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Sample records for biothreat agents detection

  1. Testing and validation of high density resequencing microarray for broad range biothreat agents detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz A Leski

    Full Text Available Rapid and effective detection and identification of emerging microbiological threats and potential biowarfare agents is very challenging when using traditional culture-based methods. Contemporary molecular techniques, relying upon reverse transcription and/or polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR/PCR provide a rapid and effective alternative, however, such assays are generally designed and optimized to detect only a limited number of targets, and seldom are capable of differentiation among variants of detected targets. To meet these challenges, we have designed a broad-range resequencing pathogen microarray (RPM for detection of tropical and emerging infectious agents (TEI including biothreat agents: RPM-TEI v 1.0 (RPM-TEI. The scope of the RPM-TEI assay enables detection and differential identification of 84 types of pathogens and 13 toxin genes, including most of the class A, B and C select agents as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, GA. Due to the high risks associated with handling these particular target pathogens, the sensitivity validation of the RPM-TEI has been performed using an innovative approach, in which synthetic DNA fragments are used as templates for testing the assay's limit of detection (LOD. Assay specificity and sensitivity was subsequently confirmed by testing with full-length genomic nucleic acids of selected agents. The LOD for a majority of the agents detected by RPM-TEI was determined to be at least 10(4 copies per test. Our results also show that the RPM-TEI assay not only detects and identifies agents, but is also able to differentiate near neighbors of the same agent types, such as closely related strains of filoviruses of the Ebola Zaire group, or the Machupo and Lassa arenaviruses. Furthermore, each RPM-TEI assay results in specimen-specific agent gene sequence information that can be used to assess pathogenicity, mutations, and virulence markers, results that are not generally

  2. Development of Sampling Methods for Powders and Soil for Detection of Biothreat Agents by Electrochemiluminecence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    for the analysis of such materials. Some work on the development of methods to detect bacteria in powders has been reported for Bacillus thuringiensis ...gut fluid has been described for the extraction of Bacillus thuringiensis from soil [ 17]; however, little analytical data is available on the...of biological threat agents including Staphylococcus enterotoxin B, ricin, Vibrio cholerae, Botulinum toxin , and Bacillus anthracis [21, 23, 24]. ECL

  3. A Multiplex PCR-coupled Liquid Bead Array for the Simultaneous Detection of Four Biothreat Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W J; Erler, A M; Nasarabadi, S L; Skowronski, E W; McCready, P M

    2004-02-04

    We have developed a 10-plexed PCR assay coupled to a 12-plexed liquid bead array to rapidly screen environmental samples for B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, and B. melitensis. Highly validated species -specific primer sets were used to simultaneously amplify multiple diagnostic regions unique to each individual pathogen. Resolution of the mix of amplified products was achieved by PCR product hybridization to corresponding probe sequences, attached to unique sets of fluorescent beads. The hybridized beads were processed through a flow cytometer, which detected presence and quantity of each PCR product. The assay was optimized to allow for maximum sensitivity in a multiplexed format. A high- throughput demonstration was performed where 384 simulated environmental samples were spiked with different amounts of B. thuringensis spores and pathogen DNA. The samples were robotically processed to extract DNA and arrayed for multiplexed PCR-liquid bead detection. The assay correctly identified the presence or absence of each pathogen and collected over 3,000 individual data points within a single 8-hour shift for approximately $1.20 per sample in a 10-plexed assay.

  4. Report for Development of a Census Array and Evaluation of the Array to Detect Biothreat Agents and Environmental Samples for DHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C; Jackson, P

    2011-04-14

    The objective of this project is to provide DHS a comprehensive evaluation of the current genomic technologies including genotyping, Taqman PCR, multiple locus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing in the analysis of biothreat agents from complex environmental samples. This report focuses on the design, testing and results of samples on the Census Array. We designed a Census/Detection Array to detect all sequenced viruses (including phage), bacteria (eubacteria), and plasmids. Family-specific probes were selected for all sequenced viral and bacterial complete genomes, segments, and plasmids. Probes were designed to tolerate some sequence variation to enable detection of divergent species with homology to sequenced organisms, and to be unique relative to the human genome. A combination of 'detection' probes with high levels of conservation within a family plus 'census' probes targeting strain/isolate specific regions enabled detection and taxonomic classification from the level of family down to the strain. The array has wider coverage of bacterial and viral targets based on more recent sequence data and more probes per target than other microbial detection/discovery arrays in the literature. We tested the array with purified bacterial and viral DNA/RNA samples, artificial mixes of known bacterial/viral samples, spiked DNA against complex background including BW aerosol samples and soil samples, and environmental samples to evaluate the array's sensitivity and forensic capability. The data were analyzed using our novel maximum likelihood software. For most of the organisms tested, we have achieved at least species level discrimination.

  5. Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Therapy Against Viral Biothreat Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    34--- I lr_ Transworld Research Network 37/661 (2), Fort P.O., Trivandrum-695 023, Kerala, India Recent Development in Gene Therapy , 2007: 77-94...ISBN: 81-7895-262-9 Editor: Jim Xiang Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy against viral biothreat agents Josh Q.H. Wu Chemical Biological Defence... therapy , which introduces therapeutic genes into mammalian cells to achieve therapeutic effective, hds a great potential for use as a defensive

  6. A Concept of a Probable Autoinjector for Bio-threat Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Geetha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological weapons can be used during conflicts and by terrorists to injure or kill humans and animals. Chemical weapons contain toxic chemicals and biological weapons contain pathogenic organisms. With proper protective equipments and training, the lethal effects of chemical and biological warfare agents can be minimised. First aid kit is available that contain detection, decontamination and medical protection for chemical warfare agents including autoinjectors, for rapid administration and faster absorption of drugs. The autoinjectors are safe and available for life saving drugs like atropine sulphate and pralidoxime chloride (nerve agent poisoning, epinephrine (anaphylaxis, diazepam (seizures and sumatriptan (migraine. For bio-threat agents doxycycline alone is available as a broad spectrum antibiotic in the first aid kit. Majority of the bacterial agents are gram negative and hence amikacin drug cartridge was developed for the existing autoinjector. The advantage of amikacin is its safety, stability, can be given prophylactically and supplemented with other antibiotics when medical attention arrives. The usability and tolerability of amikacin administered repeatedly through autoinjector was studied using various haematological, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in animal models. The results are promising and as there is no antibiotic autoinjector available, amikacin autoinjector can be considered for bio-threat agents.

  7. Simultaneous, specific and real-time detection of biothreat and frequently encountered food-borne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woubit, Abdela Salah; Yehualaeshet, Teshome; Habtemariam, Tsegaye; Samuel, Temesgen

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial genera Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Yersinia and Francisella include important food safety and biothreat agents causing food-related and other human illnesses worldwide. We aimed to develop rapid methods with the capability to simultaneously and differentially detect all six pathogens in one run. Our initial experiments to use previously reported sets of primers revealed non-specificity of some of the sequences when tested against a broader array of pathogens, or proved not optimal for simultaneous detection parameters. By extensive mining of the whole genome and protein databases of diverse closely and distantly related bacterial species and strains, we have identified unique genome regions, which we utilized to develop a detection platform. Twelve of the specific genomic targets we have identified to design the primers in F. tularensis ssp. tularensis, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, S. dysentriae, S. typhimurium, V. cholera, Y. pestis, and Y. pseudotuberculosis contained either hypothetical or putative proteins, the functions of which have not been clearly defined. Corresponding primer sets were designed from the target regions for use in real-time PCR assays to detect specific biothreat pathogens at species or strain levels. The primer sets were first tested by in-silico PCR against whole genome sequences of different species, sub-species, or strains and then by in vitro PCR against genomic DNA preparations from 23 strains representing six biothreat agents (E.coli O157:H7 strain EDL 933, Shigella dysentriae, Salmonella typhi, Francisella tularensis ssp. tularensis, Vibrio cholera, and Yersinia pestis) and six foodborne pathogens (Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella saintpaul, Shigella sonnei, Francisella novicida, Vibrio parahemolytica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis). Each pathogen was specifically identifiable at the genus and species levels. Sensitivity assays performed using purified DNA showed the lowest detection limit of 640 fg

  8. Monitoring biothreat agents (Francisella tularensis, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis) with a portable real-time PCR instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölsä, Markos; Hemmilä, Heidi; Katz, Anna; Niemimaa, Jukka; Forbes, Kristian M; Huitu, Otso; Stuart, Peter; Henttonen, Heikki; Nikkari, Simo

    2015-08-01

    In the event of suspected releases or natural outbreaks of contagious pathogens, rapid identification of the infectious agent is essential for appropriate medical intervention and disease containment. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a novel portable real-time PCR thermocycler, PikoReal™, to the standard real-time PCR thermocycler, Applied Biosystems® 7300 (ABI 7300), for the detection of three high-risk biothreat bacterial pathogens: Francisella tularensis, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis. In addition, a novel confirmatory real-time PCR assay for the detection of F. tularensis is presented and validated. The results show that sensitivity of the assays, based on a dilution series, for the three infectious agents ranged from 1 to 100 fg of target DNA with both instruments. No cross-reactivity was revealed in specificity testing. Duration of the assays with the PikoReal and ABI 7300 systems were 50 and 100 min, respectively. In field testing for F. tularensis, results were obtained with the PikoReal system in 95 min, as the pre-PCR preparation, including DNA extraction, required an additional 45 min. We conclude that the PikoReal system enables highly sensitive and rapid on-site detection of biothreat agents under field conditions, and may be a more efficient alternative to conventional diagnostic methods.

  9. FY02 CBNP Annual Report: Discovery of DNA Signature of Biothreat Detection Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, G L; Radnedge, L

    2002-11-19

    Our goal is to develop robust DNA signatures for rapid and specific DNA-based detection platforms that can be employed by CBNP to detect a wide range of potential agents. Our approach has resulted in highly specific DNA signatures for Yersina pestis, Bacillus anthracis and Brucella species. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to any genome (even uncharacterized ones), which facilitates DNA signature development for detection of newly emerging pathogens. We are using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) as a tool to define large DNA regions specific to multiple biothreat pathogens by comparing them to genomes of the most closely related organisms. This approach has become increasingly accurate as we continue to find new, distinctive strains and ever-closer near-neighbors. With the huge costs incurred by whole genome sequencing, it is not possible to sequence each new bacterial genome. However, it is completely practical to identify genome differences in the laboratory using SSH, and becomes especially useful when comparing new strains to previously sequenced genomes.

  10. Comparison of Two Suspension Arrays for Simultaneous Detection of Five Biothreat Bacterial in Powder Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed novel Bio-Plex assays for simultaneous detection of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Brucella spp., Francisella tularensis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Universal primers were used to amplify highly conserved region located within the 16S rRNA amplicon, followed by hybridized to pathogen-specific probes for identification of these five organisms. The other assay is based on multiplex PCR to simultaneously amplify five species-specific pathogen identification-targeted regions unique to individual pathogen. Both of the two arrays are validated to be flexible and sensitive for simultaneous detection of bioterrorism bacteria. However, universal primer PCR-based array could not identify Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Brucella spp. at the species level because of the high conservation of 16S rDNA of the same genus. The two suspension arrays can be utilized to detect Bacillus anthracis sterne spore and Yersinia pestis EV76 from mimic “write powder” samples, they also proved that the suspension array system will be valuable tools for diagnosis of bacterial biothreat agents in environmental samples.

  11. Understanding Virulence in the Brucellae and Francisellae: Towards Efficacious Treatments for Two Potential Biothreat Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasley, A; Parsons, D A; El-Etr, S; Roux, C; Tsolis, R

    2009-12-30

    Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis and Brucellae species are highly infectious pathogens classified as select agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with the potential for use in bioterrorism attacks. These organisms are known to be facultative intracellular pathogens that preferentially infect human monocytes. As such, understanding how the host responds to infection with these organisms is paramount in detecting and combating human disease. We have compared the ability of fully virulent strains of each pathogen and their non-pathogenic near neighbors to enter and survive inside the human monocytic cell line THP-1 and have quantified the cellular response to infection with the goal of identifying both unique and common host response patterns. We expanded the scope of these studies to include experiments with pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Y. pestis, the causative agent of plague. Nonpathogenic strains of each organism were impaired in their ability to survive intracellularly compared with their pathogenic counterparts. Furthermore, infection of THP-1 cells with pathogenic strains of Y. pestis and F. tularensis resulted in marked increases in the secretion of the inflammatory chemokines IL-8, RANTES, and MIP-1{beta}. In contrast, B. melitensis infection failed to elicit any significant increases in a panel of cytokines tested. These differences may underscore distinct strategies in pathogenic mechanisms employed by these pathogens.

  12. Efficacy of Modified Cognitive Interviewing, Compared to Human Judgments in Detecting Deception Related to Bio-threat Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Charles A. Morgan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available National security professionals have few scientifically valid methods for detecting deception in people who deny being involved in illicit activities relevant to national security. Numerous detecting deception studies have demonstrated that the Modified Cognitive Interviewing (MCI method is one such method - yielding detecting deception rates (i.e. 80-85% that are significantly above those achieved by chance (i.e. 50% or by human judgments (i.e. 54-56%. To date, however, no MCI studies have involved dilemmas of ethological interest to national security professionals. This project begins to address this gap in the scientific literature. In it, we compared the efficacy of MCI to that of human judgments for detecting deception in scientists with expertise in biological materials. Sixty-four scientists were recruited for study; 12 met with a “terrorist” and were paid to make biological materials for illicit purposes. All 64 scientists were interviewed by investigators with law enforcement experience about the bio-threat issue. MCI elicited speech content differences in deceptive, compared to truthful scientists. This resulted in a classification accuracy of 84.4%; Accuracies for Human Judgments (interviewers/raters were 54% and 46%, respectively. MCI required little time and its efficacy suggests it is reasonable to recommend its use to national security experts.

  13. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  14. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  15. Antisense Treatments for Biothreat Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    89,90] Equine arteritis virus PMO In vitro, cell culture [91] Flaviviruses (ie, dengue and West Nile viruses) PMO In vitro, cell culture [65-68,69...Bavari S: Induction of humoral and CD8 + T cell responses are required for protection against lethal Ebola virus infection. J Immunol (2005) 175(2...Dreher TW, Iversen PL, Stein DA: Inhibition of dengue virus serotypes 1 to 4 in vero cell cultures with morpholino oligomers. J Virol (2005) 79(8

  16. Integrated Semiconductor-based Diagnostics System for Multiplexed Genomic Amplification and Electrochemical Detection of Biothreat Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    contains all of the reagents and a microarray to test for Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium botulinum, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Brucella suis, Vibrio cholera, and Yersinia enterocolitica .

  17. Testing and Validation of High Density Resequencing Microarray for Broad Range Biothreat Agents Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-11

    on the chip. In the remaining five cases (Marburg Musoke, Lassa Acar, two Sandfly fever viruses: Sicilian and Punta Toro as well as Hantaan virus), the...types, such as closely related strains of filoviruses of the Ebola Zaire group, or the Machupo and Lassa arenaviruses. Furthermore, each RPM-TEI... Lassa viruses is described in supporting methods Text S1. Primer selection To simplify primer design and multiplex PCR optimization, four independent

  18. Identification of Ciprofloxacin Resistance by SimpleProbe (trademark), High Resolution Melt and Pyrosequencing (trademark) Nucleic Acid Analysis in Biothreat Agents: Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis and Francisella tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae topoisomerase IV and gyrase are clustered at the DNA breakage site. J Biol Chem 2005;280:14252e63. [6] Wolfson JS, Hooper DC...Ambler J, Mehtar S, Fisher LM. Involvement of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase as ciprofloxacin targets in Streptococcus pneumoniae . Antimicrob Agents...agents addressed here and further research into this possibility would provide valuable insight into fluoroquinolone resistance in these important

  19. Novel Formulation to Destroy Biothreat Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    of germination : disassembly of the coat, which is a necessary but poorly understood step in germination , takes place at a much higher efficiency...addition of germinants . As a first step in elucidating the mechanisms of coat and/or exosporium disassembly, it was hypothesized that this would...characterize a previously poorly recognized and completely uncharacterized step in germination , and identify proteins (especially p5303) with

  20. Development of a universal primers PCR-coupled liquid bead array to detect biothreat bacteria%通用型基因悬浮芯片检测生物恐怖细菌的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文海燕; 王静; 刘衡川; 孙肖红; 杨宇; 胡孔新; 单麟军

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立快速、高通量的基因悬浮芯片检测方法,用于生物恐怖病原体的快速筛检.方法 选择保守的细菌16 S rDNA序列,并针对炭疽芽孢杆菌(Bacillus anthracis,B.a)、鼠疫耶尔森菌(Yersinia pestis,Y.p)、布鲁菌属(Brucella spp.,Bru)、土拉弗朗西斯菌(Francisella tularensis,F.t)和类鼻疽伯克霍尔德菌(Burkholderia pseudomallei,B.p)等5种生物恐怖细菌设计种(属)特异性探针,经16 S rDNA通用引物341A、519B扩增基因组DNA,用基因悬浮芯片方法进行检测,并对方法的灵敏度、特异度、重复性、检测能力进行验证.结果 经16 S rDNA通用引物扩增,特异性探针杂交检测,能将样本细菌鉴定到属水平,同属菌出现交叉反应;检出限分别为类鼻疽伯克霍尔德菌1.5 pg/μl,布鲁菌属20 ps/μl,炭疽芽孢杆菌7 pg/μl,土拉弗朗西斯菌0.1 pg/μl,鼠疫耶尔森菌1.1 pg/μl;15次重复检测各探针变异系数(CV)为5.18%~17.88%,具有较好的重复性;方法可正确检出模拟白色粉末样本中炭疽芽孢杆菌和鼠疫耶尔森菌.结论 建立了通用型基因悬浮芯片检测体系快速高通量筛查生物恐怖细菌的方法.%Objective To develop a fast, high-throughput screening method with suspension array technique for simultaneous detection of biothreat bacteria. Methods 16 S rDNA universal primers for Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Brucella spp. and Burkholderia pseudomallei were selected to amplify corresponding regions and the genus-specific or species-specific probes were designed. After amplification of chromosomal DNA by 16 S rDNA primers 341A and 519B,the PCR products were detected by suspension array technique. The sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility and detection power were also analyzed. Results After PCR amplification by 16 S rDNA primers and specific probe hybridization,the target microorganisms could be identified at genus level, cross reaction was recognized in the

  1. Ultra-sensitive detection using integrated waveguide technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a pressing need to detect analytes at very low concentrations, such as food- and water-borne pathogens (e.g. E. coli O157:H7) and biothreat agents (e.g., anthrax, toxins). Common fluorescence detection methods, such as 96 well plate readers, are not sufficiently sensitive for low concentra...

  2. Biosurveillance of emerging biothreats using scalable genotype clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Blanca; Sintchenko, Vitali; Wang, Qinning; Hiley, Lester; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Coiera, Enrico

    2009-02-01

    Developments in molecular fingerprinting of pathogens with epidemic potential have offered new opportunities for improving detection and monitoring of biothreats. However, the lack of scalable definitions for infectious disease clustering presents a barrier for effective use and evaluation of new data types for early warning systems. A novel working definition of an outbreak based on temporal and spatial clustering of molecular genotypes is introduced in this paper. It provides an unambiguous way of clustering of causative pathogens and is adjustable to local disease prevalence and availability of public health resources. The performance of this definition in prospective surveillance is assessed in the context of community outbreaks of food-borne salmonellosis. Molecular fingerprinting augmented with the scalable clustering allows the detection of more than 50% of the potential outbreaks before they reach the midpoint of the cluster duration. Clustering in time by imposing restrictions on intervals between collection dates results in a smaller number of outbreaks but does not significantly affect the timeliness of detection. Clustering in space and time by imposing restrictions on the spatial and temporal distance between cases results in a further reduction in the number of outbreaks and decreases the overall efficiency of prospective detection. Innovative bacterial genotyping technologies can enhance early warning systems for public health by aiding the detection of moderate and small epidemics.

  3. Organophosphate Nerve Agent Detection with Europium Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Schwierking, Jake R.; Laird W. Menzel; E. Roland Menzel

    2004-01-01

    We explore the detection of paraoxon, a model compound for nonvolatile organophosphate nerve agents such as VX. The detection utilizes europium complexes with 1,10 phenanthroline and thenoyltrifluoroacetone as sensitizing ligands. Both europium luminescence quenching and luminescence enhancement modalities are involved in the detection, which is simple, rapid, and sensitive. It is adaptable as well to the more volatile fluorophosphate nerve agents. It involves nothing more than visual lumines...

  4. Detection of Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Chemical Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-11-11

    A "real time" method for detecting electrophilic and nucleophilic species generally by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species.

  5. Organophosphate Nerve Agent Detection with Europium Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake R. Schwierking

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the detection of paraoxon, a model compound for nonvolatile organophosphate nerve agents such as VX. The detection utilizes europium complexes with 1,10 phenanthroline and thenoyltrifluoroacetone as sensitizing ligands. Both europium luminescence quenching and luminescence enhancement modalities are involved in the detection, which is simple, rapid, and sensitive. It is adaptable as well to the more volatile fluorophosphate nerve agents. It involves nothing more than visual luminescence observation under sample illumination by an ordinary hand-held ultraviolet lamp.

  6. Intelligent Detection System framework using Mobile agents

    CERN Document Server

    Jaisankar, N; Swamy, K Durai

    2010-01-01

    An intrusion detection system framework using mobile agents is a layered framework mechanism designed to support heterogeneous network environments to identify intruders at its best. Traditional computer misuse detection techniques can identify known attacks efficiently, but perform very poorly in other cases. Anomaly detection has the potential to detect unknown attacks; however, it is a very challenging task since its aim is to detect unknown attacks without any priori knowledge about specific intrusions. This technology is still at its early stage. The objective of this paper is that the system can detect anomalous user activity. Existing research in this area focuses either on user activity or on program operation but not on both simultaneously. In this paper, an attempt to look at both concurrently is presented. Based on an intrusion detection framework [1], a novel user anomaly detection system has been implemented and conducted several intrusion detection experiments in a simulated environment by analy...

  7. Detection of electrophilic and nucleophilic chemical agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2014-08-12

    A "real time" method for detecting chemical agents generally and particularly electrophilic and nucleophilic species by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species. By bonding or otherwise attaching these precursor molecules to a surface or substrate they can be used in numerous applications.

  8. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  9. Advanced detection strategies for ultrasound contrast agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.G. Borsboom (Jerome)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Ultrasound contrast agent was discovered serendipitously by Gramiak and Shah in I968 when they injected indocyanine green dye into the heart and observed increased echogenicity of the blood containing the dye. Small cavitation bubbles that were formed upon injection of

  10. Challenges of Detecting Bioterrorism Agents in Complex Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Erica M.; Halden, Rolf U.

    This chapter offers an overview of the shift from the use of mass ­spectrometry for studying purified bioterrorism agents to the development of methods for rapid detection thereof in environmental and clinical samples. We discuss the difficulties of working with such complex matrices and present methods for quickly and effectively reducing complexity through sample preparation. Finally, we examine a success story wherein the common pathogen and potential bioterrorism agent norovirus is detected at clinically relevant levels in human stool.

  11. Applications of commercial biosensors in clinical, food, environmental, and biothreat/biowarfare analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-01

    The lack of specific, low-cost, rapid, sensitive, and easy detection of biomolecules has resulted in the development of biosensor technology. Innovations in biosensor technology have enabled many biosensors to be commercialized and have enabled biomolecules to be detected onsite. Moreover, the emerging technologies of lab-on-a-chip microdevices and nanosensors offer opportunities for the development of new biosensors with much better performance. Biosensors were first introduced into the laboratory by Clark and Lyons. They developed the first glucose biosensor for laboratory conditions. Then in 1973, a glucose biosensor was commercialized by Yellow Springs Instruments. The commercial biosensors have small size and simple construction and they are ideal for point-of-care biosensing. In addition to glucose, a wide variety of metabolites such as lactate, cholesterol, and creatinine can be detected by using commercial biosensors. Like the glucose biosensors (tests) other commercial tests such as for pregnancy (hCG), Escherichia coli O157, influenza A and B viruses, Helicobacter pylori, human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, and malaria have achieved success. Apart from their use in clinical analysis, commercial tests are also used in environmental (such as biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, pesticide), food (such as glutamate, glutamine, sucrose, lactose, alcohol, ascorbic acid), and biothreat/biowarfare (Bacillus anthracis, Salmonella, Botulinum toxin) analysis. In this review, commercial biosensors in clinical, environmental, food, and biowarfare analysis are summarized and the commercial biosensors are compared in terms of their important characteristics. This is the first review in which all the commercially available tests are compiled together.

  12. LIDAR for Detection of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Veerabuthiran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Remote detection of chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic gases in the atmosphere is of current interest to both the military and civilian agencies. Out of all currently available techniques, no single technique provides efficient detection against such threats at significant standoff distances. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR technologies, based on the transmission of laser pulses and analysis of the return signals, have demonstrated impressive capabilities in remote detection of such toxic chemicals. LIDAR is a highly sensitive tool to detect the extremely low concentrations of various toxic agents present in the form of thin clouds at distances of few kilometer. The detection of these toxic clouds is based on the approach of first detecting and measuring the range of the clouds using the scattering phenomena and subsequently identifying the composition of toxic clouds using absorption and fluorescence phenomena. Laser Science and Technology Centre (LASTEC, Delhi has been working on the design and development of LIDAR systems for detection of chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents. In this paper, theoretical analysis of differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL for detection of chemical agents and fluorescence LIDAR for detection of biological agents has been discussed. For some typical parametric conditions, the received power levels from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of chemical or biological clouds have been computed and discussed. The technical details of the indigenously developed backscattering LIDAR, which detects and measures the distance of cloud layers up to 5 km is also presented.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.241-250, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.556

  13. Evaluation of the Biofire FilmArray BioThreat-E Test (v2.5) for Rapid Identification of Ebola Virus Disease in Heat-Treated Blood Samples Obtained in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Simon A; Bailey, Daniel; Matthews, Steven; Lumley, Sarah; Sweed, Angela; Ready, Derren; Eltringham, Gary; Richards, Jade; Vipond, Richard; Lukaszewski, Roman; Payne, Phillippa M; Aarons, Emma; Simpson, Andrew J; Hutley, Emma J; Brooks, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Ebola virus (EBOV) detection is crucial for appropriate patient management and care. The performance of the FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) using whole-blood samples was evaluated in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom and was compared with results generated by a real-time Ebola Zaire PCR reference method. Samples were tested in diagnostic laboratories upon availability, included successive samples from individual patients, and were heat treated to facilitate EBOV inactivation prior to PCR. The BioThreat-E test had a sensitivity of 84% (confidence interval [CI], 64% to 95%) and a specificity of 89% (CI, 73% to 97%) in Sierra Leone (n = 60; 44 patients) and a sensitivity of 75% (CI, 19% to 99%) and a specificity of 100% (CI, 97% to 100%) in the United Kingdom (n = 108; 70 patients) compared to the reference real-time PCR. Statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test) indicated there was no significant difference between the methods at the 99% confidence level in either country. In 9 discrepant results (5 real-time PCR positives and BioThreat-E test negatives and 4 real-time PCR negatives and BioThreat-E test positives), the majority (n = 8) were obtained from samples with an observed or probable low viral load. The FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) therefore provides an attractive option for laboratories (either in austere field settings or in countries with an advanced technological infrastructure) which do not routinely offer an EBOV diagnostic capability.

  14. Considerations in detecting CDC select agents under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Charles; Soelberg, Scott; Swanson, Nathaneal; Furlong, Clement; Baker, Paul

    2008-04-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) has become a widely accepted technique for real-time detection of interactions between receptor molecules and ligands. Antibody may serve as receptor and can be attached to the gold surface of the SPR device, while candidate analyte fluids contact the detecting antibody. Minute, but detectable, changes in refractive indices (RI) indicate that analyte has bound to the antibody. A decade ago, an inexpensive, robust, miniature and fully integrated SPR chip, called SPREETA, was developed. University of Washington (UW) researchers subsequently developed a portable, temperature-regulated instrument, called SPIRIT, to simultaneously use eight of these three-channel SPREETA chips. A SPIRIT prototype instrument was tested in the field, coupled to a remote reporting system on a surrogate unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Two target protein analytes were released sequentially as aerosols with low analyte concentration during each of three flights and were successfully detected and verified. Laboratory experimentation with a more advanced SPIRIT instrument demonstrated detection of very low levels of several select biological agents that might be employed by bioterrorists. Agent detection under field-like conditions is more challenging, especially as analyte concentrations are reduced and complex matricies are introduced. Two different sample preconditioning protocols have been developed for select agents in complex matrices. Use of these preconditioning techniques has allowed laboratory detection in spiked heavy mud of Francisella tularensis at 10 3 CFU/ml, Bacillus anthracis spores at 10 3 CFU/ml, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) at 1 ng/ml, and Vaccinia virus (a smallpox simulant) at 10 5 PFU/ml. Ongoing experiments are aimed at simultaneous detection of multiple agents in spiked heavy mud, using a multiplex preconditioning protocol.

  15. Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing for Biological Agent Detection and Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Laszlo B; King, Maria D; Kwan, Chiman; Jensen, James O; Schmera, Gabor; Smulko, Janusz; Gingl, Zoltan; Granqvist, Claes G

    2009-01-01

    We survey and show our earlier results about three different ways of fluctuation-enhanced sensing of bio agent, the phage-based method for bacterium detection published earlier; sensing and evaluating the bacterial odors; and spectral and amplitude distribution analysis of noise in light scattering to identify spores based on their diffusion coefficient.

  16. Carbon Nanotubes: Detection of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Kumar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of carbon nanotubes has great impact on the development of newer methodologies and devicesuseful for the analysis of various types of chemicals. The functionalisation of CNTs with biomolecules relatedto chemical and biological warfare agents makes these useful for the detection of these agents. The detectionsensitivity can be increased manyfold. Various types of chemical and biological sensors were developed usingvarious type of carbon nanotubes as well as nano particles of different metals.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.617-625, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1684

  17. Detecting malicious activities with user-agent-based profiles

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) has become the main protocol to carry out malicious activities. Attackers typically use HTTP for communication with command-and-control servers, click fraud, phishing and other malicious activities, as they can easily hide among the large amount of benign HTTP traffic. The user-agent (UA) field in the HTTP header carries information on the application, operating system (OS), device, and so on, and adversaries fake UA strings as a way to evade detection. Moti...

  18. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, D.E. [Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were reported as capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detecting soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition, these antibodies were highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies reported an extension of the level of sensitivity to -80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These antibodies offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances.

  19. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  20. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L. [Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  1. The Rapid Forensic Evaluation of Microbes in Biodefense Research Program Will Develop a Rapid Screening and Detection System for Multiple Bio-Threat (BT) Agents for the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    stratification near or close to the tip of the fungal mycelium suggesting active protein and lipid synthesis. The device uses a DSLR camera with a 1-5x Macro...mg mycelium was ground in liquid nitrogen using a mortar and pestle. To the ground mycelia, 0.5 ml of 1x STE buffer containing 1.5% SDS and 20 mg/ml...identification is shown in Figure 1 Appendix C Methods and Materials Sample Preparation. 400 µL of lysate was precipitated using ToPrep Kit (ITSI

  2. Fabrication of SAW Sensor for Detecting Chemical Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J H Lee; B S Joo; J S Huh; D D Lee

    2006-01-01

    SAW sensors using five different types of polymer to detect of chemical agents (DMMP, CH3CN, CH2Cl2, DCP)have been fabricated and its gas response characteristics were extensively investigated. The polymers used as the sensing material are polyisobutylene (PIB), polyepichlorohydrin (PECH), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polyisoprene(PIP) and polybutadiene(PBD). Their thin films were coated on quartz substrate by spin coating technique. Three types of simulants gases, dimethylmethylphosphonate(DMMP), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and dichloromethane(CH2Cl2), dichloropentane(DCP) were used as target gases, instead of the real nerve, blood, choking and vesicant agents. After spin coating of PIB and PECH, the substrates were heated to 65℃ with N2 flow for 1 h to remove the cyclohexane and ethylacetate which was used as solvent.PDMS was heated to 75℃ with N2 flow for 2 h to remove the ethylacetate which was used as solvent. PBD and PIP on the substrate were heated to 60℃ with N2 flow for 1 h to remove the benzen which was used as solvent. The sensing characteristics of the SAW sensors were measured by using E-5061A network analyzer.

  3. Evaluation of SERS substrates for chemical agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hermes; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Inscore, Frank; Farquharson, Stuart

    2012-06-01

    US Military forces are dependent on indigenous water supplies, which are considered prime targets to effect a chemical or biological attack. Consequently, there is a clear need for a portable analyzer capable of evaluating water supplies prior to use. To this end we have been investigating the use of a portable Raman analyzer with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sampling systems. The superior selectivity and exceptional sensitivity of SERS has been demonstrated by the detection of single molecules. However, the extreme sensitivity provided by SERS is attributed to "hot spot" structures, such as particle junctions that can provide as much as 10 orders of magnitude enhancement. Unfortunately, hotspots are not evenly distributed across substrates, which results in enhancements that cannot be quantitatively reproduced. Here we present analysis of uniformity for a newly developed substrate and commercial sample vials using benzenethiol and bispyridylethylene, two chemicals often used to characterize SERS substrates, and methyl phosphonic acid, a major hydrolysis product of the nerve agents.

  4. Ultrasound contrast agents for bleeding detection and acoustic hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Vesna; Luo, Wenbo; Brayman, Andrew; Crum, Lawrence; Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-04-01

    Objective: To investigate the application of ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) in improving both therapeutic and diagnostic aspects of ultrasound-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) therapy. Methods: Incisions (3 cm long, 0.5 cm deep) were made in rabbit livers (in anterior surface for HIFU treatment, or posterior surface for bleeding detection). UCA Optison (~0.1 ml/kg) was injected into mesenteric vein or ear vein. A HIFU applicator (5.5 MHz, 6400 W/cm2) was scanned manually over the incision until hemostasis was achieved. Occult bleeding was monitored with Doppler ultrasound. Results: The presence of Optison produced 37% reduction in hemostasis times normalized to initial bleeding rates. Gross and histological observations showed similar appearance of HIFU lesions produced in the presence of Optison and control HIFU lesions. The temperature reached 100°C in both HIFU only and HIFU+UCA treatments. Tension strength of hemostatic liver incisions was 0.9+/-0.5 N. Almost no bleeding could be detected before Optison injection. First appearance of contrast enhancement localized at the bleeding site was 15 s after Optison injection, and lasted for ~50 s. Conclusion: The presence of UCA during HIFU treatment of liver incisions resulted in shortening of HIFU application times and better visualization of bleeding sites.

  5. Chemiluminescence assay for the detection of biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langry, K; Horn, J

    1999-11-05

    A chemiluminescent homogeneous immunoassay and a hand-size multiassay reader are described that could be used for detecting biological materials. The special feature of the assay is that it employs two different antibodies that each bind to a unique epitope on the same antigen. Each group of epitope-specific antibodies has linked to it an enzyme of a proximal-enzyme pair. One enzyme of the pair utilizes a substrate in high concentration to produce a second substrate required by the second enzyme. This new substrate enables the second enzyme to function. The reaction of the second enzyme is configured to produce light. This chemiluminescence is detected with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The proximal pair enzymes must be in close proximity to one another to allow the second enzyme to react with the product of the first enzyme. This only occurs when the enzyme-linked antibodies are attached to the antigen, whether antigen is a single protein with multiple epitopes or the surface of a cell with a variety of different antigens. As a result of their juxtaposition, the enzymes produce light only in the presence of the biological material. A brief description is given as to how this assay could be utilized in a personal bio-agent detector system.

  6. Rapid focused sequencing: a multiplexed assay for simultaneous detection and strain typing of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary S Turingan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intentional release of Bacillus anthracis in the United States in 2001 has heightened concern about the use of pathogenic microorganisms in bioterrorism attacks. Many of the deadliest bacteria, including the Class A Select Agents Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis, are highly infectious via the pulmonary route when released in aerosolized form. Hence, rapid, sensitive, and reliable methods for detection of these biothreats and characterization of their potential impact on the exposed population are of critical importance to initiate and support rapid military, public health, and clinical responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed microfluidic multiplexed PCR and sequencing assays based on the simultaneous interrogation of three pathogens per assay and ten loci per pathogen. Microfluidic separation of amplified fluorescently labeled fragments generated characteristic electrophoretic signatures for identification of each agent. The three sets of primers allowed significant strain typing and discrimination from non-pathogenic closely-related species and environmental background strains based on amplicon sizes alone. Furthermore, sequencing of the 10 amplicons per pathogen, termed "Rapid Focused Sequencing," allowed an even greater degree of strain discrimination and, in some cases, can be used to determine virulence. Both amplification and sequencing assays were performed in microfluidic biochips developed for fast thermal cycling and requiring 7 µL per reaction. The 30-plex sequencing assay resulted in genotypic resolution of 84 representative strains belonging to each of the three biothreat species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The microfluidic multiplexed assays allowed identification and strain differentiation of the biothreat agents Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis and clear discrimination from closely-related species and several environmental

  7. Rapid Detection and Identification of a Pathogen's DNA Using Phi29 DNA Polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.; Dunn, J.; Gao, S.; Bruno, J. F.; Luft, B. J.

    2008-10-31

    Zoonotic pathogens including those transmitted by insect vectors are some of the most deadly of all infectious diseases known to mankind. A number of these agents have been further weaponized and are widely recognized as being potentially significant biothreat agents. We describe a novel method based on multiply-primed rolling circle in vitro amplification for profiling genomic DNAs to permit rapid, cultivation-free differential detection and identification of circular plasmids in infectious agents. Using Phi29 DNA polymerase and a two-step priming reaction we could reproducibly detect and characterize by DNA sequencing circular DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi B31 in DNA samples containing as little as 25 pg of Borrelia DNA amongst a vast excess of human DNA. This simple technology can ultimately be adapted as a sensitive method to detect specific DNA from both known and unknown pathogens in a wide variety of complex environments.

  8. Analysis of decontamination solutions of G agents to detect reformation of agent. Final report, December 1991-March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudry, W.T.; Buchanan, J.H.; Rohrbaugh, D.K.; Samuel, J.B.; Szafraniec, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Agents from a full scale binary munition test were decontaminated with caustic in a 300 gal holding tank. Analysis of the contents by standard methods revealed a trace amount of G agent present despite the highly caustic solution. A technical review of the analytical methods was carried out to determine if the G agent was actually present or an artifact of the analysis. A literature search revealed similar concerns when brine solutions from nerve agent decontamination were analyzed using similar analytical methods. This study concluded that nerve agents reformed at reduced PH or in chloroform extracts of the neutralized or slightly acidic brines. Experiments using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography (GC), and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to see where, if any, G agent was present during the analysis. Results obtained confirmed G agent reforming in either the neutral aqueous solution or in the chloroform extract but not in chloroform extracts of the caustic solution. No agent was detected using methylene chloride as the extraction solvent as recommended by the earlier study.

  9. Architecture for Intrusion Detection System with Fault Tolerance Using Mobile Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan Bhatt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey of the work, done for making an IDS fault tolerant.Architecture of IDS that usesmobile Agent provides higher scalability. Mobile Agent uses Platform for detecting Intrusions using filterAgent, co-relater agent, Interpreter agent and rule database. When server (IDS Monitor goes down,other hosts based on priority takes Ownership. This architecture uses decentralized collection andanalysis for identifying Intrusion. Rule sets are fed based on user-behaviour or applicationbehaviour.This paper suggests that intrusion detection system (IDS must be fault tolerant; otherwise, theintruder may first subvert the IDS then attack the target system at will.

  10. Discovery of Novel Virulence Factors of Biothreat Agents: Validation of the Phosphoproteome-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-30

    the Qiagen Mini- Xpress in vitro protein transpcription and translation system. We found this amount to be insufficient and so we obtained an...experiment generated fascinating results, which will contribute to the field of Francisella LPS studies. Finally, by performing a more global comparison...1948 FTT1275 mglA sspA FTT1275 mglA sspA global transcriptional regulation, possibly through binding RNA polymerase allow survival within

  11. Microorganisms detection on substrates using QCL spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Jiménez, Amira C.; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Ayala, Iris; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2013-05-01

    Recent investigations have focused on the improvement of rapid and accurate methods to develop spectroscopic markers of compounds constituting microorganisms that are considered biological threats. Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) systems have revolutionized many areas of research and development in defense and security applications, including his area of research. Infrared spectroscopy detection based on QCL was employed to acquire mid infrared (MIR) spectral signatures of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Escherichia coli (Ec) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se), which were used as biological agent simulants of biothreats. The experiments were carried out in reflection mode on various substrates such as cardboard, glass, travel baggage, wood and stainless steel. Chemometrics statistical routines such as principal component analysis (PCA) regression and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the recorded MIR spectra. The results show that the infrared vibrational techniques investigated are useful for classification/detection of the target microorganisms on the types of substrates studied.

  12. Detection of Sulfatase Enzyme Activity with a CatalyCEST MRI Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Fernández-Cuervo, Gabriela; Acfalle, Jasmine P; Pagel, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    A chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI contrast agent has been developed that detects sulfatase enzyme activity. The agent produces a CEST signal at δ=5.0 ppm before enzyme activity, and a second CEST signal appears at δ=9.0 ppm after the enzyme cleaves a sulfate group from the agent. The comparison of the two signals improved detection of sulfatase activity.

  13. A potential MRI contract agent for tumor detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since the first successful attempt in the early 1970s, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool has seen rapid and wide applications in clinical practice. However,new types of contrast agents remain to be developed for further improving the sensitivity and specificity of the technology.

  14. A Multi Agent System for Flow-Based Intrusion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    accomplish this, with the added advantages of flexibility and robustness provided by this approach. Russell and Norvig [149] define a single agent...2002. ISSN 0278-0984. [148] Rish, Irina. “An empirical study of the naive Bayes classifier”, 2001. [149] Russell, Stuart and Peter Norvig . Artificial

  15. An efficient detection agent for the high throughput screening of recombinant manufacturing cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Valérie; Sauvage, Christophe; Kobr, Michel; Imhof, Markus O

    2013-12-31

    To ensure the selection of high producing recombinant cell lines, a number of screening processes were developed in the presence of detection agents. Here, CHO cell lines secreting recombinant antibodies were detected in semi-solid medium containing detection agents. The aim was to compare two protein A-derived detection agents to two commercial fluorescent antibodies directed against the Fc part of the antibody of interest: the protein A derived Z domain fused to the red fluorescent protein and protein A labelled with a fluorescent Dylight™ 488 dye. All of these agents were compatible with cell recovery and colony formation, and specifically detected colonies secreting recombinant antibodies. Optimisation of the concentration of the fluorescent protein A allowed the identification of a higher number of good producers. Thus these data demonstrate that fluorescently labelled protein A-derivatives can be used for the selection of high producer cells.

  16. Infrared spectroscopy for chemical agent detection using tailored hypersorbent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Dmitry A.; McGill, R. Andrew; Stievater, Todd H.; Furstenberg, Robert; Pruessner, Marcel W.; Nguyen, Viet

    2015-06-01

    We report long-wave infrared (LWIR, 5-15 μm) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR, 2.5 - 5 μm) differential absorption spectra of different nerve agent simulants and common solutes sorbed to poly(methyldi(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-trifluoromethyl- 2-hydroxypent-4-enyl)silane, HCSFA2, an NRL developed hypersorbent polymer. HCSFA2 is a strong hydrogen-bond acidic polymer which exhibits large gas-polymer partitions for a variety of hazardous chemicals with hydrogen-bond basic properties such as the phosphonate ester G-nerve agents or their simulants. The measured ATR-FTIR differential absorption spectra show complex fingerprint signal changes in the resonances for the sorbent material itself, as well as new resonances arising from chemical bonding between the solute or analyte and the sorbent or the solute itself being present in the sorbent.

  17. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eWalker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving human welfare is a global concern, but not always easy to achieve. In this regard, challenges have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU, where socialist institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow. Economic adjustments have been difficult in the new nations of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by a lack of infrastructure, human capital, and financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asia is mostly landlocked, far from market centers. Despite these barriers, development potential exists, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia’s pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, a significant impediment to realizing the market potential of the region’s animal products. It next provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD and Brucellosis. Included is a success story involving FMD eradication in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers how wildlife might act as a disease reservoir, which presents a conservation issue for the Kazakhstani case. This is followed by a discussion of the role of science in threat reduction, particularly with respect to the potential offered by geospatial technologies. The article concludes with an assessment of the research that would be necessary to identify pathways to developing the economic potential of central Asia, as changes in policy are implemented and livestock health improves.

  18. A Chemically Synthesized Capture Agent Enables the Selective, Sensitive, and Robust Electrochemical Detection of Anthrax Protective Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    A Chemically Synthesized Capture Agent Enables the Selective, Sensitive, and Robust Electrochemical Detection of Anthrax Protective Antigen...A Chemically Synthesized Capture Agent Enables the Selective, Sensitive, and Robust Electrochemical Detection of Anthrax Protective Antigen...AND SUBTITLE A Chemically Synthesized Capture Agent Enables the Selective, Sensitive, and Robust Electrochemical Detection of Anthrax Protective

  19. Photonic crystal hydrogel sensor for detection of nerve agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiayu; Yan, Chunxiao; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Chaohua; Hu, Xiaochun; Qi, Fenglian

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays the photonic crystal hydrogel materials have shown great promise in the detection of different chemical analytes, including creatinine, glucose, metal ions and so on. In this paper, we developed a novel three-dimensional photonic crystal hydrogel, which was hydrolyzed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and immobilized with butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) by 1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride(EDC). They are demonstrated to be excellent in response to sarin and a limit of detection(LOD) of 1×10‑9 mg mL‑1 was achieved.

  20. Lab-on-a-chip for rapid electrochemical detection of nerve agent Sarin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Hsih-Yin; Loke, Weng Keong; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a lab-on-a-chip for the detection of Sarin nerve agent based on rapid electrochemical detection. The chemical warfare agent Sarin (C4H10FO2P, O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is a highly toxic organophosphate that induces rapid respiratory depression, seizures and death...... within minutes of inhalation. As purified Sarin is colourless, odourless, water soluble and a easily disseminated nerve agent, it has been used as a weapon in terrorist or military attacks. To ascertain whether potable water supplies have been adulterated with this extremely potent poison, an inexpensive...

  1. Detection of ultrasound contrast agent microbubble with constructed bubble wavelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bin; WAN Mingxi

    2005-01-01

    To detect the echo irradiated by microbubble out from the signal reflected by surrounding tissues, a mother wavelet named bubble wavelet according to the modified Herring oscillation equation was constructed and then applied to the original ultrasound radio frequency signal to perform the wavelet transformation. The transformed wavelet coefficients were extracted by selected threshold values to differentiate the echo of microbubble from signal of surround tissues. The effect of bubble wavelet was compared with other three commonly used mother wavelets by computer simulation and phantom experiment. The results demonstrated that there existed a highly correlation between the bubble wavelet and the experimental echo irradiated by microbubble because bubble wavelet had represented the dynamics of microbubble in advance. Furthermore, the wavelet transform results showed a better signal-noise-ratio and a sharper contrast between the echo of microbubble and the signal of surrounding tissues. Finally,constructing an overall mother wavelet library can improve the applicability and robustness of this detection method.

