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Sample records for biotherapeutics including microencapsulated

  1. Microencapsulation for the Therapeutic Delivery of Drugs, Live Mammalian and Bacterial Cells, and Other Biopharmaceutics: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a technology that has shown significant promise in biotherapeutics, and other applications. It has been proven useful in the immobilization of drugs, live mammalian and bacterial cells and other cells, and other biopharmaceutics molecules, as it can provide material structuration, protection of the enclosed product, and controlled release of the encapsulated contents, all of which can ensure efficient and safe therapeutic effects. This paper is a comprehensive review of microencapsulation and its latest developments in the field. It provides a comprehensive overview of the technology and primary goals of microencapsulation and discusses various processes and techniques involved in microencapsulation including physical, chemical, physicochemical, and other methods involved. It also summarizes the state-of-the-art successes of microencapsulation, specifically with regard to the encapsulation of microorganisms, mammalian cells, drugs, and other biopharmaceutics in various diseases. The limitations and future directions of microencapsulation technologies are also discussed.

  2. Performance of Trasuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Interim Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Pope; Brian Boer; Gilles Youinou; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranice (TRU) in light water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles would be pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code in order assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells containing typical UO2 and MOX fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Loading of TRU-only FCM fuel into a pin without significant quantities of uranium challenges the design from the standpoint of several key reactivity parameters, particularly void reactivity, and to some degree, the Doppler coefficient. These unit cells, while providing an indication of how a whole core of similar fuel would behave, also provide information of how individual pins of TRU-only FCM fuel would influence the reactivity behavior of a heterogeneous assembly. If these FCM fuel pins are included in a heterogeneous assembly with LEU fuel pins, the overall reactivity behavior would be dominated by the uranium pins while attractive TRU destruction performance of the TRU-only FCM fuel pins may be preserved. A configuration such as this would be similar to CONFU assemblies analyzed in previous studies. Analogous to the plutonium content limits imposed on MOX fuel, some amount of TRU-only FCM pins in an otherwise-uranium fuel assembly may give acceptable reactivity

  3. Microencapsulation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

  4. Microencapsulation Technology and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Dubey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology allows a compound to be encapsulated inside a tiny sphere known as microsphere/microcapsule, having an average diameter as small as 1 mm to several hundred micro meters. Many different active materials like drugs, enzymes, vitamins, pesticides, flavours and catalysts have been successfully encapsulated inside microballoons or microcapsules made from a variety of polymeric and non polymeric materials including poly(ethylene glycols, poly(methacrylates, poly(styrenes, cellulose, poly(lactides, poly(lactide-co-glycolides, gelatin and acacia, etc. These microcapsules release their contents at appropriate time by using different release mechanisms, depending on the end use of encapsulated products. This technology has been used in several fields including pharmaceutical, agriculture, food, printing, cosmetic, textile and defence. In defence sector this technology has introduced the concept of self-healing composites as well as chemical decontaminating fabrics. This review paper highlights the major reasons behind microencapsulation, important techniques of microencapsulation and application of microencapsulated products in different areas of science and technology.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(1, pp.82-95, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1489 

  5. Performance of Transuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Final Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Pope; R. Sonat Sen; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Gilles Youinou

    2011-09-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranics (TRU) in light-water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles are pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell and assembly calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code to assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells and assemblies containing typical UO2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Then, assembly calculations were performed evaluating the performance of heterogeneous arrangements of TRU-only FCM fuel pins along with UO2 pins.

  6. Low-Shear Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Mosier, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    A report presents additional information on the topic of a microencapsulation electrostatic processing system. Information in the report includes micrographs of some microcapsules, a set of diagrams that schematically depict the steps of an encapsulation process, and brief descriptions of (1) alternative versions of the present encapsulation processes, (2) advantages of the present microencapsulation processes over prior microencapsulation processes, and (3) unique and advantageous features of microcapsules produced by the present processes.

  7. Microencapsulation Technology and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rama Dubey

    2009-01-01

    Microencapsulation technology allows a compound to be encapsulated inside a tiny sphere known as microsphere/microcapsule, having an average diameter as small as 1 mm to several hundred micro meters. Many different active materials like drugs, enzymes, vitamins, pesticides, flavours and catalysts have been successfully encapsulated inside microballoons or microcapsules made from a variety of polymeric and non polymeric materials including poly(ethylene glycol)s, poly(methacrylate)s, poly(styr...

  8. Pulse-Flow Microencapsulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    The pulse-flow microencapsulation system (PFMS) is an automated system that continuously produces a stream of liquid-filled microcapsules for delivery of therapeutic agents to target tissues. Prior microencapsulation systems have relied on batch processes that involve transfer of batches between different apparatuses for different stages of production followed by sampling for acquisition of quality-control data, including measurements of size. In contrast, the PFMS is a single, microprocessor-controlled system that performs all processing steps, including acquisition of quality-control data. The quality-control data can be used as real-time feedback to ensure the production of large quantities of uniform microcapsules.

  9. 75 FR 63188 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft... Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September...

  10. Immunogenicity of Biotherapeutics: Causes and Association with Posttranslational Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Kuriakose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, potential immunogenicity can be better evaluated during the drug development process, and we have rational approaches to manage the clinical consequences of immunogenicity. The focus of the scientific community should be on developing sensitive diagnostics that can predict immunogenicity-mediated adverse events in the small fraction of subjects that develop clinically relevant anti-drug antibodies. Here, we discuss the causes of immunogenicity which could be product-related (inherent property of the product or might be picked up during the manufacturing process, patient-related (genetic profile or eating habits, or linked to the route of administration. We describe various posttranslational modifications (PTMs and how they may influence immunogenicity. Over the last three decades, we have significantly improved our understanding about the types of PTMs of biotherapeutic proteins and their association with immunogenicity. It is also now clear that all PTMs do not lead to clinical immunogenicity. We also discuss the mechanisms of immunogenicity (which include T cell-dependent and T cell-independent responses and immunological tolerance. We further elaborate on the management of immunogenicity in preclinical and clinical setting and the unique challenges raised by biosimilars, which may have different immunogenic potential from their parent biotherapeutics.

  11. Current advances in delivery of biotherapeutics across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajadhyaksha, Manoj; Boyden, Tracey; Liras, Jennifer; El-Kattan, Ayman; Brodfuehrer, Joanne

    2011-06-01

    Significant efforts through genomic approaches have been dedicated toward the identification of novel protein-protein interactions as promising therapeutic targets for indications such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and neuropsychiatric disorders. Additionally, the number of biotherapeutic agents entering the Pharmaceutical sector continues to increase and according to EvaluatePharma's "World Preview 2014" report, "the compounded annual growth rate of biologics is expected to be 8.5 percent from 2008-2014, eight to 10 times greater than the growth rate of small molecules". However, there are limited examples of success in developing biotherapeutic modalities for central nervous system (CNS) diseases in the drug development pipeline. A primary reason for the lack of application of biotherapeutics to neuroscience targets, is that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) isolates and protects CNS structures creating a unique biochemically and immunologically privileged environment, therefore passage of macromolecules across this barrier has additional challenges. An understanding of the anatomical and physiological properties of this barrier with respect to penetration of biotherapeutics is presented in this review document. In this summary, recent advances in biotherapeutic delivery mechanisms across the BBB including transcranial brain drug delivery, focused ultrasound technology, nasal delivery, absorptive endocytosis, and receptor mediated endocytosis are evaluated using an industrial perspective. With acknowledgement that each approach has advantages and disadvantages, this review discusses the opportunities and challenges that are encountered during application of these methods across a variety of therapeutic areas such as, pain, obesity, neuroscience, and oncology. Utilizing an industrial perspective, including consideration of cost of goods and commercial feasibility for these approaches, this review highlights technology features which would enable industry

  12. MICROENCAPSULATION: ADVANCEMENTS IN APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsh Chanana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Microcapsule is a tiny sphere including core material/internal phase or fill, coated with/surrounded by wall know as shell, coating or membrane. The usual size range of the microcapsule lies between 1 to 1000 μm. The technique is usually applied for targeted drug delivery, protection of the molecule and stability if the core material. Microencapsulation system offers potential advantages over conventional drug delivery systems and also established as unique carrier systems for many pharmaceuticals. This article contains the traditional and the recent pharmaceutical applications of microecapsules. The microcapsules are widely applied in pharmaceutical for Novel drug Delivery System (NDDS, latest formulations, Delivery of DNA Vaccines, Pro Drug Approach, Biodegradable and biocompatible material. Other then pharmaceutical microcapsules are widely used in delivery of probiotic, pesticide industry, food technology, beverages and cell immobilization etc. Although significant advances have been made in the field of microencapsulation, still many challenges need to be rectified during the appropriate selection of core materials, coating materials and process techniques.

  13. Microencapsulation for the Therapeutic Delivery of Drugs, Live Mammalian and Bacterial Cells, and Other Biopharmaceutics: Current Status and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau; Shyamali Saha; Meenakshi Malhotra; Imen Kahouli; Satya Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Microencapsulation is a technology that has shown significant promise in biotherapeutics, and other applications. It has been proven useful in the immobilization of drugs, live mammalian and bacterial cells and other cells, and other biopharmaceutics molecules, as it can provide material structuration, protection of the enclosed product, and controlled release of the encapsulated contents, all of which can ensure efficient and safe therapeutic effects. This paper is a comprehensive review of ...

  14. Biosimilars and non-innovator biotherapeutics in India: an overview of the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Hemant

    2011-09-01

    Globally, a large number of blockbuster biotherapeutic molecules are going off patent in the next few years. For emerging economies, like India, it is imperative to be able to provide safe and cost effective drugs for its huge, non-insured and poor population. India has a robust pharmaceutical industry including the biopharmaceutical sector which is actively engaged in the production and marketing of 'non-innovator' or 'copy' biotherapeutic products These products are approved through an abbreviated route which relies on limited safety and efficacy data enabling the local companies to keep the production costs low and pass on the price benefit to the patient and make the product affordable to the masses. Some of the available products may not be truly 'similar' and may be of suspect quality. The WHO [1] and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) [2] have published guidelines for the development and marketing of biosimilar products. These products, as stated in both guidelines undergo extensive head-to-head comparability testing with the reference biotherapeutic product (RBP) to show their similarity to the RBP in terms of quality, efficacy and safety. Regulators and administrators of different countries need to strike a balance in cost-to-benefit versus risks that are perceived for these products, keeping in mind global regulatory issues.

  15. Antibiotic-Free Selection in Biotherapeutics: Now and Forever

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    Charlotte Mignon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The continuously improving sophistication of molecular engineering techniques gives access to novel classes of bio-therapeutics and new challenges for their production in full respect of the strengthening regulations. Among these biologic agents are DNA based vaccines or gene therapy products and to a lesser extent genetically engineered live vaccines or delivery vehicles. The use of antibiotic-based selection, frequently associated with genetic manipulation of microorganism is currently undergoing a profound metamorphosis with the implementation and diversification of alternative selection means. This short review will present examples of alternatives to antibiotic selection and their context of application to highlight their ineluctable invasion of the bio-therapeutic world.

  16. Importance of technical operations: lessons from evolving biotherapeutics production methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaluria, Pratik; Adams, Derek N

    2009-11-01

    Research and development connect technology and innovation to product design. However, the term is often used to refer to only a subset of the necessary disciplines to the exclusion of technical operations. Here, we argue that the importance of technical operations is undeniable, offering possible solutions by drawing on lessons from outdated biotherapeutics production methods and highlighting advances in the field.

  17. Overview on biotherapeutic proteins: impact on bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan J; Luo, Linlin; Desai, Dharmesh D

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the information and factors relevant to designing bioanalytical strategies in support of in vivo nonclinical and clinical studies of protein therapeutics. The summarized information includes representative types of the therapeutic proteins, their key structural characteristics, the relationship between post-translational modifications and function, issues during purification and formulation, PK of therapeutic proteins and immunogenicity. The effect of each of those on bioanalysis strategy has been pointed out. The impacts of structural variant and 'free'/'bound' forms on PK assessment have been discussed.

  18. Posttranslational Modifications and the Immunogenicity of Biotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Jefferis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whilst the amino acid sequence of a protein is determined by its gene sequence, the final structure and function are determined by posttranslational modifications (PTMs, including quality control (QC in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and during passage through the Golgi apparatus. These processes are species and cell specific and challenge the biopharmaceutical industry when developing a production platform for the generation of recombinant biologic therapeutics. Proteins and glycoproteins are also subject to chemical modifications (CMs both in vivo and in vitro. The individual is naturally tolerant to molecular forms of self-molecules but nonself variants can provoke an immune response with the generation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA; aggregated forms can exhibit enhanced immunogenicity and QC procedures are developed to avoid or remove them. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics (mAbs are a special case because their purpose is to bind the target, with the formation of immune complexes (ICs, a particular form of aggregate. Such ICs may be removed by phagocytic cells that have antigen presenting capacity. These considerations may frustrate the possibility of ameliorating the immunogenicity of mAbs by rigorous exclusion of aggregates from drug product. Alternate strategies for inducing immunosuppression or tolerance are discussed.

  19. Immunogenicity to Biotherapeutics – the role of Anti-drug Immune complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murli eKrishna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBiologic molecules are increasingly becoming a part of the therapeutics portfolio that has been either recently approved for marketing or those that are in the pipeline of several biotech and pharmaceutical companies. This is largely based on their ability to be highly specific relative to small molecules. However by virtue of being a large protein, and having a complex structure with structural variability arising from production using recombinant gene technology in cell lines, such therapeutics run the risk of being recognized as foreign by a host immune system. Given the range of immune mediated adverse effects that have been documented to biologic drugs thus far, including infusion reactions, and the evolving therapeutic platforms in the pipeline that engineer different functional modules in a biotherapeutic, it is critical to understand the interplay of the adaptive and innate immune responses, the pathophysiology of immunogenicity to biologic drugs in instances where there have been immune mediated adverse clinical sequelae and address technical approaches for their laboratory evaluation. The current paradigm in immunogenicity evaluation has a tiered approach to the detection and characterization of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs elicited in vivo to a biotherapeutic; alongside with the structural, biophysical and molecular information of the therapeutic, these analytical assessments form the core of the immunogenicity risk assessment. However many of the immune mediated adverse effects attributed to ADAs require the formation of a drug/ADA immune complex intermediate (ICs that can have a variety of downstream effects. This review will focus on the activation of potential immunopathological pathways arising as a consequence of circulating as well as cell surface bound drug bearing-ICs, risk factors that are either intrinsic to the therapeutic molecule or to the host which might predispose to IC mediated effects, and review the recent

  20. Effect of biotherapeutics on antitoxin IgG in experimentally induced Clostridium difficile infection

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    S Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Recurrent diarrhoea after successful treatment of primary Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD occurs due to bowel flora alterations and failure to mount an effective antibody response. Apart from antibiotics, risk factors include immunosuppressive and acid-suppressive drug administration. Biotherapeutics such as probiotic and epidermal growth factor (EGF may offer potential effective therapy for CDAD. Materials and Methods: The effect of biotherapeutics in mounting an antibody response against C. difficile toxins was studied in BALB/c mice challenged with C. difficile after pre-treatment with ampicillin, lansoprazole or cyclosporin. Sera from sacrificed animals were estimated for antitoxin IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Antitoxin IgG was significantly higher (P0.05 in animals in which C. difficile was given after pre-treatment with cyclosporin compared to those without any pre-treatment, or pre-treatment with antibiotic or lansoprazole. In inter-subgroup comparisons also significant anomaly in production of antitoxin IgG was found. The antitoxin IgG levels were raised in animals administered C. difficile after pre-treatment with ampicillin, but lower in animals administered cyclosporin. High levels of antitoxin IgG were also found in the serum samples of animals receiving lansoprazole and C. difficile. Conclusions: Probiotics showed their beneficial effect by boosting the immune response as seen by production of antitoxin IgG. Oral administration of EGF did not affect the immune response to C. difficile toxins as significant increase was not observed in the serum antitoxin IgG levels in any of the groups investigated.

  1. Survival of free and microencapsulated human-derived oral probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 in orange and aloe vera juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Teanpaisan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation was evaluated as a means of preserving Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, a human-derived strain with probiotic potential, in orange and aloe vera juices. The microencapsulation parameters included alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration and hardening-time, and the efficacy of microencapsulation to preserve the survival of microencapsulated bacteria compared to free cells during exposure in fruit juices were determined. The results revealed that the viable count of free-cell form markedly decreased compared to microencapsulated form. The microencapsulation of 2% alginate (w/v and 0.05 M CaCl2 gave the best result to preserve the probiotic. It was found that viability of microencapsulated probiotic bacteria was significantly higher than free-cell in fruit juices during 8 weeks of storage time in the refrigerator. The potential probiotic trait related to inhibitory effect was not affected after microencapsulation process. In summary, the microencapsulation method may be an alternative way of preserving the viability of probiotic L. paracasei SD1.

  2. Development of novel microencapsulation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weisi

    This thesis is for encapsulating additives into polymer particles using different techniques including emulsification/solvent evaporation, compressed carbon dioxide based microencapsulation, and encapsulation with porous polymer particles. Such microencapsulations can be applied to a vast range of areas, for example bio-labeling, controlled release, drug delivery, and printing. Fluorescent CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were incorporated into polyisoprene (PI) particles by emulsification/solvent evaporation. The simple method results in QDs encapsulated into the particle core without requiring chemical modification of the QDs. The fluorescence spectra of mixtures of two different-sized QDs change in PI as compared to their solution spectra, suggesting energy transfer between QDs due to their aggregation during the encapsulation. However, different emission peaks were clearly resolved, indicating that the particles are suitable for multicolor coding. The polyisoprene is easily cross-linked, and the cross-linking was shown to greatly enhance the fluorescence stability of the encapsulated QDs. Ionic dyes were successfully encapsulated in polystyrene (PS) particles by CO2-based microencapsulation. The water-soluble dyes were made hydrophobic by forming ion pairs with alkyl quaternary ammonium cations. The hydrophobic ion pairs were then encapsulated in preexisting size monodisperse PS particles dispersed in water. High-pressure carbon dioxide swelled and plasticized PS and thus facilitated mass transport of the dye into the particles. The results show that the particles maintain their size and morphology after exposure to CO2, and that ion-paired dyes have significantly higher loading in the polymer particles than the original dyes. Addition of water-miscible cosolvents was shown to further enhance the incorporation of the hydrophobic ion pairs into the polymer colloids. To encapsulate water-soluble additives, porous polymer particles were made by freeze-drying droplets

  3. Disposition and interaction of biotherapeutics in pediatric populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Souzan

    2012-09-01

    Human development of an individual from a fertilized ovum to maturity alters the body anatomy and physiology. Changes of size and function, from birth onwards, cause significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs and subsequently their response pharmacodynamics (PD) in infants and children from those in adults. During the last three decades, hundreds of mechanistic and clinical pharmacology studies have been conducted to investigate the age-mediated changes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion processes of drugs, which subsequently affect the pharmacology response and the safety in pediatric patients compared to adults. The practice of determining pediatric dose based on simplistic scaling of an adult dose assuming linear relationship between postnatal age and body weight or surface area that may lead to under prediction of therapeutic dose or over prediction of the dose is now under scrutiny. By understanding the disposition mechanism of therapeutic agents thoroughly, their potential drug interactions and their PK/PD relationships can be better determined in pediatric populations. As such, dosing regimens can be estimated based on actual clearance and exposure and not just by simplistic scaling of an adult dose. Accurate prediction of clearance in pediatrics is so critical that extensive translational research is warranted to improve our ability to estimate safe and efficacious doses in different pediatric populations from retrospective clinical studies in adults. Biotherapeutics, proteins and peptides-based drugs, generally depend on absorption (A), distribution (D), metabolism (M), and excretion (E) in their disposition as small molecules, but the underlying mechanisms and potential drug interaction propensity can be very different. In this article, the factors that alter pediatric and adult PK parameters are compared, and pediatric and adult PK parameters and potential drug interactions for selected biotherapeutics are summarized

  4. Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Processing Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor); Cassanto, John M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A microencapsulation and electrostatic processing (MEP) device is provided for forming microcapsules. In one embodiment, the device comprises a chamber having a filter which separates a first region in the chamber from a second region in the chamber. An aqueous solution is introduced into the first region through an inlet port, and a hydrocarbon/ polymer solution is introduced into the second region through another inlet port. The filter acts to stabilize the interface and suppress mixing between the two immiscible solutions as they are being introduced into their respective regions. After the solutions have been introduced and have become quiescent, the interface is gently separated from the filter. At this point, spontaneous formation of microcapsules at the interface may begin to occur, or some fluid motion may be provided to induce microcapsule formation. In any case, the fluid shear force at the interface is limited to less than 100 dynes/sq cm. This low-shear approach to microcapsule formation yields microcapsules with good sphericity and desirable size distribution. The MEP device is also capable of downstream processing of microcapsules, including rinsing, re-suspension in tertiary fluids, electrostatic deposition of ancillary coatings, and free-fluid electrophoretic separation of charged microcapsules.

  5. 77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information '' dated February 2012. The guidance provides... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated February 2012. The guidance...

  6. Micro-Encapsulation of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Jean-Antoine

    Micro-encapsulation is defined as the technology for packaging with the help of protective membranes particles of finely ground solids, droplets of liquids or gaseous materials in small capsules that release their contents at controlled rates over prolonged periods of time under the influences of specific conditions (Boh, 2007). The material encapsulating the core is referred to as coating or shell.

  7. Microencapsulation in food science and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Filomena; Orlando, Pierangelo; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele

    2012-04-01

    Microencapsulation can represent an excellent example of microtechnologies applied to food science and biotechnology. Microencapsulation can be successfully applied to entrap natural compounds, like essential oils or vegetal extracts containing polyphenols with well known antimicrobial properties to be used in food packaging. Microencapsulation preserves lactic acid bacteria, both starters and probiotics, in food and during the passage through the gastrointestinal tract, and may contribute to the development of new functional foods.

  8. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  9. Investigation of Genipin Cross-Linked Microcapsule for Oral Delivery of Live Bacterial Cells and Other Biotherapeutics: Preparation and In Vitro Analysis in Simulated Human Gastrointestinal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral therapy utilizing engineered microorganisms has shown promise in the treatment of many diseases. By microencapsulation, viable cells can overcome the harsh gastrointestinal (GI environment and secrete needed therapeutics into the gut. These engineered cells should be encased without escaping into the GI tract for safety concerns, thus robust microcapsule membrane is requisite. This paper examined the GI performance of a novel microcapsule membrane using a dynamic simulated human GI model. Results showed that the genipin cross-linked alginate-chitosan (GCAC microcapsules possessed strong resistance to structural disintegration in the simulated GI environment. Leakage of encapsulated high molecular weight dextran, a model material to be protected during the simulated GI transit, was negligible over 72 h of exposure, in contrast to considerable leakage of dextran from the non-cross-linked counterparts. These microcapsules did not alter the microflora and enzymatic activities in the simulated human colonic media. This study suggested the potential of the GCAC microcapsules for oral delivery of live microorganisms and other biotherapeutics.

  10. Probiotic Encapsulation Technology: From Microencapsulation to Release into the Gut

    OpenAIRE

    Gbassi, Gildas K.; Thierry Vandamme

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic encapsulation technology (PET) has the potential to protect microorgansisms and to deliver them into the gut. Because of the promising preclinical and clinical results, probiotics have been incorporated into a range of products. However, there are still many challenges to overcome with respect to the microencapsulation process and the conditions prevailing in the gut. This paper reviews the methodological approach of probiotics encapsulation including biomaterials selection, choice ...

  11. PROSPECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR DEVELOPING PRODUCT CONTAINING MICROENCAPSULATED PROBIOTICS

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    Saikh Mahammed Athar Alli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic micro-organisms explored for delivering associated proclaimed valuable benefits and its market is expanding in diverse sphere. Probiotics (PRs are presented as pharmaceutical, dairy, non-dairy, and personal care products. To improve performances and marketplace survival of these products, diverse methods and technology devised. Amongst them microencapsulation (MEC is widely explored to get product with wished and improved performances. Interest evoke for marketing of product containing microencapsulated probiotics (PCEP to upkeep performance, reproducible, throughout its life cycle. The review features on prospective action plan for evolution of PCEP including method for combating issues. Presented information will be a helping hand for developers to get PCEP, with excellent feature and performance, and improved marketability.

  12. Single-step affinity purification of enzyme biotherapeutics: a platform methodology for accelerated process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Kevin P; Ryakala, Venkat K; Bird, Ryan; Godawat, Rahul; Riske, Frank J; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Warikoo, Veena; Gamble, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Downstream sample purification for quality attribute analysis is a significant bottleneck in process development for non-antibody biologics. Multi-step chromatography process train purifications are typically required prior to many critical analytical tests. This prerequisite leads to limited throughput, long lead times to obtain purified product, and significant resource requirements. In this work, immunoaffinity purification technology has been leveraged to achieve single-step affinity purification of two different enzyme biotherapeutics (Fabrazyme® [agalsidase beta] and Enzyme 2) with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, respectively, as ligands. Target molecules were rapidly isolated from cell culture harvest in sufficient purity to enable analysis of critical quality attributes (CQAs). Most importantly, this is the first study that demonstrates the application of predictive analytics techniques to predict critical quality attributes of a commercial biologic. The data obtained using the affinity columns were used to generate appropriate models to predict quality attributes that would be obtained after traditional multi-step purification trains. These models empower process development decision-making with drug substance-equivalent product quality information without generation of actual drug substance. Optimization was performed to ensure maximum target recovery and minimal target protein degradation. The methodologies developed for Fabrazyme were successfully reapplied for Enzyme 2, indicating platform opportunities. The impact of the technology is significant, including reductions in time and personnel requirements, rapid product purification, and substantially increased throughput. Applications are discussed, including upstream and downstream process development support to achieve the principles of Quality by Design (QbD) as well as integration with bioprocesses as a process analytical technology (PAT).

  13. Pharmacokinetic modelling of microencapsulated metronidazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood AHMAD; Khalid PERVAIZ; Ghulam MURTAZA; Munaza RAMZAN

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study is to develop a pharmacokinetic model for microencapsulated metronidazole to predict drug absorption pattern in healthy human and validate this model internally. Metronidazole was microencapsulated into ethylcellulose shells followed by the conversion of these microcapsules into tablets.tablets (T1: fast release, T2: moderate release, T3: slow release and reference) were administered to twenty four healthy human volunteers and serial blood samples were collected for 12 hours followed by their analysis using RP-HPLC. Drug release data were analyzed by various model dependent and independent approaches. Drug absorbed (%) was determined by Wagner-Nelson method from plasma concentration profile. Internal predictability was checked from Cmax and AUC. Optimum dissolution profile was observed in double distilled water and 50coefficient, R2 = 0.900 9, 0.942 6, 0.901 5 and 0.932 for T1, T2, T3 and reference, respectively). Internal predictability was found less than 10%. Good correlation coefficients and low prediction errors elaborate the validity of this mathematical in-vitro in-vivo correlation model as a predictive tool for the determination of pharmaenkinetics from dissolution data.

  14. Microencapsulation of babassu coconut milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audirene Amorim Santana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain babassu coconut milk powder microencapsulated by spray drying process using gum Arabic as wall material. Coconut milk was extracted by babassu peeling, grinding (with two parts of water, and vacuum filtration. The milk was pasteurized at 85 ºC for 15 minutes and homogenized to break up the fat globules, rendering the milk a uniform consistency. A central composite rotatable design with a range of independent variables was used: inlet air temperature in the dryer (170-220 ºC and gum Arabic concentration (10-20%, w/w on the responses: moisture content (0.52-2.39%, hygroscopicity (6.98-9.86 g adsorbed water/100g solids, water activity (0.14-0.58, lipid oxidation (0.012-0.064 meq peroxide/kg oil, and process yield (20.33-30.19%. All variables influenced significantly the responses evaluated. Microencapsulation was optimized for maximum process yield and minimal lipid oxidation. The coconut milk powder obtained at optimum conditions was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size distribution, bulk and absolute density, porosity, and wettability.

  15. MICROENCAPSULATION-THE FUTURE OF PROBIOTIC CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawheed Amin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, there has been an explosion of probiotic cultures based health products in Indian markets. The survival of the probiotic bacteria in gastro-intestinal gut is questionable, because of the poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. Basically the viability of probiotic cultures is very weak in these food products. Probiotic based products are health potentiators and are associated with many health benefits. Microencapsulation of the probiotic cultures is one of the recent, demanded and highly efficient techniques. Among the different approaches proposed to improve the survival of probiotics during food manufacturing process and passage in the upper part of gastrointestinal tratct (GI tract, microencapsulation has received considerable attention. Encapsulated probiotic cultures have longer shelf life of the products. This microencapsulation technology is used to maintain the viability of probiotic bacteria during food product processing and storage. This article reviews the principles, techniques and need for microencapsulation of probiotic cultures.

  16. Microencapsulation and its Applications in Food Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Koç

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a technology used to cover an active core with one or few capsulating materials. This technology is used in different industries such as pharmacology, chemistry, cosmetics, food and dye. Microencapsulation thecnique in food industry, generally, is utilised to improve the functional properties and to increase the shelf life of foods by capsulating the liquid droplets, solid particles and gas components with food grade coating materials. Mostly microencapsulated foods or food contstituents are solid and liquid fats, aroma components, vitamins, minerals, coloring compounds and enzymes. Capsulating materials mostly used are starch, maltodextrin, pullulan, sucrose, maltose in carbohydrate structure; gelatin, whey proteins, casein and caseinates in protein structure and some gams like gam arabic. This review cover the subjects about microencapsulation technology, the capsulating materials and their use in food industry.

  17. Probiotics as potential biotherapeutics in the management of type 2 diabetes - prospects and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Harsh; Rashmi, Hogarehalli Mallappa; Batish, Virender Kumar; Grover, Sunita

    2013-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a looming epidemic worldwide, affecting almost all major sections of society, creating burdens on global health and economy. A large number of studies have identified a series of multiple risk factors such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic changes, unhealthy lifestyle, and altered gut microbiota that cause increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, adiposity, dyslipidaemia, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, intestinal permeability (leaky gut), defective secretion of incretins and oxidative stress associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent studies have proposed multifactorial interventions including dietary manipulation in the management of T2D. The same interventions have also been recommended by many national and international diabetes associations. These studies are aimed at deciphering the gut microbial influence on health and disease. Interestingly, results from several genomic, metagenomic and metabolomic studies have provided substantial information to target gut microbiota by dietary interventions for the management of T2D. Probiotics particularly lactobacilli and bifidobacteria have recently emerged as the prospective biotherapeutics with proven efficacy demonstrated in various in vitro and in vivo animal models adequately supported with their established multifunctional roles and mechanism of action for the prevention and disease treatment. The dietary interventions in conjunction with probiotics - a novel multifactorial strategy to abrogate progression and development of diabetes - hold considerable promise through improving the altered gut microbial composition and by targeting all the possible risk factors. This review will highlight the new developments in probiotic interventions and future prospects for exploring probiotic therapy in the prevention and control of lifestyle diseases like T2D.

  18. Microencapsulation of Chlorocyclophosphazene by Interfacial Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ya-qing; ZHAO Gui-zhe

    2007-01-01

    A polyurea-chlorocyclophosphazene microcapsule flame retardant is prepared by an interfacial polymerization process using 2, 4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and hexanediamine as the raw materials. TG tests show that the thermal decomposition temperature of chlorocyclophosphazene in microcapsule obviously rises. The flame retardancy of HDPE/chlorocyclophosphazene in microencapsules is better than that of HDPE/chlorocyclophosphazene. Mechanical properties of HDPE/chlorocyclophosphazene microencapsule turn out to be superior to those of HDPE/chlorocyclophosphazene.

  19. Isolation and microencapsulation of Lactobacillus spp. from corn silage for probiotic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Fooladi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Probiotics including strains of Lactobacillus spp. are living microorganisms including which are beneficial to human and animals health. In this study, Lactobacillus has been isolated from corn silage in a cold region of Iran by anaerobic culture."nMaterials and Methods: The bacteriological and biochemical standard methods were used for identification and phenotypic characterization of isolated organism. To increase the stability of organism in the environment, we used microencapsulation technique using stabilizer polymers (Alginate and Chitosan."nResults: The isolated Lactobacillus spp. was able to ferment tested carbohydrates and grow at 10°C -50°C. Using microencapsulation, the stability and survival of this bacterium increased."nconclusion: microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria with alginate and chitosan coating offers an effective way of delivering viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during refrigerated storage.

  20. Isolation and microencapsulation of Lactobacillus spp. from corn silage for probiotic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasra – Kermanshahi, R; Fooladi, J; Peymanfar, S

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Probiotics including strains of Lactobacillus spp. are living microorganisms including which are beneficial to human and animals health. In this study, Lactobacillus has been isolated from corn silage in a cold region of Iran by anaerobic culture. Materials and Methods The bacteriological and biochemical standard methods were used for identification and phenotypic characterization of isolated organism. To increase the stability of organism in the environment, we used microencapsulation technique using stabilizer polymers (Alginate and Chitosan). Results The isolated Lactobacillus spp. was able to ferment tested carbohydrates and grow at 10°C–50°C. Using microencapsulation, the stability and survival of this bacterium increased. Conclusion microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria with alginate and chitosan coating offers an effective way of delivering viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during refrigerated storage. PMID:22347557

  1. Microencapsulation of probiotic cells for food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidebach, Thomas; Först, Petra; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The addition of microencapsulated probiotic cells to food products is a relatively new functional food concept. Most of the published scientific research in this field is not older than ten years. However, the technological background reaches back to the 1980s, where lactic acid bacteria were microencapsulated within the concept of the so-called immobilized cell technology (ICT). Target applications of ICT were continuous fermentation processes and improved biomass production. The methods adopted from immobilized cell technology were applied for the microencapsulation of probiotics, often optimized towards specific requirements associated with the protection of probiotic cells in food applications. However, there are still significant hurdles with respect to currently available methods for probiotic cell microencapsulation. This is mainly due to the fact that important characteristics of microcapsules based on ICT appear to be in conflict with the requirements arising from an application of probiotic microcapsules in food products, with particle size and inappropriate matrix characteristics being the most prominent ones. Based on this situation the aim of this review is to give a critical overview of the current approaches regarding the microencapsulation of probiotic cells for food applications and to report on emerging developments.

  2. Development of vegetable extracts by microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A; Arnaud, P; Frazao, S; Venâncio, F; Chaumeil, J C

    1997-01-01

    The microencapsulation of essential oils offers protection against oxidation and evaporation, and allows the concurrent utilization of several vegetable extracts. Complex coacervation methods have been described for essential oils. Even though microencapsulation involves wrapping the essential oils in shells, some difficulties arise in the process of stabilizing the essential oils: oil may be lost by evaporation and partial dissolution in the water-gelatin phase and this will vary with the type of essential oil being encapsulated. In order to investigate the efficacy of the gelatin-polyphosphate methods we analysed their essential oil microcapsules peppermint and rosemary, in particular their granulometric size distribution, oil content (%) and encapsulation yield (%). In addition the essential oils were analysed by GC before and after microencapsulation so as to investigate the loss of their components during the process.

  3. Probiotic Encapsulation Technology: From Microencapsulation to Release into the Gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildas K. Gbassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic encapsulation technology (PET has the potential to protect microorgansisms and to deliver them into the gut. Because of the promising preclinical and clinical results, probiotics have been incorporated into a range of products. However, there are still many challenges to overcome with respect to the microencapsulation process and the conditions prevailing in the gut. This paper reviews the methodological approach of probiotics encapsulation including biomaterials selection, choice of appropriate technology, in vitro release studies of encapsulated probiotics, and highlights the challenges to be overcome in this area.

  4. Mitigation of quantum dot cytotoxicity by microencapsulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Romoser

    Full Text Available When CdSe/ZnS-polyethyleneimine (PEI quantum dots (QDs are microencapsulated in polymeric microcapsules, human fibroblasts are protected from acute cytotoxic effects. Differences in cellular morphology, uptake, and viability were assessed after treatment with either microencapsulated or unencapsulated dots. Specifically, QDs contained in microcapsules terminated with polyethylene glycol (PEG mitigate contact with and uptake by cells, thus providing a tool to retain particle luminescence for applications such as extracellular sensing and imaging. The microcapsule serves as the "first line of defense" for containing the QDs. This enables the individual QD coating to be designed primarily to enhance the function of the biosensor.

  5. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  6. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 5 - Biotherapeutics and Disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research. Findings are reported in a series of papers, and in this article, we consider biotherapeutics and disinfectants. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. While vaccines will remain the key immunological intervention used against FMD virus (FMDV) for the foreseeable future, it takes a few days for the immune system to respond to vaccination. In an outbreak situation, protection could potentially be provided during this period by the application of rapid, short-acting biotherapeutics, aiming either to stimulate a non-specific antiviral state in the animal or to specifically inhibit a part of the viral life cycle. Certain antiviral cytokines have been shown to promote rapid protection against FMD; however, the effects of different immune-modulators appear to vary across species in ways and for reasons that are not yet understood. Major barriers to the effective incorporation of biotherapeutics into control strategies are cost, limited understanding of their effect on subsequent immune responses to vaccines and uncertainty about their potential impact if used for disease containment. Recent research has highlighted the importance of environmental contamination in FMDV transmission. Effective disinfectants for FMDV have long been available, but research is being conducted to further develop methods for quantitatively evaluating their performance under field, or near-field, conditions. During outbreaks in South Korea in 2010 there was public concern about potential environmental contamination after the mass use of disinfectant and mass burial of culled stock; this should be considered during outbreak contingency planning.

  7. Use of In Vitro Assays to Assess Immunogenicity Risk of Antibody-Based Biotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Marisa K.; Deshpande, Meghana; Yang, Jane; Reynolds, Helen; Bryson, Christine; Fogg, Mark; Baker, Matthew P.; Herskovitz, Jonathan; Goletz, Theresa J.; Zhou, Lei; Moxness, Michael; Flynn, Gregory C.; Narhi, Linda O.; Jawa, Vibha

    2016-01-01

    An In Vitro Comparative Immunogenicity Assessment (IVCIA) assay was evaluated as a tool for predicting the potential relative immunogenicity of biotherapeutic attributes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from up to 50 healthy naïve human donors were monitored up to 8 days for T-cell proliferation, the number of IL-2 or IFN-γ secreting cells, and the concentration of a panel of secreted cytokines. The response in the assay to 10 monoclonal antibodies was found to be in agreement with the clinical immunogenicity, suggesting that the assay might be applied to immunogenicity risk assessment of antibody biotherapeutic attributes. However, the response in the assay is a measure of T-cell functional activity and the alignment with clinical immunogenicity depends on several other factors. The assay was sensitive to sequence variants and could differentiate single point mutations of the same biotherapeutic. Nine mAbs that were highly aggregated by stirring induced a higher response in the assay than the original mAbs before stirring stress, in a manner that did not match the relative T-cell response of the original mAbs. In contrast, mAbs that were glycated by different sugars (galactose, glucose, and mannose) showed little to no increase in response in the assay above the response to the original mAbs before glycation treatment. The assay was also used successfully to assess similarity between multiple lots of the same mAb, both from the same manufacturer and from different manufacturers (biosimilars). A strategy for using the IVCIA assay for immunogenicity risk assessment during the entire lifespan development of biopharmaceuticals is proposed. PMID:27494246

  8. Microencapsulation and microspheres for food applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an update on the latest developments, challenges, and opportunities in the highly expanding field of microencapsulation and microspheres for food applications, examining the various types of microspheres and microcapsules essential to those who need to develop stable and impermeab

  9. Microencapsulation of bioactives for food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Inês; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barreiro, Maria Filomena

    2015-04-01

    Health issues are an emerging concern to the world population, and therefore the food industry is searching for novel food products containing health-promoting bioactive compounds, with little or no synthetic ingredients. However, there are some challenges in the development of functional foods, particularly in which the direct use of some bioactives is involved. They can show problems of instability, react with other food matrix ingredients or present strong odour and/or flavours. In this context, microencapsulation emerges as a potential approach to overcome these problems and, additionally, to provide controlled or targeted delivery or release. This work intends to contribute to the field of functional food development by performing a comprehensive review on the microencapsulation methods and materials, the bioactives used (extracts and isolated compounds) and the final application development. Although several studies dealing with microencapsulation of bioactives exist, they are mainly focused on the process development and the majority lack proof of concept for final applications. These factors, together with the lack of regulation, in Europe and in the United States, delay the development of new functional foods and, consequently, their market entry. In conclusion, the potential of microencapsulation to protect bioactive compounds ensuring their bioavailability is shown, but further studies are required, considering both its applicability and incentives by regulatory agencies.

  10. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  11. Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    ER D C TR -0 8 -4 Basic Research/Military Construction Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry Jorge L...distribution is unlimited. Basic Research/Military Construction ERDC TR-08-4 March 2008 Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change... microencapsulated PCM (MPCM) slurries is enhanced significantly, even when using low volume fractions. MPCM slurries have potential to decrease costs and improve

  12. Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    ER D C TR -0 8 -4 Basic Research/Military Construction Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry Jorge L...distribution is unlimited. Basic Research/Military Construction ERDC TR-08-4 March 2008 Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change... microencapsulated PCM (MPCM) slurries is enhanced significantly, even when using low volume fractions. MPCM slurries have potential to decrease costs and improve

  13. Antitumour Activity of the Microencapsulation of Annona vepretorum Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, Larissa M; Menezes, Leociley R A; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B C; Dias, Rosane B; Rocha, Clarissa A Gurgel; Soares, Milena B P; Neto, Albertino F S; Nascimento, Magaly P; Campos, Adriana F; Silva, Lidércia C R C E; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae), popularly known as 'bruteira', has nutritional and medicinal uses. This study investigated the chemical composition and antitumour potential of the essential oil of A. vepretorum leaf alone and complexed with β-cyclodextrin in a microencapsulation. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analysed using GC-MS and GC-FID. In vitro cytotoxicity of the essential oil and some of its major constituents in tumour cell lines from different histotypes was evaluated using the alamar blue assay. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of essential oil was demonstrated in mice inoculated with B16-F10 mouse melanoma. The essential oil included bicyclogermacrene (35.71%), spathulenol (18.89%), (E)-β-ocimene (12.46%), α-phellandrene (8.08%), o-cymene (6.24%), germacrene D (3.27%) and α-pinene (2.18%) as major constituents. The essential oil and spathulenol exhibited promising cytotoxicity. In vivo tumour growth was inhibited by the treatment with the essential oil (inhibition of 34.46%). Importantly, microencapsulation of the essential oil increased in vivo tumour growth inhibition (inhibition of 62.66%).

  14. Mapping the Pareto optimal design space for a functionally deimmunized biotherapeutic candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, Regina S; Parker, Andrew S; Choi, Yoonjoo; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Griswold, Karl E

    2015-01-01

    The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics can bottleneck development pipelines and poses a barrier to widespread clinical application. As a result, there is a growing need for improved deimmunization technologies. We have recently described algorithms that simultaneously optimize proteins for both reduced T cell epitope content and high-level function. In silico analysis of this dual objective design space reveals that there is no single global optimum with respect to protein deimmunization. Instead, mutagenic epitope deletion yields a spectrum of designs that exhibit tradeoffs between immunogenic potential and molecular function. The leading edge of this design space is the Pareto frontier, i.e. the undominated variants for which no other single design exhibits better performance in both criteria. Here, the Pareto frontier of a therapeutic enzyme has been designed, constructed, and evaluated experimentally. Various measures of protein performance were found to map a functional sequence space that correlated well with computational predictions. These results represent the first systematic and rigorous assessment of the functional penalty that must be paid for pursuing progressively more deimmunized biotherapeutic candidates. Given this capacity to rapidly assess and design for tradeoffs between protein immunogenicity and functionality, these algorithms may prove useful in augmenting, accelerating, and de-risking experimental deimmunization efforts.

  15. Biotherapeutic formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel studied by design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuxia; Evans, Brad; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K

    2012-03-01

    Trace amounts of metals are inevitably present in biotherapeutic products. They can arise from various sources. The impact of common formulation factors such as protein concentration, antioxidant, metal chelator concentration and type, surfactant, pH, and contact time with stainless steel on metal leachables was investigated by a design of experiments approach. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. It was observed that among all the tested factors, contact time, metal chelator concentration, and protein concentration were statistically significant factors with higher temperature resulting in higher levels of leached metals. Within a pH range of 5.5-6.5, solution pH played a minor role for chromium leaching at 25°C. No statistically significant difference was observed due to type of chelator, presence of antioxidant, or surfactant. In order to optimize a biotherapeutic formulation to achieve a target drug product shelf life with acceptable quality, each formulation component must be evaluated for its impact.

  16. Structural guided scaffold phage display libraries as a source of bio-therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y K Stella Man

    Full Text Available We have developed a structurally-guided scaffold phage display strategy for identification of ligand mimetic bio-therapeutics. As a proof of concept we used the ligand of integrin αvβ6, a tumour cell surface receptor and a major new target for imaging and therapy of many types of solid cancer. NMR structure analysis showed that RGD-helix structures are optimal for αvβ6 ligand-interaction, so we designed novel algorithms to generate human single chain fragment variable (scFv libraries with synthetic VH-CDR3 encoding RGD-helix hairpins with helices of differing pitch, length and amino acid composition. Study of the lead scFv clones D25scFv and D34scFv and their corresponding VH-CDR3 derived peptides, D25p and D34p, demonstrated: specific binding to recombinant and cellular αvβ6; inhibition of αvβ6-dependent cell and ligand adhesion, αvβ6-dependent cell internalisation; and selective retention by αvβ6-expressing, but not αvβ6-negative, human xenografts. NMR analysis established that both the D25p and D34p retained RGD-helix structures confirming the success of the algorithm. In conclusion, scFv libraries can be engineered based on ligand structural motifs to increase the likelihood of developing powerful bio-therapeutics.

  17. Microencapsulation as a tool for incorporating bioactive ingredients into food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, S S; Oliveira, J C; Crean, A M

    2010-11-01

    Microencapsulation has been developed by the pharmaceutical industry as a means to control or modify the release of drug substances from drug delivery systems. In drug delivery systems microencapsulation is used to improve the bioavailability of drugs, control drug release kinetics, minimize drug side effects, and mask the bitter taste of drug substances. The application of microencapsulation has been extended to the food industry, typically for controlling the release of flavorings and the production of foods containing functional ingredients (e.g. probiotics and bioactive ingredients). Compared to the pharmaceutical industry, the food industry has lower profit margins and therefore the criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are more stringent. The type of microcapsule (reservoir and matrix systems) produced and its resultant release properties are dependent on the microencapsulation technology, in addition to the physicochemical properties of the core and the shell materials. This review discusses the factors that affect the release of bioactive ingredients from microcapsules produced by different microencapsulation technologies. The key criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are also discussed. Two of the most common physical microencapsulation technologies used in pharmaceutical processing, fluidized-bed coating, and extrusion-spheronization are explained to highlight how they might be adapted to the microencapsulation of functional bioactive ingredients in the food industry.

  18. Optimization of the cell seeding density and modeling of cell growth and metabolism using the modified Gompertz model for microencapsulated animal cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-tao, Qi; Ying, Zhang; Juan, Ma; Xin, Guo; Yu-bing, Xie; Wei, Wang; Xiaojun, Ma

    2006-04-01

    Cell microencapsulation is one of the promising strategies for the in vitro production of proteins or in vivo delivery of therapeutic products. In order to design and fabricate the optimized microencapsulated cell system, the Gompertz model was applied and modified to describe the growth and metabolism of microencapsulated cell, including substrate consumption and product formation. The Gompertz model successfully described the cell growth kinetics and the modified Gompertz models fitted the substrate consumption and product formation well. It was demonstrated that the optimal initial cell seeding density was about 4-5 x 10(6) cells/mL of microcapsule, in terms of the maximum specific growth rate, the glucose consumption potential and the product formation potential calculated by the Gompertz and modified Gompertz models. Modeling of cell growth and metabolism in microcapsules provides a guideline for optimizing the culture of microencapsulated cells.

  19. Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics as Potential Biotherapeutics for Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of deaths in adults in the western world. Elevated levels of certain blood lipids have been reported to be the principal cause of cardiovascular disease and other disabilities in developed countries. Several animal and clinical trials have shown a positive association between cholesterol levels and the risks of coronary heart disease. Current dietary strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease advocate adherence to low-fat/low-saturated-fat diets. Although there is no doubt that, in experimental conditions, low-fat diets offer an effective means of reducing blood cholesterol concentrations on a population basis, these appear to be less effective, largely due to poor compliance, attributed to low palatability and acceptability of these diets to the consumers. Due to the low consumer compliance, attempts have been made to identify other dietary components that can reduce blood cholesterol levels. Supplementation of diet with fermented dairy products or lactic acid bacteria containing dairy products has shown the potential to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Various approaches have been used to alleviate this issue, including the use of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.. Probiotics, the living microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts, have received much attention on their proclaimed health benefits which include improvement in lactose intolerance, increase in natural resistance to infectious disease in gastrointestinal tract, suppression of cancer, antidiabetic, reduction in serum cholesterol level, and improved digestion. In addition, there are numerous reports on cholesterol removal ability of probiotics and their hypocholesterolemic effects. Several possible mechanisms for cholesterol removal by probiotics are assimilation of cholesterol by growing cells, binding of cholesterol to cellular surface

  20. Evaluation of pilot-scale microencapsulation of probiotics and product effect on broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, J; Yun, T T; Li, A K; Qi, W T; Liang, X X; Wang, Y W; Liu, S

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pilot-scale production of microencapsulated in a 500-L fermenter using emulsion and gelation and to assess the effect of the products on the growth performance, antioxidant activity, immune function, and cecal microbiota in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of seven hundred 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers per pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) basal diet containing 0.1% Aureomycin (ANT), 3) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P1), 4) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P2), 5) basal diet containing 0.01% empty microcapsules (CAP), 6) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP1), and 7) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP2). The feeding experiment included 2 phases: the starter phase from d 1 to 21 and the grower phase from d 22 to 42. The results showed that a 500-L fermenter could produce 20.73 ± 4.05 kg of microcapsules with an approximate diameter of 549 μm. The feeding experiment showed that ADG of broilers in CAPP1 was significantly ( microencapsulation of microbial cells can be achieved using emulsion and initial gelation and that the dietary administration of microencapsulated can significantly enhance the growth performance, immune function, cecum microbial community, and overall health of broilers.

