using 5-HMF biotransformation. Based on the connection between 5-HMF removal in acid hydrolysate and FDCA production, the optimum thermal acid hydrolysis condition for macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum was established. Potential microbes capable of transforming 5-HMF into FDCA were isolated and characterized under various parameters and inoculated into algal hydrolysate to perform 5-HMF biotransformation. The optimum hydrolysis condition was to apply 0.5M HCl to treat 3% algal biomass under 121°C for 15min. Isolated Burkholderia cepacia H-2 could transform 2000mg/L 5-HMF at the initial pH of 7 at 28°C and 1276mg/L FDCA was received. Strain B. cepacia H-2 was suitable for treating the algal hydrolysate without dilution, receiving 989.5mg/L FDCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biotransformation of Daclatasvir In Vitro and in Nonclinical Species: Formation of the Main Metabolite by Pyrrolidine δ-Oxidation and Rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenying; Zhao, Weiping; Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Xiaohua; Lopez, Omar D; Leet, John E; Fancher, R Marcus; Nguyen, Van; Goodrich, Jason; Easter, John; Hong, Yang; Caceres-Cortes, Janet; Chang, Shu Y; Ma, Li; Belema, Makonen; Hamann, Lawrence G; Gao, Min; Zhu, Mingshe; Shu, Yue-Zhong; Humphreys, W Griffith; Johnson, Benjamin M

    2016-06-01

    Daclatasvir is a first-in-class, potent, and selective inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A replication complex. In support of nonclinical studies during discovery and exploratory development, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used in connection with synthetic and radiosynthetic approaches to investigate the biotransformation of daclatasvir in vitro and in cynomolgus monkeys, dogs, mice, and rats. The results of these studies indicated that disposition of daclatasvir was accomplished mainly by the release of unchanged daclatasvir into bile and feces and, secondarily, by oxidative metabolism. Cytochrome P450s were the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of daclatasvir. Oxidative pathways included δ-oxidation of the pyrrolidine moiety, resulting in ring opening to an aminoaldehyde intermediate followed by an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde and the proximal imidazole nitrogen atom. Despite robust formation of the resulting metabolite in multiple systems, rates of covalent binding to protein associated with metabolism of daclatasvir were modest (55.2-67.8 pmol/mg/h) in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form)-supplemented liver microsomes (human, monkey, rat), suggesting that intramolecular rearrangement was favored over intermolecular binding in the formation of this metabolite. This biotransformation profile supported the continued development of daclatasvir, which is now marketed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Purification of Biotransformation Products of Cis-Isoflavan-4-ol by Biphenyl Dioxygenase of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 Strain Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Ratna Sulistiyani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavone has multiple beneficial effects on human health, especially through its antioxidant and anticancer activities. The biotransformation of isoflavone using byphenyl dioxygenase could be performed to extend the diversity of flavonoids and to improve their biological and physiological properties. Biotransformation of two enantiomers (3R, 4R-cis-isoflavan-4-ol and (3S, 4S-cis-isoflavan-4-ol by E. coli JM109 (pJHF108 carrying a biphenyl dioxygenase gene from P. pseudoalcaligenesKF707 produced two products, designated as CM1 andCM2. The products had a retention time of 11.9 and 14.6 min, respectively, and the same absorption peaks at 204, 220, and 275 nm. CM1 and CM2 had [M-H2O+H]+ at m/z 225. Based on the molecular mass and hydrolysis products, we proposed that epoxidation occurred on cis-isoflavan-4-ol. Chloroform extraction instead of ethyl acetate extraction was performed to improve the stability of cismetabolites, CM1 and CM2.

  14. Improved growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as well as Increased antioxidant activity by biotransforming litchi pericarp polysaccharide with Aspergillus awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Wen, Lingrong; Yang, Bao; Jiang, Guoxiang; Shi, John; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Yueming

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to increase the bioactivity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides (LPPs) biotransformed by Aspergillus awamori. Compared to the non-A. awamori-fermented LPP, the growth effects of A. awamori-fermented LPP on Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were four and two times higher after 3 days of fermentation, respectively. Increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and DNA protection activity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides were also achieved after A. awamori fermentation. Moreover, the relative content of glucose and arabinose in LPP after fermentation decreased from 58.82% to 22.60% and from 18.82% to 10.09%, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the relative contents of galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and mannose. Furthermore, lower molecular weight polysaccharides were obtained after A. awamori fermentation. It can be concluded that A. awamori was effective in biotransforming LPP into a bioactive mixture with lower molecular weight polysaccharides and higher antioxidant activity and relative galactose content.

  15. A Macrosphelide as the Unexpected Product of a Pleurotus ostreatus Strain-Mediated Biotransformation of Halolactones Containing the gem-Dimethylcyclohexane Ring. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wińska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to obtain new compounds during biotransformation of two halocompounds, the δ-bromo and δ-iodo-γ-bicyclolactones 1 and 2. Unexpectedly Pleurotus ostreatus produced together with the hydroxylactone, 2-hydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonane-8-one (3, its own metabolite (3S,9S,15S-(6E,12E-3,9,15-trimethyl-4,10,16-trioxacyclohexa-deca-6,12-diene-1,5,8,11,14-pentaone (4. The method presented here, in which this macrosphelide 4 was obtained by biotransformation, has not been previously described in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this compound has been prepared only by chemical synthesis to date. This is the first report on the possibility of the biosynthesis of this compound by the Pleurotus ostreatus strain. The conditions and factors, like temperature, salts, organic solvents, affecting the production of this macrosphelide by Pleurotus ostreatus strain were examined. The highest yield of macroshphelide production was noticed for halolactones, as well with iodide, bromide, iron and copper (2+ ions as inductors.

  16. Immobilization of metal-humic acid complexes in anaerobic granular sludge for their application as solid-phase redox mediators in the biotransformation of iopromide in UASB reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Zavala, Aracely S; Pat-Espadas, Aurora M; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Chazaro-Ruiz, Luis F; Ascacio-Valdes, Juan A; Aguilar, Cristobal N; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2016-05-01

    Metal-humic acid complexes were synthesized and immobilized by a granulation process in anaerobic sludge for their application as solid-phase redox mediators (RM) in the biotransformation of iopromide. Characterization of Ca- and Fe-humic acid complexes revealed electron accepting capacities of 0.472 and 0.556milli-equivalentsg(-1), respectively. Once immobilized, metal-humic acid complexes significantly increased the biotransformation of iopromide in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Control UASB reactor (without humic material) achieved 31.6% of iopromide removal, while 80% was removed in UASB reactors supplied with each metal-humic acid complex. Further analyses indicated multiple transformation reactions taking place in iopromide including deiodination, N-dealkylation, decarboxylation and deacetylation. This is the first successful application of immobilized RM, which does not require a supporting material to maintain the solid-phase RM in long term operation of bioreactors. The proposed redox catalyst could be suitable for enhancing the redox conversion of different recalcitrant pollutants present in industrial effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved Growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as well as Increased Antioxidant Activity by Biotransforming Litchi Pericarp Polysaccharide with Aspergillus awamori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to increase the bioactivity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides (LPPs biotransformed by Aspergillus awamori. Compared to the non-A. awamori-fermented LPP, the growth effects of A. awamori-fermented LPP on Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were four and two times higher after 3 days of fermentation, respectively. Increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and DNA protection activity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides were also achieved after A. awamori fermentation. Moreover, the relative content of glucose and arabinose in LPP after fermentation decreased from 58.82% to 22.60% and from 18.82% to 10.09%, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the relative contents of galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and mannose. Furthermore, lower molecular weight polysaccharides were obtained after A. awamori fermentation. It can be concluded that A. awamori was effective in biotransforming LPP into a bioactive mixture with lower molecular weight polysaccharides and higher antioxidant activity and relative galactose content.

  18. Biotransformation in the zebrafish embryo -temporal gene transcription changes of cytochrome P450 enzymes and internal exposure dynamics of the AhR binding xenobiotic benz[a]anthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnert, Agnes; Vogs, Carolina; Seiwert, Bettina; Aulhorn, Silke; Altenburger, Rolf; Hollert, Henner; Küster, Eberhard; Busch, Wibke

    2017-11-01

    Not much is known about the biotransformation capability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. For understanding possible toxicity differences to adult fish, it might be crucial to understand the biotransformation of chemicals in zebrafish embryos i.e. as part of toxicokinetics. The biotransformation capabilities were analysed for two different stages of zebrafish embryos in conjunction with the internal concentrations of a xenobiotic. Zebrafish embryos of the late cleavage/early blastula period (2-26 hpf) and the early pharyngula period (26-50 hpf) were exposed for 24 h to the AhR binding compound benz[a]anthracene (BaA). Time dependent changes in cyp transcription (cyp1a, cyp1b1, cyp1c1 and cyp1c2) as well as concentration & time-dependent courses of BaA in the fish embryo and the exposure medium were analysed. Additionally, the CYP mediated formation of biotransformation products was investigated. We found correlations between transcriptional responses and the internal concentration for both exposure types. These correlations were depending on the start of the exposure i.e. the age of the exposed embryo. While no significant induction of the examined gene transcripts was observed in the first 12 h of exposure beginning in the blastula period a correlation was apparent when exposure started later i.e. in the pharyngula period. A significant induction of cyp1a was detected already after 1.5 h of BaA exposure. Gene transcripts for cyp1b1, cyp1c1 and cyp1c2 showed expressions distinctly different from cyp1a and were, in general, less inducible by BaA in both exposure windows. The toxicokinetic analysis showed that the biotransformation capability was fivefold higher in the older fish embryos. Biotransformation products of phase I reactions were found between 32 hpf and 50 hpf and were tentatively identified as benz[a]anthracene-phenol and benz[a]anthracene-dihydrodiol-epoxide. In conclusion, not only duration but also onset of exposure in relation to the

  19. Biotransformation and metabolic profile of Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao capsule, a traditional Chinese medicine prescription, with rat intestinal microflora by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng-Xue; Tang, Xi-Yang; Zhang, Feng-Xiang; Yao, Zhi-Hong; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Dai, Yi

    2018-04-01

    Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao capsule (XLGB), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine prescription, has been used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The safety and efficacy of XLGB have been confirmed based on the principle of evidence-based medicine. XLGB is usually administered orally, after which its multiple components are brought into contact with intestinal microflora in the alimentary tract and biotransformed. However, investigations on the comprehensive metabolic profile of XLGB are absent. In this study, 12 representative compounds bearing different typical structures (including iridoid glycosides, prenylated flavonol glycosides, prenylated flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins, steroidal saponins, coumarins and monoterpene phenols) were selected and then investigated for their biotransformation in rat intestinal microflora. In addition, the metabolic profile of XLGB in rat intestinal microflora was investigated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. As a result, a total of 87 biotransformation components were identified from incubated solutions of 12 representative compounds and XLGB, which underwent 16 metabolic reactions (including deglycosylation, glycosylation, dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, oxidation, epoxidation, hydroxylation, dehydration, hydration, hydrolysis, methylation, isomerization, cyclization, pyrolysis reaction, amino acid conjugation and nucleophilic addition reaction with NH 3 ). This demonstrated that the deglycosylation reaction by cleavage of the sugar moieties is the main metabolic pathway of a variety of glycosides, including prenylated flavonol glycosides, coumarin glycosides, iridoid glycosides and saponins. In addition, compared with the biotransformation of 12 representative compounds, a different biotransformed fate was observed in the XLGB incubated samples of rat intestinal microflora. It is worth noting that the amino acid conjugation was first discovered

  20. Environmentally relevant organophosphate triesters in herring gulls: In vitro biotransformation and kinetics and diester metabolite formation using a hepatic microsomal assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, Alana K.; Su, Guanyong; Letcher, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro biotransformation and kinetics of six organophosphate triester (OPE) flame retardants were investigated in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the Great Lakes using a hepatic microsomal metabolism assay. Administration of each individual OPE (tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), triethyl phosphate (TEP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP)) to the in vitro assay (concentration range 0.01 to 10 μM) resulted in rapid depletion with the exception of TEP. Following the Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics model, a preliminary 2-minute incubation period was used to estimate the V max (± SE) values (i.e., the maximal rate of reaction for a saturated enzyme system), which ranged from 5.0 ± 0.4 (TPHP) to 29 ± 18 pmol/min/mg protein (TBOEP), as well as the K M (± SE) values (i.e., the OPE concentration corresponding to one half of the V max ), which ranged from 9.8 ± 1 (TPHP) to 189 ± 135 nM (TBOEP). Biotransformation assays over a 100-minute incubation period revealed that TNBP was metabolized most rapidly (with a depletion rate of 73 ± 4 pmol/min/mg protein), followed by TBOEP (53 ± 8 pmol/min/mg), TCIPP (27 ± 1 pmol/min/mg), TPHP (22 ± 2 pmol/min/mg) and TDCIPP (8 ± 1 pmol/min/mg). In vitro biotransformation of OP triesters was clearly structure-dependent where non-halogenated alkyl OP triesters were metabolized more rapidly than halogenated alkyl triesters. Halogenated OP triesters were transformed to their respective diesters more efficiently relative to non-halogenated OP triesters. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate OP triester metabolism and OP diester formation in an avian or wildlife model system, which is important to understand the fate and biological activity of OPEs in an exposed organism. - Highlights: • The metabolism and kinetics of 6 OPEs were examined in herring gull liver microsomes. • The