  2. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR WORM DETECTION AND CONTAINMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Active worms can cause widespread damages at so high a speed that effectively precludes human-directed reaction, and patches for the worms are always available after the damages have been caused, whichhas elevated them selfto a first-class security threat to Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). Multi-agent sys-tem for Worm Detection and Containment in MAN (MWDCM) is presented to provide a first-class auto-matic reaction mechanism that automatically applies containment strategies to block the propagation of theworms and to protect MAN against worm scan that wastes a lot of network bandwidth and crashes therouters. Its user agent is used to detect the known worms. Worm detection agent and worm detection correla-tion agent use two-stage based decision method to detect unknown worms. They adaptively study the access-ing in the whole network and dynamically change the working parameters to detect the unknown worms.MWDCM confines worm infection within a macro-cell or a micro-cell of the metropolitan area networks, therest of the accesses and hosts continue functioning without disruption. MWDCM integrates Worm DetectionSystem (WDS) and network management system. Reaction measures can be taken by using Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP) interface to control broadband access server as soon as the WDS detect theactive worm. MWDCM is very effective in blocking random scanning worms. Simulation results indicatethat high worm infection rate of epidemics can be avoided to a degree by MWDCM blocking the propagationof the worms.

  3. Biometric Device Assistant Tool: Intelligent Agent for Intrusion Detection at Biometric Device using JESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithili Arjunwadkar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While there are various advantages of biometric authentication process, it is vulnerable to attacks, which can decline its security. To enhance the security of biometric process, Intrusion detection techniques are significantly useful. In this paper, we have designed intelligent agent as knowledge based Biometric Device Intrusion Detection tool which is an innovative design. This intelligent agent can be located on the Biometric device. It performs intrusion detection using Operating Systems audit trail and device manager information. The system consists of a user interface module, an inference engine, a knowledgebase of illegal transactions and certified biometric devices. Inference engine is implemented using JESS which is a Java Expert System Shell.

  4. Hybrid Intrusion Detection and Prediction multiAgent System HIDPAS

    CERN Document Server

    Jemili, Farah; Ahmed, Mohamed Ben

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an intrusion detection and prediction system based on uncertain and imprecise inference networks and its implementation. Giving a historic of sessions, it is about proposing a method of supervised learning doubled of a classifier permitting to extract the necessary knowledge in order to identify the presence or not of an intrusion in a session and in the positive case to recognize its type and to predict the possible intrusions that will follow it. The proposed system takes into account the uncertainty and imprecision that can affect the statistical data of the historic. The systematic utilization of an unique probability distribution to represent this type of knowledge supposes a too rich subjective information and risk to be in part arbitrary. One of the first objectives of this work was therefore to permit the consistency between the manner of which we represent information and information which we really dispose.

  5. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Blackburn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Improving human welfare is a critical global concern, but not always easy to achieve. Complications in this regard have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union, where socialist-style economic institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow in coming. Lack of capital, ethnic conflict, and political instability have at times undermined the institutional reform that would be necessary to enable economic efficiency and development. Nowhere are such challenges more pronounced than in the new nation states of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by lack of infrastructure, low levels of human capital, and a scarcity of financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asian states are landlocked, far from centers of market demand and capital availability. Despite these daunting barriers, development potential does exist, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia's pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, the most significant existing impediment to realizing the full market potential of the region's animal products. Next, it provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD), which greatly impacts livestock and prohibits export, and Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis with high incidence in both humans and livestock in the region. Included is an important success story involving the FMD eradication programs in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers the role of wildlife in

  6. Radiolabeled Apoptosis Imaging Agents for Early Detection of Response to Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since apoptosis plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis and is associated with responses to therapy, molecular imaging of apoptotic cells could be useful for early detection of therapeutic effects, particularly in oncology. Radiolabeled annexin V compounds are the hallmark in apoptosis imaging in vivo. These compounds are reviewed from the genesis of apoptosis (cell death imaging agents up to recent years. They have some disadvantages, including slow clearance and immunogenicity, because they are protein-based imaging agents. For this reason, several studies have been conducted in recent years to develop low molecule apoptosis imaging agents. In this review, radiolabeled phosphatidylserine targeted peptides, radiolabeled bis(zinc(II-dipicolylamine complex, radiolabeled 5-fluoropentyl-2-methyl-malonic acid (ML-10, caspase-3 activity imaging agents, radiolabeled duramycin, and radiolabeled phosphonium cation are reviewed as promising low-molecular-weight apoptosis imaging agents.

  7. Methods for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

    2008-03-18

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method comprises the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention also provides a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  8. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.

    1998-11-10

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

  9. Design and implementation of self-protection agent for network-based intrusion detection system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱树人; 李伟琴

    2003-01-01

    Static secure techniques, such as firewall, hierarchy filtering, distributed disposing,layer management, autonomy agent, secure communication, were introduced in distributed intrusion detection. The self-protection agents were designed, which have the distributed architecture,cooperate with the agents in intrusion detection in a loose-coupled manner, protect the security of intrusion detection system, and respond to the intrusion actively. A prototype self-protection agent was implemented by using the packet filter in operation system kernel. The results show that all the hosts with the part of network-based intrusion detection system and the whole intrusion detection system are invisible from the outside and network scanning, and cannot apperceive the existence of network-based intrusion detection system. The communication between every part is secure. In the low layer, the packet streams are controlled to avoid the buffer leaks exist ing in some system service process and back-door programs, so as to prevent users from misusing and vicious attack like Trojan Horse effectively.

  10. An Agent Based Intrusion Detection Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Reshmi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection has over the last few years, assumed paramount importance within the broad realm of network security, more so in case of wireless mobile ad hoc networks. The inherently vulnerable characteristics of wireless mobile ad hoc networks make them susceptible to attacks in-spite of some security measures, and it may be too late before any counter action can take effect. As such, there is a need to complement traditional security mechanisms with efficient intrusion detection and response systems. This paper proposes an agent-based model to address the aspect of intrusion detection in cluster based mobile wireless ad hoc network environment. The model comprises of a set of static and mobile agents, which are used to detect intrusions, respond to intrusions, and distribute selected and aggregated intrusion information to all other nodes in the network in an intelligent manner. The model is simulated to test its operation effectiveness by considering the performance parameters such as, detection rate, false positives, agent overheads, and intrusion information distribution time. Agent based approach facilitates flexible and adaptable security services. Also, it supports component based software engineering components such as maintainability, reachability, reusability, adaptability, flexibility, and customization.

  11. Detection and identification of bio-threats using MALDI-TOF-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paauw, A.

    2012-01-01

    MALDI-TOF-MS emerged as a new diagnostic tool in established clinical laboratories. Advantages compared to conventional techniques are that it is a fast, cost-effective, accurate method, which is suitable for high-throughput identification of bacteria by less skilled laboratory personnel because pre

  12. Chromogenic and fluorogenic detection and discrimination of nerve agents Tabun and Vx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Rana, Hemlata

    2015-11-28

    Our approach uses squaraine (SQ) as the molecular-receptor as well as an indicator for the chromogenic and fluorogenic detection and discrimination of nerve agents Tabun and Vx. To mimic a real-life scenario, the protocols were implemented in spiked water and soil samples, on surfaces, and in the gas phase. The lower detection limit will be useful to protect human health and national security.

  13. Fluorogenic and chromogenic probe for rapid detection of a nerve agent simulant DCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-hui; Dong, Jun-jun; Wang, Xin; Li, Jian; Sui, Shao-hui; Chen, Gao-yun; Liu, Ji-wei; Zhang, Ming

    2012-07-21

    A fluorogenic and visual probe was devised to detect diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP), a nerve agent simulant. The probe, N-(rhodamine B)-lactam-2-aminoethanol (RB-AE), undergoes oxazoline formation following phosphorylation in the presence of DCP, which gives rapid and clear fluorescence and color change in the assay solutions.

  14. 9 CFR 113.55 - Detection of extraneous agents in Master Seed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Master Seed Virus. 113.55 Section 113.55 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.55 Detection of extraneous agents in Master Seed...

  15. Anabolic agents: recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-05-01

    According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, anabolic agents consist of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), endogenous AAS and other anabolic agents such as clenbuterol and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Currently employed strategies for their improved detection include the prolongation of the detection windows for exogenous AAS, non-targeted and indirect analytical approaches for the detection of modified steroids (designer steroids), the athlete's biological passport and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the detection of the misuse of endogenous AAS, as well as preventive doping research for the detection of SARMs. The recent use of these strategies led to 4-80-fold increases of adverse analytical findings for exogenous AAS, to the detection of the misuse of new designer steroids, to adverse analytical findings of different endogenous AAS and to the first adverse analytical findings of SARMs. The strategies of the antidoping research are not only focused on the development of methods to catch the cheating athlete but also to protect the clean athlete from inadvertent doping. Within the past few years several sources of inadvertent doping with anabolic agents have been identified. Among these are nutritional supplements adulterated with AAS, meat products contaminated with clenbuterol, mycotoxin (zearalenone) contamination leading to zeranol findings, and natural products containing endogenous AAS. The protection strategy consists of further investigations in case of reasonable suspicion of inadvertent doping, publication of the results, education of athletes and development of methods to differentiate between intentional and unintentional doping.

  16. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  17. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matatagui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs. The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13, and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR. Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  18. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-07-15

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  19. Multispectral photoacoustic decomposition with localized regularization for detecting targeted contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Chen, Ying; Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun Jae; Pomper, Martin; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    Targeted contrast agents can improve the sensitivity of imaging systems for cancer detection and monitoring the treatment. In order to accurately detect contrast agent concentration from photoacoustic images, we developed a decomposition algorithm to separate photoacoustic absorption spectrum into components from individual absorbers. In this study, we evaluated novel prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted agents for imaging prostate cancer. Three agents were synthesized through conjugating PSMA-targeting urea with optical dyes ICG, IRDye800CW and ATTO740 respectively. In our preliminary PA study, dyes were injected in a thin wall plastic tube embedded in water tank. The tube was illuminated with pulsed laser light using a tunable Q-switch ND-YAG laser. PA signal along with the B-mode ultrasound images were detected with a diagnostic ultrasound probe in orthogonal mode. PA spectrums of each dye at 0.5 to 20 μM concentrations were estimated using the maximum PA signal extracted from images which are obtained at illumination wavelengths of 700nm-850nm. Subsequently, we developed nonnegative linear least square optimization method along with localized regularization to solve the spectral unmixing. The algorithm was tested by imaging mixture of those dyes. The concentration of each dye was estimated with about 20% error on average from almost all mixtures albeit the small separation between dyes spectrums.

  20. A multi-agent genetic algorithm for community detection in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhangtao; Liu, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Complex networks are popularly used to represent a lot of practical systems in the domains of biology and sociology, and the structure of community is one of the most important network attributes which has received an enormous amount of attention. Community detection is the process of discovering the community structure hidden in complex networks, and modularity Q is one of the best known quality functions measuring the quality of communities of networks. In this paper, a multi-agent genetic algorithm, named as MAGA-Net, is proposed to optimize modularity value for the community detection. An agent, coded by a division of a network, represents a candidate solution. All agents live in a lattice-like environment, with each agent fixed on a lattice point. A series of operators are designed, namely split and merging based neighborhood competition operator, hybrid neighborhood crossover, adaptive mutation and self-learning operator, to increase modularity value. In the experiments, the performance of MAGA-Net is validated on both well-known real-world benchmark networks and large-scale synthetic LFR networks with 5000 nodes. The systematic comparisons with GA-Net and Meme-Net show that MAGA-Net outperforms these two algorithms, and can detect communities with high speed, accuracy and stability.

  1. Stochastic nanopore sensors for the detection of terrorist agents: Current status and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Aihua; Zhao Qitao [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States); Guan Xiyun, E-mail: xguan@uta.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States)

    2010-08-24

    Nanopore stochastic sensor works by monitoring the ionic current modulations induced by the passage of analytes of interest through a single pore, which can be obtained from a biological ion channel by self-assembly or artificially fabricated in a solid-state membrane. In this minireview, we overview the use of biological nanopores and artificial nanopores for the detection of terrorist agents including explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, nitrogen mustards, organoarsenic compounds, toxins, and viruses. We also discuss the current challenge in the development of deployable nanopore sensors for real-world applications.

  2. Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Bertke, Erin E.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Likirdopulos, Christina A.; Mailot, Brian E.; Schaefer, Frank W.; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio to assess the performance of a molecular method in comparison to traditional analytical methods that take longer to perform. Two 100-liter samples were collected at each site during each sampling event; one was seeded in the laboratory with six biological agents - Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), Burkholderia cepacia (as a surrogate for Bu. pseudomallei), Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis), Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae), and Cryptospordium parvum (C. parvum). The seeded and unseeded samples were processed by ultrafiltration and analyzed by use of quantiative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a molecular method, and culture methods for bacterial agents or the immunomagnetic separation/fluorescent antibody (IMS/FA) method for C. parvum as traditional methods. Six replicate seeded samples were also processed and analyzed. For traditional methods, recoveries were highly variable between samples and even between some replicate samples, ranging from below detection to greater than 100 percent. Recoveries were significantly related to water pH, specific conductance, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for all bacteria combined by culture methods, but none of the water-quality characteristics tested were related to recoveries of C. parvum by IMS/FA. Recoveries were not determined by qPCR because of problems in quantifying organisms by qPCR in the composite seed. Instead, qPCR results were reported as detected, not detected (no qPCR signal), or +/- detected (Cycle Threshold or 'Ct' values were greater than 40). Several sample results by qPCR were omitted from the dataset because of possible problems with qPCR reagents, primers, and probes. For the remaining 14 qPCR results

  3. A MOBILE AGENT BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Kumar Pattanayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs have become extensively popular over the years among the researchers. However, the dynamic nature of MANETs imposes a set of challenges to its efficient implementation in practice. One of such challenges represents intrusion detection and prevention procedures that are intended to provide secured performance of ad hoc applications. In this study, we introduce a mobile agent based intrusion detection and prevention architecture for a clustered MANET. Here, a mobile agent resides in each cluster of the ad hoc network and each cluster runs a specific application at any point of time. This application specific approach makes the network more robust to external intrusions directed at the nodes in an ad hoc network.

  4. A versatile simulation software for performance analysis of DIAL system for the detection of toxic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Mukesh K.; Veerabuthiran, S.; Dudeja, Jai Paul; Dubey, Deepak K.

    2006-12-01

    Simulation studies have been carried out to analyze the performance of a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for the remote detection of a large variety of toxic agents in the 2-5 μm and 9-11 μm spectral bands. Stand-alone Graphical User Interface (GUI) software has been developed in the MATLAB platform to perform the simulation operations. It takes various system inputs from the user and computes the required laser energy to be transmitted, backscattered signal strengths, signal-to-noise ratio and minimum detectable concentrations for various agents from different ranges for the given system parameters. It has the flexibility of varying any of the system parameters for computation in order to provide inputs for the required design of proposed DIAL system. This software has the advantage of optimizing system parameters in the design of Lidar system. As a case study, the DIAL system with specified pulse energy of OPO based laser transmitter (2-5 μm) and a TEA CO II laser transmitter (9-11μm) has been considered. The proposed system further consists of a 500-mm diameter Newtonian telescope, 0.5-mm diameter detector and 10-MHz digitizer. A toxic agent cloud with given thickness and concentration has been assumed to be detected in the ambient atmospheric conditions at various ranges between 0.2 and 5 km. For a given set of system parameters, the required energy of laser transmitter, power levels of the return signals, signal-to-noise ratio and minimum detectable concentrations from different ranges have been calculated for each of these toxic agents.

  5. An electronic nose for the detection of Sarin, Soman and Tabun mimics and interfering agents

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    An electronic nose system (E-nose) with metal oxide semiconductor sensors (MOS) has been designed to discriminate and quantify different chemical warfare agents (CWA) mimics. The E-nose consists of an array of commercial MOS for different gases, two sensors for temperature sensing, a sample handling system, a data acquisition system and a laptop with the data acquisition system control. With this device, discrimination studies have been carried out to detect specific CWA simulants...

  6. Selective Real-time Detection of Gaseous Nerve Agent Simulants Using Multiwavelength Photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Selective real-time detection of gaseous nerve agent simulants using multiwavelength photoacoustics Kristan P. Gurton,* Melvin Felton, and Richard...concentrations. The technique is based on a modified version of conventional laser photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy, in which optical absorption is typically...spec- troscopic approach [1–4]. One of the more direct methods to implement in prac- tice (without sacrificing sensitivity) is laser photoacoustic

  7. RESEARCH ON SECURITY PROTOCOL FOR COLLABORATING MOBILE AGENTS IN NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Simeon Ogunnusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the popularity of mobile agents in academic and commercial arena, the security issues associated with them have hindered their adoption on large scale distributed applications. However, researchers are making relentless effort to overcome the security impediments so that the interesting properties inherent in mobile agent application, especially in the field of intrusion detection, can be harnessed. Such properties include: adaptability, autonomous nature, low bandwidth utilization, latency eradication, mobility and intelligence. A number of protocols have been developed by researchers for different key distribution techniques to enhance their performance and to protect communicating entities against malicious attacks that can hinder their activities. However, they do not take into account the availability and fault tolerance of the protocols in case of any possible attack despite the authentication methods offered by encryption. This study therefore, proposes a fault-tolerant key distribution protocol for distributed mobile agents (communicating entities in network intrusion detection system to facilitate hitch-free collaboration geared towards intrusive packets detection in Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN.

  8. [THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMMUNE ENZYME AND IMMUNE CHROMATOGRAPHIC MONOCLONAL TEST-SYSTEM FOR DETECTING TULAREMIA AGENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremkin, A V; Elagin, G D; Petchenkin, D V; Fomenkov, O O; Bogatcheva, N V; Kitmanov, A A; Kuklina, G V; Tikhvinskaya, O V

    2016-03-01

    The immune enzyme and immunochromatographic test-systems for detecting tularemia agent were developed on the basis of selected set of monoclonal antibodies having immunochemical activity to antigens Francisella tularensis. The evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of developed test-systems demonstrated that samples provided detection of strains of F. tularensis in concentration from 5.0 x 105 mkxcm-3 to 1.0 x 106 mkxcm-3 and gave no false positive results in analysis of heterologous microorganisms in concentration of 1.0 x 108 mkxcm-3.

  9. Rapid Detection of Biological and Chemical Threat Agents Using Physical Chemistry, Active Detection, and Computational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung; Dong, Li; Fu, Rong; Liotta, Lance; Narayanan, Aarthi; Petricoin, Emanuel; Ross, Mark; Russo, Paul; Zhou, Weidong; Luchini, Alessandra; Manes, Nathan; Chertow, Jessica; Han, Suhua; Kidd, Jessica; Senina, Svetlana; Groves, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Basic technologies have been successfully developed within this project: rapid collection of aerosols and a rapid ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique. Water-soluble, humidity-resistant polyacrylamide nano-filters were shown to (1) capture aerosol particles as small as 20 nm, (2) work in humid air and (3) completely liberate their captured particles in an aqueous solution compatible with the immunoassay technique. The immunoassay technology developed within this project combines electrophoretic capture with magnetic bead detection. It allows detection of as few as 150-600 analyte molecules or viruses in only three minutes, something no other known method can duplicate. The technology can be used in a variety of applications where speed of analysis and/or extremely low detection limits are of great importance: in rapid analysis of donor blood for hepatitis, HIV and other blood-borne infections in emergency blood transfusions, in trace analysis of pollutants, or in search of biomarkers in biological fluids. Combined in a single device, the water-soluble filter and ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique may solve the problem of early warning type detection of aerosolized pathogens. These two technologies are protected with five patent applications and are ready for commercialization.

  10. Detection of nerve agents using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry with ammonia as reagent gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Joachim M

    2013-01-01

    The chemical warfare agents (CWA) Sarin, Soman, Cyclosarin and Tabun were characterised by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTRMS). It was found that PTRMS is a suitable technique to detect nerve agents highly sensitively, highly selectively and in near real-time. Methods were found to suppress molecule fragmentation which is significant under PTRMS hollow cathode ionisation conditions. In this context, the drift voltage (as one of the most important system parameters) was varied and ammonia was introduced as an additional chemical reagent gas. Auxiliary chemicals such as ammonia affect ionisation processes and are quite common in context with detectors for CWAs based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). With both, variation of drift voltage and ammonia as the reagent gas, fragmentation can be suppressed effectively. Suppression of fragmentation is crucial particularly concerning the implementation of an algorithm for automated agent identification in field applications. On the other hand, appearance of particular fragments might deliver additional information. Degradation and rearrangement products of nerve agents are not distinctive for the particular agent but for the chemical class they belong to. It was found that switching between ammonia doped and ordinary water ionisation chemistry can easily be performed within a few seconds. Making use of this effect it is possible to switch between fragment and molecular ion peak spectra. Thus, targeted fragmentation can be used to confirm identification based only on single peak detection. PTRMS turned out to be a promising technique for future CWA detectors. In terms of sensitivity, response time and selectivity (or confidence of identification, respectively) PTRMS performs as a bridging technique between IMS and GC-MS.

  11. A functional gene array for detection of bacterial virulence elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Jaing

    Full Text Available Emerging known and unknown pathogens create profound threats to public health. Platforms for rapid detection and characterization of microbial agents are critically needed to prevent and respond to disease outbreaks. Available detection technologies cannot provide broad functional information about known or novel organisms. As a step toward developing such a system, we have produced and tested a series of high-density functional gene arrays to detect elements of virulence and antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Our first generation array targets genes from Escherichia coli strains K12 and CFT073, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. We determined optimal probe design parameters for gene family detection and discrimination. When tested with organisms at varying phylogenetic distances from the four target strains, the array detected orthologs for the majority of targeted gene families present in bacteria belonging to the same taxonomic family. In combination with whole-genome amplification, the array detects femtogram concentrations of purified DNA, either spiked in to an aerosol sample background, or in combinations from one or more of the four target organisms. This is the first report of a high density NimbleGen microarray system targeting microbial antibiotic resistance and virulence mechanisms. By targeting virulence gene families as well as genes unique to specific biothreat agents, these arrays will provide important data about the pathogenic potential and drug resistance profiles of unknown organisms in environmental samples.

  12. 基于轻负载代理的协同分布式入侵检测系统%Lightweight Agent for Collaborative Distribution Intrusion Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琨; 刘凤玉

    2003-01-01

    The LAFCDIDS (Lightweight Agent for Collaborative Distnbution Intrusion Detection System) presented in this paper is a distributed intrusion detection system with the ability of collaborative detection in real time. The hierarchy architecture of agents and the ability of collaborative detection in real time are evident characteristics of the LAFCDIDS. Lightweight agent and agent sensitivity are LAFCDIDS's new concepts, which can reduce the overload of protected system, shorten the period of intrusion detection, and are suitable for monitoring the distributed collaborating attacks.

  13. Sensitive Detection of Thirteen Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Agents Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguti, Natália; Bahls, Larissa Danielle; Uchimura, Nelson Shozo; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a polymicrobial proliferation of anaerobic bacteria and depletion of lactobacilli, which are components of natural vaginal microbiota. Currently, there are limited conventional methods for BV diagnosis, and these methods are time-consuming, expensive, and rarely allow for the detection of more than one agent simultaneously. Therefore, we conceived and validated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous screening of thirteen bacterial vaginosis-associated agents (BV-AAs) related to symptomatic BV: Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, Mobiluncus mulieris, Bacteroides fragilis, Mycoplasma hominis, Atopobium vaginae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Megasphaera type I, Clostridia-like bacteria vaginosis-associated bacteria (BVABs) 1, 2, and 3, Sneathia sanguinegens, and Mycoplasma genitalium. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR compared to single PCR (sPCR) were extremely high, including agreement of 99.1% and sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of 100.0%, negative predictive value of 97.0%, accuracy of 99.3%, and agreement with Nugent results of 100.0%. The prevalence of BV-AAs was very high (72.6%), and simultaneous agents were detected in 53.0%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the M-PCR assay. Therefore, the M-PCR assay has great potential to impact BV diagnostic methods in vaginal samples and diminish associated complications in the near future.

  14. Fully integrated ready-to-use paper-based electrochemical biosensor to detect nerve agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Stefano; Minotti, Clarissa; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-07-15

    Paper-based microfluidic devices are gaining large popularity because of their uncontested advantages of simplicity, cost-effectiveness, limited necessity of laboratory infrastructure and skilled personnel. Moreover, these devices require only small volumes of reagents and samples, provide rapid analysis, and are portable and disposable. Their combination with electrochemical detection offers additional benefits of high sensitivity, selectivity, simplicity of instrumentation, portability, and low cost of the total system. Herein, we present the first example of an integrated paper-based screen-printed electrochemical biosensor device able to quantify nerve agents. The principle of this approach is based on dual electrochemical measurements, in parallel, of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme activity towards butyrylthiocholine with and without exposure to contaminated samples. The sensitivity of this device is largely improved using a carbon black/Prussian Blue nanocomposite as a working electrode modifier. The proposed device allows an entirely reagent-free analysis. A strip of a nitrocellulose membrane, that contains the substrate, is integrated with a paper-based test area that holds a screen-printed electrode and BChE. Paraoxon, chosen as nerve agent simulant, is linearly detected down to 3µg/L. The use of extremely affordable manufacturing techniques provides a rapid, sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive tool for in situ assessment of nerve agent contamination. This represents a powerful approach for use by non-specialists, that can be easily broadened to other (bio)systems.

  15. Detection of temporal changes in insect body reflectance in response to killing agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nansen

    Full Text Available Computer vision and reflectance-based analyses are becoming increasingly important methods to quantify and characterize phenotypic responses by whole organisms to environmental factors. Here, we present the first study of how a non-destructive and completely non-invasive method, body reflectance profiling, can be used to detect and time stress responses in adult beetles. Based on high-resolution hyperspectral imaging, we acquired time series of average reflectance profiles (70 spectral bands from 434-876 nm from adults in two beetle species, maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais and larger black flour beetles (Cynaus angustus. For each species, we acquired reflectance data from untreated controls and from individuals exposed continuously to killing agents (an insecticidal plant extract applied to maize kernels or entomopathogenic nematodes applied to soil applied at levels leading to ≈100% mortality. In maize weevils (exposed to hexanic plant extract, there was no significant effect of the on reflectance profiles acquired from adult beetles after 0 and 12 hours of exposure, but a significant treatment response in spectral bands from 434 to 550 nm was detected after 36 to 144 hours of exposure. In larger black flour beetles, there was no significant effect of exposure to entomopathogenic nematodes after 0 to 26 hours of exposure, but a significant response in spectral bands from 434-480 nm was detected after 45 and 69 hours of exposure. Spectral bands were used to develop reflectance-based classification models for each species, and independent validation of classification algorithms showed sensitivity (ability to positively detect terminal stress in beetles and specificity (ability to positively detect healthy beetles of about 90%. Significant changes in body reflectance occurred at exposure times, which coincided with published exposure times and known physiological responses to each killing agent. The results from this study underscore the

  16. Fe3O4-based PLGA nanoparticles as MR contrast agents for the detection of thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Xu, Jie; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Dajing; Wang, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Thrombotic disease is a great threat to human health, and early detection is particularly important. Magnetic resonance (MR) molecular imaging provides noninvasive imaging with the potential for early disease diagnosis. In this study, we developed Fe3O4-based poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) surface-modified with a cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) peptide as an MR contrast agent for the detection of thrombosis. The physical and chemical characteristics, biological toxicity, ability to target thrombi, and biodistribution of the NPs were studied. The Fe3O4-PLGA-cRGD NPs were constructed successfully, and hematologic and pathologic assays indicated no in vivo toxicity of the NPs. In a rat model of FeCl3-induced abdominal aorta thrombosis, the NPs readily and selectively accumulated on the surface of the thrombosis and under vascular endothelial cells ex vivo and in vivo. In the in vivo experiment, the biodistribution of the NPs suggested that the NPs might be internalized by the macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system in the liver and the spleen. The T2 signal decreased at the mural thrombus 10 min after injection and then gradually increased until 50 min. These results suggest that the NPs are suitable for in vivo molecular imaging of thrombosis under high shear stress conditions and represent a very promising MR contrast agent for sensitive and specific detection of thrombosis. PMID:28223802

  17. Enzymatic treatment of specimens before DNA extraction directly influences molecular detection of infectious agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Goldschmidt

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Biological samples, pharmaceuticals or food contain proteins, lipids, polymers, ammoniums and macromolecules that alter the detection of infectious agents by DNA amplification techniques (PCR. Moreover the targeted DNA has to be released from the complex cell walls and the compact nucleoprotein matrixes and cleared from potential inhibitors. The goal of the present work was to assess the efficiency of enzymatic pretreatments on infectious agents to make DNA available for further extraction and amplification. METHODS: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis, Propionibacterium acnes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani were mixed with an internal control virus and treated with: 1 proteinase K; 2 lyticase and 3 lyticase followed by proteinase K. DNAs was manually extracted using the QIAmp DNA Mini kit or the MagNA Pure Compact automate. DNA extraction yields and the inhibitors were assessed with a phocid Herpesvirus. Bacterial detection was performed using TaqMan real-time PCR and yeasts and filamentous Fungi with HRM (real-time PCR followed by high-resolution melting analysis. RESULTS: Viral DNA was released, extracted and detected using manual and automatic methods without pre enzymatic treatments. Either the manual or the automatic DNA extraction systems did not meet the sensitivity expectations if enzymatic treatments were not performed before: lyticase for Fungi and Proteinase K for Bacteria. The addition of lyticase and proteinase K did not improve results. For Fungi the detection after lyticase was higher than for Proteinase K, for which melting analysis did not allow fungal specification. DISCUSSION: Columns and magnetic beads allowed collecting DNA and separate PCR inhibitors. Detection rates cannot be related to DNA-avidity of beads or to elution but to the lack of proteolysis.

  18. Rapid identification of bio-molecules applied for detection of biosecurity agents using rolling circle amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Göransson

    Full Text Available Detection and identification of pathogens in environmental samples for biosecurity applications are challenging due to the strict requirements on specificity, sensitivity and time. We have developed a concept for quick, specific and sensitive pathogen identification in environmental samples. Target identification is realized by padlock- and proximity probing, and reacted probes are amplified by RCA (rolling-circle amplification. The individual RCA products are labeled by fluorescence and enumerated by an instrument, developed for sensitive and rapid digital analysis. The concept is demonstrated by identification of simili biowarfare agents for bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pantoea agglomerans and spores (Bacillus atrophaeus released in field.

  19. A FRET-based ratiometric fluorescent and colorimetric probe for the facile detection of organophosphonate nerve agent mimic DCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weimin; Cao, Yanting; Zhou, Jiahong; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-18

    A FRET ratiometric fluorescent probe enabling a fast and highly sensitive response to OP nerve agent mimic DCP within 1 min and with as low as 0.17 ppm concentration detection limit has been developed. Moreover, the probe exhibits noticeable color changes under UV light and even with the naked eye. It is also demonstrated that it can detect both liquid and gas nerve agents.

  20. Rapid Ultrasensitive Chemical-Fingerprint Detection of Chemical and Biochemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ASHBY, CAROL I.; SHEPODD, TIMOTHY J.; YELTON, WILLIAM G.; MURON, DAVID J.

    2002-12-01

    Vibrational spectra can serve as chemical fingerprints for positive identification of chemical and biological warfare molecules. The required speed and sensitivity might be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using nanotextured metal surfaces. Systematic and reproducible methods for preparing metallic surfaces that maximize sensitivity have not been previously developed. This work sought to develop methods for forming high-efficiency metallic nanostructures that can be integrated with either gas or liquid-phase chem-lab-on-a-chip separation columns to provide a highly sensitive, highly selective microanalytical system for detecting current and future chem/bio agents. In addition, improved protein microchromatographic systems have been made by the creation of acrylate-based porous polymer monoliths that can serve as protein preconcentrators to reduce the optical system sensitivity required to detect and identify a particular protein, such as a bacterial toxin.

  1. Autonomous Detection of Aerosolized Biological Agents by Multiplexed Immunoassay with PCR Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Setlur, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Nasarabadi, S L; Venkateswaran, K S; Farrow, S W; Colston, Jr., B W; Dzenitis, J M

    2004-05-27

    The autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) is an automated, podium-sized instrument that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed to warn of a biological attack in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The APDS performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and detection using multiplexed immunoassay followed by confirmatory PCR using real-time TaqMan assays. We have integrated completely reusable flow-through devices that perform DNA extraction and PCR amplification. The fully integrated system was challenged with aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii and botulinum toxoid. By coupling highly selective antibody and DNA based assays, the probability of an APDS reporting a false positive is extremely low.

  2. METHODS ELABORATION ON DETECTION OF SOME ATYPICAL NEUROLYTIC AGENTS FOR CHEMICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Remezova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to elaborate methods of atypical neuroleptic agents detection as individual substances and in different combinations as well for diagnosis of poisoning by some of them: clozapine, risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine, aripiprazole. The purpose of this work is methods elaboration of detection of clozapine, risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine, aripiprazole, haloperidol, oxazepam, carbamazapine using TLC, HPLC and UV spectrophotometry methods. During this work we used tablet forms of clozapine, risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine, aripiprazole. It is possible to use solution systems like ethanol-water-25% ammonia solution (8:1:1, toluolacetone-ethanol-25% ammonia solution (45:45:7.5:2.5, dioxan-chloroform-acetone-25% ammonia solution (47.5:45:5:2.5 for preliminary examination of atypical neuroleptic agents under study in combination with typical neuroleptics and tranquilizers with undirected analysis (general screening. System of solvents ethyl-acetate-chloroform-25% ammonia solution (85:10:5 is recommended to use for individual screening of risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine, haloperidol, benzol-ethanol-25% ammonia solution (50:10:0.5 system to use for clozapine, sertindole, olanzapine. Ethanol-25% ammonia solution (100:1.5 system is reasonable to use for chromatographic clearance of extracts from biological substances under study. We recommend using HPLC method and UV spectrophotometry for carrying out of a principal examination of clozapine, risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine and aripiprazole in case one of the substances under study is determined in the object.

  3. Prolactin receptor-mediated internalization of imaging agents detects epithelial ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Karthik M.

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic malignant tumors. Diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) presents two main challenges. The first challenge is detecting low volume (prolactin receptor (PRLR) - a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor that is over-expressed in moderate to high levels on > 98% of epithelial ovarian cancers. Upon binding of native ligands to PRLR, the ligand:PRLR complex is internalized by cells. By conjugating gadolinium-chelates, molecules normally used as contrast agents diagnostically, to human placental lactogen (hPL), a native ligand of PRLR, we show that MRI becomes highly sensitive and specific for detecting PRLR (+) tumors in a nude mouse model of EOC. We further establish the adaptability of this approach for fluorescence-based imaging techniques using an hPL conjugated Cy5.5 dye. We conclude that molecular imaging of PRLR with hPL-conjugated imaging agents can address the current challenges that limit EOC diagnosis.

  4. Nanoparticle-labeled DNA capture elements for detection and identification of biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Johnathan L.; Holwitt, Eric A.; Parker, Jill E.; Vivekananda, Jeevalatha; Franz, Veronica

    2004-12-01

    Aptamers, synthetic DNA capture elements (DCEs), can be made chemically or in genetically engineered bacteria. DNA capture elements are artificial DNA sequences, from a random pool of sequences, selected for their specific binding to potential biological warfare or terrorism agents. These sequences were selected by an affinity method using filters to which the target agent was attached and the DNA isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in an iterative, increasingly stringent, process. The probes can then be conjugated to Quantum Dots and super paramagnetic nanoparticles. The former provide intense, bleach-resistant fluorescent detection of bioagent and the latter provide a means to collect the bioagents with a magnet. The fluorescence can be detected in a flow cytometer, in a fluorescence plate reader, or with a fluorescence microscope. To date, we have made DCEs to Bacillus anthracis spores, Shiga toxin, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus, and Francisella tularensis. DCEs can easily distinguish Bacillus anthracis from its nearest relatives, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Development of a high through-put process is currently being investigated.

  5. Detection of aerosolized biological agents by immunoassay followed by autonomous PCR confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Sathyam, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Venkateswaran, K S; Colston, B W; Farrow, S W

    2003-12-15

    An Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) unit is an automated, podium-sized system that monitors the air for all three biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy and Department of Homeland Security by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to protect people in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The system performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and multiplexed biological tests using advanced immunoassays as the primary screen. Over ten agents are assayed at once, and results are reported hourly. R&D work this year focused on incorporating polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) techniques for detecting DNA as confirmation of immunoassay positives. The primary objective of the Dugway testing was to demonstrate the APDS with immunoassay identification and PCR confirmation of bacteria. A secondary objective was to demonstrate immunoassay identification of a protein toxoid (denatured toxin) aerosol release. A total of 12 agent trials were conducted over 14 days of testing, for a total of four work weeks at Dugway. Both testing objectives were achieved with multiple releases and clear identifications. The APDS was shown to be effective for identifying aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii, and botulinum toxoid. The two areas for improvement were operational as opposed to hardware-related. The first was slowing the PCR thermal cycling to achieve stronger signals, which was demonstrated during the later phases of testing. The second area is to improve the parameters for autonomous PCR triggering; this is one of the focuses of the upcoming year's work.

  6. An Agent-Based Intrusion Detection System for Local Area Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2010-01-01

    Since it is impossible to predict and identify all the vulnerabilities of a network beforehand, and penetration into a system by malicious intruders cannot always be prevented, intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are essential entities to ensure the security of a networked system. To be effective in carrying out their functions, the IDSs need to be accurate, adaptive, and extensible. Given these stringent requirements and the high level of vulnerabilities of the current days’ networks, the design of an IDS has become a very challenging task. Although, an extensive research has been done on intrusion detection in a distributed environment, distributed IDSs suffer from a number of drawbacks e.g., high rates of false positives, low detection efficiency etc. In this paper, the design of a distributed IDS is proposed that consists of a group of autonomous and cooperating agents. In addition to its ability to detect attacks, the system is capable of identifying and isolating compromised nodes in the network the...

  7. The potential of TaqMan Array Cards for detection of multiple biological agents by real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A Rachwal

    Full Text Available The TaqMan Array Card architecture, normally used for gene expression studies, was evaluated for its potential to detect multiple bacterial agents by real-time PCR. Ten PCR assays targeting five biological agents (Bacillus anthracis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis were incorporated onto Array Cards. A comparison of PCR performance of each PCR in Array Card and singleplex format was conducted using DNA extracted from pure bacterial cultures. When 100 fg of agent DNA was added to Array Card channels the following levels of agent detection (where at least one agent PCR replicate returned a positive result were observed: Y. pestis 100%, B. mallei & F. tularensis 93%; B. anthracis 71%; B. pseudomallei 43%. For B. mallei & pseudomallei detection the BPM2 PCR, which detects both species, outperformed PCR assays specific to each organism indicating identification of the respective species would not be reproducible at the 100 fg level. Near 100% levels of detection were observed when 100 fg of DNA was added to each PCR in singleplex format with singleplex PCRs also returning sporadic positives at the 10 fg per PCR level. Before evaluating the use of Array Cards for the testing of environmental and clinical sample types, with potential levels of background DNA and PCR inhibitors, users would therefore have to accept a 10-fold reduction in sensitivity of PCR assays on the Array Card format, in order to benefit for the capacity to test multiple samples for multiple agents. A two PCR per agent strategy would allow the testing of 7 samples for the presence of 11 biological agents or 3 samples for 23 biological agents per card (with negative control channels.

  8. Fe3O4-based PLGA nanoparticles as MR contrast agents for the detection of thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jia Liu,1 Jie Xu,1 Jun Zhou,1 Yu Zhang,1 Dajing Guo,1 Zhigang Wang2 1Department of Radiology, 2Department of Ultrasound, Institute of Ultrasound Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Yuzhong, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Thrombotic disease is a great threat to human health, and early detection is particularly important. Magnetic resonance (MR molecular imaging provides noninvasive imaging with the potential for early disease diagnosis. In this study, we developed Fe3O4-based poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs surface-modified with a cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD peptide as an MR contrast agent for the detection of thrombosis. The physical and chemical characteristics, biological toxicity, ability to target thrombi, and biodistribution of the NPs were studied. The Fe3O4-PLGA-cRGD NPs were constructed successfully, and hematologic and pathologic assays indicated no in vivo toxicity of the NPs. In a rat model of FeCl3-induced abdominal aorta thrombosis, the NPs readily and selectively accumulated on the surface of the thrombosis and under vascular endothelial cells ex vivo and in vivo. In the in vivo experiment, the biodistribution of the NPs suggested that the NPs might be internalized by the macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system in the liver and the spleen. The T2 signal decreased at the mural thrombus 10 min after injection and then gradually increased until 50 min. These results suggest that the NPs are suitable for in vivo molecular imaging of thrombosis under high shear stress conditions and represent a very promising MR contrast agent for sensitive and specific detection of thrombosis. Keywords: iron oxide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, thrombosis, magnetic resonance imaging, cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide

  9. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.; Townsley, C.

    1995-04-01

    DRE Suffield has initiated a research program to develop methods and equipment for field detection and laboratory identification of mid-spectrum agents, molecules of biological origin such as proteins, peptides and toxins. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defence interest: bradykinin, bradykinin fragment 1-5, substance P,ARG8-vasopressin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, bombesin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin, and oxytocin. Using a 50 micrometer x 47 cm capillary column, 22.5 kV separation voltage and a 100 mM pH 2.5 phosphate buffer, all nine peptide could separated in under 10 minutes. Three strategies, which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system, were demonstrated for the identification of unknown peptides: comparison of migration times, comparison of electrophoretic mobilities, and co-injection of multiple reference standards. These experiments demonstrate that a separation based analytical method such as capillary electrophoresis could form the basis of a generic detection system for mid-spectrum protein and peptide toxins.

  10. Bioluminescent bioreporter assays for targeted detection of chemical and biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Steven; Jegier, Pat; Johnson, Courtney; Moser, Scott; Islam, Syed; Sayler, Gary

    2008-04-01

    Bioluminescent bioreporters carrying the bacterial lux gene cassette have been well established for the sensing and monitoring of select chemical agents. Their ability to generate target specific visible light signals with no requirement for extraneous additions of substrate or other hands-on manipulations affords a real-time, repetitive assaying technique that is remarkable in its simplicity and accuracy. Although the predominant application of lux-based bioluminescent bioreporters has been towards chemical compound detection, novel genetic engineering schemes are yielding a variety of new bioreporter systems that extend the lux sensing mechanism beyond mere analyte discrimination. For example, the unique specificity of bacteriophage (bacterial viruses) has been exploited in lux bioluminescent assays for specific identification of foodborne bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. With the concurrent ability to interface bioluminescent bioreporter assays onto integrated circuit microluminometers (BBICs; bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuits), the potential exists for the development of sentinel microchips that can function as environmental monitors for multiplexed recognition of chemical and biological agents in air, food, and water. The size and portability of BBIC biosensors may ultimately provide a deployable, interactive network sensing technology adaptable towards chem/bio defense.

  11. Secured UAV based on multi-agent systems and embedded Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Boukhdir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, are a relatively recent area of research and in full effervescence with more and more amateur and academic projects. Initially associated to the military, these vehicles are way to be used in many other areas. In effect, demand is growing for various applications within of this type of technology. Inspection of buildings, search and rescue of missing or in distress people are some examples. This research paper highlights a lightweight intrusion detection system with the objective to secure UAVs. Our IDP(Intrusion and Prevention System uses real-time architecture, based on the multi-agent systems so it can be autonomous and distributed between the ground control station(GCS and the UAV is more suited to be embedded in low computation resources devices in general and especially UAVs

  12. Detection of whitening agents in illegal cosmetics using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-09-01

    Cosmetic products containing illegal whitening agents are still found on the European market. They represent a considerable risk to public health, since they are often characterised by severe side effects when used chronically. The detection of such products at customs is not always simple, due to misleading packaging and the existence of products containing only legal components. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, was evaluated for that purpose. It was found that the combination of ATR-IR with the simple chemometric technique k-nearest neighbours gave good results. A model was obtained in which a minimum of illegal samples was categorised as legal. The correctly classified illegal samples could be attributed to the illegal components present.

  13. Enhanced Detection of Vibrio Cholerae in Oyster Homogenate Based on Centrifugal Removal of Inhibitory Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Donita; DePaola, Angelo; Young, Ronald B.

    1998-01-01

    The disease cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, has been associated with consumption of contaminated seafood, including raw oysters. Detection of V. cholerae in foods typically involves blending the oysters, diluting the homogenate in alkaline peptone water (APW), overnight enrichment, and isolation on selective agar. Unfortunately, the oyster homogenate must be diluted to large volumes because lower dilutions inhibit the growth of V. cholerae. The goals of this study were to develop an alternative to large dilutions and to evaluate the basis for the inhibition observed in lower dilutions of oyster homogenates. Centrifugation of oyster homogenates at 10,000 x g for 15 min, followed by enrichment of the resulting pellet in APW, was found to eliminate the inhibition of V. cholerae growth. Inhibition appears not to be due to competing microflora but to a component(s) released when V. cholerae grows in the presence of oyster homogenate. The inhibitory component(s) kills the V. cholerae after the cell concentration reaches > 10(exp 8) cells/mL, rather than initially preventing their growth. The pH also declines from 8.0 to 5.5 during this period; however, the pH decline by itself appears not to cause V. cholerae death. Seven strains of V. cholerae (01 and non-01) and two strains of V. vulnificus were susceptible to the inhibitory agent(s). However, other Vibrio and non-Vibrio species tested were not inhibited by the oyster homogenates. Based on digestion of oyster homogenates with pronase, trypsin and lipase, the inhibitory reaction involves a protein(s). In a preliminary trial with oyster homogenate seeded with 1 cfu/g of V. cholerae, the modified centrifugation technique detected a slightly higher percentage of samples at a 1:10 dilution than the standard FDA Bacteriological Analytical Method (BAM) detected in uncentrifuged oyster homogenate at a 1:100 dilution. V. cholerae in seeded samples could also be detected more frequently by the modified centrifugation method

  14. Surface plasmon resonance detection of biological warfare agent Staphylococcal enterotoxin B using high affinity monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Garima; Singh, Pawan K.; Boopathi, M., E-mail: mannanboopathi@yahoo.com; Kamboj, D.V.; Singh, Beer; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-11-30

    A novel sensitive method was developed for the detection as well as quantification of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). It is well known that the amount of SEB needed to cause the intoxication to human beings is very less and this concentration (0.02 {mu}g/kg) is highly dangerous, hence, it is used as biological warfare agent. Thus, the need to develop a reliable and potential detection system against SEB is warranted. In the present work, SEB antibody was immobilized on carboxymethyldextran modified gold chip. The immobilization of SEB antibody and interaction of antigen with immobilized antibody were in-situ characterized by SPR and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A sample solution containing SEB antigen was injected in a working channel and the results revealed linearity in the concentration from 2.0 to 32.0 pM with a detection limit of 1.0 pM. By using kinetic evaluation software, K{sub D} (equilibrium constant) and Bmax (maximum binding capacity of analyte) values were calculated and found to be 13 pM and 424.23, respectively. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameter, change in Gibb's free energy was deduced and found to be -62.08 kJ/mol and this value shows the spontaneous interaction between SEB antigen and SEB antibody. In order to optimize the detection method, temperature and pH variation studies were also performed. Interference study was conducted to know the selectivity for the antigen-antibody interaction of SEB. The selectivity efficiency of SEB, SEC, SEA and SED were 100, 27.15, 20.01 and 12.05%, respectively towards SEB antibody.

  15. Development of a Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of Burkholderia mallei, a Potent Biological Warfare Agent

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the etiological agent of glanders, primarily a disease of equines. B. mallei is closely related to B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. Therefore, detection of B. mallei and its differentiation from B. pseudomallei, has always been troublesome. In present investigation, a B. mallei specific DNA sequence was identified by performing BLASTn search using ~3000 ORFs of B. mallei NCTC 10229. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with internal amplification ...