  1. Microencapsulated Phase Change Composite Materials for Energy Efficient Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alexander

    conditions, (iii) microencapsulated PCM-concrete walls have the best energetic performance in climates where the outdoor temperature oscillates around the desired indoor temperature, (iv) microencapsulated PCM offers the largest energy and cost savings when embedded in South- and West-facing walls and during the summer months in San Francisco and Los Angeles, CA. Third, a novel experimental method was developed to rapidly quantitatively characterize the thermal performance and potential energy savings of composite materials containing phase change materials (PCM) based on a figure of merit termed the energy indicator (EI). The method featured (i) commonly used specimen geometry, (ii) straightforward experimental implementation, and (iii) sensitivity to relevant design parameters including PCM volume fraction, enthalpy of phase change, composite effective thermal conductivity, and specimen dimensions. Finally, the widely-used admittance method was extended to account for the effects of phase change on the thermal load passing through PCM-composite building walls subjected to realistic outdoor temperature and solar radiation flux. The speed and simplicity of the admittance method could facilitate the design and evaluation of the energy benefits of PCM-composite walls through user-friendly design software for a wide range of users.

  2. Preparation and Application of Microencapsulated Disperse Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 陈水林

    2001-01-01

    Microcapsules containing disperse dyes were prepared by means of in-situ polymerization. Polyester fabrics were multiple-transfer printed and color-mix printed using those microencapsulated dyes under different process conditions. By color measurement instrument, it can be seen that the times of multiple-transfer printing are up to ten while under appropriate conditions, especially when the transfer printing time is 50 seconds and the transfer printing temperature is 180°C. On the other hand, the K/S value of each transfer printing can keep almost constant. Meanwhile, the visual effect of color- mix printing with microencapsulated disperse dyes is special in the varicolored exhibiting if compared with conventional disperse dyes.

  3. Microencapsulation of Corrosion Indicators for Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott T.; Calle, Luz M.; Hanna,Joshua S.; Rawlins, James W.

    2011-01-01

    A multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous detection, indication, and control of corrosion is been developed based on microencapsulation technology. This paper summarizes the development, optimization, and testing of microcapsules specifically designed for early detection and indication of corrosion when incorporated into a smart coating. Results from experiments designed to test the ability of the microcapsules to detect and indicate corrosion, when blended into several paint systems, show that these experimental coatings generate a color change, indicative of spot specific corrosion events, that can be observed with the naked eye within hours rather than the hundreds of hours or months typical of the standard accelerated corrosion test protocols.. Key words: smart coating, corrosion detection, microencapsulation, microcapsule, pH-sensitive microcapsule, corrosion indicator, corrosion sensing paint

  4. Microencapsulation Technologies for Corrosion Protective Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation technologies for functional smart Coatings for autonomous corrosion control have been a research area of strong emphasis during the last decade. This work concerns the development of pH sensitive micro-containers (microparticles and microcapsules) for autonomous corrosion control. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in the field of microencapsulation for corrosion control applications, as well as the technical details of the pH sensitive microcontainer approach, such as selection criteria for corrosion indicators and corrosion inhibitors; the development and optimization of encapsulation methods; function evaluation before and after incorporation of the microcontainers into coatings; and further optimization to improve coating compatibility and performance.

  5. Microencapsulation of probiotics using sodium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Araújo Etchepare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of probiotics is constantly growing due to the numerous benefits conferred on the health of consumers. In this context, Microencapsulation is a technology that favors the viability of probiotic cultures in food products, mainly by the properties of protection against adverse environmental conditions and controlled release. Currently there are different procedures for microencapsulation using polymers of various types of natural and synthetic origin. The use of sodium alginate polymers is one of the largest potential application in the encapsulation of probiotics because of their versatility, biocompatibility and toxicity exemption. The aim of this review is to present viable encapsulation techniques of probiotics with alginate, emphasizing the internal ionic gelation and external ionic gelation, with the possibility of applying, as well as promising for improving these techniques.

  6. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Microencapsulated Polyethylene Glycol Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The microencapsulated polyethylene glycol (PEG)with different molecular weight by a fluidized coating method has been prepared and the crystallization behaviors of PEG particles in three-dimensional confined volume were investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) measurement.The results showed that the width of the crystallization peak of PEG increases and its height gradually diminishes in case that the PEG particles are microencapsulated. Compared with the non-microencapsulated PEG particles, the proportion of the first crystallization peak of microencapsulated PEG particle increases, and that of the second one decreases. The reason for the difference maybe is that the crystallization process of microencapsulated PEG particles is uniform and the crystallization ends when the spherulites touch the wall,thus the opportunity of producing the second crystallization peak was relatively reduced.

  7. Bioactivity of microencapsulated soursop seeds extract on Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Barros Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of microencapsulated extract from the soursop seeds, Annona muricata L. ( Annonaceae , on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostela L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae . Microencapsulation was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer model B-290 using 50mL of ethanolic and hexanic extracts plus 150mL of ethanol and 150mL of ultrapure water, mixed with aerosil (first polymer or arabic gum (second polymer. It was possible to microencapsulate the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds only by using the polymer arabic gum at 20%. The microencapsulated extract caused significant acute toxicity (LC50=258mg L-1 and chronic effects, especially reduction of larval viability and increased larval stage. We concluded that the microencapsulation of the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds can be a viable alternative for controlling diamondback moth with possible gains for the environment.

  8. Potencial bioterapêutico dos probióticos nas parasitoses intestinais Probiotics as potential biotherapeutic agents targeting intestinal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Goulart de Oliveira-Sequeira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Probióticos são microrganismos vivos que, se administrados em quantidades adequadas, promovem benefícios à saúde do homem e dos animais. O crescente interesse nos probióticos fundamenta-se em estudos clínicos nos quais a administração desses organismos foi avaliada na prevenção e no tratamento de desordens intestinais e sistêmicas. Os potenciais mecanismos de ação desses microrganismos incluem a exclusão competitiva, a produção de metabólitos com atividade antimicrobiana e a modulação da resposta imune. Em algumas circunstâncias clínicas específicas, os benefícios produzidos por esses microrganismos foram amplamente documentados, enquanto que em outras os resultados são contraditórios. No presente artigo de revisão, os probióticos foram abordados considerando-se o potencial bioterapêutico desses microrganismos nas parasitoses intestinais.Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, beneficially affect the general health status of man and animal. The great interest in probiotic microganisms is based on evidences from clinical studies indicating benefits in the prevention or treatment of a broad spectrum of gastrointestinal and systemic disorders. The potential mechanisms by which probiotics beneficially affect health include strengthening of the intestinal barrier, modulation of the immune response, and antagonism of pathogens either by the production of antimicrobial compounds or through competition for mucosal binding sites. In some specific clinical circumstances, there is clear evidence of benefit whereas in others, the results are dubious and important questions remaining unanswered. The aim of this review article is to focus probiotics on their potential as biotherapeutic agents against intestinal parasites.

  9. Stability of Bacillus thuringiensis and NPV Microencapsulated Formulation under Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Sadat Naghavi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is used for the formulation of bio pesticides and is effective against the ultra-violet radiation of sunlight. The present research studied the stability of Bt and NPV formulations microencapsulated with gelatin and sodium alginate, individually or in combination. The formulations were evaluated in outdoor space and under sunlight on potted growing cabbage. The stability of each active ingredient tested in each formulation was studied at 0, 3, 7 and 10 days after spraying on cabbage infested with diamondback moth Plutella xylostella second instars larvae. Results showed that non-formulated and microencapsulated formulations not exposed to sunlight (time zero had similar mortality. However, after being exposed to sunlight for three days, the non-formulated Bt and NPV resulted in a significantly lower mortality (less than 40%; compared with the microencapsulated bio pesticides (more than 70% mortality. Fifty percent (50% mortality was reached in microencapsulated formulations after seven and ten days of exposure to sunlight, whereas there was no mortality in larvae exposed to unformulated treated plants after ten days. ANOVA analysis showed the highest larval mortality was achieved by the Bt+NPV gelatin microencapsulated formulation followed by gelatin coated Bt, sodium alginate coated NPV, sodium alginate coated Bt+NPV, gelatin coated NPV and sodium alginate coated Bt. The formulations showed no significant LT50 differences between microencapsulated versus unformulated Bt and NPV.

  10. New microencapsulated sunscreens: technology and comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, C; Centini, M; Rossi, C; Ricci, M; Rastrelli, A; Andreassi, M; Buonocore, A; La Rosa, C

    2002-08-21

    The aim of this work is to obtain new technologically improved microencapsulated sunscreens characterised by UV-radiation stability, good substantivity, low toxicity, a better tolerability and easiness to formulation. For this purpose we prepared two different systems using semisynthetic Hyaluronic Acid (HA) benzyl ester and a synthetic polymer (patent pending). We obtained these systems using two different methodologies: emulsification/solvent evaporation and emulsification/solvent extraction. The comparison between the two formulated systems was carried out in terms of their chemical-physical and biological properties.

  11. Microencapsulated PCM slurries for heat transfer and energy storage in spacecraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, David P.; Mulligan, James C.; Bryant, Yvonne G.; Duncan, John L.; Gravely, Benjamin T.

    The technical feasibility for providing significantly enhanced heat transport and storage as well as improved thermal control has been investigated during several Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs for NASA, the United States Air Force (USAF), and the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) using microencapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) in both aqueous and nonaqueous two-component slurries. In the program for SDIO, novel two-component coolant fluids were prepared and successfully tested at both low (300 K) and intermediate temperatures (460 to 700 K). The two-component fluid slurries of microencapsulated PCMs included organic particles in aqueous and nonaqueous liquids, as well as microencapsulated metals that potentially could be carried by liquid metals or used as powdered heat sinks. Simulation and experimental studies showed that such active cooling systems could be designed and operated with enhancements of heat capacity that exceeded 10 times or 1000 percent that for the base fluid along with significant enhancement in the fluid's heat capacity. Furthermore, this enhancement provided essentially isothermal conditions throughout the pumped primary coolant fluid loop. The results suggest that together with much higher fluid thermal capacity, greater uniformity of temperature is achievable with such fluids, and that significant reductions in pumping power, system size, and system mass are also possible.

  12. Improvement of Oral Bioavailability of Curcumin upon Microencapsulation with Methacrylic Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Vero, Ada; Cosco, Donato; Pecora, Tiziana M. G.; Cianciolo, Simona; Fresta, Massimo; Pignatello, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloymethane; CUR) is a yellow pigment used in traditional medicine throughout history for its anti-inflammatory activity. In the last years, the scientific research has demonstrated that CUR effects are related to the modulation of crucial molecular targets, related to several pathologies including cancer, arthritis, diabetes, Crohn’s disease. In this paper, two formulations of microencapsulated CUR obtained by coevaporation with polymethacrylate polymers (Eudragit® Retard) were investigated in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, and results were compared by laser confocal microscopy analysis. The permeation of microencapsulated CUR through CaCo-2 monolayers was evaluated in vitro. The mucoadhesion and bioadhesion of the CUR-loaded microparticles were evaluated in vitro, using E12 and CaCo-2 human intestinal cells, and ex vivo, by means of excised rat intestinal mucosa. After oral administration to rats, microencapsulated CUR showed a sevenfold increase of bioavailability in respect to the neat drug, with a concomitant reduction of the Tmax and a five-fold plasma concentration peak increase. PMID:28066239

  13. Microencapsulated PCM thermal-energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawlader, M.N.A.; Uddin, M.S. [National Univ. of Singapore, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); Khin, Mya Mya [National Univ. of Singapore, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Singapore (Singapore)

    2003-02-01

    The application of phase-change materials (PCM) for solar thermal-energy storage capacities has received considerable attention in recent years due to their large storage capacity and isothermal nature of the storage process. This study deals with the preparation and characterization of encapsulated paraffin-wax. Encapsulated paraffin particles were prepared by complex coacervation as well as spray-drying methods. The influence of different parameters on the characteristics and performance of a microencapsulated PCM in terms of encapsulation efficiency, and energy storage and release capacity has been investigated. The distribution of particle size and the morphology of microencapsulated PCM were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the coacervation method, the optimum homogenizing time is 10 min and the amount of cross-linking agent is 6-8 mI. Results obtained from a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) show that microcapsules prepared either by coacervation or the spray-drying method have a thermal energy storage/release capacity of about 145-240 J/g. Hence, encapsulated paraffin wax shows a good potential as a solar-energy storage material. (Author)

  14. Microencapsulated paraffin in phase-change-slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwander, S.; Schossig, P.; Henning, H.M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Phase-Change-Slurries (PCS) are mixtures of a Phase-Change-Material (PCM) and a carrier-.uid. Such PCS of microencapsulated paraf.n as PCM and water as carrier-.uid are investigated at Fraunhofer ISE. The shell of the microcapsule prevents an interaction between the paraf.n and the water. At ISE a test-facility was built to study the stability of the capsules while pumped with conventional pumps through common used heating components like pipes, heat exchangers, volume-.ow measurement instruments, pressure relief valves etc. To analyze the stability of the capsules SEM-pictures are taken after pumping them several weeks to control the optical state of the capsules. The speci.c heat of fusion is checked by DSC-Measurements. Thermal measurements are carried out to investigate the thermal behavior of the Slurry while pumped through heat exchangers. The results show that the PC-Material can be melted and frozen while.owing through the heat exchangers. The presented results illustrate that microencapsulated PC-Slurries can enhance the heatcapacity of a heat-carrier-.uid and they are also stable enough to be used with common heating or cooling devices. (orig.)

  15. Lubricin: a novel potential biotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jia-Peng; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wu, Li-Dong

    2011-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multi-factor disorder of sinovial joints, which characterized by escalated degeneration and loss of articular cartilage. Treatment of OA is a critical unmet need in medicine for regeneration of damaged articular cartilage in elderly. On the other hand, lubricin, a glycoprotein specifically synthesized by chondrocytes located at the surface of articular cartilage, has been shown to provide boundary lubrication of congruent articular surfaces under conditions of high contact pressure and near zero sliding speed. Lubrication of these surfaces is critical to normal joint function, while different gene expressions of lubricin had been found in the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and OA. Moreover, mutations or lacking of lubricin gene have been shown to link to the joint disease such as camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome (CACP), synovial hyperplasia and failure of joint function, suggesting an important role of lubricin in the pathogenesis of these joint disease. Recent studies demonstrate that administration with recombinant lubricin in the joint cavity would be effective in the prevention of cartilage degeneration in animal OA models. Therefore, a treatment with lubricin which would protect cartilage in vivo would be desirable. This article reviews recent findings with regard to the possible role of lubricin in the progression of OA, and further discusses lubricin as a novel potential biotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of OA.

  16. Accelerating Regulated Bioanalysis for Biotherapeutics: Case Examples Using a Microfluidic Ligand Binding Assay Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Hoffpauir, Brian; Chilewski, Shannon D; Gamberdella, Janice; Kavita, Uma; Duo, Jia; Gleason, Carol; Zhang, Yan; Pillutla, Renuka; DeSilva, Binodh; Hamuro, Lora

    2017-01-01

    The Gyrolab™ xP is a microfluidic platform for conducting ligand binding assays (LBAs) and is recognized for its utility in discovery bioanalysis. However, few reports have focused on the technology for regulated bioanalysis. This technology has the advantage of low reagent consumption, low sample volume, and automated ligand binding methods. To improve bioanalysis testing timelines and increase the speed at which biotherapeutics are delivered to patients, we evaluated the technology for its potential to deliver high-quality data at reduced testing timelines for regulated bioanalysis. Six LBA methods were validated to support bioanalysis for GLP toxicokinetic or clinical pharmacokinetic studies. Validation, sample analysis, and method transfer are described. In total, approximately 4000 samples have been tested for regulated bioanalysis to support 6 GLP toxicology studies and approximately 1000 samples to support 2 clinical studies. Gyrolab™ xP had high run pass rates (≥83%) and high incurred sample reanalysis (ISR) pass rates (>94%). The maximum total error observed across all QC levels for a given assay was labs, paving the way for this platform for use in late-stage clinical development.

  17. Self-healing Microencapsulation of Biomacromolecules without Organic Solvents**

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Samuel E.; Desai, Kashappa-Goud H.; Zhang, Li; Olsen, Karl F.; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Microencapsulation of biomacromolecules in PLGA is routinely performed with organic solvent through multiple complex steps deleterious to the biomacromolecule. The new self-healing based PLGA microencapsulation obviates micronization- and organic solvent-induced protein damage, provides very high encapsulation efficiency, exhibit stabilization and slow release of labile tetanus protein antigen, and provides long-term testosterone suppression in rats following a single injection of encapsulate...

  18. Microencapsulation and functional bioactive foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food, the essential unit of human nutrition has been both wholesome and safe through human history ensuring the continuity of the human race. Functionalized foods are the rediscovery of the need to provide all nutrients through foods without adulteration. The functional components of foods include...

  19. Probiotics, prebiotics, and microencapsulation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarao, Loveleen Kaur; Arora, M

    2017-01-22

    The development of a suitable technology for the production of probiotics is a key research for industrial production, which should take into account the viability and the stability of the organisms involved. Microbial criteria, stress tolerance during processing, and storage of the product constitute the basis for the production of probiotics. Generally, the bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have been used as probiotics. Based on their positive qualities, probiotic bacteria are widely used in the production of food. Interest in the incorporation of the probiotic bacteria into other products apart from dairy products has been increasing and represents a great challenge. The recognition of dose delivery systems for probiotic bacteria has also resulted in research efforts aimed at developing probiotic food outside the dairy sector. Producing probiotic juices has been considered more in the recent years, due to an increased concern in personal health of consumers. This review focuses on probiotics, prebiotics, and the microencapsulation of living cells.

  20. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Atchara N Phoem; Suphitchaya Chanthachum; Supayang P Voravuthikunchai

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better ...

  1. Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Processing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods are provided for forming spherical multilamellar microcapsules having alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic liquid layers, surrounded by flexible, semi-permeable hydrophobic or hydrophilic outer membranes which can be tailored specifically to control the diffusion rate. The methods of the invention rely on low shear mixing and liquid-liquid diffusion process and are particularly well suited for forming microcapsules containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. These methods can be carried out in the absence of gravity and do not rely on density-driven phase separation, mechanical mixing or solvent evaporation phases. The methods include the process of forming, washing and filtering microcapsules. In addition, the methods contemplate coating microcapsules with ancillary coatings using an electrostatic field and free fluid electrophoresis of the microcapsules. The microcapsules produced by such methods are particularly useful in the delivery of pharmaceutical compositions.

  2. The bone matrix protein secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24): bone metabolism regulator and starting material for biotherapeutic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Samuel S; Wang, Jeffrey C; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Tian, Haijun; Francis, Timothy; Brochmann Murray, Elsa J

    2015-05-01

    Secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24) is a bone matrix protein that appears to be derived primarily from the liver and delivered to other tissues in a protective complex. A significant role in bone growth and turnover is suggested by genetic studies that associate the gene locus (SPP2) with bone mineral density and bone quality. The function of this protein in the normal bone environment is unknown but clues are given by the fact that Spp24, or proteolytic products of Spp24, bind cytokines of the TGF-β superfamily and also activate intracellular signaling pathways. Several potential biotherapeutics have been engineered from this protein including materials that enhance BMP-induced bone healing and, on the other hand, materials that inhibit BMPs in clinical situations where this is called for such as reducing BMP-induced inflammation and inhibiting tumors dependent on BMP autocrine systems. As understanding of the structure and function of this protein increases, more opportunities for rationally developed therapeutics will become apparent.

  3. Thermal Performance of the Storage Brick Containing Microencapsulated PCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Gyu

    1998-02-15

    The utilization of microencapsulated phase change materials(PCMs) provides several advantages over conventional PCM application. The heat storage system, as well as heat recovery system, can be built to a smaller size than the normal systems for a given thermal cycling capacity. This microencapsulated PCM technique has not yet been commercialized, however. In this work sodium acetate trihydrate(CH{sub 3}COONa {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O) was selected for the PCM and was encapsulated. This microencapsulated PCM was mixed with cement mortar for utilization as a floor heating system. In this experiment performed here the main purpose was to investigate the thermal performance of a storage brick with microencapsulated PCM concentration. The thermal performance of this storage brick is dependent on PCM concentration, flow rate and cooling temperature of the heat transfer fluid, etc. The results showed that cycle time was shortened as the PCM content was increased and as the mass flow rate was increased. The same effect was obtained when the cooling temperature was decreased. For each thermal storage brick the overall heat transfer coefficient(U-value) was constant for a 0% brick, but was increased with time for the bricks containing microencapsulated PCM. For the same mass flow rate, as the cooling temperature decreased, the amount of heat withdrawn increased, and in particular a critical cooling temperature was found for each thermal storage brick. The average effectiveness of each thermal storage brick was found to be approximately 48%, 51% and 58% respectively.

  4. Microencapsulation of Self Healing Agents for Corrosion Control Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, S. T.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Calle, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, is a very costly problem that has a major impact on the global economy. Results from a 2-year breakthrough study released in 2002 by the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) showed that the total annual estimated direct cost associated with metallic corrosion in nearly every U.S. industry sector was a staggering $276 billion, approximately 3.1% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GOP). Corrosion protective coatings are widely used to protect metallic structures from the detrimental effects of corrosion but their effectiveness can be seriously compromised by mechanical damage, such as a scratch, that exposes the metallic substrate. The incorporation of a self healing mechanism into a corrosion control coating would have the potential to significantly increase its effectiveness and useful lifetime. This paper describes work performed to incorporate a number of microcapsule-based self healing systems into corrosion control coatings. The work includes the preparation and evaluation of self-healing systems based on curable epoxy, acrylate, and siloxane resins, as well as, microencapsulated systems based on passive, solvent born, healing agent delivery. The synthesis and optimization of microcapsule-based self healing systems for thin coating (less than 100 micron) will be presented.

  5. Microencapsulating and Banking Living Cells for Cell-Based Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wujie Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge to the eventual success of the emerging cell-based medicine such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and cell transplantation is the limited availability of the desired cell sources. This challenge can be addressed by cell microencapsulation to overcome the undesired immune response (i.e., to achieve immunoisolation so that non-autologous cells can be used to treat human diseases, and by cell/tissue preservation to bank living cells for wide distribution to end users so that they are readily available when needed in the future. This review summarizes the status quo of research in both cell microencapsulation and banking the microencapsulated cells. It is concluded with a brief outlook of future research directions in this important field.

  6. Stem cell microencapsulation for phenotypic control, bioprocessing, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jenna L; McDevitt, Todd C

    2013-03-01

    Cell microencapsulation has been utilized for decades as a means to shield cells from the external environment while simultaneously permitting transport of oxygen, nutrients, and secretory molecules. In designing cell therapies, donor primary cells are often difficult to obtain and expand to appropriate numbers, rendering stem cells an attractive alternative due to their capacities for self-renewal, differentiation, and trophic factor secretion. Microencapsulation of stem cells offers several benefits, namely the creation of a defined microenvironment which can be designed to modulate stem cell phenotype, protection from hydrodynamic forces and prevention of agglomeration during expansion in suspension bioreactors, and a means to transplant cells behind a semi-permeable barrier, allowing for molecular secretion while avoiding immune reaction. This review will provide an overview of relevant microencapsulation processes and characterization in the context of maintaining stem cell potency, directing differentiation, investigating scalable production methods, and transplanting stem cells for clinically relevant disorders.

  7. Separation of empty microcapsules after microencapsulation of porcine neonatal islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soojeong; Yoo, Young Je

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is used to treat diabetes mellitus that has minimal complications and avoids hypoglycemic shock. Conformal microencapsulation of pancreatic islets improves their function by blocking immunogenic molecules while protecting fragile islets. However, production of empty alginate capsules during microencapsulation causes enlargement of the transplantation volume of the encapsulated islets and interferes with efficient transfer of nutrients and insulin. In this study, empty alginate capsules were separated after microencapsulation of neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters (NPCC) using density-gradient centrifugation. Densities of NPCC and alginate capsules were determined using Percoll. Encapsulation products following alginate removal were 97 % of products, with less than 10 % of the capsules remaining empty. The viability of this process compared with manually-selected encapsulated islets indicates the separation process does not harm islets.

  8. Process development in the QbD paradigm: Role of process integration in process optimization for production of biotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag S; Pathak, Mili; Godara, Avinash

    2016-03-01

    Biotherapeutics have become the focus of the pharmaceutical industry due to their proven effectiveness in managing complex diseases. Downstream processes of these molecules consist of several orthogonal, high resolution unit operations designed so as to be able to separate variants having very similar physicochemical properties. Typical process development involves optimization of the individual unit operations based on Quality by Design principles in order to define the design space within which the process can deliver product that meets the predefined specifications. However, limited efforts are dedicated to understanding the interactions between the unit operations. This paper aims to showcase the importance of understanding these interactions and thereby arrive at operating conditions that are optimal for the overall process. It is demonstrated that these are not necessarily same as those obtained from optimization of the individual unit operations. Purification of Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF), a biotherapeutic expressed in E. coli., has been used as a case study. It is evident that the suggested approach results in not only higher yield (91.5 vs. 86.4) but also improved product quality (% RP-HPLC purity of 98.3 vs. 97.5) and process robustness. We think that this paper is very relevant to the present times when the biotech industry is in the midst of implementing Quality by Design towards process development. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:355-362, 2016.

  9. Production of microencapsulate glycidyl methacrylate with melamine formaldehyde resin shell materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, T.; Ulku, G.; Kizilcan, N.; Cimenoglu, H.; Yahya, N.; Baydogan, N.

    2016-11-01

    This study gives some information about the preparation of Glycidyl Methacrylate (GMA) microcapsules with Melamine Formaldehyde (MF) resin as a shell material (MF-GMA). Melamine formaldehyde resin containing hydroxyl groups was synthesized in the first step. Second step includes the addition of GMA monomer along with Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate (SDBS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) aqueous solution for getting emulsible solution. The resultant MF-GMA microcapsules had good enclosing performance and thermal stability. The characteristic properties and the morphology of microencapsulated Glycidyl Methacrylate were examined by using FTIR analysis and their morphology was investigated by using optical microscope.

  10. [Mouthwash solutions with microencapsuled natural extracts: Efficiency for dental plaque and gingivitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervelle, A; Mouhyi, J; Del Corso, M; Hippolyte, M-P; Sammartino, G; Dohan Ehrenfest, D M

    2010-06-01

    Mouthwash solutions are mainly used for their antiseptic properties. They currently include synthetic agents (chlorhexidine, triclosan, etc.) or essential oils (especially Listerine). Many natural extracts may also be used. These associate both antiseptic effects and direct action on host response, due to their antioxidant, immunoregulatory, analgesic, buffering, or healing properties. The best known are avocado oil, manuka oil, propolis oil, grapefruit seed extract, pycnogenol, aloe vera, Q10 coenzyme, green tea, and megamin. The development of new technologies, such as microencapsulation (GingiNat concept), may allow an in situ slow release of active ingredients during several hours, and open new perspectives for mouthwash solutions.

  11. Microencapsulation: concepts, mechanisms, methods and some applications in food technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Teixeira da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a process in which active substances are coated by extremely small capsules. It is a new technology that has been used in the cosmetics industry as well as in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and food industries, being used in flavors, acids, oils, vitamins, microorganisms, among others. The success of this technology is due to the correct choice of the wall material, the core release form and the encapsulation method. Therefore, in this review, some relevant microencapsulation aspects, such as the capsule, wall material, core release forms, encapsulation methods and their use in food technology will be briefly discussed.

  12. The recent advances on carrier materials for microencapsulating lipophilic cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Minfeng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipophilic ingredients,such as polyunsaturated fatty acids,play an important role in industrialized foods to fortify the nutrients.However,these materials are normally sensitive to oxygen,light or heat to be oxidized,and hard to flow and mix within the bulk food due to the hydrophobic nature.Microencapsulation of lipophilic materials could effectively extend their shelf lives,mask unsatisfied flavors,change their physicochemical properties,and enhance the mixing capacities.This work reviewed the different carrier materials applied in microencapsulating the lipophilic ingredients,and discussed their characteristics and effects on encapsulation efficiencies and release profiles of lipophilic cores.

  13. Microencapsulation of pancreatic islets for use in a bioartificial pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Emmanuel C; McQuilling, John P; Farney, Alan C

    2013-01-01

    Islet transplantation is the most exciting treatment option for individuals afflicted with Type 1 diabetes. However, the severe shortage of human pancreas and the need to use risky immunosuppressive drugs to prevent transplant rejection remain two major obstacles for the routine use of islet transplantation in diabetic patients. Successful development of a bioartificial pancreas using the approach of microencapsulation with perm-selective coating of islets with biopolymers for graft immunoisolation holds tremendous promise for diabetic patients because it has great potential to overcome these two barriers. In this chapter, we provide a detailed description of the microencapsulation process.

  14. Controlled-release Properties of Microencapsulated Disperse Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yan; LI Chun-yan; CHEN Shui-lin

    2002-01-01

    Some disperse dyes were microencapsulated by means of in- situ polymerization. These microencapsulated disperse dyes was extracted respectively by ethanol under certain conditions. The controlled-release properties of disperse dyes through the shell of microcapsules were measured by spectrophotometer. According to the results, it was drawn that the type of disperse dyes, the auxiliaries contained in disperse dyes, the quantity of system controlling medium used and the core/shell ratio of microcapsules play important roles in controlling the release properties of microcapsules. The different controlled- release properties of microcapsules, which were prepared under given conditions, however, would in turn influence the performance of microcapsules in multiple-transfer printing.

  15. Microencapsulation for the improved delivery of bioactive compounds into foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P; Fustier, Patrick

    2007-04-01

    The development of functional foods through the addition of bioactive compounds holds many technological challenges. Microencapsulation is a useful tool to improve the delivery of bioactive compounds into foods, particularly probiotics, minerals, vitamins, phytosterols, lutein, fatty acids, lycopene and antioxidants. Several microencapsulation technologies have been developed for use in the food industry and show promise for the production of functional foods. Moreover, these technologies could promote the successful delivery of bioactive ingredients to the gastrointestinal tract. Future research is likely to focus on aspects of delivery and the potential use of co-encapsulation methodologies, where two or more bioactive ingredients can be combined to have a synergistic effect.

  16. Recent Developments on Microencapsulation for Autonomous Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Jolley, Scott T.; Surma, Jan M.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns recent progress in the development of a multifunctional smart coating based on microencapsulation for the autonomous control of corrosion. Microencapsulation allows the incorporation of desired corrosion control functionalities, such as early corrosion detection and inhibition through corrosion controlled release of corrosion indicators and inhibitors, as well as self-healing agent release when mechanical damage occurs.While proof-of-concept results have been reported previously, more recent efforts have been concentrated in technical developments to improve coating compatibility, synthesis procedure scalability, as well as fine tuning the release property of encapsulated active agents.

  17. Microencapsulation Technology for Corrosion Mitigation by Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrow, Jerry; Li, Wenyan; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    A multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion is being developed based on micro-encapsulation technology. Corrosion indicators as well as corrosion inhibitors have been incorporated into microcapsules, blended into several paint systems, and tested for corrosion detection and protection effectiveness. This paper summarizes the development, optimization, and testing of microcapsules specifically designed to be incorporated into a smart coating that will deliver corrosion inhibitors to mitigate corrosion autonomously. Key words: smart coating, corrosion inhibition, microencapsulation, microcapsule, pH sensitive microcapsule, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion protection pain

  18. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Karl

    2003-03-01

    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  19. The Production of Synbiotic Bread by Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Sharifan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bread is a global staple food. Despite attempts to develop functional breads containing viable microorganisms, this has not been done yet because of the high temperature during baking. The aim of this study is to obtain synbiotic bread, hence hamburger bun and white pan bread were selected. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and L. casei 431 were encapsulated with calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch via emulsion technique and coated with chitosan. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser. Inulin was added at 5 % wheat flour mass basis for prebiotic effect. The encapsulated probiotics were inoculated into the bread dough and bread loaves were baked. The survival of encapsulated probiotics was determined after baking; also sensory evaluation was performed. Both types of bread met the standard criteria for probiotic products. The probiotic survival was higher in hamburger bun. L. casei 431 was more resistant to high temperature than L. acidophilus LA-5. A significant increase in probiotic survival was observed when the protective coating of chitosan was used in addition to calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch. Storage for 4 days did not have any effect on the viability of encapsulated bacteria. The addition of encapsulated bacteria did not have any effect on flavour and texture; however, 5 % inulin improved the texture of bread significantly. Results show that microencapsulation used in the production of synbiotic bread can enhance the viability and thermal resistance of the probiotic bacteria.

  20. Microencapsulation of Eugenol by Gelatin-Sodium Alginate Complex Coacervation

    OpenAIRE

    Ujwala Shinde; Mangal Nagarsenker

    2011-01-01

    Present study describes microencapsulation of eugenol using gelatin-sodium alginate complex coacervation. The effects of core to coat ratio and drying method on properties of the eugenol microcapsules were investigated. The eugenol microcapsules were evaluated for surface characteristics, micromeritic properties, oil loading and encapsulation efficiency. Eugenol microcapsules possessed good flow properties, thus improved handling. The scanning electron photomicrographs showed globular surface...

  1. Intensifying the microencapsulation process: ultrasonic atomization as an innovative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; Barba, Anna Angela; Lamberti, Gaetano; d'Amore, Matteo

    2012-04-01

    In this review, new approaches to the microencapsulation processes, widely used in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products, are discussed focusing the attention on the emerging ultrasonic atomization technique. Fundamentals and novel aspects are presented, and advantages of ultrasonic atomization in terms of intensification and low energy requests are emphasized.

  2. Study of the immunoisolating effects of barium-alginate microencapsulation on rat islets allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Zhang; Chao Liu; Cuiping Liu; Youwen Qin; Zhaosun Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the immunoisolating effects of barium-alginate microencapsulation on islets allograft survival. Methods: The nonmicroencapsulated and microencapsulated islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule or intraperitoneally into Wistar rat with STZ-induced diabetes. The blood glucose and insulin secretion of grafts were observed. Graft function was tested by oral rats was associated with normal glucose and insulin profiles in response to OGTT. Conclusion: Microencapsulation with barium-alginate membrane can prolong islet survival and protect islets against allorejection.

  3. 微胶囊相变材料制备技术的研究进展%Progress in Study on the Preparation Technology of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 秦立翠; 姜艳

    2012-01-01

    Microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCM) is a kind of composite material with core-shell structure constructed by coating a polymer layer with stable performance on the surface of solid-liquid phase change material by microencapsulation technology. The classification of phase change materials, working principle of microencapsulated phase change material is presented, and several preparation methods for microcapsule are introduced emphatically, including the interfacial polymerization, in-situ polymerization, complex coacervation method, solvent evaporation method and condensed phase separation method. The development trend of microencapsulation technology is proposed.%微胶囊相变材料( Microencapsulated Phase Change Material,MEPCM)是应用微胶囊技术在固液相变材料表面包覆一层性能稳定的高分子膜,而构成的具有核壳结构的复合材料.系统地讲述了相变材料的分类,微胶囊相变材料的工作原理,并重点介绍了几种微胶囊的制备方法,包括界面聚合法、原位聚合法、复凝聚法、溶剂挥发法、凝聚相分离法等,并提出了微胶囊技术今后的发展方向.

  4. Preparation of Fragrant Microencapsules and Coating on Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Jafari, M. H.; Parvinzadeh, M.; Najafi, F.

    2007-08-01

    A microcapsule is a small sphere with a uniform wall around it. Microcapsules range in diameter from 1 to 1000 μm. The move by the more developed countries into textiles with new properties and added value, into medical and technical textiles, has encouraged the industry to use microencapsulation process as a means of imparting finishes and properties on textiles which were not possible or cost-effective using other technology. Numerous attempts have been made at adding fragrances directly to fiber and fabrics but all fail to survive after one or two wash cycle. Only through microencapsulation, fragrances are able to remain on a garment during a significant part of its lifetime. This research has tried to prepare microcapsules with poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) as wall and Rose fragrance as core.

  5. Cell density monitoring and control of microencapsulated CHO cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Harriet Emma

    2015-01-01

    Though mammalian cells play a key role in the manufacturing of recombinant glycosylated proteins, cell cultures and productivity are limited by the lack of suitable systems to enable stable perfusion culture. Microencapsulation, or entrapping cells within a semi-permeable membrane, offers the potential to generate high cell density cultures and improve the productivity by mimicking the cells natural environment. However, the cells being secluded by the microcapsules membrane are difficult to ...

  6. Use of Yeast Spores for Microencapsulation of Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a novel method to produce microencapsulated enzymes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae spores. In sporulating cells, soluble secreted proteins are transported to the spore wall. Previous work has shown that the spore wall is capable of retaining soluble proteins because its outer layers work as a diffusion barrier. Accordingly, a red fluorescent protein (RFP) fusion of the α-galactosidase, Mel1, expressed in spores was observed in the spore wall even after spores were subjected to...

  7. Bioluminescence tracking of alginate micro-encapsulated cell transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiernan, Aubrey R; Sambanis, Athanassios

    2017-02-01

    Cell-based therapies to treat loss-of-function hormonal disorders such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease are routinely coupled with encapsulation strategies, but an understanding of when and why grafts fail in vivo is lacking. Consequently, investigators cannot clearly define the key factors that influence graft success. Although bioluminescence is a popular method to track the survival of free cells transplanted in preclinical models, little is known of the ability to use bioluminescence for real-time tracking of microencapsulated cells. Furthermore, the impact that dynamic imaging distances may have, due to freely-floating microcapsules in vivo, on cell survival monitoring is unknown. This work addresses these questions by applying bioluminescence to a pancreatic substitute based on microencapsulated cells. Recombinant insulin-secreting cells were transduced with a luciferase lentivirus and microencapsulated in Ba(2+) crosslinked alginate for in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro quantitative bioluminescence monitoring was possible and viable microencapsulated cells were followed in real time under both normoxic and anoxic conditions. Although in vivo dispersion of freely-floating microcapsules in the peritoneal cavity limited the analysis to a qualitative bioluminescence evaluation, signals consistently four orders of magnitude above background were clear indicators of temporal cell survival. Strong agreement between in vivo and in vitro cell proliferation over time was discovered by making direct bioluminescence comparisons between explanted microcapsules and parallel in vitro cultures. Broader application of this bioluminescence approach to retrievable transplants, in supplement to currently used end-point physiological tests, could improve understanding and accelerate development of cell-based therapies for critical clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Mechanism of Microencapsulation with Urea-Formaldehyde Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochmadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Microcapsule is one of important fine chemical products in the current chemical industries. Better understanding of microencapsulation process is useful to properly design of microcapsule with specific characteristics. The aim of this research is to study the mechanism of Urea-Formaldehyde (UF microcapsules formation. Approach: Microcapsule was prepared in two steps. The first step was the preparation of oil in water emulsion, which was carried out by mixing of UF pre-polymer solution with refined palm oil at 50-70°C, using high speed homogenizer. The second step was microcapsule shell formation, where the pH of emulsion was adjusted to 3 and the process was run for 3-6 h. At the end of the process, the microcapsule product was cooled with ice and distilled water, filtered, washed and finally dried at 40°C under vacuum condition. The diameter and size distribution of the microcapsule product was measured using optical microscope. Results: Microcapsule with the diameter of 20-220 µm, together with UF micro particles. Conclusion: UF polymerization reaction took place simultaneously in the solution and at the microcapsule surface. UF reaction in the solution produced UF polymer micro particles, while UF reaction at the microcapsule surface forms microcapsule shell. The UF polymer micro particles precipitated in the form of fine powder, attach to the microcapsule shell. Higher microencapsulation temperature reduced the amount of microcapsule product and increased the amount of micro particles. The microcapsule diameter distribution shifts to smaller diameter and the average diameter Davg tends to decrease as the homogenization and microencapsulation time increase. Based on oil and resin efficiencies as well as microcapsule characteristics, the process is best conducted at 50°C, 30 min of homogenization and 3 h of microencapsulation time.

  9. Mechanism of Microencapsulation with Urea-Formaldehyde Polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Rochmadi .; Agus Prasetya; Wahyu Hasokowati

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Microcapsule is one of important fine chemical products in the current chemical industries. Better understanding of microencapsulation process is useful to properly design of microcapsule with specific characteristics. The aim of this research is to study the mechanism of Urea-Formaldehyde (UF) microcapsules formation. Approach: Microcapsule was prepared in two steps. The first step was the preparation of oil in water emulsion, which was carried out by mixing of UF pre-poly...

  10. Effect of microencapsulated phase change material in sandwich panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellon, Cecilia; Medrano, Marc; Roca, Joan; Cabeza, Luisa F. [GREA Innovacio Concurrent, Edifici CREA, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Navarro, Maria E.; Fernandez, Ana I. [Departamento de Ciencias de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lazaro, Ana; Zalba, Belen [Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon, I3A, Grupo de Ingenieria Termica y Sistemas Energeticos (GITSE), Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica, Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Campus Politecnico Rio Ebro, Edificio ' ' Agustin de Betancourt,' ' Maria de Luna s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Sandwich panels are a good option as building materials, as they offer excellent characteristics in a modular system. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using the microencapsulated PCM (Micronal BASF) in sandwich panels to increase their thermal inertia and to reduce the energy demand of the final buildings. In this paper, to manufacture the sandwich panel with microencapsulated PCM three different methods were tested. In case 1, the PCM was added mixing the microencapsulated PCM with one of the components of the polyurethane. In the other two cases, the PCM was added either a step before (case 2) or a step after (case 3) to the addition of the polyurethane to the metal sheets. The results show that in case 1 the effect of PCM was overlapped by a possible increase in thermal conductivity, but an increase of thermal inertia was found in case 3. In case 2, different results were obtained due to the poor distribution of the PCM. Some samples showed the effect of the PCM (higher thermal inertia), and other samples results were similar to the conventional sandwich panel. In both cases (2 and 3), it is required to industrialize the process to improve the results. (author)

  11. Peptide Microencapsulation by Core-Shell Printing Technology for Edible Film Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco-Pascual, N.; Koldeweij, R.B.J.; Stevens, R.S.A.; Montero, M.P.; Gómez-Guillén, M.C.; Cate, A.T.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new microencapsulation methodology for incorporation of functional ingredients in edible films. Core-shell microcapsules filled with demineralized water (C) or 1 % (w/v) peptide solution (Cp) were prepared using the microencapsulation printer technology. Shell material, compose

  12. C-peptide responses alter meal challenge in mice transplanted with microencapsulated rat islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatarkiewicz, K; Garcia, M; Omer, A; Weir, GC; De Vos, P

    2001-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. This study aimed to assess a response of microencapsulated rat islets to a meal challenge after being transplanted intraperitoneally into diabetic mice. Methods. Microencapsulated rat: islets or control naked syngeneic mouse islets were transplanted intraperitoneally into mice with

  13. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Lance Lewis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, Mary A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  14. Microencapsulated bait: Does it work with Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preference of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta for microencapsulated (MC) pyriproxifen based corn grit baits (P-bait) was conducted in laboratory and field conditions. A positive correlation between the microencapsulation rate and water tolerance ability of P-bait was observed. A 20% in...

  15. Stability to oxidation of spray-dried fish oil powder microencapsulated using milk ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keogh, M.K.; O'Kennedy, B.T.; Kelly, J.;

    2001-01-01

    Microencapsulation of fish oil was achieved by spray-drying homogenized emulsions of fish oil using 3 different types of casein as emulsifier and lactose as filler. As the degree of aggregation of the casein emulsifier increased, the vacuole volume of the microencapsulated powders decreased...

  16. LDRD final report on microencapsulated immunoreagents for development of one-step ELISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C.C.; Singh, A.K.

    1997-08-01

    Microencapsulation of biological macromolecules was investigated as a method for incorporating the necessary immunoreagents into an improved enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) package that would self-develop. This self-contained ELISA package would eliminate the need for a trained technician to perform multiple additions of immunoreagent to the assay. Microencapsulation by insolution drying was selected from the many available microencapsulation methods, and two satisfactory procedures for microencapsulation of proteins were established. The stability and potential for rapid release of protein from these microencapsulates was then evaluated. The results suggest that the chosen method for protein entrapment produces microcapsules with a considerable amount of protein in the walls making these particular microcapsules unsuitable for their intended use.

  17. Simple and double microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus with chitosan using spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela A. Flores-Belmont

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus that had been simple or double spray dried using chitosan to cause microencapsulation and which had been exposed to model gastrointestinal conditions. In addition, the study also determined the physicochemical properties of the powder containing the microencapsulated probiotic.Chitosan-inulin or chitosan-maltodextrin (1:15 or 1:25 solutions were inoculated with 1012 cfu mL-1 of L. acidophilus, for simple microencapsulation. The different solutions were dried using a spray dryer with an inlet air temperature of 130°C and a solution flux of 4.8 g min-1. A two-step process was used for the double microencapsulation. In the first step, the probiotic was added to a gelatin-maltodextrin (1:25 solution and then spray dried; for the second step, the microencapsulated probiotic was added to a chitosan-inulin or chitosan-maltodextrin (1:25 solution and then it was spray dried again.With the simple microencapsulated probiotic, a microbial reduction of 7 log cycles was obtained. With the double microencapsulated probiotic only 3 log reductions were achieved. The double microencapsulated probiotic thus demonstrated greater resistance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The powders produced were shown to have water activity values of 0.176 - 0.261 at 25 °C and moisture content of 0.8 – 1.0%, which are characteristic of spray dried products. The bulk density was significantly (p < 0.05 lower (300 kg m-3 for simple than for double (400 kg m-3 microencapsulated probiotic powders. Solubility and dispersibility of the powder microcapsules were better at lower pH values.Double microencapsulation using a process of spray drying is therefore recommended for probiotics, thus exploiting chitosan’s insolubility in water, which can be applied for the of development food products.

  18. Reversal of experimental Laron Syndrome by xenotransplantation of microencapsulated porcine Sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Giovanni; Calvitti, Mario; Mancuso, Francesca; Falabella, Giulia; Arato, Iva; Bellucci, Catia; List, Edward O; Bellezza, Enrico; Angeli, Giovanni; Lilli, Cinzia; Bodo, Maria; Becchetti, Ennio; Kopchick, John J; Cameron, Don F; Baroni, Tiziano; Calafiore, Riccardo

    2013-01-10

    Recombinant human IGF-1 currently represents the only available treatment option for the Laron Syndrome, a rare human disorder caused by defects in the gene encoding growth hormone receptor, resulting in irreversibly retarded growth. Unfortunately, this treatment therapy, poorly impacts longitudinal growth (13% in females and 19% in males), while burdening the patients with severe side effects, including hypoglycemia, in association with the unfair chore of taking multiple daily injections that cause local intense pain. In this study, we have demonstrated that a single intraperitoneal graft of microencapsulated pig Sertoli cells, producing pig insulin-like growth factor-1, successfully promoted significant proportional growth in the Laron mouse, a unique animal model of the human Laron Syndrome. These findings indicate a novel, simply, safe and successful method for the cell therapy-based cure of the Laron Syndrome, potentially applicable to humans.

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF POLYMER MICROENCAPSULATION OF MIXED WASTE USING KINETIC MIXER PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAGERAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.; MILIAN,L.W.; ADAMS,J.W.

    1997-11-01

    Thermokinetic mixing was investigated as an alternative processing method for polyethylene microencapsulation, a technology well demonstrated for treatment of hazardous, low-level radioactive and low-level mixed wastes. Polyethylene encapsulation by extrusion has been previously shown to be applicable to a wide range of waste types but often pretreatment of the wastes is necessary due to process limitations regarding the maximum waste moisture content and particle size distribution. Development testing was conducted with kinetic mixing in order to demonstrate technology viability and show improved process applicability in these areas. Testing to establish process capabilities and relevant operating parameters was performed with waste surrogates including an aqueous evaporator concentrate and soil. Using a pilot-scale kinetic mixer which was installed and modified for this program, the maximum waste moisture content and particle size was determined. Following process development with surrogate wastes, the technology was successfully demonstrated at BNL using actual mixed waste.

  20. R-Index Measure of Microencapsulated Tributyrin in Gamma-Cyclodextrin Influenced by Drying Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Joseph D; Lee, Soo-Yeun; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-09-01

    Microencapsulation is commonly used in the food industry for a variety of purposes including added ingredient functionally and taste-masking for those ingredients with negative sensory qualities. Tributyrin (TB), a source intestinally-essential butyric acid, possesses negative aroma (cheesy, fecal) and taste (bitter) qualities. This has significantly limited its use in food applications for the potential improvement of intestinal health. Utilizing spray drying and low-temperature oven drying, microcapsules containing TB were produced using whey (WPI), WPI and inulin, and gamma-cyclodextrin (GCD). To determine how microcapsule formulation and drying method affected the perception of TB relative to a control, microencapsulated and free TB were added to an infant formula system and evaluated using the rating method to determine R-index measures. Pooled R-index measures (α = 0.01, 2-tailed, and n = 170) indicated that the only microcapsule not significantly different from the control (R-index below 57.95%) was the GCD and TB oven dried (GCT OD) microcapsule. All other WPI, WPI-inulin, and GCD and TB spray-dried (GCT SD) microcapsules were all significantly different from the control. Average individual R-index results indicated that all microcapsules in infant formula, except for GCT OD, were significantly different (P < 0.01) from the control formula but not from free TB. Spray drying may create microcapsules with surface TB and disturb the GCD-TB complex, allowing free, and surface TB to be perceived by the panelists. The GCT OD microcapsule has the potential to be used for the potential oral treatment of intestinal disorders in functional food applications without the negative sensory qualities of TB.