  1. Environmentally relevant organophosphate triesters in herring gulls: In vitro biotransformation and kinetics and diester metabolite formation using a hepatic microsomal assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, Alana K. [Wildlife and Landscape Directorate, Science and Technology Branch, Environment and Climate Change Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6 (Canada); Su, Guanyong, E-mail: guanyong.su85@gmail.com [Wildlife and Landscape Directorate, Science and Technology Branch, Environment and Climate Change Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6 (Canada); Letcher, Robert J., E-mail: robert.letcher@canada.ca [Wildlife and Landscape Directorate, Science and Technology Branch, Environment and Climate Change Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2016-10-01

    The in vitro biotransformation and kinetics of six organophosphate triester (OPE) flame retardants were investigated in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the Great Lakes using a hepatic microsomal metabolism assay. Administration of each individual OPE (tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), triethyl phosphate (TEP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP)) to the in vitro assay (concentration range 0.01 to 10 μM) resulted in rapid depletion with the exception of TEP. Following the Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics model, a preliminary 2-minute incubation period was used to estimate the V{sub max} (± SE) values (i.e., the maximal rate of reaction for a saturated enzyme system), which ranged from 5.0 ± 0.4 (TPHP) to 29 ± 18 pmol/min/mg protein (TBOEP), as well as the K{sub M} (± SE) values (i.e., the OPE concentration corresponding to one half of the V{sub max}), which ranged from 9.8 ± 1 (TPHP) to 189 ± 135 nM (TBOEP). Biotransformation assays over a 100-minute incubation period revealed that TNBP was metabolized most rapidly (with a depletion rate of 73 ± 4 pmol/min/mg protein), followed by TBOEP (53 ± 8 pmol/min/mg), TCIPP (27 ± 1 pmol/min/mg), TPHP (22 ± 2 pmol/min/mg) and TDCIPP (8 ± 1 pmol/min/mg). In vitro biotransformation of OP triesters was clearly structure-dependent where non-halogenated alkyl OP triesters were metabolized more rapidly than halogenated alkyl triesters. Halogenated OP triesters were transformed to their respective diesters more efficiently relative to non-halogenated OP triesters. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate OP triester metabolism and OP diester formation in an avian or wildlife model system, which is important to understand the fate and biological activity of OPEs in an exposed organism. - Highlights: • The metabolism and kinetics of 6 OPEs were examined in herring gull liver

  2. Anaerobic biotransformation of estrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajka, Cynthia P.; Londry, Kathleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Estrogens are important environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine systems and feminize male fish. We investigated the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of the estrogens 17-α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17-β-estradiol (E2) in order to understand their fate in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cultures were established using lake water and sediment under methanogenic, sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions. Anaerobic degradation of EE2 (added at 5 mg/L) was not observed in multiple trials over long incubation periods (over three years). E2 (added at 5 mg/L) was transformed to estrone (E1) under all four anaerobic conditions (99-176 μg L -1 day -1 ), but the extent of conversion was different for each electron acceptor. The oxidation of E2 to E1 was not inhibited by E1. Under some conditions, reversible inter-conversion of E2 and E1 was observed, and the final steady state concentration of E2 depended on the electron-accepting condition but was independent of the total amount of estrogens added. In addition, racemization occurred and E1 was also transformed to 17-α-estradiol under all but nitrate-reducing conditions. Although E2 could be readily transformed to E1 and in many cases 17-α-estradiol under anaerobic conditions, the complete degradation of estrogens under these conditions was minimal, suggesting that they would accumulate in anoxic environments

  3. Biotransformations with nitrilases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Ludmila; Křen, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2010), s. 130-137 ISSN 1367-5931 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200708; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA MŠk OC09046; GA MPO FT-TA5/043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ENZYME-PROMOTED DESYMMETRISATION * PSEUDOMONAS-FLUORESCENS EBC191 * SUBSTRATE-SPECIFICITY Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.312, year: 2010

  4. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  5. Simulation of subsurface biotransformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, T.N.P.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants like DDT, Polychlorobiphenyls (PCB's) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), have been detected all over the world. They tend to accumulate in the atmosphere and in the soil as a result of their physical and chemical properties. Breakdown mainly proceeds by

  6. Biotransformation of zearalenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharkawy, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Zearalenone is a non-steroidal mold metabolite which as been associated with the estrogenising syndromes in swines and reproduction problems in cattle when fed with infected grains. This study investigates the metabolism of zearalenone by microorganisms using different fungal species as a model system employing the two-stage fermentation protocol. Screening with 170 microorganisms was carried out and those fermentations showing appreciable transformation were scaled up for large-scale fermentation. Following extraction of the fermentation with chloroform, the solvent was concentrated and the residue purified by silica gel columns or preparative thin layer chromatography. The identification of the purified metabolites was established by using IR, 'H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, and high resolution mass spectral analysis, as well as comparison of their R/sub f/ values and R/sub t/ on thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The binding characteristics of zearalenone as well as its derivatives to estrogen-receptors using the 3 H-estradiol receptor competition assay were determined. Six metabolites were shown to interact directly with the estrogen receptors. Alpha-zearalanol was found to be the most active competitor for estradiol binding. The remaining six metabolites lacked the ability to bind to the estrogen receptor and are therefore biologically inactive

  7. Biotransformation of sterols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bras Heleno de; Bueno, Deise Dias

    1996-01-01

    In this work we describe the isolation of a Gram positive bacterium from a soil sample and its ability to transform β-sitosterol into androst-4-en-3,17-dione, a valuable intermediate in the synthesis of steroids. Carbon-13 and proton NMR are used its identify and characterize their molecular structure. (author)

  8. [The biotransformation of fenetylline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rücker, G; Neugebauer, M; Heiden, P G

    1988-04-01

    After oral administration of 3,7-dihydro-1,3-dimethyl-7-2 [(1-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-amino-ethyl]-1H-purine-2,6-dione (fenetylline, Captagon), 7 new metabolites could be detected in urine besides 4 known substances. The metabolites were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and by comparison of the mass spectra (MS) of metabolites with those of authentic reference compounds using a combined GC/MS method.

  9. The Role of Aldehyde Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase in the Biotransformation of a Novel Negative Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ryan D.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Byers, Frank W.; Santomango, Tammy S.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Stec, Donald; Brewer, Katrina A.; Sanchez-Ponce, Raymundo; Corlew, Melany M.; Rush, Roger; Felts, Andrew S.; Manka, Jason; Bates, Brittney S.; Venable, Daryl F.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Jones, Carrie K.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2012-01-01

    Negative allosteric modulation (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) represents a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of childhood developmental disorders, such as fragile X syndrome and autism. VU0409106 emerged as a lead compound within a biaryl ether series, displaying potent and selective inhibition of mGlu5. Despite its high clearance and short half-life, VU0409106 demonstrated efficacy in rodent models of anxiety after extravascular administration. However, lack of a consistent correlation in rat between in vitro hepatic clearance and in vivo plasma clearance for the biaryl ether series prompted an investigation into the biotransformation of VU0409106 using hepatic subcellular fractions. An in vitro appraisal in rat, monkey, and human liver S9 fractions indicated that the principal pathway was NADPH-independent oxidation to metabolite M1 (+16 Da). Both raloxifene (aldehyde oxidase inhibitor) and allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) attenuated the formation of M1, thus implicating the contribution of both molybdenum hydroxylases in the biotransformation of VU0409106. The use of 18O-labeled water in the S9 experiments confirmed the hydroxylase mechanism proposed, because 18O was incorporated into M1 (+18 Da) as well as in a secondary metabolite (M2; +36 Da), the formation of which was exclusively xanthine oxidase-mediated. This unusual dual and sequential hydroxylase metabolism was confirmed in liver S9 and hepatocytes of multiple species and correlated with in vivo data because M1 and M2 were the principal metabolites detected in rats administered VU0409106. An in vitro-in vivo correlation of predicted hepatic and plasma clearance was subsequently established for VU0409106 in rats and nonhuman primates. PMID:22711749

  10. Microsomal biotransformation of chlorpyrifos, parathion and fenthion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): mechanistic insights into interspecific differences in toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Rainbow trout often serve as a surrogate species evaluating xenobiotic toxicity in cold-water species including other salmonids of the same genus, which are listed as threatened or endangered. Biotransformation tends to show species-specific patterns that influence susceptibility to xenobiotic toxicity, particularly organophoshpate insecticides (OPs). To evaluate the contribution of biotransformation in the mechanism of toxicity of three organophosphate (phosphorothionate) insecticides, chlorpyrifos, parathion and fenthion, microsomal bioactivation and detoxification pathways were measured in gills, liver and olfactory tissues in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and compared to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Consistent with species differences in acute toxicity, significantly higher chlorpyrifos bioactivation was found in liver microsomes of rainbow trout (up to 2-fold) when compared with coho salmon. Although bioactivation to the oxon was observed, the catalytic efficiency towards chlorpyrifos dearylation (detoxification) was significantly higher in liver for both species (1.82 and 0.79 for trout and salmon, respectively) when compared to desulfuration (bioactivation). Bioactivation of parathion to paraoxon was significantly higher (up to 2.2-fold) than detoxification to p-nitrophenol in all tissues of both species with rates of conversion in rainbow trout, again significantly higher than coho salmon. Production of fenoxon and fenthion sulfoxides from fenthion was detected only in liver and gills of both species with activities in rainbow trout significantly higher than coho salmon. NADPH-Dependent hydrolysis of fenthion was observed in all tissues, and was the only activity detected in olfactory tissues. These results indicate rainbow trout are more sensitive than coho salmon to the acute toxicity of OP pesticides because trout have higher catalytic rates of oxon formation. Thus, rainbow trout may serve as a conservative surrogate

  11. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Monserrat, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As III and As V were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST Ω), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As V . Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST Ω compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As III and As V can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. - Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented marked differences between gills and liver after arsenic exposure in terms of antioxidant responses and also in biotransformation.

  12. Micro x-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis of arsenic localization and biotransformation in Chironomus riparius Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae) and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogren, Christina L.; Webb, Samuel M.; Walton, William E.; Trumble, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and speciation of arsenic (As) were analyzed in individuals of various life stages of a midge, Chironomus riparius, and the mosquito Culex tarsalis exposed to 1000 μg/l arsenate. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed that C. riparius larvae accumulate As in their midgut, with inorganic arsenate [As(V)] being the predominant form, followed by arsenite [As(III)] and an As-thiol. Reduced concentrations of As in pupal and adult stages of C. riparius indicate excretion of As between the larval and pupal stages. In adults, As was limited to the thorax, and the predominant form was an As-thiol. In Cx. tarsalis, As was not found in high enough concentrations to determine As speciation, but the element was distributed throughout the larva. In adults, As was concentrated in the thorax and eyes of adults. These results have implications for understanding the biotransformation of As and its movement from aquatic to terrestrial environments. -- Highlights: •C. riparius larvae reduced arsenate to arsenite in the midgut. •C. riparius larvae accumulated As in the midgut, with 27% as a transformed As-thiol. •C. riparius adults retained As in the thorax, with 53% as As-thiol. •Larvae of Cx. tarsalis did not have a specific site of As accumulation. •Low concentrations of As in adults suggest reduced terrestrial transfer potential. -- Arsenic accumulation and biotransformation in aquatic insects is variable, but the location and speciation of As provides insight into the detoxification mechanisms of aquatic Diptera

  13. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, 60100, Ancona (Italy); Monserrat, Jose M., E-mail: josemmonserrat@pesquisador.cnpq.b [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As{sup III} and As{sup V} were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST OMEGA), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As{sup V}. Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST OMEGA compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As{sup III} and As{sup V} can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. - Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented marked differences between gills and liver after arsenic exposure in terms of antioxidant responses and also in biotransformation.