  16. Rapid Detection and Identification of Yersinia pestis from Food Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley K. Amoako

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest has recently been renewed in the possible use of Y. pestis, the causative agent of plague, as a biological weapon by terrorists. The vulnerability of food to intentional contamination coupled with reports of humans having acquired plague through eating infected animals that were not adequately cooked or handling of meat from infected animals makes the possible use of Y. pestis in a foodborne bioterrorism attack a reality. Rapid, efficient food sample preparation and detection systems that will help overcome the problem associated with the complexity of the different matrices and also remove any ambiguity in results will enable rapid informed decisions to be made regarding contamination of food with biothreat agents. We have developed a rapid detection assay that combines the use of immunomagnetic separation and pyrosequencing in generating results for the unambiguous identification of Y. pestis from milk (0.9 CFU/mL, bagged salad (1.6 CFU/g, and processed meat (10 CFU/g. The low detection limits demonstrated in this assay provide a novel tool for the rapid detection and confirmation of Y. pestis in food without the need for enrichment. The combined use of the iCropTheBug system and pyrosequencing for efficient capture and detection of Y. pestis is novel and has potential applications in food biodefence.

  17. Mobile Agent Based Hierarchical Intrusion Detection System in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surraya Khanum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Security mechanism is a fundamental requirement of wireless networks in general and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN in particular. Therefore, it is necessary that this security concern must be articulate right from the beginning of the network design and deployment. WSN needs strong security mechanism as it is usually deployed in a critical, hostile and sensitive environment where human labour is usually not involved. However, due to inbuilt resource and computing restriction, security in WSN needs a special consideration. Traditional security techniques such as encryption, VPN, authentication and firewalls cannot be directly applied to WSN as it provides defence only against external threats. The existing literature shows that there seems an inverse relationship between strong security mechanism and efficient network resource utilization. In this research article, we have proposed a Mobile Agent Based Hierarchical Intrusion Detection System (MABHIDS for WSN. The Proposed scheme performs two levels of intrusion detection by utilizing minimum possible network resources. Our proposed idea enhance network lifetime by reducing the work load on Cluster Head (CH and it also provide enhanced level of security in WSN.

  18. Comparison of traditional and molecular analytical methods for detecting biological agents in raw and drinking water following ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, D.S.; Bushon, R.N.; Brady, A.M.G.; Bertke, E.E.; Kephart, C.M.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Mailot, B.E.; Schaefer, F. W.; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To compare the performance of traditional methods to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for detecting five biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF). Methods and Results: Drinking-water samples (100 l) were seeded with Bacillus anthracis, Cryptospordium parvum, Francisella tularensis, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholerae and concentrated by UF. Recoveries by traditional methods were variable between samples and between some replicates; recoveries were not determined by qPCR. Francisella tularensis and V. cholerae were detected in all 14 samples after UF, B. anthracis was detected in 13, and C. parvum was detected in 9 out of 14 samples. Numbers found by qPCR after UF were significantly or nearly related to those found by traditional methods for all organisms except for C. parvum. A qPCR assay for S. Typhi was not available. Conclusions: qPCR can be used to rapidly detect biological agents after UF as well as traditional methods, but additional work is needed to improve qPCR assays for several biological agents, determine recoveries by qPCR, and expand the study to other areas. Significance and Impact of the Study: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the use of traditional and qPCR methods to detect biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Reagent-free and portable detection of Bacillus anthracis spores using a microfluidic incubator and smartphone microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, Janine R.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Sheen, Allison M.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2015-08-06

    Rapid, cost-effective bacterial detection systems are needed to respond to potential biothreat events. Here we report the use of smartphone-based microscopy in combination with a simple microfluidic incubation device to detect 5000 Bacillus anthracis spores in 3 hours. This field-deployable approach is compatible with real-time PCR for secondary confirmation.

  20. MFIRE-2: A Multi Agent System for Flow-Based Intrusion Detection Using Stochastic Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    features. In the networking domain, if agents are required to be mobile, then all hosts in the network must have a generic agent platform installed...execution - surviving agents continue to operate when part of the IDS fails • Platform independence - agent platforms with standard interfaces may be...developed [25, 96, 79, 74, 43]. In all cases, electronics personas are created, which reflect the specific forum under evaluation ( ecommerce , social

  1. Potential of Pest and Host Phenological Data in the Attribution of Regional Forest Disturbance Detection Maps According to Causal Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman Steve; Christie, William

    2014-01-01

    Near real time forest disturbance detection maps from MODIS NDVI phenology data have been produced since 2010 for the conterminous U.S., as part of the on-line ForWarn national forest threat early warning system. The latter has been used by the forest health community to identify and track many regional forest disturbances caused by multiple biotic and abiotic damage agents. Attribution of causal agents for detected disturbances has been a goal since project initiation in 2006. Combined with detailed cover type maps, geospatial pest phenology data offer a potential means for narrowing the candidate causal agents responsible for a given biotic disturbance. U.S. Aerial Detection Surveys (ADS) employ such phenology data. Historic ADS products provide general locational data on recent insect-induced forest type specific disturbances that may help in determining candidate causal agents for MODIS-based disturbance maps, especially when combined with other historic geospatial disturbance data (e.g., wildfire burn scars and drought maps). Historic ADS disturbance detection polygons can show severe and extensive regional forest disturbances, though they also can show polygons with sparsely scattered or infrequent disturbances. Examples will be discussed that use various historic disturbance data to help determine potential causes of MODIS-detected regional forest disturbance anomalies.

  2. Surveillance and control of zoonotic agents prior to disease detection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, James E; Gordon, Elizabeth R

    2009-10-01

    The majority of newly emerging diseases are zoonoses caused by pathogens transmitted directly or indirectly through arthropod vectors to humans. Transmission chains leading to human infection frequently involve intermediate vertebrate hosts, including wildlife and domestic animals. Animal-based surveillance of domestic and wild animals for zoonotic pathogens is a global challenge. Until recently, there has been no scientific, social, or political consensus that animal-based surveillance for zoonotic pathogens merits significant infrastructural investment, other than the fledgling efforts with avian influenza. National institutions charged with strategic planning for emerging diseases or intentional releases of zoonotic agents emphasize improving diagnostic capabilities for detecting human infections, modifying the immune status of human or domestic animals through vaccines, producing better antiviral or antibacterial drugs, and enhancing human-based surveillance as an early warning system. With the exception of human vaccination, these anthropocentric approaches target post-spillover events, and none of these avenues of research will reduce the risk of additional emergences of pathogens from wildlife. Novel schemes for preventing spillover of human pathogens from animal reservoir hosts can spring only from an understanding of the ecological context and biological interactions that result in zoonotic disease emergence. Although the benefits derived from investments to improve surveillance and knowledge of zoonotic pathogens circulating among wildlife reservoir populations are uncertain, our experience with human immunodeficiency virus and the pandemic influenza inform us of the outcomes that we can expect by relying on detection of post-spillover events among sentinel humans. Mt Sinai J Med 76:421-428, 2009. (c) 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  3. Photodegradation-based detection of fluorescent whitening agents in a mountain river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Aziz; Pontvianne, Steve; Pons, Marie-Noëlle

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are highly soluble and poorly biodegradable ingredients used in laundry detergents and in industries (paper, textile, plastic manufacturing). They are likely to pass through biological wastewater treatment systems. The presence of FWAs in a mountain river was detected by monitoring the decay of synchronous fluorescence intensity at λ(ex)=360 nm after exposing samples to ultraviolet (UV) light (365 nm), for mimicking sunlight, for 15 min. The method was first validated on four commercial FWAs (DAS-1, FB28, DMA-X and CBS-X) in different water matrices (deionized water and pristine river water in the presence of humic acid and dyes). A 40% decay was observed after 15 min for the least photosensitive FWA (CBS-X). A field application was then performed on samples collected along a mountain river in which impacts of FWAs from domestic sources (laundry greywater) and industrial sources (paper and textile mills) were suspected. Variations of fluorescence decay at λ(ex)=360 nm could be explained by these potential sources of pollution. It is suggested that the fluorescence decay at λ(ex)=280 nm also be considered as an indicator, as some FWAs can exhibit fluorescence at that excitation wavelength.

  4. Using Metal Complex Ion-Molecule Reactions in a Miniature Rectilinear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer to Detect Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graichen, Adam M.; Vachet, Richard W.

    2013-06-01

    The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n]y+ complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n]2+ complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations.

  5. Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Karolina-Petkovic; Zhu, Yonggang; Chen, Chuanpin; Swallow, Anthony; Stewart, Robert; Hoobin, Pam; Leech, Patrick; Ovenden, Simon

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin and VX . The detector has a detection limit of about 10 μg/mL and has a good linear response in the range 10-300 μg/mL concentration range. Applicability to environmental samples is demonstrated .The new hand-held analyzer offers great promise for converting conventional ion chromatography or capillary electrophoresis sophisticated systems into a portable forensic laboratory for faster, simpler and more reliable on-site screening.

  6. Separation and Detection of Lanthanide Ions with Nitrilotri (methylenephosphonic) Acid as Complexing Agent and Eluent by IPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A mixture containing eleven lanthanide ions was separated and detected on an anion-exchange co-lumn by ion chromatography with indirect photometry detection (IPC).An aqueous solution of 1.5×10-2mol/L nitrilotri(methylenephosphonic) acid and 2.5×10-3mol/L tiron was used as the eluent in which the former served as complexing agent and eluent,the latter played as color reagent and eluent.The effects of acidity,concentration and composition of eluent on the retention behavior of the analytes and detection sensitivity are discussed.

  7. The potential of mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy for the detection of various doping agents used by athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C.; Bartlome, R.; Sigrist, M. W.

    2006-11-01

    The feasibility of laser-photoacoustic measurements for the detection and the analysis of different isolated doping agents in the vapour phase is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that photoacoustic vapour-phase measurements of doping substances have been presented. Spectra of different doping classes (stimulants, anabolica, diuretica, and beta blockers) are shown and discussed in terms of their detection sensitivity and selectivity. The potential of laser spectroscopy for detecting the intake of prohibited substances by athletes is explored.

  8. Sample preparation and assay refinements for pathogen detection platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daniel V.; Kearns, Elizabeth A.; Leskinen, Stephaney D.; Magaña, Sonia; Stroot, Joyce M.; Hunter, Dawn M.; Schlemmer, Sarah M.

    2009-02-01

    Food-borne and waterborne microbial pathogens are a potential problem in biowarfare and public health. Such pathogens can affect the health, combat readiness, and effectiveness of the warfighter in a battlefield environment and present potential threats to the civilian population through intentional or natural contamination of food and water. Conventional procedures to detect and identify microbial pathogens in food, water, and other materials can take days to perform and may provide inconclusive information. Research at the University of South Florida's Advanced Biosensors Laboratory (ABL) focuses on development of sample processing procedures and biosensor-based assays for rapid detection of biothreat agents. Rapid processing methods, including use of an automated concentrator of microorganisms in water, have been developed for complex matrix samples including ground beef, apple juice, produce, potable water and recreational water, enabling such samples to be directly tested by biosensor assays for target analytes. Bacillus atrophaeus spores and other bacteria can be concentrated from potable and recreational water at low levels with a dead-end hollow-fiber ultrafiltration concentration system. Target bacteria recovered by these processing procedures can be identified by evanescent wave, fiber optic biosensors or other detection platforms. Fiber optic biosensor assays have been improved to include subsequent PCR analysis and viability determination of captured target bacteria using broth enrichment and/or ATP luminescence.

  9. A functional gene array for detection of bacterial virulence elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C

    2007-11-01

    We report our development of the first of a series of microarrays designed to detect pathogens with known mechanisms of virulence and antibiotic resistance. By targeting virulence gene families as well as genes unique to specific biothreat agents, these arrays will provide important data about the pathogenic potential and drug resistance profiles of unknown organisms in environmental samples. To validate our approach, we developed a first generation array targeting genes from Escherichia coli strains K12 and CFT073, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. We determined optimal probe design parameters for microorganism detection and discrimination, measured the required target concentration, and assessed tolerance for mismatches between probe and target sequences. Mismatch tolerance is a priority for this application, due to DNA sequence variability among members of gene families. Arrays were created using the NimbleGen Maskless Array Synthesizer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Purified genomic DNA from combinations of one or more of the four target organisms, pure cultures of four related organisms, and environmental aerosol samples with spiked-in genomic DNA were hybridized to the arrays. Based on the success of this prototype, we plan to design further arrays in this series, with the goal of detecting all known virulence and antibiotic resistance gene families in a greatly expanded set of organisms.

  10. In vivo detection of cucurbit[6]uril, a hyperpolarized xenon contrast agent for a xenon magnetic resonance imaging biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hane, Francis T.; Li, Tao; Smylie, Peter; Pellizzari, Raiili M.; Plata, Jennifer A.; DeBoef, Brenton; Albert, Mitchell S.

    2017-01-01

    The Hyperpolarized gas Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (HyperCEST) Magnetic Resonance (MR) technique has the potential to increase the sensitivity of a hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI contrast agent. Signal enhancement is accomplished by selectively depolarizing the xenon within a cage molecule which, upon exchange, reduces the signal in the dissolved phase pool. Herein we demonstrate the in vivo detection of the cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) contrast agent within the vasculature of a living rat. Our work may be used as a stepping stone towards using the HyperCEST technique as a molecular imaging modality. PMID:28106110

  11. TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, T; Lenhoff, R; Allen, J; Borucki, M; Vitalis, E; Gardner, S

    2009-12-04

    A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered change, the consensus genomic sequence of the microorganism can impact the difficulty of detecting an engineered change in genomes that are highly variable from strain to strain. This problem will require comprehensive databases of whole genome sequences for more genetically variable biothreat bacteria and viruses. Preliminary work with microarrays for detecting synthetic elements or virulence genes and analytic bioinformatic approaches for whole genome sequence comparison to detect genetic engineering show promise for attacking this difficult problem but a large amount of future work remains.

  12. Laser Based Stand-Off Detection of Biological Agents (detection a distance des agents biologiques a l’aide du laser)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    that a cloud is biological in nature [2]. However, other materials that may be present in the environment, such as pollens , plant debris, fuel oils [3... Reserved ISBN 978-92-837-0086-9 Single copies of this publication or of a part of it may be made for individual use only. The approval of the RTA...24 Figure 27 A BG Release was Superimposed on a Significantly Stronger Pollen Release to Test the Anomaly Detection Algorithm 25 vi RTO-TR

  13. Infection Agents Detected with Wound Culture in Patients with Diabetic Foot who will Undergo Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkan Mert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We aimed to obtain the knowledge of appropriate antibiotic therapy and to make a contribution to improving treatment efficacy by conducting a microbiological study of diabetic foot ulcers. METHOD: 30 patients (18 male and 12 female with diabetic foot ulcer applying to our center for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO treatment in 2010 were enrolled in this study. The wounds were graded according to Meggitt-Wagner classification system. Wound cultures were obtained before starting antibiotic therapy and HBO treatment. Phoenix system (Becton Dickinson, USA and Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion antibiotic sensitivity testing were used in order to detect the antimicrobial susceptibility of the infection agents. The number of HBO sessions, glycemic control and treatment results were assessed. RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 61.3 years (range: 35-83. 24 patients had a good glycemic control and 6 patients had not. The patients were given 5 to 55 HBO sessions (mean: 20. Of the 30 patients 19 (63.33% recovered from the infection but 11 (36.67% have not responded to the treatment. 14 different infectious agents were detected in diabetic foot ulcers we examined. Gram-positive agents were isolated in 12 (40% out of 30 wound cultures and gram-negative agents were isolated in 18 (60% wound culture. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was predominantly isolated and the other agents isolated were enterococcus faecalis, klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli. CONCLUSION: The outcomes can not represent the general population rates due to the restriction factors. They give only an idea about the probability of infectious agent spectrum in diabetic foot ulcers and their antibiotic susceptibility. We want to attract attention to the fact that although pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are mostly encountered in hospital, they can also be acquired from the community and it will be useful to develop appropriate antibiotic policies and treatment protocols. [TAF

  14. Improved detection and biopsy of solid liver lesions using pulse-inversion ultrasound scanning and contrast agent infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldbye, B.; Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Struckmann, J.;

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of pulse-inversion ultrasound (US) scanning (PIUS), combined with an IV contrast agent, to detect malignant liver lesions and its impact on patient management (resectability). Additionally, to determine the feasibility of US-guided biopsy of new...... with additional findings by PIUS underwent US-guided biopsy. PIUS provided additional information in 18 patients (60%); of these, 13 (43%) had additional metastases. Of 19 patients found resectable by conventional US, 9 (47%) were considered inoperable using PIUS supported by biopsies. Biopsies of additional...... findings were performed in 17 of 18 patients. All biopsies of additional findings confirmed malignancy. PIUS with an IV contrast agent increased the ability to detect liver metastases compared to conventional US scanning. The technique had a high impact on patient management. The results showed that PIUS...

  15. Isolation of Bacterial Agents from the Lungs of Cattle with Pneumonia and Detection of Pasteurella Spp. by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    KILIÇ, Ayşe; MUZ, Adile

    2004-01-01

    Lungs from 8222 cattle slaughtered at an abattoir in Elazığ were examined macroscopically, and pneumonia was detected in 500 (6.1%) lungs. These samples were inoculated onto blood agar supplemented with 7% sheep blood for isolation of bacterial agents. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based upon the use of species-specific primers was carried out on DNA samples extracted from suspected Pasteurella spp. isolates. In addition, a mouse inoculation test was carried out on suspected Pasteurella m...

  16. Ionization Mechanism of the Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source (APPIS) and Its Applications to Chemical Nerve Agent Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Neidholdt, Evan L.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    We present studies of the ionization mechanism operative in the ambient pressure pyroelectric ionization source (APPIS), along with applications that include detection of simulants for chemical nerve agents. It is found that ionization by APPIS occurs in the gas-phase. As the crystal is thermally cycled over a narrow temperature range, electrical discharges near the surface of the crystal produce energetic species which, through reactions with atmospheric molecules, result in reactant ions su...

  17. Derivatization of organophosphorus nerve agent degradation products for gas chromatography with ICPMS and TOF-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Douglas D; Caruso, Joseph A

    2007-06-01

    Separation and detection of seven V-type (venomous) and G-type (German) organophosphorus nerve agent degradation products by gas chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS) is described. The nonvolatile alkyl phosphonic acid degradation products of interest included ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA, VX acid), isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA, GB acid), ethyl hydrogen dimethylamidophosphate sodium salt (EDPA, GA acid), isobutyl hydrogen methylphosphonate (IBMPA, RVX acid), as well as pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA), methylphosphonic acid (MPA), and cyclohexyl methylphosphonic acid (CMPA, GF acid). N-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluroacetamide with 1% TBDMSCl was utilized to form the volatile TBDMS derivatives of the nerve agent degradation products for separation by GC. Exact mass confirmation of the formation of six of the TBDMS derivatives was obtained by GC-time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The method developed here allowed for the separation and detection of all seven TBDMS derivatives as well as phosphate in less than ten minutes. Detection limits for the developed method were less than 5 pg with retention times and peak area precisions of less than 0.01 and 6%, respectively. This method was successfully applied to river water and soil matrices. To date this is the first work describing the analysis of chemical warfare agent (CWA) degradation products by GC-ICPMS.

  18. Molecular Medicine: Synthesis and In Vivo Detection of Agents for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G. W.

    2005-06-28

    The primary objective of the project was the development of in vivo methods for the detection and evaluation of tumors in humans. The project was focused on utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor the distribution and pharamacokinetics of a current boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) by labeling it with a fluorine-18, a positron emitting isotope. The PET data was then used to develop enhanced treatment planning protocols. The study also involved the synthesis of new tumor selective BNCTagents that could be labeled with radioactive nuclides for the in vivo detection of boron.

  19. Factors affecting the sensitivity and detection limits of MRI, CT, and SPECT for multimodal diagnostic and therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevinck, Peter R; Seppenwoolde, Jan-Henry; de Wit, Tim C; Nijsen, Johannes F W; Beekman, Freek J; van Het Schip, Alfred D; Bakker, Chris J G

    2007-05-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) play an increasingly important role in the diagnostic workup and treatment of cancerous disease. In this context, a distinct trend can be observed towards the development of contrast agents and radiopharmaceuticals that open up perspectives on a multimodality imaging approach, involving all three aforementioned techniques. To promote insight into the potentialities of such an approach, we prepared an overview of the strengths and limitations of the various imaging techniques, in particular with regard to their capability to quantify the spatial distribution of a multimodal diagnostic agent. To accomplish this task, we used a two-step approach. In the first step, we examined the situation for a particular therapeutic anti-cancer agent with multimodal imaging opportunities, viz. holmium-loaded microspheres (HoMS). Physical phantom experiments were performed to enable a comparative evaluation of the three modalities assuming the use of standard equipment, standard clinical scan protocols, and signal-known-exactly conditions. These phantom data were then analyzed so as to obtain first order estimates of the sensitivity and detection limits of MRI, CT and SPECT for HoMS. In the second step, the results for HoMS were taken as a starting point for a discussion of the factors affecting the sensitivity and detection limits of MRI, CT and SPECT for multimodal agents in general. In this, emphasis was put on the factors that must be taken into account when extrapolating the findings for HoMS to other diagnostic tasks, other contrast agents, other experimental conditions, and other scan protocols.

  20. A framework: Cluster detection and multidimensional visualization of automated data mining using intelligent agents

    CERN Document Server

    Jayabrabu, R; Vivekanandan, K

    2012-01-01

    Data Mining techniques plays a vital role like extraction of required knowledge, finding unsuspected information to make strategic decision in a novel way which in term understandable by domain experts. A generalized frame work is proposed by considering non - domain experts during mining process for better understanding, making better decision and better finding new patters in case of selecting suitable data mining techniques based on the user profile by means of intelligent agents. KEYWORDS: Data Mining Techniques, Intelligent Agents, User Profile, Multidimensional Visualization, Knowledge Discovery.

  1. Detection of coalescing agents in water-borne latex emulsions using an environment sensitive fluorescent probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raja, T.N.; Brouwer, A.M.; Biemans, K.; Nabuurs, T.; Tennebroek, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report the determination of partitioning of coalescing agents (organic co-solvents) in water-borne latex emulsions by means of a fluorescence method. An environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 1 was copolymerized via emulsion polymerization. The presence of organic co-solvents insid

  2. A multiplex PCR assay to detect and differentiate select agent strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralstonia solanacearum causes bacterial wilt in a variety of cash crops. R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains are considered select agents by the U.S. Government because they are not endemic to the U.S. and have the potential to cause brown rot disease in our potato production fields. Simple and...

  3. Development of a Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of Burkholderia mallei, a Potent Biological Warfare Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Pal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei is the etiological agent of glanders, primarily a disease of equines. B. mallei is closely related to B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. Therefore, detection of B. mallei and its differentiation from B. pseudomallei, has always been troublesome. In present investigation, a B. mallei specific DNA sequence was identified by performing BLASTn search using ~3000 ORFs of B. mallei NCTC 10229. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay with internal amplification control (IAC was developed for detection of B. mallei and its differentiation from B. pseudomallei. The PCR assay could amplify a specific 224-bp fragment from all the six B. mallei strains used in the study, whereas other closely related organisms were tested negative. The detection limit of the assay was found to be 10 pg of purified DNA of B. mallei. Incorporation of IAC in the assay makes the results reliable as false negative results which may arise due to presence of PCR inhibitors, can be avoided. For validation, the assay was tested on tap water, Bengal gram and grass artificially spiked with B. mallei. The developed assay can be used as a simple and rapid tool for detection of B. mallei.

  4. Ionization mechanism of the ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) and its applications to chemical nerve agent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidholdt, Evan L; Beauchamp, J L

    2009-11-01

    We present studies of the ionization mechanism operative in the ambient pressure pyroelectric ionization source (APPIS), along with applications that include detection of simulants for chemical nerve agents. It is found that ionization by APPIS occurs in the gas-phase. As the crystal is thermally cycled over a narrow temperature range, electrical discharges near the surface of the crystal produce energetic species which, through reactions with atmospheric molecules, result in reactant ions such as protonated water clusters or clusters of hydroxide and water. Reactant ions can be observed directly in the mass spectrometer. These go on to react with trace neutrals via proton transfer reactions to produce the ions observed in mass spectra, which are usually singly protonated or deprotonated species. Further implicating gas-phase ionization, observed product distributions are highly dependent on the composition of ambient gases, especially the concentration of water vapor and oxygen surrounding the source. For example, basic species such as triethylamine are observed as singly protonated cations at a water partial pressure of 10 torr. At a water pressure of 4 torr, reactive oxygen species are formed and lead to observation of protonated amine oxides. The ability of the APPIS source to detect basic molecules with high proton affinities makes it highly suited for the detection of chemical nerve agents. We demonstrate this application using simulants corresponding to VX and GA (Tabun). With the present source configuration pyridine is detected readily at a concentration of 4 ppm, indicating ultimate sensitivity in the high ppb range.

  5. Targeted delivery of cancer-specific multimodal contrast agents for intraoperative detection of tumor boundaries and therapeutic margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronald X.; Xu, Jeff S.; Huang, Jiwei; Tweedle, Michael F.; Schmidt, Carl; Povoski, Stephen P.; Martin, Edward W.

    2010-02-01

    Background: Accurate assessment of tumor boundaries and intraoperative detection of therapeutic margins are important oncologic principles for minimal recurrence rates and improved long-term outcomes. However, many existing cancer imaging tools are based on preoperative image acquisition and do not provide real-time intraoperative information that supports critical decision-making in the operating room. Method: Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microbubbles (MBs) and nanobubbles (NBs) were synthesized by a modified double emulsion method. The MB and NB surfaces were conjugated with CC49 antibody to target TAG-72 antigen, a human glycoprotein complex expressed in many epithelial-derived cancers. Multiple imaging agents were encapsulated in MBs and NBs for multimodal imaging. Both one-step and multi-step cancer targeting strategies were explored. Active MBs/NBs were also fabricated for therapeutic margin assessment in cancer ablation therapies. Results: The multimodal contrast agents and the cancer-targeting strategies were tested on tissue simulating phantoms, LS174 colon cancer cell cultures, and cancer xenograft nude mice. Concurrent multimodal imaging was demonstrated using fluorescence and ultrasound imaging modalities. Technical feasibility of using active MBs and portable imaging tools such as ultrasound for intraoperative therapeutic margin assessment was demonstrated in a biological tissue model. Conclusion: The cancer-specific multimodal contrast agents described in this paper have the potential for intraoperative detection of tumor boundaries and therapeutic margins.

  6. Path scanning for the detection of anomalous subgraphs and use of DNS requests and host agents for anomaly/change detection and network situational awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil, Joshua Charles; Fisk, Michael Edward; Brugh, Alexander William; Hash, Jr., Curtis Lee; Storlie, Curtis Byron; Uphoff, Benjamin; Kent, Alexander

    2017-01-31

    A system, apparatus, computer-readable medium, and computer-implemented method are provided for detecting anomalous behavior in a network. Historical parameters of the network are determined in order to determine normal activity levels. A plurality of paths in the network are enumerated as part of a graph representing the network, where each computing system in the network may be a node in the graph and the sequence of connections between two computing systems may be a directed edge in the graph. A statistical model is applied to the plurality of paths in the graph on a sliding window basis to detect anomalous behavior. Data collected by a Unified Host Collection Agent ("UHCA") may also be used to detect anomalous behavior.

  7. Detection of coalescing agents in water-borne latex emulsions using an environment sensitive fluorescent probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Tanzeela Nazir; Brouwer, Albert M; Biemans, Koen; Nabuurs, Tijs; Tennebroek, Ronald

    2010-07-30

    In this paper we report the determination of partitioning of coalescing agents (organic co-solvents) in water-borne latex emulsions by means of a fluorescence method. An environment-sensitive fluorescent probe was copolymerized via emulsion polymerization. The presence of organic co-solvents inside the polymer particles is revealed by the photophysical properties of the probe. In particular, the position of the fluorescence emission maximum of co-polymerized can be used to measure the amount of coalescing agent present in the polymer particles. The spectral shifts are shown to be due to the softening of the matrix, rather than to solvation of the probe by the added co-solvent.

  8. A Multi Agent System for Flow-Based Intrusion Detection Using Reputation and Evolutionary Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    TopGen. Other topology generators include: • Tiers [45] • GT-ITM - Georgia Tech Internetwork Topology Models [30] • Inet [153] • nem [108] • BRITE [117... sensor data locally, instead of requiring each node to send sets of sensor observations to a central processing location. Sharing the results of...most “raw” of features avail- able, in that it takes values directly from the sensors . After a complete observation cycle, the Agent calculates feature

  9. Characterization and Detection of Biological Weapons with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin, A J; Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; McPherson, A

    2006-09-25

    Critical gaps exist in our capabilities to rapidly characterize threat agents which could be used in attacks on facilities and military forces. DNA-based PCR and immunoassay-based techniques provide unique identification of species, strains and protein signatures of pathogens. However, differentiation between naturally occurring and weaponized bioagents and the identification of formulation signatures are beyond current technologies. One of the most effective and often the only definitive means to identify a threat agent is by its direct visualization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a rapid imaging technique that covers the size range of most biothreat agents (several nanometers to tens of microns), is capable of resolving pathogen morphology and structure, and could be developed into a portable device for biological weapons (BW) field characterization. AFM can detect pathogens in aerosol, liquid, surface and soil samples while concomitantly acquiring their weaponization and threat agent digital signatures. BW morphological and structural signatures, including modifications to pathogen microstructural architecture and topology that occur during formulation and weaponization, provide the means for their differentiation from crude or purified unformulated agent, processing signatures, as well as assessment of their potential for dispersion, inhalation and environmental persistence. AFM visualization of pathogen morphology and architecture often provides valuable digital signatures and allows direct detection and identification of threat agents. We have demonstrated that pathogens, spanning the size range from several nanometers for small agricultural satellite viruses to almost half micron for pox viruses, and to several microns for bacteria and bacterial spores, can be visualized by AFM under physiological conditions to a resolution of {approx}20-30 {angstrom}. We have also demonstrated that viruses from closely related families could be differentiated by AFM on

  10. [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-nitroimidazole: a promising agent for PET detection of tumor hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunkou; Hao, Guiyang; Ramezani, Saleh; Saha, Debabrata; Zhao, Dawen; Sun, Xiankai; Sherry, A Dean

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate a new (68) Ga-based imaging agent for detecting tumor hypoxia using positron emission tomography (PET). The new hypoxia targeting agent reported here, [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-nitroimidazole ([(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI), was constructed by linking a nitroimidazole moiety with the macrocyclic ligand component of ProHance®, HP-DO3A. The hypoxia targeting capability of this agent was evaluated in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro and in SCID mice bearing subcutaneous A549 tumor xenografts. The cellular uptake assays showed that significantly more [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI accumulates in hypoxic tumor cells at 30, 60 and 120 min than in the same cells exposed to 21% O2 . The agent also accumulated in hypoxic tumors in vivo to give a tumor/muscle ratio (T/M) of 5.0 ± 1.2 (n = 3) as measured by PET at 2 h post-injection (p.i.). This was further confirmed by ex vivo biodistribution data. In addition, [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI displayed very favorable pharmacokinetic properties, as it was cleared largely through the kidneys with little to no accumulation in liver, heart or lung (%ID/g 68) Ga]-HP-DO3A, which lacks the nitroimidazole moiety, and by PET imaging of tumor-bearing mice breathing air versus 100% O2 . Given the commercial availability of cGMP (68) Ge/(68) Ga generators and the ease of (68) Ga labeling, the new agent could potentially be widely applied for imaging tumor hypoxia prior to radiation therapy.

  11. Peptide-based MRI contrast agent and near-infrared fluorescent probe for intratumoral legumain detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Wu, Shou-Cheng; Chen, Chung-Yung; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Huang, Ying-Fang; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Wang, Yun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that intratumoral legumain promotes tumorigenesis. To monitor legumain activity in tumors, we developed a new MRI contrast agent ([Gd-NBCB-TTDA-Leg(L)]) and a NIR fluorescence probe (CyTE777-Leg(L)-CyTE807). The MRI contrast agent was prepared by introduction of cyclobutyl and benzyl group residues to TTDA (3,6,10-tri(carboxymethyl)-3,6,10-triaza-dodecanedioic acid), followed by the attachment of a legumain-specific substrate peptide (Leg(L)). The NIR fluorescence probe was designed by conjugating two NIR fluorochromes (CyTE777 and CyTE807) with Leg(L). Peptide cleavage of the MRI contrast agent by legumain can increase its hydrophobicity and promote rotational correlation time (τ(R)). Peptide cleavage of the NIR probes by the legumain relieves the self quench of the probe. Peptide cleavage of the MRI contrast agent and the NIR fluorescence probe by legumain were confirmed by T1 relaxometric studies and by fluorescence studies, respectively. In vivo MR images showed that [Gd-NBCB-TTDA-Leg(L)] attained 55.3 fold (254.2% versus 4.6%, at 2.0 h post-injection) higher imaging enhancement, as compared with control contrast agent bearing a noncleaveable peptide ([Gd-NBCB-TTDA-Leg(D)], in the CT-26 (legumain(+)) tumors. Similarly, optical imaging probe CyTE777-Leg(L)-CyTE807 attained 15.2 fold (3.34 × 10(9) photons/min versus 0.22 × 10(9) photons/min, at 24.0 h post-injection) higher imaging enhancement in the CT-26 (legumain(+)) tumors, compared to a NIR control probe (CyTE777-Leg(D)-CyTE807). These data indicate that the [Gd-NBCB-TTDA-Leg(L)] and the CyTE777-Leg(L)-CyTE807 probes may be promising tools to image the legumain-expressing cancers for diagnoses and targeted treatments.

  12. Reagent-free and portable detection of Bacillus anthracis spores using a microfluidic incubator and smartphone microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Janine R; Erikson, Rebecca L; Sheen, Allison M; Ozanich, Richard M; Kelly, Ryan T

    2015-09-21

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and can be contracted by humans and herbivorous mammals by inhalation, ingestion, or cutaneous exposure to bacterial spores. Due to its stability and disease potential, B. anthracis is a recognized biothreat agent and robust detection and viability methods are needed to identify spores from unknown samples. Here we report the use of smartphone-based microscopy (SPM) in combination with a simple microfluidic incubation device (MID) to detect 50 to 5000 B. anthracis Sterne spores in 3 to 5 hours. This technique relies on optical monitoring of the conversion of the ∼1 μm spores to the filamentous vegetative cells that range from tens to hundreds of micrometers in length. This distinguishing filament formation is unique to B. anthracis as compared to other members of the Bacillus cereus group. A unique feature of this approach is that the sample integrity is maintained, and the vegetative biomass can be removed from the chip for secondary molecular analysis such as PCR. Compared with existing chip-based and rapid viability PCR methods, this new approach reduces assay time by almost half, and is highly sensitive, specific, and cost effective.

  13. Feasibility Study of Using Short Wave Infrared Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (SWIR-CRDS) for Biological Agent Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aker, Pam M.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Williams, Richard M.; Valentine, Nancy B.

    2007-10-01

    This project focused on determining the feasibility of using short wave infrared (SWIR) cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) as a means for real-time detection of biological aerosols. The first part of the project involved identifying biological agent signatures that could be detected with SWIR CRDS. After an exhaustive search of the open literature it was determined that whole biological spores and/or cells would not be good candidates for direct SWIR CRDS probing because they have no unique SWIR signatures. It was postulated that while whole cells or spores are not good candidates for SWIR CRDS detection, their pyrolysis break-down products might be. A literature search was then conducted to find biological pyrolysis products with low molecular weights and high symmetry since these species most likely would have overtone and combination vibrational bands that can be detected in the SWIR. It was determined that pyrrole, pyridine and picolinamide were good candidates for evaluation. These molecules are formed when proteins and porphyrins, proteins and dipicolinic acid, and dipicolinic acid are pyrolyzed, respectively. The second part of the project involved measuring quantitative SWIR spectra of pyrrole, pyridine and picolinamide in PNNL’s FTIR Spectroscopy Laboratory. Spectral information about these molecules, in the vapor phase is sparse – there were only a few prior studies that measured line positions and no information on absorption cross sections. Absorption cross sections are needed in order to estimate the SWIR CRDS detection sensitivity, and line position determines what type of laser will be needed for the sensor. The results of the spectroscopy studies allowed us to estimate the SWIR CRDS detection sensitivity for pyrrole to be 3 x 1012 molec cm-3 or 0.1 ppmv, and for pyridine it was 1.5 x 1015 molec cm-3 or 0.6 ppmv. These detection sensitivity limits are close what we have measured for ammonia. Given these detection limits we then estimated the

  14. Development of an ELISA microarray assay for the sensitive and simultaneous detection of ten biodefense toxins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenko, Kathryn; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kostenko, Yulia; Fan, Yongfeng; Garcia-Rodriguez, Consuelo; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2014-10-21

    Plant and microbial toxins are considered bioterrorism threat agents because of their extreme toxicity and/or ease of availability. Additionally, some of these toxins are increasingly responsible for accidental food poisonings. The current study utilized an ELISA-based protein antibody microarray for the multiplexed detection of ten biothreat toxins, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) A, B, C, D, E, F, ricin, shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx), and staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB), in buffer and complex biological matrices. The multiplexed assay displayed a sensitivity of 1.3 pg/mL (BoNT/A, BoNT/B, SEB, Stx-1 and Stx-2), 3.3 pg/mL (BoNT/C, BoNT/E, BoNT/F) and 8.2 pg/mL (BoNT/D, ricin). All assays demonstrated high accuracy (75-120 percent recovery) and reproducibility (most coefficients of variation < 20%). Quantification curves for the ten toxins were also evaluated in clinical samples (serum, plasma, nasal fluid, saliva, stool, and urine) and environmental samples (apple juice, milk and baby food) with overall minimal matrix effects. The multiplex assays were highly specific, with little crossreactivity observed between the selected toxin antibodies. The results demonstrate a multiplex microarray that improves current immunoassay sensitivity for biological warfare agents in buffer, clinical, and environmental samples.

  15. A cyclization-induced emission enhancement (CIEE)-based ratiometric fluorogenic and chromogenic probe for the facile detection of a nerve agent simulant DCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Ajit Kumar; Maiti, Kalipada; Manna, Saikat Kumar; Maji, Rajkishor; Mondal, Sanchita; Das Mukhopadhyay, Chitrangada; Sahoo, Prithidipa; Mandal, Debasish

    2015-06-14

    The first ratiometric fluorescent probe for the detection of a nerve agent simulant was developed based on tandem phosphorylation and intramolecular cyclization, by which high sensitivity as well as large emission shift could be achieved.

  16. Optically tunable nanoparticle contrast agents for early cancer detection: model-based analysis of gold nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alex W H; Lewinski, Nastassja A; West, Jennifer L; Halas, Naomi J; Drezek, Rebekah A

    2005-01-01

    Many optical diagnostic approaches rely on changes in scattering and absorption properties to generate optical contrast between normal and diseased tissue. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using exogenous agents to enhance this intrinsic contrast with particular emphasis on the development for targeting specific molecular features of disease. Gold nanoshells are a class of core-shell nanoparticles with an extremely tunable peak optical resonance ranging from the near-UV to the mid-IR wavelengths. Using current chemistries, nanoshells of a wide variety of core and shell sizes can easily be fabricated to scatter and/or absorb light with optical cross sections often several times larger than the geometric cross section. Using gold nanoshells of different size and optical parameters, we employ Monte Carlo models to predict the effect of varying concentrations of nanoshells on tissue reflectance. The models demonstrate the importance of absorption from the nanoshells on remitted signals even when the optical extinction is dominated by scattering. Furthermore, because of the strong optical response of nanoshells, a considerable change in reflectance is observed with only a very small concentration of nanoshells. Characterizing the optical behavior of gold nanoshells in tissue will aid in developing nanoshells as contrast agents for optical diagnostics.

  17. Implementation of a phase detection algorithm for dynamic cardiac computed tomography analysis based on time dependent contrast agent distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Kendziorra

    Full Text Available This paper presents a phase detection algorithm for four-dimensional (4D cardiac computed tomography (CT analysis. The algorithm detects a phase, i.e. a specific three-dimensional (3D image out of several time-distributed 3D images, with high contrast in the left ventricle and low contrast in the right ventricle. The purpose is to use the automatically detected phase in an existing algorithm that automatically aligns the images along the heart axis. Decision making is based on the contrast agent distribution over time. It was implemented in KardioPerfusion--a software framework currently being developed for 4D CT myocardial perfusion analysis. Agreement of the phase detection algorithm with two reference readers was 97% (95% CI: 82-100%. Mean duration for detection was 0.020 s (95% CI: 0.018-0.022 s, which was 800 times less than the readers needed (16±7 s, p<03001. Thus, this algorithm is an accurate and fast tool that can improve work flow of clinical examinations.

  18. Biotech as 'Biothreat'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    groups. In this, the paper tries to make up for the limited focus upon the role played by metaphor and discourse in shaping public attitudes of biotechnology. The paper has two parts; a theoretical part discussing the combination of conceptual metaphor studies and critical discourse analysis to provide......In Denmark, as in many other European countries, biotechnology continues to be a much debated and controversial issue. The paper takes its starting point in this debate, investigating how metaphorical constructions in media discourse reproduce and promote the viewpoints of particular societal...... a more comprehensive frame for explaining the function of metaphor in use, and an empirical part analysing biotech-metaphors in the Danish print press. Although not conclusive, the analysis points to metaphorical constructions in the press being both grounded in basic image schematic structures...

  19. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents. Suffield memorandum No. 1463

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Mid-spectrum biological warfare agents such as proteins, peptides, and toxins are often difficult to analyze and often require individually developed assay methods for detection and identification. In this regard, capillary electrophoresis is an important, emerging technique for separation and quantitation of peptides and proteins, providing separation efficiencies up to two orders of magnitude greater than high performance liquid chromatography. The technique can also analyze a broad range of compounds, has a simple instrument design which can be automated, and has low sample volume requirements. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defense interest including bradykinin, leucine enkephalin, and oxytocin. The paper demonstrates three strategies which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system for unknown peptides.

  20. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxycytidine as a new agent for DNA labeling: detection of proliferating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dezhong; Wang, Guoxing; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Li; Chi, Weilin; Cong, Shujie; Ren, Xiaoshuai; Liang, Peizhou; Zhang, Biliang

    2011-10-01

    The labeling of newly synthesized DNA in cells to identify cell proliferation is an important experimental technique. The most accurate methods incorporate [(3)H]thymidine or 5-bromo-2'-deoxyruidine (BrdU) into dividing cells during S phase, which is subsequently detected by autoradiography or immunohistochemistry, directly measuring the newly synthesized DNA. Recently, a novel method was developed to detect DNA synthesis in proliferating cells based on a novel thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). EdU is incorporated into DNA and subsequently detected with a fluorescent azide via "click" chemistry. This novel technique is highly sensitive and does not require DNA denaturation. However, it was also found that EdU exhibits time-dependent inhibition effects on cell growth. Therefore, here we report a novel deoxycytidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxycytidine (EdC), that can be used to detect DNA synthesis in vitro and in vivo at a similar sensitivity level compared with EdU. Furthermore, the EdC-induced cytotoxicity is much less than that of EdU when combined with thymidine. This will be a potential application for the long-term detection of proliferating cells.

  1. Detection of acoustic cavitation in the heart with microbubble contrast agents in vivo: a mechanism for ultrasound-induced arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Claudio; Raeman, Carol H; Child, Sally Z; Dalecki, Diane

    2006-11-01

    Ultrasound fields can produce premature cardiac contractions under appropriate exposure conditions. The pressure threshold for ultrasound-induced premature contractions is significantly lowered when microbubble contrast agents are present in the vasculature. The objective of this study was to measure directly ultrasound-induced cavitation in the murine heart in vivo and correlate the occurrence of cavitation with the production of premature cardiac contractions. A passive cavitation detection technique was used to quantify cavitation activity in the heart. Experiments were performed with anesthetized, adult mice given intravenous injections of either a contrast agent (Optison) or saline. Murine hearts were exposed to ultrasound pulses (200 kHz, 1 ms, 0.1-0.25 MPa). Premature beats were produced in mice injected with Optison and the likelihood of producing a premature beat increased with increasing pressure amplitude. Similarly, cavitation was detected in mice injected with Optison and the amplitude of the passive cavitation detector signal increased with increasing exposure amplitude. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between the extent of cavitation and the likelihood of ultrasound producing a premature beat. Neither premature beats nor cavitation activity were observed in animals injected with saline and exposed to ultrasound. These results are consistent with acoustic cavitation as a mechanism for this bioeffect.

  2. Self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles as new, smart contrast agents for cancer early detection using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouffouk, Fouzi; Simão, Teresa; Dornelles, Daniel F; Lopes, André D; Sau, Pablo; Martins, Jorge; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Alrokayan, Salman A; Rosa da Costa, Ana M; dos Santos, Nuno R

    2015-01-01

    Early cancer detection is a major factor in the reduction of mortality and cancer management cost. Here we developed a smart and targeted micelle-based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), able to turn on its imaging capability in the presence of acidic cancer tissues. This smart contrast agent consists of pH-sensitive polymeric micelles formed by self-assembly of a diblock copolymer (poly(ethyleneglycol-b-trimethylsilyl methacrylate)), loaded with a gadolinium hydrophobic complex ((t)BuBipyGd) and exploits the acidic pH in cancer tissues. In vitro MRI experiments showed that (t)BuBipyGd-loaded micelles were pH-sensitive, as they turned on their imaging capability only in an acidic microenvironment. The micelle-targeting ability toward cancer cells was enhanced by conjugation with an antibody against the MUC1 protein. The ability of our antibody-decorated micelles to be switched on in acidic microenvironments and to target cancer cells expressing specific antigens, together with its high Gd(III) content and its small size (35-40 nm) reveals their potential use for early cancer detection by MRI.

  3. Advanced techniques for detection and identification of microbial agents of gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Sherry A; Zhang, Hongwei; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Gastroenteritis persists as a worldwide problem, responsible for approximately 2 million deaths annually. Traditional diagnostic methods used in the clinical microbiology laboratory include a myriad of tests, such as culture, microscopy, and immunodiagnostics, which can be labor intensive and suffer from long turnaround times and, in some cases, poor sensitivity. [corrected]. This article reviews recent advances in genomic and proteomic technologies that have been applied to the detection and identification of gastrointestinal pathogens. These methods simplify and speed up the detection of pathogenic microorganisms, and their implementation in the clinical microbiology laboratory has potential to revolutionize the diagnosis of gastroenteritis.

  4. An Useful Communication Mechanism for Distributed Agents-Based Intrusion Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ye

    2006-01-01

    The communication mechanism plays an important role in an intrusion detection system, while it has not been paid enough attention. Based on analyzing the actual facts and expatiating upon the requirements a communication mechanism needs to meet, a message driven communication mechanism is proposed in this paper. The protocol presented here is divided into three layers: entity level, host level, and network level. The communication processes are also designed in detail. Experiments illustrate that cooperative entities can detect distributed sophisticated attacks accurately. Furthermore, this mechanism has the advantages like high reliability, low time delay and expenses.

  5. Detection of brain tumors using fluorescence diffuse optical tomography and nanoparticles as contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Pierre-Yves; Genevois, Coralie; Koenig, Anne; Heinrich, Emilie; Texier, Isabelle; Couillaud, Franck

    2012-12-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence-enhanced diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) is used to localize tumors in mice using fluorescent nanoparticles as a blood pool contrast agent. The infrared dye DiR is loaded in the lipid core of nontargeted nanoparticles (DiR-lipidots) and injected systemically via the tail vein in mice bearing U87 tumors. Distribution and time-course of DiR-lipidots are followed using in vivo fluorescence reflectance imaging and reveal enhanced fluorescent signal within the subcutaneous tumors up to seven days due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Tumor growth into the brain is followed using bioluminescent imaging, and tumor localization is further determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The fDOT provides three-dimensional fluorescent maps that allow for consistent localization for both subcutaneous and brain tumors.