  1. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Liquid-Gas Taylor Flows incorporating Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. A.; Walsh, P. A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the heat transfer characteristics associated with liquid-gas Taylor flows in mini channels incorporating microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM). Taylor flows have been shown to result in heat transfer enhancements due to the fluid recirculation experienced within liquid slugs which is attributable to the alternating liquid slug and gas bubble flow structure. Microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) also offer significant potential with increased thermal capacity due to the latent heat required to cause phase change. The primary aim of this work was to examine the overall heat transfer potential associated with combining these two novel liquid cooling technologies. By investigating the local heat transfer characteristics, the augmentation/degradation over single phase liquid cooling was quantified while examining the effects of dimensionless variables, including Reynolds number, liquid slug length and gas void fraction. An experimental test facility was developed which had a heated test section and allowed MPCM-air Taylor flows to be subjected to a constant heat flux boundary condition. Infrared thermography was used to record high resolution experimental wall temperature measurements and determine local heat transfer coefficients from the thermal entrance point. 30.2% mass particle concentration of the MPCM suspension fluid was examined as it provided the maximum latent heat for absorption. Results demonstrate a significant reduction in experimental wall temperatures associated with MPCM-air Taylor flows when compared with the Graetz solution for conventional single phase coolants. Total enhancement in the thermally developed region is observed to be a combination of the individual contributions due to recirculation within the liquid slugs and also absorption of latent heat. Overall, the study highlights the potential heat transfer enhancements that are attainable within heat exchange devices employing MPCM

  2. Continuous release of interleukin 12 from microencapsulated engineered cells for colon cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Zheng; Zuo-Xiang Xiao; Yue-Long Pan; Ming-Yong Han; Qi Dong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the anti-tumor immunity against CT26 colon tumor of the microencapsulated cells modified with murine interleukine-12 (mIL-12) gene.METHODS: Mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) were stably transfected to express mIL-12 using expression plasmids carrying mIL-12 gene (p35 and p40), and NIH3T3-mIL-12cells were encapsulated in alginate microcapsules for longterm delivery of mIL-12. mIL-12 released from the microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL-12 cells was confirmed using ELISA assay. Transplantation of the microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL-12 cells was performed in the tumor-bearing mice with CT26 cells. The anti-tumor responses and the anti-tumor activities of the microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL12 cells were evaluated.RESULTS: Microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL-12 cells could release mIL-12 continuously and stably for a long time. After the microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL-12 cells were transplanted subcutaneously into the tumor-bearing mice for 21 d, the serum concentrations of mIL-12, mIL-2 and mIFN-γ the cytotoxicity of the CTL from the splenocytes and the NK activity in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the controls. Moreover, mIL-12 released from the microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL-12 cells resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor proliferation and a prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice.CONCLUSION: The microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL-12cells have a significant therapeutic effect on the experimental colon tumor by activating anti-tumor immune responses in vivo. Microencapsulated and genetically engineered cells may be an extremely versatile tool for tumor gene therapy.

  3. Microencapsulation of soybean oil by spray drying using oleosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, S.; Ghebremedhin, M.; Zielbauer, B. I.; Knorr, D.; Vilgis, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    The food industry has discovered that oleosomes are beneficial as carriers of bioactive ingredients. Oleosomes are subcellular oil droplets typically found in plant seeds. Within seeds, they exist as pre-emulsified oil high in unsaturated fatty acids, stabilised by a monolayer of phospholipids and proteins, called oleosins. Oleosins are anchored into the oil core with a hydrophobic domain, while the hydrophilic domains remain on the oleosome surface. To preserve the nutritional value of the oil and the function of oleosomes, microencapsulation by means of spray drying is a promising technique. For the microencapsulation of oleosomes, maltodextrin was used. To achieve a high oil encapsulation efficiency, optimal process parameters needed to be established. In order to better understand the mechanisms of drying behind powder formation and the associated powder properties, the findings obtained using different microscopic and spectroscopic measurements were correlated with each other. By doing this, it was found that spray drying of pure oleosome emulsions resulted in excessive component segregation and thus in a poor encapsulation efficiency. With the addition of maltodextrin, the oil encapsulation efficiency was significantly improved.

  4. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications.

  5. Nutritional value of micro-encapsulated fish oils in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Annemette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1996-01-01

    The nutritional value of a micro-encapsulated fish oil product has been investigated. Three groups of 10 male Wistar rats each were fed dietscontaining 20% (w/w) of fat, and only the type and form of the fat added was different. In the test groups 5% (w/w) of fish oil either as such or in amicro......-encapsulated form was incorporated in the diets. The remaining fat was lard supplemented with corn oil to a dietary content of linoleic acid at10% (w/w). The control group received lard and corn oil only. A mixture similar to the dry matter in the micro-encapsulated product was alsoadded to the diets not containing...... this product. The uptake of marine (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from both types of fish oil supplementwas reflected in the fatty acid profiles of liver phosphatidyl cholines (PC), phosphatidyl ethanolamines (PE), triglycerides (TG) and cardiolipin (CL).A suppression of the elongation of linoleic...

  6. Mass transport model through the skin by microencapsulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Núria; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Lis, Manel J

    2015-01-01

    Skin drug delivery can be subdivided into topical and transdermal administration. Transdermal administration can take advantage of chemical and physical strategies that can improve skin permeability and allow drug penetration. In this study, the development of a skin penetration profile was carried out by an in vitro technique for a microencapsulated system of ibuprofen. Release experiments were performed using percutaneous absorption tests to determine the evolution of the principle present in each of the different skin compartments as a function of time. A general kinetic model for a microencapsulated structure as a mass transport system through the skin was applied: [Formula: see text] This model could predict the penetration profile of encapsulated substances through skin from biofunctional textiles as well as estimate the dosage profile of the active principle. The apparent diffusion coefficients found were 1.20 × 10(-7 )cm/s for the stratum corneum and higher for the rest of the skin 6.67 × 10(-6 )cm/s.

  7. Oil bodies as a potential microencapsulation carrier for astaxanthin stabilisation and safe delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Rubilar, Mónica; Jofré, Ignacio; Villarroel, Mario; Navarrete, Patricia; Esparza, Magdalena; Romero, Fernando; Vilches, Elías Alberto; Acevedo, Valentina; Shene, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Astaxanthin (AST) is a valued molecule because of its high antioxidant properties. However, AST is extremely sensitive to oxidation, causing the loss of its bioactive properties. The purposes of this study were to define conditions for microencapsulating AST in oil bodies (OB) from Brassica napus to enhance its oxidative stability, and to test the bioactivity of the microencapsulated AST (AST-M) in cells. Conditions for maximising microencapsulation efficiency (ME) were determined using the Response Surface Methodology, obtaining a high ME (>99%). OB loaded with AST showed a strong electrostatic repulsion in a wide range of pH and ionic strengths. It was found that AST-M exposed to air and light was more stable than free AST. In addition, the protective effect of AST against intracellular ROS production was positively influenced by microencapsulation in OB. These results suggest that OB offer a novel option for stabilising and delivering AST.

  8. The effect of electrostatic microencapsulation process on biological properties of tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Xu, Xiao-Xi; Sun, Guang-Wei; Guo, Xin; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shu-Jun; Zhang, Ying; Yu, Wei-Ting; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the promising strategies to develop a three-dimensional in vivo tumour-mimic model in cancer research. Although previous studies have shown that tumour cells grow well during the microencapsulated culture, it is still not clear whether the electrostatic encapsulation process has an important effect on cellular characteristics. In this study, we investigated cellular response against non-physiological stress factors existing in the electrostatic microencapsulation process, such as the high-voltage electrostatic field, suspension and nutrition-free status. Our results showed that these non-physiological stress factors did not significantly induce cellular apoptosis, and did not affect cellular adhesion and viability. Furthermore, no change was found about invasion and drug resistance of the tumour cells. The normal endoplasmic reticulum function might play a role in maintaining biological properties during the electrostatic microencapsulation process.

  9. Applications of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium longum with Eleutherine americana in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2015-04-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.

  10. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atchara N. Phoem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.

  11. GLYCOL METHACRYLATE EMBEDDING OF ALGINATE-POLYLYSINE MICROENCAPSULATED PANCREATIC-ISLETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRITSCHY, WM; GERRITS, PO; WOLTERS, GHJ; PASMA, A; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    1995-01-01

    A method for processing and embedding alginate-polylysine microencapsulated pancreatic tissue in glycol methacrylate resin (GMA) is described. Fixation in 4% phosphate buffered formaldehyde, processing in ascending concentrations of glycol methacrylate monomer and embedding in Technovit 7100 results

  12. Microencapsulation the natural dye annatto: an analysis of the efficiency of cashew gum as material wall.

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Guabiraba Mendes

    2012-01-01

    In practice, some natural dyes, such as bixin present technological difficulties of use, hindering their application in the food industry. Microencapsulation can improve this situation by increasing their stability and making their incorporation in food systems possible without losing their properties. The objective of this research was to microencapsulate the natural dye annatto, using cashew gum as wall material, applying the freeze-drying and spray drying processes, to characterize the mic...

  13. Vegetable proteins in microencapsulation: a review of recent interventions and their effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Nesterenko, Alla; Alric, Isabelle; Silvestre, Françoise; Durrieu, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Proteins from vegetable seeds are interesting for research at present because they are an abundant alternative to animal-based sources of proteins and petroleum-derived polymers. They are a renewable and biodegradable raw material with interesting functional and/or physico-chemical properties. In microencapsulation, these biopolymers are used as a wall forming material for a variety of active compounds. In most cases, two techniques of microencapsulation, spray-drying and coace...

  14. Microencapsulation of Drugs in the Microgravity Environment of the United States Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-03

    Microencapsulation can also improve the stability of some drugs allowing for longer shelf-life. Lastly, microencapsulation technology provides a way of delivering... EPDM ) O-ring. The EPDM O-ring provides chemical seal integrity between the hardening chamber face plate and the mounting flange. Silica gel is used to...ultrasonic spray nozzle, the housing has two O-ring grooves that accept EPDM O-rings. The O-rings maintain primary containment. One EPDM O-ring provides a

  15. A Novel Approach for Microencapsulation of Nanoemulsions to Overcome the Oxidation of Bioactives in Aqueous Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Jamshaid Qazi; Hamid Majeed; Waseem Safdar; John Antoniou; Zhong Fang

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation is a promising technique to retain the physical attributes of nanoemulsions and to overcome the oxidation of bioactives that become more available to aqueous phase during emulsification. Purity Gum Ultra (PGU) and Hi-CAP 100 (HiCap) emulsified nanoemulsions of Clove Oil (CO) co-encapsulated with Canola oil (CA) and Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT) (5:5% v/v CO:CA and CO:MCT) were prepared through high pressure homogenization. Microencapsulation of nanoemulsions was performed...

  16. Microencapsulation of herbicide MCPA with native β-cyclodextrin and its methyl and hydroxypropyl derivatives: An experimental and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jorge; Cagide, Fernando; Melle-Franco, Manuel; Borges, Fernanda; Garrido, E. Manuela

    2014-03-01

    When a pesticide is released into the environment, most of it is lost before it reaches its target. An effective way to reduce environmental losses of pesticides is by using controlled release technology. Microencapsulation becomes a promising technique for the production of controlled release agricultural formulations. In this work, the microencapsulation of chlorophenoxy herbicide MCPA with native β-cyclodextrin and its methyl and hydroxypropyl derivatives was investigated. The phase solubility study showed that both native and β-CD derivatives increased the water solubility of the herbicide and inclusion complexes are formed in a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1. The stability constants describing the extent of formation of the complexes have been determined by phase solubility studies. 1H NMR experiments were also accomplished for the prepared solid systems and the data gathered confirm the formation of the inclusion complexes. 1H NMR data obtained for the MCPA/CDs complexes disclosed noticeable proton shift displacements for OCH2 group and H6 aromatic proton of MCPA provided clear evidence of inclusion complexation process, suggesting that the phenyl moiety of the herbicide was included in the hydrophobic cavity of CDs. Free energy molecular mechanics calculations confirm all these findings.

  17. Fabrication and performances of microencapsulated paraffin composites with polymethylmethacrylate shell based on ultraviolet irradiation-initiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yi, E-mail: wangyi@lut.cn [State Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Non-ferrous Metal Materials, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Shi Huan [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Xia Tiandong [State Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Non-ferrous Metal Materials, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Zhang Ting; Feng Huixia [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China)

    2012-07-16

    In order to identify the validity of fabricating microencapsulated phase change material by ultraviolet irradiation-initiated method, the paraffin wax/polymethyl methacrylate microcapsules were prepared. The structural characteristics and thermal properties of the microcapsules were also determined by various techniques. The results of differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicate that the melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats of the microcapsules are 55.8 Degree-Sign C, 50.1 Degree-Sign C and 106.9 J g{sup -1}, 112.3 J g{sup -1}, respectively. Morphology and chemical characteristic analysis indicate that the spherical microcapsules were formed with average diameter of 0.21 {mu}m and maximum microencapsulation ratio of 66 wt.% without leakage of core materials. The results of accelerated thermal cyclic test show that the microcapsules have good thermal reliability and chemical stability although they were subjected 3000 melting/freezing cycles. Based on all these results, it can be concluded that the microencapsulated paraffin composites have good potential for thermal energy storage purposes and ultraviolet irradiation-initiated method is a prominent candidate for preparing microencapsulated PCMs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microencapsulated paraffin with PMMA shell was synthesized via self-assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcapsules with excellent properties can be prepared by UV initiated method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microencapsulation ratio is as high as 66 wt.%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal properties are as high as comparable with microcapsules in the literature.

  18. Microencapsulation improves inhibitory effects of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells on pain after sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory bulb tissue transplantation inhibits P2X2/3 receptor-mediated neuropathic pain. However, the olfactory bulb has a complex cellular composition, and the mechanism underlying the action of purified transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs remains unclear. In the present study, we microencapsulated OECs in alginic acid, and transplanted free and microencapsulated OECs into the region surrounding the injured sciatic nerve in rat models of chronic constriction injury. We assessed mechanical nociception in the rat models 7 and 14 days after surgery by measuring paw withdrawal threshold, and examined P2X2/3 receptor expression in L 4-5 dorsal root ganglia using immunohistochemistry. Rats that received free and microencapsulated OEC transplants showed greater withdrawal thresholds than untreated model rats, and weaker P2X2/3 receptor immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia. At 14 days, paw withdrawal threshold was much higher in the microencapsulated OEC-treated animals. Our results confirm that microencapsulated OEC transplantation suppresses P2X2/3 receptor expression in L 4-5 dorsal root ganglia in rat models of neuropathic pain and reduces allodynia, and also suggest that transplantation of microencapsulated OECs is more effective than transplantation of free OECs for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  19. Microencapsulation improves inhibitory effects of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells on pain after sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhao; Qing Li; Bao-lin Yang; Zeng-xu Liu; Qing Yu; Wen-jun Zhang; Keng Yuan; Hui-hong Zeng; Gao-chun Zhu; De-ming Liu

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory bulb tissue transplantation inhibits P2X2/3 receptor-mediated neuropathic pain. However, the olfactory bulb has a complex cellular composition, and the mechanism underlying the action of puriifed transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) remains unclear. In the present study, we microencapsulated OECs in alginic acid, and transplanted free and microen-capsulated OECs into the region surrounding the injured sciatic nerve in rat models of chronic constriction injury. We assessed mechanical nociception in the rat models 7 and 14 days after surgery by measuring paw withdrawal threshold, and examined P2X2/3 receptor expression in L4–5 dorsal root ganglia using immunohistochemistry. Rats that received free and microencap-sulated OEC transplants showed greater withdrawal thresholds than untreated model rats, and weaker P2X2/3 receptor immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia. At 14 days, paw withdrawal threshold was much higher in the microencapsulated OEC-treated animals. Our results conifrm that microencapsulated OEC transplantation suppresses P2X2/3 receptor expression in L4–5 dorsal root ganglia in rat models of neuropathic pain and reduces allodynia, and also suggest that transplantation of microencapsulated OECs is more effective than transplantation of free OECs for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  20. Hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of jam enriched with microencapsulated fish oil decreases insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Soares de Oliveira Carvalho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome is related to the increase in cardiovascular diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil help in reducing cardiovascular risk factors and are natural bindings of PPARy2. Objective: To evaluate the impact of hypocaloric diet associated with microencapsulated fish oil supplementation in women with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial with adult women who presented metabolic syndrome (n = 30 for 90 days. The volunteers were divided into two groups: placebo group (n = 15 and microencapsulated fish oil group (n = 15 (3 g/day of microencapsulated fish oil containing 0.41 g/day of eico-sapentaenoic acid and decosahexaneoic acid. Anthropometric, body composition, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed before and after the intervention. Paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups and Student's t-test for comparison between groups. We considered p < 0.05 as significant values. Results: The comparison between groups revealed a significant reduction of blood glucose, insulinemia and the homeostasis model assessment in the microencapsulated fish oil group after 90 days, as opposed to the placebo group. We also observed reduction of the systolic arterial pressure in the microencapsulated fish oil group. Conclusion: A hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of microencapsulated fish oil was effective in reducing blood glucose, insulinemia and insulin resistance in women with MS.

  1. Development of Phage Lysin LysA2 for Use in Improved Purity Assays for Live Biotherapeutic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila M. Dreher-Lesnick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Live biotherapeutic products (LBPs, commonly referred to as probiotics, are typically preparations of live bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species that are considered normal human commensals. Popular interest in probiotics has been increasing with general health benefits being attributed to their consumption, but there is also growing interest in evaluating such products for treatment of specific diseases. While over-the-counter probiotics are generally viewed as very safe, at least in healthy individuals, it must be remembered that clinical studies to assess these products may be done in individuals whose defenses are compromised, such as through a disease process, immunosuppressive clinical treatment, or an immature or aging immune system. One of the major safety criteria for LBPs used in clinical studies is microbial purity, i.e., the absence of extraneous, undesirable microorganisms. The main goal of this project is to develop recombinant phage lysins as reagents for improved purity assays for LBPs. Phage lysins are hydrolytic enzymes containing a cell binding domain that provides specificity and a catalytic domain responsible for lysis and killing. Our approach is to use recombinant phage lysins to selectively kill target product bacteria, which when used for purity assays will allow for outgrowth of potential contaminants under non-selective conditions, thus allowing an unbiased assessment of the presence of contaminants. To develop our approach, we used LysA2, a phage lysin with reported activity against a broad range of Lactobacillus species. We report the lytic profile of a non-tagged recombinant LysA2 against Lactobacillus strains in our collection. We also present a proof-of-concept experiment, showing that addition of partially purified LysA2 to a culture of Lactobacillus jensenii (L. jensenii spiked with low numbers of Escherichia coli (E. coli or Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus effectively eliminates or knocks

  2. Microencapsulation of Self-healing Concrete Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    particle board, hardwood plywood and laminating adhesive. Some of the properties of this chemical includes a high surface hardness, volumetric...flexibility to place healing plies in different locations within the laminate in order to tailor the repair to the likely damage. This is an excellent... textile and lumber processing. In concrete applications, this product is used to reduce the concrete porosity. When added, a chemical reaction occurs

  3. Microencapsulation of eugenol by gelatin-sodium alginate complex coacervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujwala Shinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study describes microencapsulation of eugenol using gelatin-sodium alginate complex coacervation. The effects of core to coat ratio and drying method on properties of the eugenol microcapsules were investigated. The eugenol microcapsules were evaluated for surface characteristics, micromeritic properties, oil loading and encapsulation efficiency. Eugenol microcapsules possessed good flow properties, thus improved handling. The scanning electron photomicrographs showed globular surface of microcapsules prepared with core: coat ratio1:1.The treatment with dehydrating agent isopropanol lead to shrinking of microcapsule wall with cracks on it. The percent oil loading and encapsulation efficiency increased with increase in core: coat ratio whereas treatment with dehydrating agent resulted in reduction in loading and percent encapsulation efficiency of eugenol microcapsules.

  4. Microencapsulation of Eugenol by Gelatin-Sodium Alginate Complex Coacervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Ujwala; Nagarsenker, Mangal

    2011-01-01

    Present study describes microencapsulation of eugenol using gelatin-sodium alginate complex coacervation. The effects of core to coat ratio and drying method on properties of the eugenol microcapsules were investigated. The eugenol microcapsules were evaluated for surface characteristics, micromeritic properties, oil loading and encapsulation efficiency. Eugenol microcapsules possessed good flow properties, thus improved handling. The scanning electron photomicrographs showed globular surface of microcapsules prepared with core: coat ratio1:1.The treatment with dehydrating agent isopropanol lead to shrinking of microcapsule wall with cracks on it. The percent oil loading and encapsulation efficiency increased with increase in core: coat ratio whereas treatment with dehydrating agent resulted in reduction in loading and percent encapsulation efficiency of eugenol microcapsules. PMID:22457558

  5. Microencapsulated citronella oil for mosquito repellent finishing of cotton textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specos, M M Miró; García, J J; Tornesello, J; Marino, P; Vecchia, M Della; Tesoriero, M V Defain; Hermida, L G

    2010-10-01

    Microcapsules containing citronella essential oil were prepared by complex coacervation and applied to cotton textiles in order to study the repellent efficacy of the obtained fabrics. Citronella released from treated textiles was indirectly monitored by the extractable content of its main components. Repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand and arm covered with the treated textiles to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella presented a higher and longer lasting protection from insects compared to fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the essential oil, assuring a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Complex coacervation is a simple, low cost, scalable and reproducible method of obtaining encapsulated essential oils for textile application. Repellent textiles were achieved by padding cotton fabrics with microcapsules slurries using a conventional pad-dry method. This methodology requires no additional investment for textile finishing industries, which is a desirable factor in developing countries.

  6. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents containing a fluorescent dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different self-healing agent candidates, endo-dicyclopentadiene (endo-DCPD and 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB, containing a fluorescent dye surrounded by a melamine–urea–formaldehyde (MUF shell were microencapsulated by in-situ polymerization and the resulting microcapsules were characterized in this work. The microcapsules showed a narrow size distribution with a spherical shape and rough outer and smooth inner surfaces for both healing agent systems. Shell thicknesses of the microcapsules were ~880±80 nm for endo-DCPD and ~620±60 nm for ENB. The incorporation of a fluorescent dye as tracer into self-healing agents did not disturb the formation of microcapsules. The release of self-healing liquid into the induced crack from ruptured microcapsules in an epoxy coating layer was observed using a fluorescence microscopy. The use of a fluorescent dye is very effective in the observation of a damage site.

  7. Sealing of cracks in cement using microencapsulated sodium silicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaros, P.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Cement-based materials possess an inherent autogenous self-healing capability allowing them to seal, and potentially heal, microcracks. This can be improved through the addition of microencapsulated healing agents for autonomic self-healing. The fundamental principle of this self-healing mechanism is that when cracks propagate in the cementitious matrix, they rupture the dispersed capsules and their content (cargo material) is released into the crack volume. Various healing agents have been explored in the literature for their efficacy to recover mechanical and durability properties in cementitious materials. In these materials, the healing agents are most commonly encapsulated in macrocontainers (e.g. glass tubes or capsules) and placed into the material. In this work, microencapsulated sodium silicate in both liquid and solid form was added to cement specimens. Sodium silicate reacts with the calcium hydroxide in hydrated cement paste to form calcium-silicate-hydrate gel that fills cracks. The effect of microcapsule addition on rheological and mechanical properties of cement is reported. It is observed that the microcapsule addition inhibits compressive strength development in cement and this is observed through a plateau in strength between 28 and 56 days. The improvement in crack-sealing for microcapsule-containing specimens is quantified through sorptivity measurements over a 28 day healing period. After just seven days, the addition of 4% microcapsules resulted in a reduction in sorptivity of up to 45% when compared to specimens without any microcapsule addition. A qualitative description of the reaction between the cargo material and the cementitious matrix is also provided using x-ray diffraction analysis.

  8. Efficacy of microencapsulated lactic acid bacteria in Helicobater pylori eradication therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha A Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotic delivery systems are widely used nutraceutical products for the supplementation of natural intestinal flora. These delivery systems vary greatly in the effectiveness to exert health benefits for a patient. This study focuses on providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse environmental conditions. Materials and Methods: Microencapsulation of the selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB using chitosan and alginate was performed. Physical examination of the formulated LAB microcapsules was observed using phase contrast inverted microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Finally, the survival of microencapsulated and noncapsulated bacteria was cheeked in the simulated human gastric tract (GT. The potential antimicrobial activity of the most potent microencapsulated LAB strain was in vivo evaluated in rabbit models. Results: Microencapsulated L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, and L. bulgaricus DSMZ 20080 were loaded with 1.03 × 10 10 CFU viable bacteria/g, 1.9 × 10 10 CFU viable bacteria/g, and 5.5 × 10 9 CFU viable bacteria/g, respectively. The survival of microencapsulated cells was significantly higher than that of the free cells after exposure to simulated gastric juice (SGJ at pH 2. Additionally, in simulated small intestine juice (SSJ, larger amounts of the selected LAB cells were found, whereas in simulated colon juice (SCJ, the released LAB reached the maximum counts. In vivo results pointed out that an 8-week supplementation with a triple therapy of a microencapsulated L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, and L. bulgaricus DSMZ 20080 might be able to reduce H. pylori. Conclusion: Microencapsulated probiotics could possibly compete with and downregulate H. pylori infection in humans.

  9. [The microencapsulated genetic engineering cells: a new platform on treatment of cancer instead of genetic engineering drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuelong; Zheng, Shu

    2003-06-01

    The microencapsulated genetic cells may be a new platform instead of genetic engineering drugs, as they can overcome the genetic engineering drugs' shortages such as short half-life in vivo, low activity, and incomplete elimination of organic solvent. This article reviews and summarizes the advantages, possible problems and solution and the feasibility of using microencapsulated genetic engineering cells in the treatment of cancer.

  10. Microencapsulation by freeze-drying of potassium norbixinate and curcumin with maltodextrin: stability, solubility, and food application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousdaleff, Mirian; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Medina Neto, Antonio; Nogueira, Ana Cláudia; Marcolino, Vanessa Aparecida; Matioli, Graciette

    2013-01-30

    Stability of potassium norbixinate and curcumin by microencapsulation with maltodextrin DE20 and freeze-drying was evaluated as a function of exposition to light, air, different pH, water solubility, and in food applications. The best results were obtained with microencapsulated potassium norbixinate 1:20, which, when vacuum-packed and in the presence of natural light, showed color retention of 78%, while microencapsulated curcumin 1:20 showed color retention of 71%. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry provided an indication of interaction between colorants and maltodextrin. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) showed that free and microencapsulated colorants exhibited high rates of absorption throughout the measured spectral region. This work evidenced that the freeze-drying process is favorable for microencapsulation of curcumin by maltodextrin, providing improved solubility to the microencapsulated colorant. Both microencapsulated colorants showed relevant results for use in a wide range of pH and food applications. The PAS technique was useful for the evaluation of the stability of free and microencapsulated colorants.

  11. Microencapsulation technology: a powerful tool for integrating expansion and cryopreservation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Serra

    Full Text Available The successful implementation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs-based technologies requires the production of relevant numbers of well-characterized cells and their efficient long-term storage. In this study, cells were microencapsulated in alginate to develop an integrated bioprocess for expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. Different three-dimensional (3D culture strategies were evaluated and compared, specifically, microencapsulation of hESCs as: i single cells, ii aggregates and iii immobilized on microcarriers. In order to establish a scalable bioprocess, hESC-microcapsules were cultured in stirred tank bioreactors.The combination of microencapsulation and microcarrier technology resulted in a highly efficient protocol for the production and storage of pluripotent hESCs. This strategy ensured high expansion ratios (an approximately twenty-fold increase in cell concentration and high cell recovery yields (>70% after cryopreservation. When compared with non-encapsulated cells, cell survival post-thawing demonstrated a three-fold improvement without compromising hESC characteristics.Microencapsulation also improved the culture of hESC aggregates by protecting cells from hydrodynamic shear stress, controlling aggregate size and maintaining cell pluripotency for two weeks.This work establishes that microencapsulation technology may prove a powerful tool for integrating the expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. The 3D culture strategy developed herein represents a significant breakthrough towards the implementation of hESCs in clinical and industrial applications.

  12. Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouan Mahou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of medical therapies, which rely on the transplantation of microencapsulated living cells, depends on the quality of the encapsulating material. Such material has to be biocompatible, and the microencapsulation process must be simple and not harm the cells. Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-VS. In a one-step microsphere formation process, fast ionotropic gelation yields spherical calcium alginate gel beads, which serve as a matrix for simultaneously but slowly occurring covalent cross-linking of the PEG-VS molecules. The feasibility of cell microencapsulation was studied using primary human foreskin fibroblasts (EDX cells as a model. The use of cell culture media as polymer solvent, gelation bath, and storage medium did not negatively affect the alg-PEG-M properties. Microencapsulated EDX cells maintained their viability and proliferated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of primary cell microencapsulation within the novel microsphere type alg-PEG-M, serves as reference for future therapy development, and confirms the suitability of EDX cells as control model.

  13. Application of microencapsulated essential oils in cosmetic and personal healthcare products - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, I T; Estevinho, B N; Santos, L

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the consumers around the world are increasingly focused on health and beauty. The renewed consumer interest in natural cosmetic products creates the demand for new products and reformulated others with botanical and functional ingredients. In cosmetic products, essential oils (EOs) play a major role as fragrance ingredients. They can optimize its proprieties and preservation, as well as the marketing image of the final product. Microencapsulation of EOs can protect and prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients and improve the controlled release and stability of this core materials. The importance of EOs for cosmetic industry and its microencapsulation was reviewed in this study. Also a briefly introduction about the preparation of microparticles was presented. Some of the most important and usual microencapsulation techniques of EOs, as well as the conventional encapsulating agents, were discussed. Despite the fact that microencapsulation of EOs is a very promising and extremely attractive application area for cosmetic industry, further basic research needs to be carried out, for a better understanding of the biofunctional activities of microencapsulated EOs and its release modulation, as well as the effects of others cosmetic ingredients and the storage time in the microparticles properties.

  14. A Novel Approach for Microencapsulation of Nanoemulsions to Overcome the Oxidation of Bioactives in Aqueous Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Jamshaid Qazi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a promising technique to retain the physical attributes of nanoemulsions and to overcome the oxidation of bioactives that become more available to aqueous phase during emulsification. Purity Gum Ultra (PGU and Hi-CAP 100 (HiCap emulsified nanoemulsions of Clove Oil (CO co-encapsulated with Canola oil (CA and Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT (5:5% v/v CO:CA and CO:MCT were prepared through high pressure homogenization. Microencapsulation of nanoemulsions was performed using Whey Protein Isolates (WPI under vacuum using freeze drying, which is considered as appropriate method for heat sensitive compounds. The reconstituted emulsions of microencapsulated powder had similar particle sizes as that of fresh nanoemulsions while uncoated showed a big increase (<400 nm. Oxidation of bioactives with and without CO, before and after freeze drying was investigated at different intervals during 60 days of storage at 4 and 25°C by Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS assay. Microencapsulated PGU-CO:CA showed minimum TBARS values compared to other emulsions. Gas chromatography analysis of microcapsules also showed higher retention of CO and lower content on the interphase for aqueous interaction. Conclusively, this study proposes a novel strategy using a freeze drying process to microencapsulate nanoemulsion.

  15. Preparation, characterization of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate and its flame retardancy in polyurethane composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ming-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Jen [Department of Aviation Mechanical Engineering, China University of Science and Technology, Hsinchu County, 303, Taiwan (China); Kuan, Chen-Feng; Kuan, Hsu-Chiang [Department of Computer Application Engineering, Far East University, Tainan, 744, Taiwan (China); Yang, Jia-Ming [Green Flame Retardant Material Research Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung, 433, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Chin-Lung, E-mail: dragon@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Green Flame Retardant Material Research Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung, 433, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-15

    In this study, a novel microencapsulated flame retardant containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and an 4,4′-oxydianiline-formaldehyde (OF) resin as the core and shell material was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. The structure and performance of OF microencapsulated APP (OFAPP) were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal properties of OFAPP were systematically analyzed through thermogravimetric analysis. Flame retardancy tests, such as limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94, were conducted to evaluate the effect of varying the composition of APP and OFAPP in silanol-terminated polyurethane (Si-PU) composites. The results indicated that the microencapsulation of APP with the OF resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. The results also revealed that the flame retardancy of the Si-PU/OFAPP composite (LOI = 37%) was higher than that of the Si-PU/APP composite (LOI = 23%) at the same additive loading. - Highlights: • A novel microencapsulated flame retardant was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. • The microencapsulation of ammonium polyphosphate with the polymer resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. • Polyurethane composites have excellent thermal stability and flame retardance.

  16. Microencapsulation technology: a powerful tool for integrating expansion and cryopreservation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Margarida; Correia, Cláudia; Malpique, Rita; Brito, Catarina; Jensen, Janne; Bjorquist, Petter; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2011-01-01

    The successful implementation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-based technologies requires the production of relevant numbers of well-characterized cells and their efficient long-term storage. In this study, cells were microencapsulated in alginate to develop an integrated bioprocess for expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. Different three-dimensional (3D) culture strategies were evaluated and compared, specifically, microencapsulation of hESCs as: i) single cells, ii) aggregates and iii) immobilized on microcarriers. In order to establish a scalable bioprocess, hESC-microcapsules were cultured in stirred tank bioreactors.The combination of microencapsulation and microcarrier technology resulted in a highly efficient protocol for the production and storage of pluripotent hESCs. This strategy ensured high expansion ratios (an approximately twenty-fold increase in cell concentration) and high cell recovery yields (>70%) after cryopreservation. When compared with non-encapsulated cells, cell survival post-thawing demonstrated a three-fold improvement without compromising hESC characteristics.Microencapsulation also improved the culture of hESC aggregates by protecting cells from hydrodynamic shear stress, controlling aggregate size and maintaining cell pluripotency for two weeks.This work establishes that microencapsulation technology may prove a powerful tool for integrating the expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. The 3D culture strategy developed herein represents a significant breakthrough towards the implementation of hESCs in clinical and industrial applications.

  17. Microencapsulated sorbic acid and nature-identical compounds reduced Salmonella Hadar and Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, E; Tugnoli, B; Formigoni, A; Massi, P; Fantinati, P; Tosi, G; Piva, A

    2011-08-01

    The reduction of Salmonella prevalence in broilers is a priority in European Union agricultural policies because treatment with antibiotics is forbidden by Regulation (EC) 2160/2003. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a microencapsulated blend of sorbic acid and nature-identical compounds (i.e., chemically synthesized botanicals; SAB) on the reduction of the cecal prevalence and contents of Salmonella enterica serovars Hadar and Enteritidis in experimentally infected chickens. In the first trial, 125 one-day-old Lohmann specific-pathogen-free chickens were assigned to one of the following treatments: negative control (not challenged and not treated), positive control (challenged and not treated), SAB0.3, SAB1, or SAB5 (challenged and treated with the microencapsulated blend included in the feed at 0.03, 0.1, or 0.5%, respectively). At 30 d of age, birds were infected with 10(6) cfu of Salmonella Hadar, and after 5, 10, or 20 d postinfection, 5, 10, and 10 birds per treatment, respectively, were killed and the cecal contents and liver and spleen samples were analyzed for Salmonella Hadar. In the second trial, 100 one-day-old Ross 708 chickens were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments: control (not treated), SAB0.3, SAB1, SAB2, or SAB5 (treated with the blend included in the feed at 0.03, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.5%, respectively). At 7 d of age, the birds were challenged with 10(5) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis, and after 7, 14, or 24 d after challenge, 5, 5, and 10 birds per treatment, respectively, were killed and cecal contents were analyzed for Salmonella Enteritidis. Results showed that in the early stage of infection Salmonella prevalence was high in both studies, whereas at the end of the observation periods, the blends at 0.03, 0.1, and 0.5 in the challenge with Salmonella Hadar and at 0.2 and 0.5% in the challenge with Salmonella Enteritidis significantly reduced (by 2 log(10) cfu) the cecal content of Salmonella. This study showed that intestinal

  18. Microfluidic-Based Synthesis of Hydrogel Particles for Cell Microencapsulation and Cell-Based Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandi Wan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation of cells in hydrogel particles has been demonstrated as an effective approach to deliver therapeutic agents. The properties of hydrogel particles, such as the chemical composition, size, porosity, and number of cells per particle, affect cellular functions and consequently play important roles for the cell-based drug delivery. Microfluidics has shown unparalleled advantages for the synthesis of polymer particles and been utilized to produce hydrogel particles with a well-defined size, shape and morphology. Most importantly, during the encapsulation process, microfluidics can control the number of cells per particle and the overall encapsulation efficiency. Therefore, microfluidics is becoming the powerful approach for cell microencapsulation and construction of cell-based drug delivery systems. In this article, I summarize and discuss microfluidic approaches that have been developed recently for the synthesis of hydrogel particles and encapsulation of cells. I will start by classifying different types of hydrogel material, including natural biopolymers and synthetic polymers that are used for cell encapsulation, and then focus on the current status and challenges of microfluidic-based approaches. Finally, applications of cell-containing hydrogel particles for cell-based drug delivery, particularly for cancer therapy, are discussed.

  19. Combined Microencapsulated Islet Transplantation and Revascularization of Aortorenal Bypass in a Diabetic Nephropathy Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Revascularization of aortorenal bypass is a preferred technique for renal artery stenosis (RAS in diabetic nephropathy (DN patients. Restenosis of graft vessels also should be considered in patients lacking good control of blood glucose. In this study, we explored a combined strategy to prevent the recurrence of RAS in the DN rat model. Methods. A model of DN was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats were divided into 4 groups: SR group, MIT group, Com group, and the untreated group. The levels of blood glucose and urine protein were measured, and changes in renal pathology were observed. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in graft vessels was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Histopathological staining was performed to assess the pathological changes of glomeruli and tubules. Results. The levels of urine protein and the expression of MCP-1 in graft vessels were decreased after islet transplantation. The injury of glomerular basement membrane and podocytes was significantly ameliorated. Conclusions. The combined strategy of revascularization and microencapsulated islet transplantation had multiple protective effects on diabetic nephropathy, including preventing atherosclerosis in the graft vessels and alleviating injury to the glomerular filtration barrier. This combined strategy may be helpful for DN patients with RAS.

  20. Process optimization of microencapsulation of curcumin in γ-polyglutamic acid using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Ching; Chang, Chao-Kai; Wang, Hsiu-Ju; Wang, Shian-Jen; Hsieh, Chang-Wei

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an optimal microencapsulation method for an oil-soluble component (curcumin) using γ-PGA. The results show that Span80 significantly enhances the encapsulation efficiency (EE) of γ-Na(+)-PGA microcapsules. Therefore, the effects of γ-Na(+)-PGA, curcumin and Span80 concentration on EE of γ-Na(+)-PGA microcapsules were studied by means of response surface methodology (RSM). It was found that the optimal microencapsulation process is achieved by using γ-Na(+)-PGA 6.05%, curcumin 15.97% and Span80 0.61% with a high EE% (74.47 ± 0.20%). Furthermore, the models explain 98% of the variability in the responses. γ-Na(+)-PGA seems to be a good carrier for the encapsulation of curcumin. In conclusion, this simple and versatile approach can potentially be applied to the microencapsulation of various oil-soluble components for food applications.

  1. Microencapsulation of Ginger Volatile Oil Based on Gelatin/Sodium Alginate Polyelectrolyte Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Yang, Shiwei; Cao, Jinli; Zhao, Shaohua; Wang, Wuwei

    2016-01-01

    The coacervation between gelatin and sodium alginate for ginger volatile oil (GVO) microencapsulation as functions of mass ratio, pH and concentration of wall material and core material load was evaluated. The microencapsulation was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and FT-IR studies indicated the formation of polyelectrolyte complexation between gelatin and sodium alginate and successful encapsulation of GVO into the microcapsules. Thermal property study showed that the crosslinked microparticles exhibited higher thermal stability than the neat GVO, gelatin, and sodium alginate. The stability of microencapsulation of GVO in a simulated gastric and an intestinal situation in vitro was also studied. The stability results indicated that the release of GVO from microcapsules was much higher in simulated intestinal fluid, compared with that in simulated-gastric fluid.

  2. Odor active compounds content in spices and their microencapsulated powders measured by SPME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Elżbieta; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Adamiec, Janusz; Wąsowicz, Erwin; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Remiszewski, Marian

    2010-10-01

    Within this study, main odorants of marjoram and thyme (linalool and thymol) were determined in spices and microencapsulated powders using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Analyses were conducted on selected batches of spices before and after decontamination and on microencapsulated powders prepared for technological purposes (improvement of aroma in decontaminated spices). Conditions of SPME analyses were determined for individual compounds and matrices. Determination of total and surface contents of compounds and the percentage dependencies between encapsulated and surface aroma made it possible to identify the best powders in terms of their quality.

  3. Fabrication and Properties of Microencapsulated,n-octadecane and Paraffim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-chen; ZHANG Xing-xiang; WU Shi-zhen

    2008-01-01

    Microencapsulated n-alkanes as energy-storage materials have promising application prospects.The microcapsules containing 100-50 wt% of n-octadecane,0-20 wt% of paraffin and 0-30 wt% of cyciohexane were synthesized by in-situ polymerization using melamineformaldehyde polymer as shell.Cyclohexane was removed after heat-treated the microcapsules at 100℃.The morphologies,cell parameters,phase change properties,thermal stable temperatures of these micrecapsules were examined.The diameters of these mieroeapsules arc lower than 5 μm.The effect of paraffin in the microcapsules on the cell parameters of,n-octadecane is negligible.The paraffin is effectively used as a nucleating agent to decrease the degree of supercooling.The melting enthalpy is decreased from 132 J/g to 111 J/g due to the increase of the cyciohexane contents.The thermal stable temperature is enhanced 6-16℃ after heat-treated the microcales at 160℃ for 30 min.

  4. Microchannel emulsification using gelatin and surfactant-free coacervate microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Shono, Atsushi; Satoh, Kazumi

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of microchannel (MC) emulsifications in producing monodisperse gelatin/acacia complex coacervate microcapsules of soybean oil. This is considered to be a novel method for preparing monodisperse O/W and W/O emulsions. Generally, surfactants are necessary for MC emulsification, but they can also inhibit the coacervation process. In this study, we investigated a surfactant-free system. First, MC emulsification using gelatin was compared with that using decaglycerol monolaurate. The results demonstrated the potential use of gelatin for MC emulsification. MC emulsification experiments conducted over a range of conditions revealed that the pH of the continuous phase should be maintained above the isoelectric point of the gelatin. A high concentration of gelatin was found to inhibit the production of irregular-sized droplets. Low-bloom gelatin was found to be suitable for obtaining monodisperse emulsions. Finally, surfactant-free monodisperse droplets prepared by MC emulsification were microencapsulated with coacervate. The microcapsules produced by this technique were observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Average diameters of the inner cores and outer shells were 37.8 and 51.5 microm; their relative standard deviations were 4.9 and 8.4%.

  5. MICROENCAPSULATION OF CORIANDER OIL USING COMPLEX COACERVATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN DIMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the gelatin/gum Arabic/chitosan microcapsules encapsulating coriander oil were prepared by complex coacervation using glutaric aldehide and transglutaminase as hardening agents. The effects of wall materials, core/wall ratio, particle size, cross-linking agents, dispersing medium and temperature on the release of coacervate microcapsule were investigated. The antioxidative properties and antibacterial activity of free and microencapsulated coriander oil were examined. In the case of DPPH assay, the IC50 values of coriander oil free and coacervat microcapsule was comparables. Addition of chitosan in wall materials did not interfere with the antioxidant activity of coriander oil, but it improves the antibacterial activity of system. Coriander oil extraction by hydrodistillation revealed the influence of particle size on extraction yield. It increases with the decreasing of particle size resulting in maximum efficiency 0.836% for particles of 500 µm, 0.753% for those of 630 µm, and 0.704% for the size of 710 μm.

  6. Production of LEU Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Irradiation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; McMurray, Jake W [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL; Trammell, Michael P [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles embedded inside a SiC matrix. This fuel inherently possesses multiple barriers to fission product release, namely the various coating layers in the TRISO fuel particle as well as the dense SiC matrix that hosts these particles. This coupled with the excellent oxidation resistance of the SiC matrix and the SiC coating layer in the TRISO particle designate this concept as an accident tolerant fuel (ATF). The FCM fuel takes advantage of uranium nitride kernels instead of oxide or oxide-carbide kernels used in high temperature gas reactors to enhance heavy metal loading in the highly moderated LWRs. Production of these kernels with appropriate density, coating layer development to produce UN TRISO particles, and consolidation of these particles inside a SiC matrix have been codified thanks to significant R&D supported by US DOE Fuel Cycle R&D program. Also, surrogate FCM pellets (pellets with zirconia instead of uranium-bearing kernels) have been neutron irradiated and the stability of the matrix and coating layer under LWR irradiation conditions have been established. Currently the focus is on production of LEU (7.3% U-235 enrichment) FCM pellets to be utilized for irradiation testing. The irradiation is planned at INL s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This is a critical step in development of this fuel concept to establish the ability of this fuel to retain fission products under prototypical irradiation conditions.

  7. MICROENCAPSULATION: AN INDISPENSABLE TECHNOLOGY FOR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakar Jadupati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the various new and well established technologies relevant to the controlled and targeted drug delivery systems have been precisely discussed. A perfectly designed controlled drug delivery system can be of huge advantage towards solving problems concerning to the targeting of drug to a specific organ or tissue and controlling the rate of drug delivery at the target site. Novel drug delivery systems have various advantages over other conventional drug therapy. In which microencapsulation is one approach for achieving the novel drug delivery dosage forms such as sustained release and controlled release, though the development of oral controlled release systems has been a challenge to formulation scientist due to their inability to restrain and focus the system at targeted areas of gastrointestinal tract. Microparticulate drug delivery systems are an interesting and promising option when developing an oral controlled release system. Our objective is to take a closer look at microparticles as drug delivery devices for increasing efficiency of drug delivery, improving the release profile and drug targeting. In order to elucidate the application of microcapsules in drug delivery, some fundamental aspects are briefly reviewed.

  8. Pickering emulsion templated interfacial atom transfer radical polymerization for microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Hitchcock, Adam P; Stöver, Harald D H

    2010-12-01

    This Article describes a new microencapsulation method based on a Pickering emulsion templated interfacial atom transfer radical polymerization (PETI-ATRP). Cationic LUDOX CL nanoparticles were coated electrostatically with an anionic polymeric ATRP initiator, poly(sodium styrene sulfonate-co-2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)ethyl methacrylate) (PSB), prepared by radical copolymerization of sodium styrene sulfonate and 2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)ethyl methacrylate (BIEM). The resulting PSB-modified CL particles were surface active and could be used to stabilize oil-in-water Pickering emulsions. ATRP of water-soluble cross-linking monomers, confined to the oil-water interface by the surface-bound PSB, then led to nanoparticle/polymer composite shells. This method allowed encapsulation of core solvents (xylene, hexadecane, perfluoroheptane) with different solubility parameters. The microcapsule (MC) wall chemistry could accommodate different monomers, demonstrating the versatility of this method. Double-walled MCs were formed by sequentially carrying out PETI-ATRP and in situ polymerization of encapsulated monomers. The double-walled structure was verified by both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM).

  9. 鱼油的微胶囊化及其影响因素%Microencapsulation of fish oil and its impact factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军杰; 熊善柏; 刘茹

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation of fish oil can not only realize the uniform dispersion and prevention of oxi-dation of fish oil, but also conceal fishy odor, improve digestibility and expand the scope of application. The development status of microencapsulation of fish oil and microencapsulation methods suitable for fish oil were introduced, including spray drying method, complex coacervation method, molecular inclusion method, freeze drying method, tiny hole and solidifying bath method and liposome embedding method. The impact factors of spray drying preparation of fish oil microcapsule on embedding rate were mainly in-troduced, including physical and chemical properties of wall material, solid concentration, emulsification method and emulsification conditions ( temperature, pressure, frequency ) and spray drying conditions ( inlet and outlet air temperatures) . The development direction of microencapsulation of fish oil was pros-pected.%鱼油微胶囊化不仅可实现鱼油的均匀分散,避免其氧化,而且还可掩盖鱼腥味,提高消化吸收率,扩大其应用范围。阐述了鱼油微胶囊化的发展现状及适用于鱼油的微胶囊化方法,包括喷雾干燥法、复合凝聚法、分子包埋法、冷冻干燥法、锐孔凝固浴法及脂质体包埋法。重点归纳了影响喷雾干燥法制备鱼油微胶囊包埋率的因素,包括壁材的物理化学特性、固形物浓度、乳化方式和乳化条件(温度、压力、次数)及喷雾干燥条件(进出风温度)。最后对鱼油微胶囊化的发展方向进行了展望。

  10. 包合法制备橄榄油微胶囊的工艺研究%Preparation of olive oil microencapsulation by inclusion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春玉; 张岩; 韩雨露; 王世清

    2015-01-01

    采用β-环糊精包合法进行了橄榄油微胶囊制备工艺的研究。以包埋率为评价指标,分析了超声波处理时间、壁材浓度、包埋温度、芯壁比、包埋时间等因素对橄榄油微胶囊制备工艺的影响。在单因素试验基础上,采用响应面法确定了包合法制备橄榄油微胶囊的最佳工艺。实验结果表明,最佳工艺为芯壁比1∶6、超声波处理时间15 min、壁材浓度1∶19、包埋温度60℃、包埋时间90 min,所得橄榄油微胶囊的包埋率达到76.2%。%The preparation of olive oil microencapsulation byβ-cyclodextrin adduction was studied. The embedding rate was used as evaluation index. The factors which affected the crafts of microencapsulation preparation included ultrasonic treatment time,wall material concentration,embedding temperature,core wall ratio and embedding time was analyzed. On the basis of single factor experiment,the optimal process parameters of microencapsulation of olive oil were determined by response surface methodology. The re-sults showed that the optimal embedding conditions were ratio of core to wall 1∶6 ,ultrasonic treatment time 15 min,wall material concentration 1∶19,embedding temperature 60 ℃,embedding time 90 min, and the embedding rate of olive oil was 76 . 2%.

  11. 微囊化细胞的低温保存%Cryopreservation of microencapsulated cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶萍; 常兆华; 刘宝林; 赵庆孝; 彭承宏; 沈柏用; 韩宝三

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microcapsule is an effective tool for immunoisolation, cryopreservation makes the preservation and the transportation of the microcapsules easy, which is helpful for microencapsulated technology applied in clinical practice.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the cryopreservation of microencapsulated cells, such as cryopreservation characteristic of microencapsulated cells, advantages and disadvantages of different cryopreservation methods, research methods and so on.METHODS: A computer-based online search of PubMed database (from 1980 to 2010), Wanfang database (from 1991 to 2010)and Vip database (from 1991 to 2010) was performed for articles related to the cryopreservation of microencapsulated cells,cryopreservation technology and devices, cryopreservation application in medical field .RESULTS AND CONCLUSION : The cryodamage characteristic of microencapsulated cells are different to the cells and tissues.The relatively large size of microcapsules and complex structure of semi-permeable membrane make it susceptibly that microcapsule structure and cells in microcapsules are damaged by ice crystals and solution in cryopreservation. So the cryopreservation protocol of cell suspension could not be used in microencapsulated cells cryopreservation. Slow-cooling and vitrification are two common methods of the cryopreservation of microencapsulated cells, each has advantages and disadvantages. The technology of cryopreservation of microencapsulated cells is not yet mature. The mechanism underlying the cryopreservation of microencapsulated cells needs further strengthen at the same time of exploring the optimal cryopreservation protocols for microencapsulated cells and new cryopreservation facilities for microencapsulated cells.%背景:微胶囊是一种有效的免疫隔离工具,低温冷冻方便了微囊的保存与运输,有利于微囊化技术在临床的推广应用.目的:综述微囊低温保存技术中微囊低温保存特点、不同保存方法优缺点、研

  12. [Study on relationship of dose-effect and time-effect of APA microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells on pain treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Jianfeng; Li, Tao; Du, Zhi; Song, Jichang

    2011-12-01

    This study was to investigate the relationship of dose-effect and time-effect of Alginate-Polylysine-Alginate (APA) microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells on the treatment of pain model rats. Using a rat model of painful peripheral neuropathy, the antinociceptive effects of APA microencapsulated bovine cells transplanted into the subarachnoid space was evaluated by cold allodynia test and hot hyperalgesia test. Compared with control group, the withdrawal difference with cell number 50 thousands groups, 100 thousands groups and 200 thousands groups was reduced (P APA microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells which were transplanted to treat pain model rats, and the effective antinociception remained longer than 12 weeks.