  14. High-resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Jonathan D; Ekman, Drew R; Cavallin, Jenna E; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Collette, Timothy W

    2018-03-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to control water or treated wastewater effluent at 5, 20, and 100% levels for 21 d, using an on-site, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. Both sex-specific and non-sex-specific responses were observed in the mucus metabolome, the latter suggesting the induction of general compensatory pathways for xenobiotic exposures. Altogether, 85 statistically significant treatment-dependent metabolite changes were observed out of the 310 total endogenous metabolites that were detected (156 of the 310 were annotated). Partial least squares-regression models revealed strong covariances between the mucus metabolomes and up-regulated hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcripts reported previously for these same fish. These regression models suggest that mucus metabolomic changes reflected, in part, processes by which the fish biotransformed xenobiotics in the effluent. In keeping with this observation, we detected a phase II transformation product of bisphenol A in the skin mucus of male fish. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the utility of mucus as a minimally invasive matrix for simultaneously assessing exposures and effects of environmentally relevant mixtures of contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:788-796. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  15. Biotransformation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin G1 in peanut meal by anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Chi, Chen; Shan, Shihua; Guan, Bin

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus to biotransform aflatoxins in peanut meal. The pH of the peanut meal was adjusted above 10, and then heated for 10 min at 100 °C, 115 °C and 121 °C. The S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were precultured together in MRS broth for 48 h at 37 °C. The heated peanut meal was mixed with precultured MRS broth containing 7.0×10(8) CFU/mL of S. thermophilus and 3.0×10(3) CFU/mL of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with the ratio of 1 to 1 (weight to volume) and incubated in anaerobic jars at 37 °C for 3 days. The aflatoxin content in the peanut meal samples was determined by HPLC. The results showed that the peanut meal contained mainly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (10.5±0.64 μg/kg) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) (18.7±0.55 μg/kg). When heat treatment was combined with anaerobic solid fermentation, the biotransformation rate of aflatoxins in peanut meal could attain 100%. The cytotoxicity of fermented peanut meal to L929 mouse connective tissue fibroblast cells was determined by MTT assay and no significant toxicity was observed in the fermented peanut meal. Furthermore, heat treatment and anaerobic solid fermentation did not change the amino acid concentrations and profile in peanut meal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ANALYSIS OF POLYMORPHISM OF THE GENES OF THE PHASE II OF XENOBIOTICS BIOTRANSFORMATION (GSTM1, GSTT1 IN THE SHORIANS AND ALIEN POPULATION OF THE KEMEROVO REGION: THE PROBLEM OF THE DIFFERENCES IN MORTALITY RATE FROM MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

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    Фаина Анисимовна Лузина

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions. The reduced frequency of the deletion variants of the genes of xenobiotics biotransformation (GSTM1, GSTT1 in the Shorians allows predicting the risk of disease incidence and mortality rates from oncologic pathology at the population level. Under the same ecological conditions of the urban environment mortality rates from MNP among the Shorians occupy a lower rank in the structure of the main classes of death causes in the comparison with the population of Novokuznetsk.

  17. Effects of UV light alone and in combination with phenobarbital on bilirubin concentration in serum and on bromosulfophthalein elimination from blood as well as cytochrome P 450-dependent biotransformation reactions in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankermann, K.J.; Klinger, W.; Mueller, D.

    1979-01-01

    In studying the effects of UV light alone and combined with the phenobarbital inductor, a shortening of the barbital and hexobarbital lateral position time, a lowering of the bilirubin concentration and an acceleration of the bromosulfophthalein (BSP) clearance could be revealed. Effects not accompanied with an increase of biotransformation reactions such as cytochrome P 450 concentration in liver microsomes and binding of BSP on cytoplasmic acceptor proteins Y and Z of the liver as well as the amidopyridine N demethylation remained unchanged

  18. Accumulation, Biotransformation, Histopathology and Paralysis in the Pacific Calico Scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the Paralyzing Toxins of the Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

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    Rosalba Alonso-Rodriguez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopically analyzed. Paralysis was observed and the time of recovery recorded. Accumulation and possible biotransformation of toxins were measured by HPLC analysis. Feeding activity in treated scallops showed that scallops produced pseudofeces, ingestion rates decreased at 8 h; approximately 60% of the scallops were paralyzed and melanin production and hemocyte aggregation were observed in several tissues at 15 h. HPLC analysis showed that the only toxins present in the dinoflagellates and scallops were the N-sulfo-carbamoyl toxins (C1, C2; after hydrolysis, the carbamate toxins (epimers GTX2/3 were present. C1 and C2 toxins were most common in the mantle, followed by the digestive gland and stomach-complex, adductor muscle, kidney and rectum group, and finally, gills. Toxin profiles in scallop tissue were similar to the dinoflagellate; biotransformations were not present in the scallops in this short-term feeding experiment.

  19. The guinea-pig expresses functional CYP2C and P-glycoprotein: further validation of its usefulness in drug biotransformation/transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibu, Ibrahim; Patoine, Dany; Pilote, Sylvie; Drolet, Benoit; Simard, Chantale

    2015-04-01

    The guinea-pig is an excellent animal model for studying cardiopulmonary physiology/pharmacology. Interestingly, it also possesses a number of drug-metabolizing enzymes found in humans, such as CYP1A, CYP2D and CYP3A. To evaluate the hypothesis that the guinea-pig also expresses a functional CYP2C drug-metabolizing enzyme and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug transporter in various tissues. cDNAs encoding CYP2C and P-gp were obtained from guinea-pig liver or small intestine and sequenced. Western blotting was performed to confirm the expression of CYP2C and P-gp. The functional enzymatic activity of guinea-pig CYP2C was evaluated with microsomal preparations using diclofenac and tolbutamide as specific drug substrates in HPLC analyses. To further study both P-gp and CYP2C functional activities, the guinea-pig ABCB1/MDR1 and CYP2C genes were cloned. The recombinant plasmids were then transfected in HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cells and either calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (AM) accumulation assays or 14,15-EET/DHET formation experiments were performed to evaluate either P-gp transport activity or CYP2C epoxygenase activity, respectively. The guinea-pig tissue distribution of P-gp was studied by Western blotting. Functional expression of CYP2C was demonstrated in guinea-pig liver microsomal preparations. CYP2C-mediated biotransformation of diclofenac and tolbutamide were shown. Expression of P-gp protein was detected in guinea-pig liver and small intestine. Functional activity of guinea-pig P-gp was demonstrated in ABCB1/MDR1-transfected cells. GP-CYP2C-transfected cells also showed functional epoxygenase activity. The guinea-pig expresses functional CYP2C and P-gp, thus suggesting its usefulness for further validating data obtained with other animal models in drug biotransformation/transport studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of brominated and chlorinated contaminants and their metabolites in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Robert J; Gebbink, Wouter A; Sonne, Christian; Born, Erik W; McKinney, Melissa A; Dietz, Rune

    2009-11-01

    We report on the comparative bioaccumulation, biotransformation and/or biomagnification from East Greenland ringed seal (Pusa hispida) blubber to polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues (adipose, liver and brain) of various classes and congeners of persistent chlorinated and brominated contaminants and metabolic by-products: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordanes (CHLs), hydroxyl (OH-) and methylsulfonyl (MeSO(2)-) PCBs, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), OH-PBBs, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) flame retardants and OH- and methoxyl (MeO-) PBDEs, 2,2-dichloro-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE), 3-MeSO(2)-p,p'-DDE, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 4-OH-heptachlorostyrene (4-OH-HpCS). We detected all of the investigated contaminants in ringed seal blubber with high frequency, the main diet of East Greenland bears, with the exception of OH-PCBs and 4-OH-HpCS, which indicated that these phenolic contaminants were likely of metabolic origin and formed in the bears from accumulated PCBs and octachlorostyrene (OCS), respectively, rather than being bioaccumulated from a seal blubber diet. For all of the detectable sum of classes or individual organohalogens, in general, the ringed seal to polar bear mean BMFs for SigmaPCBs, p,p'-DDE, SigmaCHLs, SigmaMeSO(2)-PCBs, 3-MeSO(2)-p,p'-DDE, PCP, SigmaPBDEs, total-(alpha)-HBCD, SigmaOH-PBDEs, SigmaMeO-PBDEs and SigmaOH-PBBs indicated that these organohalogens bioaccumulate, and in some cases there was tissue-specific biomagnification, e.g., BMFs for bear adipose and liver ranged from 2 to 570. The blood-brain barrier appeared to be effective in minimizing brain accumulation as BMFs were bear tissues appeared to be mainly accumulated from the seal blubber rather than being metabolic formed from PBDEs in the bears. In vitro PBDE depletion assays using polar bear hepatic microsomes, wherein the rate of oxidative metabolism of PBDE congeners was very slow, supported the probability that accumulation

  1. Bio-electrochemical remediation of real field petroleum sludge as an electron donor with simultaneous power generation facilitates biotransformation of PAH: effect of substrate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, K; Venkata Mohan, S

    2012-04-01

    Remediation of real-field petroleum sludge was studied under self-induced electrogenic microenvironment with the function of variable organic loads (OLs) in bio-electrochemical treatment (BET) systems. Operation under various OLs documented marked influence on both electrogenic activity and remediation efficiency. Both total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and its aromatic fraction documented higher removal with OL4 operation followed by OL3, OL2, OL1 and control. Self-induced biopotential and associated multiple bio-electrocatalytic reactions during BET operation facilitated biotransformation of higher ring aromatics (5-6) to lower ring aromatic (2-3) compounds. Asphaltenes and NSO fractions showed negligible removal during BET operation. Higher electrogenic activity was recorded at OL1 (343mV; 53.11mW/m(2), 100Ω) compared to other three OLs operation. Bioaugmentation to anodic microflora with anaerobic culture documented enhanced electrogenic activity at OL4 operation. Voltammetric profiles, Tafel analysis and VFA generation were in agreement with the observed power generation and degradation efficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Systems Biology Approach to Bioremediation of Nitroaromatics: Constraint-Based Analysis of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Biotransformation by Escherichia coli

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    Maryam Iman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial remediation of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs is a promising environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach to the removal of these life-threating agents. Escherichia coli (E. coli has shown remarkable capability for the biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitro-toluene (TNT. Efforts to develop E. coli as an efficient TNT degrading biocatalyst will benefit from holistic flux-level description of interactions between multiple TNT transforming pathways operating in the strain. To gain such an insight, we extended the genome-scale constraint-based model of E. coli to account for a curated version of major TNT transformation pathways known or evidently hypothesized to be active in E. coli in present of TNT. Using constraint-based analysis (CBA methods, we then performed several series of in silico experiments to elucidate the contribution of these pathways individually or in combination to the E. coli TNT transformation capacity. Results of our analyses were validated by replicating several experimentally observed TNT degradation phenotypes in E. coli cultures. We further used the extended model to explore the influence of process parameters, including aeration regime, TNT concentration, cell density, and carbon source on TNT degradation efficiency. We also conducted an in silico metabolic engineering study to design a series of E. coli mutants capable of degrading TNT at higher yield compared with the wild-type strain. Our study, therefore, extends the application of CBA to bioremediation of nitroaromatics and demonstrates the usefulness of this approach to inform bioremediation research.

  3. Biotransformation of the mycotoxin enniatin B1 in pigs: A comparative in vitro and in vivo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Lada; Uhlig, Silvio; Devreese, Mathias; Croubels, Siska; Fæste, Christiane Kruse

    2017-07-01

    Enniatins (ENNs) are hexadepsipeptidic mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species. They occur in mg/kg levels in grain from Northern climate areas. Major ENNs such as ENN B and B1 have shown considerable cytotoxicity in different in vitro test systems. To adequately assess exposure and in vivo toxicity the toxicokinetic properties need to be investigated. The present study describes the metabolism of ENN B1 both in vitro and in vivo in pigs, comparing metabolites found in vitro in experiments with liver microsomes from different pig strains to those found in the plasma of pigs after single oral or intravenous application of ENN B1. Metabolites of hepatic biotransformation were tentatively identified and characterised by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometry, as well as chemical derivatisations. Kinetic parameters of metabolite formation and elimination were determined. Metabolite formation was higher when ENN B1 was absorbed from the gut compared to intravenous administration indicating pre-systemic metabolism of ENN B1 after oral uptake. The in vitro approach resulted in the detection of ten ENN B1 metabolites, while six were detected in in vivo samples. The putative ENN B1 metabolites were products of hydroxylation, carbonylation, carboxylation and oxidative demethylation reactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Prediction of biotransformation products of the fungicide fluopyram by electrochemistry coupled online to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and comparison with in vitro microsomal assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tessema F; Panne, Ulrich; Koch, Matthias

    2018-04-01

    Biotransformation processes of fluopyram (FLP), a new succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide, were investigated by electrochemistry (EC) coupled online to liquid chromatography (LC) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Oxidative phase I metabolite production was achieved using an electrochemical flow-through cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. Structural elucidation and prediction of oxidative metabolism pathways were assured by retention time, isotopic patterns, fragmentation, and accurate mass measurements using EC/LC/MS, LC-MS/MS, and/or high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The results obtained by EC were compared with conventional in vitro studies by incubating FLP with rat and human liver microsomes (RLM, HLM). Known phase I metabolites of FLP (benzamide, benzoic acid, 7-hydroxyl, 8-hydroxyl, 7,8-dihydroxyl FLP, lactam FLP, pyridyl acetic acid, and Z/E-olefin FLP) were successfully simulated by EC/LC/MS. New metabolites including an imide, hydroxyl lactam, and 7-hydroxyl pyridyl acetic acid oxidative metabolites were predicted for the first time in our study using EC/LC/MS and liver microsomes. We found oxidation by dechlorination to be one of the major metabolism mechanisms of FLP. Thus, our results revealed that EC/LC/MS-based metabolic elucidation was more advantageous on time and cost of analysis and enabled matrix-free detection with valuable information about the mechanisms and intermediates of metabolism processes. Graphical abstract Oxidative metabolism of fluopyram.