  6. Detection of DNA damage induced by topoisomerase II inhibitors, gamma radiation and crosslinking agents using the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Lori A

    2009-01-01

    The comet assay is a simple gel electrophoresis method for visualizing and quantifying DNA damage. The comet assay is sensitive and reproducible and can be used to detect single-strand DNA breaks, double-strand DNA breaks, protein-associated DNA strand breaks and DNA crosslinks. The comet assay uses fluorescent DNA-binding dyes to detect both damaged DNA that resides in the tail region and undamaged DNA that is retained in the head region following gel electrophoresis. This assay is a single cell-based assay and thus is highly adaptable for measuring DNA damage in clinical samples. Furthermore, unlike other assays the detection of DNA damage is not dependent on the random incorporation of radiolabeled nucleotides. Again this can be problematic with clinical samples as proliferation rates are often slow and culturing of primary patient specimens for 48 h required to randomly label DNA is often not possible. In this chapter we will outline the comet assay for the detection of DNA damage induced by topoisomerase II inhibitors, cross-linking agents and gamma radiation.

  7. Microbial agent detection using near-IR electrophoretic and spectral signatures (MADNESS) for rapid identification in detect-to-warn applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Anthony Lee; Bambha, Ray P.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Fruetel, Julia A.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Krafcik, Karen Lee

    2009-10-01

    Rapid identification of aerosolized biological agents following an alarm by particle triggering systems is needed to enable response actions that save lives and protect assets. Rapid identifiers must achieve species level specificity, as this is required to distinguish disease-causing organisms (e.g., Bacillus anthracis) from benign neighbors (e.g., Bacillus subtilis). We have developed a rapid (1-5 minute), novel identification methodology that sorts intact organisms from each other and particulates using capillary electrophoresis (CE), and detects using near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and scattering. We have successfully demonstrated CE resolution of Bacillus spores and vegetative bacteria at the species level. To achieve sufficient sensitivity for detection needs ({approx}10{sup 4} cfu/mL for bacteria), we have developed fiber-coupled cavity-enhanced absorbance techniques. Using this method, we have demonstrated {approx}two orders of magnitude greater sensitivity than published results for absorbing dyes, and single particle (spore) detection through primarily scattering effects. Results of the integrated CE-NIR system for spore detection are presented.

  8. Final LDRD report : development of advanced UV light emitters and biological agent detection strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figiel, Jeffrey James; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Banas, Michael Anthony; Farrow, Darcie; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project which has focused on the development of novel, compact, ultraviolet solid-state sources and fluorescence-based sensing platforms that apply such devices to the sensing of biological and nuclear materials. We describe our development of 270-280 nm AlGaN-based semiconductor UV LEDs with performance suitable for evaluation in biosensor platforms as well as our development efforts towards the realization of a 340 nm AlGaN-based laser diode technology. We further review our sensor development efforts, including evaluation of the efficacy of using modulated LED excitation and phase sensitive detection techniques for fluorescence detection of bio molecules and uranyl-containing compounds.

  9. Characterization of an Optically Integrated Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for the Detection of Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    nanotechnology for chemical and biochemical analysis. The integration of planar waveguides with these technologies can provide new methods of detection...Project Group 33 on automated biosensors. The work described herein is relevant to NATO Panel 7 in that it presents a novel method of chemical-optical...the analytes possess flu- P502399.PDF [Page: 12 of 62] UNCLASSIFIED 2 orescence labels) or by refractometry . Surface plasmon resonance (Refs. 1 and 2

  10. Monitoring Agent for Detecting Malicious Packet Drops for Wireless Sensor Networks in the Microgrid and Grid-enabled Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongbin Ko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Of the range of wireless communication technologies, wireless sensor networks (WSN will be one of the most appropriate technologies for the Microgrid and Grid‐enabled Vehicles in the Smartgrid. To ensure the security of WSN, the detection of attacks is more efficient than their prevention because of the lack of computing power. Malicious packet drops are the easiest means of attacking WSNs. Thus, the sensors used for constructing a WSN require a packet drop monitoring agent, such as Watchdog. However, Watchdog has a partial drop problem such that an attacker can manipulate the packet dropping rate below the minimum misbehaviour monitoring threshold. Furthermore, Watchdog does not consider real traffic situations, such as congestion and collision, and so it has no way of recognizing whether a packet drop is due to a real attack or network congestion. In this paper, we propose a malicious packet drop monitoring agent, which considers traffic conditions. We used the actual traffic volume on neighbouring nodes and the drop rate while monitoring a sending node for specific period. It is more effective in real network scenarios because unlike Watchdog it considers the actual traffic, which only uses the Pathrater. Moreover, our proposed method does not require authentication, packet encryption or detection packets. Thus, there is a lower likelihood of detection failure due to packet spoofing, Man‐In‐the Middle attacks or Wormhole attacks. To test the suitability of our proposed concept for a series of network scenarios, we divided the simulations into three types: one attack node, more than one attack nodes and no attack nodes. The results of the simulations meet our expectations.

  11. Biosensor-Based Detection and Verification System for Bio-Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    23 The second alternative detection scheme is gated integration (GI). In GI, the photocurrent from the LAPS is collected on a feedback capacitor ...magnitude of the internal photovoltage can be estimated by dividing the charge output form the LAPS by the magnitude of the insulator capacitor . For the case...uI184eiG)u3 C fousJiojdosi Ioqoeqie3 0. loqia)e 00 Lf ; CJ CS (9s~e~jou */) asuodseU (Silicone) (.002’ Polyester )I I Ir ScreenI (PeCap 7-88/34)I I (.012 "x

  12. Combined perfusion and doppler imaging using plane-wave nonlinear detection and microbubble contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Williams, Ross; Milot, Laurent; Bruce, Matthew; Burns, Peter N

    2014-12-01

    Plane-wave imaging offers image acquisition rates at the pulse repetition frequency, effectively increasing the imaging frame rates by up to two orders of magnitude over conventional line-by-line imaging. This form of acquisition can be used to achieve very long ensemble lengths in nonlinear modes such as pulse inversion Doppler, which enables new imaging trade-offs that were previously unattainable. We first demonstrate in this paper that the coherence of microbubble signals under repeated exposure to acoustic pulses of low mechanical index can be as high as 204 ± 5 pulses, which is long enough to allow an accurate power Doppler measurement. We then show that external factors, such as tissue acceleration, restrict the detection of perfusion at the capillary level with linear Doppler, even if long Doppler ensembles are considered. Hence, perfusion at the capillary level can only be detected with ultrasound through combined microbubbles and Doppler imaging. Finally, plane-wave contrast-enhanced power and color Doppler are performed on a rabbit kidney in vivo as a proof of principle. We establish that long pulse-inversion Doppler sequences and conventional wall-filters can create an image that simultaneously resolves both the vascular morphology of veins and arteries, and perfusion at the capillary level with frame rates above 100 Hz.

  13. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  14. Evaluation of Diagnostic Sensitivity of Wet Preparation Microscopy Using KOH for Detection of Fungal Agents from Keratitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta D Khokhar, Summaiya A Mulla, Latika N Shah, Geeta M Vaghela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keratitis is a common ophthalmic condition mostly caused by fungi. Apart from fungal culture, wet preparation using 10% Potassium hydroxide (KOH for microscopic detection of fungal elements is a rapid and accurate method of laboratory diagnosis. Purpose: This prospective study was undertaken in order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of wet preparation microscopy using KOH for detection of fungal agents from keratitis patients. Methodology: 103 samples of clinically suspected patients of keratitis attending tertiary care hospital between march 2010 and june 2011 were included. Samples like corneal swabs, corneal scrapings, corneal button, and corneo-scleral rim were collected aseptically after slit lamp examination, then transported to microbiology laboratory. Samples were processed for direct microscopy (gram stain and 10% KOH wet mount preparation and culture. Culture positive isolates were identified based on morphology and standard biochemical tests. Data entry and analysis was done statistically. Results: From 103 samples, fungal culture was positive in 12%. Different fungus isolates include Aspergillus flavus (67% and Candida spp (25% were the leading fungi followed by Curvularis (8%. Direct microscopical examination using KOH wet preparation and gram’s stain had detected fungal elements in 83% and 75% samples respectively against culture results. Conclusion: Aspergillus flavus (67%, Candida spp (25% and Curvularia spp (8% was most common cause of fungal keratitis. Wet mount with KOH can be relied upon as the single most important screening tool for rapid diagnosis of fungal corneal ulcer and treatment should be dispensed on its basis.

  15. The application of single particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of high explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey Noreen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle (~1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

  16. Infrared differential absorption lidar for stand-off detection of chemical agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Razdan; S Veerabuthiran; M K Jindal; R K Sharma

    2014-02-01

    A compact trolley-mounted pulsed transverse electric atmospheric pressure (TEA) carbon dioxide laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system capable of stand-off detection of chemical clouds in aerosol and vapour form upto about 200 m range in the atmosphere has been developed and assembled at Laser Science and Technology Centre (LASTEC), Delhi. The system was tested successfully with diethyl ether (DEE) (a toxic industrial chemical (TIC)) and differential absorption signals at on (strong absorption, 9R16) and off (weak absorption, 10R26) wavelengths were recorded for stand-off distances upto ∼100 m (open air ground path). This paper discusses the technical details of trolley-mounted CO2 DIAL system and the data generated during the test and evaluation of this sensor using DEE aerosols.

  17. Nanocrystalline Cellulose-Assisted Generation of Silver Nanoparticles for Nonenzymatic Glucose Detection and Antibacterial Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwen; Sun, Jiashu; Jia, Yuexiao; Yang, Lu; Wang, Nuoxin; Xianyu, Yunlei; Chen, Wenwen; Li, Xiaohong; Cha, Ruitao; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-07-11

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) is a kind of natural biopolymers with merits of large surface area, high specific strength and unique optical properties. This report shows that NCC can serve as the substrate, allowing glucose to reduce Tollen's reagent to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at room temperature. The generation of AgNPs is affected by the factors such as the concentrations of silver ions, NCC and glucose, as well as the different reaction temperatures. The AgNPs with NCC are applied for the development of a visual, quantitative, nonenzymatic and high-sensitive assay for glucose detection in serum. This assay is also used for monitoring the concentration change of glucose in medium during cell culture. For the antibacterial activity, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the generated AgNPs with NCC is much lower than that of commercial AgNPs, attributed to the good dispersion of AgNPs with the presence of NCC. As NCC exhibits unique advantages including green, stable, inexpensive, and abundant, the NCC-based generation of AgNPs may find promising applications in clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and the control of bacteria.

  18. Intravenous, contrast-enhanced MR colonography using air as endoluminal contrast agent: Impact on colorectal polyp detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2010-12-03

    PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy and patient tolerance of MR colonography with intravenous contrast and luminal air (MRC) to conventional colonoscopy (CC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: IRB approval and written informed consent were obtained. Forty-six patients, both screening and symptomatic, underwent MRC followed by CC. The MRC technique employed 3D T1W spoiled gradient echo sequences performed after the administration of gadopenetate dimeglumine, with parallel imaging. The diagnostic accuracy and tolerance of patients for MRC was compared to CC. RESULTS: Twenty-four polyps were detected in eighteen patients with CC (5 polyps ≥10mm, 4 polyps 6-9mm, 15 polyps ≤5mm). MRC was 66.7% (12\\/18) sensitive and 96.4% (27\\/28) specific for polyp detection on a per-patient basis. When analyzed by polyp size, sensitivity and specificity of MRC was 100% (5\\/5) and 100% (19\\/19), respectively, for lesions greater than 10mm, 100% (4\\/4) and 100% (20\\/20) for lesions 6-9mm, and sensitivity of 20% (3\\/15) lesions less than 5mm. The sensitivity and specificity of MRC for detecting significant lesions (>6mm) was 100% (9\\/9) and 100% (15\\/15), respectively. Regarding tolerance of the exams, there were no significant differences between MRC and CC. Thirty-five percent (n=16) of patients preferred MRC as a future screening test compared to 33% (n=15) for CC. CONCLUSION: MRC using air as an intraluminal contrast agent is a feasible and well-tolerated technique for detecting colonic polyps ≥6mm in size. Further studies are warranted.

  19. Intravenous, contrast-enhanced MR colonography using air as endoluminal contrast agent: Impact on colorectal polyp detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy and patient tolerance of MR colonography with intravenous contrast and luminal air (MRC) to conventional colonoscopy (CC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: IRB approval and written informed consent were obtained. Forty-six patients, both screening and symptomatic, underwent MRC followed by CC. The MRC technique employed 3D T1W spoiled gradient echo sequences performed after the administration of gadopenetate dimeglumine, with parallel imaging. The diagnostic accuracy and tolerance of patients for MRC was compared to CC. RESULTS: Twenty-four polyps were detected in eighteen patients with CC (5 polyps >\\/=10mm, 4 polyps 6-9mm, 15 polyps <\\/=5mm). MRC was 66.7% (12\\/18) sensitive and 96.4% (27\\/28) specific for polyp detection on a per-patient basis. When analyzed by polyp size, sensitivity and specificity of MRC was 100% (5\\/5) and 100% (19\\/19), respectively, for lesions greater than 10mm, 100% (4\\/4) and 100% (20\\/20) for lesions 6-9mm, and sensitivity of 20% (3\\/15) lesions less than 5mm. The sensitivity and specificity of MRC for detecting significant lesions (>6mm) was 100% (9\\/9) and 100% (15\\/15), respectively. Regarding tolerance of the exams, there were no significant differences between MRC and CC. Thirty-five percent (n=16) of patients preferred MRC as a future screening test compared to 33% (n=15) for CC. CONCLUSION: MRC using air as an intraluminal contrast agent is a feasible and well-tolerated technique for detecting colonic polyps >\\/=6mm in size. Further studies are warranted.

  20. Species-specific detection and identification of fusarium species complex, the causal agent of sugarcane pokkah boeng in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyue Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pokkah boeng disease caused by the Fusarium species complex results in significant yield losses in sugarcane. Thus, the rapid and accurate detection and identification of the pathogen is urgently required to manage and prevent the spreading of sugarcane pokkah boeng. METHODS: A total of 101 isolates were recovered from the pokkah boeng samples collected from five major sugarcane production areas in China throughout 2012 and 2013. The causal pathogen was identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis based on the fungus-conserved rDNA-ITS. Species-specific TaqMan real-time PCR and conventional PCR methods were developed for rapid and accurate detection of the causal agent of sugarcane pokkah boeng. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR assay were also evaluated on a total of 84 isolates of Fusarium from China and several isolates from other fungal pathogens of Sporisorium scitamineum and Phoma sp. and sugarcane endophyte of Acremonium sp. RESULT: Two Fusarium species (F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum that caused sugarcane pokahh boeng were identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis. Species-specific TaqMan PCR and conventional PCR were designed and optimized to target their rDNA-ITS regions. The sensitivity of the TaqMan PCR was approximately 10 pg of fungal DNA input, which was 1,000-fold over conventional PCR, and successfully detected pokkah boeng in the field-grown sugarcane. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study was the first to identify two species, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, that were causal pathogens of sugarcane pokkah boeng in China. It also described the development of a species-specific PCR assay to detect and confirm these pathogens in sugarcane plants from mainland China. This method will be very useful for a broad range of research endeavors as well as the regulatory response and management of sugarcane pokkah boeng.

  1. HyperCEST detection of a 129Xe-based contrast agent composed of cryptophane-A molecular cages on a bacteriophage scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Todd K; Palaniappan, Krishnan K; Ramirez, R Matthew; Francis, Matthew B; Wemmer, David E; Pines, Alex

    2013-05-01

    A hyperpolarized 129Xe contrast agent composed of many cryptophane-A molecular cages assembled on an M13 bacteriophage has been demonstrated. Saturation of xenon bound in the large number of cryptophane cages is transferred to the pool of aqueous-solvated xenon via chemical exchange, resulting in efficient generation of hyperCEST contrast. No significant loss of contrast per cryptophane cage was observed for the multivalent phage when compared with unscaffolded cryptophane. Detection of this phage-based hyperCEST agent is reported at concentrations as low as 230 fM, representing the current lower limit for NMR/MRI-based contrast agents.

  2. Interleukin 16- (IL-16- Targeted Ultrasound Imaging Agent Improves Detection of Ovarian Tumors in Laying Hens, a Preclinical Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Barua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited resolution of transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS scanning is a significant barrier to early detection of ovarian cancer (OVCA. Contrast agents have been suggested to improve the resolution of TVUS scanning. Emerging evidence suggests that expression of interleukin 16 (IL-16 by the tumor epithelium and microvessels increases in association with OVCA development and offers a potential target for early OVCA detection. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility of IL-16-targeted contrast agents in enhancing the intensity of ultrasound imaging from ovarian tumors in hens, a model of spontaneous OVCA. Contrast agents were developed by conjugating biotinylated anti-IL-16 antibodies with streptavidin coated microbubbles. Enhancement of ultrasound signal intensity was determined before and after injection of contrast agents. Following scanning, ovarian tissues were processed for the detection of IL-16 expressing cells and microvessels. Compared with precontrast, contrast imaging enhanced ultrasound signal intensity significantly in OVCA hens at early (P<0.05 and late stages (P<0.001. Higher intensities of ultrasound signals in OVCA hens were associated with increased frequencies of IL-16 expressing cells and microvessels. These results suggest that IL-16-targeted contrast agents improve the visualization of ovarian tumors. The laying hen may be a suitable model to test new imaging agents and develop targeted anti-OVCA therapeutics.

  3. An empirically grounded agent based model for modeling directs, conflict detection and resolution operations in Air Traffic Management

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, C; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2016-01-01

    We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system that aims at modeling the interactions between aircrafts and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts resolution between flight trajectories can arise during the en-route phase of each flight due to both not detailed flight trajectory planning or unforeseen events that perturb the planned flight plan. Our model performs a local conflict detection and resolution procedure. Once a flight trajectory has been made conflict-free, the model searches for possible improvements of the system efficiency by issuing directs. We give an example of model calibration based on real data. We then provide an illustration of the capability of our...

  4. Detection and molecular characterization of canine babesiosis causative agent Babesia canis in the naturally infected dog in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Algimantas; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Karvelienė, Birutė; Grigonis, Aidas; Aleksandravičienė, Asta; Zamokas, Gintaras; Babickaitė, Lina; Sabūnas, Vytautas; Petkevičius, Saulius

    2014-10-15

    Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis is an emerging infectious disease in Europe. Although previously uncommon, canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in Lithuania during the past decade. In the last few years an increasing number of cases with a wide variety of clinical signs have been recorded throughout the country. In Lithuania the identification of the disease agent in veterinarian clinics is based on a microscopic analysis of size and morphology. To date, no data on the genetic characterization of Babesia species in dogs have been documented for Lithuania. A total of 123 blood samples from dogs showing clinical signs of babesiosis on the basis of veterinary examination were tested for the presence of babesial parasites. Babesia isolated from dogs were detected and characterized by nested-PCR and sequence analysis of a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Babesia parasites were detected in blood smears of 94 dogs (76.4%). The molecular analysis revealed the presence of B. canis in 108 dogs (87.8%). Two genotypes of B. canis were distinguished on the basis on two nucleotide (GA → AG) substitutions observed in 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results of the present study provide knowledge of the distribution of B. canis genotypes in dogs in Lithuania, and show the necessity to use a molecular analysis for an accurate diagnosis of canine babesiosis.

  5. Potential use of {sup 68}Ga-apo-transferrin as a PET imaging agent for detecting Staphylococcus aureus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay, E-mail: vijay.kumar@swahs.health.nsw.gov.a [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Discipline of Imaging, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney (Australia); Boddeti, Dilip K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Evans, Scott G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Roesch, Frank [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (Germany); Howman-Giles, Robert [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Discipline of Imaging, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Introduction: {sup 67}Ga citrate has been extensively used to detect infection and inflammation since 1971. However, its clinical utility is compromised due to several limitations. The present project explored whether {sup 68}Ga-apo-transferrin ({sup 68}Ga-TF), when prepared in vitro, is a useful agent for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of bacterial infection. Methods: An infection was induced in male Wistar rats by injecting 5x10{sup 5} CFU units of Staphyococcus aureus in the right thigh muscle. {sup 68}Ga-TF was synthesized by mixing {sup 68}GaCl{sub 3} with apo-transferrin (TF, 2 mg) in sodium carbonate (0.1 M, pH 7.0) and incubating at 40{sup o}C for 1 h. Animals were injected with 10-15 MBq of {sup 68}Ga-TF containing approximately 0.2 mg TF and imaged at different time intervals using Siemens Biograph PET-CT. Results: When {sup 68}Ga-TF were injected in the infected rats, the infection lesion was detectable within 20 min post injection. The biodistribution showed the uptake at the lesion increased with time as shown by significantly increased standard uptake values for up to 4 h post injection. There was a considerable decrease in the background activity during the same period of study, giving higher target-to-muscle ratios. Blood pool activity at 3 h post injection was insignificant. {sup 68}GaCl{sub 3} (when not conjugated to TF) did not localize at the infection lesion up to 120 min post injection. Conclusion: The preliminary results suggest that {sup 68}Ga-TF is capable of detecting S. aureus infection in the rat model, within an hour after intravenous injection.

  6. Evaluation of the FilmArray® system for detection of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiner, Derrick R.; Colburn, Heather A.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Straub, Tim M.; Victry, Kristin D.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2013-04-29

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Idaho Technologies FilmArray® Biothreat Panel for the detection of Bacillus anthracis (Ba), Francisella tularensis (Ft), and Yersinia pestis (Yp) DNA, and demonstrate the detection of Ba spores. Methods and Results: DNA samples from Ba, Ft and Yp strains and near-neighbors, and live Ba spores were analyzed using the Biothreat Panel, a multiplexed PCR-based assay for 17 pathogens and toxins. Sensitivity studies with DNA suggest a limit of detection of 250 genome equivalents (GEs) per sample. Furthermore, the correct call of Ft, Yp or Bacillus species was made in 63 of 72 samples tested at 25 GE or less. With samples containing 25 Ba Sterne spores, at least one of the two possible Ba markers were identified in all samples tested. We observed no cross-reactivity with near-neighbor DNAs.

  7. Quick and Simple Detection Technique to Assess the Binding of Antimicrotubule Agents to the Colchicine-Binding Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortin Sébastien

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of antimitotic binding to the colchicine-binding site for the treatment of cancer is rapidly expanding. Numerous antimicrotubule agents are prepared every year, and the determination of their binding affinity to tubulin requires the use of purified tubulins and radiolabeled ligands. Such a procedure is costly and time-consuming and therefore is limited to the most promising candidates. Here, we report a quick and inexpensive method that requires only usual laboratory resources to assess the binding of antimicrotubules to colchicine-binding site. The method is based on the ability of N,N'-ethylene-bis(iodoacetamide (EBI to crosslink in living cells the cysteine residues at position 239 and 354 of β-tubulin, residues which are involved in the colchicine-binding site. The β-tubulin adduct formed by EBI is easily detectable by Western blot as a second immunoreacting band of β-tubulin that migrates faster than β-tubulin. The occupancy of colchicine-binding site by pertinent antimitotics inhibits the formation of the EBI: β-tubulin adduct, resulting in an assay that allows the screening of new molecules targeting this binding site.

  8. Quick and Simple Detection Technique to Assess the Binding of Antimicrotubule Agents to the Colchicine-Binding Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of antimitotic binding to the colchicine-binding site for the treatment of cancer is rapidly expanding. Numerous antimicrotubule agents are prepared every year, and the determination of their binding affinity to tubulin requires the use of purified tubulins and radiolabeled ligands. Such a procedure is costly and time-consuming and therefore is limited to the most promising candidates. Here, we report a quick and inexpensive method that requires only usual laboratory resources to assess the binding of antimicrotubules to colchicine-binding site. The method is based on the ability of N,N'-ethylene-bis(iodoacetamide (EBI to crosslink in living cells the cysteine residues at position 239 and 354 of β-tubulin, residues which are involved in the colchicine-binding site. The β-tubulin adduct formed by EBI is easily detectable by Western blot as a second immunoreacting band of β-tubulin that migrates faster than β-tubulin. The occupancy of colchicine-binding site by pertinent antimitotics inhibits the formation of the EBI: β-tubulin adduct, resulting in an assay that allows the screening of new molecules targeting this binding site.

  9. Retrospective detection of exposure to nerve agents: Analysis of phosphofluoridates originating from fluoride-induced rectivation of phospylated BuChE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, M.J. van der; Polhuijs, M.; Dijk, C. van; Degenhardt, C.E.A.M.; Pleijsier, K.; Langenberg, J.P.; Benschop, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The utility was explored of a new approach to detect retrospectively exposure to nerve agents by means of conversion of the inhibitor moiety bound to the active site of the enzyme BuChE in plasma with fluoride ions into a phosphofluoridate which is subsequently analyzed by means of gas chromatograph

  10. Rapid and high-throughput detection of highly pathogenic bacteria by Ibis PLEX-ID technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Jacob

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we describe the identification of highly pathogenic bacteria using an assay coupling biothreat group-specific PCR with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS run on an Ibis PLEX-ID high-throughput platform. The biothreat cluster assay identifies most of the potential bioterrorism-relevant microorganisms including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei and pseudomallei, Brucella species, and Coxiella burnetii. DNA from 45 different reference materials with different formulations and different concentrations were chosen and sent to a service screening laboratory that uses the PCR/ESI-MS platform to provide a microbial identification service. The standard reference materials were produced out of a repository built up in the framework of the EU funded project "Establishment of Quality Assurances for Detection of Highly Pathogenic Bacteria of Potential Bioterrorism Risk" (EQADeBa. All samples were correctly identified at least to the genus level.

  11. A 10-minute point-of-care assay for detection of blood protein adducts resulting from low level exposure to organophosphate nerve agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDine, Robert; Babu, Uma Mahesh; Condon, Peter; Mendez, Arlene; Sambursky, Robert

    2013-03-25

    The OrganoTox test is a rapid, point-of-care assay capable of detecting clinically relevant organophosphate (OP) poisoning after low-level exposure to sarin, soman, tabun, or VX chemical nerve agents. The test utilizes either a finger stick peripheral blood sample or plasma specimen. While high-level nerve agent exposure can quickly lead to death, low-level exposure produces vague, nondescript signs and symptoms that are not easily clinically differentiated from other conditions. In initial testing, the OrganoTox test was used to detect the presence of blood protein-nerve agent adducts in exposed blood samples. In order to mimic the in vivo exposure as closely as possible, nerve agents stored in organic solvents were spiked in minute quantities into whole blood samples. For performance testing, 40 plasma samples were spiked with sarin, soman, tabun, or VX and 10 normal plasma samples were used as the negative control. The 40 nerve agent-spiked plasma samples included 10 replicates of each agent. At the clinically relevant low-level exposure of 10 ng/ml, the OrganoTox test demonstrated 100% sensitivity for soman, tabun, and VX and 80% sensitivity for sarin. The OrganoTox test demonstrated greater than 97% specificity with 150 blood samples obtained from healthy adults. No cross-reactivity or interference from pesticide precursor compounds was found. A rapid test for nerve agent exposure will help identify affected patients earlier in the clinical course and trigger more appropriate medical management in a more timely manner.

  12. A choline oxidase amperometric bioassay for the detection of mustard agents based on screen-printed electrodes modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Fabiana; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Covaia, Corrado; Amine, Aziz; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2015-02-13

    In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (-50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl), thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethyl)amine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  13. Single domain antibody–quantum dot conjugates for ricin detection by both fluoroimmunoassay and surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, George P. [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Glaven, Richard H. [Nova Research, Inc., 1900 Elkin Street, Suite 230, Alexandria, VA 22308 (United States); Algar, W. Russ [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Susumu, Kimihiro [Optical Sciences Division, Code 5600, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Sotera Defense Solutions, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701 (United States); Stewart, Michael H. [Optical Sciences Division, Code 5600, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Medintz, Igor L. [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Goldman, Ellen R., E-mail: ellen.goldman@nrl.navy.mil [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2013-07-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Anti-ricin single domain antibodies (sdAb) were self-assembled on quantum dots (QDs). •Conjugates were prepared using dihydrolipoic acid-capped CdSe–ZnS core–shell QDs. •The sdAb–QD conjugates functioned in fluoroimmunoassays for ricin detection. •The conjugates provided signal amplification in surface plasmon resonance assays. •Conjugates provided sensitive detection compared to unconjugated sdAb reporters. -- Abstract: The combination of stable biorecognition elements and robust quantum dots (QDs) has the potential to yield highly effective reporters for bioanalyses. Llama-derived single domain antibodies (sdAb) provide small thermostable recognition elements that can be easily manipulated using standard DNA methods. The sdAb was self-assembled on dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) ligand-capped CdSe–ZnS core–shell QDs made in our laboratory through the polyhistidine tail of the protein, which coordinated to zinc ions on the QD surface. The sdAb–QD bioconjugates were then applied in both fluorometric and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassays for the detection of ricin, a potential biothreat agent. The sdAb–QD conjugates functioned in fluoroimmunoassays for the detection of ricin, providing equivalent limits of detection when compared to the same anti-ricin sdAb labeled with a conventional fluorophore. In addition, the DHLA-QD–sdAb conjugates were very effective reporter elements in SPR sandwich assays, providing more sensitive detection with a signal enhancement of ∼10-fold over sdAb reporters and 2–4 fold over full sized antibody reporters. Commercially prepared streptavidin-modified polymer-coated QDs also amplified the SPR signal for the detection of ricin when applied to locations where biotinylated anti-ricin sdAb was bound to target; however, we observed a 4-fold greater amplification when using the DHLA-QD–sdAb conjugates in this format.

  14. Erwinia chrysanthemi Burkholder, McFadden and Dimock and other Phytobacteria Causal Agents of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulb Decay, and their Detection

    OpenAIRE

    María de Jesús Yáñez; Leopold Fucikovsky; James W. Lorbeer; Armando González; Sergio Aranda

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, a severe soft rot of onion bulbs in commercial fields was detected in southern Tamaulipas and eastern San Luis Potosi States, Mexico, in 1989. To identify the causal agent, 50 rotten bulbs were analyzed. Commercial seed lots, soil, and irrigation water were also investigated as a potential sources of inoculum. Pathogenic bacteria isolated from bulbs were identified by the biolog microplate system (BMS), Ouchterlony double diffusion serology, physiological tests, and only b...

  15. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification as an emerging technology for detection of Yersinia ruckeri the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman Hatem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric Redmouth (ERM disease also known as Yersiniosis is a contagious disease affecting salmonids, mainly rainbow trout. The causative agent is the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia ruckeri. The disease can be diagnosed by isolation and identification of the causative agent, or detection of the Pathogen using fluorescent antibody tests, ELISA and PCR assays. These diagnostic methods are laborious, time consuming and need well trained personnel. Results A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay was developed and evaluated for detection of Y. ruckeri the etiological agent of enteric red mouth (ERM disease in salmonids. The assay was optimised to amplify the yruI/yruR gene, which encodes Y. ruckeri quorum sensing system, in the presence of a specific primer set and Bst DNA polymerase at an isothermal temperature of 63°C for one hour. Amplification products were detected by visual inspection, agarose gel electrophoresis and by real-time monitoring of turbidity resulted by formation of LAMP amplicons. Digestion with HphI restriction enzyme demonstrated that the amplified product was unique. The specificity of the assay was verified by the absence of amplification products when tested against related bacteria. The assay had 10-fold higher sensitivity compared with conventional PCR and successfully detected Y. ruckeri not only in pure bacterial culture but also in tissue homogenates of infected fish. Conclusion The ERM-LAMP assay represents a practical alternative to the microbiological approach for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of Y. ruckeri in fish farms. The assay is carried out in one hour and needs only a heating block or water bath as laboratory furniture. The advantages of the ERM-LAMP assay make it a promising tool for molecular detection of enteric red mouth disease in fish farms.

  16. Portable hyperspectral device as a valuable tool for the detection of protective agents applied on hystorical buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettori, S.; Pecchioni, E.; Camaiti, M.; Garfagnoli, F.; Benvenuti, M.; Costagliola, P.; Moretti, S.

    2012-04-01

    the laboratory experiments indicate that this hyperspectral technique is able to distinguish the different protective agents and, therefore, may be used to monitor the conservation treatments employed for the stone surfaces of historic materials. [1] G.G. Amoroso, M. Camaiti, Scienza dei materiali e restauro - La pietra: dalle mani degli artisti e degli scalpellini a quelle dei chimici macromolecolari, Alinea Ed., Firenze, 1997. [2] S. Vettori, M. Benvenuti, M. Camaiti, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola, S. Moretti, E. Pecchioni, 2008, "Assessment of the deterioration status of historical buildings by hyperspectral imaging techniques", in Proceedings of the "In situ Monitoring of Monumental Surfaces -SMS/08" Congress, Edifir-Edizioni Firenze 2008, 55-64. [3] M. Camaiti, S. Vettori, M. Benvenuti, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola, F. Di Benedetto, S. Moretti, F. Paba, E. Pecchioni, 2011, "Hyperspectral sensor for gypsum detection on monumental buildings", Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 8, S126-S131.

  17. Fast, sensitive and cost-effective detection of nerve agents in the gas phase using a portable instrument and an electrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Fabiana; Amine, Aziz; Moscone, Danila; Ricci, Francesco; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2007-07-01

    The nerve agents are chemical warfare agents known to be used during terrorist attacks. An inexpensive and portable system to be used by first responders and military personnel is of interest owing to the continuing threat of possible terrorist attacks. Amperometric biosensors based on cholinesterase inhibition show such potentialities. In this work butyrylcholinesterase was immobilized onto screen-printed electrodes modified with Prussian blue and the nerve agent detection was performed by measuring the residual activity of enzyme. The optimized biosensor was tested with sarin and VX standard solutions, showing detection limits of 12 and 14 ppb (10% of inhibition), respectively. The enzymatic inhibition was also obtained by exposing the biosensors to sarin in gas phase. Two different concentrations of sarin gas (0.1 and 0.5 mg m(-3)) at different incubation times (from 30 s up to 10 min) were tested. It is possible to detect sarin at a concentration of 0.1 mg m(-3) with 30-s incubation time, with a degree of inhibition of 34%, which match the legal limits (immediate danger to life and health).

  18. [The reagents kit to detect Metyorchis biis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus--agents of opisthorchiasis using technique of polymerase chain reaction in real-time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredina, T A; Petrenko, V A; Tronin, A V; Sazonov, A Iu; Sapugol'tseva, O B; Katokhin, A V; Odintsova, E S

    2014-08-01

    The helminths Opisthorchis felineus, Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis, Metorchis bilis are the agents of opisthorchiasis. The actual diagnostic of parasitic diseases based on microscope analysis of samples of human feces to detect presence of ova of parasites suffers of many shortcomings, in particular low sensitivity especially at earlier stages. The purpose of this study was to compare results of detection of parasites using both classical technique and technique of specific differentiation based on extraction of nucleic acids from samples of human feces and implementation of reaction of amplification of the chosen fragment of DNA with detection of products of polymerase chain reaction in the real time. The study detected 150 out of 165 positive samples and also 6 out of 37 negative samples both validated by coproovoscopy.

  19. Graphene oxide as sensitive layer in Love-wave surface acoustic wave sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayago, Isabel; Matatagui, Daniel; Fernández, María Jesús; Fontecha, José Luis; Jurewicz, Izabela; Garriga, Rosa; Muñoz, Edgar

    2016-02-01

    A Love-wave device with graphene oxide (GO) as sensitive layer has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. Sensitive films were fabricated by airbrushing GO dispersions onto Love-wave devices. The resulting Love-wave sensors detected very low CWA simulant concentrations in synthetic air at room temperature (as low as 0.2 ppm for dimethyl-methylphosphonate, DMMP, a simulant of sarin nerve gas, and 0.75 ppm for dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, DPGME, a simulant of nitrogen mustard). High responses to DMMP and DPGME were obtained with sensitivities of 3087 and 760 Hz/ppm respectively. Very low limit of detection (LOD) values (9 and 40 ppb for DMMP and DPGME, respectively) were calculated from the achieved experimental data. The sensor exhibited outstanding sensitivity, good linearity and repeatability to all simulants tested. The detection mechanism is here explained in terms of hydrogen bonding formation between the tested CWA simulants and GO.

  20. Conductometric immunosensors for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B based bio-electrocalytic reaction on micro-comb electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zai-Gang

    2008-06-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is one of many toxins produced by the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcal aureus. While SEB is known as the causative agent of certain food poisonings it is also considered abiological select agent. Thus, rapid and accurate identification of SEB during either surveillance or in response to a biothreat is critical to the mitigation of the suspect agent. This report presents a new conductometric immune-biosensor for the detection of SEB based on immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled SEB antibody (HRP-anti-SEB) onto nanogold/chitosan-multiwalled carbon nanotube (Au/CTS-MWNT)-functionalized biorecognition interface. The formation of the antibody-antigen complex by a simple one-step immunoreaction between the immobilized HRP-anti-SEB and SEB in sample solution introduced a barrier of electrical communication between the immobilized HRP and the base surface, thus local conductivity variations could be evaluated by the bio-electrocatalytic reaction of HRP in 0.02 M PBS (pH 6.8) containing 0.15 mM H(2)O(2), 0.06 M KI and 0.1 M NaCl. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immune-biosensor exhibited a good conductometric response relative to SEB concentration in a linear range from 0.5 to 83.5 ng/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The developed immune-biosensor showed an acceptable accuracy, reproducibility and stability. Milk samples spiked with various concentrations of SEB gave an average of 116% recovery of the toxin.

  1. Rapid method using two microbial enzymes for detection of L-abrine in food as a marker for the toxic protein abrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Anthony G; Carrasquillo, Kelvin; Rivera, Luis; Xu, Lei; Wackett, Lawrence P; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Abrin is a toxic protein produced by the ornamental plant Abrus precatorius, and it is of concern as a biothreat agent. The small coextracting molecule N-methyl-l-tryptophan (l-abrine) is specific to members of the genus Abrus and thus can be used as a marker for the presence or ingestion of abrin. Current methods for the detection of abrin or l-abrine in foods and other matrices require complex sample preparation and expensive instrumentation. To develop a fast and portable method for the detection of l-abrine in beverages and foods, the Escherichia coli proteins N-methyltryptophan oxidase (MTOX) and tryptophanase were expressed and purified. The two enzymes jointly degraded l-abrine to products that included ammonia and indole, and colorimetric assays for the detection of those analytes in beverage and food samples were evaluated. An indole assay using a modified version of Ehrlich's/Kovac's reagent was more sensitive and less subject to negative interferences from components in the samples than the Berthelot ammonia assay. The two enzymes were added into food and beverage samples spiked with l-abrine, and indole was detected as a degradation product, with the visual lower detection limit being 2.5 to 10.0 μM (∼0.6 to 2.2 ppm) l-abrine in the samples tested. Results could be obtained in as little as 15 min. Sample preparation was limited to pH adjustment of some samples. Visual detection was found to be about as sensitive as detection with a spectrophotometer, especially in milk-based matrices.

  2. [The use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of the agents of glanders and melioidosis using experimental infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altukhova, V V; Antonov, V A; Tkachenko, G A; Zinchenko, O V; Zamaraev, V S; Plekhanova, N G; Iliukhin, V I; Trofimov, D Iu

    2007-01-01

    Glanders and melioidosis are severe infectious diseases of people and animals. The causative agents of these infections refer to the potential agents of bioterrorism of group B. In this work the possibility of use of flagellin-based primers for the identification of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei and for diagnosis of experimental glanders and melioidosis was studied. The obtained results permit to make a conclusion that PCR using the developed primers may be recommended for the incorporation in the scheme of laboratory diagnosis of glanders and melioidosis both for the identification of clean cultures and in experimental clinical material.

  3. Functionalized Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent Selectively Binds to Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa on Activated Human Platelets under Flow Conditions and Is Detectable at Clinically Relevant Field Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin von zur Mühlen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides the opportunity to image cells and cellular receptors using microparticles of iron oxide (MPIOs. However, imaging targets on vessel walls remains challenging owing to the quantity of contrast agents delivered to areas of interest under shear stress conditions. We evaluated ex vivo binding characteristics of a functional MRI contrast agent to ligand-induced binding sites (LIBSs on activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors of human platelets, which were lining rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques and could therefore facilitate detection of platelet-mediated pathology in atherothrombotic disease. MPIOs were conjugated to anti-LIBS single-chain antibodies (LIBS-MPIO or control antibodies (control MPIO. Ex vivo binding to human platelet-rich clots in a dose-dependent manner was confirmed on a 3 T clinical MRI scanner and by histology (p < .05 for LIBS-MPIO vs control MPIO. By using a flow chamber setup, significant binding of LIBS-MPIO to a platelet matrix was observed under venous and arterial flow conditions, but not for control MPIO (p < .001. A newly generated MRI contrast agent detects activated human platelets at clinically relevant magnetic field strengths and binds to platelets under venous and arterial flow conditions, conveying high payloads of contrast to specific molecular targets. This may provide the opportunity to identify vulnerable, rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques via noninvasive MRI.

  4. Multi-platform comparison of ten commercial master mixes for probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bioterrorism threat agents for surge preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzard, Gregory S; Baker, Daniel; Wolcott, Mark J; Norwood, David A; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2012-11-30

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United States Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases have developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of bioterrorism threat agents. These assays all rely on a limited number of approved real-time PCR master mixes. Because the availability of these reagents is a critical element of bioterrorism preparedness, we undertook a joint national preparedness exercise to address the potential surge needs resulting from a large-scale bio-emergency. We identified 9 commercially-available potential alternatives to an existing approved master mix (LightCycler FastStart DNA Master HybProbes): the TaqMan Fast Universal PCR master mix, OmniMix HS, FAST qPCR master mix, EXPRESS qPCR SuperMix kit, QuantiFast Probe PCR kit, LightCycler FastStart DNA Master(PLUS) HybProbe, Brilliant II FAST qPCR master mix, ABsolute Fast QPCR Mix and the HotStart IT Taq master mix. The performances of these kits were evaluated by the use of real-time PCR assays for four bioterrorism threat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei and Francisella tularensis. The master mixes were compared for target-specific detection levels, as well as consistency of results among three different real-time PCR platforms (LightCycler, SmartCycler and 7500 Fast Dx). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that all ten kits performed well for agent detection on the 7500 Fast Dx instrument; however, the QuantiFast Probe PCR kit yielded the most consistently positive results across multiple real-time PCR platforms. We report that certain combinations of commonly used master mixes and instruments are not as reliable as others at detecting low concentrations of target DNA. Furthermore, our study provides laboratories the option to select from the commercial kits we evaluated to suit their preparedness needs.

  5. The reliability of serogroup determination in the detection of Escherichia coli as a causative agent of sporadic and epidemic occurrence of enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Valentina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of virulence factors (heat-labile, heat-stable enterotoxin, verotoxin, invasiveness, localized, aggregative and diffuse adherence among E. coli strains isolated from sporadic cases and outbreaks of enterocolitis, which belonged to serogroups characteristic for enteropathogenic E. coli. Serogroup was determined in 57.2% of 622 strains isolated from sporadic cases, and among them virulence factors were detected in 23.6%. Serogroup was also determined in 73.3% of 90 outbreaks isolates tested and virulence factors were detected in 97% of them. The detection rate of virulence factors rarely exceeded 50% among strains belonging to any of serogroup that was determined. The obtained data suggested that the identification of E. coli as a causative agent of enterocolitis by serogroup determination was a reliable method in outbreaks, but not in sporadic cases of this disease.

  6. Detection, Isolation and Characterization of an Agent from Febrile Patients in Malaysia Serologically Reactive with Rickettsia sennetsu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Rickettsia sennetsu and Ehrlichia canis Against Rickettsia #11908 Using the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA) test 13 CONCLUSIONS AND...to Ehrlichia canis of a protein fraction isolated from the R. sennetsu agent. -3- FOREWORD Citations of commercial organizations and trade names in...and Ehrlichia canis with Human Sera from Southeast Asia. Country Number Number Percentage Group of Origin of Cases of Positive Positive 1 Malaysia 200

  7. Severe non-traumatic bleeding events detected by computed tomography: do anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents have a role?

    OpenAIRE

    Risch, Olivier; Alfidja, Agaicha; Mulliez, Aurelien; Amani, Anderson H.; Boyer, Louis; Camilleri, Lionel; Azarnoush, Kasra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Bleeding is the most common and most serious complication of anticoagulant (AC) and antiplatelet agents (APA) which are increasingly used in every day practice. The aim of this study was to enlist and analyze the most severe bleeding events revealed during computed tomography scanner (CT scan) examinations over a 1-year period at our University Hospital and to evaluate the role of ACs and APAs in their occurrence. Methods: This descriptive monocentric retrospective study included all...

  8. Multiplex PCR testing detection of higher-than-expected rates of cervical mycoplasma, ureaplasma, and trichomonas and viral agent infections in sexually active australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Christopher J; Rismanto, Nikolas; Smith, Catherine; Naing, Zin Wai; Rayner, Ben; Lusk, M Josephine; Konecny, Pamela; White, Peter A; Rawlinson, William D

    2009-05-01

    Knowing the prevalence of potential etiologic agents of nongonococcal and nonchlamydial cervicitis is important for improving the efficacy of empirical treatments for this commonly encountered condition. We describe four multiplex PCRs (mPCRs), designated VDL05, VDL06, VDL07, and VDL09, which facilitate the detection of a wide range of agents either known to be or putatively associated with cervicitis, including cytomegalovirus (CMV), enterovirus (EV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (VDL05); Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Mycoplasma hominis (VDL06); Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, and group B streptococci (VDL07); and adenovirus species A to E (VDL09). The mPCRs were used to test 233 cervical swabs from 175 women attending a sexual-health clinic in Sydney, Australia, during 2006 and 2007. The agents detected alone or in combination in all cervical swabs (percentage of total swabs) included CMV (6.0), EV (2.1), EBV (2.6), VZV (4.7), HSV-1 (2.6), HSV-2 (0.8), HSV-2 and VZV (0.4), U. parvum (57.0), U. urealyticum (6.1), M. genitalium (1.3), M. hominis (13.7), C. trachomatis (0.4), T. vaginalis (3.4), and group B streptococci (0.4). Adenovirus species A to E and T. pallidum were not detected. These assays are adaptable for routine diagnostic laboratories and provide an opportunity to measure the true prevalence of microorganisms potentially associated with cervicitis and other genital infections.

  9. Determination of AJ-3941, a possible agent for the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders, in plasma and brain by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurono, M; Yoshida, K; Naruto, S

    1992-07-01

    A sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection is described for the determination of AJ-3941 (I), a possible agent for the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders, in plasma and brain tissue. A simple hexane extraction was used for plasma, and for brain homogenate the hexane extract was further purified by solid-phase extraction. The determination limit was ca. 3 ng/ml for both plasma (0.5 ml) and 10% (w/v) brain homogenate (1 ml). The method was applied to the determination of I in plasma and brain samples of experimental animals.