  13. Supercooling Suppression of Microencapsulated n-Alkanes by Introducing an Organic Gelator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Kong-ying; WANG Shuang; QI Heng-zhi; LI Hui; ZHAO Yun-hui; YUAN Xiao-yan

    2012-01-01

    Supercooling of the microencapsulated phase change materials(PCMs) during cooling usually happens.This phenomenon can interfere with heat transfer and is necessary to further overcome.In this study,melamine-formaldehyde microcapsules containing two n-alkane PCMs,namely,n-dodecane(C12) or n-tetradecane(C14)were prepared by in situ polymerization.A small amount of n-hexatriacontane(C36) was introduced as an organic gelator into the core of microcapsules to cope with the supercooling problem.Analyses demonstrate that supcrcooling of the microencapsulated C12 or C14 was significantly suppressed by adding 3%(mass fraction) C36,without changing the spherical morphology and dispersibility.It could be also found that the enthalpy of microencapsulated C12 or C14 containing C36 was similar to that of microencapsulated n-alkanes without C36,whereas the difference between onsets of crystallization and melting(degree of supercooling) is similar to that of those of pure n-alkanes,suggesting the remarkable suppression ability of the organic gelator on supercooling.

  14. Monitoring model drug microencapsulation in PLGA scaffolds using X-ray powder diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyinka Aina; Manish Gupta; Yamina Boukari; Andrew Morris; Nashiru Billa; Stephen Doughty

    2015-01-01

    The microencapsulation of three model drugs; metronidazole, paracetamol and sulphapyridine into Poly (dl-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds were probed using X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD). Changes in the diffraction patterns of the PLGA scaffolds after encapsulation was suggestive of a chemical interaction between the pure drugs and the scaffolds and not a physical intermixture.

  15. Monitoring model drug microencapsulation in PLGA scaffolds using X-ray powder d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyinka Aina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The microencapsulation of three model drugs; metronidazole, paracetamol and sulphapyridine into Poly (dl-Lactide-Co-Glycolide (PLGA scaffolds were probed using X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD. Changes in the diffraction patterns of the PLGA scaffolds after encapsulation was suggestive of a chemical interaction between the pure drugs and the scaffolds and not a physical intermixture.

  16. Monitoring model drug microencapsulation in PLGA scaffolds using X-ray powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Adeyinka; Gupta, Manish; Boukari, Yamina; Morris, Andrew; Billa, Nashiru; Doughty, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    The microencapsulation of three model drugs; metronidazole, paracetamol and sulphapyridine into Poly (dl-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds were probed using X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD). Changes in the diffraction patterns of the PLGA scaffolds after encapsulation was suggestive of a chemical interaction between the pure drugs and the scaffolds and not a physical intermixture.

  17. Application of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of dispersed organic solvent in developing new microencapsulation process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Honghwa; Lee, Sunhwa; Bhattacharjee, Himanshu; Sah, Hongkee

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new microencapsulation technology employing an acid-catalyzed solvent extraction method in conjunction to an emulsion-based microencapsulation process. Its process consisted of emulsifying a dispersed phase of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) and isopropyl formate in an aqueous phase. This step was followed by adding hydrochloric acid to the resulting oil-in-water emulsion, in order to initiate the hydrolysis of isopropyl formate dissolved in the aqueous phase. Its hydrolysis caused the liberation of water-soluble species, that is, isopropanol and formic acid. This event triggered continual solvent leaching out of emulsion droplets, thereby initiating microsphere solidification. This new processing worked well for encapsulation of progesterone and ketoprofen that were chosen as a nonionizable model drug and a weakly acidic one, respectively. Furthermore, the structural integrity of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) was retained during microencapsulation. The new microencapsulation technology, being conceptually different from previous approaches, might be useful in preparing various polymeric particles.

  18. Microencapsulation of indocyanine green for potential applications in image-guided drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Si, Ting; Xu, Ronald X

    2015-02-07

    We present a novel process to encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in liposomal droplets at high concentration for potential applications in image-guided drug delivery. The microencapsulation process follows two consecutive steps of droplet formation by liquid-driven coaxial flow focusing (LDCFF) and solvent removal by oil phase dewetting. These biocompatible lipid vesicles may have important applications in drug delivery and fluorescence imaging.

  19. Solubility of drugs in aqueous polymeric solution: effect of ovalbumin on microencapsulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hesham Abdul; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2012-03-01

    Microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs using coacervation-phase separation method is very challenging, as these drugs partitioned into the aqueous polymeric solution, resulting in poor drug entrapment. For evaluating the effect of ovalbumin on the microencapsulation of drugs with different solubility, pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, propranolol HCl, paracetamol, and curcuminoid were used. In addition, drug mixtures comprising of paracetamol and pseudoephedrine HCl were also studied. The morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and in vitro release profile were investigated. The results showed that the solubility of the drug determined the ratio of ovalbumin to be used for successful microencapsulation. The optimum ratios of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin for water-soluble (pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, and propranolol HCl), sparingly water-soluble (paracetamol), and water-insoluble (curcuminoid) drugs were found to be 1:1:2, 2:3:5, and 1:3:4. As for the drug mixture, the optimum ratio of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin was 2:3:5. Encapsulated particles prepared at the optimum ratios showed high yield, drug loading, entrapment efficiency, and sustained release profiles. The solubility of drug affected the particle size of the encapsulated particle. Highly soluble drugs resulted in smaller particle size. In conclusion, addition of ovalbumin circumvented the partitioning effect, leading to the successful microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs.

  20. Development of phase change materials based microencapsulated technology for buildings: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, V.V.; Kaushik, S.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tyagi, S.K. [School of Infrastructure Technology and Resource Management, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra 182320, J and K (India); Akiyama, T. [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-86283 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change material (PCM) have been recognized as one of the most advanced energy technologies in enhancing the energy efficiency and sustainability of buildings. Now the research is focus on suitable method to incorporate PCMs with building. There are several methods to use phase change materials (PCMs) in thermal energy storage (TES) for different applications. Microencapsulation is one of the well known and advanced technologies for better utilization of PCMs with building parts, such as, wall, roof and floor besides, within the building materials. Phase change materials based microencapsulation for latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) systems for building application offers a challenging option to be employed as effective thermal energy storage and a retrieval device. Since the particular interest in using microencapsulation PCMs for concrete and wall/wallboards, the specific research efforts on both subjects are reviewed separately. This paper presents an overview of the previous research work on microencapsulation technology for thermal energy storage incorporating the phase change materials (PCMs) in the building applications, along with few useful conclusive remarks concluded from the available literature. (author)

  1. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of microencapsulated phase change material for thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Cemil; Sari, Ahmet; Karaipekli, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Uzun, Orhan [Department of Physics, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    This study is focused on the preparation, characterization, and determination of thermal properties of microencapsulated docosane with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as phase change material for thermal energy storage. Microencapsulation of docosane has been carried out by emulsion polymerization. The microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM) was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Thermal properties and thermal stability of MEPCM were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). DSC analysis indicated that the docosane in the microcapsules melts at 41.0 C and crystallizes at 40.6 C. It has latent heats of 54.6 and -48.7 J/g for melting and crystallization, respectively. TGA showed that the MEPCM degraded in three distinguishable steps and had good chemical stability. Accelerated thermal cycling tests also indicated that the MEPCM had good thermal reliability. Based on all these results, it can be concluded that the microencapsulated docosane as MEPCMs have good potential for thermal energy storage purposes such as solar space heating applications. (author)

  2. Effect of blueberry extract from blueberry pomace on the microencapsulated fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the addition of blueberry extract (BE) obtained from blueberry pomace on lipid oxidation of pollock liver oil (PO) during microencapsulation was evaluated. An emulsion containing PO and BE (EBE) was prepared and spray dried in a pilot scale spray dryer. Thiobarbituric acids (TBARS) of ...

  3. Microencapsulated n-octacosane as phase change material for thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Karaipekli, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Uzun, Orhan [Department of Physics, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    This study deals with preparation and characterization of polymethylmetracrylate (PMMA) microcapsules containing n-octacosane as phase change material for thermal energy storage. The surface morphology, particle size and particle size distribution (PSD) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical characterization of PMMA/octacosane microcapsules was made by FT-IR spectroscopy method. Thermal properties and thermal stability of microencapsulated octacosane were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The melting and freezing temperatures and the latent heats of the microencapsulated octacosane as PCM were measured as 50.6 and 53.2 C, 86.4 and -88.5 J/g, respectively, by DSC analysis. TGA analysis indicated that the microencapsulated octacosane degrade in two steps and had good chemical stability. Thermal cycling test shows that the microcapsules have good thermal reliability with respect to the accelerated thermal cycling. Based on the results, it can be considered that the microencapsulated octacosane have good energy storage potential. (author)

  4. Microencapsulation of alginate-immobilized bagasse with Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442: enhancement of survivability and thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharuddin, Shahrulzaman; Muhamad, Ida Idayu

    2015-03-30

    The aim of this research was to enhance the survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442 against heat exposure via a combination of immobilization and microencapsulation processes using sugarcane bagasse (SB) and sodium alginate (NaA), respectively. The microcapsules were synthesized using different alginate concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and NaA:SB ratio of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:1.5. This beneficial step of probiotic immobilization before microencapsulation significantly enhanced microencapsulation efficiency and cell survivability after heat exposure of 90°C for 30s. Interestingly, the microcapsule of SB-immobilized probiotic could obtain protection from heat using microencapsulation of NaA concentration as low as 1%. SEM images illustrated the incorporation of immobilized L. rhamnosus within alginate matrices and its changes after heat exposure. FTIR spectra confirmed the change in functional bonding in the presence of sugarcane bagasse, probiotic and alginate. The results demonstrated a great potential in the synthesis of heat resistant microcapsules for probiotic.

  5. Successful xenotransplantation of microencapsulated newborn pig parathyroid cells in the treatment of hypoparathyroidism in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林乐岷; 宋一民; 宋纯; 许评; 宋春芳

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of xenotransplantation with pig parathyroid cells, which was prepared using cell microencapsulation technique, on the treatment of hypoparathyroidism in rats without immunosuppressor. Methods Parathyroid cells were isolated from 10 healthy newborn pigs and encapsulated in alginate-polylysine-alginate (APA) membranes. Thirty-two aparathyroid Wistar rats were randomly allocated to microcapsule, non-microcapsule, empty microcapsule, and control groups. Each rat was injected intraperitoneally with encapsulated porcine parathyroid cells, free porcine parathyroid cells, empty capsules or 0.9% NaCl, respectively. Total serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were monitored continuously for 40 weeks. And then, the transplant beds were retrieved and subjected to morphologic and electron microscopic examination. Results In those animals xenotransplanted with microencapsulated porcine parathyroid cells, the calcium and PTH levels were consistently within the normal range during the 40 weeks. In contrast, no therapeutic effects were observed in rats in the non-microcapsule group. Furthermore, neither empty capsules nor 0.9% NaCl were shown to have any effect on the recipient's serum calcium or PTH levels. After 40 weeks, electron microscopic examination demonstrated that the parathyroid cells within the microcapsules had survived well in vivo. Conclusions Xenotransplantation of microencapsulated newborn pig parathyroid cells can successfully treat hypoparathyroidism in rats without using immunosuppressive drugs. The results of this study show the possible clinical use of microencapsulated porcine parathyroid cells.

  6. Cottage cheeses functionalized with fennel and chamomile extracts: comparative performance between free and microencapsulated forms

    OpenAIRE

    Caleja, Cristina; Ribeiro, Andreia; BARROS, LILLIAN; Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Barreiro, M.F; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there is a trend for healthy food products, preferably incorporating natural bioactive ingredients, replacing synthetic additives. From previous screening studies, extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) and Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) maintained nutritional properties and improved the antioxidant activity of cottage cheese. Nevertheless, this effect was limited to 7 days. Accordingly, aqueous extracts of these plants were microencapsulated in alginate and incorporated ...

  7. A VERSATILE ALGINATE DROPLET GENERATOR APPLICABLE FOR MICROENCAPSULATION OF PANCREATIC-ISLETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLTERS, GHJ; FRITSCHY, WM; GERRITS, D; VANSCHILFAGAARDE, R

    1992-01-01

    Alginate beads for immunoisolation of pancreatic islets by microencapsulation should be small, smooth, and spherical in order to ensure that around the islets a strong alginate-polylysine-alginate capsule will be formed with optimal biocompatibility and diffusion of nutrients and hormones. However,

  8. Investigation of Microencapsulated BSH Active Lactobacillus in the Simulated Human GI Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Martoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase (BSH overproducing Lactobacillus plantarum 80 cells for oral delivery applications using a dynamic computer-controlled model simulating the human gastrointestinal (GI tract. Bile salt deconjugation rates for microencapsulated BSH overproducing cells were 4.87 ± 0.28 μmol/g microcapsule/h towards glycoconjugates and 0.79 ± 0.15 μmol/g microcapsule/h towards tauroconjugates in the simulated intestine, a significant (P< .05 increase over microencapsulated wild-type cells. Microcapsules protected the encased cells in the simulated stomach prior to intestinal release, maintaining cell viability above 109 cfu/mL at pH 2.5 and 3.0 and above 106 cfu/mL at pH 2.0 after 2-hour residence times. In the simulated intestine, encased cell viability was maintained above 1010 cfu/mL after 3, 6, and 12-hour residence times in bile concentrations up to 1.0%. Results show that microencapsulation has potential in the oral delivery of live BSH active bacterial cells. However, in vivo testing is required.

  9. Application of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuels in light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, C.; George, N.; Maldonado, I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee-Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States); Godfrey, A.; Terrani, K.; Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study performs a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of incorporation of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuels in light water reactors (LWRs). In particular, pin cell, lattice, and full core analyses are carried out on FCM fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Using uranium-based fuel and Pu/Np-based fuel in TRistructural isotropic (TRISO) particle form, each fuel design was examined using the SCALE 6.1 analytical suite. In regards to the uranium-based fuel, pin cell calculations were used to determine which fuel material performed best when implemented in the fuel kernel as well as the size of the kernel and surrounding particle layers. The higher fissile material density of uranium mononitride (UN) proved to be favorable, while the parametric studies showed that the FCM particle fuel design with 19.75% enrichment would need roughly 12% additional fissile material in comparison to that of a standard UO{sub 2} rod in order to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle. As part of the fuel assembly design evaluations, fresh feed lattices were modeled to analyze the within-assembly pin power peaking. Also, a 'color-set' array of assemblies was constructed to evaluate power peaking and power sharing between a once-burned and a fresh feed assembly. In regards to the Pu/Np-based fuel, lattice calculations were performed to determine an optimal lattice design based on reactivity behavior, pin power peaking, and isotopic content. After obtaining a satisfactory lattice design, the feasibility of core designs fully loaded with Pu/Np FCM lattices was demonstrated using the NESTLE three-dimensional core simulator. (authors)

  10. Application of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuels in Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Cole A [ORNL; George, Nathan M [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Godfrey, Andrew T [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to perform a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of incorporation of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuels in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). In particular pin cell, lattice, and full core analyses are carried out on FCM fuel in a pressurized water reactor. Using uranium-based fuel and transuranic (TRU) based fuel in TRistructural ISOtropic (TRISO) particle form, each fuel design was examined using the SCALE 6.1 analytical suite. In regards to the uranium-based fuel, pin cell calculations were used to determine which fuel material performed best when implemented in the fuel kernel as well as the size of the kernel and surrounding particle layers. The higher physical density of uranium mononitride (UN) proved to be favorable, while the parametric studies showed that the FCM particle fuel design would need roughly 12% additional fissile material in comparison to that of a standard UO2 rod in order to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle. As part of the fuel assembly design evaluations, fresh feed lattices were modeled to analyze the within-assembly pin power peaking. Also, a color-set array of assemblies was constructed to evaluate power peaking and power sharing between a once-burned and a fresh feed assembly. In regards to the TRU based fuel, lattice calculations were performed to determine an optimal lattice design based on reactivity behavior, pin power peaking, and isotopic content. After obtaining a satisfactory lattice design, feasibility of core designs fully loaded with TRU FCM lattices was demonstrated using the NESTLE three-dimensional core simulator.

  11. Microencapsulation by spray drying of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with lupin nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Daniela C; Acevedo, Francisca; Morales, Eduardo; Aravena, Javiera; Amiard, Véronique; Jorquera, Milko A; Inostroza, Nitza G; Rubilar, Mónica

    2014-09-01

    Plant growth promoting bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) used for crop inoculation have important biotechnological potential as a sustainable fertilization tool. However, the main limitation of this technology is the low inoculum survival rate under field conditions. Microencapsulation of bacterial cells in polymer matrices provides a controlled release and greater protection against environmental conditions. In this context, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative NFB associated with lupin nodules and to evaluate their microencapsulation by spray drying. For this purpose, 21 putative NFB were isolated from lupin nodules and characterized (16S rRNA genes). Microencapsulation of bacterial cells by spray drying was studied using a mixture of sodium alginate:maltodextrin at different ratios (0:15, 1:14, 2:13) and concentrations (15 and 30% solids) as the wall material. The microcapsules were observed under scanning electron microscopy to verify their suitable morphology. Results showed the association between lupin nodules of diverse known NFB and nodule-forming bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In microencapsulation assays, the 1:14 ratio of sodium alginate:maltodextrin (15% solids) showed the highest cell survival rate (79%), with a microcapsule yield of 27% and spherical microcapsules of 5-50 µm in diameter. In conclusion, diverse putative NFB genera and nodule-forming bacteria are associated with the nodules of lupine plants grown in soils in southern Chile, and their microencapsulation by spray drying using sodium alginate:maltodextrin represents a scalable process to generate a biofertilizer as an alternative to traditional nitrogen fertilization.

  12. Microencapsulated hepatocytes and islets as in vivo bioartificial liver support system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Gao; Jun Xu; Bei Sun; Hong-Chi Jiang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To confirm the xenotransplantation of microencapsulated hepatocytes and islets as a temporary bioartificial liver support system for mice with acute liver failure (ALF).METHODS: Mice were rendered ALF by a single intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (D-gal) and their tail blood was sampled to examine differences in blood ALT,albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TB) and glucose (GLU) between 4 experimental groups. Rat hepatocytes and islets were collected and microencapsulated referring to both Sun's and Fritschy's methods. Mice were grouped into control group (CG), free hepatocyte group (FHG), microencapsulated hepatocyte group (MHG) and microencapsulated hepatocyte plus islet group (HIG). Tissue samples were subjected to microscopic and electron microscopic (EM) examinations.RESULTS: The highest survival was observed in HIG,surprisingly at 100%(16/16), while the lowest was in CG at 12.5%(2/16), with inter-group statistical difference P<0.05.ALT levels revealed no statistical difference between groups but the ALB level of HIG descended by the slightest margin {q=(0.54, 0.24, 1.33), P<0.05} at the time when it reached the lowest point in all groups. TB of HIG returned to normal reference range (NRR) statistically sooner than that of others after a fierce elevation. No statistical inter-group difference was observed in GLU levels. Fusion between hepatocytes and beta cells was demonstrated giving rise to theoretical assumptions.CONCLUSION: Hepatocytes to be microencapsulated together with islets should be a preferred in vivo hepatic functional supporting system, which can dramatically prolong survival and improve living status.

  13. An optimized probucol microencapsulated formulation integrating a secondary bile acid (deoxycholic acid as a permeation enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooranian A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Armin Mooranian,1 Rebecca Negrulj,1 Nigel Chen-Tan,2 Gerald F Watts,3 Frank Arfuso,4 Hani Al-Salami11Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, 3School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia, 4School of Biomedical Science, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, Perth, AustraliaAbstract: The authors have previously designed, developed, and characterized a novel microencapsulated formulation as a platform for the targeted delivery of therapeutics in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, using the drug probucol (PB. The aim of this study was to optimize PB microcapsules by incorporating the bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA, which has good permeation-enhancing properties, and to examine its effect on microcapsules’ morphology, rheology, structural and surface characteristics, and excipients’ chemical and thermal compatibilities. Microencapsulation was carried out using a BÜCHI-based microencapsulating system established in the authors’ laboratory. Using the polymer sodium alginate (SA, two microencapsulated formulations were prepared: PB-SA (control and PB-DCA-SA (test at a constant ratio (1:30 and 1:3:30, respectively. Complete characterization of the microcapsules was carried out. The incorporation of DCA resulted in better structural and surface characteristics, uniform morphology, and stable chemical and thermal profiles, while size and rheological parameters remained similar to control. In addition, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules showed good excipients’ compatibilities, which were supported by data from differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray studies, suggesting

  14. The use of microencapsulated hepatocytes transplantation reduces mortality and liver alterations in Schistosoma mansoni infected hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Soad A; Moharib, Mona N; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M; Hammam, Olfat A; Salman, Fatma H; El-Naggar, Mohamed M

    2014-04-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is an attractive therapeutic modality for liver disease as an alternative for orthotropic liver transplantation. The goal of this work was to study the adequacy of intrasplenic hepatocyte transplantation (HCTx) in fresh and microencapsulated forms, in a hamster model of liver fibrosis by Schistosoma mansoni infected hamsters were divided into 6 groups; untreated for 11 weeks (GI) and for 15 weeks (GII), treated with praziquantel (PZQ) 7 weeks PI, and killed 4 weeks (GIII) and 8 weeks (GIV) post-treatment. Treated with PZQ 7 weeks PI, and then treated orally with immunosuppressive drug "cyclosporine (4 weeks post PZQ treatment), 24 hr. before interasplenic injection with fresh hepatocytes (V). Treated with PZQ 7 weeks PI, and then injected interasplenically (4 weeks post-treatment) with microencapsulated hepatocytes (GVI). GI & GIII were killed 11 weeks PI for assessment the anti-schistosomal efficacy of PZQ. The other four groups were killed 15 weeks PI for investigation of liver and spleen histology, serum liver enzymes and hepatic oxidative markers before and after HCTx. Freshly isolated hepatocytes with a mean viability 92.97 +/- 1.2% were used for microencapsulation and transplantation. Histological study showed the presence of transplanted hepatocytes in spleen of recipient. PZQ accelerated healing of hepatic granulomatous lesions as evidenced parasitologically by the increase in the percentage of dead eggs and histologically showing more granuloma circumscription with more ova degeneration and less inflammatory cells. The 25-day survival rates in GII, GIV, GV& GVI were 5/15 (33.3%), 8/15 (53.3%), 10/15 (66.7%) and 9/15 (60%) respectively. In addition, there were significantly better outcomes in serum biochemical indexes such as ALT, AST, gamma-GT, ALP, and hepatic SOD and MDA in the fresh and microencapsulated groups than in PZQ-treated group, without great differences between the microencapsulated and the fresh transplanted groups

  15. Study of rosin-glycerol esters as microencapsulating materials. II. Quantitative correlation between physico-chemical properties and release characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Y V; Rao, M N; Dorle, A K

    1985-01-01

    Rosin-glycerol esters have been used as microencapsulating materials. A quantitative correlation has been observed between the physico-chemical properties, i.e. acid value and moisture affinity, and the release characteristics from the encapsulated drug.

  16. Feasibility study on microencapsulation of anaerobic Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 by emulsification method for application in biobutanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Sweta; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Lai Wah

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the feasibility of microencapsulating Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 cells by emulsification for fermentation to produce biobutanol. The effects of selected emulsification process on viability of the vegetative cells and spores were investigated to enable the selection of appropriate form of bacterium for immobilisation. The spores were found to be more suitable for microencapsulation than the vegetative cells. Design of experiment and mathematical models were then used to evaluate the effects of gellan gum concentration, HLB of surfactant blend, temperature and stirring speed on the properties of the microspheres produced. Using the predicted optimal conditions, the spores were successfully immobilised in spherical microspheres for use in fermentation. The microencapsulated spores were easily revived by heat shock treatment and could produce 8.2 g/l of butanol, which was higher than that generally reported in literature. The microencapsulation method developed provides means of producing reusable microbioreactors for anaerobic spore-forming microorganisms.

  17. Double enzymatic hydrolysis preparation of heme from goose blood and microencapsulation to promote its stability and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baowei; Cheng, Fansheng; Gao, Shun; Ge, Wenhua; Zhang, Mingai

    2017-02-15

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. This deficiency could be solved by preparing stable, edible, and absorbable iron food ingredients using environmentally friendly methods. This study investigated enzymatic hydrolysis and microencapsulation process of goose blood. The physicochemical properties, stabilities of the microencapsulated goose blood hydrolysate (MGBH) and a supplement for rats with IDA were also evaluated. The results showed that the synergetic hydrolytic action of neutrase and alkaline protease significantly increased the heme-releasing efficiency. The heme was then microencapsulated using sodium caseinate, maltodextrin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the edible wall material, and the encapsulation efficiency of the product reached 98.64%. Meanwhile, favorable thermal, storage and light stabilities were observed for the microencapsulation. It was found that MGBH can significantly improve the body weight and hematological parameters of IDA Wistar rat.

  18. Assessment of Composite Delamination Self-Healing Via Micro-Encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; White, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    Composite skin/stringer flange debond specimens manufactured from composite prepreg containing interleaf layers with a polymer based healing agent encapsulated in thin walled spheres were tested. As a crack develops and grows in the base polymer, the spheres fracture releasing the healing agent. The agent reacts with catalyst and polymerizes healing the crack. In addition, through-thickness reinforcement, in the form of pultruded carbon z-pins were included near the flange tips to improve the resistance to debonding. Specimens were manufactured with 14 plies in the skin and 10 plies in the stiffener flange. Three-point bend tests were performed to measure the skin/stiffener debonding strength and the recovered strength after healing. The first three tests performed indicated no healing following unloading and reloading. Micrographs showed that delaminations could migrate to the top of the interleaf layer due to the asymmetric loading, and hence, bypass most of the embedded capsules. For two subsequent tests, specimens were clamped in reverse bending before reloading. In one case, healing was observed as evidenced by healing agent that leaked to the specimen edge forming a visible "scar". The residual strength measured upon reloading was 96% of the original strength indicating healing had occurred. Hence, self-healing is possible in fiber reinforced composite material under controlled conditions, i.e., given enough time and contact with pressure on the crack surfaces. The micro-encapsulation technique may prove more robust when capsule sizes can be produced that are small enough to be embedded in the matrix resin without the need for using an interleaf layer. However, in either configuration, the amount of healing that can occur may be limited to the volume of healing agent available relative to the crack volume that must be filled.

  19. Impact of a yogurt matrix and cell microencapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri in three in vitro gastric digestion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, C P; Raymond, Y; Guertin, N; Martoni, C J; Jones, M L; Mainville, I; Arcand, Y

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the interaction between microencapsulation and a yogurt food matrix on the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 in four different in vitro systems that simulate a gastric environment. The four systems were: United States Pharmacopeia (USP) solutions, a static two-step (STS) procedure which included simulated food ingredients, a constantly dynamic digestion procedure (IViDiS), as well a multi-step dynamic digestion scheme (S'IViDiS). The pH profiles of the various procedures varied between systems with acidity levels being: USP > STS > IViDiS = S'IVIDiS. Addition of a food matrix increased the pH in all systems except for the USP methodology. Microencapsulation in alginate-based gels was effective in protecting the cells in model solutions when no food ingredients were present. The stability of the probiotic culture in the in vitro gastric environments was enhanced when (1) yoghurt or simulated food ingredient were present in the medium in sufficient quantity, (2) pH was higher. The procedure-comparison data of this study will be helpful in interpreting the literature with respect to viable counts of probiotics obtained from different static or dynamic in vitro gastric systems.

  20. Antinociceptive Effect of Intrathecal Microencapsulated Human Pheochromocytoma Cell in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l lysine-alginate (APA microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.

  1. Micro-encapsulated phase-change materials integrated into construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schossig, P.; Henning, H.-M.; Gschwander, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Haussmann, T. [PSE GmbH-Forschung, Entwicklung, Marketing Solar Info Center, 79072 Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    The idea of improving the thermal comfort of lightweight buildings by integrating phase-change materials (PCMs) into the building structure has been investigated in various research projects over several decades. Most of these attempts applied macro-capsules or direct immersion processes, which both turned out to present several drawbacks. Due to these problems, none of these PCM products was successful in the wider market. The new option to micro-encapsulate PCMs, a key technology which overcomes many of these problems, may make PCM products accessible for the building industry. This paper describes the work done at Fraunhofer ISE within a German government-funded project over the last 5 years, extending from building simulations to first measurements of full-size rooms equipped with PCM. The first products are now available on the market. (author) [Phase change material; Passive cooling; Energy efficient building; Microencapsulation].

  2. Microencapsulation of coco fatty acid mixture for thermal energy storage with phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozonur, Y.; Mazman, M.; Paksoy, H.O.; Evilya, H. [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2005-07-01

    Thermal energy storage systems provide several alternatives for efficient energy use and energy conservation. Microcapsules of natural coco fatty acid mixture were prepared to be used as phase change materials for thermal energy storage. The coacervation technique was used for the microencapsulation process. Several alternatives for the capsule wall material were tried. The microcapsules were characterized according to their geometric profiles, phase transition temperatures, mean particle sizes, chemical stabilities, and their thermal cycling. The diameters of microcapsules prepared in this study were about 1 mm. Coco fatty acid mixtures have kept their geometrical profiles even after 50 thermal cycles for melting and freezing operations in temperature range from 22 to 34{sup o}C. It was found that gelatin+gum Arabic mixture was the best wall material for microencapsulating coco fatty acid mixtures. (author)

  3. Cottage cheeses functionalized with fennel and chamomile extracts: Comparative performance between free and microencapsulated forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleja, Cristina; Ribeiro, Andreia; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Beatriz P P Oliveira, M; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-15

    Globally, there is a trend for healthy food products, preferably incorporating natural bioactive ingredients, replacing synthetic additives. From previous screening studies, extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) and Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) maintained nutritional properties and improved the antioxidant activity of cottage cheese. Nevertheless, this effect was limited to 7 days. Accordingly, aqueous extracts of these plants were microencapsulated in alginate and incorporated into cottage cheese to achieve an extended bioactivity. Plain cottage cheese, and cheese functionalized by direct addition of free decoctions, were prepared and compared. Independently of plant species, "functionalization type" factor did not show a significant effect on the nutritional parameters, as also confirmed in the linear discriminant analysis, where these parameters were not selected as discriminating variables. Furthermore, samples functionalized with microencapsulated extracts showed higher antioxidant activity after the 7th day, thereby demonstrating that the main purpose of this experimental work was achieved.

  4. Microencapsulation of okadaic acid as a tool for studying the accumulation of DSP toxins in mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignoli, Araceli E; Fernández, David; Acosta, Carmen P; Blanco, Juan

    2011-02-01

    The possibility and effectiveness of microencapsulation of okadaic acid (OA) in gelatin-acacia microcapsules has been studied. The encapsulation efficiency was higher than 33%. The microcapsules were shown to be very stable, not leaching more than 9% of the encapsulated OA in a 20-h period. OA from the microcapsules was absorbed by the mussels very efficiently, accumulating--after 3 days of feeding and one of depuration--65% of the OA in microcapsules and 22% of the total OA used at the beginning of the microencapsulation process. These efficiencies and the possibility of encapsulating single DSP toxins and derivatives constitute a valuable tool for the study of the accumulation and biotransformation of DSP toxins in bivalves.

  5. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate as a phase change material by interfacial polycondensation in a polyurea system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)], E-mail: doseng_1982@hotmail.com; Xu Lingling; Shang Hongbo; Zhang Zhibin [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2009-03-15

    For the last 20 years, microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs), which combine microencapsulation technology and phase change material, have been attracted more and more interest. By overcoming some limitations of the PCMs, the MicroPCMs improve the efficiency of PCMs and make it possible to apply PCMs in many areas. In this experiment, polyurea microcapsules containing phase change materials were prepared using interfacial polycondensation method. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylenediamine (EDA) were chosen as monomers. Butyl stearate was employed as a core material. The MicroPCMs' properties have been characterized by dry weight analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectra analysis and optical microscopy. The results show that the MicroPCMs were synthesized successfully and that, the phase change temperature was about 29 deg. C, the latent heat of fusion was about 80 J g{sup -1}, the particle diameter was 20-35 {mu}m.

  6. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate as a phase change material by interfacial polycondensation in a polyurea system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chen; Lingling, Xu; Hongbo, Shang; Zhibin, Zhang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2009-03-15

    For the last 20 years, microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs), which combine microencapsulation technology and phase change material, have been attracted more and more interest. By overcoming some limitations of the PCMs, the MicroPCMs improve the efficiency of PCMs and make it possible to apply PCMs in many areas. In this experiment, polyurea microcapsules containing phase change materials were prepared using interfacial polycondensation method. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylenediamine (EDA) were chosen as monomers. Butyl stearate was employed as a core material. The MicroPCMs' properties have been characterized by dry weight analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectra analysis and optical microscopy. The results show that the MicroPCMs were synthesized successfully and that, the phase change temperature was about 29 C, the latent heat of fusion was about 80 J g{sup -1}, the particle diameter was 20-35 {mu}m. (author)

  7. Microencapsulation techniques to develop formulations of insulin for oral delivery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Bailón, Fernando; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhrí

    2013-01-01

    Oral insulin delivery represents one of the most challenging goals for pharmaceutical industry. In general, it is accepted that oral administration of insulin would be more accepted by patients and insulin would be delivered in a more physiological way than the parenteral route. From all strategies to deliverer insulin orally, microencapsulation or nanoencapsulation of insulin are the most promising approaches because these techniques protect insulin from enzymatic degradation in stomach, show a good release profile at intestine pH values, maintain biological activity during formulation and enhance intestinal permeation at certain extent. From different microencapsulation techniques, it seems that complex coacervation, multiple emulsion and internal gelation are the most appropriate techniques to encapsulate insulin due to their relative ease of preparation. Besides that, the use of organic solvents is not required and can be scaled up at low cost; however, relative oral bioavailability still needs to be improved.

  8. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria using thermo-sensitive sol-gel polymers for powdered infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penhasi, Adel

    2015-01-01

    In this study the application of thermo-sensitive sol-gel polymers in microencapsulation formulation of probiotic bacteria, Bifidobacterium animalis spp lactis, for powdered infant formula (PIF), which is reconstituted at 70 °C, has been assessed. A double-layered microcapsule containing hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as an inner layer and an outer layer, as the smart coating layer, based on a combination of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and poloxamer was designed. Generally, this specific microencapsulation provided superior protection against the reconstitution temperature. A high molecular weight of HPC and a greater thickness of the smart coating layer resulted in a delayed release of the bacteria from the microcapsules especially in the PIF composition. However, this was compensated by a high stability of the bacteria at 70 °C. Both the surface texture and particle size distribution of microcapsules have been respectively characterised by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analysis.

  9. The Gut Microbiota and Human Health with an Emphasis on the Use of Microencapsulated Bacterial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining health. Alterations of the gut bacterial population have been associated with a number of diseases. Past and recent studies suggest that one can positively modify the contents of the gut microbiota by introducing prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, and other therapeutics. This paper focuses on probiotic modulation of the gut microbiota by their delivery to the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT. There are numerous obstacles to overcome before microorganisms can be utilized as therapeutics. One important limitation is the delivery of viable cells to the lower GIT without a significant loss of cell viability and metabolic features through the harsh conditions of the upper GIT. Microencapsulation has been shown to overcome this, with various types of microcapsules available for resolving this limitation. This paper discusses the gut microbiota and its role in disease, with a focus on microencapsulated probiotics and their potentials and limitations.

  10. Is microencapsulation the future of probiotic preparations? The increased efficacy of gastro-protected probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piano, Mario; Carmagnola, Stefania; Ballarè, Marco; Sartori, Massimo; Orsello, Marco; Balzarini, Marco; Pagliarulo, Michela; Tari, Roberto; Anderloni, Andrea; Strozzi, Gian Paolo; Mogna, Luca; Sforza, Filomena; Capurso, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    In a recent publication we assessed the kinetics of intestinal colonization by microencapsulated probiotic bacteria in comparison with the same strains given in an uncoated form. It's well known, in fact, that microencapsulation of probiotics with specific materials is able to confer a significant resistance to gastric juice, thus protecting the cells during the gastric and duodenal transit and enhancing the probiotic efficacy of any supplementation. In any case, this was the first study reporting the fecal amounts of probiotics administered in a coated, protected form compared with traditional, uncoated ones. Here we discuss additional in vitro data of resistance of the same bacteria to gastric juice, human bile and pancreatic secretion and correlate them with the results of in vivo gut colonization.

  11. Research advances and application prospects of microencapsulation techniques in pesticide%微囊化技术研究进展及其在农药领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李北兴; 张大侠; 张灿光; 管磊; 王凯; 刘峰

    2014-01-01

    Research advances and application prospects of common microencapsulation techniques including spray drying, solvent evaporation, interfacial polymerization, in situ polymerization, phase separation and self-assembly were summarized, and novel microencapsulation methods such as microfluidic technique and coordination method were introduced. Current situation of microcapsule registration in China was analyzed, and it was proposed that the development of microcapsule products should take the objective of microencapsulation into consideration, such as masking odors, anti-photolysis, reducing leaching and drift of active ingredients. Meanwhile, the physical and chemical characteristics of pesticides, the control targets, the application environment and methods, the practical requirements and the ultimate control efficacy were all factors that should be assessed to determine whether the pesticides suitable for microencapsulation or not, and appropriate wall materials, microencapsulation methods and formulations should be selected. Further study on microencapsulation is needed, especially on microcapsule for seed treatment or soil treatment, microcapsule embedding fresh-keeping agent, essential oil or sex pheromone. In addition, more attention should be paid to the release dynamics of core material in different environment, pesticide residues due to slow release, degradation of wall materials and so on. It is very important to develop highly safe and biodegradable wall materials and explore microencapsulation techniques with high-efficacy and practical release-control capacity.%综述了近年来常用的微囊化技术(喷雾干燥法、溶剂蒸发法、界面聚合法、原位聚合法、相分离法和自组装法)的研究进展及应用现状,并介绍了微流体及配位法两种微囊化新技术。结合国内农药微囊制剂的登记情况,提出应依据微囊化的目的开发相应的农药微囊产品,如掩蔽气味、抗光解、减少淋溶和

  12. Evaluation of gum damar as a novel microencapsulating material for ibuprofen and diltiazem hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Morkhade D; Joshi S

    2007-01-01

    A natural gum, damar was investigated as a novel microencapsulating material for sustained drug delivery. Microparticles were prepared by oil-in-oil emulsion solvent evaporation method. Ibuprofen and diltiazem hydrochloride were used as model drugs. Microparticles were evaluated for particle size, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release kinetics. Images of the microparticles were obtained by bright field microscopy. The effect of different gum:drug ratios and solubility of drug on ...

  13. Non-toxic agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system containing gallic acid for antifungal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, P-L; Gambari, R; Kok, S H-L; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Bian, Z-X; Lee, K K-H; Chui, C-H

    2015-02-01

    Aspergillus niger (A. niger) is a common species of Aspergillus molds. Cutaneous aspergillosis usually occurs in skin sites near intravenous injection and approximately 6% of cutaneous aspergillosis cases which do not involve burn or HIV-infected patients are caused by A. niger. Biomaterials and biopharmaceuticals produced from microparticle-based drug delivery systems have received much attention as microencapsulated drugs offer an improvement in therapeutic efficacy due to better human absorption. The frequently used crosslinker, glutaraldehyde, in gelatin-based microencapsulation systems is considered harmful to human beings. In order to tackle the potential risks, agarose has become an alternative polymer to be used with gelatin as wall matrix materials of microcapsules. In the present study, we report the eco-friendly use of an agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system to enhance the antifungal activity of gallic acid and reduce its potential cytotoxic effects towards human skin keratinocytes. We used optimal parameter combinations, such as an agarose/gelatin ratio of 1:1, a polymer/oil ratio of 1:60, a surfactant volume of 1% w/w and a stirring speed of 900 rpm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of microencapsulated gallic acid (62.5 µg/ml) was significantly improved when compared with that of the original drug (>750 µg/ml). The anti-A. niger activity of gallic acid -containing microcapsules was much stronger than that of the original drug. Following 48 h of treatment, skin cell survival was approximately 90% with agarose/gelatin microcapsules containing gallic acid, whereas cell viability was only 25-35% with free gallic acid. Our results demonstrate that agarose/gelatin-based microcapsules containing gallic acid may prove to be helpful in the treatment of A. niger-induced skin infections near intravenous injection sites.

  14. Efficacy of microencapsulated lactic acid bacteria in Helicobater pylori eradication therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Maha A Khalil; El-Sheekh, Mostafa M.; El-Adawi, Hala I.; EL-Deeb, Nehal M.; Hussein, Mohamed Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Probiotic delivery systems are widely used nutraceutical products for the supplementation of natural intestinal flora. These delivery systems vary greatly in the effectiveness to exert health benefits for a patient. This study focuses on providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse environmental conditions. Materials and Methods: Microencapsulation of the selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using chitosan and alginate was performed. Physical examination...

  15. Microencapsulation of bull spermatozoa: Its viability in alginate-egg yolk media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumaningrum DA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation of spermatozoa is a process to entrap a number of spermatozoa in microcapsule. Alginate, as a natural polymer polysaccharide is commonly used in cell microencapsulation. Tris Yolk Citrate buffer is a good buffer for spermatozoa dilution, therefore this experiment aimed to determine optimal concentration of alginate and egg yolk to sperm quality in bull spermatozoa microencapsulation. Concentration of egg yolk and alginate in media of encapsulation were determined in applications of sperm microencapsulation. Four bulls were used as semen source and only semen with good quality were used in this study. Poolled semen was diluted using the medium to get final concentration 100 x 106 cell/ ml. The first study was conducted to determine the effect of concentration of alginate (0, 1, and 1.5% on viability of spermatozoa. The second study to determine the effect of alginate concentration, egg yolk and its interaction was done by comparing two levels of alginate (1 and 1.5% with four levels of egg yolk (5, 10, 15 and 20%. Viability of spermatozoa, motility (M, live spermatozoa (L and Intact Apical Ridge (IAR were observed at 0, 1, 2 and 3 h incubation at room temperature. Results indicated that alginate concentration increased the osmolality and viscosity but did not affect pH of the medium. The osmolality and viscosity of medium were 275, 325, 425 and 1.12, 26.62, 47.98 for concentration of alginate 0, 1 and 1.5% respectively. Percentage of motility is significantly lower (P<0.05 in alginate medium than those of control, and 1.5% alginate could produce more uniform beads. Concentration of alginate, egg yolk and its interaction did not significantly affect viability of sperm. It is concluded that the combination of 1.5% alginate with 5, 10, 15 or 20% egg yolk can be used as media for sperm encapsulation.

  16. Aluminum hypophosphite microencapsulated to improve its safety and application to flame retardant polyamide 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Hua [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Tang, Gang [School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 59 Hudong Road, Ma’anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Hu, Wei-Zhao; Wang, Bi-Bo; Pan, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Song, Lei, E-mail: leisong@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • MCAHP was prepared and applied in polyamide 6. • MCA as the capsule material can improve the fire safety of AHP. • Flame retardant polyamide 6 composites with MCAHP show good flame retardancy. - Abstract: Aluminum hypophosphite (AHP) is an effective phosphorus-containing flame retardant. But AHP also has fire risk that it will decompose and release phosphine which is spontaneously flammable in air and even can form explosive mixtures with air in extreme cases. In this paper, AHP has been microencapsulated by melamine cyanurate (MCA) to prepare microencapsulated aluminum hypophosphite (MCAHP) with the aim of enhancing the fire safety in the procedure of production, storage and use. Meanwhile, MCA was a nitrogen-containing flame retardant that can work with AHP via the nitrogen-phosphorus synergistic effect to show improved flame-retardant property than other capsule materials. After microencapsulation, MCA presented as a protection layer inhibit the degradation of AHP and postpone the generation of phosphine. Furthermore, the phosphine concentration could be effectively diluted by inert decomposition products of MCA. These nonflammable decomposition products of MCA could separate phosphine from air delay the oxidizing reaction with oxygen and decrease the heat release rate, which imply that the fire safety of AHP has been improved. Furthermore, MCAHP was added into polyamide 6 to prepare flame retardant polyamide 6 composites (FR-PA6) which show good flame retardancy.

  17. Microencapsulation approach for orally extended delivery of glipizide: In vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdelbary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glipizide is an effective antidiabetic agent, however, it suffers from relatively short biological half-life. To solve this encumbrance, it is a prospective candidate for fabricating glipizide extended release microcapsules. Microencapsulation of glipizde with a coat of alginate alone or in combination with chitosan or carbomer 934P was prepared employing ionotropic gelation process. The prepared microcapsules were evaluated in vitro by microscopical examination, determination of the particle size, yield and microencapsulation efficiency. The filled capsules were assessed for content uniformity and drug release characteristics. Stability study of the optimised formulas was carried out at three different temperatures over 12 weeks. In vivo bioavailability study and hypoglycemic activity of C9 microcapsules were done on albino rabbits. All formulas achieved high yield, microencapsulation efficiency and extended t 1/2 . C9 and C19 microcapsules attained the most optimised results in all tests and complied with the dissolution requirements for extended release dosage forms. These two formulas were selected for stability studies. C9 exhibited longer shelf-life and hence was chosen for in vivo studies. C9 microcapsules showed an improvement in the drug bioavailability and significant hypoglycemic activity compared to immediate release tablets (Minidiab® 5 mg. The optimised microcapsule formulation developed was found to produce extended antidiabetic activity.

  18. Microencapsulation of seed-coating tebuconazole and its effects on physiology and biochemistry of maize seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daibin; Wang, Na; Yan, Xiaojing; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Min; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2014-02-01

    Tebuconazole is a triazole systemic fungicide that is commonly used to treat fungal pathogens of crops, but at high doses can reduce seed germination. Seeds with microcapsulated tebuconazole were investigated to determine effects of this method on maize seedlings and the bioefficacy against maize head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana). The ethyl cellulose (EC)-based microcapsules had encapsulation efficiency of 90.6%, and average size of 1.6 μm. A release kinetic study revealed that tebuconazole release from EC-based microcapsules fits the model (Mt/Mz=kt(n)+C). Glasshouse studies indicated that maize seedling emergence and growth were negatively affected in an exponential manner as predicted by model Y=A+B×e((-x/k)). However, microencapsulation could induce tebuconazole's growth promoting effects by increasing emergence, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, carotenoid and chlorophyll content. Phytohormone analysis indicated the beneficial effects of microencapsulated tebuconazole were due to the sustained release of tebuconazole that appeared to influence the balance of phytohormones in maize seedlings. Contrary to conventional tebuconazole, microencapsulated seed-coated tebuconazole can lead to slightly increased gibberellins (GA) level and disappearance of abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in maize. In addition, microcapsule formulation of tebuconazole was found to provide better protection against maize head smut when compared to conventional formulation.

  19. Microencapsulation optimization of natural anthocyanins with maltodextrin, gum Arabic and gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Mahdavi, Sahar; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Assadpoor, Elham; Dehnad, Danial

    2016-04-01

    The barberry (Berberis vulgaris) extract which is a rich source of anthocyanins was used for spray drying encapsulation with three different wall materials, i.e., combination of maltodextrin and gum Arabic (MD+GA), maltodextrin and gelatin (MD+GE), and maltodextrin (MD). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied for optimization of microencapsulation efficiency and physical properties of encapsulated powders considering wall material type as well as different ratios of core to wall materials as independent variables. Physical characteristics of spray-dried powders were investigated by further analyses of moisture content, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, solubility, bulk and absolute density, porosity, flowability and microstructural evaluation of encapsulated powders. Our results indicated that samples produced with MD+GA as wall materials represented the highest process efficiency and best powder quality; the optimum conditions of microencapsulation process for barberry anthocyanins were found to be the wall material content and anthocyanin load of 24.54% and 13.82%, respectively. Under such conditions, the microencapsulation efficiency (ME) of anthocyanins could be as high as 92.83%.

  20. Diuretic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Microencapsulated Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae) Oil on Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Caroline Honaiser; Iwamoto, Renan Donomae; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite

    2015-06-01

    Acrocomia aculeata, popularly known as "bocaiuva," is widely acknowledged in culinary and traditional medicines to treat cardiovascular diseases, a combined effect with diuretics that are also used for hypertension. However, there are no scientific data published to support its use as functional food and its ethnopharmacological use. This study intended to determine the composition of fatty acids of the pulp oil and evaluate the diuretic action and anti-inflammatory activity of the in natura and microencapsulated oil orally administrated on rats. The obtained results confirm the prevalence of monounsaturated fatty acids (68.51%), especially oleic acid (65.68%±1.05%), in the oil from the bocaiuva pulp. The in natura A. aculeata oil has diuretic (P<.01) and anti-inflammatory potential, which promoted a marked inhibition on the hind paw edema induced by carrageenan (67%±7% after 2 h) (P<.01). In addition, results show that the oral administration of the bocaiuva oil at 300 (P<.05) and 700 (P<.05) mg/kg doses significantly inhibited the leukocyte migration induced by carrageenan to the pleural cavity in rats. The inhibitions equaled 91%±3% and 81%±16%, respectively. The microencapsulated oil also showed antiedematogenic (P<.01) as well as diuretic activities (P<.01). The microencapsulation by complex coacervation was shown to be a technique that favors the bioavailability and preservation of bioactive components of the bocaiuva oil.

  1. Microencapsulation decreases the skin absorption of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, Gerald B; Bhatt, Varsha D; Speaker, Tycho J

    2008-03-01

    The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is widely used and is generally regarded as safe when used according to label instructions. Yet many studies have shown it to be absorbed through the skin. The objective of this study was to determine whether the skin absorption rate of DEET could be decreased while maintaining an evaporation rate consistent with effective repellency. To this end, an aqueous suspension containing 14C-DEET (15%w/w) entrapped in walled polysaccharide microcapsules was prepared and tested for skin absorption in vitro using modified Franz cells maintained in a fume hood. The control formulation was 15%w/w DEET in ethanol. Two doses (3 microL and 5 microL per 0.79 cm2 cell) of each formulation were applied to split-thickness human cadaver skin (n=8/dose), and permeation was monitored for 24h. The microencapsulated DEET formulation lead to a 25-35% reduction of radiolabel permeation compared to the ethanolic DEET formulation. Skin levels of radioactivity at 24h were comparable, indicating that DEET evaporation from the microencapsulated formulation was comparable to or greater than that from ethanol. Hence microencapsulation increased the ratio of DEET evaporation rate to skin penetration rate relative to unencapsulated control in this in vitro study.