  5. Production of Two Novel Methoxy-Isoflavones from Biotransformation of 8-Hydroxydaidzein by Recombinant Escherichia coli Expressing O-Methyltransferase SpOMT2884 from Streptomyces peucetius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Min; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Tsai, Ya-Ting; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Biotransformation of 8-hydroxydaidzein by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing O-methyltransferase (OMT) SpOMT2884 from Streptomyces peucetius was investigated. Two metabolites were isolated and identified as 7,4′-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-isoflavone (1) and 8,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-isoflavone (2), based on mass, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C-NMR spectrophotometric analysis. The maximum production yields of compound (1) and (2) in a 5-L fermenter were 9.3 mg/L and 6.0 mg/L, respectively. The two methoxy-isoflavones showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis in cultured B16 melanoma cells under non-toxic conditions. Among the effects, compound (1) decreased melanogenesis to 63.5% of the control at 25 μM. This is the first report on the 8-O-methylation activity of OMT toward isoflavones. In addition, the present study also first identified compound (1) with potent melanogenesis inhibitory activity. PMID:26610478

  6. Identification of rotundic acid metabolites after oral administration to rats and comparison with the biotransformation by Syncephalastrum racemosum AS 3.264.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Yang, Bao; Cao, Di; Zhou, Lian; Wang, Qing; Rong, Li; Zhou, Xinghong; Jin, Jing; Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2018-02-20

    The objective of this study was to identify the metabolites of rotundic acid after oral administration to rats and compare the similarities with its biotransformation by Syncephalastrum racemosum AS 3.264 using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry. A total of fourteen metabolites were determined based on the mass spectrometry and chromatographic behaviors, among which eleven (M1-M3, M7-M14) and six (M2, M4-M8) metabolites were identified in rats and S. racemosum, respectively. Three identical metabolites (M2, M7 and M8) were found in rats and S. racemosum, indicating that there were metabolic similarities. Moreover, to confirm the results of mass spectrometry, three (M2, M4 and M7) metabolites were obtained by the means of amplifying incubation and their structures were determined by various spectroscopic analyses, and M4 was proved to be a previously undescribed compound. This results showed that in vitro assisted preparation by microbial transformation is a feasible and effective method of obtaining metabolites which are in low amounts and difficult to be prepared in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Copper Enhanced Monooxygenase Activity and FT-IR Spectroscopic Characterisation of Biotransformation Products in Trichloroethylene Degrading Bacterium: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PM102

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    Piyali Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PM102 (NCBI GenBank Acc. no. JQ797560 is capable of growth on trichloroethylene as the sole carbon source. In this paper, we report the purification and characterisation of oxygenase present in the PM102 isolate. Enzyme activity was found to be induced 10.3-fold in presence of 0.7 mM copper with a further increment to 14.96-fold in presence of 0.05 mM NADH. Optimum temperature for oxygenase activity was recorded at 36∘C. The reported enzyme was found to have enhanced activity at pH 5 and pH 8, indicating presence of two isoforms. Maximum activity was seen on incubation with benzene compared to other substrates like TCE, chloroform, toluene, hexane, and petroleum benzene. Km and Vmax for benzene were 3.8 mM and 340 U/mg/min and those for TCE were 2.1 mM and 170 U/mg/min. The crude enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by dialysis. Zymogram analysis revealed two isoforms in the 70% purified enzyme fraction. The activity stain was more prominent when the native gel was incubated in benzene as substrate in comparison to TCE. Crude enzyme and purified enzyme fractions were assayed for TCE degradation by the Fujiwara test. TCE biotransformation products were analysed by FT-IR spectroscopy.

  8. Study of lignin biotransformation by Aspergillus fumigatus and white-rot fungi using 14C-labeled and unlabeled kraft lignins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadam, K.K.; Drew, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    The biodegradation of lignin by fungi was studied in shake flasks using 14 C-labeled kraft lignin and in a deep-tank fermentor using unlabeled kraft lignin. Among the fungi screened, A. fumigatus - isolated in our laboratories - was most potent in lignin biotransformation. Dialysis-type fermentation, designed to study possible accumulation of low MW lignin-derived products, showed no such accumulation. Recalcitrant carbohydrates like microcrystalline cellulose supported higher lignolytic activity than easily metabolized carbohydrates like cellobiose. An assay developed to distinguish between CO 2 evolved from lignin and carbohydrate substrates demonstrated no stoichiometric correlation between the metabolism of the two cosubstrates. The submerged fermentations with unlabeled liqnin are difficult to monitor since chemical assays do not give accurate and true results. Lignolytic efficiencies that allowed monitoring of such fermentations were defined. Degraded lignins were clearly superior to C. versicolor in all aspects of lignin degradation; A fumigatus brought about substantial demethoxylation and dehydroxylation, whereas C. versicolor degraded lignins closely resembled undegraded kraft lignin. There was a good agreement among the different indices of lignin degradation, namely, 14 CO evolution, OCH 3 loss, OH loss, and monomer and dimer yield after permanganate oxidation

  9. Biotransformation of primary nicotine metabolites. I. In vivo metabolism of R-(+)-[14C-NCH3]N-methylnicotinium ion in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, W.F.; Crooks, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The in vivo biotransformation and tissue distribution of the methylated nicotine metabolite R-(+)-[ 14 C-NCH 3 ]N-methylnicotinium acetate was studied in the guinea pig. The detection and quantification of 24-hr urinary metabolites after ip injection was determined by cation-exchange HPLC interfaced to a radiochemical flowthrough detector. The urinary metabolite profile consisted of five peaks. One eluted close to the void, and three coeluted with authentic standards of N-methylcotininium ion, N-methylnornicotinium ion, and N-methylnicotinium ion. A fifth, and as yet unidentified, metabolite was also detected. Tissue distribution of 14 C label after 24 hr was highest in the adrenal gland and epididymis followed by the gallbladder, bladder, kidney, spleen, and heart. No significant amounts of 14 C were found in the brain. The results indicate that N-methylcotininium ion and N-methylnornicotinium ion are both formed subsequent to the formation of N-methylnicotinium ion in the metabolism of R-(+)-nicotine in the guinea pig

  10. The Role of Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress in 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) Induced Nephrotoxicity in Isolated Renal Cortical Cells from Male Fischer 344 Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Christopher R.; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Debbie; Ward, Dakota; Ball, John; Anestis, Dianne; Valentovic, Monica; Rankin, Gary O.

    2016-01-01

    Among the mono- and dichloroanilines, 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of renal biotransformation in 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity is unknown. The current study was designed to determine the in vitro nephrotoxic potential of 3,5-DCA in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) obtained from male Fischer 344 rats, and the role of renal bioactivation and oxidative stress in 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity. IRCC (~4 million cells/ml) from male rats were exposed to 3,5-DCA (0-1.0 mM) for up to 120 min. In IRCC, 3,5-DCA was cytotoxic at 1.0 mM by 60 min as evidenced by the increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but 120 min was required for 3,5-DCA 0.5 mM to increase LDH release. In subsequent studies, IRCC were exposed to a pretreatment (antioxidant or enzyme inhibitor) prior to exposure to 3,5-DCA (1.0 mM) for 90 min. Cytotoxicity induced by 3,5-DCA was attenuated by pretreatment with inhibitors of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; methimazole, N-octylamine), cytochrome P450 (CYP; piperonyl butoxide, metyrapone), or peroxidase (indomethacin, mercaptosuccinate) enzymes. Use of more selective CYP inhibitors suggested that the CYP 2C family contributed to 3,5-DCA bioactivation. Antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, pyruvate) also attenuated 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity, but oxidized glutathione levels and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratios were not increased. These results indicate that 3,5-DCA may be activated via several renal enzyme systems to toxic metabolites, and that free radicals, but not oxidative stress, contribute to 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. PMID:26808022

  11. Uptake, translocation and biotransformation kinetics of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xuehui; Wen, Bei; Huang, Honglin; Wang, Sen; Han, Ruixia; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a detailed kinetic investigation on the uptake, acropetal translocation and transformation of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in maize (Zea mays L.) by hydroponic exposure. Root uptake followed the order: BDE-47 > 6-MeO-BDE-47 > 6-OH-BDE-47, while 6-OH-BDE-47 was the most prone to acropetal translocation. Debromination rates of BDE-47 were 1.31 and 1.46 times greater than the hydroxylation and methoxylation rates, respectively. Transformation from BDE-47 to lower brominated OH/MeO-PBDEs occurred mainly through debromination first followed by hydroxylation or methoxylation. There was no transformation from 6-OH-BDE-47 or 6-MeO-BDE-47 to PBDEs. Methylation rate of 6-OH-BDE-47 was twice as high as that of 6-MeO-BDE-47 hydroxylation, indicating methylation of 6-OH-BDE-47 was easier and more rapid than hydroxylation of 6-MeO-BDE-47. Debromination and isomerization were potential metabolic pathways for 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in maize. This study provides important information for better understanding the mechanism on plant uptake and transformation of PBDEs. - Highlights: • Uptake and translocation of BDE-47 and 6-OH/MeO-BDE-47 were analog-specific. • Debromination was the fast and dominant metabolic reaction of BDE-47 in maize. • Metabolic pathways of BDE-47, 6-OH/MeO-BDE-47 in maize were discussed. • Metabolic processes should be considered in exploring phytoremediation strategy. - This article provides direct in vivo evidences of bioaccumulation and biotransformation of PBDEs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in plants.

  12. Glutathione depletion by valproic acid in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes: Role of biotransformation and temporal relationship with onset of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiang, Tony K.L.; Teng Xiaowei; Surendradoss, Jayakumar; Karagiozov, Stoyan; Abbott, Frank S.; Chang, Thomas K.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes to investigate the chemical basis of glutathione (GSH) depletion by valproic acid (VPA) and evaluate the role of GSH depletion in VPA toxicity. Among the synthetic metabolites of VPA investigated, 4-ene-VPA and (E)-2,4-diene-VPA decreased cellular levels of total GSH, but only (E)-2,4-diene-VPA was more effective and more potent than the parent drug. The in situ generated, cytochrome P450-dependent 4-ene-VPA did not contribute to GSH depletion by VPA, as suggested by the experiment with a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole, to decrease the formation of this metabolite. In support of a role for metabolites, alpha-F-VPA and octanoic acid, which do not undergo biotransformation to form a 2,4-diene metabolite, CoA ester, or glucuronide, did not deplete GSH. A time course experiment showed that GSH depletion did not occur prior to the increase in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (a marker of oxidative stress), the decrease in [2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] (WST-1) product formation (a marker of cell viability), or the increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release (a marker of necrosis) in VPA-treated hepatocytes. In conclusion, the cytochrome P450-mediated 4-ene-VPA pathway does not play a role in the in situ depletion of GSH by VPA, and GSH depletion is not an initiating event in VPA toxicity in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes.

  13. Activation of the Glutamic Acid-Dependent Acid Resistance System in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 Leads to Increase of the Fatty Acid Biotransformation Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Min Woo

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of carboxylic acids including fatty acids from biomass is central in envisaged biorefinery concepts. The productivities are often, however, low due to product toxicity that hamper whole-cell biocatalyst performance. Here, we have investigated factors that influence the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium chain carboxylic acid (i.e., n-heptanoic acid-induced stress. The metabolic and genomic responses of E. coli BL21(DE3 and MG1655 grown in the presence of n-heptanoic acid indicated that the GadA/B-based glutamic acid-dependent acid resistance (GDAR system might be critical for cellular tolerance. The GDAR system, which is responsible for scavenging intracellular protons by catalyzing decarboxylation of glutamic acid, was inactive in E. coli BL21(DE3. Activation of the GDAR system in this strain by overexpressing the rcsB and dsrA genes, of which the gene products are involved in the activation of GadE and RpoS, respectively, resulted in acid tolerance not only to HCl but also to n-heptanoic acid. Furthermore, activation of the GDAR system allowed the recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3 expressing the alcohol dehydrogenase of Micrococcus luteus and the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida to reach 60% greater product concentration in the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid (i.e., 12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (1 into n-heptanoic acid (5 and 11-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (4. This study may contribute to engineering E. coli-based biocatalysts for the production of carboxylic acids from renewable biomass.