  10. Automated thermochemolysis reactor for detection of Bacillus anthracis endospores by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dan [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Rands, Anthony D.; Losee, Scott C. [Torion Technologies, American Fork, UT 84003 (United States); Holt, Brian C. [Department of Statistics, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Williams, John R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Lammert, Stephen A. [Torion Technologies, American Fork, UT 84003 (United States); Robison, Richard A. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Tolley, H. Dennis [Department of Statistics, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Lee, Milton L., E-mail: milton_lee@byu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2013-05-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An automated sample preparation system for Bacillus anthracis endospores was developed. •A thermochemolysis method was applied to produce and derivatize biomarkers for Bacillus anthracis detection. •The autoreactor controlled the precise delivery of reagents, and TCM reaction times and temperatures. •Solid phase microextraction was used to extract biomarkers, and GC–MS was used for final identification. •This autoreactor was successfully applied to the identification of Bacillus anthracis endospores. -- Abstract: An automated sample preparation system was developed and tested for the rapid detection of Bacillus anthracis endospores by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for eventual use in the field. This reactor is capable of automatically processing suspected bio-threat agents to release and derivatize unique chemical biomarkers by thermochemolysis (TCM). The system automatically controls the movement of sample vials from one position to another, crimping of septum caps onto the vials, precise delivery of reagents, and TCM reaction times and temperatures. The specific operations of introduction of sample vials, solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling, injection into the GC–MS system, and ejection of used vials from the system were performed manually in this study, although they can be integrated into the automated system. Manual SPME sampling is performed by following visual and audible signal prompts for inserting the fiber into and retracting it from the sampling port. A rotating carousel design allows for simultaneous sample collection, reaction, biomarker extraction and analysis of sequential samples. Dipicolinic acid methyl ester (DPAME), 3-methyl-2-butenoic acid methyl ester (a fragment of anthrose) and two methylated sugars were used to compare the performance of the autoreactor with manual TCM. Statistical algorithms were used to construct reliable bacterial endospore signatures, and 24

  11. Biodegradable human serum albumin nanoparticles as contrast agents for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharin, Waralee; Schmithals, Christian; Pleli, Thomas; Köberle, Verena; Korkusuz, Hüdayi; Huebner, Frank; Zeuzem, Stefan; Korf, Hans W; Vogl, Thomas J; Rittmeyer, Claudia; Terfort, Andreas; Piiper, Albrecht; Gelperina, Svetlana; Kreuter, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Tumor visualization by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nanoparticle-based contrast agents may improve the imaging of solid tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles appear to be a suitable carrier due to their safety and feasibility of functionalization. In the present study HSA nanoparticles were conjugated with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) using carbodiimide chemistry. The nanoparticles had a uniform spherical shape and a diameter of 235±19nm. For better optical visualization in vitro and in vivo, the HSA-Gd nanoparticles were additionally labeled with rhodamine 123. As shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, the fluorescent nanoparticles were readily taken up by Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. After 24h incubation in blood serum, less than 5% of the Gd(III) was released from the particles, which suggests that this nanoparticulate system may be stable in vivo and, therefore, may serve as potentially safe T1 MRI contrast agent for MRI of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. Capped Fluorescent Carbon Dots for Detection of Hemin: Role of Number of –OH Groups of Capping Agent in Fluorescence Quenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upama Baruah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully demonstrated the use of capped carbon dot systems, namely, CDs/β-cd, CDs/LMH, and CDs/Suc, as fluorescent sensors for the detection of hemin. The capped carbon dot systems showed quenching of PL intensity in the presence of hemin. The minimum detection limit was determined to be ~1 μM. The PL response with free Fe(II and Fe(III was also studied. It was observed that PL quenching of capped carbon dot systems in the presence of hemin is dependent on the number of –OH groups in the capping agent. The order of quenching towards hemin was determined to be CDs/β-cd > CDs/LMH = CDs/Suc > CDs. A possible mechanism to account for the observation is also discussed in the paper.

  13. Quality control of saffron (Crocus sativus L.): development of SCAR markers for the detection of plant adulterants used as bulking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Bruni, Renato

    2012-11-07

    A method based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCARs) was developed from random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs) specific for Arnica montana L., Bixa orellana L., Calendula officinalis L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Crocus vernus L. (Hill), Curcuma longa L., and Hemerocallis sp. to detect these common bulking agents in commercial saffron (Crocus sativus). The method enabled the unequivocal detection of low amounts (up to 1%) of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. Its enforcement limits the number of samples to be subjected to further evaluation with pharmacognostic or phytochemical analyses, especially when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from dried, stored, processed, and finely ground commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable, and low-cost screening method for the authentication of dried commercial saffron material.

  14. Capped Fluorescent Carbon Dots for Detection of Hemin: Role of Number of –OH Groups of Capping Agent in Fluorescence Quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Upama; Gogoi, Neelam; Chowdhury, Devasish

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated the use of capped carbon dot systems, namely, CDs/β-cd, CDs/LMH, and CDs/Suc, as fluorescent sensors for the detection of hemin. The capped carbon dot systems showed quenching of PL intensity in the presence of hemin. The minimum detection limit was determined to be ~1 μM. The PL response with free Fe(II) and Fe(III) was also studied. It was observed that PL quenching of capped carbon dot systems in the presence of hemin is dependent on the number of –OH groups in the capping agent. The order of quenching towards hemin was determined to be CDs/β-cd > CDs/LMH = CDs/Suc > CDs. A possible mechanism to account for the observation is also discussed in the paper. PMID:24453870

  15. Propionibacterium acnes: Disease-Causing Agent or Common Contaminant? Detection in Diverse Patient Samples by Next-Generation Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Vinner, Lasse; Hansen, Thomas Arn; Richter, Stine Raith; Fridholm, Helena; Herrera, Jose Alejandro Romero; Lund, Ole; Brunak, Søren; Izarzugaza, Jose M. G.; Mourier, Tobias; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is the most abundant bacterium on human skin, particularly in sebaceous areas. P. acnes is suggested to be an opportunistic pathogen involved in the development of diverse medical conditions but is also a proven contaminant of human clinical samples and surgical wounds. Its significance as a pathogen is consequently a matter of debate. In the present study, we investigated the presence of P. acnes DNA in 250 next-generation sequencing data sets generated from 180 samples of 20 different sample types, mostly of cancerous origin. The samples were subjected to either microbial enrichment, involving nuclease treatment to reduce the amount of host nucleic acids, or shotgun sequencing. We detected high proportions of P. acnes DNA in enriched samples, particularly skin tissue-derived and other tissue samples, with the levels being higher in enriched samples than in shotgun-sequenced samples. P. acnes reads were detected in most samples analyzed, though the proportions in most shotgun-sequenced samples were low. Our results show that P. acnes can be detected in practically all sample types when molecular methods, such as next-generation sequencing, are employed. The possibility of contamination from the patient or other sources, including laboratory reagents or environment, should therefore always be considered carefully when P. acnes is detected in clinical samples. We advocate that detection of P. acnes always be accompanied by experiments validating the association between this bacterium and any clinical condition. PMID:26818667

  16. An E.coil SOS-EGFP biosensor for fast and sensitive detection of DNA damaging agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhilan Chen; Meiling Lu; Dandan Zou; Hailin Wang

    2012-01-01

    An E.coli SOS-EGFP biosensor which expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein as a reporter protein under the control of recA gene promoter in SOS response was constructed for detection of DNA damage and evaluation of DNA damaging chemicals.The chemicals that may cause substantial DNA damage will trigger SOS response in the constructed bacterial biosensor,and then the reporter egfp gene under the control of recA promoter is stimulated to express as a fluorescent protein,allowing fast and sensitive fluorescence detection.Interestingly,this biosensor can be simultaneously applied for evaluation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.The SOS-EGFP bacterial biosensor provides a sensitive,specific and simple method for detecting known and potential DNA damaging chemicals.

  17. Determination of sequestering agents in cosmetics and synthetic detergents by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmei, Tomoko; Kodama, Shuji; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2007-11-09

    Using a fast reversible reaction of aminopolycarboxylic acids (APCAs) into Fe(III)-APCA complexes in the presence of Fe(III) ions, seven kinds of APCAs [nitrilotriacetate (NTA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-triacetate (HEDTA), ethylenediamine-tetraacetate (EDTA), 1,3-propanediamine-tetraacetate (PDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA), 1,2-diaminopropane-tetraacetate (MeEDTA), and O,O'-bis(2-aminoethyl)ethyleneglycol-tetraacetate (GEDTA)] in cosmetics and synthetic detergents were separated on two reversed-phase C30 columns connected in series and detected with ultraviolet detection. Simple pretreatment, consisted of thousand times dilution of samples and addition of 100 microl of the Fe(III) solution containing 10 mM Fe(III) chloride and 0.5 M sulfuric acid to 10 ml of diluted samples, permitted the determination of APCAs in cosmetics and synthetic detergents at concentration level of 0.1 mM, except 0.3 mM for GEDTA. APCAs except GEDTA could be detected at concentration level of 0.03 mM and GEDTA could be detected at concentration level of 0.09 mM. Good recoveries (95-110%) were obtained for each APCA by the standard addition method on two diluted samples with high accuracy (RSD 0.2-9.1%). Three APCAs (EDTA, HEDTA and NTA) were detected in various concentrations in cosmetics and synthetic detergents and the other APCAs were not detected in any of the samples. This method requires no tedious pretreatment and takes only 15 min for one analysis, so it is useful for determination of APCAs.

  18. In vivo detection of copper ions by magnetic resonance imaging using a prion-based contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Satoshi; Umemoto, Tomohiro; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yezdimer, Eric M; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-10-01

    Abnormal distributions of transition metals inside the body are potential diagnostic markers for several diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, and cancer. In this article, we demonstrate that P57/Gd, a novel prion-based contrast agent, can selectively image tissues with excessive copper accumulation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). P57/Gd selectivity binds copper(II) over other physiologically relevant cations such as zinc, iron, manganese, and calcium. To simulate a metabolic copper disorder, we treated mice with an intraperitoneal injection of a CuSO(4) solution to induce a renal copper overload. The MRI signal intensities from the renal cortex and medulla of copper spiked animals that were administered P57/Gd were found to correlate with the ex vivo copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

  19. Real-time PCR TaqMan assay for detecting Trichophyton tonsurans, a causative agent of tinea capitis, from hairbrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, T; Shiraki, Y; Hiruma, M

    2006-09-01

    Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans is currently an epidemic in the United States, Europe, and Japan, and the cultivation of this microorganism is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. We recently developed a real-time PCR TaqMan assay as a culture-independent method for the rapid detection of T. tonsurans from hairbrushes.

  20. Development of PCR-based detection methods for the quarantine phytopathogen Synchytrium endobioticum, causal agent of wart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.; Gent-Pelzer, van M.P.E.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Boer, de S.H.; Wander, J.G.N.; Lévesque, C.A.; Leeuwen, van G.C.M.; Baayen, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract PCR-based methods were developed for the detection and quantification of the potato pathogen Synchytrium endobioticum in soil extracts and in planta. PCR primers, based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the multi-copy gene rDNA were tested for specificity, sensitivity and reprodu

  1. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  2. Propionibacterium acnes: disease-causing agent or common contaminant? Detection in diverse patient samples by next generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Vinner, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is the most abundant bacterium on human skin, particularly in sebaceous areas. P. acnes is suggested to be an opportunistic pathogen involved in the development of diverse medical conditions, but is also a proven contaminant of human samples and surgical wounds. Its...... significance as a pathogen is consequently a matter of debate.In the present study we investigated the presence of P. acnes DNA in 250 next generation sequencing datasets generated from 180 samples of 20 different sample types, mostly of cancerous origin. The samples were either subjected to microbial...... reads were detected in most samples analysed, though the proportions in most shotgun-sequenced samples were low.Our results show that P. acnes can be detected in practically all sample types when employing molecular methods such as next generation sequencing. The possibility of contamination from...

  3. Sensitive simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in semen by multiplex-PCR and of HPV by single PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Gimenes

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV -1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%, sensitivity (100.00%, specificity (99.70%, positive (96.40% and negative predictive values (100.00% and accuracy (99.80%. The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%. Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks.

  4. Sensitive simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in semen by multiplex-PCR and of HPV by single PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Medina, Fabiana Soares; Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta de; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiçati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natália; Vasconcellos, Vinícius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) -1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks.

  5. Effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents mediated by trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carlos A; Leif, Roald N; Alcaraz, Armando

    2016-08-24

    The effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) employing trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (TMO·BF4) for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is presented. The methylation occurs in rapid fashion (1 h) and can be conveniently carried out at ambient temperature, thus providing a safer alternative to the universally employed diazomethane-based methylation protocols. Optimization of the methylation parameters led us to conclude that methylene chloride was the ideal solvent to carry out the derivatization, and that even though methylated products can be observed surfacing after only 1 h, additional time was not found to be detrimental but beneficial to the process particularly when dealing with analytes at low concentrations (∼10 μg mL(-1)). Due to its insolubility in methylene chloride, TMO·BF4 conveniently settles to the bottom during the reaction and does not produce additional interfering by-products that may further complicate the GC-MS analysis. The method was demonstrated to successfully methylate a variety of Schedule 2 phosphonic acids, including their half esters, resulting in derivatives that were readily detected and identified using the instrument's spectral library. Most importantly, the method was shown to simultaneously methylate a mixture of the organophosphorus-based nerve agent hydrolysis products: pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMPA), cyclohexyl methylphosphonate (CyMPA) and ethyl methylphosphonate (EMPA) (at a 10 μg mL(-1) concentration each) in a fatty acid ester-rich organic matrix (OPCW-PT-O3) featured in the 38th Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Proficiency Test. In addition, the protocol was found to effectively methylate N,N-diethylamino ethanesulfonic acid and N,N-diisopropylamino ethanesulfonic acid that are products arising from the oxidative degradation of the V-series agents VR and VX respectively. The

  6. Susceptibility profiles of Nocardia spp. to antimicrobial and antituberculotic agents detected by a microplate Alamar Blue assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Zhang, Xiujuan; Du, Pengcheng; Li, Guilian; Li, Luxi; Li, Zhenjun

    2017-01-01

    Nocardia species are ubiquitous in natural environments and can cause nocardiosis. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has long been the monotherapy treatment of choice, but resistance to this treatment has recently emerged. In this study, we used microplate Alamar Blue assays to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 65 standard Nocardia isolates, including 28 type strains and 20 clinical Nocardia isolates, to 32 antimicrobial agents, including 13 little studied drugs. Susceptibility to the most commonly used drug, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was observed in 98% of the isolates. Linezolid, meropenem, and amikacin were also highly effective, with 98%, 95%, and 90% susceptibility, respectively, among the isolates. The isolates showed a high percentage of resistance or nonsusceptibility to isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. For the remaining antimicrobials, resistance was species-specific among isolates and was observed in traditional drug pattern types. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a variety of rarely encountered standard Nocardia species are reported, as are the results for rarely reported clinical antibiotics. We also provide a timely update of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns that includes three new drug pattern types. The data from this study provide information on antimicrobial activity against specific Nocardia species and yield important clues for the optimization of species-specific Nocardia therapies. PMID:28252662

  7. Voltammetric detection of the {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound: Methylglyoxal as a flavoring agent in wine and beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Chen Aicheng, E-mail: achen@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergistic electrocatalytic effect of Pt nanoparticles and single-wall carbon nanotubes on the reduction of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel electrochemical Pt/SWNT/GCE sensor designed for the determination of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent analytical performance with low detection limit and high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed methylglyoxal sensor shows promising process control, clinical and, biomedical applications. - Abstract: A simple, rapid and highly selective method for the determination of the most abundant {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound in wine and beer has been developed for the first time by employing square wave voltammetry. A novel electrochemical sensor, based on the electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto single wall carbon nanotubes that were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) substrate, is presented in this paper. This modified electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electroreduction of methylglyoxal, showing much higher peak currents than those measured on an unmodified GCE. The effects of different experimental and instrumental parameters, such as solution pH and square wave frequency, were examined. The reduction peak current showed a linear range of from 0.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 100 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M with a 0.9979 correlation coefficient; and a low detection limit of 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} M was also obtained. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal in wine and beer samples. The developed sensor possesses advantageous properties such as a high active surface area, stability, and rapid electron transfer rate, which cumulatively demonstrate high performance toward the electrocatalytic reduction and detection of methylglyoxal.

  8. Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category "A" DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. Henrickson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Assays to simultaneously detect multiple potential agents of bioterrorism are limited. Two multiplex PCR and RT-PCR enzyme hybridization assays (mPCR-EHA, mRT-PCR-EHA were developed to simultaneously detect many of the CDC category “A” bioterrorism agents. The “Bio T” DNA assay was developed to detect: Variola major (VM, Bacillus anthracis (BA, Yersinia pestis (YP, Francisella tularensis (FT and Varicella zoster virus (VZV. The “Bio T” RNA assay (mRT-PCR-EHA was developed to detect: Ebola virus (Ebola, Lassa fever virus (Lassa, Rift Valley fever (RVF, Hantavirus Sin Nombre species (HSN and dengue virus (serotypes 1-4. Sensitivity and specificity of the 2 assays were tested by using genomic DNA, recombinant plasmid positive controls, RNA transcripts controls, surrogate (spiked clinical samples and common respiratory pathogens. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD of the DNA asssay for genomic DNA was 1×100~1×102 copies/mL for BA, FT and YP. The LOD for VZV whole organism was 1×10-2 TCID50/mL. The LOD for recombinant controls ranged from 1×102~1×103copies/mL for BA, FT, YP and VM. The RNA assay demonstrated LOD for RNA transcript controls of 1×104~1×106 copies/mL without extraction and 1×105~1×106 copies/mL with extraction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. The LOD for dengue whole organisms was ~1×10-4 dilution for dengue 1 and 2, 1×104 LD50/mL and 1×102 LD50/mL for dengue 3 and 4. The LOD without extraction for recombinant plasmid DNA controls was ~1×103 copies/mL (1.5 input copies/reaction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. No cross-reactivity of primers and probes used in both assays was detected with common respiratory pathogens or between targeted analytes. Clinical sensitivity was estimated using 264 surrogate clinical samples tested with the BioT DNA assay and 549 samples tested with the BioT RNA assay. The clinical specificity is 99.6% and 99.8% for BioT DNA assay and BioT RNA assay, respectively. The

  9. Voltammetric detection of the α-dicarbonyl compound: methylglyoxal as a flavoring agent in wine and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sanghamitra; Chen, Aicheng

    2012-11-02

    A simple, rapid and highly selective method for the determination of the most abundant α-dicarbonyl compound in wine and beer has been developed for the first time by employing square wave voltammetry. A novel electrochemical sensor, based on the electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto single wall carbon nanotubes that were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) substrate, is presented in this paper. This modified electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electroreduction of methylglyoxal, showing much higher peak currents than those measured on an unmodified GCE. The effects of different experimental and instrumental parameters, such as solution pH and square wave frequency, were examined. The reduction peak current showed a linear range of from 0.1×10(-6) to 100×10(-6)M with a 0.9979 correlation coefficient; and a low detection limit of 2.8×10(-9)M was also obtained. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal in wine and beer samples. The developed sensor possesses advantageous properties such as a high active surface area, stability, and rapid electron transfer rate, which cumulatively demonstrate high performance toward the electrocatalytic reduction and detection of methylglyoxal.

  10. Transcriptional changes in the brains of cattle orally infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent precede detection of infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yue; Xiang, Wei; Hawkins, Steve A C; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Windl, Otto

    2009-09-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative disease of cattle. BSE can be transmitted experimentally between cattle through the oral route, and in this study, brain tissue samples from animals at different time points postinoculation were analyzed for changes in gene expression. The aims of this study were to identify differentially regulated genes during the progression of BSE using microarray-based gene expression profiling and to understand the effect of prion pathogenesis on gene expression. A total of 114 genes were found to be differentially regulated over the time course of the infection, and many of these 114 genes encode proteins involved in immune response, apoptosis, cell adhesion, stress response, and transcription. This study also revealed a broad correlation between gene expression profiles and the progression of BSE in cattle. At 21 months postinoculation, the largest number of differentially regulated genes was detected, suggesting that there are many pathogenic processes in the animal brain even prior to the detection of infectivity in the central nervous systems of these orally infected cattle. Moreover, evidence is presented to suggest that it is possible to predict the infectious status of animals using the expression profiles from this study.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Au-ZrO2-SiO2 Nanocomposite Spheres and Their Application in Enrichment and Detection of Organophosphorus Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuqi; Tu, Haiyang; Zhang, Aidong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-03-01

    Au-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite spheres were synthesized and used as selective sorbents for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of orananophosphorous agents. A non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor based on an Au-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} modified electrode was developed for selective detection of orananophosphorous pesticides (OPs). The Au-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite spheres were synthesized by hydrolysis and condensation of zirconia n-butoxide (TBOZ) on the surface of SiO{sub 2} spheres and then introduction of gold nanoparticles on the surface. Transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to characterize the formation of the nanocomposite sphere. Fast extraction of OP was achieved by Au-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} modified electrode within 5 min via the specific affinity between zirconia and phosphoric group. The assay yields a broad concentration range of paraoxon-ethyl from 1.0 to 500 ng/mL{sup -1} with a detection limit 0.5 ng/mL{sup -1}. This selective and sensitive method holds great promise for the enrichment and detection of OPs.

  12. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Leishmania DNA in skin biopsy samples in Sri Lanka where the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis is Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Renu; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sirimanna, Ganga; Opathella, Nandimithra; Maingon, Rhaiza D C; Chandrasekharan, Vishvanath

    2015-12-01

    Leishmania donovani is the known causative agent of both cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. CL is considered to be under-reported partly due to relatively poor sensitivity and specificity of microscopic diagnosis. We compared robustness of three previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods to detect Leishmania DNA in 38 punch biopsy samples from patients presented with suspected lesions in 2010. Both, Leishmania genus-specific JW11/JW12 KDNA and LITSR/L5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 PCR assays detected 92% (35/38) of the samples whereas a KDNA assay specific forL. donovani (LdF/LdR) detected only 71% (27/38) of samples. All positive samples showed a L. donovani banding pattern upon HaeIII ITS1 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. PCR assay specificity was evaluated in samples containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and human DNA, and there was no cross-amplification in JW11/JW12 and LITSR/L5.8S PCR assays. The LdF/LdR PCR assay did not amplify M. leprae or human DNA although 500 bp and 700 bp bands were observed in M. tuberculosis samples. In conclusion, it was successfully shown in this study that it is possible to diagnose Sri Lankan CL with high accuracy, to genus and species identification, using Leishmania DNA PCR assays.

  13. One-step electrochemical deposition of a graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and application for detection of organophosphorus agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Cui, Xiao-Li; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-04-27

    This paper described the preparation, characterization, and electrochemical properties of a graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposite (GZN) and its application for both the enrichment and detection of methyl parathion (MP). GZN was fabricated using electrochemical deposition and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which showed the successful formation of nanocomposites. Due to the strong affinity to the phosphoric group and the fast electron-transfer kinetics of GZN, both the extraction and electrochemical detection of organophosphorus (OP) agents at the same GZN modified electrochemical sensor was possible. The combination of solid-phase extraction and stripping voltammetric analysis allowed fast, sensitive, and selective determination of MP in garlic samples. The stripping response was highly linear over the MP concentrations ranging from 0.5 ng mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1, with a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL-1. This new nanocomposite-based electrochemical sensor provides an opportunity to develop a field-deployable, sensitive, and quantitative method for monitoring exposure to OPs.

  14. A sensitive gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for detection of alkylating agents in water: application to acrylamide in drinking water, coffee and snuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Hermes Licea; Osterman-Golkar, Siv

    2003-08-01

    A sensitive analytical method for the analysis of acrylamide and other electrophilic agents in water has been developed. The amino acid L-valine served as a nucleophilic trapping agent. The method was applied to the analysis of acrylamide in 0.2-1 mL samples of drinking water or Millipore-filtered water, brewed coffee, or water extracts of snuff. The reaction product, N-(2-carbamoylethyl)valine, was incubated with pentafluorophenyl isothiocyanate to give a pentafluorophenylthiohydantoin (PFPTH) derivative. This derivative was extracted with diethyl ether, separated from excess reagent and impurities by a simple extraction procedure, and analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (2H3)Acrylamide, added before the reaction with L-valine, was used as internal standard. Acrylamide and the related compound, N-methylolacrylamide, gave the same PFPTH derivative. The concentrations of acrylamides were acrylamide L(-1)) in water, 200 to 350 nmol L(-1) in brewed coffee, and 10 to 34 nmol g(-1) snuff in portion bags, respectively. The precision (the coefficient of variation was 5%) and accuracy of the method were good. The detection limit was considerably lower than that of previously published methods for the analysis of acrylamide.

  15. Survival of Viral Biowarfare Agents in Disinfected Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Margaret Wade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protecting civilian and military water supplies has received more attention since the United States began its war on terror in 2001. Both chlorine and bromine are used by branches of the U.S. military for disinfecting water supplies; however, limited data exists as to the effectiveness of these additives when used against viral biowarfare agents. The present study sought to evaluate the survival of selected viral biothreat agents in disinfected water. Disinfected water samples were spiked with vaccinia virus strain WR and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE virus strain TC-83 each separately to a final concentration of approximately 1×106 PFU/mL, and survival was assessed by plaque assay. Both viruses were inactivated by 1 mg/L free available chlorine (FAC and 2mg/L total bromine within one hour. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that both chlorine and bromine are effective disinfectants against vaccinia virus and VEE strain TC-83 at the concentrations tested.

  16. Tumor Detection at 3 Tesla with an Activatable Cell Penetrating Peptide Dendrimer (ACPPD-Gd, a T1 Magnetic Resonance (MR Molecular Imaging Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Malone

    Full Text Available The ability to detect small malignant lesions with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is limited by inadequate accumulations of Gd with standard chelate agents. To date, no T1-targeted agents have proven superiority to Gd chelates in their ability to detect small tumors at clinically relevant field strengths. Activatable cell-penetrating peptides and their Gd-loaded dendrimeric form (ACPPD-Gd have been shown to selectively accumulate in tumors. In this study we compared the performance of ACPPD-Gd vs. untargeted Gd chelates to detect small tumors in rodent models using a clinical 3T-MR system.This study was approved by the Institutional-Animal Care-and-Use Committee. 2 of 4 inguinal breast fat pads of 16 albino-C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with tumor Py8119 cells and the other 2 with saline at random. MRI at 3T was performed at 4, 9, and 14 days after inoculation on 8 mice 24-hours after injection of 0.036mmol Gd/kg (ACPPD-Gd, and before and 2-3 minutes after 0.1 mmol/kg gadobutrol on the other 8 mice. T1-weighted (T1w tumor signal normalized to muscle, was compared among the non-contrast, gadobutrol, and ACPPD-Gd groups using ANOVA. Experienced and trainee readers blinded to experimental conditions assessed for the presence of tumor in each of the 4 breast regions. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves and area-under-curve (AUC values were constructed and analyzed.Tumors ≥1mm3 were iso-intense to muscle without contrast on T1w sequences. They enhanced diffusely and homogeneously by 57±20% (p5mm3 were removed from the ROC analysis for both the experienced observer (0.96 vs. 0.86 and more so for the trainee (0.86 vs. 0.69, p = 0.04.ACPPD-Gd enhances MMP-expressing tumors of any size at 3T 24 hours after administration, improving their detection by blinded observers when compared to non-contrast and contrast groups given commercial Gd-chelates and imaged during the equilibrium phase.

  17. Agent based Detecting Abnormal and Dynamic Coupled Behavior in Customer Relationship System use of Combined-Interestingness based Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N.V.R SWARUP KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Customer Relationship Management (CRM for short System emerged in the last decade to reveal the central role of the customer for the strategic positioning of a company. One of the most significant changes in the practice of marketing during the last decade is the shift in emphasis from a transaction orientation customer to the CRM. Now a day’s it is an important edge but now a necessary utensil for endurance. CRM competence is very important source for enterprises to build and sustain competitive advantage. With the extensive applications in CRM enterprises have plenty of customer data. Main vision of CRM is customer understanding, which is accurately done will helps to value customers and thus increases customer life time value. Effectively build CRM will maintain good relationships with customers. Companies have invested or are planning to empower huge amounts to implement CRM strategies, tools and infrastructures in-order to magnetize and retain profitable customers in today’s increasingly competitive markets. This paper introduces the detecting abnormal and dynamic coupled behavior in the CRM system and general architecture of CRM based on Domain Driven Data Mining (D3M for short and with advanced technologies for knowing winning strategies. It also discusses the important steps of designing the data warehouse and describes the meaning of D3M applied to the CRM and finally evolving of D3M to individual service are presented.

  18. Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in Saudi Arabia:molecular detection from camel and other domestic livestock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osama B Mohammed; Abdulrahman A Jarelnabi; Riyadh S Aljumaah; Mohammed A Alshaikh; Amel O Bakhiet; Sawsan A Omer; Abdulaziz N Alagaili; Mansour F Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To detectCoxiella burnetii(C. burnetii)DNA in clinical specimens from camel, goats, cattle and sheep in theKingdom ofSaudiArabia.Methods:A total of367 clinical samples including blood, milk, faeces and urine were collected from different livestock and subjected to PCR amplification using primers which amplify transposon-like region and transposase gene. Results:Positive amplification from both regions was obtained from camel,goats and cattle but not from sheep.A percentage of10.8% samples yielded positivePCR amplification from both blood and milk, where15 of139 blood and16 of148 milk samples were positive.Faeces and urine showed higher percentages of positive samples reaching40.8% and23.8% respectively. Conclusions:The preferred route of shedding in camel appeared to be the faeces followed by urine, while that of goats appeared to be the faeces and that of the cattle appeared to be the milk.

  19. Detection of Natural Resistance-Associated Substitutions by Ion Semiconductor Technology in HCV1b Positive, Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents-Naïve Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Marascio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring resistance-associated substitutions (RASs can negatively impact the response to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs agents-based therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Herein, we set out to characterize the RASs in the HCV1b genome from serum samples of DAA-naïve patients in the context of the SINERGIE (South Italian Network for Rational Guidelines and International Epidemiology, 2014 project. We deep-sequenced the NS3/4A protease region of the viral population using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, and patient-specific majority rule consensus sequence summaries were constructed with a combination of freely available next generation sequencing data analysis software. We detected NS3/4A protease major and minor variants associated with resistance to boceprevir (V36L, telaprevir (V36L, I132V, simeprevir (V36L, and grazoprevir (V36L, V170I. Furthermore, we sequenced part of HCV NS5B polymerase using Sanger-sequencing and detected a natural RAS for dasabuvir (C316N. This mutation could be important for treatment strategies in cases of previous therapy failure.

  20. Detection of Natural Resistance-Associated Substitutions by Ion Semiconductor Technology in HCV1b Positive, Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents-Naïve Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marascio, Nadia; Pavia, Grazia; Strazzulla, Alessio; Dierckx, Tim; Cuypers, Lize; Vrancken, Bram; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Mirante, Teresa; Malanga, Donatella; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Torti, Carlo; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo; The Sinergie-Umg Study Group

    2016-08-27

    Naturally occurring resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) can negatively impact the response to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) agents-based therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Herein, we set out to characterize the RASs in the HCV1b genome from serum samples of DAA-naïve patients in the context of the SINERGIE (South Italian Network for Rational Guidelines and International Epidemiology, 2014) project. We deep-sequenced the NS3/4A protease region of the viral population using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, and patient-specific majority rule consensus sequence summaries were constructed with a combination of freely available next generation sequencing data analysis software. We detected NS3/4A protease major and minor variants associated with resistance to boceprevir (V36L), telaprevir (V36L, I132V), simeprevir (V36L), and grazoprevir (V36L, V170I). Furthermore, we sequenced part of HCV NS5B polymerase using Sanger-sequencing and detected a natural RAS for dasabuvir (C316N). This mutation could be important for treatment strategies in cases of previous therapy failure.

  1. Simultaneous determination of 11 fluorescent whitening agents in food-contact paper and board by ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dingguo; Chen, Lisong; Fu, Wusheng; Qiu, Hanquan

    2015-02-01

    4,4'-Diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid based fluorescent whitening agents (DSD-FWAs) are prohibited in food-contact paper and board in many countries. In this work, a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 common DSD-FWAs in paper material. Sample preparation and extraction as well as chromatographic separation of multicomponent DSD-FWAs were successfully optimized. DSD-FWAs in prepared samples were ultrasonically extracted with acetonitrile/water/triethylamine (40:60:1, v/v/v), separated on the C(18) column with the mobile phase containing tetrabutylammonium bromide, and then detected by a fluorescence detector. The limits of detection were 0.12-0.24 mg/kg, and the calibration curves showed the linear correlation (R(2) ≥ 0.9994) within the range of 8.0-100 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the range of 0.80-10 mg/kg in the sample. The average recoveries and the RSDs were 81-106% and 2-9% at two fortification levels (1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) in paper bowls, respectively. The successful determination of 11 DSD-FWAs in food-contact paper and board obtained from local markets indicated that the newly developed method was rapid, accurate, and highly selective.

  2. Detection of Natural Resistance-Associated Substitutions by Ion Semiconductor Technology in HCV1b Positive, Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents-Naïve Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marascio, Nadia; Pavia, Grazia; Strazzulla, Alessio; Dierckx, Tim; Cuypers, Lize; Vrancken, Bram; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Mirante, Teresa; Malanga, Donatella; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Torti, Carlo; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) can negatively impact the response to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) agents-based therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Herein, we set out to characterize the RASs in the HCV1b genome from serum samples of DAA-naïve patients in the context of the SINERGIE (South Italian Network for Rational Guidelines and International Epidemiology, 2014) project. We deep-sequenced the NS3/4A protease region of the viral population using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, and patient-specific majority rule consensus sequence summaries were constructed with a combination of freely available next generation sequencing data analysis software. We detected NS3/4A protease major and minor variants associated with resistance to boceprevir (V36L), telaprevir (V36L, I132V), simeprevir (V36L), and grazoprevir (V36L, V170I). Furthermore, we sequenced part of HCV NS5B polymerase using Sanger-sequencing and detected a natural RAS for dasabuvir (C316N). This mutation could be important for treatment strategies in cases of previous therapy failure. PMID:27618896

  3. 看守所狱侦耳目的终结%The Termination of Prisoners Acting as Secret Agents for Criminal Detection in Detention Houses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何永军

    2015-01-01

    在侦押一体的体制下,长期以来,我们事实上赋予了看守所侦查的职能。看守所除了监管犯罪嫌疑人外,还要协助公安机关办案人员侦查破案,开展深挖余罪活动,这致使看守所狱侦耳目日渐制度化,助长了刑讯逼供、牢头狱霸和超期羁押等问题的滋生,导致了一系列冤假错案的发生,使看守所部分失去了保障犯罪嫌疑人和被告人人权的职责意识。因此,我们应当趁着制定《看守所法》这一历史性契机,明确宣布废除看守所狱侦耳目制度,并为彻底将其埋葬创设配置制度。%Under the integrated system of detection and detention,the detention houses in China,for a long time,have been effectively granted the functions of criminal investigation and detection.Besides detaining the sus-pects,detention houses assist the public security departments to make criminal detections and help them to further the criminal investigations.This has resulted in the institutionalization of“prisoners acting as secret agents for criminal de-tection”in detention houses,which has caused such problems as extorting a confession by torture,prison bully and tyr-anny by heads of prison gangs,extended detention,and a series of wrongly -,falsely -andunjustly -repudiated cases. Consequently,the detention houses have partly neglected their duties to protect the human rights of the suspects and defendants.Thereby,it is the right time for us to abolish the system of prison acting as secret agents so as to create a good institutional environment for its termination when The Act of Detention Houses is being drawn up.

  4. REVIEW ON MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM COLLABORATION IN LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DOMAIN BY DEPLOYING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS FOR STUDENT LOCATION DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mwinyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Student location detection in Learning Management System (LMS by utilizing Multi-Agent System (MAS which contains sensor nodes is a new area of research. This study reviews several studies to ascertain the potential of integrating these two technologies to automate students’ class attendance in Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs. Currently, the HLIs are using paper-based process to record students’ attendance in the class, that is time consuming and is not possible to monitor students all the time, that they suppose to be in learning environment. Introducing the sensor networks and MAS in LMS system is to enable the instructors or lecturers to be aware of the presence of their students once they reach the system’s domain. The collaboration using MAS facilitates the retrieval and recording of students’ details from the sensors and then sends them to LMS servers through Cluster Head Sensor. The information that is collected and recorded by the agents include the signal strength of the students’ device and their profiles which can facilitate to know the exactly locations of the students, by comparing such information with the information already stored in LMS database. Therefore, a system architecture that comprises MAS with sensor networks in LMS is presented in this study for monitoring students’ attendance in the classes and labs. This type of system architecture with improved LMS features is more focused and intended for HLIs that follow the blended learning system. This proposed system has potential of boosting learning process in HLIs by providing new feature in LMS that monitor students’ activities in blended systems, that support classroom and online teachings.

  5. Development of a gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system for on-site detection of chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Takahiro; Kakegawa, Ken; Aida, Mari; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Seto, Yasuo; Okino, Akitoshi

    2015-06-02

    A gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system was developed to realize a mobile on-site analytical device for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In this system, the plasma source was directly connected to the inlet of a mass spectrometer. The plasma can be generated with ambient air, which is drawn into the discharge region by negative pressure in the mass spectrometer. High-power density pulsed plasma of 100 kW could be generated by using a microhollow cathode and a laboratory-built high-intensity pulsed power supply (pulse width: 10-20 μs; repetition frequency: 50 Hz). CWAs were desorbed and protonated in the enclosed space adjacent to the plasma source. Protonated sample molecules were introduced to the mass spectrometer by airflow through the discharge region. To evaluate the analytical performance of this device, helium and air plasma were directly irradiated to CWAs in the gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system and the protonated molecules were analyzed by using an ion-trap mass spectrometer. A blister agent (nitrogen mustard 3) and nerve gases [cyclohexylsarin (GF), tabun (GA), and O-ethyl S-2-N,N-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX)] in solution in n-hexane were applied to the Teflon rod and used as test samples, after solvent evaporation. As a result, protonated molecules of CWAs were successfully observed as the characteristic ion peaks at m/z 204, 181, 163, and 268, respectively. In air plasma, the limits of detection were estimated to be 22, 20, 4.8, and 1.0 pmol, respectively, which were lower than those obtained with helium plasma. To achieve quantitative analysis, calibration curves were made by using CWA stimulant dipinacolyl methylphosphonate as an internal standard; straight correlation lines (R(2) = 0.9998) of the peak intensity ratios (target per internal standard) were obtained. Remarkably, GA and GF gave protonated dimer ions, and the ratios of the protonated dimer ions to the protonated

  6. Assessment of a novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of the CBPP agent Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC through experimental infection in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaso Herbert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC is the pathogenic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP, the most important disease of cattle in Africa causing significant economic losses. The re-emergence of CBPP in Europe in the 1980s and 1990s illustrates that it is still a threat also to countries that have successfully eradicated the disease in the past. Nowadays, probe-based real-time PCR techniques are among the most advanced tools for a reliable identification and a sensitive detection of many pathogens, but only few protocols have been published so far for CBPP diagnosis. Therefore we developed a novel TaqMan®-based real-time PCR assay comprising the amplification of two independent targets (MSC_0136 and MSC_1046 and an internal exogenous amplification control in a multiplex reaction and evaluated its diagnostic performance with clinical samples. Results The assays detected 49 MmmSC strains from diverse temporal and geographical origin, but did not amplify DNA from 82 isolates of 20 non-target species confirming a specificity of 100%. The detection limit was determined to be 10 fg DNA per reaction for the MSC_0136 assay and 100 fg per reaction for the MSC_1046 assay corresponding to 8 and 80 genome equivalents, respectively. The diagnostic performance of the assay was evaluated with clinical samples from 19 experimentally infected cattle and from 20 cattle without CBPP and compared to those of cultivation and a conventional PCR protocol. The two rt-PCR tests proved to be the most sensitive methods and identified all 19 infected animals. The different sample types used were not equally suitable for MmmSC detection. While 94.7% of lung samples from the infected cohort were positively tested in the MSC_0136 assay, only 81% of pulmonal lymph nodes, 31% of mediastinal lymph nodes and 25% of pleural fluid samples gave a positive result. Conclusions The developed multiplex rt-PCR assay is recommended as an efficient tool

  7. The combined bacterial Lux-Fluoro test for the detection and quantification of genotoxic and cytotoxic agents in surface water: results from the "Technical Workshop on Genotoxicity Biosensing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Horneck, Gerda

    2007-12-15

    The bioassay Lux-Fluoro test was developed for the rapid detection and quantification of environmental pollutants with genotoxic and/or cytotoxic potential. This bacterial test system uses two different reporter genes whose gene products and their reactions, respectively, can be measured easily and simultaneously by optical methods. Genotoxicity is measured by the increase of bioluminescence in genetically modified bacteria which carry a plasmid with a complete lux operon for the enzyme luciferase from the marine photobacterium P. leiognathi under the control of a DNA-damage dependent so-called SOS promoter. If the deoxyribonucleic acid in these bacteria is damaged by a genotoxic chemical, the SOS promoter is turned on and the lux operon is expressed. The newly synthesized luciferase reacts immediately with its substrate thereby producing bioluminescence in a damage-proportional manner. In the second part of the system, genetically modified bacteria carry the gene for the green fluorescent protein (gfp) from the jellyfish Aequora victoria downstream from a constitutively expressed promoter. These bacteria are fluorescent under common growth conditions. If their cellular metabolism is disturbed by the action of cytotoxic chemicals, the fluorescence decreases in a dose-proportional manner. The combined Lux-Fluoro test is shown to be well suited for the biological assessment of the geno- and cytotoxicity of a series of model agents and environmental samples at the Technical Workshop on Genotoxicity Biosensing (TECHNOTOX).

  8. A new magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent loaded into poly(lacide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for long-term detection of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaux, G; Roullin, V G; Cadiou, C; Portefaix, C; Van Gulick, L; Bœuf, G; Andry, M C; Hoeffel, C; Vander Elst, L; Laurent, S; Muller, R; Molinari, M; Chuburu, F

    2014-11-01

    The incorporation of a lipophilic Gd chelate (GdDO3A-C12) in biocompatible PLGA poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles was explored as an approach to increase the relaxivity of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. By nanoprecipitation, it was possible to obtain PEGylated gadolinium nanoparticles (mean diameter of 155 nm) with high Gd loading (1.1 × 10(4) Gd centers per nanoparticle). The corresponding GdDO3AC12 ⊂ NPs nanoparticles exhibited an enhanced relaxivity (up to sixfold greater than DOTAREM® at 40 MHz) because the nanoparticle framework constrained the lipophilic Gd chelate motion and favorably impacted the Gd chelate rotational correlation time. T1-weighted imaging at 3 T on phantoms showed enhanced contrast for the GdDO3AC12 ⊂ NPs. Importantly, Gd chelate leakage was almost nonexistent, which suggested that these GdDO3AC12 ⊂ NPs could be useful for long-term MRI detection.

  9. Detection of Biological Threat Agents by Real-Time PCR: Comparison of Assay Performance on the R.A.I.D., the LightCycler, and the Smart Cycler Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    specific tool for the molecular identification of these agents. A common chemistry that can be used on a variety of rapid, real - time PCR instruments...provides the greatest flexibility for assay utilization. Methods: Real - time PCR primers and dual-labeled fluorogenic probes were designed to detect Bacillus

  10. Mobile-agent-based Distributed Intrusion Detection System%基于移动Agent的分布式入侵检测系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树文; 孙敏

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds a model of Distributed Intrusion Detection System Based on mobile Agent and discusses the realiza- tion of the model, and simulation tests are carried out about its properties. The model takes the working method of "Collective disposition within a domain and mutual cooperation among domains". The protected network is divided into a number of do- mains, and each of them is a complete analysis center of distributed intrusion detection system. These domains have relatively equal positions, mutually cooperate, and complete distributed intrusion detection together. In this way, single point failures can be overcome, management becomes easy, and it is easily analyzed and discriminated whether the attack is locally aggressive or distributed.%随着网络信息量及速度的急剧上升,入侵检测技术必然也随之改变,分布式入侵检测就是一个好的选择。本文构建出一个基于移动Agent分布式入侵检测模型;探讨了该模型的实现并对其性能进行了仿真实验验证。该模型采用“域内集中处理,域间互助协作”的工作方式,将整个受保护的网络划分成若干个域,每个域内是一个完整的中心分析型分布式入侵检测系统,域间地位平等,互相协作,共同完成分布式入侵检测。这样以来,既能克服单点故障问题,又便于管理,容易分析判别是本地攻击还是分布式攻击。

  11. MANET网络中一种基于移动Agent的入侵检测系统%An Intrusion Detection System Based on Mobile Agent for MANET Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 张秀梅

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种在MANET网络中基于移动Agent的人侵检测系统.介绍了系统的基础算法、体系结构以及工作原理.根据系统的基础算法得到数据报文的最佳传输路径,通过各节点的观察并结合其他节点的观察,判断可疑行为超出了预警范围时,发出告警信号,并采用绕路的措施;之后综合考虑来自各个节点的告警信号,得出最终可靠的结论,并从网络中彻底删除该节点.利用NS-2网络仿真工具模拟了黑洞、虫洞等人侵行为,以及系统对这些行为的对抗,仿真结果表明,本系统具有很高的效率和鲁棒性.%This paper presents an intrusion detection system based on mobile Agent for mobile ad hoc Networks. We introduce the basic algorithm, the system structure and the working theory of the intrusion detection system. The best route can be gotten by the routing algorithm. Learning from the local observed behavior and the neighbor reported behavior, if the rating of malicious behavior exceeds a threshold, the local node send the alert message and use the spare routing. Collecting the alert message from the other nodes, the node concludes the decision and deletes the malicious node from the network. We have done the experiment in simulated environment of NS2 system. We simulate malicious behavior as the black hole and the worm hole. The simulated results show that, the intrusion detection system is very efficient and robust.

  12. SU-F-207-07: Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Detection Limit of Various Radiopaque Contrast Agents That Can Be Infused Within Absorbable Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melancon, A; Jacobsen, M; Salatan, F; Jones, A; Cody, D; Nute, J; Melancon, M [U.T.M.D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Absorbable IVC filters are shown to be safe and efficacious in preventing pulmonary embolism. These absorbable filters disappear from the body after their required duration, alleviating costly removal procedures and downstream complications. Monitoring the positioning and integrity of absorbable devices using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) would improve treatment efficacy. The purpose of this study is to determine the limit of detection and the energy dependence of DECT for various contrast agents that may be infused within the IVC filters including gold nanoparticles (AuNP) having diameters of 2 and 4 nm. Methods: All imaging studies were performed on a GE Discovery CT750 system in Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) mode. Plastic vials containing the contrast agent solutions of water and blood were placed in a water bath, and images were acquired with the GSI-5 preset. The images were reformatted into the coronal plane and 5mm diameter ROIs were placed within each solution on a GE Advantage Workstation. Monoenergetic reconstructions were generated from 40 – 140 keV. Results: Mass attenuation (contrast per unit density) for AuNPs was greater than iron, but less than barium and iodine. Contrast was 10.2 (± 3.6) HU for 4 nm AuNP at 0.72 mg/ml and 12.1 (± 4.2) for 2 nm AuNP at 0.31 mg/ml at 70 keV suggesting reasonable chance of visualization at these concentrations for 70 keV reconstruction. The contrast as a function of CT energy is similar in both water and blood. Iodine is most dependent, followed closely by barium and iron, and trailed by a large margin by the AuNP. This was unexpected given Au’s large atomic number and the predominance of photoelectric effect at low energy. Conclusion: Infusion of IVC filters with AuNP is feasible. Discrimination of AuNP-infused IVC filters from surrounding anatomy warrants further investigation.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Molecular Diagnostic Method for Rapid Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the Causative Agent of Epizootic Lymphangitis, in Equine Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, C E; Pinchbeck, G L; Loughnane, P; Aklilu, N; Ashine, T; Stringer, A P; Gordon, L; Marshall, M; Christley, R M; McCarthy, A J

    2016-12-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the causative agent of epizootic lymphangitis (EZL), is endemic in parts of Africa. Diagnosis based on clinical signs and microscopy lacks specificity and is a barrier to further understanding this neglected disease. Here, a nested PCR method targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA operon was validated for application to equine clinical samples. Twenty-nine horses with signs of EZL from different climatic regions of Ethiopia were clinically examined. Blood samples and aspirates of pus from cutaneous nodules were taken, along with blood from a further 20 horses with no cutaneous EZL lesions. Among the 29 horses with suspected cases of EZL, H. capsulatum var. farciminosum was confirmed by extraction of DNA from pus and blood samples from 25 and 17 horses, respectively. Positive PCR results were also obtained with heat-inactivated pus (24 horses) and blood (23 horses) spotted onto Whatman FTA cards. Two positive results were obtained among blood samples from 20 horses that did not exhibit clinical signs of EZL. These are the first reports of the direct detection of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum in equine blood and at high frequency among horses exhibiting cutaneous lesions. The nested PCR outperformed conventional microscopic diagnosis, as characteristic yeast cells could be observed only in 14 pus samples. The presence of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum DNA was confirmed by sequencing the cloned PCR products, and while alignment of the ITS amplicons showed very little sequence variation, there was preliminary single nucleotide polymorphism-based evidence for the existence of two subgroups of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum This molecular diagnostic method now permits investigation of the epidemiology of EZL.