  2. Graphene oxide increases the viability of C2C12 myoblasts microencapsulated in alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriza, J; Saenz del Burgo, L; Virumbrales-Muñoz, M; Ochoa, I; Fernandez, L J; Orive, G; Hernandez, R M; Pedraz, J L

    2015-09-30

    Cell microencapsulation represents a great promise for long-term drug delivery, but still several challenges need to be overcome before its translation into the clinic, such as the long term cell survival inside the capsules. On this regard, graphene oxide has shown to promote proliferation of different cell types either in two or three dimensions. Therefore, we planned to combine graphene oxide with the cell microencapsulation technology. We first studied the effect of this material on the stability of the capsules and next we analyzed the biocompatibility of this chemical compound with erythropoietin secreting C2C12 myoblasts within the microcapsule matrix. We produced 160 μm-diameter alginate microcapsules with increasing concentrations of graphene oxide and did not find modifications on the physicochemical parameters of traditional alginate microcapsules. Moreover, we observed that the viability of encapsulated cells within alginate microcapsules containing specific graphene oxide concentrations was enhanced. These results provide a relevant step for the future clinical application of graphene oxide on cell microencapsulation.

  3. Optimisation of the microencapsulation of tuna oil in gelatin-sodium hexametaphosphate using complex coacervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Adhikari, Benu; Barrow, Colin J

    2014-09-01

    The microencapsulation of tuna oil in gelatin-sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) using complex coacervation was optimised for the stabilisation of omega-3 oils, for use as a functional food ingredient. Firstly, oil stability was optimised by comparing the accelerated stability of tuna oil in the presence of various commercial antioxidants, using a Rancimat™. Then zeta-potential (mV), turbidity and coacervate yield (%) were measured and optimised for complex coacervation. The highest yield of complex coacervate was obtained at pH 4.7 and at a gelatin to SHMP ratio of 15:1. Multi-core microcapsules were formed when the mixed microencapsulation system was cooled to 5 °C at a rate of 12 °C/h. Crosslinking with transglutaminase followed by freeze drying resulted in a dried powder with an encapsulation efficiency of 99.82% and a payload of 52.56%. Some 98.56% of the oil was successfully microencapsulated and accelerated stability using a Rancimat™ showed stability more than double that of non-encapsulated oil.

  4. Preparation of the Microencapsulated Paraffin%石蜡微胶囊的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祎彧; 范亚明

    2011-01-01

    针对太阳能利用以及一些蓄热场合,通过示差扫描量热法(DSC)选取了合适的石蜡,以脲醛树脂为囊壁,采用原位聚合法制备了石蜡一脲醛树脂微胶囊,拟将此微胶囊添加到上述应用场合的传热流体中,提高传热流体的热容。实验结果表明,乳化剂OP更适合于熔点60℃石蜡微胶囊的制备。%In this thesis, certain paraffin was chosen by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) test for core material, which is adapted to solar energy utilizing and the other thermal storage system; urea-formaldehyde polymer was used as wall material. Urea-formaldehyde microencapsulated paraffin by means of situ polymerization. It will be added into heat transfer fluid of solar energy utilizing and other thermal storage system, to increase the specific heat of fluid. The effect of emulsifier on the performance of microencapsulation was studied. The experimental results showed that emulsifier OP is more suitable for the preparation of microencapsulated paraffin whose melting point is 60℃.

  5. Microencapsulation of Islets of Langerhans via selective withdrawal to achieve immunoisolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Jason; Dillmore, Shannon; Murphy, William; Garfinkel, Marc; Mrksich, Milan; Nagel, Sidney

    2004-03-01

    Cohen phet al. [1] described how the selective-withdrawal geometry may be used to microencapsulate particles in thin coats whose thickness is independent of the size of the encapsulated particle. We have applied a modified version of this geometry to the microencapsulation of Islets of Langerhans for the purpose of immunoisolation. The Islets are initially placed in a polymer-containing aqueous solution which is then drawn up into a selective-withdrawal spout. As that spout breaks up, it leaves the Islets coated with the polymer solution. These coats are then photo-crosslinked leaving the Islets encapsulated in a hydrogel coating. This coating provides a semi-permeable membrane which allows for the diffusion of small molecules such as nutrients, glucose, and insulin, but which excludes larger proteins such as antibodies. If one can successfully microencapsulate 10^6 islets in uniform coats such as these, then one may transplant Islets without immuno-suppression as a treatment for Type-I Diabetes. We will discuss preliminary phin vitro results. [1] I. Cohen, H. Li, J. L. Hougland, M. Mrksich, and S. R. Nagel Science 292, 265-267 (2001).

  6. Preparation and in vitro studies of microencapsulated cells releasing human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Qiang; ZHANG Su-zhan; PENG Jia-ping; WANG Xu-lin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To prepare microencapsulated cells releasing human tissue inhibitor ofmetalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), and investigate their biological characteristics in vitro. Methods: Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were stably transfected with a human TIMP-2 expression vector, encapsulated in barium alginate microcapsules and cultured in vitro. Morphological appearance of the microcapsules was observed under a light microscope. Cell viability was assessed using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse zymography were used to confirm the release of biologically active TIMP-2 from the microcapsules. Cryopreservation study of the microencapsulated cells was carried out using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as preservative agent. Results: The microcapsules appeared like a sphere kept proliferating over the 6 weeks observed. No significant difference in TIMP-2 secretion was found between encapsulated and unencapsulated cells. Reverse zymography confirmed the bioactivity of MMP (matrix metalloproteinase) inhibition of TIMP-2.The cryopreservation process did not damage the microcapsule morphology nor the viability of the cells inside. Conclusion:Microencapsulated engineered CHO cells survive at least 6 weeks after preparation in vitro, and secrete bioactive TIMP-2 freely from the microcapsules.

  7. Fish Oil Microencapsulation as Omega-3 Fatty Acids Fortification Material for Cream of Crab Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiara Putri Pramesti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in improvement of intelligent and health of human. Microencapsulation of fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids is an effort to maintain flavor, aroma, stability, and also to successfully transfer bioactive component from the fish oil as fortification material for foods or medicines. Improvement of instant crab cream soup enriched with fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acid has never been conducted before. The purpose of this research was to improve microencapsulation method for fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids as fortification material for instant cream of crab soup. Microencapsulation methods in this research are homogenization and spray drying. The results showed that the best microcapsule was obtained from homogenization treatment for 10 minutes with efficiency of 90.41±0.64%. The shape of the obtained microcapsule was spherical with average size of 6.52 μm, with induction time up to 26.09±0.01 hours. The best cream of crab soup formula was at fish oil microcapsule concentration of 3.30%, with 8.19% daily value of omega-3, inclusion 11.32% of EPA and DHA at serving size of 17.56 gram.

  8. Stabilization of canthaxanthin produced by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 with spray drying microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjati, Mohammad; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Gilani, Kambiz

    2014-09-01

    The strain bacterium Dietzia natronolimnaea has propounded as a source for biological production of canthaxanthin. Because of sensitivity of this pigment, examine on its stability is important. In this study, stability of encapsulated canthaxanthin from D. natronolimnaea HS-1 using soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS), gum acacia (GA), and maltodextrin (MD) as wall materials was investigated at 4, 25, and 45 °C in light and dark conditions during 4 months of storage. It was shown that the type of walls influenced the size of emulsion droplets; spray dried particles, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), and retention of canthaxanthin in microcapsules. SSPS and MD produced the smallest and the biggest emulsion droplets and spray dried particles, respectively. Microcapsules made with SSPS resulted in better ME and higher stability for canthaxanthin. Samples were degraded in all conditions, especially in light and 45 °C. Degradation of microencapsulated canthaxanthin with SSPS and GA proceeded more slowly than did with MD. Regardless of the type of wall materials, total canthaxanthin contents of the microencapsulated products decreased by an increase in time or temperature. Also, samples exposed to light indicated less stability at 4 and 25 °C when compared to the storage at dark conditions. According to the results of this study, SSPS can be considered as potential wall material for the encapsulation of carotenoids.

  9. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG by Transglutaminase Cross-Linked Soy Protein Isolate to Improve Survival in Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Wang, Chun-Ling; Sun, Yu; Li, Ai-Li; Liu, Fei; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2016-07-01

    Microencapsulation is an effective way to improve the survival of probiotics in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions and yoghurt. In this study, microencapsulation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) was prepared by first cross-linking of soy protein isolate (SPI) using transglutaminase (TGase), followed by embedding the bacteria in cross-linked SPI, and then freeze-drying. The survival of microencapsulated LGG was evaluated in simulated GI conditions and yoghurt. The results showed that a high microencapsulation yield of 67.4% was obtained. The diameter of the microencapsulated LGG was in the range of 52.83 to 275.16 μm. Water activity did not differ between free and microencapsulated LGG after freeze-drying. The survival of microencapsulated LGG under simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5 and 3.6), intestinal juice (0.3% and 2% bile salt) and storage at 4 °C were significantly higher than that of free cells. The survival of LGG in TGase cross-linked SPI microcapsules was also improved to 14.5 ± 0.5% during storage in yoghurt. The microencapsulation of probiotics by TGase-treated SPI can be a suitable alternative to polysaccharide gelation technologies.

  10. Preservation of biological activity of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) after microencapsulation and sterilization by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa-Casalengua, P; Jiang, C; Bravo-Osuna, I; Tucker, B A; Molina-Martínez, I T; Young, M J; Herrero-Vanrell, R

    2012-10-15

    A main issue in controlled delivery of biotechnological products from injectable biodegradable microspheres is to preserve their integrity and functional activity after the microencapsulation process and final sterilization. The present experimental work tested different technological approaches to maintain the biological activity of an encapsulated biotechnological product within PLGA [poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)] microspheres (MS) after their sterilization by gamma irradiation. GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), useful in the treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases, was chosen as a labile model protein. In the particular case of optic nerve degeneration, GDNF has been demonstrated to improve the damaged retinal ganglion cells (RGC) survival. GDNF was encapsulated in its molecular state by the water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) technique or as solid according to the solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) method. Based on the S/O/W technique, GDNF was included in the PLGA microspheres alone (S/O/W 1) or in combination with an antioxidant (vitamin E, Vit E) (S/O/W 2). Microspheres were sterilized by gamma-irradiation (dose of 25 kGy) at room and low (-78 °C) temperatures. Functional activity of GDNF released from the different microspheres was evaluated both before and after sterilization in their potential target cells (retinal cells). Although none of the systems proposed achieved with the goal of totally retain the structural stability of the GDNF-dimer, the protein released from the S/O/W 2 microspheres was clearly the most biologically active, showing significantly less retinal cell death than that released from either W/O/W or S/O/W 1 particles, even in low amounts of the neurotrophic factor. According to the results presented in this work, the biological activity of biotechnological products after microencapsulation and sterilization can be further preserved by the inclusion of the active molecule in its solid state in combination with

  11. Advanced progress of microencapsulation technologies: in vivo and in vitro models for studying oral and transdermal drug deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, P L; Gambari, R

    2014-03-28

    This review provides an overall discussion of microencapsulation systems for both oral and transdermal drug deliveries. Clinically, many drugs, especially proteins and peptides, are susceptible to the gastrointestinal tract and the first-pass metabolism after oral administration while some drugs exhibit low skin permeability through transdermal delivery route. Medicated microcapsules as oral and transdermal drug delivery vehicles are believed to offer an extended drug effect at a relatively low dose and provide a better patient compliance. The polymeric microcapsules can be produced by different microencapsulation methods and the drug microencapsulation technology provides the quality preservation for drug stabilization. The release of the entrapped drug is controlled and prolonged for specific usages. Some recent studies have focused on the evaluation of drug containing microcapsules on potential biological and therapeutic applications. For the oral delivery, in vivo animal models were used for evaluating possible treatment effects of drug containing microcapsules. For the transdermal drug delivery, skin delivery models were introduced to investigate the potential skin delivery of medicated microcapsules. Finally, the challenges and limitations of drug microencapsulation in real life are discussed and the commercially available drug formulations using microencapsulation technology for oral and transdermal applications are shown.

  12. Effect of microencapsulated fish oil on blood metabolites and rumen fatty acids in Sannan Lactating dairy goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Safari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the effect of microencapsulated fish oil on blood metabolites, rumen and blood plasma fatty acids concentrations twelve Sannan dairy goats with 30 ± 5 days in milk (DIM were allocated to 3 treatments in a 3×2 change over design with 2 periods of 30 days. Treatments were: 1 the control (without fish oil, 2 microencapsulated fish oil (2% fish oil capsulated in 6% treated whey protein concentrate, 3 fish oil (2% fish oil and 6% whey protein concentrate. Concentration of C18:0 in the rumen for microencapsulated fish oil decreased significantly in comparison with the control. The same manner was observed in goat’s blood plasma for microencapsulated fish oil. Microencapsulated fish oil led to a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration, hence concentration of C18:3, C20:5 EPA, C22:5 DPA and C22:6 DHA as a source of ω3 fatty acids increased 10, 20, 10 and 13 folds in comparison with the control and 10, 20, 2 and 2.5 folds in comparison with the fish oil treatment, respectively. HDL concentration in protected fish oil was significantly higher than that for the control and unprotected fish oil treatments. It seems that fish oil supplementation caused significant changes in blood fatty acids composition of ruminants as well as ω3 fatty acids in their products. Significant increase of ω3 fatty acids in blood plasma of microencapsulated fish oil treatment showed the protective effect of capsulation against rumen microbial biohydrogenation.

  13. Suitability of using monolayered and multilayered emulsions for microencapsulation of ω-3 fatty acids by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Martín, Estefanía; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation of ω-3 fatty acids by spray drying was studied using both monolayered (lecithin) and multilayered (lecithin-chitosan) fish oil emulsions with maltodextrin as wall material. Stability of the multilayered emulsions was higher than the monolayered ones, and increased...... with the highest concentration of chitosan (1 % w/w), being related with lower detection of TBARS at high storage temperatures. Overall, this study shows the suitability of microencapsulating ω-3 fatty acids by spray drying using both monolayered and multilayered fish oil emulsions with maltodextrin as wall...

  14. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate with melamine-formaldehyde resin: Effect of decreasing the pH value on the composition and thermal stability of microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krajnc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to investigate how different decreasing of pH regimes during microencapsulation process with melamine-formaldehyde (MF resin affects the composition, morphology and thermal stability of microcapsules containing a phase-change material (PCM. Technical butyl stearate was used as PCM. Microencapsulation was carried out at 70°C. For all experiments the starting pH value was 6.0. After one hour of microencapsulation at the starting pH value, the pH value was lowered to final pH value (5.5; 5.0; 4.5 in a stepwise or linear way. The properties of microcapsules were monitored during and after the microencapsulation process. The results showed that pH value decreasing regime was critical for the morphology and stability of microcapsules. During microencapsulations with a stepwise decrease of pH value we observed faster increase of the amount of MF resin in the microencapsulation product compared to the microencapsulations with a linear pH value decrease. However, faster deposition in the case of microencapsulations with stepwise decrease of pH value did not result in thicker MF shells. The shell thickness increased much faster when the pH value was decreased in a linear way or in several smaller steps. It was shown that for the best thermal stability of microcapsules, the pH value during microencapsulation had to be lowered in a linear way or in smaller steps to 5.0 or lower.

  15. Microencapsulation as a novel delivery method for the potential antidiabetic drug, Probucol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooranian A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Armin Mooranian,1 Rebecca Negrulj,1 Nigel Chen-Tan,2 Hesham S Al-Sallami,3 Zhongxiang Fang,4 TK Mukkur,5 Momir Mikov,6,7 Svetlana Golocorbin-Kon,6,7 Marc Fakhoury,8 Gerald F Watts,9 Vance Matthews,10 Frank Arfuso,5 Hani Al-Salami1 1Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 3School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 4School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 5Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, School of Biomedical Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 6Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia; 7Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia; 8Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 9School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia; 10Laboratory for Metabolic Dysfunction, UWA Centre for Medical Research, Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research, Perth, Western Australia, Australia Introduction: In previous studies, we successfully designed complex multicompartmental microcapsules as a platform for the oral targeted delivery of lipophilic drugs in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Probucol (PB is an antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant drug with the potential to show benefits in T2D. We aimed to create a novel microencapsulated formulation of PB and to examine the shape, size, and chemical, thermal, and rheological properties of these microcapsules in vitro. Method: Microencapsulation was carried out using the Büchi-based microencapsulating system developed in our laboratory. Using the polymer, sodium

  16. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutics into monodisperse and tunable biodegradable polymers via electrified liquid jets: control of size, shape, and drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Pouria; Borhan, Ali; Abidian, Mohammad Reza

    2013-09-06

    This paper describes microencapsulation of antitumor agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, Carmustine) into biodegradable polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) using an electrojetting technique. The resulting BCNU-loaded PLGA microcapsules have significantly higher drug encapsulation efficiency, more tunable drug loading capacity, and (3) narrower size distribution than those generated using other encapsulation methods.

  17. Induction of hair follicle regeneration in rat ear by mi-croencapsulated human hair dermal papilla cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang-min; LI Yu; JI Ying-chang; HUANG Keng; CAI Xiang-na; LI Guo-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To induce hair follicle regeneration in rat ear by microencapsulated dermal papillae (DP) cells.Methods: Intact dermal papillae were obtained from human scalp follicles which were digested with collagenase I. The human hair DP cells were encapsulated with alginate-polylysine-alginate (APA) by a high-voltage electric field droplet generator. The diameters of the DP cell microcapsules were optimized by regulating the voltage, the distance be-tween the needle head and the solution surface and the injection speed. Then DP cell microencapsulations were xenotransplanted into ears of 20 SD rats with a novel method. One rat was killed every week at the postoperative 2-12 weeks and the implantation sites were biopsied for histo-logical observation.Results: The DP cell microencapsulations were found in a group of round, smooth and transparent microcapsules under a phase-contrast microscope. The optimal combina-tion of parameters to obtain 0.4 mm DP cell microcapsules was voltage 7.0 kV, injection speed 55 mm/h, and distance 10mm. After 4-12 weeks, 18 of 20 DP cell microcapsule implan-tations had produced high-density hair. Histological obser-vation indicated that both large follicles and sebaceous gland structures were formed in the rat ear within 3-12 weeks.Conclusions: These findings show that the DP cell microencapsulation maintain the capacity for initiating the follicle regeneration and can be considered as a substitute for fresh isolated dermal papillae.

  18. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium bifidum F-35 in whey protein-based microcapsules by transglutaminase-induced gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qiang; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianxin; Tian, Fengwei; Zhang, He-ping; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2012-05-01

    Bifidobacterium bifidum F-35 was microencapsulated into whey protein microcapsules (WPMs) by a transglutaminase (TGase)-induced method after optimization of gelation conditions. The performance of these WPMs was compared with that produced by a spray drying method (WPMs-A). WPMs produced by the TGase-induced gelation method (WPMs-B) had larger and denser structures in morphological examinations. Native gel and SDS-PAGE analyses showed that most of the polymerization observed in WPMs-B was due to stable covalent crosslinks catalyzed by TGase. The degradation properties of these WPMs were investigated in simulated gastric juice (SGJ) with or without pepsin. In the presence of pepsin, WPMs-A degraded more quickly than did WPMs-B. Finally, survival rates of the microencapsulated cells in both WPMs were significantly better than that of free cells and varied with the microencapsulation method. However, WPMs-B produced by TGase-induced gelation could provide better protection for microencapsulated cells in low pH conditions and during 1 mo of storage at 4 °C or at ambient temperature.

  19. Creating Point Sources for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Low-Volume Sprays of a Microencapsulated Sex Pheromone Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to examine the depositioin of microcapsules and the attractiveness of treated apple leaves for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), following low volume concentrated sprays of a microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulation (CheckMate CM-F). Nearly 30% of leaves collected f...

  20. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho RF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberta F Carvalho,1 Sofia K Uehara,2 Glorimar Rosa1,21Medicine Department, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Nutrition and Dietetic Department, Josué de Castro Institute of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.Methods: This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention.Results: There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 µU/mL, P = 0.02. Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02, which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02 in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02, but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03.Conclusion: Supplementation with mixed

  1. Alginate Microencapsulation of Human Islets Does Not Increase Susceptibility to Acute Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Hals

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation in diabetes is hampered by the need of life-long immunosuppression. Encapsulation provides partial immunoprotection but could possibly limit oxygen supply, a factor that may enhance hypoxia-induced beta cell death in the early posttransplantation period. Here we tested susceptibility of alginate microencapsulated human islets to experimental hypoxia (0.1–0.3% O2 for 8 h, followed by reoxygenation on viability and functional parameters. Hypoxia reduced viability as measured by MTT by 33.8±3.5% in encapsulated and 42.9±5.2% in nonencapsulated islets (P<0.2. Nonencapsulated islets released 37.7% (median more HMGB1 compared to encapsulated islets after hypoxic culture conditions (P<0.001. Glucose-induced insulin release was marginally affected by hypoxia. Basal oxygen consumption was equally reduced in encapsulated and nonencapsulated islets, by 22.0±6.1% versus 24.8±5.7%. Among 27 tested cytokines/chemokines, hypoxia increased the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8/CXCL8 in both groups of islets, whereas an increase of MCP-1/CCL2 was seen only with nonencapsulated islets. Conclusion. Alginate microencapsulation of human islets does not increase susceptibility to acute hypoxia. This is a positive finding in relation to potential use of encapsulation for islet transplantation.

  2. Microencapsulation of garlic oleoresin using maltodextrin as wall material by spray drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, P; Palaniswamy, P T; Visvanathan, R; Thirupathi, V; Subbarayan, A; Prakash Maran, J

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on microencapsulation of garlic oleoresin by spray drying with garlic oleoresin concentration (10%, 20% and 30%) as core material, maltodextrin concentration (40%, 50% and 60%) as wall material and inlet temperature of drying air (180 °C, 200 °C and 220 °C) as process parameters. The process in-terms of encapsulation efficiency was optimised following response surface methodology and Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second order polynomial regression model showed good fit of the experimental data with high coefficient of determination (R(2)) along with predicted values. The relationships between the independent and dependent parameters were represented using response surface and contour plots. The optimum levels of process parameters, viz., garlic oleoresin concentration, maltodextrin concentration and inlet temperature of air drying were found to be 10%, 60% and 200 °C, respectively with the maximum encapsulation efficiency of 81.9% and desirability of 0.998. The microencapsulated garlic oleoresin powder obtained at optimized conditions was spherical with smooth surface as analysed through scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Effects of emulsification and microencapsulation on the oxidative stability of camelina and sunflower oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Sandra P; O'Beirne, David; Eidhin, Deirdre Ní; O'Kennedy, Brendan T

    2013-01-01

    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were prepared using different concentrations of camelina or sunflower oil. Sodium caseinate was used as the emulsifier and dried glucose syrup as the wall material. Emulsions were subsequently spray dried to yield high-fat powders (71.7-85.0%). Emulsification and microencapsulation of bulk oils decreased their level of lipid oxidation (lipid hydroperoxide and p-Anisidine values, p-Avs). Sunflower oil, O/W emulsions and reconstituted powders generally had lower oxidation products than corresponding camelina oil-based products throughout storage at 15°C. p-Avs of bulk oils remained constant, whereas p-Avs of O/W emulsions and reconstituted powders decreased early in storage, and remained low thereafter. Microencapsulated omega (ω)-3 rich powders were produced, easily reconstituted and showed no signs of deterioration throughout storage. These powders provided functional properties with potential for incorporation into various food systems as a source of beneficial ω-3 fatty acids.

  4. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life.

  5. Microencapsulation by spray drying of Lannea microcarpa extract: Technological characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sansone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: A functional extract from Lannea microcarpa (Lm, possess interesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the unprocessed dried extract occurs as sticky and low-water-soluble material showing critical properties for industrial applications. The unprocessed dried extract is not always enough stable to preserve its functional properties, also giving practical difficulties for the manufacturing. Aims: This research aimed to produce Lm extract microparticles with enhanced functional stability and technological characteristics by spray-drying. Methods: Lm extract was microencapsulated by spray-drying using a sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC based matrix. Physicochemical and technological characteristics (determined by UV, HPLC, LLS, SEM, DSC, and in vitro dissolution tests, as well as antioxidant properties (DPPH-test of the resulting powder (LmC were examined. Results: The produced spray dried microparticles showed satisfying encapsulation efficiency, good functional stability and enhanced technological properties. The selected carrier and process conditions led to a stable and handling microencapsulated powder form with improved water dissolution rate. Moreover, the matrix was also able to preserve the antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds-rich extract. Conclusions: The made-up powder resulted in a functional component that can be used with great potential in cosmetics, foods or nutraceutical products.

  6. Preparation and properties of microencapsulated genetically engineered bacteria cells for oral therapy of uremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong; YU Yaoting; CAI Baoli; WANG Manyan

    2004-01-01

    Microencapsulated genetically engineered bacteria cells are a novel approach of oral therapy for uremia.Klebsiella aerogenes urease genes (UreaDABCEFG) are transformed into E. coli DH5α cells through plasmid pKAU17. The transformant can use urea or ammonia as its sole nitrogen source through strain training. The urease genetically engineered bacteria cells are entrapped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microcapsules, which can be used to remove urea from uremia patients. The mechanical strength of PVA microcapsules is significantly higher than that of APA microcapsules. This suggests that the problem of friability of APA can be solved in this way. The optimal conditions for the preparation of PVA microencapsulated genetically engineered bacterial cells are: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, 2450±50)used as the carrier at a concentration 6%, the pH value of boric acid as crosslinking reagent 6.5, crosslinking time 24 h,entrapment ratio of bacteria 8%, air flow rate of the encapsulate device 3 L/min and liquid flow rate at 1 mL/10 min.The average diameter of microcapsules prepared under these optimal conditions is 20-40 mesh. Experiments in vitro showed that one hundred milligrams of wet bacterial cells in PVA microcapsules could remove 18.4 mg of urea in 4 h.

  7. Experimental design and instability analysis of coaxial electrospray process for microencapsulation of drugs and imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Ting; Zhang, Leilei; Li, Guangbin; Roberts, Cynthia J; Yin, Xiezhen; Xu, Ronald

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in multimodal imaging and image-guided therapy requires multilayered microparticles that encapsulate several imaging and therapeutic agents in the same carrier. However, commonly used microencapsulation processes have multiple limitations such as low encapsulation efficiency and loss of bioactivity for the encapsulated biological cargos. To overcome these limitations, we have carried out both experimental and theoretical studies on coaxial electrospray of multilayered microparticles. On the experimental side, an improved coaxial electrospray setup has been developed. A customized coaxial needle assembly combined with two ring electrodes has been used to enhance the stability of the cone and widen the process parameter range of the stable cone-jet mode. With this assembly, we have obtained poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles with fine morphology and uniform size distribution. On the theoretical side, an instability analysis of the coaxial electrified jet has been performed based on the experimental parameters. The effects of process parameters on the formation of different unstable modes have been studied. The reported experimental and theoretical research represents a significant step toward quantitative control and optimization of the coaxial electrospray process for microencapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents in multimodal imaging and image-guided therapy.

  8. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum DKL 109 using External Ionic Gelation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Honam; Kim, Cheol-Hyun; Cho, Young-Hee

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the external ionic gelation using an atomizing spray device comprised of a spray gun to improve the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum DKL 109 and for its commercial use. Three coating material formulas were used to microencapsulate L. plantarum DKL 109: 2% alginate (Al), 1% alginate/1% gellan gum (Al-GG), and 1.5% alginate/3% gum arabic (Al-GA). Particle size of microcapsules was ranged from 18.2 to 23.01 μm depending on the coating materials. Al-GA microcapsules showed the highest microencapsulation yield (98.11%) and resulted in a significant increase in survivability of probiotic in a high acid and bile environment. Encapsulation also improved the storage stability of cells. The viability of encapsulated cells remained constant after 1-mon storage at ambient temperature. The external ionic gelation method using an atomizing spray device and the Al-GA seems to be an efficient encapsulation technology for protecting probiotics in terms of scale-up potential and small microcapsule size.

  9. Spray-drying microencapsulation of synergistic antioxidant mushroom extracts and their use as functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Ruphuy, Gabriela; Lopes, José Carlos; Dias, Madalena Maria; Barros, Lillian; Barreiro, Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-12-01

    In this work, hydroalcoholic extracts of two mushrooms species, Suillus luteus (L.: Fries) (Sl) and Coprinopsis atramentaria (Bull.) (Ca), were studied for their synergistic antioxidant effect and their viability as functional food ingredients tested by incorporation into a food matrix (cottage cheese). In a first step, the individual extracts and a combination of both, showing synergistic effects (Sl:Ca, 1:1), were microencapsulated by spray-drying using maltodextrin as the encapsulating material. The incorporation of free extracts resulted in products with a higher initial antioxidant activity (t0) but declining after 7 days (t7), which was associated with their degradation. However, the cottage cheese enriched with the microencapsulated extracts, that have revealed a lower activity at the initial time, showed an increase at t7. This improvement can be explained by an effective protection provided by the microspheres together with a sustained release. Analyses performed on the studied cottage cheese samples showed the maintenance of the nutritional properties and no colour modifications were noticed.

  10. Optimization of pyrethroid and repellent on fabrics against Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) using a microencapsulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, T-T; Wang, L-K; Cheng, J-L; Hu, Y-Z; Zhao, J-H; Zhu, G-N

    2015-03-01

    A new approach employing a combination of pyrethroid and repellent is proposed to improve the protective efficacy of conventional pyrethroid-treated fabrics against mosquito vectors. In this context, the insecticidal and repellent efficacies of commonly used pyrethroids and repellents were evaluated by cone tests and arm-in-cage tests against Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae). At concentrations of LD50 (estimated for pyrethroid) or ED50 (estimated for repellent), respectively, the knock-down effects of the pyrethroids or repellents were further compared. The results obtained indicated that deltamethrin and DEET were relatively more effective and thus these were selected for further study. Synergistic interaction was observed between deltamethrin and DEET at the ratios of 5 : 1, 2 : 1, 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 (but not 1 : 5). An optimal mixing ratio of 7 : 5 was then microencapsulated and adhered to fabrics using a fixing agent. Fabrics impregnated by microencapsulated mixtures gained extended washing durability compared with those treated with a conventional dipping method. Results indicated that this approach represents a promising method for the future impregnation of bednet, curtain and combat uniform materials.

  11. Influence of spray drying operating conditions on microencapsulated rosemary essential oil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Victória de Barros Fernandes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is an important method used by the food industry in the production of microencapsulated flavors to improve handling and dispersion properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the process conditions on the properties of rosemary essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying using gum Arabic as encapsulant. The effects of the wall material concentration (10-30%, inlet air temperature (135-195 ºC, and feed flow rate (0.5-1.0 L.h-1 on the moisture content, hygroscopicity, wettability, solubility, bulk and tapped densities, particle density, flowability, and cohesiveness were evaluated using a 2³ central composite rotational experimental design. Moisture content, hygroscopicity and wettability were significantly affected by the three factors analyzed. Bulk density was positively influenced by the wall material concentration and negatively by the inlet air temperature. Particle density was influenced by the wall material concentration and the inlet air temperature variables, both in a negative manner. As for the solubility, tapped density, flowability, and cohesiveness, the models did not fit the data well. The results indicated that moderate wall material concentration (24%, low inlet air temperature (135 ºC, and moderate feed flow rate (0.7 L.h-1 are the best spray drying conditions.

  12. Volatile Retention and Morphological Properties of Microencapsulated Tributyrin Varied by Wall Material and Drying Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Joseph D; Cadwallader, Keith R; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-03-01

    Butyric acid is an important short-chain fatty acid for intestinal health and has been shown to improve certain intestinal disease states. A triglyceride containing 3 butyric acid esters, tributyrin (TB) can serve as a source of butyric acid; however, the need to target intestinal delivery and mitigate unpleasant sensory qualities has limited its use in food. Microencapsulation, the entrapment of one or more cores within a matrix, may provide a solution to the aforementioned challenge. This research primarily focused on the influence of (1) wall material: whey and soy protein isolate (WPI and SPI, respectively) and gamma-cyclodextrin (GCD), (2) wall additives: inulin of varying chain length, and (3) processing method: spray or oven drying (SD or OD, respectively) on the morphological properties and volatile retention of TB within microcapsules. SPI-based microcapsules retained significantly less (P spray dried, the GCD-based microcapsules exhibited (P spray drying. These findings demonstrate that microencapsulated TB in GCD can lead to minimal TB losses during processing that could be utilized in functional food applications for intestinal health.

  13. Remote in vivo stress assessment of aquatic animals with microencapsulated biomarkers for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkov, Anton; Shchapova, Ekaterina; Bedulina, Daria; Baduev, Boris; Borvinskaya, Ekaterina; Meglinski, Igor; Timofeyev, Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Remote in vivo scanning of physiological parameters is a major trend in the development of new tools for the fields of medicine and animal physiology. For this purpose, a variety of implantable optical micro- and nanosensors have been designed for potential medical applications. At the same time, the important area of environmental sciences has been neglected in the development of techniques for remote physiological measurements. In the field of environmental monitoring and related research, there is a constant demand for new effective and quick techniques for the stress assessment of aquatic animals, and the development of proper methods for remote physiological measurements in vivo may significantly increase the precision and throughput of analyses in this field. In the present study, we apply pH-sensitive microencapsulated biomarkers to remotely monitor the pH of haemolymph in vivo in endemic amphipods from Lake Baikal, and we compare the suitability of this technique for stress assessment with that of common biochemical methods. For the first time, we demonstrate the possibility of remotely detecting a change in a physiological parameter in an aquatic organism under ecologically relevant stressful conditions and show the applicability of techniques using microencapsulated biomarkers for remote physiological measurements in environmental monitoring.

  14. REVISIÓN: MICROENCAPSULACIÓN DE ALIMENTOS FOOD MICROENCAPSULATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adolfo Parra Huertas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La microencapsulación es definida como una tecnología de empaquetamiento de materiales sólidos, líquidos o gaseosos. Las microcápsulas selladas puede liberar sus contenidos a velocidades controladas bajo condiciones específicas, y pueden proteger el producto encapsulado de la luz y el oxígeno. La microencapsulación consiste en micropartículas conformadas por una membrana polimérica porosa contenedora de una sustancia activa. El material o mezclas de materiales a encapsular puede ser cubierto o atrapado dentro de otro material o sistema. Una microcápsula consiste de una membrana semi-permeable, esférica, delgada y fuerte alrededor de un centro solido/líquido. Los materiales que se utilizan para el encapsulamiento pueden ser gelatina, grasas, aceites, goma arábiga, alginato de calcio, ceras, almidón de trigo, maíz, arroz, papa, nylon, ciclodextrina, maltodextrina, caseinato de sodio, proteína de lactosuero o proteína de soya. Las aplicaciones de la microencapsulación se dirigen a la industria, se da a la industria textil, metalúrgica, química, alimenticia, cosméticos, farmacéutica y medicina. Dentro de las técnicas utilizadas para microencapsular se encuentran el secado por aspersión, secado por enfriamiento, secado por congelamiento, coacervación y extrusión. Las sustancias que se microencapsulan pueden ser vitaminas, minerales, colorantes, prebióticos, probióticos, sabores nutraceúticos, antioxidantes, olores, aceites, enzimas, bacterias, perfumes, drogas e incluso fertilizantes.Microencapsulation is defined as a technology of packaging solids, liquids or gases. The microcapsules can release their contents sealed at controlled rates under specific conditions, and can protect the encapsulated product of light and oxygen. Microencapsulation is formed by a micro-porous polymeric membrane of an active substance container. The material or mixture of encapsulating materials can be coated or entrapped within another

  15. Research progress in microencapsulation technology of epoxy resin%环氧树脂微胶囊化技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林广沅; 孔振武

    2012-01-01

    The status and progress in microencapsulation technology of epoxy resin were reviewed on the preparation techniques,influence factors and characterization methods of microencapsulated epoxy resins and curing agents.The common core and shell materials for the preparation of single composition microencapsulated epoxy resin system and the application status and prospect of microencapsulated epoxy system were introduced briefly.%从环氧树脂/固化剂微胶囊的制备技术、影响因素及表征方法等方面综述了环氧树脂微胶囊化技术的现状及其进展;同时简要介绍了用微胶囊技术制备单组分环氧树脂体系常用的芯材、壳材,以及微胶囊化环氧树脂体系的应用现状及前景。

  16. Use of Vitelline Protein B as a Microencapsulating Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficht, Allison R. (Inventor); Carson, Ken (Inventor); Sheffield, Cynthia (Inventor); Waite, John Herbert (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention includes compositions and methods for the use of an encapsulation additive having between about 0.1 to about 30 percent isolated and purified vitelline protein B to provide for mixed and extended release formulations.

  17. Microencapsulated tumor assay: Evaluation of the nude mouse model of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Zhe Ma; Dong-Feng Cheng; Jin-Hua Ye; Yong Zhou; Jia-Xiang Wang; Min-Min Shi; Bao-San Han; Cheng-Hong Peng

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish a more stable and accurate nude mouse model of pancreatic cancer using cancer cell microencapsulation.METHODS: The assay is based on microencapsulation technology, wherein human tumor cells are encapsulated in small microcapsules (approximately 420 μm in diameter) constructed of semipermeable membranes. We implemented two kinds of subcutaneous implantation models in nude mice using the injection of single tumor cells and encapsulated pancreatic tumor cells. The size of subcutaneously implanted tumors was observed on a weekly basis using two methods, and growth curves were generated from these data. The growth and metastasis of orthotopically injected single tumor cells and encapsulated pancreatic tumor cells were evaluated at four and eight weeks postimplantation by positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan and necropsy. The pancreatic tumor samples obtained from each method were then sent for pathological examination. We evaluated differences in the rates of tumor incidence and the presence of metastasis and variations in tumor volume and tumor weight in the cancer microcapsules vs single-cell suspensions.RESULTS: Sequential in vitro observations of the microcapsules showed that the cancer cells in microcapsules proliferated well and formed spheroids at days 4 to 6. Further in vitro culture resulted in bursting of the membrane of the microcapsules and cells deviated outward and continued to grow in flasks. The optimum injection time was found to be 5 d after tumor encapsulation. In the subcutaneous implantation model, there were no significant differences in terms of tumor volume between the encapsulated pancreatic tumor cells and cells alone and rate of tumor incidence. There was a significant difference in the rate of successful implantation between the cancer cell microencapsulation group and the single tumor-cell suspension group (100% vs 71.43%, respectively, P = 0.0489) in the orthotropic implantation model. The former method

  18. The Application of Microencapsulation Techniques in the Treatment of Endodontic and Periodontal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Blanco Méndez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of intracanal and periodontal infections, the local application of antibiotics and other therapeutic agents in the root canal or in periodontal pockets may be a promising approach to achieve sustained drug release, high antimicrobial activity and low systemic side effects. Microparticles made from biodegradable polymers have been reported to be an effective means of delivering antibacterial drugs in endodontic and periodontal therapy. The aim of this review article is to assess recent therapeutic strategies in which biocompatible microparticles are used for effective management of periodontal and endodontic diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies that have investigated the biocompatibility or efficacy of certain microparticle formulations and devices are presented. Future directions in the application of microencapsulation techniques in endodontic and periodontal therapies are discussed.

  19. Determination of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) solubility parameters: application to solvent substitution in a microencapsulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, C; Fréville, V; Ruffin, E; Marote, P; Gauvrit, J Y; Briançon, S; Lantéri, P

    2010-01-04

    The evolution of regulation on chemical substances (i.e. REACH regulation) calls for the progressive substitution of toxic chemicals in formulations when suitable alternatives have been identified. In this context, the method of Hansen solubility parameters was applied to identify an alternative solvent less toxic than methylene chloride used in a microencapsulation process. During the process based on a multiple emulsion (W/O/W) with solvent evaporation/extraction method, the solvent has to dissolve a polymer, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), which forms a polymeric matrix encapsulating or entrapping a therapeutic protein as the solvent is extracted. Therefore the three partial solubility parameters of PCL have been determined by a group contribution method, swelling experiments and turbidimetric titration. The results obtained allowed us to find a solvent, anisole, able to solubilize PCL and to form a multiple emulsion with aqueous solutions. A feasibility test was conducted under standard operating conditions and allowed the production of PCL microspheres.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Conductivity of Concrete Containing Micro-Encapsulated Phase Change Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2011-01-01

    The aim of increasing the building internal heat storage capacity is to be able to store excessive heat gains and by that reduce indoor high temperature peaks and at the same time shift high heat loads to the low heat loads hours and to decrease cooling energy need. The concept presented in this ......The aim of increasing the building internal heat storage capacity is to be able to store excessive heat gains and by that reduce indoor high temperature peaks and at the same time shift high heat loads to the low heat loads hours and to decrease cooling energy need. The concept presented...... in this article utilizes integration of the concrete and the microencapsulated Phase Change Material (PCM). PCM has the ability to absorb and release significant amounts of heat at a specific temperature range. As a consequence of admixing PCM to the concrete, new thermal properties like thermal conductivity...

  1. Thermal Response Of An Aerated Concrete Wall With Micro-Encapsulated Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halúzová Dušana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years Phase Change Materials (PCM have attracted attention due to their ability to store large amounts of thermal energy. This property makes them a candidate for the use of passive heat storage. In many applications, they are used to avoid the overheating of the temperature of an indoor environment. This paper describes the behavior of phase change materials that are inbuilt in aerated concrete blocks. Two building samples of an aerated concrete wall were measured in laboratory equipment called “twin-boxes”. The first box consists of a traditional aerated concrete wall; the second one has additional PCM micro-encapsulated in the wall. The heat flux through the wall was measured and compared to simulation results modeled in the ESP-r program. This experimental measurement provides a foundation for a model that can be used to analyze further building constructions.

  2. Microencapsulation of bioactives in cross-linked alginate matrices by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Maria, Monica; Scher, Herbert; Jeoh, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Microencapsulation of biomolecules, cells and chemicals is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries to improve stability, delivery and to control the release of encapsulated moieties. Among encapsulation matrices, alginate is preferred due to its low cost, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Current methods for producing stable alginate gels involve dropping alginate suspensions into divalent cation solutions. This procedure is difficult to scale-up and produces undesirably large alginate beads. In our novel encapsulation method, alginate gelation occurs during spray drying upon volatilisation of a base and rapid release of otherwise unavailable calcium ions. The resulting particles, with median particle sizes in the range 15-120 µm, are insoluble in solution. Cellulase and hemicellulase activities encapsulated by this method were not compromised during spray drying and remained stable over prolonged storage. The procedure described here offers a one-step alternative to other encapsulation methods that are costly and difficult to scale-up.

  3. Microencapsulation and Fermentation of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of poor survival of probiotic bacteria, microencapsulation evolved from the immobilized cell culture technology used in the biotechnological industry. Two probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium (BB-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5 were immobilized in calcium alginate by extrusion method. Encapsulation parameters and efficacy of this method were evaluated. Growth factors of these two bacteria were also measured by culturing in 10-L fermenter. Growth curves were obtained with respect to optical density and dry biomass weight. Encapsulation yield was over than 60% in each experiment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of Entrapment of cells in alginate matrix and cross-sections of dried bead were obtained and illustrated. Bifidobacterium have been shown better biotechnological properties.

  4. Influence of emulsion composition and spray-drying conditions on microencapsulation of tilapia oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Hao, Shuxian; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Cen, Jianwei; Lin, Wanling; Wei, Ya

    2014-09-01

    The influence of processing conditions on the microencapsulation of tilapia oil by spray drying was studied. Trehalose, gelatin, sucrose and xanthan were used as emulsion composition. The experimental parameters of spray drying such as inlet air temperature, solid content, drying air flow rate and atomizing pressure were optimized using a central composite design. Encapsulation efficiency and lipid oxidation were determined. Bulk density, powder morphology and particle size were also analyzed. Trehalose improved the glass transition temperature of wall material significantly and prevented the oxidation of the fish oil. Encapsulation efficiency reached a maximum of 90 % under optimum conditions with an inlet air temperature of 121 °C, a drying air flow rate of 0.65 m(3)/min and a spray pressure of 100 kPa.

  5. Built-up Effect of Core Material for Microencapsulated Flame Retardant Containing Dimethyl Methyl Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Miao; DONG Kai; YANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    The flame retardants containing organophosphorus compounds have extensively been used inthe flame retarding of polymer materials.Among others,dimethyl methyl phosphate (DMMP) was applied in flame retarding of polyurethane owmg to its so much merit.However,the water-soluble property of DMMP restricted its application in textile fabric.The flame retardtag systemcontainirm DMMP will be microencapsulated to form a novel flame retardant that could be used in textiles.We have studied the builtup effect of DMMP with some inorganic compounds to improve the afterflame and afterglow suppression in the flame retarding system.The experimeatal data indicated that inorganic compounds containing various non-metal elements P,N,B and metal ions Mg2+,Al3+,Ca2+,Zn2+,Cu2+,Mn4+ could be applied in flame retarding systems as additives to effectively suppress afterflame or afterglow.

  6. Preparation and characterization of galactosylated alginate-chitosan oligomer microcapsule for hepatocytes microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Meng; Han, Bo; Tan, Hong; You, Chao

    2014-11-04

    Galactosylated alginate (GA)-chitosan oligomer microcapsule was prepared to provide a sufficient mechanical stability, a selective permeability and an appropriate three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment for hepatocytes microencapsulation. The microcapsule has a unique asymmetric membrane structure, with a dense layer located in the inner surface and gradually decreasing toward the outside surface. The stable microcapsule was obtained when GA lower than 50%, while the permeability was increased with increasing of GA. A balance between mechanical stability and permeability was achieved through modulating membrane porosity and thickness. The optimal microcapsule displays a selective permeability allowing efficient transport of human serum albumin while effectively blocking immunoglobulin G. Hepatocytes exhibited high and long term viability (>92%), proliferability, multicellular spheroid morphology, and enhancement of liver-specific functions in the microcapsule wherein galactose moieties present chemical cues to support cell-matrix interactions while the 3D structure of the microcapsule behaves physical cues to facilitate cell-cell interactions.

  7. Microencapsulation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 spores in gellan gum microspheres for the production of biobutanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Sweta; Wan Sia Heng, Paul; Chan, Lai Wah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide further insights on the applicability of microencapsulation using emulsification method, to immobilise Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 spores, for biobutanol production. The encapsulated spores were revived using heat shock treatment and the fermentation efficiency of the resultant encapsulated cells was compared with that of the free (non-encapsulated) cells. The microspheres were easily recovered from the fermentation medium by filtration and reused up to five cycles of fermentation. In contrast, the free (non-encapsulated) cells could be reused for two cycles only. The microspheres remained intact throughout repeated use. Although significant cell leakage was observed during the course of fermentation, the microspheres could be reused with relatively high butanol yield, demonstrating their role as microbial cell nurseries. Both encapsulated and liberated cells contributed to butanol production.

  8. Flow frictional characteristics of microencapsulated phase change material suspensions flowing through rectangular minichannels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO; Yu; Frank; Dammel; Peter; Stephan; LIN; Guiping

    2006-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the laminar flow frictional characteristics of suspensions with microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM) in water flowing through rectangular copper minichannels. The MEPCM was provided at an average particle size of 4.97 μm, and was mixed with distilled water to form suspensions with various mass concentrations ranging from 0 to 20%. The experiment was performed to explore the effect of MEPCM mass concentration on friction factor and pressure drop in the minichannels. The Reynolds number ranged from 200 to 2000 to provide laminar and transitional flows. It was found that the experimental data for the suspensions with 0 and 5% concentration agree well with the existing theoretical data for an incompressible, fully developed, laminar Newtonian flow. For the suspensions with mass concentrations higher than 10%, there is an obvious increase in friction factor and pressure drop in comparison with laminar Newtonian flow.

  9. Microencapsulation and storage stability of polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Navarro, Patricia; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2016-01-01

    Wine production wastes are an interesting source of natural polyphenols. In this work, wine wastes extracts were encapsulated through vibration nozzle microencapsulation using sodium alginate as polymer and calcium chloride as hardening reagent. An experimental design approach was used to obtain calcium-alginate microbeads with high polyphenol content and good morphological features. In this way, the effect of pressure, frequency, voltage and the distance to the gelling bath were optimized for two nozzles of 150 and 300 μm. Long-term stability of the microbeads was studied for 6 months taking into account different storage conditions: temperatures (4 °C and room temperature), in darkness and in presence of light, and the addition of chitosan to the gelling bath. Encapsulated polyphenols were found to be much more stable compared to free polyphenols regardless the encapsulation procedure and storage conditions. Moreover, slightly lower degradation rates were obtained when chitosan was added to the gelling bath.

  10. Heat transfer and thermal storage behaviour of gypsum boards incorporating micro-encapsulated PCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chi-ming [Department of Civil Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, 1, University Road, Tainan City 701 (China); Chen, R.H.; Lin, Ching-Yao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University (China)

    2010-08-15

    In the application of energy storage and thermal environmental control, PCM (Phase Change Material) is a very promising material choice. This study incorporated mPCM (micro-encapsulated PCM) into gypsum to make mPCM gypsum board and then investigated the physical properties, heat transfer and thermal storage behaviour. The major control parameters are wall temperatures and the weight percentages of mPCM added to the gypsum boards. A melting fraction correlation, reduced from our test data and based on Stefan number (Ste), subcooling (Sb) and Fourier number, is proposed. It shows that case with a higher Ste or Sb can have a higher heat transfer through the hot wall. Thermal storage behaviour of mPCM gypsum boards is then analyzed. (author)

  11. Microencapsulation of aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation to provide protection and prolong sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Selmi, Glaucia A; Bozza, Fernanda T; Thomazini, Marcelo; Bolini, Helena M A; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen S

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this work was to microencapsulate aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation, aiming to protect it and control its release. Six treatments were prepared using sunflower oil to prepare the primary emulsion and gelatin and gum Arabic as the wall materials. The microcapsules were evaluated structurally with respect to their sorption isotherms and release into water (36°C and 80°C). The microcapsules were multinucleated, not very water-soluble or hygroscopic and showed reduced rates of equilibrium moisture content and release at both temperatures. FTIR confirmed complexation between the wall materials and the intact nature of aspartame. The results indicated it was possible to encapsulate aspartame with the techniques employed and that these protected the sweetener even at 80°C. The reduced solubility and low release rates indicated the enormous potential of the vehicle developed in controlling the release of the aspartame into the food, thus prolonging its sweetness.