  14. Integrated Assessment of Diclofenac Biotransformation, Pharmacokinetics, and Omics-Based Toxicity in a Three-Dimensional Human Liver-Immunocompetent Coculture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ujjal; Ravindra, Kodihalli C; Large, Emma; Young, Carissa L; Rivera-Burgos, Dinelia; Yu, Jiajie; Cirit, Murat; Hughes, David J; Wishnok, John S; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Griffith, Linda G; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2017-07-01

    In vitro hepatocyte culture systems have inherent limitations in capturing known human drug toxicities that arise from complex immune responses. Therefore, we established and characterized a liver immunocompetent coculture model and evaluated diclofenac (DCF) metabolic profiles, in vitro-in vivo clearance correlations, toxicological responses, and acute phase responses using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. DCF biotransformation was assessed after 48 hours of culture, and the major phase I and II metabolites were similar to the in vivo DCF metabolism profile in humans. Further characterization of secreted bile acids in the medium revealed that a glycine-conjugated bile acid was a sensitive marker of dose-dependent toxicity in this three-dimensional liver microphysiological system. Protein markers were significantly elevated in the culture medium at high micromolar doses of DCF, which were also observed previously for acute drug-induced toxicity in humans. In this immunocompetent model, lipopolysaccharide treatment evoked an inflammatory response that resulted in a marked increase in the overall number of acute phase proteins. Kupffer cell-mediated cytokine release recapitulated an in vivo proinflammatory response exemplified by a cohort of 11 cytokines that were differentially regulated after lipopolysaccharide induction, including interleukin (IL)-1 β , IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, tumor necrosis factor- α , RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 β , and IL-5. In summary, our findings indicate that three-dimensional liver microphysiological systems may serve as preclinical investigational platforms from the perspective of the discovery of a set of clinically relevant biomarkers including potential reactive metabolites, endogenous bile acids, excreted proteins, and cytokines to predict early drug

  15. Bioaccumulation Behavior of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Influence of Physical-Chemical Properties and Biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Gong, Zhiyuan; Kelly, Barry C

    2017-10-03

    The factors influencing bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in aquatic organisms are not well understood. The present study involved a comprehensive laboratory investigation to assess the bioaccumulation behavior of several PPCPs in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). The studied PPCPs included several ionogenic organic compounds (IOCs) such as weak acids and weak bases. Experiments involved two exposure groups (high and low) and a control group, with a 6 day aqueous exposure, followed by a 7 day depuration phase under flow-through conditions. Uptake rate constants (k u ) ranged between 0.19 and 8610 L·kg -1 ·d -1 , while depuration rate constants (k d ) ranged between 0.14 and 5.14 d -1 in different fish tissues. Steady-state bioconcentration factor (BCF ss ) values varied widely among the studied PPCPs, ranging from 0.09 to 6,460. In many cases, BCF ss values of individual PPCPs differed substantially among different fish tissues. Positive linear relationships were observed between log BCF ss values and physical-chemical properties such as octanol-water distribution coefficients (log D ow ), membrane-water distribution coefficients (log D mw ), albumin-water distribution coefficients (log D BSAw ), and muscle protein-water distribution coefficients (log D mpw ), indicating the importance of lipid-, phospholipid-, and protein-water partitioning. The results also showed that for many PPCPs, the estimated whole-body metabolism rate constant (k m ) values were comparable to the observed depuration rate (k d ), indicating that metabolism plays a major role in the overall elimination of these compounds in zebrafish. An exception was sertraline, which exhibited a k d value (0.4-0.5 d -1 ) that was much higher than the estimated whole-body k m (0.03 d -1 ). Overall, the results help to better understand the influence of physical-chemical properties and biotransformation on bioaccumulation behavior of these contaminants of concern in aquatic

  16. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst and catalase (cat genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05 and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05. The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage.

  17. Transport and biotransformation of the new cytostatic complex cis-diammineplatinum(II)-chlorocholylglycinate (Bamet-R2) by the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, R I; Monte, M J; El-Mir, M Y; Villanueva, G R; Marin, J J

    1998-09-01

    Rat liver uptake and bile output of the cytostatic complex cis-diammineplatinum(II)-chlorocholylglycinate (Bamet-R2) were studied. Up to 100 microM, Bamet-R2 uptake by rat hepatocytes in primary culture followed saturation kinetics (Vmax = 0.65 +/- 0.12 nmol/5 min per mg protein; K(M) = 45.2 +/- 10.7 microM). Bamet-R2 uptake was lower than that of cholylglycinate (CG) but higher than that of cisplatin. Replacement of 116 mM NaCl by 116 mM choline chloride did not significantly reduce Bamet-R2 uptake. Addition of 500 microM CG, cholic acid, estrone sulfate, or ouabain to 50 microM Bamet-R2-containing incubation media inhibited Bamet-R2 uptake. No liver biotransformation of Bamet-R2 occurred, as indicated by HPLC analysis of bile collected from anesthetized rats after intravenous administration of the drug. Bamet-R2 uptake and secretion into bile by isolated rat livers exceeded those of cisplatin but were lower than those of CG. Differences between Bamet-R2 and CG were more marked for bile output than for liver uptake. Thus, higher Bamet-R2 than CG or cisplatin liver content was found. Co-administration of Bamet-R2 and CG revealed that CG induced a slight reduction in Bamet-R2 uptake and a marked inhibition in Bamet-R2 bile output. By contrast, Bamet-R2 had no effect on CG on either liver uptake or bile output. In sum, the present data indicate that Bamet-R2 is efficiently taken up and secreted into bile by the rat liver by mechanisms shared in part by natural bile acids.

  18. Activation of the Glutamic Acid-Dependent Acid Resistance System in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Leads to Increase of the Fatty Acid Biotransformation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ji-Min; Kim, Ji-Won; Song, Ji-Won; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung

    The biosynthesis of carboxylic acids including fatty acids from biomass is central in envisaged biorefinery concepts. The productivities are often, however, low due to product toxicity that hamper whole-cell biocatalyst performance. Here, we have investigated factors that influence the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium chain carboxylic acid (i.e., n-heptanoic acid)-induced stress. The metabolic and genomic responses of E. coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655 grown in the presence of n-heptanoic acid indicated that the GadA/B-based glutamic acid-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system might be critical for cellular tolerance. The GDAR system, which is responsible for scavenging intracellular protons by catalyzing decarboxylation of glutamic acid, was inactive in E. coli BL21(DE3). Activation of the GDAR system in this strain by overexpressing the rcsB and dsrA genes, of which the gene products are involved in the activation of GadE and RpoS, respectively, resulted in acid tolerance not only to HCl but also to n-heptanoic acid. Furthermore, activation of the GDAR system allowed the recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) expressing the alcohol dehydrogenase of Micrococcus luteus and the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida to reach 60% greater product concentration in the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid (i.e., 12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (1)) into n-heptanoic acid (5) and 11-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (4). This study may contribute to engineering E. coli-based biocatalysts for the production of carboxylic acids from renewable biomass.

  19. Cultivation-independent analysis of archaeal and bacterial communities of the formation water in an Indian coal bed to enhance biotransformation of coal into methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Durgesh Narain; Kumar, Ashok; Tripathi, Anil Kumar [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). School of Biotechnolgy; Sarbhai, Munish Prasad [Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Ahmedabad (India). Inst. of Reservoir Studies

    2012-02-15

    Biogenic origin of the significant proportion of coal bed methane has indicated the role of microbial communities in methanogenesis. By using cultivation-independent approach, we have analysed the archaeal and bacterial community present in the formation water of an Indian coal bed at 600-700 m depth to understand their role in methanogenesis. Presence of methanogens in the formation water was inferred by epifluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification of mcrA gene. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone library from the formation water metagenome was dominated by methanogens showing similarity to Methanobacterium, Methanothermobacter and Methanolinea whereas the clones of bacterial 16S rRNA gene library were closely related to Azonexus, Azospira, Dechloromonas and Thauera. Thus, microbial community of the formation water consisted of predominantly hydrogenotrophic methanogens and the proteobacteria capable of nitrogen fixation, nitrate reduction and polyaromatic compound degradation. Methanogenic potential of the microbial community present in the formation water was elucidated by the production of methane in the enrichment culture, which contained 16S rRNA gene sequences showing close relatedness to the genus Methanobacterium. Microcosm using formation water as medium as well as a source of inoculum and coal as carbon source produced significant amount of methane which increased considerably by the addition of nitrite. The dominance of Diaphorobacter sp. in nitrite amended microcosm indicated their important role in supporting methanogenesis in the coal bed. This is the first study indicating existence of methanogenic and bacterial community in an Indian coal bed that is capable of in situ biotransformation of coal into methane. (orig.)

  20. Effects of subacute PVB-exposure (Arocolor 1254) on oxygen consumption, swimming behavior and biotransformation (GST-activity) of carp (Cyprinus carpio); Wirkung subakuter PCB-Exposition (Aroclor 1254) auf Sauerstoffverbrauch, Schwimmbewegung und Biotransformation (GST-Aktivitaet) des Karpfens (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugmacher, S.; Staaks, G.B.O.; Steinberg, C.E.W. [Leibniz Inst. fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei, Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, K.

    2005-07-01

    Objective and Background. PCB (polychlorinated biphenyle) are typical man-made environmental pollutants that cause a broad spectrum of effects in vertebrates. Although a lot has been studied about the toxic effects of xenobiotic substances on aquatic organisms, their subacute effects are not yet well known. Fish occupies a central position in freshwater food webs and therefore, carp was chosen to be our test organism. The aim of our study was the investigation of subacute effects of Aroclor 1254 (22 {mu}g l{sup -1}) on respiration, swimming activity, and biotransformation, allowing discussion of changed interaction between the available energy resources. Methods. The respiration experiments under controlled laboratory conditions were run for 29 days (5 d before, 16 d with and 8 d after chemical exposure) with exposed carp compared to the non-exposed fish. Furthermore, the BehavioQuant system quantitatively monitors the positions of each individual fish before (8 d) and during (21 d) PCB exposure and swimming activity (number of horizontal turnings s{sup -1}) of animals was calculated. Thereafter, liver samples were taken from animals for analysis of the phase 2 enzyme activity (glutathione-S-transferase). In the respiration experiments were 6 exposure, 6 control, and 3 solubilizer control groups (12 animals each group); in the behavioral experiments were 9 exposure, 6 control- and 3 solubilizer control groups (6 animals each group), and in the enzyme activity measurements were 9 exposure, 6 control and 3 solubilizer control groups (6 animals each group) examined. (orig.)

  1. The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Herrero

    Full Text Available Bisphenol S (BPS is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA, and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1 crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3 that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13 which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control were EcR (3.8, ERR (2, E74 (2.4, cyp18a1 (2.5, hsp70 (1.7, hsp40 (2.5, cyp4g (6.4, GPx (1.8, and GST (2.1, while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.

  2. The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Óscar; Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Planelló, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS) is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1) crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3) that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13) which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control) were EcR (3.8), ERR (2), E74 (2.4), cyp18a1 (2.5), hsp70 (1.7), hsp40 (2.5), cyp4g (6.4), GPx (1.8), and GST (2.1), while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.