  14. [Uricosuric agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Iwao

    2008-04-01

    Urate lowering treatment is indicated in patients with recurrent acute attacks, tophi, gouty arthropathy, radiographic changes of gout, multiple joint involvement, or associated uric acid nephrolithiasis. Uricosuric agents like benzbromarone and probenecid are very useful to treat hyperuricemia as well as allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor). Uricosuric agents act the urate lowering effect through blocking the URAT1, an urate transporter, in brush border of renal proximal tubular cells. In order to avoid the nephrotoxicity and urolithiasis due to increasing of urinary urate excretion by using uricosuric agents, the proper urinary tract management (enough urine volume and correction of aciduria) should be performed.

  15. Use of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometric Detection and Random Forest Pattern Recognition Techniques for Classifying Chemical Threat Agents and Detecting Chemical Attribution Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozier, Erich D; Mooney, Douglas D; Friedenberg, David A; Klupinski, Theodore P; Triplett, Cheryl A

    2016-07-19

    In this proof of concept study, chemical threat agent (CTA) samples were classified to their sources with accuracies of 87-100% by applying a random forest statistical pattern recognition technique to analytical data acquired by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-TOFMS). Three organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, and dicrotophos, were used as the model CTAs, with data collected for 4-6 sources per CTA and 7-10 replicate analyses per source. The analytical data were also evaluated to determine tentatively identified chemical attribution signatures for the CTAs by comparing samples from different sources according to either the presence/absence of peaks or the relative responses of peaks. These results demonstrate that GC × GC-TOFMS analysis in combination with a random forest technique can be useful in sample classification and signature identification for pesticides. Furthermore, the results suggest that this combination of analytical chemistry and statistical approaches can be applied to forensic analysis of other chemicals for similar purposes.

  16. Research on IPV6 Intrusion Detection Systems Based on Mobile Agent%IPV6下基于移动Agent的入侵检测系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琳

    2011-01-01

    在分析传统入侵检测系统的基础上,将移动Agent技术融入入侵检测系统.结合IPV6协议自身的特点,提出了IPV6下基于移动Agent的入侵检测系统模型,并对系统中关键模块进行了详细描述.该系统可以通过移动Agent在主机之间自主迁移分析数据,并及时发现入侵行为.实验证明,该系统具有良好的安全防御性能.%Based on the analysis of the traditional intrusion detection system, mobile Agent technology is integrated into intrusion detection system. IPV6 intrusion detection system based on mobile Agent is proposed combined with the IPV6 protocol's characteristic, and the key modules are described in detail. The system can make migration analysis automaticly between host and host through mobile agent and detect intrusion behavior. Experiments show that the system has good security performance.

  17. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Superbugs and Drugs" Home | Contact Us General Background: Antibiotic Agents What is an antibacterial and how are ... with the growth and reproduction of bacteria. While antibiotics and antibacterials both attack bacteria, these terms have ...

  18. Vasoactive Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Husedzinovic, Ino; Bradic, Nikola; Goranovic, Tanja

    2006-01-01

    This article is a short review of vasoactive drugs which are in use in todays clinical practice. In the past century, development of vasoactive drugs went through several phases. All of these drugs are today divided into several groups, depending on their place of action, pharmacological pathways and/or effects on target organ or organ system. Hence, many different agents are today in clinical practice, we have shown comparison between them. These agents provide new directions in the treatmen...

  19. [Inotropic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Shigetake

    2003-05-01

    Depression of myocardial contractility plays an important role in the development of heart failure and many inotropic agents were developed to improve the contractile function of the failing heart. Agents that increase cyclic AMP, either by increasing its synthesis or reducing its degradation, exerted dramatic short-term hemodynamic benefits, but these acute effects were not extrapolated into long-term improvement of the clinical outcome of heart failure patients. Administration of these agents to an energy starved failing heart would be expected to increase myocardial energy use and could accelerate disease progression. The role of digitalis in the management of heart failure has been controversial, however, the recent large scale clinical trial has ironically proved that digoxin reduced the rate of hospitalization both overall and for worsening heart failure. More recently, attention was paid to other inotropic agents that have a complex and diversified mechanism. These agents have some phosphodiesterase-inhibitory action but also possess additional effects, including cytokine inhibitors, immunomodulators, or calcium sensitizers. In the Western Societies these agents were again shown to increase mortality of patients with severe heart failure in a dose dependent manner with the long-term administration. However, it may not be the case in the Japanese population in whom mortality is relatively low. Chronic treatment with inotropic agent may be justified in Japanese, as it allows optimal care in the context of relief of symptoms and an improved quality of life. Therefore, each racial group should obtain specific evidence aimed at developing its own guidelines for therapy rather than translating major guidelines developed for other populations.

  20. Development of Antisense Therapeutic and Imaging Agents to Detect and Suppress Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) Expression in Acute Lung Injury (ALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuefei

    This dissertation focuses on the development and investigation of antisense imaging and therapeutic agents, combined with nanotechnology, to detect and suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression for the diagnosis and treatment of acute lung injury (ALI). To achieve this goal, several efforts were made. The first effort was the identification and characterization of high binding affinity antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and shell-crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticle (SCK)-PNA conjugates to the iNOS mRNA. Antisense binding sites on the iNOS mRNA were first mapped by a procedure for rapidly generating a library of antisense accessible sites on native mRNAs (MASL) which involves reverse transcription of whole cell mRNA extracts with a random oligodeoxynucleotide primer followed by mRNA-specific PCR. Antisense PNAs against the antisense accessible sites were accordingly synthesized and characterized. The second effort was the investigation of cationic shell crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticle (cSCK)-mediated siRNA delivery to suppress iNOS expression for the treatment of ALI. siRNA with its unique gene-specific properties could serve as a promising therapeutic agent, however success in this area has been challenged by a lack of efficient biocompatible transfection agents. cSCK with its nanometer size and positive charge previously showed efficient cellular delivery of phosphorothioate ODNs (oligodeoxynucleotides), plasmid DNA and PNA. Herein, cSCK showed good siRNA binding and facilitated efficient siRNA transfection in HeLa, a mouse macrophage cell line and other human cell lines. cSCK led to greater silencing efficiency than Lipofectamine 2000 in HeLa cells as determined by the viability following transfection with cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic siRNAs, as well in 293T and HEK cells, and was comparable in BEAS-2B and MCF10a cells. The third effort was the preparation of an iNOS imaging probe through electrostatic complexation between a radiolabeled

  1. Sunscreening Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  2. Mobile Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Ichiro

    Mobile agents are autonomous programs that can travel from computer to computer in a network, at times and to places of their own choosing. The state of the running program is saved, by being transmitted to the destination. The program is resumed at the destination continuing its processing with the saved state. They can provide a convenient, efficient, and robust framework for implementing distributed applications and smart environments for several reasons, including improvements to the latency and bandwidth of client-server applications and reducing vulnerability to network disconnection. In fact, mobile agents have several advantages in the development of various services in smart environments in addition to distributed applications.

  3. Detection of occult endoleaks after endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm using magnetic resonance imaging with a blood pool contrast agent: preliminary observations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Sandra; Prokop, M.; Verhagen, H.J.; Adriaensen, M.E.; Moll, F.L.; Bartels, L.W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether blood pool contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can visualize endoleaks that are occult on computed tomography (CT) in patients with nonshrinking aneurysms after endovascular aneurysm repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Written informed consent was obta

  4. Application of cellulose anion-exchangers to separation of palladium from platinum or iridium with glycine as complexing agent and atomic-absorption spectrometry for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajter, K; Słonawska, K

    1983-07-01

    The use of glycine as complexing agent for chromatographie separation of palladium from platinum, or palladium from iridium, on cellulose anion-exchangers has been investigated and found possible over a wide range of concentration ratios. The method can be used for analysis of Pd-Ir alloys. The nature of the complexes taking part in the ion-exchange has been identified.

  5. A comparison of DNA extraction procedures for the detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, in clinical and environmental specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Stragier, Pieter; Roebben, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, the third most common mycobacterial disease in humans after tuberculosis and leprosy. Although the disease is associated with aquatic ecosystems, cultivation of the bacillus from the environment is difficult to achieve. Therefore, at ...

  6. Comprehensive gas chromatography with Time of Flight MS and large volume introduction for the detection of fluoride-induced regenerated nerve agent in biological samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.A. van der; Trap, H.C.; Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Recently, several methods have been developed to verify exposure to nerve agents. Most of these methods, such as the fluoride reactivation technique and the analysis of inhibited phosphonylated butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), are based on mass spectrometry. The high specificity of the mass spectromet

  7. Radioprotective Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    claimed to be effective are gallic acid derivatives, eg, sodium gallate 12053-21-61 (295-297) and propyl gallate 1121-79-91 (298). p...inhibition of a-adrenergic receptors can be achieved through the use of the antiradiation agents 2-(5-aminopentylamino)ethanephos- phorothioic acid ...tissue was ap- preciated immediately as a potential medical set, and they were put to use en- thusiastically. Early workers did notice an erythematous

  8. Agent-Based Health Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose combination of software intelligent agents to achieve decentralized reasoning, with fault detection and diagnosis using PCA, neural nets, and maximum...

  9. Introduction of Peripheral Carboxylates to Decrease the Charge on Tm(3+) DOTAM-Alkyl Complexes: Implications for Detection Sensitivity and in Vivo Toxicity of PARACEST MRI Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchý, Mojmír; Milne, Mark; Elmehriki, Adam A H; McVicar, Nevin; Li, Alex X; Bartha, Robert; Hudson, Robert H E

    2015-08-27

    A series of structurally modified Tm(3+) DOTAM-alkyl complexes as potential PARACEST MRI contrast agents has been synthesized with the aim to decrease the overall positive charge associated with these molecules and increase their biocompatibility. Two types of structural modification have been performed, an introduction of terminal carboxylate arms to the alkyl side chains and a conjugation of one of the alkyl side chains with aspartic acid. Detailed evaluation of the magnetic resonance imaging chemical exchange contrast associated with the structurally modified contrast agents has been performed. In contrast to the acutely toxic Tm(3+) DOTAM-alkyl complexes, the structurally modified compounds were found to be tolerated well during in vivo MRI studies in mice; however, only the aspartic acid modified chelates produced an amide proton-based PARACEST signal.

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Molecular Diagnostic Method for Rapid Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the Causative Agent of Epizootic Lymphangitis, in Equine Clinical Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Scantlebury, C. E.; Pinchbeck, G.L.; Loughnane, P.; Aklilu, N.; Ashine, T.; Stringer, A. P.; Gordon, L.; Marshall, M; Christley, R.M.; McCarthy, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the causative agent of epizootic lymphangitis (EZL), is endemic in parts of Africa. Diagnosis based on clinical signs and microscopy lacks specificity and is a barrier to further understanding this neglected disease. Here, a nested PCR method targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA operon was validated for application to equine clinical samples. Twenty-nine horses with signs of EZL from different climatic regions of Ethiopia...

  11. Detection of Crohn's disease: Comparison of CT and MR enterography without anti-peristaltic agents performed on the same day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grand, David J., E-mail: dgrand@lifespan.org [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, 593 Eddy St., Providence, RI 02903 (United States); Beland, Michael D. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, 593 Eddy St., Providence, RI 02903 (United States); Machan, Jason T. [Department of Orthopaedics and Surgery, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, 593 Eddy St., Providence, RI 02903 (United States); Mayo-Smith, William W. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, 593 Eddy St., Providence, RI 02903 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: To directly compare CT enterography (CTE) and MR enterography (MRE) without antiperistaltic agents. Materials/methods: 26 patients referred for CTE underwent CTE immediately followed by MRE without use of an anti-peristaltic agent. Each study was evaluated on a 10 point scale for exam quality, level of diagnostic confidence, and presence of Crohn's disease. Kappa analysis was performed to determine the degree of agreement between the CTE and MRE of each patient. Results: 25 patients completed the MRE. The quality of the CTEs was judged as excellent by both readers (reader 1 = average 9.5/10, reader 2 = average 9.1/10). The quality of the MREs was ranked lower than the CTEs by both readers (reader 1 = average 8.9/10, reader 2 = average 7.2/10), which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The level of confidence in interpretation was not significantly different between CTE and MRE for reader 1 or 2 (p = 0.3). There was substantial agreement between readers for the presence or absence of Crohn's disease on both CTE (kappa = 0.75) and MRE (kappa = 0.67). Conclusion: MR enterography without anti-peristaltic agents results in high diagnostic confidence and excellent agreement for the presence of Crohn's disease.

  12. Comparison of PCR,DIA and Pathogenicity Assay for Detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.citri,the Causal Agent of Citrus Bacterial Canker Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-kang; SUN Xian-yun; YIN You-ping; ZHOU Chang-yong; XIA Yu-xian

    2004-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach based on newly designed primers, JYF5/JYR5, was applied for specific detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.citri(Xac). The efficiency and reliability of PCR method were compared with dot immunobinding assay (DIA) and classical pathogenicity test techniques for detecting suspensions of pure cells of Xac and soaking sap of citrus tissues. Detection sensitivity of PCR was about 4.5 cells or 1.56 pg target DNA per reaction which was higher than that of DIA (ca. 450 cells per dot).These three techniques (PCR assay, DIA and Pathogenecity test) could always detect Xac from symptomatic citrus samples. Different performances were obtained from citrus materials without symptoms, and the positive detection frequency was PCR, DIA and pathogenicity test.

  13. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  14. 抗攻击的基于移动代理的分布式入侵检测模型%Mobile Agent Based Distributed Intrusion Detection System Model Protecting from Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚明磊; 许峰; 卢静; 黄皓

    2005-01-01

    为了增强IDS(Intrusion Detection System)在广域网中的健壮性,本文在对几种典型的入侵检测模型进行分析的基础上,提出了抗攻击的基于移动代理的分布式入侵检测模型(Mobile Agent Based Distributed Intrusion Detection System Model,MABDIDSM).MABDIDSM利用移动代理(mobile agent)在各局域网的控制台之间做环行移动,将各控制台上的入侵事件收集到管理中心进行综合分析处理.如果管理中心受到攻击,移动代理能够在剩余的控制台中选出新的管理中心,因此MABDIDSM在广域网范围内具有较强的抗攻击能力.

  15. Comparison of commercial DNA extraction kits and quantitative PCR systems for better sensitivity in detecting the causative agent of paratuberculosis in dairy cow fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock-Chow-Tho, D; Topp, E; Ibeagha-Awemu, E A; Bissonnette, N

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes ruminant paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) worldwide. Oral-fecal contamination is the most important mode of transmission of paratuberculosis, so eradicating MAP-shedding animals could prevent disease propagation. Fecal culture, a well-known method for MAP diagnosis, requires costly specialized media and a long incubation time that sometimes ends in disappointing bacterial contamination. To facilitate the efforts of control programs, we evaluated the performance of direct fecal quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for their sensitivity and robustness for MAP detection. Commercial kits use different strategies for extracting DNA, combined with qPCR systems, to detect the presence of MAP in fecal samples. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of 3 commercially available DNA extraction kits (A, B, and C) combined with 2 qPCR systems (T and V) for the detection of MAP in infectious cows. A total of 49 dairy cows from 5 herds were sampled twice a year for 3 yr and diagnosed using fecal culture and ELISA. Eight replicates of their fecal samples from the first sampling were tested using each DNA extraction method and qPCR detection system. Although all 3 of the commercial DNA extraction kits have been previously described as very efficient for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis, kit B provided the highest sensitivity. Indeed, 89% of the cows declared positive for paratuberculosis by both fecal culture and ELISA were identified with kit B, whereas only 23 and 43% of the cows were identified with kits A and C, respectively. Interestingly, kit B was able to detect some low-MAP shedders. The qPCR detection system also played a critical role: system T yielded qPCR with the highest sensitivity. The results of this study suggest that DNA extraction kit B combined with detection system T provides the best amplification of MAP DNA from fecal samples with the highest sensitivity and specificity. Although 1 DNA extraction and q

  16. A Performance Analysis of Chasing Intruders by Implementing Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahdi Ebadati E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An Intrusion Detection System in network fetches the intrusions information from systems by using Mobile Agents aid. Intrusion Detection System detects intrusions based on the collected information and routes the intrusion. The intelligent decisions on communications, permit agents to gain their goals more efficiently and provide more survivability and security of an agent system. The proposed model showed a formal representation of information assurance in agent messaging over a dynamic network by probability of redundant routes. The proposed Intrusion Detection System, chase intruders and collect information by the Mobile Agents. Our propose architecture is an information exchange method and chasing intrusion along with a method by implementing Mobile Agents.

  17. Use of PCR-based assays for the detection of the adventitious agent porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in vaccines, and for confirming the identity of cell substrates and viruses used in vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Beach, Nathan M; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Hegde, Nagendra R

    2012-01-01

    Safety and quality are important issues for vaccines. Whereas reversion to virulence poses a safety risk with live attenuated vaccines, the potential for the presence of adventitious agents is also an issue of vaccine quality. The recent detection or porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in human vaccines has further highlighted the importance of quality control in vaccine production. The purpose of this study was to use a novel conventional PCR to detect PCV1, and subsequently screen materials used in the manufacture of vaccines at Bharat Biotech International Limited, India. The genome or gene fragments of PCV1 were not detected in any of the vaccines and materials tested, including the live attenuated rotavirus vaccine candidate ROTAVAC(®). Further, the identity of the cells and the viruses used as starting materials in the manufacture of these vaccines was confirmed by species-specific PCR or virus-specific RT-PCR, and no cross-contamination was detected in any case. The methods can be applied for regular in-house quality control screening of raw materials and seeds/banks, as well as formulated vaccines.

  18. Conjugation Magnetic PAEEP-PLLA Nanoparticles with Lactoferrin as a Specific Targeting MRI Contrast Agent for Detection of Brain Glioma in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Binhua; Wang, Siqi; Rao, Rong; Liu, Xuhan; Xu, Haibo; Wu, Yun; Yang, Xiangliang; Liu, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of malignant brain gliomas is largely based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast agents. In recent years, nano-sized contrast agents have been developed for improved MRI diagnosis. In this study, oleylamine-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (OAM-MNPs) were synthesized with thermal decomposition method and encapsulated in novel amphiphilic poly(aminoethyl ethylene phosphate)/poly(L-lactide) (PAEEP-PLLA) copolymer nanoparticles. The OAM-MNP-loaded PAEEP-PLLA nanoparticles (M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs) were further conjugated with lactoferrin (Lf) for glioma tumor targeting. The Lf-conjugated M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs (Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs) were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The average size of OAM-MNPs, M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs, and Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs were 8.6 ± 0.3, 165.7 ± 0.6, and 218.2 ± 0.4 nm, with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.185 ± 0.023, 0.192 ± 0.021, and 0.224 ± 0.036, respectively. TEM imaging showed that OAM-MNPs were monodisperse and encapsulated in Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs. TGA analysis showed that the content of iron oxide nanoparticles was 92.8 % in OAM-MNPs and 45.2 % in Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs. VSM results indicated that both OAM-MNPs and Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs were superparamagnetic, and the saturated magnetic intensity were 77.1 and 74.8 emu/g Fe. Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs exhibited good biocompatibility in cytotoxicity assay. The high cellular uptake of Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs in C6 cells indicated that Lf provided effective targeting for the brain tumor cells. The T 2 relaxation rate ( r 2) of M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs and Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs were calculated to be 167.2 and 151.3 mM-1 s-1. In MRI on Wistar rat-bearing glioma tumor, significant contrast enhancement could clearly appear at 4 h after injection and last 48 h. Prussian blue staining of the section clearly

  19. Conjugation Magnetic PAEEP-PLLA Nanoparticles with Lactoferrin as a Specific Targeting MRI Contrast Agent for Detection of Brain Glioma in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Binhua; Wang, Siqi; Rao, Rong; Liu, Xuhan; Xu, Haibo; Wu, Yun; Yang, Xiangliang; Liu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of malignant brain gliomas is largely based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast agents. In recent years, nano-sized contrast agents have been developed for improved MRI diagnosis. In this study, oleylamine-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (OAM-MNPs) were synthesized with thermal decomposition method and encapsulated in novel amphiphilic poly(aminoethyl ethylene phosphate)/poly(L-lactide) (PAEEP-PLLA) copolymer nanoparticles. The OAM-MNP-loaded PAEEP-PLLA nanoparticles (M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs) were further conjugated with lactoferrin (Lf) for glioma tumor targeting. The Lf-conjugated M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs (Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs) were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The average size of OAM-MNPs, M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs, and Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs were 8.6 ± 0.3, 165.7 ± 0.6, and 218.2 ± 0.4 nm, with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.185 ± 0.023, 0.192 ± 0.021, and 0.224 ± 0.036, respectively. TEM imaging showed that OAM-MNPs were monodisperse and encapsulated in Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs. TGA analysis showed that the content of iron oxide nanoparticles was 92.8 % in OAM-MNPs and 45.2 % in Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs. VSM results indicated that both OAM-MNPs and Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs were superparamagnetic, and the saturated magnetic intensity were 77.1 and 74.8 emu/g Fe. Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs exhibited good biocompatibility in cytotoxicity assay. The high cellular uptake of Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs in C6 cells indicated that Lf provided effective targeting for the brain tumor cells. The T 2 relaxation rate (r 2) of M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs and Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs were calculated to be 167.2 and 151.3 mM(-1) s(-1). In MRI on Wistar rat-bearing glioma tumor, significant contrast enhancement could clearly appear at 4 h after injection and last 48 h. Prussian

  20. Detection of naturally infected vector ticks (acari: ixodidae by different species of babesia and theileria agents from three different enzootic parts of iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdigoudarzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by Iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. In this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of Iran.Ticks were collected from livestock (sheep, goats and cattle during favorable seasons (April to September 2007 and 2008. Slide preparations were stained by Giemsa and Feulgen and were studied searching for any trace of infection. Positive DNA from infected blood or tissue samples was provided and was used as positive control. First, PCR optimization for positive DNA was done, and then tick samples were subjected to specific PCR.Eleven pairs of primers were designed for detection of Theileria, Babesia and Anaplasma spp. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus turanicus from Fars Province were infected with T. lestoquardi at two different places. Hyalomma detritum was infected with T. lestoquardi in Lorestan Province and Rh. turanicus was infected to Ba. ovis from Fars Province.Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Every sample is regarded with host-environment related factors. Since there are complex relations of vectors and their relevant protozoa, different procedures are presented for future studies.

  1. Vaccine Development for Biothreat Alpha Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-25

    virus (IV) BeAr35645 Cassabou virus (V) Rio Negro virus (VI) EEEV EEEV NA Lineage I FL93-939 EEEV SA Lineage II-IV BeAr436087 WEEV WEEV CBA87 WEEV ON41...Bioterr Biodef ISSN:2157-2526 JBTBD an open access journal 17. Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA (2005) Virus Taxonomy:Eighth...vaccinated with chimeric SIN/VEE viruses. J Virol 80: 2784-2796. 33. Atasheva S, Wang E, Adams AP, Plante KS, Ni S, et al. (2009) Chimeric alphavirus

  2. 基于证据推理的多agent分布式入侵检测系统模型%Multi-agent distributed intrusion detection system model based on evidence reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶清; 吴晓平; 翟定军; 付钰

    2009-01-01

    在分析现有基于agent的入侵检测系统(IDS)基础上,提出了一种基于证据推理的多agent分布式两级IDS模型.该模型采用分布检测、分布响应的模式,通过多agent技术的思想建立系统总体结构,给出了模型的各个组成部分,并对结构中各种agent与中心控制台的功能设计进行了分析.同时,为了提高中心控制台的融合性能,设计了一种可有效减少证据合成计算量又可确保合成准确性的证据推理算法,并对动态选举算法、协同算法进行了初步分析.系统可充分利用各种资源协同完成入侵检测任务,实时响应,有效地改进了传统IDS.%This paper proposed a distributed IDS (DIDS) model utilizing both multi-agent and evidence reasoning by analyzing the existed agent-based IDS, which adopted the method of distributed detection, distributed response and the ideology of multi-agent. And it described all the composed parts of DIDS model and analyzed the function design of all kinds of agent and the control centre. To improve the performance of the control centre, presented an algorithm for evidence reasoning to decrease the computation and increase the accuracy of combination. Furthermore, discussed the algorithms of dynamic election and cooperation preliminarily. The proposed DIDS may make full of all kinds of information to cooperatively complete the detection and make real-time response, which effectively improves the traditional IDS.

  3. A Theranostic Agent Combining a Two-Photon-Absorbing Photosensitizer for Photodynamic Therapy and a Gadolinium(III) Complex for MRI Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Julie; Heitz, Valérie; Sour, Angélique; Bolze, Frédéric; Kessler, Pascal; Flamigni, Lucia; Ventura, Barbara; Bonnet, Célia S; Tóth, Éva

    2016-02-18

    The convergent synthesis and characterization of a potential theranostic agent, [DPP-ZnP-GdDOTA](-), which combines a diketopyrrolopyrrole-porphyrin component DPP-ZnP as a two-photon photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a gadolinium(III) DOTA complex as a magnetic resonance imaging probe, is presented. [DPP-ZnP-GdDOTA](-) has a remarkably high longitudinal water proton relaxivity (19.94 mm(-1)  s(-1) at 20 MHz and 25 °C) for a monohydrated molecular system of this size. The Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion (NMRD) profile is characteristic of slow rotation, related to the extended and rigid aromatic units integrated in the molecule and to self-aggregation occurring in aqueous solution. The two-photon properties were examined and large two-photon absorption cross-sections around 1000 GM were determined between 910 and 940 nm in DCM with 1 % pyridine and in DMSO. Furthermore, the new conjugate was able to generate singlet oxygen, with quantum yield of 0.42 and 0.68 in DCM with 1 % pyridine and DMSO, respectively. Cellular studies were also performed. The [DPP-ZnP-GdDOTA](-) conjugate demonstrated low dark toxicity and was able to induce high one-photon and moderate two-photon phototoxicity on cancer cells.

  4. Photochemical Decoration of Silver Nanocrystals on Magnetic MnFe2O4 Nanoparticles and Their Applications in Antibacterial Agents and SERS-Based Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Le Thanh; Tam, Le Thi; Van Son, Tran; Cuong, Nguyen Duy; Nam, Man Hoai; Vinh, Le Khanh; Huy, Tran Quang; Ngo, Duc-The; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, multifunctional nanocomposites consisting of silver nanoparticles and manganese ferrite nanoparticles (Ag-MnFe2O4) were successfully synthesized using a two-step chemical process. The formation of Ag-MnFe2O4 nanocomposites were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Noticeable antibacterial activity of the Ag-MnFe2O4 nanocomposites was demonstrated against two Gram-negative bacteria, Salmonella enteritidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. A direct-drop diffusion method can be an effective way to investigate the antibacterial effects of nanocomposite samples. Interestingly, we also demonstrated the use of Ag-MnFe2O4 nanocomposites as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform to detect and quantify trace amounts of organic dye in water solutions. The combination of Ag and MnFe2O4 nanoparticles opens opportunities for creating advantages such as targeted bactericidal delivery, recyclable capability, and sensitive SERS-based detection for advanced biomedicine and environmental monitoring applications.

  5. Molecular medicine: Synthesis and in-vivo detection of agents for use in boron neutron capture therapy. Final report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1997-08-01

    During the early stages of this project, the author developed the first whole-body boron MRI technique. They found that, for the first time, information concerning both the location and the quantity of boron present in living tissues could be obtained through the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) respectively. However, it was also discovered that boron MRI was not without problems. Both naturally occurring isotopes of boron (boron-10 and boron-11) possess magnetic moments, making them amenable to MR detection. The author found that there are difficulties in obtaining boron MRI images which are a consequence of the inherently poor magnetic resonance characteristics of the boron nucleus. The magnetogyric ratios of both boron-10 and boron-11 are smaller than those of hydrogen, which makes boron much less sensitive to magnetic resonance detection. In addition, both isotopes of boron posses nuclear electric quadrupole moments which serve to shorten their magnetization relaxation times; this causes the MR signal to broaden and decay rapidly, often before the receiver coils can collect the MR information. The rapid rate of signal decay is enhanced in biological systems which leads to further signal loss and a decrease in the signal to noise ratio (SNR).

  6. 凝胶制品中合成着色剂分析的样品前处理方法改进%Improved method for sample pretreatment on detecting synthetic coloring agents in colloid products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志斌; 周雪梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To improve the method of sample pretreatment on detecting 4 kinds of synthetic coloring agents, including tartrazine, sunset yellow, amaranth and new coccine in colloid products.Methods Based on GB/T 5009.35-2003Determination of synthetic colour in foods, sample pretreatment of the synthetic coloring agents was improved.Results It showed that the improved method could obviously enhance extraction rate of 4 kinds of coloring regents in colloid products, compared with GB/T 5009.35-2003. Conclusion Using the improved method, the analytical separate steps can be carried out easily in sample treating, and this method has the advantages of accuracy, precision and high reappearance for the determination of synthetic coloring agents in practical work.%目的:对凝胶制品中4种合成着色剂柠檬黄、日落黄、苋菜红、胭脂红检测的样品前处理方法进行改进。方法以国家标准GB/T 5009.35-2003规定的样品前处理方法为依据,进行合成着色剂分析样品前处理方法的改进。结果结果表明提取方法改进后可明显提高凝胶制品中4种着色剂的提取效率。结论本法处理样品时,解析分离步骤易于进行,改变样品的预处理条件后,其准确度、精密度仍很高,重现性均符合分析要求,可应用于实际检测工作中。

  7. MOBILE AGENT: EMERGING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    RAJGURU P. V. DR. DESHMUKH S. D

    2011-01-01

    Mobile agent technology has been promoted as an emerging technology that makes it much easier to design, implement, and maintain distributed systems, introduction to basic concepts of mobile agents like agent mobility, agent types and places and agent communication. Then benefits of the usage of mobile agents are summarized and illustrated by selected applications. The next section lists requirements and desirable properties for mobile agent languages and systems. We study the main features, ...

  8. Propionibacterium acnes: disease-causing agent or common contaminant? Detection in diverse patient samples by next generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Vinner, Lasse;

    2016-01-01

    significance as a pathogen is consequently a matter of debate.In the present study we investigated the presence of P. acnes DNA in 250 next generation sequencing datasets generated from 180 samples of 20 different sample types, mostly of cancerous origin. The samples were either subjected to microbial......Propionibacterium acnes is the most abundant bacterium on human skin, particularly in sebaceous areas. P. acnes is suggested to be an opportunistic pathogen involved in the development of diverse medical conditions, but is also a proven contaminant of human samples and surgical wounds. Its...... enrichment, involving nuclease treatment to reduce the amount of host nucleic acids, or shotgun-sequenced.We detected high proportions of P. acnes in enriched samples, particularly skin derived and other tissue samples, with levels being higher in enriched compared to shotgun-sequenced samples. P. acnes...

  9. Detection of Leukotriene Receptor CysLT1R in Inflammatory Diseases by Molecular Imaging with Near-Infrared Fluorescence-Based Contrast Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Busch

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As leukotriene D4 receptor CysLT1R upregulation is an early event in inflammatory processes, specific detection of CysLT1R via molecular imaging might be a promising diagnostic tool for inflammatory diseases. We coupled a specific anti-CysLT1R IgG antibody to near-infrared (NIR hemicyanine fluorophore DY-734. The fluorophore was also coupled to unspecific rabbit-IgG antibody or corresponding Fab fragments. Expression of CysLT1R in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells in vitro could be proven by reverse transcriptase—polymerase chain reaction (PCR, real-time PCR, and flow cytometry. Detection of the probes by flow cytometry showed that CysLT1R*DY-734 probe binds distinctly stronger to HL-60 cells than IgG*DY-734. Induction of ear edema in mice was conducted to test signaling of the synthesized probes in vivo. A markedly higher fluorescence intensity was observed in the edematous region than in the healthy region by a whole-body imaging system. Semiquantitative analysis showed that CysLT1R*DY-734 and Fab-CysLT1R*DY-734 probes bind 1.9- and 1.2-fold stronger, respectively, than the unspecific probes. Biodistribution studies revealed an enrichment of full-length IgG probes in liver and spleen, whereas Fab-containing probes are mostly found in liver and kidneys. Taken together, we present an approach that might improve early diagnosis of inflammatory diseases in the long term.

  10. Detection and characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma in rats with liver cirrhosis:diagnostic value of combined use of MR positive and negative contrast agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Mei Guo; Tian-Shuang Qiu; Jie Bian; Shu-Feng Liu; Chang-Zheng Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Gadolinium-enhanced multi-phase dynamic imaging has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but using gadolinium-enhanced dynamic imaging alone is problematic in evaluating hypovascular HCC. This work aimed at evaluating the combined use of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced and gadolinium set in distinguishing HCCs from regenerative nodules (RNs) in a rat model induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). METHODS:DEN-induced HCC model rats (n=40) and control rats (n=10) were studied. From weeks 16 to 19 after DEN administration, 4 animals were scanned every week. The hepatic changes were tested with a 1.5 Tesla magnet, and MR images of SPIO-enhanced and gadolinium set were obtained. According to the pathologic changes, the tumorigenesis was divided into HCC and RN (diameter of nodules≥3 mm). Diagnostic accuracy of the combined SPIO-enhanced and gadolinium set and the gadolinium set alone was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic curves. Sensitivity and speciifcity of the combined SPIO-enhanced and gadolinium set and the gadolinium set alone were calculated.RESULTS:The listed tests were completed in 29 rats (21 treated and 8 controls). One hundred and six nodules (82 HCCs, 24 RNs) were analyzed. The Az value and sensitivity with the combined SPIO-enhanced and gadolinium set (Az 0.94, sensitivity 0.96) were higher than those with the gadolinium set alone (Az 0.92, sensitivity 0.89). Using the combined SPIO-enhanced and gadolinium set led to detection of 6 nodules which were negative in the gadolinium set alone and 3 nodules were correctly characterized. CONCLUSION:Using the combined SPIO-enhanced and gadolinium set improved the detectability of HCCs and the SPIO-enhanced imaging compensated for the gadolinium set in differentiating HCCs from RNs in a rat model.

  11. One pot synthesis of poly(5-hydroxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) stabilized gold nanoparticles using the monomer as the reducing agent for nonenzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, M C Dilusha; Liu, Yuping; Langford, Steven J; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-26

    Monodispersed and highly stable gold nanoparticles with a diameter between 8 and 9 nm were synthesized in a weakly alkaline medium by chemical reduction of AuCl4(-) using 5-hydroxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, and stabilized by the simultaneously formed poly(hydroxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone). The electrochemical properties of the resultant poly(hydroxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNQ NPs) and its electrocatalytic activity for glucose oxidation in alkaline media were then investigated using a range of techniques, including dc cyclic, rotating disk electrode and Fourier transformed large amplitude ac voltammetry. The results demonstrate that these AuNQ NP modified electrodes exhibit excellent catalytic activity toward glucose oxidation in the potential region where the premonolayer oxidation process occurs. The overall catalytic glucose oxidation process was found to be mass transport controlled under the experimental conditions employed, allowing measurements to be conducted with a high reproducibility. The AuNQ NP modified electrodes showed a high sensitivity of 183 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with a wide linear dynamic range of 0.5-50 mM and a detection limit of 61 μM. However, despite its excellent tolerance toward ascorbic acid, significant interference from uric acid was found with this AuNQ NP modified electrode.

  12. Evaluation of 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14 as an agent for pancreas tumor detection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. Carlesso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is important in oncology because of its high mortality rate. Deaths may be avoided if an early diagnosis could be achieved. Several types of tumors overexpress gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr, including pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, a radiolabeled peptide derivative of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP may be useful as a specific imaging probe. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14 as an imaging probe for Capan-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Xenographic pancreatic tumor was developed in nude mice and characterized by histopathological analysis. Biodistribution studies and scintigraphic images were carried out in tumor-bearing nude mice. The two methods showed higher uptake by pancreatic tumor when compared to muscle (used as control, and the tumor-to-muscle ratio indicated that 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14 uptake was four-fold higher in tumor cells than in other tissues. Scintigraphic images also showed a clear signal at the tumor site. The present data indicate that 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14 may be useful for the detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  13. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin{sub (7-14)} as an agent for pancreas tumor detection in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlesso, F.N.; Fuscaldi, L.L.; Araujo, R.S.; Teixeira, C.S.; Oliveira, M.C.; Fernandes, S.O.A.; Cassali, G.D.; Reis, D.C.; Barros, A.L.B.; Cardoso, V.N., E-mail: valbertcardoso@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is important in oncology because of its high mortality rate. Deaths may be avoided if an early diagnosis could be achieved. Several types of tumors overexpress gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr), including pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, a radiolabeled peptide derivative of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) may be useful as a specific imaging probe. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC--βAla-Bombesin{sub (7-14)} as an imaging probe for Capan-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Xenographic pancreatic tumor was developed in nude mice and characterized by histopathological analysis. Biodistribution studies and scintigraphic images were carried out in tumor-bearing nude mice. The two methods showed higher uptake by pancreatic tumor when compared to muscle (used as control), and the tumor-to-muscle ratio indicated that {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC--βAla-Bombesin{sub (7-14)} uptake was four-fold higher in tumor cells than in other tissues. Scintigraphic images also showed a clear signal at the tumor site. The present data indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC--βAla-Bombesin{sub (7-14)} may be useful for the detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (author)

  14. Fault Tolerance Mobile Agent System Using Witness Agent in 2-Dimensional Mesh Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rostami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are computer programs that act autonomously on behalf of a user or its owner and travel through a network of heterogeneous machines. Fault tolerance is important in their itinerary. In this paper, existent methods of fault tolerance in mobile agents are described which they are considered in linear network topology. In the methods three agents are used to fault tolerance by cooperating to each others for detecting and recovering server and agent failure. Three types of agents are: actual agent which performs programs for its owner, witness agent which monitors the actual agent and the witness agent after itself, probe which is sent for recovery the actual agent or the witness agent on the side of the witness agent. Communication mechanism in the methods is message passing between these agents. The methods are considered in linear network. We introduce our witness agent approach for fault tolerance mobile agent systems in Two Dimensional Mesh (2D-Mesh Network. Indeed Our approach minimizes Witness-Dependency in this network and then represents its algorithm.

  15. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  16. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir FACT SHEET What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  17. Membrane Potential-dependent Uptake of 18F-triphenylphosphonium - A New Voltage Sensor as an Imaging Agent for Detecting Burn-induced Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gaofeng; Yu, Yong-Ming; Shoup, Timothy M.; Elmaleh, David R.; Bonab, Ali A.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Fischman, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction has been closely related to many pathological processes, such as cellular apoptosis. Alterations in organelle membrane potential are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. A fluorine -18 labeled phosphonium compound: 18F-triphenylphosphonium (18F-TPP) was prepared to determine its potential use as a mitochondria-targeting radiopharmaceutical to evaluate cellular apoptosis. Methods Studies were conducted in both ex vivo cell lines and in vivo using a burned animal model. Uptake of 18F-TPP was assessed in PC-3 cells by gamma counting under the following conditions: graded levels of extra-cellular potassium concentrations, incubation with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and staurosporine. Apoptosis was studied in a burn animal model using TUNEL staining and simultaneous assessment of 18F-TPP uptake by biodistribution. Results We found that stepwise membrane depolarization by potassium (K) resulted in a linear decrease in 18F-TPP uptake, with a slope of 0.62+/−0.08 and a correlation coefficient of 0.936+/−0.11. Gradually increased concentrations of CCCP lead to decreased uptakes of 18F-TPP. Staurosporine significantly decreased the uptake of 18F-TPP in PC-3 cells from 14.2+/−3.8% to 5.6+/−1.3% (P<0.001). Burn induced significant apoptosis (sham: 4.4 +/−1.8% vs. burn: 24.6+/− 6.7 %; p<0.005) and a reduced uptake of tracer in the spleens of burn injured animals as compared to sham burn controls (burn: 1.13+/−0.24% vs. sham: 3.28+/−0.67%; p<0.005). Biodistribution studies demonstrated that burn induced significant reduction in 18F-TPP uptake in spleen, heart, lung, and liver, which were associated with significantly increased apoptosis. Conclusions 18F-TPP is a promising new voltage sensor for detecting mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in various tissues. PMID:24582214

  18. 生物战剂气溶胶侦检技术国外相关专利分析%Analysis of Bio-aerosol Warfare Agent Detection and Identification Technology Based on Foreign Patent Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 王运斗

    2012-01-01

    Patent information is the latest achievement of scientific research program which can reflect the last orientation of technology. This paper chooses SOOPAT as the patent data source, studies retrieval patent data, then obtains the current situation of bio - aerosol detection and identification technology, key areas and trends. Next, the article proposes reflections on the domestic development of biological warfare agents aerosol detect technology. The results have significant guidance for the development of related biological detectors.%专利信息作为科研活动的最新成果,能反映技术的最新动态.选择SOOPAT作为专利数据检索源,通过对检索到的专利数据进行分析研究,得出生物战剂气溶胶侦检技术现状、关键领域和发展趋势,然后对国内发展生物战剂气溶胶侦检技术提出几点思考.研究结果对于指导相关生物侦检装备的发展具有一定的指导意义.

  19. Affective Embodied Conversational Agents for Natural Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo, Eva; Baldassarri, Sandra; Hupont, Isabelle; Seron, Francisco J.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a completely automated real-time character-based interface, where a scriptable affective humanoid 3D agent interacts with the user. Special care has been taken in making it possible multimodal natural user-agent interaction: communication is accomplished via text, image and voice (natural language). Our embodied agents are equipped with an emotional state which can be modified throughout the conversation with the user, and depends on the emotional state detected from the...

  20. Study on Multi-agent Systems with Colored Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰顺国; 李军

    2008-01-01

    The approach to model multi-agent systems with hierarchical colored Peal nets is introduced.In a multi-agent system,every agent is modeled with colored Petri net system,and the colored Petri net system of the multi-agent system is a hierarchical colored Petri net system,such that the agents planning deadlock detection and avoidance,can be analyzed with the Petri net system.

  1. Biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  2. An Agent Based Classification Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Greensmith, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The major function of this model is to access the UCI Wisconsin Breast Can- cer data-set[1] and classify the data items into two categories, which are normal and anomalous. This kind of classifi cation can be referred as anomaly detection, which discriminates anomalous behaviour from normal behaviour in computer systems. One popular solution for anomaly detection is Artifi cial Immune Sys- tems (AIS). AIS are adaptive systems inspired by theoretical immunology and observed immune functions, principles and models which are applied to prob- lem solving. The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA)[2] is an AIS algorithm that is developed specifi cally for anomaly detection. It has been successfully applied to intrusion detection in computer security. It is believed that agent-based mod- elling is an ideal approach for implementing AIS, as intelligent agents could be the perfect representations of immune entities in AIS. This model evaluates the feasibility of re-implementing the DCA in an agent-based simulation environ- ...

  3. Detection of Occult Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients Who Achieved a Sustained Virologic Response to Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents for Recurrent Infection After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasry, Sandra; Wadhwa, Sanya; Bang, Bo-Ram; Cook, Linda; Chopra, Shefali; Kanel, Gary; Kim, Brian; Harper, Tammy; Feng, Zongdi; Jerome, Keith R; Kahn, Jeffrey A; Saito, Takeshi

    2017-02-01

    Occult infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is defined as the presence of the HCV genome in either liver tissue or peripheral blood monocytes, despite constant negative results from tests for HCV RNA in serum. We investigated whether patients who maintained a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after therapy (SVR12) with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents for recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation had occult HCV infections. We performed a prospective study of 134 patients with recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation who were treated with DAAs, with or without ribavirin, from 2014 through 2016 (129 patients achieved an SVR12). In >10% of the patients who achieved SVR12 (n = 14), serum levels of aminotransferases did not normalize during or after DAA therapy, or they normalized transiently but then increased sharply after DAA therapy. Of these 14 patients, 9 were assessed for occult HCV infection by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This analysis revealed that 55% of these patients (n = 5) had an occult infection, with the detection of negative strand viral genome, indicating viral replication. These findings indicate the presence of occult HCV infection in some patients with abnormal levels of serum aminotransferases, despite SVR12 to DAAs for HCV infection after liver transplantation.

  4. Multiplexed detection of bacteria and toxins using a microflow cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jason S; Anderson, George P; Erickson, Jeffrey S; Golden, Joel P; Nasir, Mansoor; Ligler, Frances S

    2009-07-01

    A microfabricated flow cytometer was used to demonstrate multiplexed detection of bacteria and toxins using fluorescent coded microspheres. Antibody-coated microspheres bound biothreat targets in a sandwich immunoassay format. The microfluidic cytometer focused the microspheres in three dimensions within the laser interrogation region using passive groove structures to surround the sample stream with sheath fluid. Optical analysis at four different wavelengths identified the coded microspheres and quantified target bound by the presence of phycoerythrin tracer. The multiplexed assays in the microflow cytometer had performance approaching that of a commercial benchtop flow cytometer. The respective limits of detection for bacteria (Escherichia coli, Listeria, and Salmonella) were found to be 10(3), 10(5), and 10(4) cfu/mL for the microflow cytometer and 10(3), 10(6), and 10(5) cfu/mL for the commercial system. Limits of detection for the toxins (cholera toxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, and ricin) were 1.6, 0.064, and 1.6 ng/mL for the microflow cytometer and 1.6, 0.064, and 8.0 ng/mL for the commercial system.

  5. Agents described in the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database for imaging carbonic anhydrase IX expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Deborah; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2014-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is selectively expressed in a range of hypoxic tumours and is a validated endogenous hypoxia marker with prognostic significance; hence, CA IX is of great interest as a molecular imaging target in oncology. In this review, we present an overview of the different imaging agents and imaging modalities that have been applied for the in vivo detection of CA IX. The imaging agents reviewed are all entries in the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD) and comprise antibody, antibody fragments and small molecule imaging agents. The effectiveness of these agents for imaging CA IX in vivo gave variable performance; however, a number of agents proved very capable. As molecular imaging has become indispensable in current medical practice we anticipate that the clinical significance of CA IX will see continued development and improvements in imaging agents for targeting this enzyme.