  12. "Microencapsulation of Matricine by a dehydrating liquid and assessment of its retention "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Gharavi SM

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Matricine of flowers of cultivated Matricaria chamomilla L. was isolated and identified by TLC, IR, UV and ¹H-NMR and quantified by HPLC. One of the lopophylic materials of this plant (matricine has been used as antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory. Retention of matricine by microencapsulation technique was one of the objectives of this study. Encapsulation was carried out by cold dehydrating liquid method and effects of the various process parameters on retention of the matricine were evaluated. To achieve high retention values it was necessary to employ low core to shell material ratio, high solid concentration, high viscosity of the emulsion continuous phase, the use of absolute ethanol as desiccant, short contact times between capsules and desiccant, and low air pressure in the formation of microcapsules. Results suggested that the process might be much more efficient if continuous coextrusion of the emulsion and desiccant were used.

  13. Novel artificial cell microencapsulation of a complex gliclazide-deoxycholic bile acid formulation: a characterization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooranian A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Armin Mooranian,1 Rebecca Negrulj,1 Nigel Chen-Tan,2 Hesham S Al-Sallami,3 Zhongxiang Fang,4 Trilochan Mukkur,5 Momir Mikov,6,7 Svetlana Golocorbin-Kon,6,7 Marc Fakhoury,8 Frank Arfuso,5 Hani Al-Salami1 1Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 4School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 5Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, School of Biomedical Science, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 6Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia; 7Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro; 8Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada Abstract: Gliclazide (G is an antidiabetic drug commonly used in type 2 diabetes. It has extrapancreatic hypoglycemic effects, which makes it a good candidate in type 1 diabetes (T1D. In previous studies, we have shown that a gliclazide-bile acid mixture exerted a hypoglycemic effect in a rat model of T1D. We have also shown that a gliclazide-deoxycholic acid (G-DCA mixture resulted in better G permeation in vivo, but did not produce a hypoglycemic effect. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel microencapsulated formulation of G-DCA with uniform structure, which has the potential to enhance G pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in our rat model of T1D. We also aimed to examine the effect that DCA will have when formulated with our new G microcapsules, in terms of morphology, structure, and excipients' compatibility. Microencapsulation was carried out using the Büchi-based microencapsulating system

  14. Impact of physicochemical characteristics on the oxidative stability of fish oil microencapsulated by spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusch, Stephan; Serfert, Yvonne; Scampicchio, Matteo; Schmidt-Hansberg, Benjamin; Schwarz, Karin

    2007-12-26

    The aim of the present research was to identify principal parameters determining the oxidative stability of microencapsulated fish oil. Microcapsules were prepared by spray-drying using different types of n-octenylsuccinate-derivatized starch, gum Arabic, sugar beet pectin, sodium caseinate, and/or glucose syrup. Two principal components to classify the different microcapsules accounting for up to 79% of the variance were identified. The principal components were determined by physicochemical parameters reflecting the emulsifying ability of the encapsulant and the drying behavior of the parent emulsion. Microcapsules, which were identified by principal component analysis to be significantly different, exhibited a low stability upon storage, showing that the principal components and, thus, the underlying physicochemical parameters analyzed in the present study are correlated with core material stability.

  15. Photostabilization of the herbicide norflurazon microencapsulated with ethylcellulose in the soil-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopena, Fatima, E-mail: fsopenav@irnase.csic.es [Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology (CSIC), Reina Mercedes 10, Apdo 1052, 41080 Seville, ES (Spain); Villaverde, Jaime; Maqueda, Celia; Morillo, Esmeralda [Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology (CSIC), Reina Mercedes 10, Apdo 1052, 41080 Seville, ES (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Herbicide photodegradation studies using ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECF) in soil and water. {yields} Greater herbicide photo-protection observed from EFC than from its commercial form. {yields} Photo-protective effect due to the gradual herbicide release and the presence of ethylcellulose. {yields} Herbicide photo-stability conditioned by soil colloidal components, especially by goethite and humic acids. {yields} EFC could reduce the field herbicide losses by photolysis. - Abstract: Ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECFs) of norflurazon have been shown to reduce leaching, maintaining a threshold concentration in the topsoil than the commercial formulation (CF). Since photodegradation contributes to field dissipation of norflurazon, the objective of the present work was to study if such formulations can also protect from its photodescomposition. For this purpose, aqueous solutions of CF and ECFs, containing the most important soil components (goethite, humic and fulvic acids and montmorillonite) were tested. To get a more realistic approach, studies in soil were also performed. The results were well explained by a simple first order model. DT{sub 50} value was 3 h for CF under irradiation, which was considerably lower than those corresponding to the systems where ECF was used (35 h for ECF; 260 h for ECF-goethite; 53 h for ECF-humic acids; 33 h for ECF-montmorillonite; and 28 h for ECF-fulvic acids). ECF protected against photodegradation in both aqueous solution and soil due to the gradual release of the herbicide, which reduced the herbicide available to be photodegraded. These lab-scale findings proved that ECF could reduce the herbicide dosage, minimizing its photolysis, which would be especially advantageous during the first hours after foliar and soil application.

  16. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, D L; Dogenski, M; Thomazini, M; Heinemann, R J B; Favaro-Trindade, C S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10(3) CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  17. Effects of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material (MPCM) on Critical Heat Flux in Pool Boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Dae; Kim, Seong Man; Kang, Sarah; Lee, Seung Won; Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Thermal power is limited by critical heat flux (CHF) in the nuclear power plant. And the in-vessel retention by external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) is applied in some nuclear power plants; AP600, AP1000, Loviisa and APR1400. The heat removal capacity of IVR-ERVC is also restricted by CHF. So, it is essential to get CHF margin to improve an economics and a safety of the plant. There are some typical approaches to enhance CHF: vibrating the heater or fluid, coating with porous media on the heater surface, applying an electric field. The recent study related to the CHF is focus on using the nanofluid. In this paper, the new approach was investigated by using the microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM). MPCM is the particles whose diameter is from 0.1{mu}m to 1000{mu}m. The MPCM consists of the core material and the shell material. The core material can be solid, liquid, gas or even the mixture. The solid paraffin is the best candidate as the core material due to its stable chemical and thermal properties. And the shell material is generally synthesized polymer of about several micrometers in thickness. The most interesting feature of the MPCM is that the latent heat associated with the solid-liquid phase change is related to the heat transfer. When the MPCM is dispersed into the carrier fluid, a kind of suspension named as microencapsulated phase change slurry (MPCS) is formed. The study on the MPCS was conducted in field of both the heat transfer fluids and energy storage media. It is inspired by the fact that the latent heat can serve distribution to the additional CHF margin. The purpose of this work is to confirm whether or not the CHF is enhanced

  18. Chronic administration of a microencapsulated probiotic enhances the bioavailability of orange juice flavanones in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Oliver, Christine M; Weerakkody, Rangika; Singh, Tanoj; Conlon, Michael; Borges, Gina; Sanguansri, Luz; Lockett, Trevor; Roberts, Susan A; Crozier, Alan; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2015-07-01

    Orange juice (OJ) flavanones are bioactive polyphenols that are absorbed principally in the large intestine. Ingestion of probiotics has been associated with favorable changes in the colonic microflora. The present study examined the acute and chronic effects of orally administered Bifidobacterium longum R0175 on the colonic microflora and bioavailability of OJ flavanones in healthy volunteers. In an acute study volunteers drank OJ with and without the microencapsulated probiotic, whereas the chronic effects were examined when OJ was consumed after daily supplementation with the probiotic over 4 weeks. Bioavailability, assessed by 0-24h urinary excretion, was similar when OJ was consumed with and without acute probiotic intake. Hesperetin-O-glucuronides, naringenin-O-glucuronides, and hesperetin-3'-O-sulfate were the main urinary flavanone metabolites. The overall urinary excretion of these metabolites after OJ ingestion and acute probiotic intake corresponded to 22% of intake, whereas excretion of key colon-derived phenolic and aromatic acids was equivalent to 21% of the ingested OJ (poly)phenols. Acute OJ consumption after chronic probiotic intake over 4 weeks resulted in the excretion of 27% of flavanone intake, and excretion of selected phenolic acids also increased significantly to 43% of (poly)phenol intake, corresponding to an overall bioavailability of 70%. Neither the probiotic bacterial profiles of stools nor the stool moisture, weight, pH, or levels of short-chain fatty acids and phenols differed significantly between treatments. These findings highlight the positive effect of chronic, but not acute, intake of microencapsulated B. longum R0175 on the bioavailability of OJ flavanones.

  19. Ultrasonic atomization and subsequent polymer desolvation for peptide and protein microencapsulation into biodegradable polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Ch B; Blanco-Príeto, M J; Heizmann, J; Merkle, H P; Gander, B

    2003-01-01

    Peptide and protein microencapsulation into poly(lactide) (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres continues to represent a technological challenge in terms of product sterility and up-scaling. The primary objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of a novel method for peptide and protein entrapment into PLA and PLGA microspheres, particularly suitable for up-scaling and aseptic processing. The method involves ultrasonic atomization of an organic polymer solution combined with subsequent organic solvent extraction by a hardening agent. The study evaluated the critical atomization conditions, the required molecular cohesion parameters of polymer solvents and hardening agent for particle preparation as well as the quality of entrapment and release as a function of polymer and peptide/protein type. Suitable polymer solvents and hardening agents were restricted to defined domains of fractional cohesion parameters: f(p) = 0.2-0.35 and f(h) = 0.2-0.4 for the polymer solvents, and f(p) = 0-0.1 and f(h) = 0-0.25 for the hardening agents. Microsphere size (0.1-100 micro m) was largely controlled by the viscosity of the atomized solution. Microencapsulation of the freely water-soluble bovine serum albumin and tetrapeptide thymocartin yielded modest efficiencies of 12-35%, whereas the slightly water-soluble octapeptide vapreotide pamoate was entrapped with 63-93% efficiency. Drug release was mainly governed by the polymer type, lasting over 100 days for BSA entrapped in PLA microspheres and; 20 days for vapreotide pamoate in PLGA 50 : 50 and for thymocartin in PLA. Very importantly, the novel method was readily accommodated within a laminar air-flow cabinet. Under aseptic conditions, sterile microspheres could be prepared. In conclusion, the novel method described may have potential in industrial environments.

  20. Alginate encapsulation parameters influence the differentiation of microencapsulated embryonic stem cell aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jenna L; Najia, Mohamad Ali; Saeed, Rabbia; McDevitt, Todd C

    2014-03-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have tremendous potential as tools for regenerative medicine and drug discovery, yet the lack of processes to manufacture viable and homogenous cell populations of sufficient numbers limits the clinical translation of current and future cell therapies. Microencapsulation of ESCs within microbeads can shield cells from hydrodynamic shear forces found in bioreactor environments while allowing for sufficient diffusion of nutrients and oxygen through the encapsulation material. Despite initial studies examining alginate microbeads as a platform for stem cell expansion and directed differentiation, the impact of alginate encapsulation parameters on stem cell phenotype has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically examine the effects of varying alginate compositions on microencapsulated ESC expansion and phenotype. Pre-formed aggregates of murine ESCs were encapsulated in alginate microbeads composed of a high or low ratio of guluronic to mannuronic acid residues (High G and High M, respectively), with and without a poly-L-lysine (PLL) coating, thereby providing four distinct alginate bead compositions for analysis. Encapsulation in all alginate compositions was found to delay differentiation, with encapsulation within High G alginate yielding the least differentiated cell population. The addition of a PLL coating to the High G alginate prevented cell escape from beads for up to 14 days. Furthermore, encapsulation within High M alginate promoted differentiation toward a primitive endoderm phenotype. Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that distinct ESC expansion capacities and differentiation trajectories emerge depending on the alginate composition employed, indicating that encapsulation material physical properties can be used to control stem cell fate.

  1. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. Pedroso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04 were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF, and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10³ CFU/g. The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  2. Characteristics of Microencapsulated Nutritional Oil for Infant Formula Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lulu; LAI Ying; LI Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional oil for infant formula food was mieroeneapsulated by the spray drying method with coating materials including maltodextrin (MD), soy protein isolate (SPI), and emulsifier (soy lecithin). Vegetable oil blend was prepared by mixing coconut oil, safflower oil and soybean oil at a ratio to achieve a fatty acid profile comparable to human milk fat (HMF). The fatty acid composition of the product was determined by capillary gas chromatograph. As a result, the composition was as close as possible to that of HMF, it could be used for infant fomular food to make up some deficiencies of milk powder in nutrition and functional properties. Furthermore, the glass transition temperature (T,g) of the wall material was determined by DSC and its Tg was 66.42℃. It provided a theoretical basis for the storage of the product at the normal temperature.

  3. Therapeutic effect of orally administered microencapsulated oxaliplatin for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D; Guajardo, Gonzalo; Langer, Robert S; Anderson, Daniel G

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the United States and other Western countries. Oral delivery of therapeutics remains the most patient accepted form of medication. The development of an oral delivery formulation for local delivery of chemotherapeutics in the gastrointestinal tract can potentially alleviate the adverse side effects including systemic cytotoxicity, as well as focus therapy to the lesions. Here we develop an oral formulation of the chemotherapeutic drug oxaliplatin for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Oxaliplatin was encapsulated in pH sensitive, mucoadhesive chitosan-coated alginate microspheres. The microparticles were formulated to release the chemotherapeutics after passing through the acidic gastric environment thus targeting the intestinal tract. In vivo, these particles substantially reduced the tumor burden in an orthotopic mouse model of colorectal cancer, and reduced mortality.

  4. Heat Storage Performance of the Prefabricated Hollow Core Concrete Deck Element with Integrated Microencapsulated Phase Change Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    of thermal properties of standard concrete material and pure PCM. Consequently, the numerical models of the decks were updated with the experimentally determined thermal properties of PCM concrete after these two materials have been combined into one material. Finally, the heat storage of the decks......The paper presents the numerically calculated dynamic heat storage capacity of the prefabricated hollow core concrete deck element with and without microencapsulated phase change material (PCM). The reference deck is the ordinary deck made of standard concrete material and that is broadly used...... in many emerging buildings. The new concrete deck with microencapsulated PCM is the standard deck on which one more layer with PCM concrete was added and at the same time the latent heat storage was introduced to the construction. The challenge to simulate the performance of the new deck with PCM concrete...

  5. 农药新剂型-微胶囊剂%A New Formulation of Pesticides-Microencapsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桦萍; 靳凤丹

    2015-01-01

    介绍了农药的发展趋势,新型农药微胶囊剂的结构、构成材料。分析了农药微胶囊剂的优点,简述了微胶囊剂的制备方法,预测了微胶囊剂存在的问题和在未来市场上的地位。%The trend of pesticide in future was described. The structure of the microencapsule and the composi-tion materials were introduced. The advantages of microencapsule and methods of preparation were discussed. The fur-ther position in the market was put forward .

  6. Optimisation of microencapsulation of turmeric extract for masking flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laokuldilok, Natcha; Thakeow, Prodpran; Kopermsub, Phikunthong; Utama-ang, Niramon

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the odour masking property, encapsulation efficiency and physicochemical properties of turmeric extract prepared by a binary blend of wall materials, i.e. brown rice flour (BRF) and beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Response surface methodology was applied to investigate the effect of encapsulation processing variables, including core loading mass (5-25%) and β-CD (5-20%) concentration on product recovery, moisture content, hygroscopicity, curcuminoids encapsulation and volatile release. To investigate odour masking properties of a wall material combination, volatiles in headspace were monitored by GC-MS using ar-turmerone and 2-methyl-4-vinylguaiacol as marker compounds to represent turmeric extract. The obtained results revealed an optimal encapsulation process was 5% of core loading mass with addition 20g/L of β-CD, since it enabled high curcuminoids encapsulation with low volatile release, moisture content and hygroscopicity. Turmeric powder with reduced odour can be used as a nutrient supplement or natural colorant for food products.

  7. The role of gibberellins in improving the resistance of tebuconazole-coated maize seeds to chilling stress by microencapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Daibin; Yan, Xiaojing; Cui, Li; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2016-01-01

    Chilling stress during germination often causes severe injury. In the present study, maize seed germination and shoot growth under chilling stress were negatively correlated with the dose of tebuconazole in an exponential manner as predicted by the model Y = A + B × e(−x/k). Microencapsulation was an effective means of eliminating potential phytotoxic risk. The gibberellins (GAs) contents were higher after microencapsulation treatment than after conventional treatment when the dose of tebuconazole was higher than 0.12 g AI (active ingredient) kg−1 seed. Further analysis indicated that microencapsulation can stimulate ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity to some extent, whereas GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) activities remained similar to those in the control. Genes encoding GA metabolic enzymes exhibited different expression patterns. Transcript levels of ZmKO1 increased in the microcapsule treatments compared to the control. Even when incorporated into microcapsules, tebuconazole led to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox1 at doses of less than 0.12 g AI kg−1 seed and to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox2 when the dose was higher than 0.12 g AI kg−1 seed. With increasing doses of microencapsulated tebuconazole, the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox4, ZmGA2ox5 and ZmGA2ox6 exhibited upward trends, whereas the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox7 exhibited a downward trend. PMID:27819337

  8. Microencapsulation of new probiotic formulations for gastrointestinal delivery: in vitro study to assess viability and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, G; Di Gennaro, P; Boccarusso, M; Presti, I; Bizzaro, G; Giardina, S; Michelotti, A; Labra, M; La Ferla, B

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the preparation of new probiotic formulations based on chitosan-coated alginate microcapsules containing three different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus rhamnosus PBS070, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis PBS075 taken individually and as a mixture of them. The effects of microencapsulation on the viability of the strains in conditions simulating the gastrointestinal tract and under industrial processes conditions were studied. In addition, an evaluation of their probiotic properties was also investigated by in vitro tests on the human intestinal cell line HT-29 to explore the effect of microencapsulation on health beneficial effect of the considered strains. Non-encapsulated cells were completely destroyed when exposed to simulated gastric juice and other stress conditions, while encapsulated cells exhibited a significantly higher resistance to artificial intestinal juice and heat and osmotic treatment. Moreover, in this study, the effect of the various microencapsulated probiotic strain formulations was compared with analogous formulations also containing the β-glucan Pleuran. The microencapsulation effectively protected the selected bacteria, as single strain and as a mixture of the three strains in both the formulations with and without Pleuran, from simulating gastrointestinal tract and industrial process conditions in delivering the viable cells without any significant adverse effect on their functionalities. The comparative study of the immunomodulatory properties of each single strain and the mixture of the three strains revealed a synergistic effect of the probiotic mixture, but no appreciable difference between the two kinds of formulations could be detected, as the effect of Pleuran is covered by the higher potential of the probiotic strains.

  9. The role of gibberellins in improving the resistance of tebuconazole-coated maize seeds to chilling stress by microencapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Daibin; Yan, Xiaojing; Cui, Li; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2016-11-01

    Chilling stress during germination often causes severe injury. In the present study, maize seed germination and shoot growth under chilling stress were negatively correlated with the dose of tebuconazole in an exponential manner as predicted by the model Y = A + B × e(‑x/k). Microencapsulation was an effective means of eliminating potential phytotoxic risk. The gibberellins (GAs) contents were higher after microencapsulation treatment than after conventional treatment when the dose of tebuconazole was higher than 0.12 g AI (active ingredient) kg‑1 seed. Further analysis indicated that microencapsulation can stimulate ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity to some extent, whereas GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) activities remained similar to those in the control. Genes encoding GA metabolic enzymes exhibited different expression patterns. Transcript levels of ZmKO1 increased in the microcapsule treatments compared to the control. Even when incorporated into microcapsules, tebuconazole led to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox1 at doses of less than 0.12 g AI kg‑1 seed and to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox2 when the dose was higher than 0.12 g AI kg‑1 seed. With increasing doses of microencapsulated tebuconazole, the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox4, ZmGA2ox5 and ZmGA2ox6 exhibited upward trends, whereas the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox7 exhibited a downward trend.

  10. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Zokti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD, gum arabic (GA and chitosan (CTS and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%–88.04%, 19.32–24.90 (g GAE/100 g, and 29.52%–38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%–5.11%, 0.28–0.36, 3.22%–4.71%, 0.22–0.28 g/cm3 and 40.43–225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF was determined as 142.00%–188.63% and 207.55%–231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05 under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35–60, 34–65 and 231–288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  11. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokti, James A; Sham Baharin, Badlishah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Abas, Faridah

    2016-07-26

    Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and chitosan (CTS) and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%-88.04%, 19.32-24.90 (g GAE/100 g), and 29.52%-38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%-5.11%, 0.28-0.36, 3.22%-4.71%, 0.22-0.28 g/cm³ and 40.43-225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was determined as 142.00%-188.63% and 207.55%-231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05) under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35-60, 34-65 and 231-288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  12. Influence of oligofructose-enriched inulin on survival of microencapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01 and adhesive properties of synbiotic microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Petreska Ivanovska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei 01 was co-encapsulated with the prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin at different concentrations to investigate the efficiency of the prebiotic for improving the probiotic viability. Prebiotic effect on the probiotic survival under microencapsulation conditions by spray- and freeze-drying and storage stability of encapsulated living cells at 4 °C during period of 8 weeks was evaluated. Adhesiveness of L. casei 01 loaded microparticles to pig mucin was investigated in vitro to estimate the role of microencapsulation for improving the cell adhesion ability. The microparticles produced with 3% w/w oligofructose-enriched inulin showed higher initial count, while oligofructose-enriched inulin applied at 1.5% w/w resulted in better protection of L. casei 01 under storage conditions. Further, it has been observed significantly increased pig mucin binding to microparticles compared to free probiotic cells in buffer solutions simulating GI conditions, during 24 h incubation. Hence, cell microencapsulation beside enhanced viability may allow prolonged residence time of the probiotic cells in the lower intestine through excellent muco-adhesive properties of the encapsulating materials. The results suggest synbiotic chitosan-Ca-alginate microparticles as convenient delivery system capable to ensure effective cell concentration in the lower intestine where probiotic colonization is dominant.

  13. 香精微胶囊的质量评价指标%Evaluation Indicators of Fragrance Microencapsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岩; 易封萍

    2012-01-01

    香精微胶囊化是微胶囊技术的一个典型应用,现代社会各种香精微胶囊加香产品已经渗透到人们生活的各个角落。对现阶段微胶囊的评价指标以及测定方法进行评述和分析,重点介绍了微胶囊的形态结构、粒径大小、包埋率等指标以及一些新的测定方法,为香精微胶囊制备和评价提供一定参考。%Fragrance microencapsulation is a typical application of microcapsulary. Related products have penetrated into people's lives in the modern world. This article reviews evaluation indicators of the fragrance microencapsules. Particle size, shape and structure and embedding rate are described and analysed. Some new determination methods are also brought out. Certain reference value for the preparation and evaluation of fragrance microencapsules is given in the paper.

  14. Microencapsulation by solvent extraction/evaporation: reviewing the state of the art of microsphere preparation process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sergio; Merkle, Hans P; Gander, Bruno

    2005-02-02

    The therapeutic benefit of microencapsulated drugs and vaccines brought forth the need to prepare such particles in larger quantities and in sufficient quality suitable for clinical trials and commercialisation. Very commonly, microencapsulation processes are based on the principle of so-called "solvent extraction/evaporation". While initial lab-scale experiments are frequently performed in simple beaker/stirrer setups, clinical trials and market introduction require more sophisticated technologies, allowing for economic, robust, well-controllable and aseptic production of microspheres. To this aim, various technologies have been examined for microsphere preparation, among them are static mixing, extrusion through needles, membranes and microfabricated microchannel devices, dripping using electrostatic forces and ultrasonic jet excitation. This article reviews the current state of the art in solvent extraction/evaporation-based microencapsulation technologies. Its focus is on process-related aspects, as described in the scientific and patent literature. Our findings will be outlined according to the four major substeps of microsphere preparation by solvent extraction/evaporation, namely, (i) incorporation of the bioactive compound, (ii) formation of the microdroplets, (iii) solvent removal and (iv) harvesting and drying the particles. Both, well-established and more advanced technologies will be reviewed.

  15. Complex coacervation with whey protein isolate and gum arabic for the microencapsulation of omega-3 rich tuna oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eratte, Divya; Wang, Bo; Dowling, Kim; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu P

    2014-11-01

    Tuna oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids was microencapsulated in whey protein isolate (WPI)-gum arabic (GA) complex coacervates, and subsequently dried using spray and freeze drying to produce solid microcapsules. The oxidative stability, oil microencapsulation efficiency, surface oil and morphology of these solid microcapsules were determined. The complex coacervation process between WPI and GA was optimised in terms of pH, and WPI-to-GA ratio, using zeta potential, turbidity, and morphology of the microcapsules. The optimum pH and WPI-to-GA ratio for complex coacervation was found to be 3.75 and 3 : 1, respectively. The spray dried solid microcapsules had better stability against oxidation, higher oil microencapsulation efficiency and lower surface oil content compared to the freeze dried microcapsules. The surface of the spray dried microcapsules did not show microscopic pores while the surface of the freeze dried microcapsules was more porous. This study suggests that solid microcapsules of omega-3 rich oils can be produced using WPI-GA complex coacervates followed by spray drying and these microcapsules can be quite stable against oxidation. These microcapsules can have many potential applications in the functional food and nutraceuticals industry.

  16. Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel-Based Light Water Reactor Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2012-04-01

    The tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel developed for High Temperature reactors is known for its extraordinary fission product retention capabilities [1]. Recently, the possibility of extending the use of TRISO particle fuel to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology, and perhaps other reactor concepts, has received significant attention [2]. The Deep Burn project [3] currently focuses on once-through burning of transuranic fissile and fissionable isotopes (TRU) in LWRs. The fuel form for this purpose is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the TRISO fuel particle design from high temperature reactor technology, but uses SiC as a matrix material rather than graphite. In addition, FCM fuel may also use a cladding made of a variety of possible material, again including SiC as an admissible choice. The FCM fuel used in the Deep Burn (DB) project showed promising results in terms of fission product retention at high burnup values and during high-temperature transients. In the case of DB applications, the fuel loading within a TRISO particle is constituted entirely of fissile or fissionable isotopes. Consequently, the fuel was shown to be capable of achieving reasonable burnup levels and cycle lengths, especially in the case of mixed cores (with coexisting DB and regular LWR UO2 fuels). In contrast, as shown below, the use of UO2-only FCM fuel in a LWR results in considerably shorter cycle length when compared to current-generation ordinary LWR designs. Indeed, the constraint of limited space availability for heavy metal loading within the TRISO particles of FCM fuel and the constraint of low (i.e., below 20 w/0) 235U enrichment combine to result in shorter cycle lengths compared to ordinary LWRs if typical LWR power densities are also assumed and if typical TRISO particle dimensions and UO2 kernels are specified. The primary focus of this summary is on using TRISO particles with up to 20 w/0 enriched uranium kernels loaded in Pressurized Water

  17. Effect of addition of inulin and fenugreek on the survival of microencapsulated Enterococcus durans 39C in alginate-psyllium polymeric blends in simulated digestive system and yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Haghshenas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of biopolymers for probiotic microencapsulation has been investigated in this paper. The objectives are to enhance its survival rate, colonic release, and stability of these probiotic cultures in digestive condition during storage time. Nine types of biopolymers (alginate-psyllium blend with different concentration of prebiotic; (inulin or fenugreek were used as candidate for microencapsulation matrix. One strain of probiotic candidates, namely; Enterococcus durans 39C was used in this study. The microencapsulation of this strain with the respective polymer blend was performed by using a simple extrusion method. All blend of formulations have recorded high encapsulation efficiency at value >98%. The survival rate of viable probiotic cells under simulated digestive conditions was also high with value above 47% as compared to non-microencapsulated cells. These nine gel formulations also displayed the high survival rate of viable probiotic cells during storage time (28 d. Their release occurred after 2 h in colonic condition and sustained until 12th h of incubation period. An increase of prebiotic effect value added was observed in incorporated inulin and fenugreek formulations. In short, this study revealed that a new herbal-based psyllium and fenugreek polymers have suitable potential as a matrix for probiotic microencapsulation.

  18. Microencapsulation, chemical characterization, and antimicrobial activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) oregano essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano.

  19. Microencapsulation, Chemical Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) Oregano Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano. PMID:25177730

  20. Microencapsulation, Chemical Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K. and European (Origanum vulgare L. Oregano Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia Hernández-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO’s of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO’s was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME. The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO’s was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO’s and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO’s varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol and γ-terpinene (pentane as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO’s showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO’s remained the same, while free EO’s decreased 41% (MXO and 67% (EUO from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO’s from oregano.

  1. Transplantation of microencapsulated umbilical-cord-bloodderived hepatic-like cells for treatment of hepatic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Ting Zhang; Hui-Juan Wan; Ming-Hua Li; Jing Ye; Mei-Jun Yin; Chun-Qiao Huang; Jie Yu

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To investigate intraperitoneal transplantation of microencapsulated hepatic-like cells from human umbilical cord blood for treatment of hepatic failure in rats.METHODS:CD34+ cells in umbilical cord blood cells were isolated by magnetic cell sorting.In the in vitro experiment,sorted CD34+ cells were amplified and induced into hepatic-like cells by culturing with a combination of fibroblast growth factor 4 and hepatocyte growth factor.Cultures without growth factor addition served as controls.mRNA and protein levels for hepatic- like cells were analyzed by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction,immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence.In the in vivo experiment,the hepatic-like cells were encapsulated and transplanted into the abdominal cavity of acute hepatic failure (AHF) rats at 48 h after D-galactosamine induction of acute hepatic failure.Transplantation with PBS and unencapsulated hepatic-like cells served as controls.The mortality rate,hepatic pathological changes and serum biochemical indexes were determined.The morphology and structure of microcapsules in the greater omentum were observed.RESULTS:Human albumin,alpha-fetoprotein and GATA-4 mRNA and albumin protein positive cells were found among cultured cells after 16 d.Albumin level in culture medium was significantly increased after culturing with growth factors in comparison with culturing without growth factor addition (P < 0.01).Compared with the unencapsulated group,the mortality rate of the encapsulated hepatic-like cell-transplanted group was significantly lower (P < 0.05).Serum biochemical parameters,alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin in the encapsulated group were significantly improvement compared with the PBS control group (P < 0.01).Pathological staining further supported these findings.At 1-2 wk post-transplantation,free microcapsules with a round clear structure and a smooth surface were observed in peritoneal lavage fluid,surviving cells

  2. Feeding and oviposition deterrent activities of microencapsulated cardamom oleoresin and eucalyptol against Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Baris Kovanci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral manipulation of codling moth with spice-based deterrents may provide an alternative control strategy. Microencapsulation technology could lead to more effective use of spice essential oils and oleoresins in the field by extending their residual activity. The feeding and oviposition deterrent potential of the microencapsulated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum [L.] Maton oleoresin (MEC-C and eucalyptol (MEC-E were evaluated against codling moth, Cydia pomonella Linnaeus, 1758. MEC-C capsules contained both 1,8-cineole and a-terpinyl acetate, whereas MEC-E capsules contained only 1,8-cineole. In larval feeding bioassays, MEC-E exhibited the lowest feeding deterrent activity (33% while MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 had the highest (91%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity against gravid females was also shown by MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 with 84% effective repellency. In 2010 and 2011, two apple orchards were divided into four 1 ha blocks and sprayed with the following treatments in ultra-low volume sprays: (a MEC-E at 100 g L-1, (b MEC-C at 50 g L-1, (c MEC-C at 100 g L-1, and (d MEC-pyrethrin at 15 mL L-1. Water-treated abandoned orchards were used as negative controls. Moth catches were monitored weekly using Ajar traps baited with the combination of codlemone, pear ester, and terpinyl acetate. Based on pooled data, mean cumulative moth catch per trap per week was significantly higher in the MEC-E blocks (26.3 male and 13.5 female moths than those in other treatments except the abandoned blocks. At mid-season and pre-harvest damage assessment, the percentage of infested fruits with live larvae in the high dose MEC-C-treated blocks was reduced to 1.9% and 2.3% in 2010 and to 1.1% and 1.8% in 2011, respectively. Since fruit damage exceeded the economic damage threshold of 1%, high-dose MEC-C treatment may only offer supplementary protection against codling moth in integrated pest management programs.

  3. Effects of transplantation of microencapsulated rabbit sciatic nerve on nuclear factor-kappa B expression after spinal cord injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolian Wang; Jianmin Ma; Hui Chen; Deming Liu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- k B), activated after spinal cord injury in rats, plays a key role in inflammatory responses in the central nervous system.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of transplantation of microencapsulated rabbit sciatic nerve on NF- k B expression and motor function after spinal cord injury in rats, and to compare the results with the transplantation of rabbit sciatic nerve alone.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This completely randomized, controlled study was performed at the Department of Neurobiology, Medical College of Nanchang University between December 2007 and July 2008.MATERIALS: A rabbit anti-NF- k B P65 monoclonal antibody was made by the Santa Cruz Company, USA and a streptavidin peroxidase immunohistochemical kit was provided by the Sequoia Company, China.METHODS: Eight rabbits were used to prepare a sciatic nerve cell suspension that was divided into two parts: one stored for transplantation, and the other mixed with a 1.5% sodium alginate solution. One hundred and twenty adult Sprague Dawley rats weighing 220-250 g were randomly divided into four groups: the microencapsulated cell group (n = 36), the non-encapsulated cell group (n = 36), the saline group (n = 36) and the sham operation group (n = 12). The first three groups underwent a right hemisection injury of the spinal cord at the T level, into which was transplanted a gelatin sponge soaked with 10 μ L of a microencapsulated nerve tissue/cell suspension (microencapsulated cell group), a tissue/cell suspension (non-encapsulated cell group) or physiological saline (saline group). In the sham operation group the vertebrae were exposed, but the spinal cord was not injured, and no implantation was given.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pathological changes were detected using hematoxylin-eosin staining; NF- K B expression was quantified using immunohistochemical staining; motor function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale

  4. A Study on Modified Starch Used as Microencapsulating Wall Material of Vitamin E%变性淀粉作VE微胶囊壁材的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕萍; 李世勇

    2001-01-01

    Microencapsulated vitamin E prepared with the modified starch as main wall material was studied. The optimum technological condition was found out through studing the preparation technology of microencapsulated vitamin E. The test results for storage showed that the microencapsulated vitamin E had higher storage stability comparing with the vitamin E in oil and the powder vitamin E absorbed at the surface of silicon dioxide.%主要研究以变性淀粉为主的复合壁材制备微胶囊化VE,着重研究了VE微胶囊化工艺,找出最佳工艺条件。贮存试验表明:微胶囊化VE粉末的贮存稳定性明显优于VE油剂和吸附于二氧化硅表面的VE粉末。

  5. Silver diffusion through silicon carbide in microencapsulated nuclear fuels TRISO; Difusion de plata a traves de carburo de silicio en combustibles nucleares microencapsulados TRISO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino T, F.; Lopez H, E., E-mail: Felix.cancino@cinvestav.edu.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalurgica No. 1062, Col. Ramos Arizpe, 25900 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The silver diffusion through silicon carbide is a challenge that has persisted in the development of microencapsulated fuels TRISO (Tri structural Isotropic) for more than four decades. The silver is known as a strong emitter of gamma radiation, for what is able to diffuse through the ceramic coatings of pyrolytic coal and silicon carbide and to be deposited in the heat exchangers. In this work we carry out a recount about the art state in the topic of the diffusion of Ag through silicon carbide in microencapsulated fuels and we propose the role that the complexities in the grain limit can have this problem. (Author)

  6. Cashew gum and inulin: New alternative for ginger essential oil microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Silva, Eric Keven; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Oliveira, Cassiano Rodrigues de; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa de Andrade; de Paula, Regina Célia Monteiro

    2016-11-20

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of cashew gum by inulin used as wall materials, on the characteristics of ginger essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying with ultrasound assisted emulsions. The characterization of particles was evaluated as encapsulation efficiency and particle size. In addition, the properties of the microcapsules were studied through FTIR analysis, adsorption isotherms, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the solubility of the treatments was affected by the composition of the wall material and reached higher values (89.80%) when higher inulin concentrations were applied. The encapsulation efficiency (15.8%) was lower at the highest inulin concentration. The particles presented amorphous characteristics and treatment with cashew gum as encapsulant exhibited the highest water absorption at high water activity. The cashew gum and inulin matrix (3:1(w/w) ratio) showed the best characteristics regarding the encapsulation efficiency and morphology, showing no cracks in the structure.

  7. Microencapsulated foods as a functional delivery vehicle for omega-3 fatty acids: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Robert M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well established that the ingestion of the omega-3 (N3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA positively benefit a variety of health indices. Despite these benefits the actual intake of fish derived N3 is relatively small in the United States. The primary aim of our study was to examine a technology capable of delivering omega-3 fatty acids in common foods via microencapsulation (MicroN3 in young, healthy, active participants who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, we randomized 20 participants (25.4 ± 6.2 y; 73.4 ± 5.1 kg to receive the double blind delivery of a placebo-matched breakfast meal (~2093 kJ containing MicroN3 (450–550 mg EPA/DHA during a 2-week pilot trial. Overall, we observed no differences in overall dietary macronutrient intake other than the N3 delivery during our treatment regimen. Post-test ANOVA analysis showed a significant elevation in mean (SE plasma DHA (91.18 ± 9.3 vs. 125.58 ± 11.3 umol/L; P

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials for Use in Building Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Giro-Paloma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for preparing and characterizing microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM was developed. A comparison with a commercial MPCM is also presented. Both MPCM contained paraffin wax as PCM with acrylic shell. The melting temperature of the PCM was around 21 °C, suitable for building applications. The M-2 (our laboratory made sample and Micronal® DS 5008 X (BASF samples were characterized using SEM, DSC, nano-indentation technique, and Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both samples presented a 6 μm average size and a spherical shape. Thermal energy storage (TES capacities were 111.73 J·g−1 and 99.3 J·g−1 for M-2 and Micronal® DS 5008 X, respectively. Mechanical characterization of the samples was performed by nano-indentation technique in order to determine the elastic modulus (E, load at maximum displacement (Pm, and displacement at maximum load (hm, concluding that M-2 presented slightly better mechanical properties. Finally, an important parameter for considering use in buildings is the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC’s. This characteristic was studied at 65 °C by CG-MS. Both samples showed VOC’s emission after 10 min of heating, however peaks intensity of VOC’s generated from M-2 microcapsules showed a lower concentration than Micronal® DS 5008 X.

  9. Preparation and application characteristics of microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus as probiotics for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; Xing, Yage; Xu, Qinglian; Wang, TinXuan; Cai, Yimin; Cao, Dong; Che, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    In this article, preparation and application characteristics of microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus were investigated. Results indicated that the optimum condition for preparation of micro encapsulation were 10% (w/v) wall material and the temperature of 20°C, respectively. Many micropores in the porous starch micro particles was also observed by Scanning Electron Microscope. Furthermore, the released cell counts were increase from 2.43 log cfu/g to 9.17 log cfu/g for the time prolong to 3h in the simulated colonic pH solution. On the other hand, the visible cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the dog feces on the 10th day after the probiotics feeding was improve about 34.8% compare to the before feeding, which was decrease about 24.6%for Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the content of is ovaleric acid, indole and 3-methylindole, putrefactive substances in dog feces, before feeding were reduce 24%, 16% and 45% in dog feces on the 10th day after feeding compared to that before feeding, respectively. Micro encapsulation can be considered a useful technology to provide the protection for Lactobacillus acidophilus and better application effective.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of microencapsulated fast melt tablets of ambroxol hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources in general and plant materials in particular are receiving more attention due to their safety as pharmaceutical excipients. Present work assessed the potential of a natural polysaccharide, pectin to mask the bitter taste of ambroxol hydrochloride, by microencapsulation technique, and its possibility to formulate as a fast disintegrating dosage form. Taste masking is an important developmental challenge in fast dissolving drug delivery system since it dissolves or disintegrates in the patient′s mouth in close proximity to the taste buds. The prepared microspheres by emulsion solvent evaporation technique possessed good sphericity, smooth surface morphology, uniform and narrow size distribution (10-90 μm, when analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction and optical microscopy. Method of preparation has influenced the particle size and drug loading efficiency. Drug-polymer compatibility was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography. DSC and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the drug was dispersed inside the microspheres in the form of an insoluble matrix. The formation of microspheres was affected by glass transition temperature of the polymer, surfactant, type of plasticizers, volume of internal phase, stirrer speed etc. Fast dissolving tablets were prepared by the modification of melt granulation technique. The resulting granules were found to melt fast at body temperature, have smooth mouth feel and good physical stability. This study demonstrated that pectin could be a right choice in developing patient favored formulations for bitter drugs and can be utilized in fast disintegrating dosage forms as well.

  11. Gum arabic/starch/maltodextrin/inulin as wall materials on the microencapsulation of rosemary essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga

    2014-01-30

    The effects of the partial or total replacement of gum arabic by modified starch, maltodextrin and inulin on the characteristics of rosemary essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying were evaluated in this study. The lowest level of water absorption under conditions of high relative humidity was observed in treatments containing inulin. The wettability property of the powders was improved by the addition of inulin. The total replacement of gum arabic by modified starch or a mixture of modified starch and maltodextrin (1:1, m/m) did not significantly affect the efficiency of encapsulation, although higher Tg values were exhibited by microcapsules prepared using pure gum arabic or gum arabic and inulin. 1,8-cineol, camphor and α-pinene were the main components identified by gas chromatography in the oils extracted from the microcapsules. The particles had smoother surfaces and more folds when gum arabic or inulin was present. Larger particles were observed in the powders prepared with pure gum arabic or modified starch.

  12. Effect of emulsification and spray-drying microencapsulation on the antilisterial activity of transcinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Lejmi, Raja; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Dumas, Emilie; Degraeve, Pascal; Thanh, Mai Le; Oulahal, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Spray-dried redispersible transcinnamaldehyde (TC)-in-water emulsions were prepared in order to preserve its antibacterial activity; 5% (w/w) TC emulsions were first obtained with a rotor-stator homogeniser in the presence of either soybean lecithin or sodium caseinate as emulsifiers. These emulsions were mixed with a 30% (w/w) maltodextrin solution before feeding a spray-dryer. The antibacterial activity of TC alone, TC emulsions with and without maltodextrin before and after spray-drying were assayed by monitoring the growth at 30 °C of Listeria innocua in their presence and in their absence (control). Whatever the emulsifier used, antilisterial activity of TC was increased following its emulsification. However, reconstituted spray-dried emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate had a higher antibacterial activity suggesting that they better resisted to spray-drying. This was consistent with observation that microencapsulation efficiencies were 27.6% and 78.7% for emulsions stabilised by lecithin and sodium caseinate, respectively.

  13. Microencapsulation of Traditional Chinese Herbs-PentaHerbs extracts and potential application in healthcare textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Patrick Chi-Leung; Wang, Wen-Yi; Kan, Chi-Wai; Ng, Frency Sau-Fun; Wat, Elaine; Zhang, Vanilla Xin; Chan, Chung-Lap; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2013-11-01

    In this work, Traditional Chinese Herbs (TCH)-PentaHerbs--was successfully microencapsulated in chitosan-sodium alginate (CSA) blend matrix using emulsion-chemical cross-linking method and the final product was characterised with regard to structure, surface morphology, particle size, in vitro drug release and skin toxicity by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser diffraction particle size analysis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays respectively. Results showed that the microcapsules were in spherical form with diameter mostly in the range of 3-18 μm and that the release performance of the microcapsules was influenced by pH value of phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The microcapsules had no toxic effects on cells and were successfully grafted onto the surface of cotton fabrics. These results indicated that PentaHerbs loaded CSA microcapsule may possess potential application in clinical treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD).

  14. Bioavailability of Microencapsulated Iron from Fortified Bread Assessed Using Piglet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryszewska, Malgorzata A.; Laghi, Luca; Zannoni, Augusta; Gianotti, Andrea; Barone, Francesca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle L.; Bacci, Maria L.; Ventrella, Domenico; Forni, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oral iron supplementation, in the form of fortified breads, on the growth performance, health, iron status parameters, and fecal metabolome of anemic piglets. A study was conducted on 24 hybrid (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) piglets. From day 44, the post-natal 12 piglets were supplemented with 100 g of one of two experimental breads, each fortified with 21 mg of ferrous sulphate, either encapsulated or not. After one week of oral supplementation, hematological parameters (hematocrit value, hemoglobin, and red blood cells) showed statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05). Piglets fed with the fortified breads had higher iron concentrations in the heart, liver, and intestinal mucosa compared to anemic piglets fed with control bread. Gene expression of hepcidin, iron exporter ferroportin (IREG1), and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), together with concentrations of plasma ferritin, showed no significant statistical differences between groups. Both fortified breads could be used as sources of bioavailable iron. The seven-day intervention trial showed microencapsulation to have only a mild effect on the effectiveness of iron supplementation in the form of fortified bread. PMID:28335378

  15. Fortification of dahi (Indian yoghurt) with omega-3 fatty acids using microencapsulated flaxseed oil microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Sihag, Manvesh Kumar; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit; Sabikhi, Latha

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and characterize omega-3 dahi (Indian yoghurt) through fortification of microencapsulated flaxseed oil powder (MFOP). Four different formulations of MFOP were fortified in dahi @ 1, 2 and 3 % levels and the level of addition was optimized on the basis of sensory scores. Dahi fortified at 2 % level was observed comparable to control, which was further studied for titratable acidity, syneresis, firmness, stickiness, oxidative stability (peroxide value), α-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3) content and sensory attributes during 15d of storage. MFOP fortified dahi showed significantly (p syneresis after 12d of storage. However, peroxide value remained well below (~0.41) to the maximum permissible limit (5 meq peroxides/kg oil) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (1999). Gas-liquid chromatography profile showed ~21 % decrease in ALA content in fortified dahi after 15d of storage. Overall, it can be concluded that flaxseed oil microcapsules could be successfully incorporated in dahi; which could serve as a potential delivery system of omega-3 fatty acids.

  16. Acrylonitrile-methyl Methacrylate Copolymer Films Containing Microencapsulated n-Octadecane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; HAN Na; ZHANG Xing-xiang

    2006-01-01

    Acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate copolymer was synthesized in aqueous solution by Redox. The copolymer was mixed with 10 - 40 wt% of microencapsulated n-octadecane (MicroPCMs) in water. Copolymer films containing MicroPCMs were cast at room temperature in N, N-Dimethylformamide solution. The copolymer of acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate and the copolymer films containing MicroPCMs were characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TG), X-ray Diffrac tion (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), etc.The microcapsules in the films are evenly distributed in the copolymer matrix. The heat-absorbing temperatures and heat-evolving temperatures of the films are almost the same as that of the MicroPCMs, respectively, and fluctuate in a slight range. In addition, the enthalpy efficiency of MicroPCMs rises with the contents of MicroPCMs increasing.The crystallinity of the film increases with the contents of MicroPCMs increasing.

  17. Polymer-surfactant complexes for microencapsulation of vitamin E and its release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipova, A A; Aidarova, S B; Grigoriev, D; Mutalieva, B; Madibekova, G; Tleuova, A; Miller, R

    2016-01-01

    Microencapsulation of vitamin E directly from oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions was carried out by means of a novel practically relevant approach. For the first time, a preformed polyelectrolyte-surfactant complex (sodium polystyrene sulfonate/dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) was simultaneously used as an electrosteric emulsion stabilizer and as a charged precursor for the following build up of microcapsules. Subsequently, a layer-by-layer technique was applied to emulsions leading to the formation of core-shell microcapsules with oily cores and polyelectrolyte shells. The effect of the complexes on the process of emulsion formation and on the stability and characteristics of the resulting emulsions was investigated by measurements of dynamic and equilibrium interfacial tension, size distribution (DLS) and interfacial charge (zeta-potential). The resulting microcapsules were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), Cryo-SEM, size distribution and zeta-potential measurements on each stage of the shell assembly. The release kinetics of vitamin E was monitored during the consecutive steps of the encapsulation procedure using UV-vis spectroscopy and showed the progressive enhancement of sustainability. The developed approach may be promising for the practical use in the cosmetic and food industry.

  18. Reducing Pumping Power in Hydronic Heating and Cooling Systems with Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Kristoffer Jason

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are being used increasingly in a variety of thermal transfer and thermal storage applications. This thesis presents the results of a laboratory study into the feasibility of improving the performance of hydronic heating and cooling systems by adding microcapsules filled with a PCM to the water used as heat transport media in these systems. Microencapsulated PCMs (MPCMs) increase the heat carrying capacity of heat transport liquids by absorbing or releasing heat at a constant temperature through a change of phase. Three sequences of tests and their results are presented: 1) Thermal cycling tests conducted to determine the melting temperatures and extent of supercooling associated with the MPCMs tested. 2) Hydronic performance tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped through a fin-and-tube, air-to-liquid heat exchanger and their thermal transfer performance compared against that of ordinary water. 3) Mechanical stability tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped in a continuous loop in order to gauge the extent of rupture due to pumping. It is shown that slurries consisting of water and MPCMs ˜ 14-24 mum in diameter improve thermal performance and offer the potential for power savings in the form of reduced pumping requirements. In addition, it is shown that while slurries of MPCMs 2-5 mum in diameter appear to exhibit better mechanical stability than slurries of larger diameter MPCMs, the smaller MPCMs appear to reduce the thermal performance of air-to-liquid heat exchangers.

  19. Intraperitoneal injection of microencapsulated Sertoli cells restores muscle morphology and performance in dystrophic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappalupi, Sara; Luca, Giovanni; Mancuso, Francesca; Madaro, Luca; Fallarino, Francesca; Nicoletti, Carmine; Calvitti, Mario; Arato, Iva; Falabella, Giulia; Salvadori, Laura; Di Meo, Antonio; Bufalari, Antonello; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Calafiore, Riccardo; Donato, Rosario; Sorci, Guglielmo

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease characterized by progressive muscle degeneration leading to impaired locomotion, respiratory failure and premature death. In DMD patients, inflammatory events secondary to dystrophin mutation play a major role in the progression of the pathology. Sertoli cells (SeC) have been largely used to protect xenogeneic engraftments or induce trophic effects thanks to their ability to secrete trophic, antiinflammatory, and immunomodulatory factors. Here we have purified SeC from specific pathogen-free (SPF)-certified neonatal pigs, and embedded them into clinical grade alginate microcapsules. We show that a single intraperitoneal injection of microencapsulated SPF SeC (SeC-MC) in an experimental model of DMD can rescue muscle morphology and performance in the absence of pharmacologic immunosuppressive treatments. Once i.p. injected, SeC-MC act as a drug delivery system that modulates the inflammatory response in muscle tissue, and upregulates the expression of the dystrophin paralogue, utrophin in muscles through systemic release of heregulin-β1, thus promoting sarcolemma stability. Analyses performed five months after single injection show high biocompatibility and long-term efficacy of SeC-MC. Our results might open new avenues for the treatment of patients with DMD and related diseases.