  3. The role of human cytochrome P4503A4 in biotransformation of tissue-specific derivatives of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarosova, Monika; Valovicova, Zuzana; Srancikova, Annamaria; Krajcovicova, Zdenka; Milcova, Alena; Sokolova, Romana; Schmuczerova, Jana; Topinka, Jan; Gabelova, Alena

    2011-01-01

    The environmental pollutant 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) and its derivative, 5,9-dimethylDBC (DiMeDBC), produced significant and dose-dependent levels of micronuclei followed by a substantial increase in the frequency of apoptotic cells in the V79MZh3A4 cell line stably expressing the human cytochrome P450 (hCYP) 3A4. In contrast, neither micronuclei nor apoptosis were found in cells exposed to the sarcomagenic carcinogen, N-methylDBC (N-MeDBC). A slight but significant level of gene mutations and DNA adducts detected in V79MZh3A4 cells treated with N-MeDBC, only at the highest concentration (30 μM), revealed that this sarcomagenic carcinogen was also metabolized by hCYP3A4. Surprisingly, DBC increased the frequency of 6-thioguanine resistant (6-TG r ) mutations only at the highest concentration (30 μM), while DiMeDBC failed to increase the frequency of these mutations. The resistance to 6-thioguanine is caused by the mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (Hprt) gene. The molecular analysis of the coding region of Hprt gene showed a deletion of the entire exon 8 in DiMeDBC-induced 6-TG r mutants, while no changes in the nucleotide sequences were identified in 6-TG r mutants produced by DBC and N-MeDBC. Based on our results, we suggest that hCYP3A4 is involved in the metabolism of DBC and its tissue-specific derivatives. While hCYP3A4 probably plays an important role in biotransformation of the liver carcinogens, DBC and DiMeDBC, it might only have a marginal function in N-MeDBC metabolism. - Highlights: → DBC activation via CYP3A4 resulted in micronuclei, DNA adduct formation and mutations in V79MZh3A4 cells. → The CYP3A4-mediated DiMeDBC activation caused micronuclei followed by apoptosis in V79MZh3A4 cells. → The genotoxic effects produced by N-MeDBC in V79MZh3A4 cells were negligible. → The hCYP3A4 may play an important role in DBC and DiMeDBC metabolism. → The CYP3A4 might only have a marginal function in N

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, estrogenic responses and biotransformation system in the liver of salmon exposed to tributyltin and second messenger activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlikova, Nela; Kortner, Trond M.; Arukwe, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    increased by TBT exposure. Exposure to forskolin alone increased GST expression with time, and combined exposure with TBT potentiated these respective effects. Overall, the present study demonstrates multiple biological effects of TBT given singly or in combination with cAMP activator. There are no studies known to us that have evaluated the endocrine disruptive effects of TBT in the presence of a second messenger activator, and our data suggest that TBT may exert endocrine, biotransformation and lipid peroxidative effects through modulation of cAMP/PKA second messenger signaling with overt physiological consequences.

  5. Novel biotransformation process of podophyllotoxin to 4 β-sulfur-substituted podophyllum derivates with anti-tumor activity by Penicillium purpurogenum Y.J. Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J-K; Zhao, W; Li, H-M; Tang, Y-J

    2012-01-01

    According to the structure-function relationship of podophyllotoxin (PTOX) and its analogue of 4'- demethylepipodophyllotoxin (DMEP), the 4 β-substitution of sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds with a carbon-sulfur bond at 4 position of PTOX or DMEP is an essential modification direction for improving the anti-tumor activity. So, four novel 4 β-sulfursubstituted podophyllum derivatives (i.e., 4β -(1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-podophyllotoxin (4-MT-PTOX), 4β-(1,3,4- thiadiazole-2-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-podophyllotoxin (4-MTD-PTOX), 4β-(1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-4' -demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-MT-DMEP), and 4β-(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-MTD-DMEP)) were designed and then successfully biosynthesized in this work. In the novel sulfur-substituted biotransformation processes, PTOX and DMEP was linked with sulfur-containing compounds (i.e., 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (MT) and 2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MTD)) at 4 position of cycloparaffin to produce 4-MT-PTOX (1), 4-MTD-PTOX (2), 4-MT-DMEP (3), and 4-MTD-DMEP (4) by Penicillium purpurogenum Y.J. Tang, respectively, which was screened out from Diphylleia sinensis Li (Hubei, China). All the novel compounds exhibited promising in vitro bioactivity, especially 4-MT-PTOX (1). Compared with etoposide (i.e., a 50 % effective concentration [EC(50)] of 25.72, 167.97, and 1.15 M), the EC(50) values of 4-MT-PTOX (1) against tumor cell line BGC-823, A549 and HepG2 (i.e., 0.28, 0.76, and 0.42 M) were significantly improved by 91, 221 and 2.73 times, respectively. Moreover, the EC(50) value of 4-MT-PTOX (1) against the normal human cell line HK-2 (i.e., 182.4 μM) was 19 times higher than that of etoposide (i.e., 9.17 μM). Based on the rational design, four novel 4 β-sulfur-substituted podophyllum derivatives with superior in vitro anti-tumor activity were obtained for the first time. The correctness of structure-function relationship and rational drug

  6. Upregulation of biotransformation genes in gills of oyster Crassostrea brasiliana exposed in situ to urban effluents, Florianópolis Bay, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessatti, Tomás B; Lüchmann, Karim H; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Mattos, Jacó J; Sasaki, Sílvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Bícego, Márcia C; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso

    2016-09-01

    The release of untreated sanitary sewage, combined with unplanned urban growth, are major factors contributing to degradation of coastal ecosystems in developing countries, including Brazil. Sanitary sewage is a complex mixture of chemicals that can negatively affect aquatic organisms. The use of molecular biomarkers can help to understand and to monitor the biological effects elicited by contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in transcript levels of genes related to xenobiotic biotransformation in the gills of oysters Crassostrea brasiliana transplanted and kept for 24h at three areas potentially contaminated by sanitary sewage (Bücheller river, BUC; Biguaçu river, BIG; and Ratones island, RAT), one farming area (Sambaqui beach, SAM) and at one reference site (Forte beach, FOR) in the North Bay of Santa Catarina Island (Florianópolis, Brazil). Transcript levels of four cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP3A-like, CYP356A1-like and CYP20A1-like), three glutathione S-transferase (GST alpha-like, GST pi-like and GST microsomal 3-like) and one sulfotransferase gene (SULT-like) were evaluated by means of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Chemical analysis of the sediment from each site were performed and revealed the presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and fecal sterols in the contaminated areas (BUC and BIG). Water quality analysis showed that these sites had the highest levels of fecal coliforms and other parameters evidencing the presence of urban sewage discharges. Among the results for gene transcription, CYP2AU1 and SULT-like levels were upregulated by 20 and 50-fold, respectively, in the oysters kept for 24h at the most contaminated site (BUC), suggesting a role of these genes in the detoxification of organic pollutants. These data reinforce that gills possibly have an important role in xenobiotic metabolism and highlight the use of C. brasiliana as a sentinel for monitoring

  7. Biotransformation of a cage-like diels-alder adduct and derivatives by Mucor ramosissimus samutsevitsch Biotransformação de um aduto de diels-alder cage-like e derivados por Mucor ramosissimus samutsevitsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Megumi Ito

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the ability for biotransformation of the Diels-Alder adduct tricyclo[6.2.1.0(2,7]undeca-4,9-dien-3,6-dione (1 and two synthetic derivatives by the saprobe fungus Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch. Products from oxidation, isomerization and, regioselective and enantioselective reduction were achieved.Neste trabalho avaliou-se a capacidade de biotransformação do aduto de Diels-Alder triciclo[6.2.1.0(2-7]undeca-4,9-dien-3,6-diona (1 e dois derivados sintéticos pelo fungo sapróbio Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch. Produtos de oxidação, isomerização e redução regiosseletiva e enantiosseletiva foram obtidos.

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, estrogenic responses and biotransformation system in the liver of salmon exposed to tributyltin and second messenger activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlikova, Nela [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); RECETOX Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, CZ62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Kortner, Trond M. [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    and also in combination. GST mRNA was increased by TBT exposure. Exposure to forskolin alone increased GST expression with time, and combined exposure with TBT potentiated these respective effects. Overall, the present study demonstrates multiple biological effects of TBT given singly or in combination with cAMP activator. There are no studies known to us that have evaluated the endocrine disruptive effects of TBT in the presence of a second messenger activator, and our data suggest that TBT may exert endocrine, biotransformation and lipid peroxidative effects through modulation of cAMP/PKA second messenger signaling with overt physiological consequences.

  9. Microbial biotransformation of aryl sulfanylpentafluorides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavanagh, E.; Winn, M.; Gabhann, C. N.; O'Connor, N. K.; Beier, Petr; Murphy, C. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 753-758 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/12/0072 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorine * emerging pollutant * N-acetylation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.828, year: 2014

  10. Biotransformation and ToxCast™

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major focus in toxicology research is the development of in vitro methods to predict in vivo chemical toxicity. Within the EPA ToxCast program, a broad range of in vitro biochemical and cellular assays have been deployed to profile the biological activity of 320 ToxCast Phase I...

  11. Biotransformations with plant tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carew, D P; Bainbridge, T

    1976-01-01

    Suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus, Apocynum cannabinum and Conium maculatum were examined for their capacity to transform aniline, anisole, acetanilide, benzoic acid and coumarin. None of the cultures transformed acetanilide but each produced acetanilide when fed aniline. All three cultures converted benzoic acid to its para-hydroxy derivative. Coumarin was selectively hydroxylated at the 7-position by Catharanthus and Conium and anisole was O-demethylated only by older Catharanthus tissue.

  12. Nitrile biotransformation by Aspergillus niger

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šnajdrová, Radka; Kristová, Veronika; Crestia, D.; Nikolaou, K.; Kuzma, Marek; Lemaire, M.; Gallienne, E.; Bolte, J.; Bezouška, K.; Křen, Vladimír; Martínková, Ludmila

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 29, - (2004), s. 227-232 ISSN 1381-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D25.002; GA AV ČR IAA4020213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : aspergillus niger * nitrile-converting enzymes * nitrile hydratase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.547, year: 2004

  13. Biotransformation of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists spironolactone and canrenone by human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2: Characterization of the products and their influence on mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Lina; Müller, Anne-Rose; Hobler, Anna; Brixius-Anderko, Simone; Zapp, Josef; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Spironolactone and its major metabolite canrenone are potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and are, therefore, applied as drugs for the treatment of primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension. We report that both compounds can be converted by the purified adrenocortical cytochromes P450 CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, while no conversion of the selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone was observed. As their natural function, CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 carry out the final steps in the biosynthesis of gluco- and mineralocorticoids. Dissociation constants for the new exogenous substrates were determined by a spectroscopic binding assay and demonstrated to be comparable to those of the natural substrates, 11-deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone. Metabolites were produced at preparative scale with a CYP11B2-dependent Escherichia coli whole-cell system and purified by HPLC. Using NMR spectroscopy, the metabolites of spironolactone were identified as 11β-OH-spironolactone, 18-OH-spironolactone and 19-OH-spironolactone. Canrenone was converted to 11β-OH-canrenone, 18-OH-canrenone as well as to the CYP11B2-specific product 11β,18-diOH-canrenone. Therefore, a contribution of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 to the biotransformation of drugs should be taken into account and the metabolites should be tested for their potential toxic and pharmacological effects. A mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation assay in antagonist mode revealed 11β-OH-spironolactone as pharmaceutically active metabolite, whereas all other hydroxylation products negate the antagonist properties of spironolactone and canrenone. Thus, human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 turned out to metabolize steroid-based drugs additionally to the liver-dependent biotransformation of drugs. Compared with the action of the parental drug, changed properties of the metabolites at the target site have been observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effective Biotransformation of Ethyl 4-Chloro-3-Oxobutanoate into Ethyl (S)-4-Chloro-3-Hydroxybutanoate by Recombinant E. coli CCZU-T15 Whole Cells in [ChCl][Gly]-Water Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yong; Huan, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Sheng; He, Yu-Cai

    2017-04-01

    To increase the biocatalytic activity of Escherichia coli CCZU-T15 whole cells, choline chloride/glycerol ([ChCl][Gly]) was firstly used as biocompatible solvent for the effective biotransformation of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(S)-CHBE]. Furthermore, L-glutamine (150 mM) was added into [ChCl][Gly]-water ([ChCl][Gly] 12.5 vol%, pH 6.5) media instead of NAD + for increasing the biocatalytic efficiency. To further improve the biosynthesis of (S)-CHBE (>99 % e.e.) by E. coli CCZU-T15 whole cells, Tween-80 (7.5 mM) was also added into this reaction media, and (S)-CHBE (>9 % e.e.) could be effectively synthesized from 2000 and 3000 mM COBE in the yields of 100 and 93.0 % by whole cells of recombinant E. coli CCZU-T15, respectively. TEM image indicated that the cell membrane was permeabilized and lost its integrity and when the cell was exposed to [ChCl][Gly]-water media with Tween-80. Clearly, this bioprocess has high potential for the effective biosynthesis of (S)-CHBE (>99 % e.e.).

  15. Biotransformation and neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its two-electron oxidation product, and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium (MPDP+) species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, E.Y.