  6. Animal Capture Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  7. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  8. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  9. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  10. THE COMPARISON OF TUNEL AND MTT ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF SENSITIVITY OF BRAIN GLIOMA CELLS TO CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS%TUNEL法与MTT法检测脑胶质瘤细胞药物敏感性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 王秋波

    2001-01-01

    Objective To compare and analyse the two methods,TUNEL and MTT, for detection of chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents in human brain glioma cell and the tumor cell line BT325. Methods The TUNEL and MTT were both adopted to detect chemosensitivity of the brain glioma cells in 19 patients with brain glioma and the tumor cell line BT325 to eight chemotherapeutic drugs. Results The chemosensitivity was no difference by using TUNEL and MTT in the tumor cell line BT325. But the chemosensitivity was different by using TUNEL and MTT in 19 patients with brain glioma. The results showed that TUNEL was better than MTT. Conclusion It would be better to use TUNEL than MTT when the samples were mixed with non-tumor cells.%①目的比较检测脑胶质瘤细胞药物敏感性的两种方法。②方法同时采用DNA断端末端标记(TUNEL)法与噻唑蓝(MTT)法,体外检测人多形性胶质母细胞瘤BT325株细胞和19例病人新鲜脑胶质瘤细胞对8种化疗药物的敏感性。③结果人多形性胶质母细胞瘤BT325株细胞TUNEL法和MTT法所得结果高度一致;而用两种方法检测19例病人新鲜脑胶质瘤细胞药物敏感性,实验结果有一定的差异, TUNEL法优于MTT法。④结论在细胞高度均一时,TUNEL法和MTT法均可较好反映药敏情况,但随着所分离的肿瘤细胞纯度降低,MTT法难以准确反映药敏试验结果。

  11. Fault Reconnaissance Agent for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadi M. Shakshuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key prerequisite for a scalable, effective and efficient sensor network is the utilization of low-cost, low-overhead and high-resilient fault-inference techniques. To this end, we propose an intelligent agent system with a problem solving capability to address the issue of fault inference in sensor network environments. The intelligent agent system is designed and implemented at base-station side. The core of the agent system – problem solver – implements a fault-detection inference engine which harnesses Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm to estimate fault probabilities of sensor nodes. To validate the correctness and effectiveness of the intelligent agent system, a set of experiments in a wireless sensor testbed are conducted. The experimental results show that our intelligent agent system is able to precisely estimate the fault probability of sensor nodes.

  12. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  13. Mobile agent security using proxy-agents and trusted domains

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic, Nikola; Arronategui Arribalzaga, Unai

    2009-01-01

    Commercial or wide-network deployment of Mobile Agent Systems is not possible without satisfying security architecture. In this paper we propose architecture for secure Mobile Agent Systems, using Trusted Domains and Proxy agents. Existing approaches are based on security services at the level of an agent system, library or specific objects. Our concept uses proxy agents to enable transparent security services both to security-aware mobile agents and legacy agents. Per-agent and domain-level...

  14. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  15. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhraj eKaur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies.

  16. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  17. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  18. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  19. Robust Agent Teams via Socially-Attentive Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminka, G A; 10.1613/jair.682

    2011-01-01

    Agents in dynamic multi-agent environments must monitor their peers to execute individual and group plans. A key open question is how much monitoring of other agents' states is required to be effective: The Monitoring Selectivity Problem. We investigate this question in the context of detecting failures in teams of cooperating agents, via Socially-Attentive Monitoring, which focuses on monitoring for failures in the social relationships between the agents. We empirically and analytically explore a family of socially-attentive teamwork monitoring algorithms in two dynamic, complex, multi-agent domains, under varying conditions of task distribution and uncertainty. We show that a centralized scheme using a complex algorithm trades correctness for completeness and requires monitoring all teammates. In contrast, a simple distributed teamwork monitoring algorithm results in correct and complete detection of teamwork failures, despite relying on limited, uncertain knowledge, and monitoring only key agents in a team...

  20. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  1. Agents in domestic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moergestel, Leo van; Langerak, Wouter; Meerstra, Glenn; Nieuwenburg, Niels van; Pape, Franc; Telgen, Daniël; Puik, Erik; Meyer, John-Jules

    2013-01-01

    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to ti

  2. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  3. Secure Web Transaction with Anonymous Mobile Agent over Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChangJie(王常杰); ZHANG FangGuo(张方国); WANG YuMin(王育民)

    2003-01-01

    A major problem of mobile agents is their apparent inability to authenticate transactions in hostile environments. In this paper, a new secure anonymous mobile agent scheme is proposed for the prevention of agent tempering without compromising the mobility or autonomy of the agent. In the scheme, a mobile agent can produce valid signature on website's bid (it means to transact a contact with the web site) on behalf of its customer, without revealing the customer's real private key. In addition, the anonymity of the customer is also achieved when its agent transacts with the websites. Furthermore, the customer who issues a malicious agent or denies the transaction can be identified and detected by Agent Management Center (AMC). Therefore, the scheme is practical in the future electronic commerce over Internet.

  4. Integrated microfluidic system with automatic sampling for permanent molecular and antigen-based detection of CBRNE-related pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Holger; Schattschneider, Sebastian; Klemm, Richard; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Gärtner, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    The continuous monitoring of the environment for lethal pathogens is a central task in the field of biothreat detection. Typical scenarios involve air-sampling in locations such as public transport systems or large public events and a subsequent analysis of the samples by a portable instrument. Lab-on-a-chip technologies are one of the promising technological candidates for such a system. We have developed an integrated microfluidic system with automatic sampling for the detection of CBRNE-related pathogens. The chip contains a two-pronged analysis strategy, on the one hand an immunological track using antibodies immobilized on a frit and a subsequent photometric detection, on the other hand a molecular biology approach using continuous-flow PCR with a fluorescence end-point detection. The cartridge contains two-component molded rotary valve to allow active fluid control and switching between channels. The accompanying instrument contains all elements for fluidic and valve actuation, thermal control, as well as the two detection modalities. Reagents are stored in dedicated reagent packs which are connected directly to the cartridge. With this system, we have been able to demonstrate the detection of a variety of pathogen species.

  5. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction......Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  6. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  7. Organ-Specific Blood Signatures for Host Response to Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAK, Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia-1, and H1N1 Influenza virus (2009 pandemic Mex09, seasonal NIH50) (Task 1). The biothreat...and Legionella pneumophila experiments were performed with a deposition of ~1 x 106 CFU/lung. Infections with these non-biothreat lung pathogens...Influenza virus), as well as non-biothreat agents ( Legionella pneumophila , Pseudomonas aeruginosa,). Through collaborative efforts with researchers at

  8. Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations.

  9. Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K

    1998-01-01

    Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

  10. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  11. Research of Communication Mechanism of the Multi-agent in Multi-agent Robot Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The cooperation of multi-robot that is based on the multi-agent system (MAS) theory of distributed artificial intelligence has become a hotspot in the robotics R&D. In the research the multi-robot is regarded as multi-agent. So the communication and cooperation of multi-agent become the key problem for gaining the dynamic running information of cooperating robots. In this paper the authors introduce the communication modes for agent and provide a common strategy which aims at the communication resources of multi-agent model-the CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) protocol which is based on the transmittal medium. It supports the cable-communication of multi-robot and the experiments prove its validity.

  12. Ternary surface monolayers for ultrasensitive (zeptomole) amperometric detection of nucleic acid hybridization without signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Campuzano, Susana; Halford, Colin; Haake, David A; Wang, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    A ternary surface monolayer, consisting of coassembled thiolated capture probe, mercaptohexanol and dithiothreitol, is shown to offer dramatic improvements in the signal-to-noise characteristics of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on common self-assembled monolayers. Remarkably low detection limits down to 40 zmol (in 4 μL samples) as well as only 1 CFU Escherichia coli per sensor are thus obtained without any additional amplification step in connection to the commonly used horseradish peroxidase/3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine system. Such dramatic improvements in the detection limits (compared to those of common binary alkanethiol interfaces and to those of most electrochemical DNA sensing strategies without target or signal amplification) are attributed primarily to the remarkably higher resistance to nonspecific adsorption. This reflects the highly compact layer (with lower pinhole density) produced by the coupling of the cyclic- and linear-configuration "backfillers" that leads to a remarkably low background noise even in the presence of complex sample matrixes. A wide range of surface compositions have been investigated, and the ternary mixed monolayer has been systematically optimized. Detailed impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies shed useful insights into the surface coverage. The impressive sensitivity and high specificity of the simple developed methodology indicate great promise for a wide range of nucleic acid testing, including clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, food safety, and forensic analysis.

  13. Detection of Bacillus anthracis spores by super-paramagnetic lateral-flow immunoassays based on "Road Closure".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dian-Bing; Tian, Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Xu-Ying; Fleming, Joy; Bi, Li-Jun; Yang, Rui-Fu; Zhang, Xian-En

    2015-05-15

    Detection of Bacillus anthracis in the field, whether as a natural infection or as a biothreat remains challenging. Here we have developed a new lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) for B. anthracis spore detection based on the fact that conjugates of B. anthracis spores and super-paramagnetic particles labeled with antibodies will block the pores of chromatographic strips and form retention lines on the strips, instead of the conventionally reported test lines and control lines in classic LFIA. As a result, this new LFIA can simultaneously realize optical, magnetic and naked-eye detection by analyzing signals from the retention lines. As few as 500-700 pure B. anthracis spores can be recognized with CV values less than 8.31% within 5 min of chromatography and a total time of 20 min. For powdery sample tests, this LFIA can endure interference from 25% (w/v) milk, 10% (w/v) baking soda and 10% (w/v) starch without any sample pre-treatment, and has a corresponding detection limit of 6×10(4) spores/g milk powder, 2×10(5) spores/g starch and 5×10(5) spores/g baking soda. Compared with existing methods, this new approach is very competitive in terms of sensitivity, specificity, cost and ease of operation. This proof-of-concept study can also be extended for detection of many other large-sized analytes.

  14. Characterization of clinically-attenuated Burkholderia mallei by whole genome sequencing: candidate strain for exclusion from Select Agent lists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Schutzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burkholderia mallei is an understudied biothreat agent responsible for glanders which can be lethal in humans and animals. Research with this pathogen has been hampered in part by constraints of Select Agent regulations for safety reasons. Whole genomic sequencing (WGS is an apt approach to characterize newly discovered or poorly understood microbial pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed WGS on a strain of B. mallei, SAVP1, previously pathogenic, that was experimentally infected in 6 equids (4 ponies, 1 mule, 1 donkey, natural hosts, for purposes of producing antibodies. Multiple high inocula were used in some cases. Unexpectedly SAVP1 appeared to be avirulent in the ponies and mule, and attenuated in the donkey, but induced antibodies. We determined the genome sequence of SAVP1 and compared it to a strain that was virulent in horses and a human. In comparison, this phenotypic avirulent SAVP1 strain was missing multiple genes including all the animal type III secretory system (T3SS complex of genes demonstrated to be essential for virulence in mice and hamster models. The loss of these genes in the SAVP1 strain appears to be the consequence of a multiple gene deletion across insertion sequence (IS elements in the B. mallei genome. Therefore, the strain by itself is unlikely to revert naturally to its virulent phenotype. There were other genes present in one strain and not the other and vice-versa. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The discovery that this strain of B. mallei was both avirulent in the natural host ponies, and did not possess T3SS associated genes may be fortuitous to advance biodefense research. The deleted virulence-essential T3SS is not likely to be re-acquired naturally. These findings may provide a basis for exclusion of SAVP1 from the Select Agent regulation or at least discussion of what else would be required for exclusion. This exclusion could accelerate research by investigators not possessing BSL-3

  15. Multi-agent cooperative intrusion response in mobile adhoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Zou Futai; Jiang Xinghao; Li Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    The nature of adhoc networks makes them vulnerable to security attacks. Many security technologies such as intrusion prevention and intrusion detection are passive in response to intrusions in that their countermeasures are only to protect the networks, and there is no automated network-wide counteraction against detected intrusions. the architecture of cooperation intrusion response based multi-agent is propose. The architecture is composed of mobile agents. Monitor agent resides on every node and monitors its neighbor nodes. Decision agent collects information from monitor nodes and detects an intrusion by security policies. When an intruder is found in the architecture, the block agents will get to the neighbor nodes of the intruder and form the mobile firewall to isolate the intruder. In the end, we evaluate it by simulation.

  16. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  17. Field application of pathogen detection technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Call, Douglas R.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Colburn, Heather A.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Jarman, Kristin H.

    2016-06-29

    Over the last 10 years there has been a significant increase in commercial products designed for field-based detection of microbial pathogens. This is due, in part, to the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001, and the need for first responders to quickly identify the composition of suspected white powders and other potential biothreats. Demand for rapid detection is also driven by the need to ensure safe food, water, and environmental systems. From a technology perspective, rapid identification methods have largely capitalized on PCR and other molecular recognition techniques that can be deployed as robust field instrumentation. Examples of the relevant needs include the ability to: 1) declare a water distribution system free of microbial pathogens after a pipe/main break repair; 2) assess risks of contamination such as when produce production and processing plants are located near concentrated animal feeing operations; 3) evaluate the safety of ready-to-eat products; 4) determine the extent of potential serious disease outbreaks in remote and/or disaster stricken areas where access to clinical laboratories is not an immediate option; and 5) quickly assess credible biological terrorism events. Many of the principles underlying rapid detection methods are derived from methods for environmental microbiology, but there is a dearth of literature describing and evaluating field-based detection systems. Thus, the aims of this chapter are to: 1) summarize the different kinds of commercially available sampling kits and field-based biological detectors; 2) highlight some of the continued challenges of sample preparation to stimulate new research towards minimizing the impact of inhibitors on PCR-based detection systems; 3) describe our general rationale and statistically-based approach for instrument evaluation; 4) provide statistical and spatial guidelines for developing valid sampling plans; and 5) summarize some current needs and emerging technologies. This

  18. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 石纯一

    2002-01-01

    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  19. Rapid detection of eight fluorescent whitening agents in textile by ultra performance convergence chromatography%超高效合相色谱法快速检测纺织品中的8种荧光增白剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤娟; 丁友超; 曹锡忠; 齐琰; 钱凯

    2014-01-01

    An accurate quantitative and confirmative method has been developed for the deter-mination of eight fluorescent whitening agents(FWAs)in textile by ultra performance conver-gence chromatography( UPC 2 )coupled with photo diode array( PDA)detection,including 1,2-bis(5-methyl-2-benzoxazole)ethylene( PF),7-diethylamino-4-methylcoumarin( SWN),2, 2′-(2,5-thiophenediyl)bis( 5-( 1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzoxazol( OB),2-[ 4-[ 2-[ 4-( 2-benzox-azolyl)phenyl]ethenyl]phenyl]-5-methyl-benzoxazol( KSN),1,4-bis(2-cyanostyryl)benzene (ER-Ⅰ),1-(2-cyanostyryl)-4-( 4-cyanostyryl)benzene( ER-Ⅱ),2,2′-( 1,4-naphthalenediyl) bis-benzoxazol(KCB),4,4′-bis[2-(2-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-1,1′-biphenyl( FP). The sam-ple was extracted with xylene and concentrated by a rotary evaporator,and then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by UPC 2 . The separation of target compounds was achieved on an ACQUITY UPC 2 HSS C18 SB column(100 mm × 3. 0 mm,1. 8 μm)by a gradient elution with supercritical carbon dioxide and methanol as mobile phases. External standard method was used for the quantitative determination and the calibration curves showed good linearity in the concentration range of 1. 0 - 20.0 mg / L for the eight target compounds with correlation coeffi-cients not less than 0. 999 1. The limits of quantification of the eight compounds(LOQs,S / N =10)were 0. 70-0. 95 mg / L. The average recoveries of the eight compounds ranged from 90. 9%to 96. 5% at the spiked levels of 2. 0,5. 0,10. 0 mg / kg with the relative standard deviations (RSDs)of 2. 8% -4. 2% . The method is simple,accurate and time-saving with high sensitivity, and can be used for the rapid determination of the eight FWAs in textile.%建立了同时检测纺织品中1,2-双(5-甲基-2-苯并恶唑基)-乙烯(PF)、7-二乙氨基-4-甲基香豆素(SWN)、2,2′-(2,5-二苯基硫代)双[5-(1,1-二甲基乙基)]苯并恶唑( OB)、2-[4-[2-[4-(2-苯并恶唑基)苯基]乙烯基]苯基]-5

  20. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  1. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...... on our cultural profiles that provide us with heuristics of behavior and interpretation. Thus, integrating cultural aspects of communicative behaviors in virtual agents and thus enculturating such systems seems to be inevitable. But culture is a multi-defined domain and thus a number of pitfalls arise...

  2. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  3. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  4. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  5. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  6. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  7. Programming Agents with Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi; Floor, Chr.; Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show how a cognitive agent programming language can be endowed with ways to program emotions. In particular we show how the programming language 2APL can be augmented so that it can work together with the computational emotion model ALMA to deal with appraisal, emotion/mood generati

  8. Remote Agent Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  9. Flow cytometric detection of micronuclei and cell cycle alterations in fish-derived cells after exposure to three model genotoxic agents: mitomycin C, vincristine sulfate and benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, P; Llorente, M T; Castaño, A

    2000-02-16

    The measurement of cytogenetic alterations in vitro is considered an initial step in the risk assessment procedures for genotoxic agents. The concern about genotoxic pollutants in natural fish population makes the use of fish-derived cells an useful tool for these purposes. The technological improvements in well-established cytogenetic endpoints, such as micronuclei (MN) estimations by means of flow cytometry, have been proposed in the later years using mammalian cells. In this work, we test the capability of flow cytometry to evaluate MN induction and cell cycle alterations in an established fish cell line (RTG-2) using three agent-inductor models at different concentrations and exposure periods. For mitomycin C, an inverse relationship between length of exposure period and concentrations was observed. A dose-response relationship was observed after exposing RTG-2 cells to vincristine sulfate and benzo(a)pyrene. As this study shows, RTG-2 cells respond to clastogenic and aneugenic effects of the tested chemicals through the induction of MN at similar doses to mammalian cells and without the addition of exogenous metabolic activity. The possibility to check cell cycle alterations, in the same sample, gives the opportunity to evaluate early signals of cytotoxicity. The use of flow cytometry improves the assay by means of its speed and objectivity, which makes the assay very useful for genotoxicity assessment of aquatic chemicals.

  10. Agent-Based Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2012-01-01

    Agent-based cloud computing is concerned with the design and development of software agents for bolstering cloud service\\ud discovery, service negotiation, and service composition. The significance of this work is introducing an agent-based paradigm for\\ud constructing software tools and testbeds for cloud resource management. The novel contributions of this work include: 1) developing\\ud Cloudle: an agent-based search engine for cloud service discovery, 2) showing that agent-based negotiatio...

  11. Detection of the reemerging agent Burkholderia mallei in a recent outbreak of glanders in the United Arab Emirates by a newly developed fliP-based polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Holger C; Joseph, Marina; Tomaso, Herbert; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Witte, Angela; Kinne, Joerg; Hagen, Ralph M; Wernery, Renate; Wernery, Ulrich; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2006-04-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the flagellin P (fliP)-I S407A genomic region of Burkholderia mallei was developed for the specific detection of this organism in pure cultures and clinical samples from a recent outbreak of equine glanders. Primers deduced from the known fliP-IS407A sequence of B. mallei American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 23344(T) allowed the specific amplification of a 989-bp fragment from each of the 20 B. mallei strains investigated, whereas other closely related organisms tested negative. The detection limit of the assay was 10 fg for purified DNA of B. mallei ATCC 23344(T). B. mallei DNA was also amplified from various tissues of horses with a generalized B. mallei infection. The developed PCR assay can be used as a simple and rapid tool for the specific and sensitive detection of B. mallei in clinical samples.

  12. Announcements to Attentive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans; Herzig, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    In public announcement logic it is assumed that all agents pay attention to the announcement. Weaker observational conditions can be modelled in action model logic. In this work, we propose a version of public announcement logic wherein it is encoded in the states of the epistemic model which...... agents pay attention to the announcement. This logic is called attention-based announcement logic. We give an axiomatization of the logic and prove that complexity of satisfiability is the same as that of public announcement logic, and therefore lower than that of action model logic. An attention......-based announcement can also be described as an action model. We extend our logic by integrating attention change. Finally, we add the notion of common belief to the language, we exploit this to formalize the concept of joint attention, that has been widely discussed in the philosophical and cognitive science...

  13. Pharmacology of antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Kiran; Franzese, Christopher J; Gesheff, Martin G; Lev, Eli I; Pandya, Shachi; Bliden, Kevin P; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Pharmacotherapies with agents that inhibit platelet function have proven to be effective in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, and in the prevention of complications during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of multiple synergetic pathways of platelet activation and their close interplay with coagulation, current treatment strategies are based not only on platelet inhibition, but also on the attenuation of procoagulant activity, inhibition of thrombin generation, and enhancement of clot dissolution. Current strategies can be broadly categorized as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics. This review focuses on the pharmacology of current antiplatelet therapy primarily targeting the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1, the P2Y12 receptor, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1.

  14. [Pharmacology of inotropic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastelín Hernández, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    High-risk patients, during anesthesia and after surgery present changes in pharmacokinetics (biotransformation reactions, renal clearance, drug interactions, etc.) modifying the usefulness of most drugs, cardiac inotropics included. This group of substances is formed by adrenergic agents, phospodiesterase inhibitors and digitalis compounds. Adrenergic agents are the catecholamines, adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (D), plus dopaminergic agonists as dobutamine and pirbuterol. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, as amrinone and milrinone, produce their inotropic action by preserving cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMPc) from its intracellular catabolism. Recent studies on the utility of digitalis compounds demonstrated the valuable applicability of digoxin in chronic and acute heart failure. Another group of substances whose mechanism of action differs from that of the inotropics, offers future utility in high risk patients, they include: inhibitors of nitric oxide sintases, natriuretic atrial peptide inhibitors, Q-10 coenzyme, endothelin antagonists, and anti-tumoral necrosis factor.

  15. [The antiretroviral agent Fullevir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosik, D N; Lialina, I K; Kalnina, L B; Lobach, O A; Chataeva, M S; Rasnetsov, L D

    2009-01-01

    The antiretroviral properties of Fullevir (sodium salt of fullerenepolyhydropolyaminocaproic acid) manufactured by IntelFarm Co.) were studied in the human cell culture infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The agent was ascertained to be able to protect the cell from the cytopathic action of HIV. The 90% effective concentration (EF90) was 5 microg/ml. The 50% average toxic concentration was 400 microg/ml. Testing of different (preventive and therapeutic) Fullevir dosage regimens has shown that the drug is effective when used both an hour before and an hour after infection and when administered simultaneously with cell infection. The longer contact time for the agent with the cells increased the degree of antiviral defense. Co-administration of Fullevir and the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor Retrovir (azidothymidine) showed a synergistic antiretroviral effect. Thus, Fullevir may be regarded as a new promising antiretroviral drug for the treatment of HIV infection.

  16. Intelligent Agent Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The DARPA knowledge sharing effort: Progress report. In B. Nebel , C. Rich, and W. Swartout, editors, Principles of Knowledge Representation and...and Automation, pages 2,785-2,788. IEEE CS Press. [18] Carl Hewitt. Offices are open systems. Communications of the ACM, 4(3):271-287, July 1986...19] Carl Hewitt and Jeff Inman. DAI betwixt and be- tween: From "intelligent agents" to open systems sci- ence. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man

  17. Sunscreening Agents: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Latha, M. S.; Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; B R Naveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food an...

  18. NOVEL ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Vinay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotics are a group of drugs commonly but not exclusively used to treat psychosis. Antipsychotic agents are grouped in two categories: Typical and Atypical antipsychotics. The first antipsychotic was chlorpromazine, which was developed as a surgical anesthetic. The first atypical anti-psychotic medication, clozapine, was discovered in the 1950s, and introduced in clinical practice in the 1970s. Both typical and atypical antipsychotics are effective in reducing positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Blockade of D2 receptor in mesolimbic pathway is responsible for antipsychotic action. Typical antipsychotics are not particularly selective and also block Dopamine receptors in the mesocortical pathway, tuberoinfundibular pathway, and the nigrostriatal pathway. Blocking D2 receptors in these other pathways is thought to produce some of the unwanted side effects. Atypical antipsychotics differ from typical psychotics in their "limbic-specific" dopamine type 2 (D2-receptor binding and high ratio of serotonin type 2 (5-HT2-receptor binding to D2. Atypical antipsychotics are associated with a decreased capacity to cause EPSs, TD, narcoleptic malignant syndrome, and hyperprolactinemia. Atypical antipsychotic agents were developed in response to problems with typical agents, including lack of efficacy in some patients, lack of improvement in negative symptoms, and troublesome adverse effects, especially extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs and tardive dyskinesia (TD.

  19. Agents Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    dishonest behaviors can be largely domain specific. So, our method for detecting and penalizing dishonesty allows for heuristics to be used in the detection...by reducing the complexity of the NE component which is the most expensive component computationally. RL-SANE has only been applied to academic

  20. Clinical application of several tumor imaging agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Neoplasms is one of the main diseases for harming health.It is difficult to prevent the neoplasms because the factors of bringing out them are complex.To raise survival rate the early diagnosis of tumors is very important.Radionuclide imaging is useful to detect recurrent or residual diseaseand to identificate benign or malignant tumor.Several tumorimaging agents as following have clinical significance indiagnosing tumors.

  1. Evaluation of Multiplex Type-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays Using the LightCycler and Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System Platforms for Detection and Quantitation of Adult Human Respiratory Adenoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    causing bacteria . These assays have the potential to be useful as clinical diagnostic tools for the detection of HAdV infection in adult populations...conjunctivitis, genitouri- nary infections, and gastroenteritis , and specific types of ade- novirus are associated with specific types of disease (18, 21...react with other adenoviruses, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, or respiratory disease-causing bacteria . These assays have the

  2. Agents Play Mix-game

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    In mix-game which is an extension of minority game, there are two groups of agents; group1 plays the majority game, but the group2 plays the minority game. This paper studies the change of the average winnings of agents and volatilities vs. the change of mixture of agents in mix-game model. It finds that the correlations between the average winnings of agents and the mean of local volatilities are different with different combinations of agent memory length when the proportion of agents in group 1 increases. This study result suggests that memory length of agents in group1 be smaller than that of agent in group2 when mix-game model is used to simulate the financial markets.

  3. 聚合酶链反应法测定7种抗生素耐药基因%Molecular detection of 7 antibiotic gene resistance loci with PCR in non-culturable agents of infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊咏民; Moore,Johne; 等

    2001-01-01

    目的 建立快速检测非培养感染物中抗生素耐药基因表达的分子生物学方法,为临床的早期诊断和治疗及研究微生物学耐药机制提供一种理想的分子生物学技术。方法 应用聚合酶链反应测定7种抗生素耐药基因,并通过优化测定体系中镁离子浓度、引物浓度及引物退火温度等,对PCR反应方法进行了质控。结果 7种抗生素耐药基因扩增条带清晰,无非特异性扩增条带,与所设计的扩增片段大小相符。结论 应用PCR检测微生物的耐药基因,灵敏度高,特异性强。可简便、快速地检测细菌、真菌、衣原体和支原体的耐药基因,尤其联合检验对临床早期诊断、治疗及鉴定耐药菌株及亚型具有一定价值。%Objcetive To establish rapid detection of antibiotic generesistance loci by molecular-based technologies,Polymerase chain reaction(PCR)will allow for a more directed antibiotic therapy and may also provide an ideal molecular tool for early identification of resistant organisms and resistance mechanism.Methods Detections of 7 antibiotic genes resistance loci by PCR,and magnesium ion concentration,primer concentration and primer-annealing temperature of 7 antibiotic resistance genes have been optimized.Results 7 antibiotic gene resistance loci were targeted using specific primers resulting a single band on ethiduim bromide gels,and the apparent molecular weights of these fragments were same as the expected values.Conclusion Detection of antibiotic gene resistance loci by PCR is a fast,simple and reliable test for the specificity of amplification reaction,and PCR detection assays have been developed for many bacterial fungal,viral and parasitic pathogens.Particularly,combined detection of drug-resistance may help obtain early diagnosis and more directed antibiotic therapy and strain identification of resistant organisms.

  4. Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  5. Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  6. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...... of globalization, social progress, and competitive logic. For our approximation, we use the concepts societies of control, dispositive, and discourses from a Foucault–Deleuze toolbox. Our purpose is to cast light on the social and cultural constitution of the ways of thinking about the mathematics teacher. Hence...

  7. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  8. Agentes selladores en endodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Recibido: Noviembre 2002 Aceptado: Enero 2003 La gutapercha sigue siendo uno de los materiales predilectos, pero debido a su falta de adhesión a las paredes dentinarias, debe estar siempre combinada con un sellador que actúe como interfase entre la masa de gutapercha y la estructura dentaria. El uso de un agente sellador para obturar los conductos radiculares es esencial para el éxito del proceso de obturación. Un buen sellador debe ser biocompatible y bien tolerado por los tejid...

  9. Agentes de información Information Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental.This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

  10. Multi Agent Micromanipulation System

    OpenAIRE

    Sano, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    In the area of biotechnology, a micromanipulation is widely used for such purposes as operating on genes and transferring biological materials into cells. For the some experiments, such as biochemical experiment, a large number of cells have to be manipulated in a short time. We have developed an automatic micromanipulation system under the stereoscopic microscope. Micromanipulation system carries out various processes, such as detection of the target, the detection of the needle head, and mo...

  11. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  12. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  13. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of [{sup 99m}Tc]-labeled tricarbonyl His-annexin A5 as an imaging agent for the detection of phosphatidylserine-expressing cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangestel, Christel, E-mail: christel.vangestel@ugent.b [Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent University Hospital, 9000-B Ghent (Belgium); Peeters, Marc [Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent University Hospital, 9000-B Ghent (Belgium); Oltenfreiter, Ruth; D' Asseler, Yves [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, 9000-B Ghent (Belgium); Staelens, Steven [Department of Medical Signal and Image Processing Group, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University-IBBT, 9000-B Ghent (Belgium); Van Steenkiste, Magali [Department of Radiopharmacy, Ghent University, 9000-B Ghent (Belgium); Philippe, Jan [Department of Clinical Biology, Microbiology and Immunology, Ghent University, 9000-B Ghent (Belgium); Kusters, Dennis; Reutelingsperger, Chris [Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Maastricht, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Van Damme, Nancy [Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent University Hospital, 9000-B Ghent (Belgium); Van de Wiele, Christophe [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, 9000-B Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: Apoptosis is one of the mechanisms behind successful chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Radiolabeled annexin A5 has been demonstrated to be a successful tool in the detection of apoptosis following chemotherapy in vivo. Methods: His-tagged annexin A5 was labeled with [{sup 99m}Tc]-tricarbonyl and evaluated as apoptosis imaging radiotracer in vitro and in vivo. The binding of the radiotracer was evaluated in Colo205 cells stimulated with 5-FU (1 mM) for 4 and 24 h, and confirmed by flow cytometry. Biodistribution and dosimetric studies were performed in healthy nude mice (n=5) via planar scintigraphy. [{sup 99m}Tc]-(CO){sub 3} His-annexin A5 was also evaluated for in vivo imaging of spontaneous apoptosis in Colo205-bearing mice (n=12). Results: The labeling procedure yielded a compound with 95-99% radiochemical purity and good in vitro stability. In vitro binding experiments indicated that the radiotracer retained its PS-binding activity. [{sup 99m}Tc]-(CO){sub 3} His-annexin A5 rapidly cleared from the blood and predominantly accumulated in the kidneys. Absorbed dose (per organ) was found to be 116{+-}64 {mu}Gy/MBq for the kidneys and 10.38{+-}0.50 {mu}Gy/MBq for the liver. The effective dose was 7.00{+-}0.28 {mu}Sv/MBq. Spontaneous apoptosis in Colo205-bearing mice was visualised by [{sup 99m}Tc]-(CO){sub 3} His-annexin A5 SPECT and correlated well with caspase-3 immunostaining (R=0.867, P<.01). Conclusion: [{sup 99m}Tc]-(CO){sub 3} His-annexin A5 may be a useful novel radioligand for the in vivo detection of cell death associated with PS expression. A simple, noninvasive way of detecting apoptosis in vivo could have many applications including a better understanding of the extent and timing of apoptosis in response to cancer therapies and assessment of early tumor response.

  15. MORBIDITY AGENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Neelesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss on clinical representation of morbid jealousy which often termed delusional jealousy or ‘Othello Syndrome’ is a psychiatric condition where a lover believes against all reason and their beloved is being sexually unfaithful. Patients will be preoccupied with their partner’s perceived lack of sexual fidelity and will often behave in an unacceptable or extreme way as they endeavor to prove their ideas. Misuse of any psychomotor is an important association cause morbidity jealousy agents, like CNS stimulants that release the catecholamine, particularly dopamine, from pre synaptic terminals substance should be treated as a priority. Where higher levels of violence are reported Sildenafil may be useful as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic test in such cases .Many studies have shown an association between high alcohol consumption and developing morbid jealousy. Amphetamine-induced psychosis has been extensively studied because of its close resemblance to schizophrenia.

  16. UTBot: A Virtual Agent Platform for Teaching Agent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Cheol Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce UTBot, a virtual agent platform for teaching agent system design. UTBot implements a client for the Unreal Tournament game server and Gamebots system. It provides students with the basic functionality required to start developing their own intelligent virtual agents to play autonomously UT games. UTBot includes a generic agent architecture, CAA (Context-sensitive Agent Architecture, a domain-specific world model, a visualization tool, several basic strategies (represented by internal modes and internal behaviors, and skills (represented by external behaviors. The CAA architecture can support complex long-term behaviors as well as reactive short-term behaviors. It also realizes high context-sensitivity of behaviors. We also discuss our experience using UTBot as a pedagogical tool for teaching agent system design in undergraduate Artificial Intelligence course.

  17. Novel nanomedicine-based MRI contrast agents for gynecological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Vicky V; Nounou, Mohamed Ismail; Bikram, Malavosklish

    2009-08-10

    Gynecological cancers result in significant morbidity and mortality in women despite advances in treatment and diagnosis. This is due to detection of the disease in the late stages following metastatic spread in which treatment options become limited and may not result in positive outcomes. In addition, traditional contrast agents are not very effective in detecting primary metastatic tumors and cells due to a lack of specificity and sensitivity of the diagnostic tools, which limits their effectiveness. Recently, the field of nanomedicine-based contrast agents offers a great opportunity to develop highly sophisticated devices that can overcome many traditional hurdles of contrast agents including solubility, cell-specific targeting, toxicities, and immunological responses. These nanomedicine-based contrast agents including liposomes, micelles, dendrimers, multifunctional magnetic polymeric nanohybrids, fullerenes, and nanotubes represent improvements over their traditional counterparts, which can significantly advance the field of molecular imaging.

  18. Research Recommendations for Selected IARC-Classified Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Elizabeth M; Schulte, Paul A; Straif, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There are some common occupational agents and exposure circumstances where evidence of carcinogenicity is substantial but not yet conclusive for humans. The objectives are to identify research gaps and needs for twenty agents prioritized for review based on evidence of widespread human......, focusing on research that would be important in resolving classification uncertainties. An expert meeting brought reviewers together to discuss each agent and the identified data gaps and approaches. DATA SYNTHESIS: Several overarching issues were identified that pertained to multiple agents...... the mechanisms through which exogenous agents cause cancer and intervene to prevent human exposure and/or prevent or detect cancer among those already exposed. Scientific developments are likely to increase the challenges and complexities of carcinogen testing and evaluation in the future, and epidemiologic...

  19. A Transport Model of Mobile Agent Based on Secure Hybrid Encryption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNZhixin; CHENZhixian; WANGRuchuan

    2005-01-01

    The solution of security problems of mobile agents is a key issue, which will decide whether mobile agents can be widely used. The paper analyzes main security problems, which currently are confronted with mobile agent systems and existing protection solutions. And then the paper presents a Security Transport model of mobile agents based on a hybrid encryption algorithm (TMSHE).Meanwhile, it expatiates on implementation of the algorithm. The algorithm of TMSHE model mainly consists of two parts, i.e., employing a hybrid encryption algorithm to encrypt mobile agents and using Transport layer security (TLS) to encrypt communication channel. Mobile agents by hybrid encryption move through communication channels, which are encrypted by TLS. The simulation results indicate that the model can protect mobile agents' security effectively, and consequently the security and steadiness of the whole mobile agent system are also improved. The model has succeeded in getting application in a prototypesystem- Intrusion detection system based on mobile agents.

  20. A Bayesian formulation for auction-based task allocation in heterogeneous multi-agent teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Charles E.; Christensen, Henrik

    2011-06-01

    In distributed, heterogeneous, multi-agent teams, agents may have different capabilities and types of sensors. Agents in dynamic environments will need to cooperate in real-time to perform tasks with minimal costs. Some example scenarios include dynamic allocation of UAV and UGV robot teams to possible hurricane survivor locations, search and rescue and target detection. Auction based algorithms scale well because agents generally only need to communicate bid information. In addition, the agents are able to perform their computations in parallel and can operate on local information. Furthermore, it is easy to integrate humans and other vehicle types and sensor combinations into an auction framework. However, standard auction mechanisms do not explicitly consider sensors with varying reliability. The agents sensor qualities should be explicitly accounted. Consider a scenario with multiple agents, each carrying a single sensor. The tasks in this case are to simply visit a location and detect a target. The sensors are of varying quality, with some having a higher probability of target detection. The agents themselves may have different capabilities, as well. The agents use knowledge of their environment to submit cost-based bids for performing each task and an auction is used to perform the task allocation. This paper discusses techniques for including a Bayesian formulation of target detection likelihood into this auction based framework for performing task allocation across multi-agent heterogeneous teams. Analysis and results of experiments with multiple air systems performing distributed target detection are also included.

  1. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  2. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  3. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  4. Agent 与Multi-Agent System 技术研究%The Research on Agent and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党建武; 韩泉叶; 崔文华

    2002-01-01

    分析了Multi-Agent System 涉及的相关问题,在普通的Multi-Agent System的组织结构的基础上提出了管理服务机构,中介服务机构和主控流动服务机构的Multi-Agent System,并对不同组织结构的Agent之间的协同进行了讨论.

  5. Research on Negotiating Agent Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ding-guo; PENG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible and effective method of development of negotiating agents.A strategy specification, which is specified by a state chart and defeasible rules, can be dynamically inserted into an agent shell incorporating a state chart interpreter and a defeasible logic inference engine, in order to yield a desirable agent.The set of desirable criteria and rules is required to be justified with different context of the application.

  6. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then propose some basic ideas for developing real-time agent-based software system for business intelligence in supply chain management, using Case Base Reasoning Agents.

  7. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Da eZhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

  8. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  9. Deliberate evolution in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. After its creation the new agent participates fully in the running multi-agent system. The age

  10. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  11. Automatic Generation of Agents using Reusable Soft Computing Code Libraries to develop Multi Agent System for Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Srinivas Sajja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates architecture for a multi agent system in healthcare domain. The architecture is generic and designed in form of multiple layers. One of the layers of the architecture contains many proactive, co-operative and intelligent agents such as resource management agent, query agent, pattern detection agent and patient management agent. Another layer of the architecture is a collection of libraries to auto-generate code for agents using soft computing techniques. At this stage, codes for artificial neural network and fuzzy logic are developed and encompassed in this layer. The agents use these codes for development of neural network, fuzzy logic or hybrid solutions such as neuro-fuzzy solution. Third layer encompasses knowledge base, metadata and other local databases. The multi layer architecture is supported by personalized user interfaces for friendly interaction with its users. The framework is generic, flexible, and designed for a distributed environment like the Web; with minor modifications it can be employed on grid or cloud platform. The paper also discusses detail design issues, suitable applications and future enhancement of the work.

  12. Implementing Lego Agents Using Jason

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Since many of the currently available multi-agent frameworks are generally mostly intended for research, it can be difficult to built multi-agent systems using physical robots. In this report I describe a way to combine the multi-agent framework Jason, an extended version of the agent-oriented programming language AgentSpeak, with Lego robots to address this problem. By extending parts of the Jason reasoning cycle I show how Lego robots are able to complete tasks such as following lines on a floor and communicating to be able to avoid obstacles with minimal amount of coding. The final implementation is a functional extension that is able to built multi-agent systems using Lego agents, however there are some issues that have not been addressed. If the agents are highly dependent on percepts from their sensors, they are required to move quite slowly, because there currently is a high delay in the reasoning cycle, when it is combined with a robot. Overall the system is quite robust and can be used to make simple...

  13. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  14. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  15. Activity Recognition for Agent Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    seek to use in the upcoming confrontation. There is not a simple mapping between a character capabilities and this policy; an effective team role must...additional research challenges, specific to the team role assumed by the agent. Agents that support individual human team members face the following chal

  16. Collaborative Problem in Multi-agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳; 钟诗胜; 王知行

    2004-01-01

    In the MAS, system goal task can be decomposed into many transactions, which will be achieved by special agents distributed in different physical space. Due to complex coupling relations among transactions,transactions may form Waiting-Circle resulting in deadlock. Concerning the problem, this paper proposes two theorems developed for Waiting-Circle detection in transaction set and ensures the implement of goal task decomposition result. Furthermore, Circle-First Search is put forward to search all of the Waiting-Circle, which provide the basic guideline for decomposing goal task again and eliminate Waiting-Circle.

  17. Consensus pursuit of heterogeneous multi-agent systems under a directed acyclic graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jing; Guan Xin-Ping; Luo Xiao-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the cooperative target pursuit problem by multiple agents based on directed acyclic graph. The target appears at a random location and moves only when sensed by the agents, and agents will pursue the target once they detect its existence. Since the ability of each agent may be different, we consider the heterogeneous multi-agent systems.According to the topology of the multi-agent systems, a novel consensus-based control law is proposed, where the target and agents are modeled as a leader and followers, respectively. Based on Mason's rule and signal flow graph analysis, the convergence conditions are provided to show that the agents can catch the target in a finite time. Finally, simulation studies are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Evidence of VX nerve agent use from contaminated white mustard plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gravett, Matthew R.; Hopkins, Farrha B.; Self, Adam J.; Webb, Andrew J; Timperley, Christopher M.; Baker, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, transfer or use of chemical weapons by Member States. Verification of compliance and investigations into allegations of use require accurate detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products. Detection of CWAs such as organophosphorus nerve agents in the environment relies mainly upon the analysis of soil. We now present a method for the detection of the nerve a...

  19. pH-Sensitive Microparticles with Matrix-Dispersed Active Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Calle, Luz M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods to produce pH-sensitive microparticles that have an active agent dispersed in a polymer matrix have certain advantages over microcapsules with an active agent encapsulated in an interior compartment/core inside of a polymer wall. The current invention relates to pH-sensitive microparticles that have a corrosion-detecting or corrosion-inhibiting active agent or active agents dispersed within a polymer matrix of the microparticles. The pH-sensitive microparticles can be used in various coating compositions on metal objects for corrosion detecting and/or inhibiting.

  20. Mobile agent driven by aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Hannad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Domain application of mobile agents is quite large. They are used for network management and the monitoring of complex architecture. Mobile agent is also essential into specific software architecture such that adaptable grid architecture. Even if the concept of mobile agent seems to be obvious, the development is always complex because it needs to understand network features but also security features and negotiation algorithms. We present a work about an application of aspects dedicated to mobile agent development over a local network. At this level, the underlying protocol is called jini and allows managing several essential concepts such that short transaction and permission management. Three subsets of aspects are defined in this work. A part is for the description of agent host and its security level, accessible resource, etc. A second part is about mobile agent and their collaboration. This means how they can operate on an agent host with the respect of the execution context. All the results are illustrated through a distributed monitoring application called DMA. Its main objective is the observation of component servers.

  1. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...

  2. Agent Based Multiviews Requirements Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the current researches of viewpoints oriented requirements engineering and intelligent agent, we present the concept of viewpoint agent and its abstract model based on a meta-language for multiviews requirements engineering. It provided a basis for consistency checking and integration of different viewpoint requirements, at the same time, these checking and integration works can automatically realized in virtue of intelligent agent's autonomy, proactiveness and social ability. Finally, we introduce the practical application of the model by the case study of data flow diagram.

  3. Antibacterial agents in the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, J E; García Sánchez, E; Merino Marcos, M L

    2006-12-01

    Numerous procedures used as antibacterial therapy are present in many films and include strategies ranging from different antimicrobial drugs to surgery and supporting measures. Films also explore the correct use and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Side effects and other aspects related to antibacterial therapy have also been reflected in some films. This article refers to the presence of antibacterial agents in different popular movies. There are movies in which antibacterial agents form part of the central plot, while in others it is merely an important part of the plot. In still others, its presence is isolated, and in these it plays an ambient or anecdotal role.

  4. Using Mobile Agents and Overlay Networks to Secure Electrical Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawes, Neal A.; Prosser, Bryan J.; Fulp, Errin W.; McKinnon, Archibald D.

    2013-02-11

    ABSTRACT The use of wandering, mobile agents can provide a robust approach for managing, monitoring, and securing electrical distribution networks. However, the topological structure of electrical networks can affect system performance. For example, if the multi-agent system relies on a regular inspection rate (on average, points of interest are inspected with equal frequency), then locations that are not well connected will on average be inspected less frequently. This paper discusses creation and use of overlay networks that create a virtual grid graph can provide faster coverage and a more uniform average agent sampling rate. Using overlays agents wander a virtual neighborhood consisting of only points of interest that are interconnected in a regular fashion (each point has the same number of neighbors). Experimental results will show that an overlay can often provide better network coverage and a more uniform inspection rate, which can improve cyber security by providing a faster detection of threats.

  5. Using Mobile Agents and Overlay Networks to Secure Electrical Netoworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawes, Neal A.; Prosser, Bryan J.; Fulp, Errin W.; McKinnon, Archibald D.

    2013-04-01

    ABSTRACT The use of wandering, mobile agents can provide a robust approach for managing, monitoring, and securing electrical distribution networks. However, the topological structure of electrical networks can affect system performance. For example, if the multi-agent system relies on a regular inspection rate (on average, points of interest are inspected with equal frequency), then locations that are not well connected will on average be inspected less frequently. This paper discusses creation and use of overlay networks that create a virtual grid graph can provide faster coverage and a more uniform average agent sampling rate. Using overlays agents wander a virtual neighborhood consisting of only points of interest that are interconnected in a regular fashion (each point has the same number of neighbors). Experimental results will show that an overlay can often provide better network coverage and a more uniform inspection rate, which can improve cyber security by providing a faster detection of threats

  6. [Bioterrorism, parasites as potential bioterrorism agents and biosecurity studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Umit

    2006-01-01

    A variety of agents have a potential risk for being use as weapons of biological terrorism. However, the use of parasites as bioterrorism agents has not received so much attention. Parasites could contribute to the installation of fear in human population upon intentional addition to their food and water supplies. On the other hand, vector-borne parasites can also constitute risk of bioterrorism. Biosecurity issues are gaining importance as a consequence of globalization. Surveillance is critical in maintaining biosecurity and early detection of infectious disease agents is essential. In this review article, bioterrorism, the role of parasites as potential bioterrorism agents, studies on biosecurity and laboratory design for biosafety have been discussed under the light of recent literature.

  7. Brucella as a potential agent of bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Gizem D; Doganay, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Perception on bioterrorism has changed after the deliberate release of anthrax by the postal system in the United States of America in 2001. Potential bioterrorism agents have been reclassified based on their dissemination, expected rate of mortality, availability, stability, and ability to lead a public panic. Brucella species can be easily cultured from infected animals and human materials. Also, it can be transferred, stored and disseminated easily. An intentional contamination of food with Brucella species could pose a threat with low mortality rate. Brucella spp. is highly infectious through aerosol route, making it an attractive pathogen to be used as a potential agent for biological warfare purposes. Recently, many studies have been concentrated on appropriate sampling of Brucella spp. from environment including finding ways for its early detection and development of new decontamination procedures such as new drugs and vaccines. There are many ongoing vaccine development studies; some of which recently received patents for detection and therapy of Brucella spp. However, there is still no available vaccine for humans. In this paper, recent developments and recent patents on brucellosis are reviewed and discussed.

  8. 9 CFR 113.43 - Detection of chlamydial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... antibiotic diluent, and 0.5 ml of the mixture injected into the second group of chicken embryos. This process... in a filed Outline of Production. (a) The yolk sac of 6-day-old chicken embryos shall be injected.../ml of each antibiotic shall be used. (2) On the 10th day postinoculation, the yolk sac of...