  20. Microencapsulation and Storage Stability of Lycopene Extracted from Tomato Processing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul C. Ranveer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to optimize the encapsulation of lycopene using response surface methodology and to determine its stability. The lycopene was extracted from tomato processing industry waste. The extracted pigment was purified by crystallization method. The effect of different process parameters, viz, core to wall ratio, sucrose to gelatin and inlet temperature on encapsulation efficiency (EE and encapsulation yield (EY were studied. Structural study of encapsulated material was carried by using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The samples with and without encapsulation were stored under different conditions such as the presence and absence of air, sunlight, at room temperature and under refrigeration. Highest EE (92.6 ± 0.86 and EY (82.2 ± 0.95 were observed when the core to wall ratio was 1:4, sucrose to gelatin ratio was 7:3 and inlet temperature was 1800C. The SEM analysis showed the encapsulated lycopene was of "bee-net" shaped, whereas lycopene without encapsulation was like "saw dust". More than 90% retention was recorded in microencapsulated sample stored in all storage conditions, whereas sample without encapsulation showed less than 5% retention with sample storage conditions after 42 days of storage. The optimization and storage study would be helpful to the lycopene producer to improve storage stability.

  1. Thermophysical and Mechanical Properties of Hardened Cement Paste with Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Cui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, structural-functional integrated cement-based materials were prepared by employing cement paste and a microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM manufactured using urea-formaldehyde resin as the shell and paraffin as the core material. The encapsulation ratio of the MPCM could reach up to 91.21 wt%. Thermal energy storage cement pastes (TESCPs incorporated with different MPCM contents (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by weight of cement were developed, and their thermal and mechanical properties were studied. The results showed that the total energy storage capacity of the hardened cement specimens with MPCM increased by up to 3.9-times compared with that of the control cement paste. The thermal conductivity at different temperature levels (35–36 °C, 55–56 °C and 72–74 °C decreased with the increase of MPCM content, and the decrease was the highest when the temperature level was 55–56 °C. Moreover, the compressive strength, flexural strength and density of hardened cement paste decreased with the increase in MPCM content linearly. Among the evaluated properties, the compressive strength of TESCPs had a larger and faster degradation with the increase of MPCM content.

  2. Microencapsulation of chia seed oil using chia seed protein isolate-chia seed gum complex coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-10-01

    Chia seed oil (CSO) microcapsules were produced by using chia seed protein isolate (CPI)-chia seed gum (CSG) complex coacervates aiming to enhance the oxidative stability of CSO. The effect of wall material composition, core-to-wall ratio and method of drying on the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) and oxidative stability (OS) was studied The microcapsules produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall material had higher MEE at equivalent payload, lower surface oil and higher OS compared to the microcapsules produced by using CSG and CPI individually. CSO microcapsules produced by using CSG as wall material had lowest MEE (67.3%) and oxidative stability index (OSI=6.6h), whereas CPI-CSG complex coacervate microcapsules had the highest MEE (93.9%) and OSI (12.3h). The MEE and OSI of microcapsules produced by using CPI as wall materials were in between those produced by using CSG and CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall materials. The CSO microcapsules produced by using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as shell matrix at core-to-wall ratio of 1:2 had 6 times longer storage life compared to that of unencapsulated CSO. The peroxide value of CSO microcapsule produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as wall material was <10meq O2/kg oil during 30 days of storage.

  3. Comparison of microencapsulation properties of spruce galactoglucomannans and arabic gum using a model hydrophobic core compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Pia; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Peura, Marko; Kansikas, Jarno; Mikkonen, Kirsi; Willför, Stefan; Tenkanen, Maija; Jouppila, Kirsi

    2010-01-27

    In the present study, microencapsulation and the physical properties of spruce ( Picea abies ) Omicron-acetyl-galactoglucomannans (GGM) were investigated and compared to those of arabic gum (AG). Microcapsules were obtained by freeze-drying oil-in-water emulsions containing 10 wt % capsule materials (AG, GGM, or a 1:1 mixture of GGM-AG) and 2 wt % alpha-tocopherol (a model hydrophobic core compound that oxidizes easily). Microcapsules were stored at relative humidity (RH) of 0, 33, and 66% at 25 degrees C for different time periods, and their alpha-tocopherol content was determined by HPLC. X-ray microtomography analyses showed that the freeze-dried emulsions of GGM had the highest and those of AG the lowest degree of porosity. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, both freeze-dried AG and GGM showed an amorphous nature. The storage test showed that anhydrous AG microcapsules had higher alpha-tocopherol content than GGM-containing capsules, whereas under 33 and 66% RH conditions GGM was superior in relation to the retention of alpha-tocopherol. The good protection ability of GGM was related to its ability to form thicker walls to microcapsules and better physical stability compared to AG. The glass transition temperature of AG was close to the storage temperature (25 degrees C) at RH of 66%, which explains the remarkable losses of alpha-tocopherol in the microcapsules under those conditions.

  4. Microencapsulation of phosphogypsum into a sulfur polymer matrix: Physico-chemical and radiological characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Felix A., E-mail: flopez@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gazquez, Manuel [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Alguacil, Francisco Jose [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bolivar, Juan Pedro [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Garcia-Diaz, Irene [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Coto, Israel [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Microencapsulation of phosphogypsum residues into a sulfur polymer matrix. {yields} Inertization of a waste material. {yields} Radiological characterization of the as built new material (phosphogypsum plus sulfur polymer matrix). - Abstract: The aim of this work is to prepare a new type of phosphogypsum-sulfur polymer cements (PG-SPC) to be utilised in the manufacture of building materials. Physico-chemical and radiological characterization was performed in phosphogypsum and phosphogypsum-sulfur polymer concretes and modeling of exhalation rates has been also carried out. An optimized mixture of the materials was obtained, the solidified material with optimal mixture (sulfur/phosphogypsum = 1:0.9, phosphogypsum dosage = 10-40 wt.%) results in highest strength (54-62 MPa) and low total porosity (2.8-6.8%). The activity concentration index (I) in the PG-SPC is lower than the reference value in the most international regulations and; therefore, these cements can be used without radiological restrictions in the manufacture of building materials. Under normal conditions of ventilation, the contribution to the expected radon indoor concentration in a standard room is below the international recommendations, so the building materials studied in this work can be applied to houses built up under normal ventilation conditions. Additionally, and taking into account that the PG is enriched in several natural radionuclides as {sup 226}Ra, the leaching experiments have demonstrated that environmental impact of the using of SPCs cements with PG is negligible.

  5. Processing of microencapsulated dyes for the visual inspection of fibre reinforced plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Ch., E-mail: kerschbaum@ikv.rwth-aachen.de; Kerschbaum, M., E-mail: kerschbaum@ikv.rwth-aachen.de; Küsters, K., E-mail: kerschbaum@ikv.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Plastics Processing at RWTH Aachen University (IKV), Pontstrasse 49, 52064 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The evaluation of damages caused during processing, assembly or usage of fibre reinforced plastics is still a challenge. The use of inspection technology like ultrasonic scanning enables a detailed damage analysis but requires high investments and trained staff. Therefore, the visual inspection method is widely used. A drawback of this method is the difficult identification of barely visible damages, which can already be detrimental for the structural integrity. Therefore an approach is undertaken to integrate microencapsulated dyes into the laminates of fibre reinforced plastic parts to highlight damages on the surface. In case of a damage, the microcapsules rupture which leads to a release of the dye and a visible bruise on the part surface. To enable a wide application spectrum for this technology the microcapsules must be processable without rupturing with established manufacturing processes for fibre reinforced plastics. Therefore the incorporation of microcapsules in the filament winding, prepreg autoclave and resin transfer moulding (RTM) process is investigated. The results show that the use of a carrier medium is a feasible way to incorporate the microcapsules into the laminate for all investigated manufacturing processes. Impact testing of these laminates shows a bruise formation on the specimen surface which correlates with the impact energy level. This indicates a microcapsule survival during processing and shows the potential of this technology for damage detection and characterization.

  6. Processing of microencapsulated dyes for the visual inspection of fibre reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Kerschbaum, M.; Küsters, K.

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation of damages caused during processing, assembly or usage of fibre reinforced plastics is still a challenge. The use of inspection technology like ultrasonic scanning enables a detailed damage analysis but requires high investments and trained staff. Therefore, the visual inspection method is widely used. A drawback of this method is the difficult identification of barely visible damages, which can already be detrimental for the structural integrity. Therefore an approach is undertaken to integrate microencapsulated dyes into the laminates of fibre reinforced plastic parts to highlight damages on the surface. In case of a damage, the microcapsules rupture which leads to a release of the dye and a visible bruise on the part surface. To enable a wide application spectrum for this technology the microcapsules must be processable without rupturing with established manufacturing processes for fibre reinforced plastics. Therefore the incorporation of microcapsules in the filament winding, prepreg autoclave and resin transfer moulding (RTM) process is investigated. The results show that the use of a carrier medium is a feasible way to incorporate the microcapsules into the laminate for all investigated manufacturing processes. Impact testing of these laminates shows a bruise formation on the specimen surface which correlates with the impact energy level. This indicates a microcapsule survival during processing and shows the potential of this technology for damage detection and characterization.

  7. Microencapsulation by spray-drying of anthocyanin pigments from Corozo ( Bactris guineensis) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Coralia; Acevedo, Baudilio; Hillebrand, Silke; Carriazo, José; Winterhalter, Peter; Morales, Alicia Lucía

    2010-06-09

    The anthocyanins of Bactris guineensis fruit were isolated with the aid of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative HPLC, and their chemical structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods. Among the identified pigments, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside were characterized as major constituents (87.9%). Peonidin-3-rutinoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6-O-malonyl)glucoside, and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were present in minor amounts. Four anthocyanin ethanolic extracts (AEEs) were obtained by osmotic dehydration and Soxhlet extraction and physicochemically characterized. The composition of anthocyanins was monitored by HPLC-PDA. The extracts with the highest anthocyanin content were subjected to the spray-drying process with maltodextrin. The so-obtained spray-dried powders were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found to consist of spherical particles <50 microm in size. The anthocyanin composition was similar to that of the fruit. The microencapsulated powders were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), revealing that they are quite stable until 100 degrees C. Storage stability tests of microcapsules showed that the release of anthocyanin pigments follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and that the process rate is increased by temperature and humidity. The most suitable conditions for storage were below 37 degrees C and <76% relative humidity, respectively.

  8. Influence of microencapsulation and spray drying on the viability of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goderska, Kamila; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    Improved production methods of starter cultures, which constitute the most important element of probiotic preparations, were investigated. The aim of the presented research was to analyse changes in the viability of Lactobacillus. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum after stabilization (spray drying, liophilization, fluidization drying) and storage in refrigerated conditions for 4 months. The highest numbers of live cells, up to the fourth month of storage in refrigerated conditions, of the order of 10(7) cfu/g preparation were recorded for the B. bifidum DSM 20239 bacteria in which the N-Tack starch for spray drying was applied. Fluidization drying of encapsulated bacteria allowed obtaining a preparation of the comparable number of live bacterial cells up to the fourth month of storage with those encapsulated bacteria, which were subjected to freeze-drying but the former process was much shorter. The highest survivability of the encapsulated L. acidophilus DSM 20079 and B. bifidum DSM 20239 cells subjected to freeze-drying was obtained using skimmed milk as the cryoprotective substance. Stabilization of bacteria by microencapsulation can give a product easy to store and apply to produce dried food composition.

  9. Microencapsulation of menhaden fish oil containing soluble rice bran fiber using spray drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuting; Bankston, Joseph David; Bechtel, Peter J; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-05-01

    Emulsion (EFMO) containing purified menhaden oil (PMO) and soluble rice bran fiber (SRBF) was dried in a pilot scale spray dryer and produced microencapsulated PMO with SRBF (MFMO). EFMO had well isolated spherical droplets with the size of 1 to 10 μm and showed pseudoplastic fluid and viscoelastic characteristics. EFMO had lower lipid oxidation than the emulsion containing PMO without SRBF when both emulsions were stored at 20 and 40 °C for 88 h, which indicated that the SRBF reduced the lipid oxidation in the EFMO. The estimated MFMO production rate (3.45 × 10(-5) kg dry solids/s) was higher than the actual production rate (2.31 × 10(-5) kg dry solids/s). The energy required to spray dry the EFMO was 12232 kJ/kg of emulsion. EPA and DHA contents of MFMO were 11.52% and 4.51%, respectively. The particle size of 90% MFMO ranged from 8 to 62 μm, and the volume-length diameter of MFMO was 28.5 μm.

  10. Optimization of Garlic Oil Microencapsulation Technology%大蒜精油微胶囊化工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈小媛; 罗爱平

    2011-01-01

    The wall materials of garlic essential oil microencapsulation were selected using emulsified embedding method, and various factors affecting the microencapsulation of garlic essential oil were optimized by L, (34) orthogonal experiment design in the current work. The results showed that soy protein isolate ( SPI) and maltodextrin (MD) were better compound materials. The best ratio of SPI to MD was 1 = 2, and that of core to wall was 1. 0:2.5. The optimal content of emulsifier and solid substance were 0.4% and 20% , respectively. Based on the optimized conditions, the microencapsulating efficiency and yield of garlic essential oil were around 81.77% and 73.4% , respectively.%采用乳化包埋法制备大蒜精油微胶囊,以筛选大蒜精油微胶囊化壁材.并采用L9(34)正交试验设计对影响大蒜精油微胶囊包埋效果的主要因素进行优化.结果表明:壁材中大豆分离蛋白与麦芽糊精最佳配比1∶2,黄原胶占固形物含量0.3%,芯材与壁材适宜比例1.0∶2.5,乳化剂用量为总料液0.4%、固形物含量20%时,大蒜精油微胶囊包埋效果最佳,包埋率、产率分别可达81.77%、73.40%.

  11. Study on the Microencapsulation of Beef Essence%牛肉香精微胶囊化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中胜; 镡雪莹; 查恩辉

    2013-01-01

    以微胶囊化效率作为选择的指标,对均质和喷雾干燥的条件进一步优化,确定了最佳的均质和喷雾干燥的工艺参数:均质压力3级,进风温度180℃,出风温度100℃.当乳化剂添加量为0.4%,明胶∶卡拉胶为3∶7,香精添加量为40%时,微胶囊化的效率最高,达到91.26%.微胶囊化后的牛肉香精香型稳定、留香时间长、颜色均一、流动性好、扩散快.%The homogenate and spray drying conditions are investigated with the microencapsulation efficiency as index.The optimal process parameters are:homogenization at the third grade,inlet temperature of 180 ℃,outlet temperature of 100 ℃.The microencapsulation efficiency reaches the highest level of 91.26% under the conditions that 0.4% of emulsifier,gelatine and carrageenan ratio of 3 ∶ 7 and 40% of beef essence.The microencapsulated beef essence has the characteristics of flavor stability,longer fragrance holding time,homogeneous color,better flowability and faster diffusion.

  12. A new experimental method to determine specific heat capacity of inhomogeneous concrete material with incorporated microencapsulated-PCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund;

    2014-01-01

    The study presented in this paper focuses on an experimental investigation of the specific heat capacity as a function of the temperature Cp (T) of concrete mixed with various amounts of phase change material (PCM). The tested specimens are prepared by directly mixing concrete and microencapsulated...... PCM. This paper describes the development of the new material and the experimental set-up to determine the specific heat capacity of the PCM concrete material. Moreover, various methods are proposed and compared to calculate the specific heat capacity of the PCM concrete. Finally, it is hoped...

  13. Effect of whey protein isolate and β-cyclodextrin wall systems on stability of microencapsulated vanillin by spray-freeze drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundre, Swetank Y; Karthik, P; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2015-05-01

    Vanillin flavour is highly volatile in nature and due to that application in food incorporation is limited; hence microencapsulation of vanillin is an ideal technique to increase its stability and functionality. In this study, vanillin was microencapsulated for the first time by non-thermal spray-freeze-drying (SFD) technique and its stability was compared with other conventional techniques such as spray drying (SD) and freeze-drying (FD). Different wall materials like β-cyclodextrin (β-cyd), whey protein isolate (WPI) and combinations of these wall materials (β-cyd + WPI) were used to encapsulate vanillin. SFD microencapsulated vanillin with WPI showed spherical shape with numerous fine pores on the surface, which in turn exhibited good rehydration ability. On the other hand, SD powder depicted spherical shape without pores and FD encapsulated powder yielded larger particle sizes with flaky structure. FTIR analysis confirmed that there was no interaction between vanillin and wall materials. Moreover, spray-freeze-dried vanillin + WPI sample exhibited better thermal stability than spray dried and freeze-dried microencapsulated samples.

  14. 微胶囊多孔淀粉的制备及应用研究进展%Progress in Preparation and Application of Microencapsulated Porous Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹卓林; 解乐福; 李艳杰; 马烽

    2014-01-01

    Porous starch has large specific pore volume and specific surface area , strong adsorption capacity and good mechanical strength. Microencapsulated porous starch is prepared by porous starch microencapsulation , which has high storage stability and can be used more conveniently. Microencapsulated porous starch has brilliant application prospects in food,pharmaceutical and pesticide etc. In this paper, preparation methods, characteristics and applications of microencapsulated porous starch are reviewed , and its potential development is prospected.%多孔淀粉具有较大的比孔容和比表面积、较强的吸附能力和良好的机械强度。将多孔淀粉微胶囊化制备微胶囊多孔淀粉,可延长包埋物质的贮存稳定性且使用更方便,在食品、医药、农药等领域有着广阔的应用前景。本文综述了微胶囊多孔淀粉的制备方法、性能及应用,并对其发展前景进行了展望。

  15. Study on the Protection of Probiotic by Microencapsulation Technology%微胶囊技术在益生菌保护中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志焱; 李伟; 李金敏; 张菊; 于燕; 谷巍

    2012-01-01

    Through microencapsulation technology to protect probiotics which can be extend the preservation period of probiotics in a certain range,and to reduce the loss when passing stomach and intestine.It summarized current techniques of microencapsulation on probiotics and the effect on the stability of microencapsulated probiotics,discussed the existing problems and the prospects of microencapsulated probiotics.%通过微胶囊技术对益生菌进行保护,可以在一定范围内延长益生菌制剂的保存期,并尽量减少其通过胃肠道时的损失。介绍了不同益生菌的微胶囊化制备方法及微胶囊技术在益生菌保护中的应用,探讨了微胶囊技术中存在的问题,并对微胶囊技术的应用前景进行了展望。

  16. Microencapsulation of a putative probiotic Enterobacter species, C6-6, to protect rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), against bacterial coldwater disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, B; Cain, K D; Nowak, B F; Bridle, A R

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), which has a major impact on salmonid aquaculture globally. An Enterobacter species, C6-6, isolated from the gut of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), has been identified as a potential probiotic species providing protection against BCWD. This study examined the effects of alginate microencapsulation on the protective efficacy of C6-6 against BCWD in vivo when administered to rainbow trout fry orally or by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Viable C6-6 bacteria were microencapsulated successfully, and this process (microencapsulation) did not significantly deteriorate its protective properties as compared to the administration of non-microencapsulated C6-6 bacteria. Both oral and IP delivery of C6-6 achieved significantly better protection than control treatments that did not contain C6-6 bacteria. The highest relative percent survival (RPS) resulted from IP delivery (71.4%) and was significantly greater than the highest oral RPS (38.6%). Successful intestinal colonization was not critical to protective effects of C6-6. The study showed that C6-6 administration, with or without encapsulation, was a viable choice for protecting fry from BCWD especially when administered intraperitoneally.

  17. Microencapsulation technology and its application in food processing%微胶囊技术及其在食品加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 秦翠丽

    2009-01-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the current high-new technologies, and is widely used. Microencapsulation is not just an added value for products, but also the source of totally new ingredients with matchless properties. The microencapsulation methods were summarized here, as well as the comparison on their technical characteristics, applications and unique capacities. The applications of microencapsulation in food processing were also discussed briefly.%微胶囊技术是目前研究开发的高新技术之一,利用微胶囊化方法不仅可增加产品的附加值,更是获得优良性新原料的良好来源.文中概述了常用的微胶囊化的方法,并从工艺特点、适用概况和独特性能上进行比较,简述了其在食品加工中的应用.

  18. Suppression of Tumorigenesis: Modulation of Inflammatory Cytokines by Oral Administration of Microencapsulated Probiotic Yogurt Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Malgorzata Urbanska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the ability of a novel microencapsulated probiotic yogurt formulation to suppress the intestinal inflammation. We assessed its anticancer activity by screening interleukin-1, 6, and 12 (IL-1, 6, 12, secretory levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, prostaglandin E2  (PGE2, and thromboxane B2 in the digesta obtained from the duodenum, jejunum, proximal, and distal segments of the ileum of C57BL/6J-ApcMin/J mice. Formulation-receiving animals showed consistently lower proinflammatory cytokines' levels when compared to control group animals receiving empty alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA microcapsules suspended in saline. The concentrations of IL-12 found in serum in control and treatment group animals were significant: 46.58±16.96 pg/mL and 158.58±28.56 pg/mL for control and treatment animals, respectively. We determined a significant change in plasma C-reactive protein: 81.04±23.73 ng/mL in control group and 64.21±16.64 ng/mL in treatment group. Western blots showed a 71% downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 protein in treatment group animals compared to control. These results point to the possibility of using this yogurt formulation in anticancer therapies, in addition to chronic gut diseases such as Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD thanks to its inflammation lowering properties.

  19. Carrier-microencapsulation using Si-catechol complex for suppressing pyrite floatability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, R.K.T.; Satur, J.; Hiroyoshi, N.; Ito, M.; Tsunekawa, M. [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2008-11-15

    Pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) is a common sulfide mineral associated with valuable metal minerals and coal, and it is rejected as a gangue mineral using physical separation techniques such as froth flotation and discharged into tailing pond. In the flotation, pyrite is frequently entrapped in the froth due to its hydrophobic nature. Formation of acid mine drainage due to the air-oxidation of pyrite in the tailing pond is also a serious problem. The authors have proposed carrier-microencapsulation (CME) as a method for suppressing both the floatability and oxidation of pyrite. In this method, pyrite is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide or hydroxide using catechol solution as a carrier combined with metal ions. The layer converts the pyrite surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and acts as a protective coating against oxidation. The present study demonstrates the effect of CME using Si-catechol complex to suppress the pyrite floatability: The bubble pick-up experiments showed that attachment of pyrite particles to air bubble is suppressed by the CME treatment at pH 4-10, Si-catechol complex concentration over 0.5 mol m{sup -3} and treatment time within 2 min. The Hallimond tube flotation experiments showed that the pyrite floatability is suppressed by the CME treatment even in the presence of typical flotation collectors such as kerosene and xanthate. SEM-EDX analysis confirmed that Si present on the pyrite surface treated by Si-catechol complex, implying that SiO{sub 2} or SiOH{sub 4} layer formed by the CME treatment convert the pyrite surface hydrophobic to hydrophilic.

  20. Improved green coffee oil antioxidant activity for cosmetical purpose by spray drying microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B.F.L. Nosari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe oil extracted by cold pressing unroasted coffee beans, known as green coffee oil, has been widely used for cosmetic purposes. The objective of this work was to prepare and characterize microcapsules containing green coffee oil and to verify its antioxidant activity under the effect of light, heat and oxygen. The encapsulating material was arabic gum and the microcapsules were obtained by spray drying an oil-in-water emulsion containing green coffee oil. The characterization of the microcapsules was performed by laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by a modified active oxygen method with light irradiation, heating and oxygen flux. The microparticles were effectively produced by the proposed spray drying method, which resulted in green coffee oil loads of 10 and 30%. The morphological evaluation of microcapsules showed spherical shape with smooth and non-porous surfaces, demonstrating the adequacy of arabic gum as encapsulating material. Calorimetric analysis of individual components and microcapsules with 10 and 30% green coffee oil showed diminished degradation temperatures and enthalpy, suggesting a possible interaction between arabic gum and green coffee oil. The antioxidant activities for pure green coffee oil and its microcapsules with loads of 10 and 30% showed high activity when compared to the reference antioxidant alfa-tocopherol. Microcapsules containing 10 and 30% of oil showed 7-fold and 3-fold increase in antioxidant activity when compared to pure green coffee oil. The new method for antioxidant activity determination proposed here, which applies heat, light and oxygen simultaneously, suggests a high improvement in encapsulated green coffee oil when compared to this active alone. The results showed herein indicate a promising industrial application of this microencapsulated green coffee oil.

  1. Evaluation of some residual bioactivities of microencapsulated Phaseolus lunatus protein fraction with carboxymethylated flamboyant (Delonix regia gum/sodium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukthar Sandovai-Peraza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown the beneficial effect of peptides, an unexploited source could be Phaseolus lunatus being an important raw material for those functional products in order to improve their utilization. In addition to improve the beneficial effect of bioactive peptides the microencapsulation could be a way to protect the peptides against the environment to which they are exposed. P. lunatus protein fraction (<10 kDa of weight was encapsulated using a blend of carboxymethylated flamboyant gum (CFG and sodium alginate (SA at different concentrations of CaCl2 and hardening times. After in vitro digestion of microcapsules the residual activity, in the intestinal system, both inhibition of agiotensin-converting enzyme (I-ACE and antioxidant activity obtained were in a range of 0.019-0.136 mg/mL and 570.64-813.54 mM of TEAC respectively. The microencapsulation employed CFG/SA blends could be used controlled delivery of peptide fractions with potential use as a nutraceutical or therapeutic agents.

  2. Microencapsulation of citronella oil by complex coacervation using chitosan-gelatin (b system: operating design, preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Fitrah Rabani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citronella oil (CO can be an effective mosquito repellent, but due to its nature which having high volatility, oils rapidly evaporates causing loss of efficacy and shorten the repellent effect. Therefore, microencapsulation technology was implemented to ensure the encapsulated material being protected from immediate contact with environment and offers controlled release. In this study, microencapsulation of CO was done by employing complex coacervation using chitosan-gelatin (B system and utilized proanthocyanidins as the crosslinker. Remarkably, nearly all material involved in this study are from natural sources which are safe to human and environment. In designing operating process condition for CO encapsulation process, we found that wall ratio of 1:35 and pH 5 was the best operating condition based on zeta potential and turbidity analysis. FT-IR analysis found that gelatin-B had coated the CO droplet during emulsification stage, chitosan started to interact with gelatin-B to form a polyelectrolyte complex in adjust pH stage, CO capsules solidified at cooling process and were hardened during crosslinking process. Final product of CO capsules after settling process was identified at the top layer. Surface morphology of CO capsules obtained in this study were described having diameter varies from 81.63 µm to 156.74 µm with almost spherical in shape.

  3. Preparation of sustained-release coated particles by novel microencapsulation method using three-fluid nozzle spray drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2014-01-23

    We prepared sustained-release microcapsules using a three-fluid nozzle (3N) spray drying technique. The 3N has a unique, three-layered concentric structure composed of inner and outer liquid nozzles, and an outermost gas nozzle. Composite particles were prepared by spraying a drug suspension and an ethylcellulose solution via the inner and outer nozzles, respectively, and mixed at the nozzle tip (3N-PostMix). 3N-PostMix particles exhibited a corrugated surface and similar contact angles as ethylcellulose bulk, thus suggesting encapsulation with ethylcellulose, resulting in the achievement of sustained release. To investigate the microencapsulation process via this approach and its usability, methods through which the suspension and solution were sprayed separately via two of the four-fluid nozzle (4N) (4N-PostMix) and a mixture of the suspension and solution was sprayed via 3N (3N-PreMix) were used as references. It was found that 3N can obtain smaller particles than 4N. The results for contact angle and drug release corresponded, thus suggesting that 3N-PostMix particles are more effectively coated by ethylcellulose, and can achieve higher-level controlled release than 4N-PostMix particles, while 3N-PreMix particles are not encapsulated with pure ethylcellulose, leading to rapid release. This study demonstrated that the 3N spray drying technique is useful as a novel microencapsulation method.

  4. Elastic silicone encapsulation of n-hexadecyl bromide by microfluidic approach as novel microencapsulated phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zhenjin [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Su, Lin; Li, Jing; Yang, Ruizhuang; Zhang, Zhanwen; Liu, Meifang; Li, Jie [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Bo, E-mail: LB6711@126.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • n-Hexadecyl bromide was encapsuled in elastic silicone shell. • The surfaces of microcapsules were smooth and the cross sections were compact. • Latent heat of microcapsules was 76.35 J g{sup −1}. • The microencapsulation ratio was 49 wt.%. • The microcapsules had good thermal stability. - Abstract: The elastic silicone/n-hexadecyl bromide microcapsules were prepared as novel microencapsulated phase change materials by microfluidic approach with the co-flowing channels, where the double oil1-in-oil2-in-water (O1/O2/W) droplets with a core–shell geometry were fabricated. The thermal characterizations of the microcapsules were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The DSC results showed that the microcapsules had good energy storage capacity with melting and freezing enthalpies 76.35 J g{sup −1} and 78.67 J g{sup −1}, respectively. The TGA investigation showed that the microcapsules had good thermal stability. The surfaces of microcapsules were smooth and the cross sections were compact from the results of optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical microscope showed that the silicone shell can provide expansion place due to its elastic property. Therefore, the silicone/n-hexadecyl bromide microcapsules showed good potential as thermal regulating textile and thermal insulation materials.

  5. Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in Solar-Thermal Conversion Systems: Understanding Geometry-Dependent Heating Efficiency and System Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoliang; Chang, Zhuo; Xu, Guang-Kui; McBride, Fiona; Ho, Alexandra; Zhuola, Zhuola; Michailidis, Marios; Li, Wei; Raval, Rasmita; Akhtar, Riaz; Shchukin, Dmitry

    2017-01-24

    The performance of solar-thermal conversion systems can be improved by incorporation of nanocarbon-stabilized microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCMs). The geometry of MPCMs in the microcapsules plays an important role for improving their heating efficiency and reliability. Yet few efforts have been made to critically examine the formation mechanism of different geometries and their effect on MPCMs-shell interaction. Herein, through changing the cooling rate of original emulsions, we acquire MPCMs within the nanocarbon microcapsules with a hollow structure of MPCMs (h-MPCMs) or solid PCM core particles (s-MPCMs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy reveals that the capsule shell of the h-MPCMs is enriched with nanocarbons and has a greater MPCMs-shell interaction compared to s-MPCMs. This results in the h-MPCMs being more stable and having greater heat diffusivity within and above the phase transition range than the s-MPCMs do. The geometry-dependent heating efficiency and system stability may have important and general implications for the fundamental understanding of microencapsulation and wider breadth of heating generating systems.

  6. Surface characterization of an energetic material, pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), having a thin coating achieved through a starved addition microencapsulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, C.M.

    1986-05-07

    The objective of this research was to: (1) determine the nature of a thin coating on an explosive material which was applied using a starved addition microencapsulation technique, (2) understand the coating/crystal bond, and (3) investigate the wettability/adhesion of plastic/solvent combinations using the coating process. The coating used in this work was a Firestone Plastic Company copolymer (FPC-461) of vinylchloride/trifluorochloroethylene in a 1.5/1.0 weight ratio. The energetic explosive examined was pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN). The coating process used was starved addition followed by a solvent evaporation technique. Surface analytical studies, completed for characterization of the coating process, show (1) evidence that the polymer coating is present, but not continuous, over the surface of PETN; (2) the average thickness of the polymer coating is between 16-32 A and greater than 44 A, respectively, for 0.5 and 20 wt % coated PETN; (3) no changes in surface chemistry of the polymer or the explosive material following microencapsulation; and (4) the presence of explosive material on the surface of 0.5 wt % FPC-461 coated explosives. 5 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Alginate Microencapsulation for Oral Immunisation of Finfish: Release Characteristics, Ex Vivo Intestinal Uptake and In Vivo Administration in Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bikramjit; Nowak, Barbara F; Bridle, Andrew R

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility of alginate microcapsules manufactured using a low-impact technology and reagents to protect orally delivered immunogens for use as immunoprophylactics for fish. Physical characteristics and protein release kinetics of the microcapsules were examined at different pH and temperature levels using a microencapsulated model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Impact of the microencapsulation process on contents was determined by analysing change in bioactivity of microencapsulated lysozyme. Feasibility of the method for oral immunoprophylaxis of finfish was assessed using FITC-labelled microcapsules. These were applied to distal intestinal explants of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to investigate uptake ex vivo. Systemic distribution of microcapsules was investigated by oral administration of FITC-labelled microcapsules to Atlantic salmon fry by incorporating into feed. The microcapsules produced were structurally robust and retained surface integrity, with a modal size distribution of 250-750 nm and a tendency to aggregate. Entrapment efficiency of microencapsulation was 51.2 % for BSA and 43.2 % in the case of lysozyme. Microcapsules demonstrated controlled release of protein, which increased with increasing pH or temperature, and the process had no significant negative effect on bioactivity of lysozyme. Uptake of fluorescent-labelled microcapsules was clearly demonstrated by intestinal explants over a 24-h period. Evidence of microcapsules was found in the intestine, spleen, kidney and liver of fry following oral administration. Amenability of the microcapsules to intestinal uptake and distribution reinforced the strong potential for use of this microencapsulation method in oral immunoprophylaxis of finfish using sensitive immunogenic substances.

  8. Microencapsulated Aliivibrio fischeri in Alginate Microspheres for Monitoring Heavy Metal Toxicity in Environmental Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Futra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article a luminescence fiber optic biosensor for the microdetection of heavy metal toxicity in waters based on the marine bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri (A. fischeri encapsulated in alginate microspheres is described. Cu(II, Cd(II, Pb(II, Zn(II, Cr(VI, Co(II, Ni(II, Ag(I and Fe(II were selected as sample toxic heavy metal ions for evaluation of the performance of this toxicity microbiosensor. The loss of bioluminescence response from immobilized A. fischeri bacterial cells corresponds to changes in the toxicity levels. The inhibition of the luminescent biosensor response collected at excitation and emission wavelengths of 287 ± 2 nm and 487 ± 2 nm, respectively, was found to be reproducible and repeatable within the relative standard deviation (RSD range of 2.4–5.7% (n = 8. The toxicity biosensor based on alginate micropsheres exhibited a lower limit of detection (LOD for Cu(II (6.40 μg/L, Cd(II (1.56 μg/L, Pb(II (47 μg/L, Ag(I (18 μg/L than Zn(II (320 μg/L, Cr(VI (1,000 μg/L, Co(II (1700 μg/L, Ni(II (2800 μg/L, and Fe(III (3100 μg/L. Such LOD values are lower when compared with other previous reported whole cell toxicity biosensors using agar gel, agarose gel and cellulose membrane biomatrices used for the immobilization of bacterial cells. The A. fischeri bacteria microencapsulated in alginate biopolymer could maintain their metabolic activity for a prolonged period of up to six weeks without any noticeable changes in the bioluminescence response. The bioluminescent biosensor could also be used for the determination of antagonistic toxicity levels for toxicant mixtures. A comparison of the results obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and using the proposed luminescent A. fischeri-based biosensor suggests that the optical toxicity biosensor can be used for quantitative microdetermination of heavy metal toxicity in environmental water samples.

  9. A biomimetic approach to active self-microencapsulation of proteins in PLGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ronak B; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2014-12-28

    A biomimetic approach to organic solvent-free microencapsulation of proteins based on the self-healing capacity of poly (DL)-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres containing glycosaminoglycan-like biopolymers (BPs), was examined. To screen BPs, aqueous solutions of BP [high molecular weight dextran sulfate (HDS), low molecular weight dextran sulfate (LDS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin (HP), hyaluronic acid (HA), chitosan (CH)] and model protein lysozyme (LYZ) were combined in different molar and mass ratios, at 37 °C and pH7. The BP-PLGA microspheres (20-63 μm) were prepared by a double water-oil-water emulsion method with a range of BP content, and trehalose and MgCO3 to control microclimate pH and to create percolating pores for protein. Biomimetic active self-encapsulation (ASE) of proteins [LYZ, vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FgF-20)] was accomplished by incubating blank BP-PLGA microspheres in low concentration protein solutions at ~24 °C, for 48 h. Pore closure was induced at 42.5 °C under mild agitation for 42h. Formulation parameters of BP-PLGA microspheres and loading conditions were studied to optimize protein loading and subsequent release. LDS and HP were found to bind >95% LYZ at BP:LYZ>0.125 w/w, whereas HDS and CS bound >80% LYZ at BP:LYZ of 0.25-1 and 2% w/w of LYZ). Sulfated BP-PLGA microspheres were capable of loading LYZ (~2-7% w/w), VEGF (~4% w/w), and FgF-20 (~2% w/w) with high efficiency. Protein loading was found to be dependent on the loading solution concentration, with higher protein loading obtained at higher loading solution concentration within the range investigated. Loading also increased with content of sulfated BP in microspheres. Release kinetics of proteins was evaluated in-vitro with complete release media replacement. Rate and extent of release were found to depend upon volume of release (with non-sink conditions observed 90% of protein being enzymatically active. Nearly

  10. NEUTRONICS STUDIES OF URANIUM-BASED FULLY CERAMIC MICRO-ENCAPSULATED FUEL FOR PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Nathan M [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Godfrey, Andrew T [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the core neutronics and fuel cycle characteristics that result from employing uranium-based fully ceramic micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Specific PWR bundle designs with FCM fuel have been developed, which by virtue of their TRISO particle based elements, are expected to safely reach higher fuel burnups while also increasing the tolerance to fuel failures. The SCALE 6.1 code package, developed and maintained at ORNL, was the primary software employed to model these designs. Analysis was performed using the SCALE double-heterogeneous (DH) fuel modeling capabilities. For cases evaluated with the NESTLE full-core three-dimensional nodal simulator, because the feature to perform DH lattice physics branches with the SCALE/TRITON sequence is not yet available, the Reactivity-Equivalent Physical Transformation (RPT) method was used as workaround to support the full core analyses. As part of the fuel assembly design evaluations, fresh feed lattices were modeled to analyze the within-assembly pin power peaking. Also, a color-set array of assemblies was constructed to evaluate power peaking and power sharing between a once-burned and a fresh feed assembly. In addition, a parametric study was performed by varying the various TRISO particle design features; such as kernel diameter, coating layer thicknesses, and packing fractions. Also, other features such as the selection of matrix material (SiC, Zirconium) and fuel rod dimensions were perturbed. After evaluating different uranium-based fuels, the higher physical density of uranium mononitride (UN) proved to be favorable, as the parametric studies showed that the FCM particle fuel design will need roughly 12% additional fissile material in comparison to that of a standard UO2 rod in order to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle. Neutronically, the FCM fuel designs evaluated maintain acceptable design features in the areas of fuel lifetime, temperature

  11. Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2014-04-01

    A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  13. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  14. Effectiveness of silica based sol-gel microencapsulation method for odorants and flavors leading to sustainable environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Khan, Aysha Masood; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sarfraz, Maliha

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation has become a hot topic in chemical research. Technology mainly used for control release and protection purposes. The sol-gel micro encapsulation approach for fragrance and aroma in porous silica-based materials leads to sustainable odorant and flavored materials with novel and unique beneficial properties. Sol-gel encapsulation of silica based micro particles considered economically cheap as capital investment in manufacturing is very low and environmentally friendly. Amorphous sol-gel SiO2 is non-toxic and safe, whereas the sol-gel entrapment of delicate chemicals in its inner pores results in pronounced chemical and physical stabilization of the entrapped active agents, thereby broadening the practical utilization of chemically unstable essential oils (EOs). Reviewing progress in the fabrication of diverse odorant and flavored sol-gels, shows us how different synthetic strategies are appropriate for practical application with important health and environmental benefits.

  15. Enhancing safety and shelf life of fresh-cut mango by application of edible coatings and microencapsulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani, Majid

    2014-05-01

    Mango pulp is very perishable and so has a short shelf life, which both marketers and consumers would like to be longer. Manually sliced mango was treated by coating opuntia mucilage-rosemary oil (Mu + RO), 2 g rosemary oil microencapsul (ROM), and 2 g (ROM) plus (Mu + RO); the treated mango pieces were placed in plastic trays, and overwrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 6°C. Changes in the quality parameters and activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme were evaluated for 9 days of storage period. These treatments retarded loss of ascorbic acid and the drop in sensory acceptability, fewer changes in color, decreasing activity POD enzyme. These also inhibited the decay incidence and slowed microbial growth. The (Mu + RO) treatment was more effective in controlling postharvest quality as compared to the (ROM) treatment, but the data reveal that applying the compound treatment effectively prolongs the quality attributes and extends the storage life of sliced mango fruit.

  16. Microencapsulated jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) extract added to fresh sausage as natural dye with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, Juliana Cristina; Michelin, Euder Cesar; Polizer, Yana Jorge; Rodrigues, Isabela; de Godoy, Silvia Helena Seraphin; Fregonesi, Raul Pereira; Pires, Manoela Alves; Carvalho, Larissa Tátero; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen Silvia; de Lima, César Gonçalves; Fernandes, Andrezza Maria; Trindade, Marco Antonio

    2016-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the addition of microencapsulated jabuticaba extract (MJE) to fresh sausage as natural dye with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Fresh sausages without dye, with cochineal carmine and with addition of 2% and 4% MJE were evaluated for chemical, microbiological and sensory properties during 15days of refrigerated storage. TBARS values were lower (Pcarmine treatments (from 0.3 to 0.6mg of malondialdehyde/kg sample). T2% and T4% also showed lower microbial counts on storage days 4 and 15 for APCs. The addition of 4% MJE negatively influenced (P0.05) sensory acceptance to control and carmine treatments in most of the attributes evaluated except for a decrease in color. Thus, addition of 2% MJE to fresh sausage can be considered as a natural pigment ingredient.

  17. Storage stability of phenolic compounds in powdered BRS Violeta grape juice microencapsulated with protein and maltodextrin blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Poliana; Telis, Vânia Regina Nicoletti; de Andrade Neves, Nathália; García-Romero, Esteban; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2017-01-01

    The stabilities of the phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour parameters of microencapsulated powdered BRS Violeta red grape juice were evaluated throughout storage at 5, 25 and 35°C for up to 150days. Different soy protein (S) or whey protein (W) blends with maltodextrin (M) were used as carrier agents, added at diverse concentrations and proportions. The treatment combining S and M with the highest carrier agent concentration (1SM) preserved almost all the anthocyanins. Except for 1SM, the proportion of p-coumaroylated anthocyanins increased during storage, and the flavonol content of the 1SM powder decreased after 150days. The hydroxycinnamate content decreased for all treatments, independent of storage temperature, and flavan-3-ols were lost at 35°C. The time and temperature did not influence the antioxidant activity of the powder or the colour of the reconstituted grape juice after 150days.

  18. Influence of different combinations of wall materials on the microencapsulation of jussara pulp (Euterpe edulis) by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Audirene A; Cano-Higuita, Diana M; de Oliveira, Rafael A; Telis, Vânia R N

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study the spray drying of jussara pulp using ternary mixtures of gum Arabic (GA) and modified starch (MS) together with either whey protein concentrate (WPC) or soy protein isolate (SPI), as the carrier agents. Two experimental mixture designs and triangular response surfaces were used to evaluate the effects of the mixtures on the responses for powders formulated with GA:MS:WPC and GA:MS:SPI, respectively. The spray drying process was selected for each carrier agent mixture, aiming to maximum the process yield (PY), solubility (S), retention of total anthocyanins (RTA) and encapsulation efficiency (EE). It was shown that the ternary formulations showed higher PY, S and RTA than the pure and binary formulations, as well as good results for EE and a low moisture content, showing that the use of GA and MS together with either WPC or SPI provide better microencapsulation of the jussara pulp.

  19. Structural and oxidative stabilization of spray dried fish oil microencapsulates with gum arabic and sage polyphenols: Characterization and release kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsi, P K; Nayak, Natasha; Sarkar, P C; Jeyakumari, A; Muhamed Ashraf, P; Ninan, George; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-03-15

    The synergistic efficacy of gum arabic and sage polyphenols in stabilising capsule wall and protecting fish oil encapsulates from heat induced disruption and oxidative deterioration during spray drying was assessed. The emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate as wall polymer, gum arabic as wall co-polymer and sage extract as wall stabiliser was spray dried using a single fluid nozzle. Fish oil encapsulates stabilised with gum arabic and sage extract (SOE) exhibited significantly higher encapsulation efficiency compared to encapsulates containing gum arabic alone (FOE). Scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images revealed uniform encapsulates with good sphericity and smooth surface for SOE, compared to FOE powder. In vitro oil release of microencapsulates indicated negligible oil release in buffered saline whereas more than 80% of the oil loaded in encapsulates were released in simulated GI fluids. The encapsulates containing sage extract showed a lower rate of lipid oxidation during storage.

  20. Microencapsulation of sulforaphane from broccoli seed extracts by gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Saldaña, Jesús S; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Cantú-Soto, Ernesto U; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2016-06-15

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that has received attention in recent years due to its chemopreventive properties. However, the uses and applications of this compound are very limited, because is an unstable molecule that is degraded mainly by changes in temperature and pH. In this research, the use of food grade polymers for microencapsulation of sulforaphane was studied by a complex coacervation method using the interaction of oppositely charged polymers as gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin. The polymers used were previously characterized in moisture content, ash and nitrogen. The encapsulation yield was over 80%. The gelatin/pectin complex had highest encapsulation efficiency with 17.91%. The presence of sulforaphane in the complexes was confirmed by FTIR and UV/visible spectroscopy. The materials used in this work could be a new and attractive option for the protection of sulforaphane.

  1. Effectiveness of silica based Sol-gel microencapsulation Method for odorants and flavours leading to sustainable Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aqeel eAshraf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation has become a hot topic in chemical research. Technology mainly used for control release and protection purposes. The sol–gel micro encapsulation approach for fragrance and aroma in porous silica-based materials leads to sustainable odorant and flavored materials with novel and unique beneficial properties. Sol-gel encapsulation of silica based micro particles considered economically cheap as capital investment in manufacturing is very low and environmentally friendly. Amorphous sol–gel SiO2 is non-toxic and safe, whereas the sol–gel entrapment of delicate chemicals in its inner pores results in pronounced chemical and physical stabilization of the entrapped actives, thereby broadening the practical utilization of chemically unstable essential oils. Reviewing progress in the fabrication of diverse odorant and flavoured sol-gels, shows us how different synthetic strategies are appropriate for practical application with important health and environmental benefits.

  2. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 by spray-drying using sweet whey and skim milk as encapsulating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, G M; Chaves, K S; Grosso, C R F; Gigante, M L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulating material on encapsulation yield, resistance to passage through simulated gastrointestinal conditions, and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 during storage. Microparticles were produced from reconstituted sweet whey or skim milk (30% total solids) inoculated with a suspension of L. acidophilus La-5 (1% vol/vol) and subjected to spray-drying at inlet and outlet temperatures of 180°C and 85 to 95°C, respectively. The samples were packed, vacuum-sealed, and stored at 4°C and 25°C. Encapsulation yield, moisture content, and resistance of microencapsulated L. acidophilus La-5 compared with free cells (control) during exposure to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions (pH 2.0 and 7.0) were evaluated. Viability was assessed after 0, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90d of storage. The experiments were repeated 3 times and data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test for the comparison between means. The encapsulating material did not significantly affect encapsulation yield, average diameter, or moisture of the particles, which averaged 76.58±4.72%, 12.94±0.78μm, and 4.53±0.32%, respectively. Both microparticle types were effective in protecting the probiotic during gastrointestinal simulation, and the skim milk microparticles favored an increase in viability of L. acidophilus La-5. Regardless of the encapsulating material and temperature of storage, viability of the microencapsulated L. acidophilus La-5 decreased on average 0.43 log cfu/g at the end of 90d of storage, remaining higher than 10(6)cfu/g.

  3. Study on the Microencapsulation of Onion Oil%洋葱精油微胶囊化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 韦杰; 郑二丽; 许彩虹

    2015-01-01

    The spray-drying and microencapsulation technology is used to embed the onion oil into certain wall materials.Take encapsulation rate as the main evaluation index,the optimum processing conditions of microencapsulation of onion oil are optimized by single-factor experiment and the orthogonal experiment as follows:the ratio of core material and wall material is 1∶4 ,the ratio of arabic gum and malt dextrin is 4∶3 ,the dosage of emulsifier is 0 .4%,the solids concentration is 20%.Based on the optimized conditions,the average encapsulation rate can reach 79.69%.%以洋葱精油为研究对象,采用微胶囊技术和喷雾干燥技术对洋葱精油进行包埋,以包埋率为主要指标,通过单因素实验和正交试验对影响洋葱精油微胶囊包埋效果的主要因素进行优化,得到最佳工艺条件:芯材与壁材比例1∶4、壁材配比4∶3、乳化剂用量0.4%、总固形物含量20%,在此工艺条件下,洋葱精油微胶囊包埋效果最好,平均包埋率为79.69%。

  4. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Fabrizio, E.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  5. Functional and antioxidant properties of hydrolysates of sardine (S. pilchardus) and horse mackerel (T. mediterraneus) for the microencapsulation of fish oil by spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, R; Tamm, F; Guadix, A M; Guadix, E M; Drusch, S

    2016-03-01

    The functionality of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the microencapsulation of fish oil was investigated. Muscle protein from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) was hydrolysed using Alcalase or trypsin. Physically stable emulsions suitable for spray-drying were obtained when using FPH with a degree of hydrolysis of 5%. Microencapsulation efficiency amounted to 98±0.1% and oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil over a period of twelve weeks was in a similar range as it is reported for other matrix systems. Therefore, the suitability of FPH for use in spray-dried emulsions has been shown for the first time. Since no clear correlation between the antioxidative activity of the FPH and the course of lipid oxidation could be established future research is required to more specifically characterise the molecular structure of the peptides and its impact on protein alteration and role in lipid oxidation.

  6. Microencapsulation and its Application in Rodent Control%微囊化技术及其在鼠害治理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶婧; 张宏利; 韩崇选; 刘竹乾

    2011-01-01

    微囊化是药物制备的新技术,主要用于药剂学、生物医学、动物生产和农业等领域.本研究在对微囊化技术系统探讨的基础上,重点讨论了微囊化技术在生物灭鼠剂研发中的作用,提出了微囊化生物灭鼠剂研发的有效途径.%As a new technology, microencapsulation have been widely applied in pharmaceutics, bio-medicine, animal production, agriculture and other fields. The functions of this new technology in the development of the rodent control chemicals were discussed. An effective way in the development of microencapsulation agent to control rodent was put forward.