    1989-01-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) specifically destroys the nitrostriatal tract in humans and certain laboratory animals, and produces a Parkinsonian syndrome. The mechanism of cellular toxicity induced by the metabolites, however, has not been elucidated. The in vitro and in vivo metabolic behavior of MPTP and MPDP + and the possible role of factors other than MAO in determining the fate of these species was examined. Neuromelanin, which enhanced the rate of oxidation of MPDP + to MPP + , may also act as a reservoir in the substantia nigra to trap MPP + and prolong its exposure to susceptible brain neurons. Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), reported to increase the neurotoxic effect of MPTP in mice potentiated the formation of MPDP + from the MAO B catalyzed biotransformation of MPTP and significantly lowered brain dopamine levels in animals pretreated with DDC before MPTP administration. The ability of the dihydropyridinium species to gain access to susceptible neurons via the dopamine uptake system was assessed using the stable, 3,4-dihydro-2-methyl-9-H-indeno [2,1-c]pryidinium (DMIP + ) species. DMIP + , however, proved to be a poor inhibitor of both [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]MPP + uptake

  16. Is Increased Susceptibility to Balkan Endemic Nephropathy in Carriers of Common GSTA1 (*A/*B Polymorphism Linked with the Catalytic Role of GSTA1 in Ochratoxin A Biotransformation? Serbian Case Control Study and In Silico Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Reljic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although recent data suggest aristolochic acid as a putative cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN, evidence also exists in favor of ochratoxin A (OTA exposure as risk factor for the disease. The potential role of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as the glutathione transferases (GSTs, in OTA biotransformation is based on OTA glutathione adducts (OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG in blood and urine of BEN patients. We aimed to analyze the association between common GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and BEN susceptibility, and thereafter performed an in silico simulation of particular GST enzymes potentially involved in OTA transformations. GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes were determined in 207 BEN patients and 138 non-BEN healthy individuals from endemic regions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Molecular modeling in silico was performed for GSTA1 protein. Among the GST polymorphisms tested, only GSTA1 was significantly associated with a higher risk of BEN. Namely, carriers of the GSTA1*B gene variant, associated with lower transcriptional activation, were at a 1.6-fold higher BEN risk than those carrying the homozygous GSTA1*A/*A genotype (OR = 1.6; p = 0.037. In in silico modeling, we found four structures, two OTB-SG and two OTHQ-SG, bound in a GSTA1 monomer. We found that GSTA1 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of BEN, and suggested, according to the in silico simulation, that GSTA1-1 might be involved in catalyzing the formation of OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG conjugates.

  17. Biotransformation of corn phytochemicals by Fusarium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytochemicals, microbial metabolites, and agrochemicals can individually or collectively impact the diversity and frequency of fungal species occurring in agricultural field environments. Resistance to such chemicals by plant pathogenic fungi is common and potentially devastating to crop quality, ...

  18. Biotransformation of the fish waste by fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... 1920, Virtanen used a sulphuric and hydrochloric acid mixture for the ... investment and by using acidifying microorganisms and molasses (source of carbon) ... The yeast was isolated from sugar-based juice. Their selection is ... agitated medium leads to a reduction of the length of fermentation to three days ...

  19. Biotransformations of carbon dioxide in photobioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob-Lopes, Eduardo [School of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Pelotas, UFPel, 96010-900 Pelotas-RS (Brazil); Gimenes Scoparo, Carlos Henrique; Franco, Telma Teixeira [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Maria Isabel [School of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande, FURG, 96201-900 Rio Grande-RS (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study the capacity of CO{sub 2} sequestration and carbon fixation into biomass during the cultivation of the cyanobacteria Aphanothece microscopica Naegeli in refinery wastewater. The influence of the photoperiod (day/night) on the rates of CO{sub 2} sequestration and O{sub 2} release was also determined. Rates of CO{sub 2} sequestration were measured both in the liquid and gaseous phases. The results showed that the capacity of CO{sub 2} sequestration and O{sub 2} release during the day/night experiment was about one-fourth less than that achieved in the continuously illuminated experiment. Equivalence was found between rates of CO{sub 2} sequestration measured in the two phases. Despite large amounts of CO{sub 2} that were sequestered during the cultivation, it is demonstrated that only a small fraction (about 3%) was effectively fixed as microalgae biomass, indicating the existence of other routes of CO{sub 2} conversion in the photobioreactor. (author)

  20. Oxytocin biotransformation in the rat limbic brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J.P.H.; Schotman, P.; Kloet, E.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Two peptide fragments of oxytocin were isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography from digests of oxytocin obtained after exposure to a SPM preparation of the rat limbic brain. The structures of these peptides, being Gln-Asn-Cys(O)x-Pro-Leu-GlyNH2 and Gln-Asn-Cys(-S-S-Cys)-Pro-Leu-GlyNH2, were

  1. Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

    2011-07-01

    Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

  2. Biotransformation of algal waste by biological fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... garbage contains different groups of bacteria whose number is variable: the total aerobic mesophilic ... was obtained after heating to a temperature of 550°C for. 24 h. ... solution 1 ml and made up to 1000 ml distilled water and.

  3. Oxidoreductases on their way to industrial biotransformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, Angel T.; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Camarero, Susana; Serrano, Ana; Linde, Dolores; Lund, Henrik; Vind, Jesper; Tovborg, Morten; Herold-Majumdar, Owik M.; Hofrichter, Martin; Liers, Christiane; Berkel, van Willem J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi produce heme-containing peroxidases and peroxygenases, flavin-containing oxidases and dehydrogenases, and different copper-containing oxidoreductases involved in the biodegradation of lignin and other recalcitrant compounds. Heme peroxidases comprise the classical ligninolytic peroxidases and

  4. Pesticide biotransformation and fate in heterogeneous environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects and relative impacts of environmental variables on the behaviour of pesticides, through the effect on pesticide-degrading microorganisms, was studied in a broad spectrum and covered the most relevant emission routes. It is shown that the effect of landscape geochemistry, which

  5. Biotransformations of carbon dioxide in photobioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob-Lopes, Eduardo; Gimenes Scoparo, Carlos Henrique; Queiroz, Maria Isabel; Franco, Telma Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study the capacity of CO 2 sequestration and carbon fixation into biomass during the cultivation of the cyanobacteria Aphanothece microscopica Naegeli in refinery wastewater. The influence of the photoperiod (day/night) on the rates of CO 2 sequestration and O 2 release was also determined. Rates of CO 2 sequestration were measured both in the liquid and gaseous phases. The results showed that the capacity of CO 2 sequestration and O 2 release during the day/night experiment was about one-fourth less than that achieved in the continuously illuminated experiment. Equivalence was found between rates of CO 2 sequestration measured in the two phases. Despite large amounts of CO 2 that were sequestered during the cultivation, it is demonstrated that only a small fraction (about 3%) was effectively fixed as microalgae biomass, indicating the existence of other routes of CO 2 conversion in the photobioreactor.

  6. Oxidoreductases on their way to industrial biotransformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, Angel T.; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Camarero, Susana; Serrano, Ana; Linde, Dolores; Lund, Henrik; Vind, Jesper; Tovborg, Morten; Herold-Majumdar, Owik M.; Hofrichter, Martin; Liers, Christiane; Ullrich, René; Scheibner, Katrin; Sannia, Giovanni; Piscitelli, Alessandra; Pezzella, Cinzia; Sener, Mehmet E.; Kılıç, Sibel; van Berkel, Willem J.H.; Guallar, Victor; Lucas, Maria Fátima; Zuhse, Ralf; Ludwig, Roland; Hollmann, F.; Fernandez Fueyo, E.; Record, Eric; Faulds, Craig B.; Tortajada, Marta; Winckelmann, Ib; Rasmussen, Jo Anne; Gelo-Pujic, Mirjana; Gutiérrez, Ana; del Río, José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Alcalde, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Fungi produce heme-containing peroxidases and peroxygenases, flavin-containing oxidases and dehydrogenases, and different copper-containing oxidoreductases involved in the biodegradation of lignin and other recalcitrant compounds. Heme peroxidases comprise the classical ligninolytic peroxidases

  7. Addressing species diversity in biotransformation: variability in expressed transcripts of hepatic biotransformation enzymes among fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing evidence that diverse xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes exist among fishes, potentially resulting in different chemical sensitivities and accumulation, but this has never been systematically evaluated. One concern is that model test species such as rainbow trou...

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE LA BIOTRANSFORMACIÓN DE GERANIOL Y (R-(+-α-PINENO EMPLEANDO CÉLULAS DE Rhodococcus opacus DSM 44313 EVALUATION OF THE BIOTRANSFORMATION OF GERANIOL AND (R-(+-α-PINENE USING CELL OF Rhodococcus opacus DSM 44313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JENNIFER PILAR ROJAS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La alta biodisponibilidad de los monoterpenos los hace precursores promisorios en los procesos de biotransformación, mediante los que se producen compuestos de valor agregado que pueden considerarse naturales, debido a que se obtienen por métodos enzimáticos a partir de precursores aislados de la naturaleza. En el presente estudio se evaluó la biotransformación de geraniol y (R-(+-α-pineno empleando la cepa bacteriana Rhodococcus opacus DSM 44313, para ello se determinó la influencia del tiempo de crecimiento de la bacteria, tomando suspensiones celulares en la mitad y finalizando la fase exponencial. También se evaluaron tres tiempos de reacción (12, 24 y 48 h y el efecto de un cosolvente, agregando los sustratos puros y disueltos en etanol al 10%. A partir del geraniol se produjeron geranial, ácido geránico y 6-metil-5-hepten-2-ona, sólo cuando el sustrato se adicionó puro, y se formaron en mayor concentración cuando la bacteria estaba finalizando su fase de crecimiento exponencial. Con el (R-(+-α-pineno se produjo como compuesto principal el (R-(+-cis-verbenol, siendo mayor su concentración agregando el pineno disuelto en etanol, y cuando la bacteria se encontraba en la mitad de su fase de crecimiento exponencial. Los resultados indican que el comportamiento de la bacteria cambia según el sustrato adicionado, debido a las propiedades de cada monoterpeno, pero los compuestos obtenidos con ambos sustratos tienen importantes aplicaciones en las industrias farmacéutica, alimenticia y de perfumeríaThe high bioavailability of monoterpenes make them promising precursors in biotransformation processes, through which produce value-added compounds that can be considered natural because they are obtained by enzymatic methods from precursors isolated from nature. In the present study we evaluated the biotransformation of geraniol and (R-(+-α-pinene using a bacterial strain of Rhodococcus opacus DSM 44313; the influence of growth time

  9. Biotransformation of Progesterone by the Ascomycete Aspergillus niger N402.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinova, O S; Solyev, P N; Vasina, D V; Tyazhelova, T V; Fedorova, T V; Savinova, T S

    2018-01-01

    The ability of the ascomycete Aspergillus niger N402 to transform exogenous progesterone was investigated. We found that this strain has steroid-hydroxylating activity and can introduce a hydroxyl group into the progesterone molecule mainly at positions C11(α) and C21 with predominant formation of 21-hydroxyprogesterone (deoxycortone). In addition, formation of 6β,11α-dihydroxyprogesterone was also observed. Studying the effects of the growth medium composition and temperature on progesterone conversion by A. niger N402 showed that the most intense accumulation of 21-hydroxyprogesterone occurred in minimal synthetic medium at 28°C. Increasing the cultivation temperature to 37°C resulted in almost complete inhibition of the hydroxylase activity in the minimal medium. In the complete medium, a similar increase in temperature inhibited 11α-hydroxylase activity and completely suppressed 6β-hydroxylase activity, but it produced no effect on 21-hydroxylating activity.

  10. Biotransformation of the fish waste by fermentation | Ennouali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 19 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Biotransformation of micropollutants : kinetics, threshold and residual concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tros, M.E.

    1996-01-01


    The pollution of our environment with a large number of synthetic organic chemicals has raised serious concern about their toxicity to existing life forms. Microorganisms play an essential role in the breakdown of xenobiotic compounds by using them as a carbon and energy source. However,

  12. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G.