  9. Optimization of Graphene Sensors to Detect Biological Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    when treated with antibiotics. Untreated, it has a mortality rate between 80% and 100%. The 1979 Sverdlovsk Incident in Russia resulted in...Insights Into How Terrorists Develop Biological and Chemical Weapons,” Washington D.C., 2011. [5] N. C. F. Biotechnology Information, “Bacillus

  10. Agent-Based Target Detection in 3-Dimensional Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    environment are pixel values. As it turns out there is a relationship between the units that AQUIRE uses and the pixel values we have, though the...programming language and developed in Microsoft Development Environment, Version 7.1. Delta 3D includes many easy to use classes to make simulation

  11. A Hybrid Approach for Fault Detection in Autonomous Physical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    brea nexpected beh otion as a heu reak – the SF FDD. Supervised m aults, and poten ffline static fau lso computati upervised meth omain of phys...unknown fau modeled analy modeled outpu in the domain o the behavior o t of the physica al. [6] use a mo control softw s utilized for servers that...different s listic and cann proaches, supe a natural appea ata driven app knowledge-ba lied and a dec ression of a fau tations and thu autonomous ph in

  12. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-11-16

    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized.

  13. Ultrasound imaging beyond the vasculature with new generation contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Reshani H; Hernandez, Christopher; Zhou, Haoyan; Kota, Pavan; Burke, Alan; Exner, Agata A

    2015-01-01

    Current commercially available ultrasound contrast agents are gas-filled, lipid- or protein-stabilized microbubbles larger than 1 µm in diameter. Because the signal generated by these agents is highly dependent on their size, small yet highly echogenic particles have been historically difficult to produce. This has limited the molecular imaging applications of ultrasound to the blood pool. In the area of cancer imaging, microbubble applications have been constrained to imaging molecular signatures of tumor vasculature and drug delivery enabled by ultrasound-modulated bubble destruction. Recently, with the rise of sophisticated advancements in nanomedicine, ultrasound contrast agents, which are an order of magnitude smaller (100-500 nm) than their currently utilized counterparts, have been undergoing rapid development. These agents are poised to greatly expand the capabilities of ultrasound in the field of targeted cancer detection and therapy by taking advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention phenomenon of many tumors and can extravasate beyond the leaky tumor vasculature. Agent extravasation facilitates highly sensitive detection of cell surface or microenvironment biomarkers, which could advance early cancer detection. Likewise, when combined with appropriate therapeutic agents and ultrasound-mediated deployment on demand, directly at the tumor site, these nanoparticles have been shown to contribute to improved therapeutic outcomes. Ultrasound's safety profile, broad accessibility and relatively low cost make it an ideal modality for the changing face of healthcare today. Aided by the multifaceted nano-sized contrast agents and targeted theranostic moieties described herein, ultrasound can considerably broaden its reach in future applications focused on the diagnosis and staging of cancer.

  14. Deliberate Evolution in Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. The agent architecture is based on an existing

  15. Anti-Clotting Agents Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or may require special dosage adjustments. Anticoagulants While antiplatelets keep clots from forming by inhibiting the production of thromboxane, anticoagulants target clotting factors, which are other agents that are crucial to the blood-clotting process. ...

  16. Computational Environment of Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomášek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented process calculus for software agent communication and mobility canbe used to express distributed computational environment and mobile code applications ingeneral. Agents are abstraction of the functional part of the system architecture and theyare modeled as process terms. Agent actions model interactions within the distributedenvironment: local/remote communication and mobility. Places are abstraction of thesingle computational environment where the agents are evaluated and where interactionstake place. Distributed environment is modeled as a parallel composition of places whereeach place is evolving asynchronously. Operational semantics defines rules to describebehavior within the distributed environment and provides a guideline for implementations.Via a series of examples we show that mobile code applications can be naturally modeled.

  17. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  18. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  19. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  20. Hyperpolarized 2-oxoglutarate as metabolic agent in mr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Hyperpolarized 1-13C-2-oxoglutarate as contrast agent in13C Magnetic Resonance diagnostic technique (13C-MRI) for use in the diagnosis of cancer. In particular, upon administration of said 1-13C-2-oxoglutarate, signals of 1-13C-glutamate are detected. More in particular, different MR signals from13...

  1. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  2. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  3. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  4. Geo-Agents: Design and Implement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geo-Agents, a multi-agent system that processes distr ib utedgeospatial information and geospatial service was presented. Firstly, the requirement for distributed geographical information process was discussed, and the architecture of Geo-Agents was introduced. Then in-depth discussions were r aised on agent system implementation, such as the basic agent, agent advertising , message passing, and collaborating. An example was also given to explain the p roblem solving process.

  5. Emergency use authorization for Ebola virus detection by FDA-approved techniques%FDA紧急使用授权的埃博拉检测技术的评估比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷雅君; 佘钿田; 付红伟; 秦伟; 王毅超; 刘运德

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is an aggressive pathogen that causes a highly hemorrhagic fever syndrome in humans and other mammalian species.Early detection and proper treatment is the best defense against EBOV because of high mortality rate (70%-90%).Currently,there are eleven FDA approved Ebola tests,kits,or assays for emergency use,which can be divided into two main categories:rRT-PCR and viral antigen methods.In BSL 4 lab,rRT-PCR is the most sensitive technique to detect nucleic acid of Ebola virus,including Ebola Zaire (EZ1) rRT-PCR (TaqMan) Assay,Ebola Virus NP and VP40 Real-time RTPCR Assay,FilmArray NGDS BT-E and Biothreat-E test,RealStar Ebolavirus RT-PCR kit,LightMix Ebola Zaire rRT-PCR test,and Xpert Ebola Assay.Antigen-based technology (ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test,and OraQuick Ebola Rapid Antigen Test) provides rapid Ebola antigen test without relying on special PCR equipment.How to develop,manufacture,and market point-of-care and field testing will be the next major challenge for EBOV on various samples.%埃博拉病毒(Ebolavirus,EBOV)是引起人类及其他哺乳动物埃博拉出血热的病原体,由于死亡率高达70%-90%,疾病的早期诊断与及时治疗显得尤为重要.迄今为止,FDA授权了11项紧急使用的EBOV检测方法,主要分为依赖rRT-PCR的病毒核酸检测和基于抗原抗体反应的病毒抗原检测两大类;其中前者是实验室检测EBOV感染最敏感的方法,主要包括EZ1、NP、VP40、NGDS BT-E、Biothreat-E、RealStar、LightMix以及Cepheid Xpert试验;而基于病毒抗原的检测,如CorgenixReEBOV和OraQuick更加快速且无需依赖任何特殊仪器设备,适用于床旁和现场检测.如何建立适用于多种标本类型的检测方法,更加快速特异地进行检测分型,将是未来发展EBOV检测平台的重要发展方向.

  6. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    In the past,there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity.Now,a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents,usually administered by infusion,have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents,adverse effects have been documented,including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease.In some,only limited symptoms have been recorded,but in others,severe colitis with serious complications,such as bowel perforation has been recorded.In others,adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis,while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection.Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases,or be responsible for disease exacerbation.Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab,a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4,a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response.This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies,notably,malignant melanoma.Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated.One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe,and occasionally,fatal.Other agents include rituximab (an antiCD20 monoclonal antibody),bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents,including infliximab,adalimumab and etanercept.

  7. Evidence of VX nerve agent use from contaminated white mustard plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Matthew R; Hopkins, Farrha B; Self, Adam J; Webb, Andrew J; Timperley, Christopher M; Baker, Matthew J

    2014-08-08

    The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, transfer or use of chemical weapons by Member States. Verification of compliance and investigations into allegations of use require accurate detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products. Detection of CWAs such as organophosphorus nerve agents in the environment relies mainly upon the analysis of soil. We now present a method for the detection of the nerve agent VX and its hydrolysis products by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of ethanol extracts of contaminated white mustard plants (Sinapis alba) which retained the compounds of interest for up to 45 days. VX is hydrolysed by the plants to ethyl methylphosphonic acid and then to methylphosphonic acid. The utility of white mustard as a nerve agent detector and remediator of nerve agent-polluted sites is discussed. The work described will help deter the employment of VX in conflict.

  8. Targeted contrast agents--an adjunct to whole-body imaging: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Paul; Bolster, Ferdia; Crosbie, Ian; MacMahon, Peter; O'Kennedy, Richard; Eustace, Stephen J

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the potential use of a combination of whole-body imaging and targeted contrast agents in improving diagnostics, with a particular focus on oncology imaging. It looks at the rationale for nanoparticles and their development as targeted contrast agents. It subsequently describes many of the advances made thus far in developing tissue-specific contrast agents capable of targeting tumors that combined with whole-body imaging may enable superior cancer detection and characterization.

  9. A multi-agent architecture for geosimulation of moving agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Mohammad H.; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel architecture is proposed in which an axiomatic derivation system in the form of first-order logic facilitates declarative explanation and spatial reasoning. Simulation of environmental perception and interaction between autonomous agents is designed with a geographic belief-desire-intention and a request-inform-query model. The architecture has a complementary quantitative component that supports collaborative planning based on the concept of equilibrium and game theory. This new architecture presents a departure from current best practices geographic agent-based modelling. Implementation tasks are discussed in some detail, as well as scenarios for fleet management and disaster management.

  10. New nontoxic double information magnetic and fluorescent MRI agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kublickas, Augustinas; Rastenien, Loreta; Bloznelytė-Plėšnienė, Laima; Karalius, Nerijus [Liquid Crystals Laboratory, Institute of Science and Technology, Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences (Lithuania); Franckevinius, Marius [Institute of Physics, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology (Lithuania); Loudos, George [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Fahmi, Amir [Materials Science, Rhein-Waal University of Applied Sciences (Germany); Vaisnoras, Rimas [Liquid Crystals Laboratory, Institute of Science and Technology, Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences (Lithuania)

    2015-05-18

    Today sensitivity of the MRI is not enough compared to the nuclear methods, such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography. Challenging its extension to the nanometre scale could provide a powerful new tool for the nanosciences and nanomedicine. To achieve this potential, innovative new detection strategies are required to overcome the severe sensitivity limitations of conventional inductive detection techniques. In this regard, we perform embodiment of nanodiamonds in dendrimer matrix as additional fluorescent optical and magnetic (together with Gd (III)) imaging modalities of the MRI. New hybrid system composed of dendrimer-gadolinium Gd (III) - nanodiamond as a new contrast agent for MRI was studied. Poly(propilene-imine) PPI and poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers with fixed size of nanocavities will be used as host material to protect organism against the toxicity and also to increase relaxivity of contrast agent (resulting in the increases MRI resolution). Nanodiamond as biocompatible platform to functionalize the contrast agent will be used. This bimodal hybrid system enables to use smaller amount of the contrast agent and could permit the decrease of the lateral toxicity. This bimodal hybrid system as MRI agent is providing double information (magnetic and fluorescent) about the damaged cell.

  11. Comparison of multiplex PCR hybridization-based and singleplex real-time PCR-based assays for detection of low prevalence pathogens in spiked samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockman, Donna; Dong, Ming; Zheng, Hong; Kumar, Sanjai; Huff, Matthew D; Grigorenko, Elena; Beanan, Maureen; Duncan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Molecular diagnostic devices are increasingly finding utility in clinical laboratories. Demonstration of the effectiveness of these devices is dependent upon comparing results from clinical samples tested with the new device to an alternative testing method. The preparation of mock clinical specimens will be necessary for the validation of molecular diagnostic devices when a sufficient number of clinical specimens is unobtainable. Examples include rare pathogens, some of which are pathogens posing a biological weapon threat. Here we describe standardized steps for developers to follow for the culture and quantification of three organisms used to spike human whole blood to create mock specimens. The three organisms chosen for this study were the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) of Francisella tularensis, surrogate for a potential biothreat pathogen, Escherichia coli, a representative Gram-negative bacterium and Babesia microti (Franca) Reichenow Peabody strain, representing a protozoan parasite. Mock specimens were prepared with blood from both healthy donors and donors with nonspecific symptoms including fever, malaise, and flu-like symptoms. There was no significant difference in detection results between the two groups for any pathogen. Testing of the mock samples was compared on two platforms, Target Enriched Multiplex-PCR (TEM-PCR™) and singleplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results were reproducible on both platforms. The reproducibility demonstrated by obtaining the same results between two testing methods and between healthy and symptomatic mock specimens, indicates the standardized methods described for creating the mock specimens are valid and effective for evaluating diagnostic devices.

  12. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nerve agents using large volume injections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenhardt, C.E.A.M.; Kientz, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The use of large volume injections has been studied for the verification of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in water samples. As the use of ethyl acetate caused severe detection problems new potential solvents were evaluated. With the developed procedure, the nerve agents sarin, tabu

  13. Web based parallel/distributed medical data mining using software agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.; Hamzaoglu, I.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes an experimental parallel/distributed data mining system PADMA (PArallel Data Mining Agents) that uses software agents for local data accessing and analysis and a web based interface for interactive data visualization. It also presents the results of applying PADMA for detecting patterns in unstructured texts of postmortem reports and laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients.

  14. Quantitation of five organophosphorus nerve agent metabolites in serum using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Schulze, Nicholas D.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Lawrence, Richard J.; Crow, Brian S.; Jakubowski, E. M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2014-01-01

    Although nerve agent use is prohibited, concerns remain for human exposure to nerve agents during decommissioning, research, and warfare. Exposure can be detected through the analysis of the hydrolysis products in urine as well as blood. An analytical method to detect exposure to five nerve agents, including VX, VR (Russian VX), GB (sarin), GD (soman) and GF (cyclosarin), through the analysis of the hydrolysis products, which are the primary metabolites, in serum has been developed and charac...

  15. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... of the trials followed participants after the end of treatment. Only one trial reported adequate bias control; the remaining four trials were considered to have high risk of bias. Random-effects model meta-analyses showed that dopamine agents had no beneficial or detrimental effect on hepatic encephalopathy...

  16. Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

  17. Relational agents in clinical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy; Gruber, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Relational agents are computational artifacts, such as animated, screen-based characters or social robots, that are designed to establish a sense of rapport, trust, and even therapeutic alliance with patients, using ideal therapeutic relationships between human counselors and patients as role models. We describe the development and evaluation of several such agents designed for health counseling and behavioral-change interventions, in which a therapeutic alliance is established with patients in order to enhance the efficacy of the intervention. We also discuss the promise of using such agents as adjuncts to clinical psychiatry, a range of possible applications, and some of the challenges and ethical issues in developing and fielding them in psychiatric interventions.

  18. [Anti-influenza virus agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigeki; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    The necessity of newly anti-influenza agents is increasing rapidly after the prevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. In addition to the existing anti-influenza drugs, novel neuraminidase inhibitors such as peramivir (a first intravenous anti-influenza agent) and laninamivir (long acting inhaled anti-influenza agent) can be available. Moreover favipiravir, which shows a novel anti-influenza mechanism acting as RNA polymerase inhibitor, has been developing. These drugs are expected to improve the prognosis of severe cases caused by not only seasonal influenza but pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus and H5N1 avian influenza, and also treat oseltamivir-resistant influenza effectively.

  19. Agent review phase one report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  20. National laboratory surveillance of viral agents of gastroenteritis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, H G; Linhares, A C; Candeias, J A; Glass, R I

    1993-01-01

    In 1984 an enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus and adenovirus developed in the Virology Department of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation was distributed to laboratories in 14 Brazilian states as part of a project to survey viral agents in fecal specimens from children with diarrhea. The ensuing surveillance continued for 3 to 5 years, and in 1991 the results obtained by all laboratories that tested 300 or more fecal specimens were reviewed at a workshop held in Belém. These results showed that rotavirus had been detected in 13% to 20% of the specimens tested, with positive specimens appearing to peak in the May to September "winter" or dry season in Brazil's central and southern states but not in the more tropical northern areas. Adenovirus, detected in 0.7% to 5.5% of the specimens tested for it, showed no seasonal variations. Many other viral agents known to cause gastroenteritis (e.g., astrovirus, small round-structured viruses, calcivirus, and group C rotavirus) were detected at centers that used electron microscopy. Picobirnavirus, a novel agent not yet associated with gastroenteritis in humans, was found by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in specimens from a number of centers using this technique. Vaccines to prevent rotavirus that are currently under development would be of great use in Brazil, where rotavirus is the most common cause of childhood diarrhea. Improved diagnostics will be required to assess the importance of the other viral agents.

  1. Thyroid dysfunction from antineoplastic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnvik, Ole-Petter Riksfjord; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-11-02

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents.

  2. Agent communication and artificial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fornara, Nicoletta; Viganò, Francesco; Colombetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose an application-independent model for the definition of artificial institutions that can be used to define open multi-agent systems. Such a model of institutional reality makes us able also to define an objective and external semantics of a commitment-based Agent Communication Language (ACL). In particular we propose to regard an ACL as a set of conventions to act on a fragment of institutional reality, defined in the context of an artificial institution. Another c...

  3. Agentes infecciosos y enfermedades autoinmunes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Riebeling; Vicente Madrid; Beatriz Elena Camarena; Oscar Peralta; Raúl Barrera

    1992-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen los aspectos molecidares de la relación entre agentes infecciosos y enfermedades autoinrnitnes; los mecanismos de respuesta inmune a los agentes infecciosos, y las Iiiyótesis más recientes de la causa de las enfermedades autoinmunes. Los antígenos son procesados y seleccionados por su inmitnogenicidad, ypresentadospor lasmolécitlasde HLA a los receptores de antígeno de los linfocitos T. Aunque existen rnuclias hipótesk sobre el origen de las enfermedades arrtoinmu...

  4. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  5. Rodents as potential couriers for bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Mare; Janse, Ingmar; van de Goot, Frank; van Rotterdam, Bart J

    2013-09-01

    Many pathogens that can cause major public health, economic, and social damage are relatively easily accessible and could be used as biological weapons. Wildlife is a natural reservoir for many potential bioterrorism agents, and, as history has shown, eliminating a pathogen that has dispersed among wild fauna can be extremely challenging. Since a number of wild rodent species live close to humans, rodents constitute a vector for pathogens to circulate among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. This article reviews the possible consequences of a deliberate spread of rodentborne pathogens. It is relatively easy to infect wild rodents with certain pathogens or to release infected rodents, and the action would be difficult to trace. Rodents can also function as reservoirs for diseases that have been spread during a bioterrorism attack and cause recurring disease outbreaks. As rats and mice are common in both urban and rural settlements, deliberately released rodentborne infections have the capacity to spread very rapidly. The majority of pathogens that are listed as potential agents of bioterrorism by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases exploit rodents as vectors or reservoirs. In addition to zoonotic diseases, deliberately released rodentborne epizootics can have serious economic consequences for society, for example, in the area of international trade restrictions. The ability to rapidly detect introduced diseases and effectively communicate with the public in crisis situations enables a quick response and is essential for successful and cost-effective disease control.

  6. 13 CFR 120.952 - Fiscal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal agent. 120.952 Section 120... Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.952 Fiscal agent. SBA shall appoint a Fiscal Agent to assess the financial markets, minimize the cost of sales, arrange for the production...

  7. Disk heating agents across the Hubble sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Gerssen, J

    2012-01-01

    We measure the shape of the velocity ellipsoid in two late-type spiral galaxies (Hubble types Sc and Scd) and combine these results with our previous analyses of six early-type spirals (Sa to Sbc) to probe the relation between galaxy morphology and the ratio of the vertical and radial dispersions. We confirm at much higher significance (99.9 percent) our prior detection of a tight correlation between these quantities. We explore the trends of the magnitude and shape of the velocity ellipsoid axes with galaxy properties (colour, gas surface mass density, and spiral arm structure). The observed relationships allow for an observational identification of the radial and vertical disk heating agents in external disk galaxies.

  8. Biotech drugs : biological therapeutic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Godfrey; Fenech, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The recent years has seen significant growth in a new therapeutic approach to the management of disease. Biological therapeutic agents, constitute a broad category of drugs, usually generated by recombinant techniques from living organisms. These therapies revolutionise the traditional approaches to drug design and development, and regulatory agencies have been swift in developing the necessary structures to ensure their optimal use.

  9. Identity Management in Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Groot, de D.R.A.

    2006-01-01

    If agent-based applications are to be used in large scale, open environments, security is a main issue; digital identity management (DIDM) an essential element. DIDM is needed to be able to determine the rights and obligations of the four main

  10. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  11. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  12. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  13. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  14. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  15. An Introduction to Software Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    applicable to modelling red force entities for VMSA. This paper provides an overview of software agents and represents the first step in the...ordinateur, et que la simulation en cours modélise leurs capteurs , leurs armes et leurs caractéristiques matérielles. vi DRDC Atlantic TM...34 9 Sample Applications

  16. Relational agents: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Robert H.; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Green, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between people who meet in virtual worlds are common and these relationships can be long term, in some cases lasting a life-time. Although relationships formed in virtual worlds have invited a lot of recent interest, surprisingly little work has been done on developing computer agents...

  17. Kriitikute lemmikfilm on "Agent Sinikael"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film 2002. Parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks Neitsi Maali kuju ja 12 000 krooni

  18. Multi-Agent Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; Witteveen, C.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a distributed transport planning problem with competitive autonomous actors that carry out time-constrained pick-up delivery orders from customers. The agents have to find conflict-free routes to execute a series of orders they have accepted. Hatzack and Nebel [2] were the first to sugges

  19. Persuasive Teachable Agent for Intergenerational Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Su Fang

    2016-01-01

    Teachable agents are computer agents based on the pedagogical concept of learning-by-teaching. During the tutoring process, where students take on the role of the tutor to teach a computer agent tutee, learners have been observed to gain deeper understanding of the subject matter. Teachable agents are commonly used in the areas of science and mathematics learning where learners are able to learn complex concepts and deep reasoning by teaching the teachable agent through graphic representation...

  20. Migration Dynamics in Artificial Agent Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Agent Society can be defined as a collection of agents interacting with each other for some purpose and/or inhabiting a specific locality, possibly in accordance to some common norms/rules. These societies are analogous to human and ecological societies, and are an expanding and emerging field in research about social systems. Social networks, electronic markets and disaster management organizations can be viewed as such artificial (open agent societies and can be best understood as computational societies. Members of such artificial agent societies are heterogeneous intelligent software agents which are operating locally and cooperating and coordinating with each other in order to achieve goals of an agent society. These artificial agent societies have some kind of dynamics existing in them in terms of dynamics of Agent Migration, Role-Assignment, Norm- Emergence, Security and Agent-Interaction. In this paper, we have described the dynamics of agent migration process, starting from the various types of agent migration, causes or reasons for agent migration, consequences of agent migration, and an agent migration framework to model the its behavior for migration of agents between societies.

  1. Multifunctional ultrasound contrast agents for imaging guided photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Caixin; Jin, Yushen; Dai, Zhifei

    2014-05-21

    Among all the imaging techniques, ultrasound imaging has a unique advantage due to its features of real-time, low cost, high safety, and portability. Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have been widely used to enhance ultrasonic signals. One of the most exciting features of UCAs for use in biomedicine is the possibility of easily putting new combinations of functional molecules into microbubbles (MBs), which are the most routinely used UCAs. Various therapeutic agents and medical nanoparticles (quantum dots, gold, Fe3O4, etc.) can be loaded into ultrasound-responsive MBs. Hence, UCAs can be developed as multifunctional agents that integrate capabilities for early detection and diagnosis and for imaging guided therapy of various diseases. The current review will focus on such state-of-the-art UCA platforms that have been exploited for multimodal imaging and for imaging guided photothermal therapy.

  2. Functionalized photonic crystal for the sensing of Sarin agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunxiao; Qi, Fenglian; Li, Shuguang; Xu, Jiayu; Liu, Chao; Meng, Zihui; Qiu, Lili; Xue, Min; Lu, Wei; Yan, Zequn

    2016-10-01

    The indiscriminate use of nerve agents by terrorist groups has attracted attention of the scientific communities toward the development of novel sensor technique for these deadly chemicals. A photonic crystal (PhC) hydrogel immobilized with butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) was firstly prepared for the sensing of Sarin agents. Periodic polystyrene colloidal (240nm) array was embedded inside an acrylamide hydrogel, and then BuChE was immobilized inside the hydrogel matrix via condensation with 3-(diethoxyphosphoryloxy)-1,2,3-benzotriazin-4(3h)-one (DEPBT). It indicated that a total of 3.7 units of BuChE were immobilized onto the PhC hydrogel. The functionalized hydrogel recognized the Sarin agent and then shrunk, thus the diffraction of PhC hydrogel blue shifted significantly, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 10(-15)molL(-1) was achieved.

  3. CATS-based Agents That Err

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes preliminary research on intelligent agents that make errors. Such agents are crucial to the development of novel agent-based techniques for assessing system safety. The agents extend an agent architecture derived from the Crew Activity Tracking System that has been used as the basis for air traffic controller agents. The report first reviews several error taxonomies. Next, it presents an overview of the air traffic controller agents, then details several mechanisms for causing the agents to err in realistic ways. The report presents a performance assessment of the error-generating agents, and identifies directions for further research. The research was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of the FAA/NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  4. Needs, Pains, and Motivations in Autonomous Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Janusz A; Graham, James; Puzio, Leszek

    2016-08-17

    This paper presents the development of a motivated learning (ML) agent with symbolic I/O. Our earlier work on the ML agent was enhanced, giving it autonomy for interaction with other agents. Specifically, we equipped the agent with drives and pains that establish its motivations to learn how to respond to desired and undesired events and create related abstract goals. The purpose of this paper is to explore the autonomous development of motivations and memory in agents within a simulated environment. The ML agent has been implemented in a virtual environment created within the NeoAxis game engine. Additionally, to illustrate the benefits of an ML-based agent, we compared the performance of our algorithm against various reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms in a dynamic test scenario, and demonstrated that our ML agent learns better than any of the tested RL agents.

  5. Synthesis and Performance of a Biomimetic Indicator for Alkylating Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Philip A; Love, Jennifer A

    2015-10-02

    4-(4-Nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP) is a colorimetric indicator compound for many types of carcinogenic alkylating agents. Because of the similar reactivity of NBP and guanine in DNA, NBP serves as a DNA model. NBP assays are used in the toxicological screening of pharmaceutical compounds, detection of chemical warfare agents, environmental hygiene technology, preliminary toxicology tests, mutagenicity of medicinal compounds, and other chemical analyses. Nevertheless, the use of NBP as a DNA model suffers from the compound's low water solubility, its lack of reactive oxygen sites, and dissimilar steric encumbrance compared to DNA. We report herein the design and synthesis of NBP derivatives that address some of these issues. These derivatives have been tested in solution and found to be superior in the colorimetric assay of the alkylating anticancer drug cyclophosphamide. The derivatives have also been integrated into a polymeric silica material which changes color upon the exposure to dangerous alkylating agents, such as iodomethane vapor, without the need for an exogenous base. This material modernizes the NBP assay from a time-consuming laboratory analysis to a real-time solid state sensor, which requires neither solvent nor additional reagents and can detect both gas- and solution-phase alkylating agents.

  6. Employ a Mobile Agent for Making a Payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile agent paradigm offers flexibility and autonomy to e-commerce applications. But it is challenging to employ a mobile agent to make a payment due to the security consideration. In this paper, we propose a new agent-assisted secure payment protocol, which is based on SET payment protocol and aims at enabling the dispatched consumer-agent to autonomously sign contracts and make the payment on behalf of the cardholder after having found the best merchant, without the possibility of disclosing any secret to any participant. This is realized by adopting the Signature-Share scheme, and employing a Trusted Third Party (TTP. In the proposed protocol, the principle that each participant knows what is strictly necessary for his/her role is followed as in SET. In addition, mechanisms have been devised for preventing and detecting double payment, overspending and overpayment attacks. Finally the security properties of the proposed protocol are studied analytically. In comparison with other existing models, the proposed protocol is more efficient and can detect more attacks.

  7. Chaotic neurodynamics for autonomous agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Derek; Kozma, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Mesoscopic level neurodynamics study the collective dynamical behavior of neural populations. Such models are becoming increasingly important in understanding large-scale brain processes. Brains exhibit aperiodic oscillations with a much more rich dynamical behavior than fixed-point and limit-cycle approximation allow. Here we present a discretized model inspired by Freeman's K-set mesoscopic level population model. We show that this version is capable of replicating the important principles of aperiodic/chaotic neurodynamics while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications. This simplification of the K model provides many advantages not only in terms of efficiency but in simplicity and its ability to be analyzed in terms of its dynamical properties. We study the discrete version using a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas. We use this architecture to develop example action selection mechanisms in an autonomous agent.

  8. Subharmonic imaging of contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, F; Shi, W T; Goldberg, B B

    2000-03-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents promise to improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic ultrasound imaging. It is of great importance to adapt ultrasound equipment for optimal use with contrast agents e.g., by exploiting the nonlinear properties of the contrast microbubbles. Harmonic imaging is one technique that has been extensively studied and is commercially available. However, harmonic imaging is associated with problems, due to second harmonic generation and accumulation within the tissue itself. Given the lack of subharmonic generation in tissue, one alternative is the creation of subharmonic images by transmitting at the fundamental frequency (fo) and receiving at the subharmonic (fo/2). Subharmonic imaging should have a much better lateral resolution and may be suitable for scanning deep-lying structures owing to the higher transmit frequency and the much smaller attenuation of scattered subharmonic signals. In this paper, we will review different aspects of subharmonic imaging including implementation, in-vitro gray-scale imaging and subharmonic aided pressure estimation.

  9. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    conflict. Originality: This work contributes to a growing body of literature interested in the role of extension agents in conflict management. By applying Q methodology, this work has shown that while extension agents are involved in conflict management, their perceptions of these conflicts are subjective......Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...

  10. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...... by developments within semantics for logic programming within computational logic and formal theories of truth within philosophical logic. The thesis provides a number of examples showing how the developed theories can be used as reasoning frameworks for agents with introspective abilities. In Danish...

  11. Contrast Agents for Photoacoustic and Thermoacoustic Imaging: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic imaging (PAI and thermoacoustic imaging (TAI are two emerging biomedical imaging techniques that both utilize ultrasonic signals as an information carrier. Unique advantages of PAI and TAI are their abilities to provide high resolution functional information such as hemoglobin and blood oxygenation and tissue dielectric properties relevant to physiology and pathology. These two methods, however, may have a limited detection depth and lack of endogenous contrast. An exogenous contrast agent is often needed to effectively resolve these problems. Such agents are able to greatly enhance the imaging contrast and potentially break through the imaging depth limit. Furthermore, a receptor-targeted contrast agent could trace the molecular and cellular biological processes in tissues. Thus, photoacoustic and thermoacoustic molecular imaging can be outstanding tools for early diagnosis, precise lesion localization, and molecular typing of various diseases. The agents also could be used for therapy in conjugation with drugs or in photothermal therapy, where it functions as an enhancer for the integration of diagnosis and therapy. In this article, we present a detailed review about various exogenous contrast agents for photoacoustic and thermoacoustic molecular imaging. In addition, challenges and future directions of photoacoustic and thermoacoustic molecular imaging in the field of translational medicine are also discussed.

  12. Contrast agents for photoacoustic and thermoacoustic imaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Huang, Lin; Jiang, Max S; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-12-18

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) are two emerging biomedical imaging techniques that both utilize ultrasonic signals as an information carrier. Unique advantages of PAI and TAI are their abilities to provide high resolution functional information such as hemoglobin and blood oxygenation and tissue dielectric properties relevant to physiology and pathology. These two methods, however, may have a limited detection depth and lack of endogenous contrast. An exogenous contrast agent is often needed to effectively resolve these problems. Such agents are able to greatly enhance the imaging contrast and potentially break through the imaging depth limit. Furthermore, a receptor-targeted contrast agent could trace the molecular and cellular biological processes in tissues. Thus, photoacoustic and thermoacoustic molecular imaging can be outstanding tools for early diagnosis, precise lesion localization, and molecular typing of various diseases. The agents also could be used for therapy in conjugation with drugs or in photothermal therapy, where it functions as an enhancer for the integration of diagnosis and therapy. In this article, we present a detailed review about various exogenous contrast agents for photoacoustic and thermoacoustic molecular imaging. In addition, challenges and future directions of photoacoustic and thermoacoustic molecular imaging in the field of translational medicine are also discussed.

  13. Fingerprinting malathion vapor: a simulant for VX nerve agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Renbo; Ding, Yujie J.; Zotova, Ioulia B.

    2008-04-01

    Being motivated by the possibility of fingerprinting and detecting VX nerve agent, we have investigated its stimulant, i.e. malathion vapor, which is less toxic and commercially available, in the far-infrared/THz transition region and THz frequency range. Such a spectroscopic study was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Our intention is to obtain a specific spectroscopic signature of VX nerve agent as a chemical warfare agent. Following our experimental result, we have successfully observed eleven new absorption peaks from malathion vapor in the spectral ranges from 15 cm -1 to 68 cm -1 and from 75 cm -1 to 640 cm -1. Specifically, in the far-infrared/THz transition region, we have observed eight peaks and whereas in the THz region we have identified three relatively weak transition peaks. In addition, we have investigated the dependence of the absorption spectra on temperature in the range from room temperature to 60°C. In both of the frequency ranges, we have found that absorption coefficients significantly increase with increasing temperature. By comparing the transition peaks in the two frequency ranges, we have concluded that the frequency range of 400-640cm -1 is an optimal range for fingerprinting this chemical specie. We have designated two peaks for effectively and accurately identifying the VX nerve agents and one peak for differentiating between malathion and VX nerve agent.

  14. Smart Aerospace eCommerce: Using Intelligent Agents in a NASA Mission Services Ordering Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleski, Walt; Luczak, Ed; Morris, Kim; Clayton, Bill; Scherf, Patricia; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes how intelligent agent technology was successfully prototyped and then deployed in a smart eCommerce application for NASA. An intelligent software agent called the Intelligent Service Validation Agent (ISVA) was added to an existing web-based ordering application to validate complex orders for spacecraft mission services. This integration of intelligent agent technology with conventional web technology satisfies an immediate NASA need to reduce manual order processing costs. The ISVA agent checks orders for completeness, consistency, and correctness, and notifies users of detected problems. ISVA uses NASA business rules and a knowledge base of NASA services, and is implemented using the Java Expert System Shell (Jess), a fast rule-based inference engine. The paper discusses the design of the agent and knowledge base, and the prototyping and deployment approach. It also discusses future directions and other applications, and discusses lessons-learned that may help other projects make their aerospace eCommerce applications smarter.

  15. Heterogeneous Agents, Distribution and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Paquin, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    We modify the Uzawa-Lucas representative agent model of endogenous economic growth to allow for a variety of differences among households: differences in their tastes, in their human capital production technologies, and in their initial endowments. Some differences are incompatible with the existence of a steady- state equilibrium, while others have no effect upon the steady-state growth rate. However, a variety of differences give rise to inequalities in the distribution of income and to var...

  16. Chemotherapy and Dietary Phytochemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy has been used for cancer treatment already for almost 70 years by targeting the proliferation potential and metastasising ability of tumour cells. Despite the progress made in the development of potent chemotherapy drugs, their toxicity to normal tissues and adverse side effects in multiple organ systems as well as drug resistance have remained the major obstacles for the successful clinical use. Cytotoxic agents decrease considerably the quality of life of cancer patients manifesting as acute complaints and impacting the life of survivors also for years after the treatment. Toxicity often limits the usefulness of anticancer agents being also the reason why many patients discontinue the treatment. The nutritional approach may be the means of helping to raise cancer therapy to a new level of success as supplementing or supporting the body with natural phytochemicals cannot only reduce adverse side effects but improve also the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. Various plant-derived compounds improve the efficiency of cytotoxic agents, decrease their resistance, lower and alleviate toxic side effects, reduce the risk of tumour lysis syndrome, and detoxify the body of chemotherapeutics. The personalised approach using various phytochemicals provides thus a new dimension to the standard cancer therapy for improving its outcome in a complex and complementary way.

  17. Multi-agent autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  18. Preponderant agent, what is that?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Luz Álvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Preponderant agent is a new instrument for preventing and reverting adverse impact in competition due to highly concentrated markets. Therefore, this paper's objective is to present and analyze the preponderant agent concept in Mexico with emphasis on the broadcast sector, the telecommunication regulator decisions and the courts' interpretation. Methodology/approach/design – The objectives were achieved by researching and analyzing the main legal documents, the Congress reports and debates, the regulator's decisions and other relevant regulator's documents, as well as final decisions by the courts in connection with broadcast sector. Findings – Among the findings are that certain topics were not duly addressed by the Mexican regulator, or by the Congress, whereas the courts were more willing to hold decisions in favor of public interest based on constitutional intent and deference to the regulator's decision. Originality/value – This paper will be valuable for persons interested in telecommunications, broadcast and antitrust. Although the preponderant agent concept created in Mexico is not necessarily a “best practice”, it does provide an alternative instrument in antitrust. Moreover, the courts decisions also provide criteria regarding regulatory deference for the regulator.

  19. New agents in HSC mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Mélanie J; Nilsson, Susan K; Cao, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Mobilized peripheral blood (PB) is the most common source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for autologous transplantation. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the most commonly used mobilization agent, yet despite its widespread use, a considerable number of patients still fail to mobilize. Recently, a greater understanding of the interactions that regulate HSC homeostasis in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment has enabled the development of new molecules that mobilize HSC through specific inhibition, modulation or perturbation of these interactions. AMD3100 (plerixafor), a small molecule that selectively inhibits the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is approved for mobilization in combination with G-CSF in patients with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Nevertheless, identifying mobilization strategies that not only enhance HSC number, but are rapid and generate an optimal "mobilized product" for improved transplant outcomes remains an area of clinical importance. In recent times, new agents based on recombinant proteins, peptides and small molecules have been identified as potential candidates for therapeutic HSC mobilization. In this review, we describe the most recent developments in HSC mobilization agents and their potential impact in HSC transplantation.

  20. Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.

    2014-03-01

    Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.

  1. Extraction of nerve agent VX from soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montauban, Cécile; Bégos, Arlette; Bellier, Bruno

    2004-05-15

    The development and optimization of a method allowing the extraction of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (VX) from several types of soils are presented here. This involved the selection of an appropriate buffer to bring the sample to a pH close to the pK(a) of VX but sufficiently low to avoid its basic hydrolysis. Buffering with Tris (pH 9) and subsequent extraction of the aqueous layer by a 85:15 (v/v) hexane/dichloromethane mixture allows rapid and sensitive flame photometric detection of VX at spiking levels lower than 10 microg x g(-1), even after 3 months of aging. Extraction yields were close to 60% in complex matrixes. This method also allows recovery and identification of a characteristic degradation product of VX, bis(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) disulfide, which appears to be formed during the aging process. The performance of this method is far better than that of OPCW reference operating procedure, which does not allow extraction of detectable amounts of VX (spiked at 10 microg x g(-1)) in one of the soils used for this study.

  2. A Framework for Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3].......This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3]....

  3. FUZZY LOGIC MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Atef GHARBI; Ben Ahmed, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with distributed planning in a Multi-Agent System (MAS) constituted by several intelligent agents each one has to interact with the other autonomous agents. The problem faced is how to ensure a distributed planning through the cooperation in our multi-agent system. To do so, we propose the use of fuzzy logic to represent the response of the agent in case of interaction with the other. Finally, we use JADE platform to create agents and ensure the communication be...

  4. On Programming Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives that the age......Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives...

  5. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢婉婷; 代明香; 薛方正

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonis-tic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups, and agents in the same group collab-orate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results.

  6. 14th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems : Special Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Escalona, María; Corchuelo, Rafael; Mathieu, Philippe; Vale, Zita; Campbell, Andrew; Rossi, Silvia; Adam, Emmanuel; Jiménez-López, María; Navarro, Elena; Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2016 in the special sessions: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Advances on Demand Response and Renewable Energy Sources in Agent Based Smart Grids (ADRESS); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Agent Methodologies for Intelligent Robotics Applications (AMIRA); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and ...

  7. Resilience of a synchronized multi-agent system

    OpenAIRE

    Bereg, S.; Caraballo, L. E.; Díaz-Báñez, J. M.; Lopez, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Fault tolerance is increasingly important for unmanned autonomous vehicles. For example, in a multi robot system the agents need the ability to effectively detect and tolerate internal failures in order to continue performing their tasks without the need for immediate human intervention. The system must react to unplanned events in order to optimize the task allocation between the robots. In a broad sense, the resilience of a system can be defined as the ability to maintain or recover a stabl...

  8. Borrelioses, agentes e vetores Borrelioses, agents and vectors: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber O. Soares

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available As borrelioses são enfermidades infecciosas determinadas por espiroquetas do gênero Borrelia, agentes transmissíveis, principalmente, por carrapatos aos animais e/ou ao homem. Nesta revisão são apresentadas e discutidas as enfermidades determinadas por borrélias, bem como as características gerais das espiroquetas, os aspectos relacionados a transmissão por artrópodes, as enfermidades nos animais domésticos e silvestres, quanto aos aspectos biológicos e patológicos, a doença de Lyme como principal zoonose do grupo, a associação de borrélia com outros agentes hematozoários e os métodos diagnósticos e a epidemiologia comparativa entre dados obtidos no Brasil com os de outros países. Estas borrelioses possuem características patológicas, clínicas e epidemiológicas variadas de acordo à região fisiográfica, devido à existência de distintas espécies, genoespécies e cepas; estes aspectos variam ainda em função dos artrópodes vetores, da interação vetor-patógeno e dos ecossistemas distintos.Borrelioses are infectous diseases caused by spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia. They are born mainly through ticks at animals and/or human beings. In this review are shown and discussed five groups of diseases determined by borrelia, general characteristics of the spirochaetes, aspects related to transmission by arthropods, biological and pathological aspects of the diseases in domestic and wild animals, Lyme disease as an important zoonosis, the association of borrelia with other hematozoa agents, the diagnostic methods and the comparative epidemiology with data obtained from Brazil and other countries. The borrelioses have pathological, clinical and epidemiological characteristics which vary according to physiographic regions due to the existence of different species, genospecies and strains of borrelia, of arthropod vectors, vector-agent relationship and of different ecocystems.

  9. A Framework for Multi-Agent Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Tonino, J.F.M.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework, consisting of resources, skills, goals and services to represent the plans of individual agents and to develop models and algorithms for cooperation processes between a collection of agents.

  10. Preoperative management of anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Lauren Jan; Friedman, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    This article describes current literature and treatment plans for managing anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents in patients presenting with hip fractures. Indications for anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents are discussed, and management techniques for when patients present with hip fractures are reviewed.

  11. What Are Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by heart Treatments + Tests What Are Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents? Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents are medicines that reduce blood clotting in an artery, a vein or the heart. Blood clots can block the ...

  12. Security Measures to Protect Mobile Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Piyanka; Govil, M. C.; Dutta, Kamlesh

    2010-11-01

    The security issues of mobile agent systems have embarrassed its widespread implementation. Mobile agents that move around the network are not safe because the remote hosts that accommodate the agents initiates all kinds of attacks. These hosts try to analyze the agent's decision logic and their accumulated data. So, mobile agent security is the most challenging unsolved problems. The paper analyzes various security measures deeply. Security especially the attacks performed by hosts to the visiting mobile agent (the malicious hosts problem) is a major obstacle that prevents mobile agent technology from being widely adopted. Being the running environment for mobile agent, the host has full control over them and could easily perform many kinds of attacks against them.

  13. Analysis and Optimization for Mobile Agent Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGBo; LIUDayou

    2005-01-01

    Communication performance is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of mobile agent system. Only traditional optimization techniques for communication performance are not enough, especially in large-scale intelligent mobile agent system, so more intelligent optimization techniques are needed. In the background, the paper studies communication of mobile agent system from the viewpoint of performance. The paper makes qualitative and quantitative analysis of four important factors that will affect the communication performance of mobile agent system and presents the communication performance optimization model. The model hasthree primary functions. First, the model provides a formalism method to describe the communication task and process of mobile agent. Second, the model provides a means to make quantitative analysis of the performance of mobile agent system. Third, the model can plan out an optimal communication scheme for mobile agent to minimize the cost of whole communication. The model could thus be a building block for the optimization of the communication behavior of mobile agent.

  14. Agent Communication Channel Based on BACnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wen-bin; Zhou Man-li

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the common shortcoming in the existing agent MTPs (message transport protocols). With employing the File object and related service AtomicWriteFile of BACnet (a data communication protocol building automation and control networks), a new method of agent message transport is proposed and implemented. Every agent platform (AP) has one specified File object and agents in another AP can communicate with agents in the AP by using AtomicWriteFile service. Agent messages can be in a variety of formats. In implementation, BACnet/IP and Ethernet are applied as the BACnet data link layers respectively. The experiment results show that the BACnet can provide perfect support for agent communication like other conventional protocols such as hypertext transfer protocol(HTTP), remote method invocation (RMI) etc. and has broken through the restriction of TCP/IP. By this approach, the agent technology is introduced into the building automation control network system.

  15. Integration of Agent System with Legacy Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qi; ZHAO Yan-hong; YIN Zhao-lin

    2003-01-01

    Agent technique is a new method that can analyze, design and realize a distributed open system. It has been used in almost every field. But if act for the real practical words in technique, it must integrate with legacy software, such as database system etc, and control them. This paper introduces the specification of agent software integration, ontology, instances database as implementing agent software integration with CORBA technique and takes XML, ACL as language communicating among agents.

  16. Kansei Evaluation in Agent Rearing Game

    OpenAIRE

    野路, 浩一朗; 西野, 順二; 小高, 知宏; 小倉, 久和; NOJI, Koichiro; NISHINO, Junji; ODAKA, Tomohiro; OGURA, Hisakazu

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, We have studied the Kansei evaluation of the agent rearing game. The agent rearing game is a game by which the characters who are the agents are brouht up. The Kansei evaluation is an evaluation by Kansei engineering like the sensibility and feelings, etc. to treat technological1y. In this research, We produced the agent rearing game. We propose the method of the interesting the game using the technique of Kansei engineering for the evaluation.

  17. Sports Agent Industry Emerges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeiZiand; YiYou

    2003-01-01

    The agent profession is not new to Chinese. First appearing in the Western Zhou Dynasty, agents were called "Zhi Ren" then and "Ya Ren" from the Tang Dynasty onwards. In the Ming Dynasty, a certain amount of property and a license were required if one wanted to become an agent. In the late Qing Dynasty, Mai Ban (Chinese executives working in foreign firms), also a sort of agents, began to emerge in major cities of China.

  18. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects.

  19. Preferences of Agents in Defeasible Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.; Governatori, G.; Rotolo, A.; Torre, L.W.N. van der

    2005-01-01

    Defeasible Logic is extended to programming languages for cognitive agents with preferences and actions for planning. We define rule-based agent theories that contain preferences and actions, together with inference procedures. We discuss patterns of agent types in this setting. Finally, we illustra

  20. Stability of Evolving Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Wilde, Philippe; 10.1109/TSMCB.2011.2110642

    2011-01-01

    A Multi-Agent System is a distributed system where the agents or nodes perform complex functions that cannot be written down in analytic form. Multi-Agent Systems are highly connected, and the information they contain is mostly stored in the connections. When agents update their state, they take into account the state of the other agents, and they have access to those states via the connections. There is also external, user-generated input into the Multi-Agent System. As so much information is stored in the connections, agents are often memory-less. This memory-less property, together with the randomness of the external input, has allowed us to model Multi-Agent Systems using Markov chains. In this paper, we look at Multi-Agent Systems that evolve, i.e. the number of agents varies according to the fitness of the individual agents. We extend our Markov chain model, and define stability. This is the start of a methodology to control Multi-Agent Systems. We then build upon this to construct an entropy-based defi...