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, [3H]testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with [3H]testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis

  13. Influence of probiotics on rat liver biotransformation enzymes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matusková, Z.; Tunková, A.; Anzenbacherová, E.; Zídek, Zdeněk; Anzenbacher, P.; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, Suppl. 1 (2009), s. 153-157 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/08/0535 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA303/09/H048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : escherichia coli * probiotic * cytochrome P450 Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.047, year: 2009

  14. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation Variance in Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

  15. Kazakhstan In situ BioTransformation of Mercury ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our final international work on the biological decontamination of the mercury contamination of soils in the Northern outskirts of Pavlodar as a result of activity at the former PO “Khimprom” chemical plant is reported here. The plant produced chlorine and alkali from the 1970s into the 1990s using the electrolytic amalgam method entailing the use of massive amounts of mercury. Ground water became contaminated with Hg resulting in a plume 470 m wide, 1.9 km long, estimated to contain 2 million cubic meters of water. This plume could reach the River Irtysh, a source of drinking water for large cities in Kazakhstan and Russia. Significant amounts of mercuric compounds are deposited in the sediments of Lake Balkyldak, 1.5 km north of the factory. This lake occasionally received wastewater from the factory. Phase I of the PO “Kimprom” clean-up that isolated the major sources of mercury at the site was completed in 2004. However, significant amounts of mercury remain underground including groundwater contaminated with Hg in the form of HgCl2 with little to no elemental or methyl mercury (MeHg). Develop biotechnology strategies to mitigate mercury contamination in groundwater

  16. Biotransformation of heterocyclic dinitriles by Rhodococcus erythropolis and fungal nitrilases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Šveda, Ondřej; Kaplan, Ondřej; Přikrylová, Věra; Elišáková, Veronika; Himl, Michal; Kubáč, David; Pelantová, Helena; Kuzma, Marek; Křen, Vladimír; Martínková, Ludmila

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 7 (2007), s. 1119-1124 ISSN 0141-5492 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200708; GA MŠk LC06010; GA MŠk OC D25.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : amidase * arpegillus nniger * heterocyclic Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.222, year: 2007

  17. Bioavailability of silymarin flavonolignans: drug formulations and biotransformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Theodosiou, E.; Purchartová, Kateřina; Stamatis, H.; Kolisis, F.; Křen, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-18 ISSN 1568-7767 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0662; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11051; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10027 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Silymarin * Silybin * Silibinin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.407, year: 2014

  18. Biotransformation of geosmin by terpene-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two terpene-degrading bacteria that are able to transform geosmin have been identified. Pseudomonas sp. SBR3-tpnb, isolated on -terpinene, converts geosmin to several products; the major products are keto-geosmins. This geosmin transformation ability is inducible by -terpinene. Rhodococcus wratisl...

  19. Alfa-Galactosidases and their applications in biotransformations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weignerová, Lenka; Simerská, Pavla; Křen, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2009), s. 79-89 ISSN 1024-2422 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA ČR GA203/05/0172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : -Galactosidase * enzyme * transglycosylation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2009

  20. Biotransformation of uranium and transition metal citrate complexes by clostridia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Joshi-Tope, G.A.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Clostridium sphenoides, which uses citric acid as its sole carbon source, metabolized equimolar Fe(III)-citrate with the degradation of citric acid and the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), but not the U(VI)-citrate complex. However, in the presence of excess citric acid or added glucose it was reduced to U(IV)-citrate. In contrast, Clostridium sp., which ferments glucose but not citrate, reduced Fe(III)-citrate to Fe(II)-citrate and U(VI)-citrate to U(IV)-citrate only when supplied with glucose. These results show that complexed uranium is readily accessible as an electron acceptor despite the bacterium's inability to metabolize the organic ligand complexed to the actinide. These results also show that the metabolism of the metal-citrate complex depends upon the type of complex formed between the metal and citric acid. Fe(III) forms a bidentate complex with citric acid and was metabolized, whereas U forms a binuclear complex with citric acid and was recalcitrant. (author)

  1. Biotransformation and bioactivation reactions – 2015 literature highlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baillie, Thomas A.; Dalvie, Deepak; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Cyrus Khojasteh, S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1972, Drug Metabolism Reviews has been recognized as one of the principal resources for researchers in pharmacological, pharmaceutical and toxicological fields to keep abreast of advances in drug metabolism science in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. With a distinguished list of

  2. In vitro biotransformation of flavonoids by rat liver microsomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. E.; Breinholt, V.; Justesen, U.

    1998-01-01

    1. Sixteen naturally occurring flavonoids were investigated as substrates for cytochrome P450 in uninduced and Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver microsomes. Naringenin, hesperetin, chrysin, apigenin, tangeretin, kaempferol, galangin and tamarixetin were all metabolized extensively by induced rat liver...... pathway leading to the corresponding 3',4'-dihydroxylated flavonoids either by hydroxylation or demethylation. Structural requirements for microsomal hydroxylation appeared to be a single or no hydroxy group on the B-ring of the flavan nucleus. The presence of two or more hydroxy groups on the B......-ring seemed to prevent further hydroxylation. The results indicate that demethylation only occurs in the B-ring when the methoxy group is positioned at C-4'-, and not at the C-3'-position. 3. The CYP1A isozymes were found to be the main enzymes involved in flavonoid hydroxylation, whereas other cytochrome P...

  3. Rhodococcus erythropolis MTHt3 biotransforms ergopeptines to lysergic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Thamhesl, Michaela; Apfelthaler, Elisabeth; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Kunz-Vekiru, Elisavet; Krska, Rudolf; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Moll, Wulf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Background Ergopeptines are a predominant class of ergot alkaloids produced by tall fescue grass endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum or cereal pathogen Claviceps purpurea. The vasoconstrictive activity of ergopeptines makes them toxic for mammals, and they can be a problem in animal husbandry. Results We isolated an ergopeptine degrading bacterial strain, MTHt3, and classified it, based on its 16S rDNA sequence, as a strain of Rhodococcus erythropolis (Nocardiaceae, Actinobacteria). For strai...

  4. Rhodococcus erythropolis MTHt3 biotransforms ergopeptines to lysergic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamhesl, Michaela; Apfelthaler, Elisabeth; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Kunz-Vekiru, Elisavet; Krska, Rudolf; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Moll, Wulf-Dieter

    2015-03-28

    Ergopeptines are a predominant class of ergot alkaloids produced by tall fescue grass endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum or cereal pathogen Claviceps purpurea. The vasoconstrictive activity of ergopeptines makes them toxic for mammals, and they can be a problem in animal husbandry. We isolated an ergopeptine degrading bacterial strain, MTHt3, and classified it, based on its 16S rDNA sequence, as a strain of Rhodococcus erythropolis (Nocardiaceae, Actinobacteria). For strain isolation, mixed microbial cultures were obtained from artificially ergot alkaloid-enriched soil, and provided with the ergopeptine ergotamine in mineral medium for enrichment. Individual colonies derived from such mixed cultures were screened for ergotamine degradation by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. R. erythropolis MTHt3 converted ergotamine to ergine (lysergic acid amide) and further to lysergic acid, which accumulated as an end product. No other tested R. erythropolis strain degraded ergotamine. R. erythropolis MTHt3 degraded all ergopeptines found in an ergot extract, namely ergotamine, ergovaline, ergocristine, ergocryptine, ergocornine, and ergosine, but the simpler lysergic acid derivatives agroclavine, chanoclavine, and ergometrine were not degraded. Temperature and pH dependence of ergotamine and ergine bioconversion activity was different for the two reactions. Degradation of ergopeptines to ergine is a previously unknown microbial reaction. The reaction end product, lysergic acid, has no or much lower vasoconstrictive activity than ergopeptines. If the genes encoding enzymes for ergopeptine catabolism can be cloned and expressed in recombinant hosts, application of ergopeptine and ergine degrading enzymes for reduction of toxicity of ergot alkaloid-contaminated animal feed may be feasible.

  5. Arsenic biotransformation by a cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xi-Mei; Yan, Yu; Xiong, Chan; Raber, Georg; Francesconi, Kevin; Pan, Ting; Ye, Jun; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-09-01

    Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Nostoc), a typical filamentous cyanobacterium ubiquitous in aquatic system, is recognized as a model organism to study prokaryotic cell differentiation and nitrogen fixation. In this study, Nostoc cells incubated with arsenite (As(III)) for two weeks were extracted with dichloromethane/methanol (DCM/MeOH) and the extract was partitioned between water and DCM. Arsenic species in aqueous and DCM layers were determined using high performance liquid chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS/ESIMSMS). In addition to inorganic arsenic (iAs), the aqueous layer also contained monomethylarsonate (MAs(V)), dimethylarsinate (DMAs(V)), and the two arsenosugars, namely a glycerol arsenosugar (Oxo-Gly) and a phosphate arsenosugar (Oxo-PO4). Two major arsenosugar phospholipids (AsSugPL982 and AsSugPL984) were detected in DCM fraction. Arsenic in the growth medium was also investigated by HPLC/ICPMS and shown to be present mainly as the inorganic forms As(III) and As(V) accounting for 29%-38% and 29%-57% of the total arsenic respectively. The total arsenic of methylated arsenic, arsenosugars, and arsenosugar phospholipids in Nostoc cells with increasing As(III) exposure were not markedly different, indicating that the transformation to organoarsenic in Nostoc was not dependent on As(III) concentration in the medium. Our results provide new insights into the role of cyanobacteria in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaerobic microbial processes for energy conservation and biotransformation of pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luz Ferreira Martins Paulo, da Lara

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial processes are commonly applied in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewaters. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater has received a great deal of attention, but many aspects related to the complex interactions between microorganism, and how that is affected by the

  7. Biotransformation of arsenic by a Yellowstone thermoacidophilic eukaryotic alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jie; Lehr, Corinne R; Yuan, Chungang; Le, X Chris; McDermott, Timothy R; Rosen, Barry P

    2009-03-31

    Arsenic is the most common toxic substance in the environment, ranking first on the Superfund list of hazardous substances. It is introduced primarily from geochemical sources and is acted on biologically, creating an arsenic biogeocycle. Geothermal environments are known for their elevated arsenic content and thus provide an excellent setting in which to study microbial redox transformations of arsenic. To date, most studies of microbial communities in geothermal environments have focused on Bacteria and Archaea, with little attention to eukaryotic microorganisms. Here, we show the potential of an extremophilic eukaryotic alga of the order Cyanidiales to influence arsenic cycling at elevated temperatures. Cyanidioschyzon sp. isolate 5508 oxidized arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)], reduced As(V) to As(III), and methylated As(III) to form trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) and dimethylarsenate [DMAs(V)]. Two arsenic methyltransferase genes, CmarsM7 and CmarsM8, were cloned from this organism and demonstrated to confer resistance to As(III) in an arsenite hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli. The 2 recombinant CmArsMs were purified and shown to transform As(III) into monomethylarsenite, DMAs(V), TMAO, and trimethylarsine gas, with a T(opt) of 60-70 degrees C. These studies illustrate the importance of eukaryotic microorganisms to the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in geothermal systems, offer a molecular explanation for how these algae tolerate arsenic in their environment, and provide the characterization of algal methyltransferases.

  8. Biotransformation of Я-estradiol isolated from Sonchus eruca

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... Sonchus eruca belonging to the family of asteraceae. The asteraceae or ... 23000 species, distributed in three sub-families and 17 tribes. It is also ..... lipoglycopeptide antibiotic A40926 with immobilized cells of. Actinoplanes ...

  9. Biotransformation of indigo carmine to isatin sulfonic acid by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigo carmine (IC) was biotrasformed to 5-isatinsulfonic acid using intracellular and associated enzymes from Trametes versicolor lyophilized mycelia; even when extracellular enzymes were absent, in high concentration solutions of IC (4 000 mg L-1) and non-sterile condition. T. versicolor was grown in wheat strew and ...

  10. Biotransformations of Substituted Phenylethanols and Acetophenones by Environmental Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Kagohara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole cells of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, isolated from polluted sediments in the Santos Estuary (Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil, were able to catalyse oxidoreduction reactions with various substituted phenylethanols and acetophenones as substrates. A number of substituted phenylethanols were formed with high (>99 % enantiomeric excess. The results of microbial oxidation of phenylethanols 2, 3, 5–7 by Acinetobacter sp. 6.4T and the reduction of acetophenones 1a–6a by Serratia marcescens 5.4T showed that the bacteria used as biocatalysts in this study present significant potential for exploitation in biotechnological processes. The reduction of prochiral acetophenones by Serratia marcescens 3.5T yielded optically active alcohols with 90–99 % enantiomeric excess, and Acinetobacter sp. 6.4T is a potential biocatalyst for the oxidation of alcohols.

  11. Rapid biotransformation of arsenic by a model protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Xixiang [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Yongyu; Yang Jun [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Zhu Yongguan, E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Arsenic biomethylation and biovolatilization are thought to be two important metabolic pathways in aquatic and soil environments. Tetrahymena thermophila is a genus of free-living ciliated protozoan that is widely distributed in freshwater environments around the world. In this study, we studied arsenic accumulation, speciation, efflux, methylation and volatilization in this unicellular eukaryote exposed to various concentrations of arsenate. Our results show that T. thermophila accumulated 187 mg.kg{sup -1} dry weight of arsenic when exposed to 40 {mu}M for 48 h, with MMAs(V) (monomethylarsenate) and DMAs(V) (dimethylarsenate) as the dominant species, accounting for 66% of the total arsenic. Meanwhile, arsenate, arsenite, MMAs(V) and DMAs(V) were detected in the culture medium; the last three were released by the cells. The production of volatile arsenic increased with increasing external As(V) concentrations and exposure time. To our knowledge, this is the first study on arsenic metabolism, particularly biomethylation and biovolatilization, in protozoa. - Tetrahymena thermophila can rapidly methylate arsenic, and produce volatile arsenicals.