  7. Review on Microencapsulation of Auxiliary Materials Used in Leather Industry%皮革工业辅助物料微胶囊化进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王笃政; 刘有智; 于娜娜; 冯国琳

    2012-01-01

    介绍了皮革工业染料、消光补伤剂、加香剂、抗氧化剂、阻燃剂等辅助物料微胶囊化研究进展,通过对比皮革行业中传统辅助物料和微胶囊化辅助物料的性能,指出了微胶囊技术在制革中的应用前景。%The research progress in microencapsulation of auxiliary materials of leather industry was introduced, such as dye, matting agent, flavoring agent, antioxidant and flame retardants. Through the contrast of the properties of the traditional and the microencapsulation auxiliary materials used in leather industry, it indicates the application prospect of microcapsule technology in this field.

  8. Ceratonia siliqua L. hydroethanolic extract obtained by ultrasonication: antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds profile and effects in yogurts functionalized with their free and microencapsulated forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Irada; Barros, Lillian; Fernandes, Isabel P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Ferchichi, Ali; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive extracts were obtained from powdered carob pulp through an ultrasound extraction process and then evaluated in terms of antioxidant activity. Ten minutes of ultrasonication at 375 Hz were the optimal conditions leading to an extract with the highest antioxidant effects. After its chemical characterization, which revealed the preponderance of gallotannins, the extract (free and microencapsulated) was incorporated in yogurts. The microspheres were prepared using an extract/sodium alginate ratio of 100/400 (mg mg(-1)) selected after testing different ratios. The yogurts with the free extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the samples added with the encapsulated extracts, showing the preserving role of alginate as a coating material. None of the forms significantly altered the yogurt's nutritional value. This study confirmed the efficiency of microencapsulation to stabilize functional ingredients in food matrices maintaining almost the structural integrity of polyphenols extracted from carob pulp and furthermore improving the antioxidant potency of the final product.

  9. Research progress in wall materials and methods of probiotic microencapsulation%益生菌微胶囊化壁材与方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 杨剑; 朱俊晨; 刘莉萍; 孙岩啸

    2012-01-01

    益生菌微胶囊技术因其能显著提高益生菌在胃肠道中的存活率而备受关注。本文介绍了益生菌微胶囊技术中所使用的包埋材料及方法,并提出益生菌微胶囊新的研究方向。%Microencapsulation of probiotics is attracting more and more consumers' interest since it improves the survival rates of probiotic bacteria in gastrointestinal tract.The materials and methods of microencapsulation were introduced in this paper,and the new fields were showed.

  10. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry.

  11. 喷雾干燥法制备面粉改良剂茶多酚微胶囊研究%Study on microencapsulating of tea-polyphenols for the special additives for wheat flour quality improving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪刚; 黎白钰; 康小虎; 张洁琼; 李纲

    2012-01-01

    以面粉改良剂茶多酚为研究对象,选用海藻酸钠、壳聚糖以及氯化钙为包埋壁材,采用喷雾干燥法对茶多酚进行微胶囊化研究。通过单因素实验以及响应面优化分析得出如下结论,喷雾干燥最佳技术条件:进风温度180℃.空气流量750L/h,出风温度100℃。茶多酚最佳包埋参数为:复合壁材比例海藻酸钠2.5%、壳聚糖0.8%、氯化钙4.5%.芯材与壁材质量比为2:1,最大包埋率为73.8%。包埋颗粒近似球形,直径介于2—10μm之间,分布均匀无粘连。微胶囊稳定性实验表明,在5℃下.茶多酚较为稳定.最佳储存期为22d。%Tea-polyphenol was encapsulated by sodium alginate and chitosan,and prepared by spray drying technology. The optimum conditions of microencapsulating were listed as follows:spray drying condition optimization included inlet air temperature of 180℃ ,air flow 750L/h,outlet air temperature of 100℃ ;the wall material optimization included that the mass ratio of the core and wall material was 2:1. The mass ratio of the wall materials were showed as follow:sodium alginate 2.5%(v/v),chitosan 0.8% (v/v),calcium chloride 4.5% (v/ v). The best embedding rate was 73.8%,meanwhile the global microencapsulation diameter were nearly about 2-10μm. The favorite preservative condition was at 5℃ for 22d.

  12. Formation of methotrexate-PLLA-PEG-PLLA composite microspheres by microencapsulation through a process of suspension-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen AZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ai-Zheng Chen,1,2 Guang-Ya Wang,1 Shi-Bin Wang,1,2 Li Li,1 Yuan-Gang Liu,1,2 Chen Zhao11College of Chemical Engineering, 2Institute of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Institute of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, ChinaBackground: The aim of this study was to improve the drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and sustained-release properties of supercritical CO2-based drug-loaded polymer carriers via a process of suspension-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2 (SpEDS, which is an advanced version of solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2 (SEDS.Methods: Methotrexate nanoparticles were successfully microencapsulated into poly (L-lactide-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(L-lactide (PLLA-PEG-PLLA by SpEDS. Methotrexate nanoparticles were first prepared by SEDS, then suspended in PLLA-PEG-PLLA solution, and finally microencapsulated into PLLA-PEG-PLLA via SpEDS, where an "injector" was utilized in the suspension delivery system.Results: After microencapsulation, the composite methotrexate (MTX-PLLA-PEG-PLLA microspheres obtained had a mean particle size of 545 nm, drug loading of 13.7%, and an encapsulation efficiency of 39.2%. After an initial burst release, with around 65% of the total methotrexate being released in the first 3 hours, the MTX-PLLA-PEG-PLLA microspheres released methotrexate in a sustained manner, with 85% of the total methotrexate dose released within 23 hours and nearly 100% within 144 hours.Conclusion: Compared with a parallel study of the coprecipitation process, microencapsulation using SpEDS offered greater potential to manufacture drug-loaded polymer microspheres for a drug delivery system.Keywords: drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, methotrexate, nanoparticles, poly(L-lactide, supercritical CO2 sustained release

  13. Study of Microencapsulation Technology of Onion Oil Flavor by Complex Coacervation%复凝聚法制备葱油香精微胶囊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楠楠; 陈雪峰; 刘俊杰

    2011-01-01

    The manufacture of microencapsulation of onion oil flavor by complex coacervation using gelatin and gum arabic as the wall materials was investigated.The influence of the ratio of core to wall, pH and hardening time on the morphology of the microencapsul ation was evaluated.Core to wall ratio 1∶2;pH4.15 ;the transglutaminase used as cross-linking agent to gelation ratio 25% ;solidified time12h were found to be the optimum conditions.Finally,the microencapsulation powders were prepared by spray-drying( inlet temperature was 185℃, outlet temperature was 80℃ and feed temperature was 50℃ ).The moisture content and encapsulation efficiency of microencapsulation powders was 2.87% and 89.55% respectively.%探讨了以明胶、阿拉伯胶为壁材,用复凝聚法制备葱油香精微胶囊的工艺条件.分析了芯壁质量比、pH值、固化时间对微胶囊成囊效果的影响,制备葱油香精微胶曩的适宜工艺为:芯壁材质量比1:2;pH值4.15;固化剂为谷氨酰胺转氨酶,用量为明胶质量的25%,固化时间12h.采用喷雾干燥法(进风温度185℃,出风温度80℃.进料温度50℃)可以制备出葱油香精微胶囊粉状产品,产品的含水率为2.87%,包埋率为89.55%.

  14. 一种丙酮酸乙酯微囊的制备方法%The preparation of microencapsulating ethyl pyruvate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延志; 吴文忠; 孙昱; 陈剑彬; 张春枝; 李代

    2011-01-01

    The optimum materials and conditions were studied for the microencapsulation of ethyl pyruvate by comparing the encapsulation rate of the microcapsules. The best results were obtained when gum arabic and Hi-cap 100 were used as shell materials, the ratio of shell materials and water was 1. 5 : 1, the best inlet air temperature was 160 'C and outlet air temperature was 80 ℃. Content determination of microencapsuled ethyl pyruvate powder by RP-HPLC. Content of microencapsuled ethyl pyruvate was 29.4% and encapsulation rate was 98%. Microencapsulated powder surface was smooth, no collapse, no cracks, micro-capsules to meet the requirements.%对丙酮酸乙酯进行微囊化研究,经过对比丙酮酸乙酯的包埋率确定最适的选材及条件,并对其各项性能指标进行测定.对制备的丙酮酸乙酯微囊进行喷雾干燥,得到丙酮酸乙酯微囊粉末.实验结果表明,最适壁材组合是阿拉伯胶与Hi-cap 100,壁材与水的最佳质量比例是1.5∶1,最佳喷雾干燥条件进风口温度为160℃,出风口温度为80℃.经过高效液相色谱检测丙酮酸乙酯微胶囊粉末包埋量29.4%,包埋率98%,微囊粉末表面光滑,无塌陷无裂缝,微囊符合要求.

  15. Oxidation of free and encapsulated oil fractions in dried microencapsulated fish oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Ruiz, G.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate oxidation of dried microencapsulated fish oils (DMFO during storage at ambient temperature, and to examine the influence of oils distribution (free vs. encapsulated oil in these complex lipidic systems. DMF0 were prepared by freeze-drying emulsions containing sodium caseinate, lactose and fish oil, with and without adding the antioxidant mixture ALT (ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol. Samples were stored at 25 or 30ºC either in the dark or light with limited, accesible air or under vacuum. The progress of oxidation was followed through quantitation of triglyceride polymers, and oxidation levels of free and encapsulated oil fractions were differentiated. Results showed that oxidation was very rapid both in free and encapsulated oil fractions in all DMFOs exposed to light. In the dark, oxidation was triggered first in the free oil fraction of samples not protected with ALT but, in contrast, samples with ALT showed significantly higher oxidation levels in encapsulated than in free oil fractions, regardless of the limited or free availability of air. These results indicated that addition of the antioxidant system ALT was more effective in the free oil fraction, thus reflecting the great influence of partitioning and/or orientation of antioxidants on their efficacy in complex lipid systems.El objetivo de este trabajo es la evaluación de la oxidación de aceites de pescado microencapsulados en matriz seca (DMFO durante su almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente, y examinar la influencia de la distribución del aceite (aceite libre frente a aceite encapsulado en estos sistemas lipídicos complejos. Las muestras se prepararon mediante liofilización de emulsiones constituidas por caseinato sódico, lactosa y aceite de pescado, con o sin la mezcla antioxidante ALT (ácido ascórbico, lecitina y tocoferol; y se almacenaron a 25 o 30ºC a la luz o a la oscuridad, con aire limitado, accesible o al vac

  16. Application of the accelerated test Rancimat to evaluate oxidative stability of dried microencapsulated oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Ruiz, G.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to apply the oxidative test Rancimat to dried microencapsulated oils (DMO, with special emphasis on assessing the efficacy of natural antioxidants. DMO were prepared by freeze-drying emulsions containing sodium caseinate, lactose and fish or sunflower oils, with and without added the antioxidant mixture ALT (ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol. Under the Rancimat working conditions selected for testing DMO (5 g sample, 100ºC and 20 L air/h, excellent repeatability was obtained. The antioxidant effect of ALT was much higher in bulk fish oil than in its counterpart DMO, either in Rancimat or at 30ºC in the dark. Further experiments using Rancimat showed that the moderate increase in stability of DMO added ALT was only attributable to tocopherol while the synergistic actions of lecithin and ascorbic acid were not observed, their action probably depending on their location and orientation in these complex lipid systems. This test enabled to compare monophasic (bulk oils and DMO-extracted oils and heterophasic lipidic systems (DMO and DMO devoid of the accessible, free oil fraction, thus offering a rapid means to examine the influence of oil distribution and partitioning of antioxidants on oxidative stability.El objetivo de este trabajo es la aplicación del test Rancimat a aceites microencapsulados, con especial interés en el estudio de la eficacia de antioxidantes naturales. Los aceites microencapsulados en matriz seca (DMO se prepararon mediante liofilización de emulsiones constituidas por caseinato sódico, lactosa y aceite de pescado o girasol, con o sin la mezcla antioxidante ALT (ácido ascórbico, lecitina y tocoferol. En las condiciones seleccionadas en Rancimat (5 g de muestra, 100ºC y 20 L/h aire se obtuvo excelente repetitividad. La mezcla ALT fue mucho más efectiva en el aceite de pescado que en su correspondiente DMO, tanto en Rancimat como a 30ºC en la oscuridad. Otros experimentos en

  17. Microencapsulação do licopeno com ciclodextrinas Microencapsulation of lycopene with cyclodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciette Matioli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O licopeno é uma das importantes substâncias naturais de coloração industrial de alimentos. Além disso, este carotenóide tem importância em saúde humana pela sua atuação na redução de riscos de doenças crônicas como câncer, em especial de próstata, e doenças cardiovasculares. No entanto, pelo alto grau de insaturação, o licopeno é propenso à isomerização e oxidação. Neste trabalho a microencapsulação do licopeno foi estudada, utilizando as ciclodextrinas (CDs como substâncias encapsulantes. Extraído da goiaba e isolado em coluna aberta, o licopeno dissolvido em acetona foi adicionado a alfa-, beta- e gama-CD dissolvidas em água, a acetona sendo posteriormente eliminada com auxílio de nitrogênio. Inicialmente, foi investigada a complexação com as três CDs em razão molar licopeno:CD de 1:50. O licopeno formou complexo com alfa beta- e a gama-CD, mas não com a alfa-CD. Após 180 dias de estocagem a temperatura de refrigeração (15ºC, o licopeno se manteve constante no complexo licopeno-gama-CD e reduziu cerca de 80% no complexo licopeno-beta-CD. Avaliando a melhor razão molar licopeno-CD, a inclusão foi máxima com o emprego da gama-CD e quando a razão molar foi de 1:200. O complexo mostrou-se dispersível em água, mantendo a cor vermelha do licopeno. A estabilidade à luz, mostrou-se excelente, tendo 100% de retenção em 40 dias de monitoramento a temperatura ambiente.Lycopene is one of the important natural substances for industrial coloring of foods. In addition, this carotenoid has importance in human health because of its role in reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, especially prostate cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. However, because of its high degree of insaturation, it is prone to isomerization and oxidation. In this work, microencapsulation of lycopene was studied, utilizing cyclodextrins (CDs as encapsulating substances. Extracted from guava and isolated in open column

  18. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... people regard as a prerequisite for participating in local community politics. Based on a fieldwork in two villages of Panchthar district in eastern Nepal, this article explores how these changes strengthen or weaken women’s political agency and how this is reflected in their participation in community...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...

  19. Evaluation of safety and tolerance of microencapsulated Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 in a yogurt formulation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mitchell L; Martoni, Christopher J; Tamber, Sandeep; Parent, Mathieu; Prakash, Satya

    2012-06-01

    Probiotic organisms have shown promise in treating diseases. Previously, we have reported on the efficacy of microencapsulated Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 in a yogurt formulation at lowering serum cholesterol levels in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults. This study investigates the safety and toxicology of oral ingestion of microencapsulated L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 in a yogurt formulation. A randomized group of 120 subjects received a dose of 5 × 10(10) CFU microencapsulated L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 in yogurt (n=59) or placebo yogurt (n=61) twice/day for 6 weeks. Clinical chemistry and hematological parameters of safety were analyzed. Fecal samples were collected at these time points for the analysis of deconjugated bile acids. The frequency, duration and intensity of adverse events (AEs) and clinical significance of safety parameters were recorded for both groups. No clinically significant differences between the probiotic yogurt and placebo yogurt treated groups were detected in either the blood clinical chemistry or hematology results and there was no significant increase in fecal deconjugated bile acids (P>0.05) between treated and control groups. The frequency and intensity of AEs was similar in the two groups. These results demonstrate the safe use of this formulation in food.

  20. MIKROENKAPSULASI Lactobacillus plantarum DENGAN BERBAGAI ENKAPSULAN PADA PENGERINGAN SEMPROT JUS JAMBU BIJI [Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum in Guava Juice by Spray Drying Using Several Types of Encapsulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Ningtyas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (1% in guava juice were microencapculated by spray drying technique using several types of encapsulant, i.e. maltodextrin, maltodextrin in combination with other materials such as gum arabic, inulin, and galaktooligosakarida (GOS, with a ratio of 5:1. The objectives of this study were to compare the effect of encapsulation materials of Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 and Lactobacillus plantarum BSL on heat resistance (50, 60 and 70°C, for 20 min, survival at low pH (2.0, bile salts (0.5%, and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. Spray drying were performed at 120°C (inlet and 70°C (outlet. The results showed that all types of encapsulated probiotics improved their resistances toward heat, low pH and bile salts as compared to free cells. The highest survival of probiotic cells was achieved by probiotic encapsulated with maltodextrin, and heated at 50°C, with a protection of 2-3 Log CFU g-1 as compared to free cells. Combination of maltodextrin and GOS (5:1 showed the highest protection toward low pH and bile salts, except for L. plantarum BSL, the best encapsulant was maltodextrin. The antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated probiotic the cells did not change after the microencapsulation process. These results indicate that the guava powder probiotic can be developped by microencapsulation technique using maltodextrin or combination of maltodextrin and GOS with spray drying method.

  1. Development of Microencapsulation Flame Retarding Technology For Epoxy Resin%微胶囊技术阻燃环氧树脂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭华乔; 曾萍; 陈元; 苏正良; 夏祖西

    2013-01-01

    综述了采用微胶囊技术包覆聚磷酸铵和红磷用于阻燃环氧树脂的研究进展,详细介绍了其阻燃效果和阻燃机理等.指出应扩大微胶囊技术的应用范围,并还应积极开展微胶囊工艺、阻燃剂复配、提高力学性能、抑烟性能等研究,以提高环氧树脂的适用性.%This paper reviewed the development of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate and red phosphorus which were used in flame retard epoxy resin. The flame retardance effect and mechanism were introduced in detail. The application area of microencapsulation should be extended. Furthermore, the microencapsulation preparation techniques, flame retardant formulation, mechanical properties and smoke suppression tests shall be implemented to improve the application of EP.

  2. Effect of electron beam irradiation and microencapsulation on the flame retardancy of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer materials during hot water ageing test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Haibo; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bibo; Yu, Bin; Shi, Yongqian; Song, Lei; Kundu, Chanchal Kumar; Tao, Youji; Jie, Ganxin; Feng, Hao; Hu, Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) in combination with polyester polyurethane (TPU) was used to flame retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). The EVA composites with different irradiation doses were immersed in hot water (80 °C) to accelerate ageing process. The microencapsulation and irradiation dose ensured positive impacts on the properties of the EVA composites in terms of better dimensional stability and flame retardant performance. The microencapsulation of APP could lower its solubility in water and the higher irradiation dose led to the more MCAPP immobilized in three dimensional crosslinked structure of the EVA matrix which could jointly enhance the flame retardant and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. So, the EVA composites with 180 kGy irradiation dose exhibited better dimensional stability than the EVA composites with 120 kGy due to the higher crosslinking degree. Moreover, the higher irradiation dose lead to the more MCAPP immobilizated in crosslinked three-dimensional structure of EVA, enhancing the flame retardancy and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. After ageing test in hot water at 80 °C for 2 weeks, the EVA/TPU/MCAPP composite with 180 kGy could still maintain the UL-94 V-0 rating and the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value was as high as 30%. This investigation indicated the flame retardant EVA cable containing MCAPP could achieve stable properties and lower electrical fire hazard risk during long-term hot water ageing test.

  3. Psoriatic arthritis management update - biotherapeutic options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saber, Tajvur P

    2012-02-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a seronegative spondyloarthropathy (SpA) occurring in up to 30% of patients with psoriasis. It has a wide variation of annual incidence (median 6.4, range 0.1-3.1 per 10(5) people), based on analysis of 13 incidence and prevalence reviews published between 1987 and December 2006. Conventional treatments with antiinflammatory and disease modifying or antirheumatic drugs are not efficacious in all patients, in particular those with axial disease. This review examines new pharmacological developments in the treatment of PsA with a focus on biologic therapies.

  4. Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression after transplanting microencapsulated sciatic nerve cells of rabbits into injured spinal cord of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression reflect function of nerve cells; meanwhile, they play a significant role in researching interventions on plerosis of nerve injury.OBJECTIVE: To observe and compare the effects on changes of BDNF expression in rats with spinal cord injury between microencapsulated sciatic nerve cells of rabbits and only transplanting sciatic nerve cells of rabbits.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Medical School of Jiujiang College.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Medical Science Researching Center, Jiujiang College from May 2004 to May 2006. A total of 90 healthy adult SD rats, weighing 250 - 300 g, of either gender; and 10 rabbits, weighing 2.0 - 2.5 kg, of either gender, were provided by Jiangxi Experimental Animal Center.METHODS: Sciatic nerve tissue of rabbits was separated to make cell suspension. After centrifugation,suspension was mixed with 15 g/L alginate saline solution and ejaculated to 20 mmol/L barium chloride saline solution by double-cavity ejaculator. The obtained cell microcapsules were suspended in saline. Rats were randomly divided into microencapsulated group, only suspension group, and only injured group with 30 animals in each group. After anesthesia, T10 spinous process and vertebra lamina of rats in the former two groups were exposed. Spinal cord tissue in 2-mm length was removed from rats by spinal cord right hemi-section. The gelatin sponges with the size of 2 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm were grafted as filing cage,and absorbed 10 μμ L microencapsulated sciatic nerve cells of rabbit in the microencapsulated group and 10 μ L sciatic nerve cells of rabbits in the only suspension group; respectively. No graft was placed in the only injured group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: On the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th days after operation,immunohistochemistry (SABC technique) was used to detect distribution and amount of positive-reactive neurons in BDNF of spinal cord

  5. Study on Stability of Microencapsulated Pumpkin Yellow Pigment%微胶囊南瓜黄色素的稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张寒冰; 韩广源; 董玲; 付红岩

    2013-01-01

    The pumpkin yellow pigment was embedded with octenyl succinate starch ester sodium and whey isolated protein, and the stability of microencapsulated pumpkin yellow pigment was stu-died,so as to provide theoretical basis for its application in food industry. The results showed that the embedding rate of pumpkin yellow pigment was up to 95. 16%, when the core-wall ratio was 1 : 20(m/m) ,and the ratio of octenyl succinate starch ester sodium to whey isolated protein was 1 : 0. 5(m/m). Compared with the non-microencapsulated pumpkin yellow pigment,the water-solubility was increased,and the stability of microencapsulated pumpkin yellow pigment was improved greatly against light, temperature and pH value. The absorbance of pumpkin yellow pigment decreased by 30. 3% , while the microencapsulated pumpkin yellow pigment decreased by 8. 9% under 100 °C for 40 min;when the pH value decreased from 6 to 1 ,the absorbance of pumpkin yellow pigment decreased by 13. 3%, while the microencapsulated pumpkin yellow pigment decreased by 5. 0%;the absorbance of pumpkin yellow pigment decreased by 6. 2%, while the microencapsulated pumpkin yellow pigment decreased by 2. 3% under light for 15 days. It can be seen that the stability of pumpkin yellow pigment was improved greatly after it was microencapsulated.%用辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯钠和乳清分离蛋白对天然南瓜黄色素进行包埋,制备成微胶囊南瓜黄色素,并对其稳定性进行了研究,旨在为其在食品工业中的生产提供理论依据.结果表明,在芯壁比为1∶20(质量比)、壁材比(辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯钠∶乳清分离蛋白)为1∶0.5(质量比)的条件下对南瓜黄色素进行微胶囊化,包埋率可达95.16%.与南瓜黄色素相比,微胶囊南瓜黄色素的水溶性增强,并且对光照、温度和pH值的稳定性均有较大提高.在100℃加热40 min的条件下,南瓜黄色素的吸光度下降30.3%,而微胶囊南瓜黄色素的吸光度仅下降8.9

  6. Microencapsulation of Food Additives and Its Application in Preserved Fruit Processing%食品添加剂的微胶囊化及其在蜜饯加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章斌; 侯小桢; 李远志; 赖宣

    2012-01-01

      介绍了微胶囊技术的定义,芯材、壁材的种类及选用,常用的微胶囊化方法;阐述了微胶囊技术在食品添加剂中的应用与研究现状,指出食品添加剂在蜜饯加工中存在的问题;并对微胶囊技术在佛手果蜜饯加工中的应用做了展望。%  The definition of microcapsule technique, choosing of core material and wall-material, meth-ods of microencapsulation were summarized. Research and application of microencapsulation in food additives and main processing problems of food additives in preserved fruit were illustrated. Meanwhile, the application prospect of microencapsulation in process of bergomat preserved fruit was described.

  7. 微胶囊技术在植物源杀虫剂中的应用研究进展%Research Advances on Microencapsulation Techniques in Botanical Insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪晶; 李雪莲; 欧阳玲花; 祝水兰; 刘光宪; 冯健雄

    2014-01-01

    对微胶囊技术在植物源杀虫剂中的应用进行总结,采用微胶囊技术制备植物源杀虫剂可提高其稳定性,通过控制释放时间及释放速度来提高其活性。微胶囊技术也是植物源杀虫剂在实际应用中最能模仿自然植物灭虫过程的技术。%The researches have been summarized the application of microencapsulation techniques in botanical insecticides in this paper. These microencapsulation techniques can improve the stability of botanical insecticides and increase the activity by controlling the release time and release rate of botanical insecticides. Microencapsulation techniques applied in botanical insecticides were closer to the natural defense method used by plants against herbivores.

  8. 相变微胶囊及其在蓄热调温织物上应用的研究进展%Research process of microencapsulated phase change materials and its application in thermo-regulated fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞方丽; 王瑞; 刘星; 徐磊; 李孟轩

    2014-01-01

    Phase change materials, microencapsulated phase change and its preparation methods of are reviewed. Moreover, the preparation methods of microencapsulated phase change and the finishing methods of thermo-regulated fabric are introduced at home and abroad. The main problem, related solutions, the development trends and application prospect of microencapsulated phase change application in the field of thermo-regulated fabric are pointed out.%介绍了相变材料、相变微胶囊及其制备方法,重点分析目前国内外相变微胶囊的制备方法和在织物上整理方法的研究进展,并指出相变微胶囊应用在蓄热调温织物上存在的主要问题、解决途径、发展趋势及应用前景。

  9. Experimental study on transplantation of microencapsulated peripheral nerve tissue into abdominal cavity%微囊化周围神经组织腹腔移植的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷; 蒋电明

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察微囊化周围神经组织移植体内后的生物活性,分析其在体内存活的时效. 方法 采用注射的方法 将微囊化周围神经组织移植到小鼠的腹腔. 结果 微囊化周围神经组织移植6周后,在小鼠的腹腔内保持了原有的形状和结构,囊内的细胞正常生存并保持增殖功能. 结论 微囊化神经组织可在体内保持活性至少6周,完善微囊化技术有望延长其存活时效,提高其促进神经损伤修复的效果.%Objective To study bioactivity of microencapsulated peripheral nerve tissue after transplanted into abdominal cavity and analyze the in vivo time-effect relation. Methods Microencap-sulated peripheral nerve tissues were injected into the abdominal cavity of mice. Results Microencap-sulated peripheral nerve could remain intact six months after transplantation. The peripheral nerve cells survived, with normal proliferation function. Conclusions Microencapsulated peripheral nerve tissues can remain bioactivity at least six weeks in vivo. Improved technique of microencapsulation may prolong bioactivity of microencapsulated peripheral nerve tissues and accordingly promote nerve regeneration fol-lowing peripheral nerve injury.

  10. Recent Progress on Functional Oils Rich in Alpha-Linoleic Acid and Its Microencapsulation%富含α-亚麻酸的功能性油脂及其微胶囊化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽丽; 侯占群; 文剑; 吴逸民; 钱英燕; 龚树立

    2015-01-01

    简要介绍富含α-亚麻酸的植物源油脂,并对其近年来微胶囊化研究进行综述.最后对微胶囊化功能性油脂的发展前景做了展望.%In this paper, different vegetable source oils which are rich in ALA were summarized , and the microencapsulation researches of these oils were reviewed. Finally , the paper forecasted the future development of functional oils in microencapsulation.

  11. A microencapsulation process of liquid mercury by sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification technology. Part II: Durability of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Delgado, A.; Guerrero, A.; Lopez, F. A.; Perez, C.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2012-11-01

    Under the European LIFE Program a microencapsulation process was developed for liquid mercury using Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) technology, obtaining a stable concrete-like sulfur matrix that allows the immobilization of mercury for long-term storage. The process description and characterization of the materials obtained were detailed in Part I. The present document, Part II, reports the results of different tests carried out to determine the durability of Hg-S concrete samples with very high mercury content (up to 30 % w/w). Different UNE and RILEM standard test methods were applied, such as capillary water absorption, low pressure water permeability, alkali/acid resistance, salt mist aging, freeze-thaw resistance and fire performance. The samples exhibited no capillarity and their resistance in both alkaline and acid media was very high. They also showed good resistance to very aggressive environments such as spray salt mist, freeze-thaw and dry-wet. The fire hazard of samples at low heat output was negligible. (Author)

  12. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of the microencapsulation of a hydrated salt as phase change energy storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jin, E-mail: huangjiner@126.com [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Wang, Tingyu; Zhu, Panpan; Xiao, Junbin [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China)

    2013-04-10

    Highlights: ► Phase change point and fusion heat of samples are about 51 °Cand 150 J/g respectively. ► DSC results indicated the core material is not Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O but Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O. ► Encapsulation takes a significant role in reducing subcooling degree. - Abstract: Microcapsules loaded by disodium hydrogen phosphate heptahydrate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O) were prepared by means of the suspension copolymerization-solvent volatile method, with modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as coating polymer under the conditions of various organic solvents. The formation of the microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCMs)-PMMA/Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O was investigated and analyzed. The morphology of the resultant materials was characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase contrast microscope. Its final composition was confirmed by the Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR). Thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were adopted to reveal its thermal stability and thermal properties. Results indicated that the materials owned improved subcooling degree and good thermal properties, enabling the materials to be one promising phase change materials for thermal energy storage.

  13. A microencapsulation process of liquid mercury by sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification technology. Part I: Characterization of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Delgado, A.; Lopez, F. A.; Alguacil, F. J.; Padilla, I.; Guerrero, A.

    2012-11-01

    European Directives consider mercury a priority hazardous substance due to its adverse effects on human health and the environment. In response to environmental concerns, a microencapsulation process has been developed within the European LIFE program as a long-term storage option for mercury. This process leads to the obtainment of a stable concrete-like sulfur matrix that allows the immobilization of mercury. The final product, in the form of a solid block containing up to 30 % Hg, exhibits excellent mechanical properties (compressive strength 53-61MPa and flexural strength 7-10 MPa), low porosity (0.57 % PHe), very low total pore volume (0.63x10-2 cm{sup 3} g{sup -}1), and extremely low permeability (coefficient of water absorption by capillarity 0.07 g cm{sup -}2). Toxicity characteristic leaching tests reveal a mercury concentration in leachates well below the 0.2 mg L{sup -}1 set out in US EPA Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs). The values of mercury vapor emissions of final products were lower than those of cinnabar and meta cinnabar. (Author)

  14. Preparation of Microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13 Seed Coating Agents and Their Effects on the Growth of Cotton Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Liang; He, Yanhui; Shan, Chunhui; Wu, Zhansheng

    2016-01-01

    Inoculation of the bacterial cells of microbial seed coating agents (SCAs) into the environment may result in limited survival and colonization. Therefore, the application efficacy of an encapsulated microbial seed coating agent (ESCA) was investigated on potted cotton plants; the agent was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfate, bentonite, and microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13. Scanning electron micrography revealed that the microcapsules were attached to ESCA membranes. The ESCA film was uniform, bubble-free, and easy to peel. The bacterial contents of seeds coated with each ESCA treatment reached 10(6) cfu/seed. Results indicated that the germination rate of cotton seeds treated with ESCA4 (1.0% (w/v) sodium alginate, 4.0% polyvinyl alcohol, 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.6% acacia, 0.5% bentonite, and 10% (v/v) microcapsules) increased by 28.74%. Other growth factors of the cotton seedlings, such as plant height, root length, whole plant fresh weight, and whole plant dry weight, increased by 52.70%, 25.13%, 46.47%, and 33.21%, respectively. Further analysis demonstrated that the peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of cotton seedlings improved, whereas their malondialdehyde contents decreased. Therefore, the ESCA can efficiently improve seed germination, root length, and growth. The proposed ESCA exhibits great potential as an alternative to traditional SCA in future agricultural applications.

  15. Microencapsulation of grape polyphenols using maltodextrin and gum arabic as two alternative coating materials: Development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolun, Aysu; Altintas, Zeynep; Artik, Nevzat

    2016-12-10

    Phenolic compounds obtained from fruits have recently gained a great attention due to their bioactive roles. However, they are sensitive and they can be easily affected by physicochemical factors that create a great challenge to incorporate them into the food products. Hence, this work aimed to investigate microencapsulation of these compounds to provide a solution for this problem by improving their stability and protecting them against oxidation, light, moisture and temperature. A lab scale spray-dryer was chosen to produce microcapsules of polyphenols using different dextrose equivalents of maltodextrin and gum arabic as a coating material. Two different core: coating material ratios (1:1 and 1:2), three different maltodextrin: gum arabic ratios (10:0, 8:2 and 6:4), and four different inlet temperatures (120, 140, 160, 180°C) were investigated. When all parameters (yields, hygroscopicity, total and surface phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, individual phenolic compounds and particle morphology) were evaluated; the most efficient microcapsules were obtained with an 8:2 ratio of maltodextrin: gum arabic at 140°C inlet temperature. Microcapsules were also comprehensively studied and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  16. Optimisation of phenolic extraction from Averrhoa carambola pomace by response surface methodology and its microencapsulation by spray and freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2015-03-15

    Optimised of the extraction of polyphenol from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) pomace using response surface methodology was carried out. Two variables viz. temperature (°C) and ethanol concentration (%) with 5 levels (-1.414, -1, 0, +1 and +1.414) were used to design the optimisation model using central composite rotatable design where, -1.414 and +1.414 refer to axial values, -1 and +1 mean factorial points and 0 refers to centre point of the design. The two variables, temperature of 40°C and ethanol concentration of 65% were the optimised conditions for the response variables of total phenolic content, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity. The reverse phase-high pressure liquid chromatography chromatogram of the polyphenol extract showed eight phenolic acids and ascorbic acid. The extract was then encapsulated with maltodextrin (⩽ DE 20) by spray and freeze drying methods at three different concentrations. Highest encapsulating efficiency was obtained in freeze dried encapsulates (78-97%). The obtained optimised model could be used for polyphenol extraction from star fruit pomace and microencapsulates can be incorporated in different food systems to enhance their antioxidant property.

  17. An Investigation of the Use of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Transuranic Waste Recycling in Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Cole A [ORNL; Godfrey, Andrew T [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Powers, Jeffrey J [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of the utilization of TRistructural- ISOtropic (TRISO)-coated fuel particles for the burning of plutonium/neptunium (Pu/Np) isotopes in typical Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactors is presented. Though numerous studies have evaluated the burning of transuranic isotopes in light water reactors (LWRs), this work differentiates itself by employing Pu/Np-loaded TRISO particles embedded within a silicon carbide (SiC) matrix and formed into pellets, constituting the fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel concept that can be loaded into standard LWR fuel element cladding. This approach provides the capability of Pu/Np burning and, by virtue of the multibarrier TRISO particle design and SiC matrix properties, will allow for greater burnup of Pu/Np material, plus improved fuel reliability and thermal performance. In this study, a variety of heterogeneous assembly layouts, which utilize a mix of FCM rods and typical UO2 rods, and core loading patterns were analyzed to demonstrate the neutronic feasibility of Pu/Np-loaded TRISO fuel. The assembly and core designs herein reported are not fully optimized and require fine-tuning to flatten power peaks; however, the progress achieved thus far strongly supports the conclusion that with further rod/assembly/core loading and placement optimization, Pu/Np-loaded TRISO fuel and core designs that are capable of balancing Pu/Np production and destruction can be designed within the standard constraints for thermal and reactivity performance in pressurized water reactors.

  18. Acceleration of Functional Maturation and Differentiation of Neonatal Porcine Islet Cell Monolayers Shortly In Vitro Cocultured with Microencapsulated Sertoli Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mancuso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The limited availability of cadaveric human donor pancreata as well as the incomplete success of the Edmonton protocol for human islet allografts fasten search for new sources of insulin the producing cells for substitution cell therapy of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Starting from isolated neonatal porcine pancreatic islets (NPIs, we have obtained cell monolayers that were exposed to microencapsulated monolayered Sertoli cells (ESCs for different time periods (7, 14, 21 days. To assess the development of the cocultured cell monolayers, we have studied either endocrine cell phenotype differentiation markers or c-kit, a hematopoietic stem cell marker, has recently been involved with growth and differentiation of β-cell subpopulations in human as well as rodent animal models. ESC which were found to either accelerate maturation and differentiation of the NPIs β-cell phenotype or identify an islet cell subpopulation that was marked positively for c-kit. The insulin/c-kit positive cells might represent a new, still unknown functionally immature β-cell like element in the porcine pancreas. Acceleration of maturation and differentiation of our NPI cell monolayers might generate a potential new opportunity to develop insulin-producing cells that may suite experimental trials for cell therapy of T1DM.

  19. Preparation of Microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13 Seed Coating Agents and Their Effects on the Growth of Cotton Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inoculation of the bacterial cells of microbial seed coating agents (SCAs into the environment may result in limited survival and colonization. Therefore, the application efficacy of an encapsulated microbial seed coating agent (ESCA was investigated on potted cotton plants; the agent was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfate, bentonite, and microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13. Scanning electron micrography revealed that the microcapsules were attached to ESCA membranes. The ESCA film was uniform, bubble-free, and easy to peel. The bacterial contents of seeds coated with each ESCA treatment reached 106 cfu/seed. Results indicated that the germination rate of cotton seeds treated with ESCA4 (1.0% (w/v sodium alginate, 4.0% polyvinyl alcohol, 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.6% acacia, 0.5% bentonite, and 10% (v/v microcapsules increased by 28.74%. Other growth factors of the cotton seedlings, such as plant height, root length, whole plant fresh weight, and whole plant dry weight, increased by 52.70%, 25.13%, 46.47%, and 33.21%, respectively. Further analysis demonstrated that the peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of cotton seedlings improved, whereas their malondialdehyde contents decreased. Therefore, the ESCA can efficiently improve seed germination, root length, and growth. The proposed ESCA exhibits great potential as an alternative to traditional SCA in future agricultural applications.

  20. Microencapsulation of steviol glycosides (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni by a spray drying method – Evaluation of encapsulated products and prepared syrups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Chranioti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to encapsulate the steviol glycosides (SGs, derived from Stevia rebaudiana (Bert Bertoni leaves, by applying a spray-drying method. The purpose was to minimize the bitter aftertaste of the SGs as well as to ameliorate/improve their properties. The encapsulation agents used were maltodextrin (19 DE and inulin in a ratio of 80 : 20, while three levels of SGs in total solids (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 % were studied. The encapsulated SGs products were evaluated for their hygroscopicity, solubility, moisture content and microencapsulation efficiency (MEE %. Also, syrups prepared with encapsulated SGs, at 1 % w/v, were tested for their viscosity, refractive index, turbidity and sensory properties. Significant differences (P<0.05  in MEE %, moisture content, hygroscopicity and solubility values of the encapsulated SGs products were observed depending on the level of SGs in total solids. In particular, the MEE %, the hygroscopicity and the solubility values ranged from 62.36, 82.46 to 94.67 %, 21.51, 26.67 and 24.25 % and 99.93, 97.50 to 96.03 % for encapsulated SGs products produced with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 % SGs in total solids, respectively. The encapsulated product produced with 2.5 % steviol glycosides in total solids presented the most appealing sensory and quality characteristics.

  1. Fabrication of Fucoxanthin-Loaded Microsphere(F-LM) By Two Steps Double-Emulsion Solvent Evaporation Method and Characterization of Fucoxanthin before and after Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviendri, Dedi; Jaswir, Irwandi; Taher, Muhammad; Mohamed, Farahidah; Salleh, Hamzah Mohd; Noorbatcha, Ibrahim Ali; Octavianti, Fitri; Lestari, Widya; Hendri, Ridar; Ahmad, Hasna; Miyashita, Kazuo; Abdullah, Alias

    2016-08-01

    Microencapsulation is a promising approach in drug delivery to protect the drug from degradation and allow controlled release of the drug in the body. Fucoxanthin-loaded microsphere (F-LM) was fabricated by two step w/o/w double emulsion solvent evaporation method with poly (L-lactic-coglycolic acid) (PLGA) as carrier. The effect of four types of surfactants (PVA, Tween-20, Span-20 and SDS), homogenization speed, and concentration of PLGA polymer and surfactant (PVA), respectively, on particle size and morphology of F-LM were investigated. Among the surfactants tested, PVA showed the best results with smallest particle size (9.18 µm) and a smooth spherical surface. Increasing the homogenization speed resulted in a smaller mean F-LM particle size [d(0.50)] from 17.12 to 9.18 µm. Best particle size results and good morphology were attained at homogenization speed of 20 500 rpm. Meanwhile, increased PLGA concentration from 1.5 to 11.0 (% w/v) resulted in increased F-LM particle size. The mean particle size [d(0.5)] of F-LM increased from 3.93 to 11.88 µm. At 6.0 (% w/v) PLGA, F-LM showed the best structure and external morphology. Finally, increasing PVA concentration from 0.5 to 3.5 (% w/v) resulted in decreased particle size from 9.18 to 4.86 µm. Fucoxanthin characterization before and after microencapsulation was carried out to assess the success of the microencapsulation procedure. Thermo gravimetry analysis (TGA), glass transition (Tg) temperature of F-LM and fucoxanthin measured using DSC, ATR-FTIR and XRD indicated that fucoxanthin was successfully encapsulated into the PLGA matrix, while maintaining the structural and chemical integrity of fucoxanthin.

  2. 抗氧化剂BHT微胶囊化产品超微结构的测定%Study on Superstructure of Microencapsulated Antioxidant BHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅香

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to study the superstructure of microencapsulated star butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) manufactured by various preparation techniques. The results showed that preparation techniques had significant effects on the structure of microencapsulated products, and thus affected the qualities of products. The research about superstructure of BHT could provide information for analyses on the quality of microencapsulate products.%用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)研究抗氧化剂二丁基羟基甲苯(BHT)微胶囊化产品的超微结构.观察了喷雾干燥法不同壁材组成和工艺条件下制作的微胶囊化产品的表面结构和内部结构,同时考察了喷雾干燥进风温度对微胶囊化产品膜结构的影响.结果表明,不同壁材组成和工艺条件下制作的微胶囊化产品的超微结构有较大差异,合适的壁材组成和工艺条件有利于提高产品质量,同时喷雾干燥进风温度对微胶囊化产品的结构有很大影响,从而也影响到产品的质量.微胶囊化产品超微结构的研究为分析影响产品质量的因素提供了重要依据.

  3. Optimization of Lycopene Microencapsulation by Orthogonal Array Design%正交试验优化番茄红素微胶囊化工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱伟芬; 李敏; 汪海峰; 高瑀珑

    2012-01-01

    Lycopene microcapsulation was prepared by spray-drying method using a wall system consisting of soluble soybean polysaccharides (SSPS). The microencapsulation efficiency was optimized by single factor and orthogonal array design experiments. Factors such as wall material concentration, ratio of core and wall material, contents of emulsifier, inlet temperature and outlet temperature were thoroughly studied. Scanning electron microscope was also employed to observe the product appearance. The optimal condition was determined to be 0.28 g/mL, 1:7, 2%, inlet temperature at 160 ~C, and outlet temperature at 88 *C, respectively. The microencapsulation efficiency of products obtained under these conditions was 91.8%. The structure of the microencapsulated lycopene product is compact and complete. Microencapsulating by spray-drying of lycopene using SSPS is feasible.%以水溶性大豆多糖为壁材,对喷雾干燥法番茄红素的微胶囊化工艺条件进行优化。通过单因素试验和正交试验考察壁材质量浓度、芯材壁材比、乳化剂含量、喷雾干燥进风口温度、出风口温度对番茄红素微胶囊效率的影响作用,同时用扫描电子显微镜法(SEM)对产品进行了形态观察。结果表明:最优工艺为壁材质量浓度0.28g/mL、芯材壁材比1:7、乳化剂质量分数2%、喷雾干燥进风口温度160℃、出风口温度88℃,所得微胶囊效率为91.8%,此番茄红素微胶囊产品膜结构致密完整。水溶性大豆多糖为壁材喷雾干燥法对番茄红素红素进行微胶囊包埋具有可行性。

  4. Microencapsulated bio-markers for assessment of stress conditions in aquatic organisms in vivo Microencapsulated bio-markers for assessment of stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovoy, A.; Teh, C.; Korzh, V.; Escobar, M.; Meglinski, I.

    2012-07-01

    Bio-compatible polyelectrolyte sub-micron micro-capsules have been developed and applied to deliver fluorescent dyes into zebrafish larvae heart via direct injection in pericardium in vivo. The capsules shell performed as a membrane is impermeable for florescence dyes suspended within the capsules and is permeable for the external environment. Thus, the direct contact of fluorescence dyes with cells/tissues is excluded and the issues associated with the toxicity of fluorescence dyes and their bio-compatibility can be omitted. The hybrid laser-scanning imaging system combined with the fluorescent microscope has been used to monitor the paths of micro-capsules within zebrafish circulation system. We demonstrate that micro-capsules circulate in tissues, including brain and trunk, with no blood flow disruptions or any other deleterious effect on its cardiac function. The developed approach has a great potential to use of encapsulated bio-markers as a diagnostic tool in vascular biology and medicine as well as for monitoring of aquatic pollution and ecological risk assessment in eco-toxicological studies.

  5. 微囊化甲状旁腺兔-鼠移植%Xenotransplantation of microencapsulated rabbit parathyroid tissue into rars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 翟博; 刘颖新; 武林枫

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microsncapsulation has been widely used in various experimental studies. Microencapsulated parathyroidtransplantation has become a hot issue, but the better transplantation site and the mechanism underlying failed transplantationare urgently to be solved.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effects of xenotransplantation of microencapsulated parathyroid tissue on treatmentof hypoparathyroidism in Wistar rats and to determine the optimal transplantation site and the mechanism underlying (ailedtransplantation.METHODS: Wistar rat models of hypoparathyroidism were developed. At 4 weeks after model establishment, rat models wererandomly allocated to four groups: renal adipose capsules, chest stemocleidomastoid muscle, and empty microcapsule controlgroups. Microcapsuled parathyroid tissues were transplanted into renal adipose capsules and chest stemocleidomastoid musclein renal adipose capsules group and chest stemocleidomastoid muscle group respectively. Empty microcapsules withoutparathyroid were transplanted into renal adipose capsules in empty microcapsule group. Total serum calcium was measuredevery other week. In the 16th week, transplant beds were retrieved and subjected to electron microscopic examination.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in serum calcium level between renal adipose capsule groupand chest stemocleidomastoid muscle group during 16 weeks (P> 0.05). The serum calcium level in the cheststemocieidomastoid musda group decreased between 16-20 weeks. There were many Fiber tissues surrounding themicroencapsules in the chest sternocleidomastoid muscle group. Parathyroid tissues can be protected successfully fromAhginate-Ba capsules and then survive functionally for a long time. The renal adipose capsule is the better transplantation sitethan chest stemocleidomastoid muscle.%背景:微囊化移植技术已经普遍应用于各种实验,成为解决甲状旁腺移植免疫排斥反应的热点领域,但最佳移植

  6. Viability of the microencapsulation of a casein hydrolysate in lipid microparticles of cupuacu butter and stearic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cristina Pinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Solid lipid microparticles produced with a mixture of cupuacu butter and stearic acid were used to microencapsulate a commercial casein hydrolysate (Hyprol 8052. The composition of the lipid matrix used for the production of the lipid microparticles was chosen according to data on the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC of bulk lipid mixtures, which indicated that the presence of 10 % cupuacu butter was sufficient to significantly change the crystalline arrangement of pure stearic acid. Preliminary tests indicated that a minimum proportion of 4 % of surfactant (polysorbate 80 was necessary to produce empty spherical lipid particles with average diameters below 10 mm. The lipid microparticles were produced using 20 % cupuacu butter and 80 % stearic acid and then stabilized with 4 % of polysorbate 80, exhibiting an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 74 % of the casein hydrolysate. The melting temperature of the casein hydrolysate-loaded lipid microparticles was detected at 65.2 °C, demonstrating that the particles were solid at room temperature as expected and indicating that the incorporation of peptides had not affected their thermal behavior. After 25 days of storage, however, there was a release of approximately 30 % of the initial amount of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. This release was not thought to have been caused by the liberation of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. Instead, it was attributed to the possible desorption of the adsorbed peptides present on the surface of the lipid microparticles.

  7. 棉织物的微胶囊阻燃整理%Microencapsulated flame retardancy of cotton fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 詹永宝; 党高峰; 杜方东

    2012-01-01

    以含硅材料为壁材,包覆水溶性含磷阻燃剂,制成微胶囊阻燃剂.通过添加协效剂Sb2O3和Al(OH)3对棉织物进行阻燃整理,优化阻燃整理处方.试验表明,整理液中含微胶囊阻燃剂100 g/L,Sb2O370 g/L,AI(OH)3 50 g/L,黏合剂120 g/L,柔软剂50 g/L,尿素10 g/L,渗透剂JFC 10 g/L,分散剂NNO10 g/L,含磷化合物50 g/L,即可赋予织物良好的阻燃效果,且织物手感和强力下降不大.%The microencapsulated flame retardant is prepared with water-based phosphorus containing flame retardant as core and silicone containing material as shell, and its application to flame retardant finish is carried out assisted with inorganic syner-gist Sb2O3 and Al(OH)3. It is found that flame retardant finish with microcapsule 100 g/L, Sb2O3 70 g/L, Al( OH)3 50 g/L, binder 120 g/L, softener 50 g/L, urea 10 g/L, penetrating agent JFC 10 g/L, dispersant NNO10 g/L and phosphorus containing chemical 50 g/L, can impart cotton fabric good flame retardancy with little negative effect on handle and strength.

  8. 三聚氰胺-甲醛树脂微胶囊包覆聚磷酸铵阻燃PP的性能%Properties of flame retardant polypropylene with melamine-formaldehyde resin microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯夏明; 危加丽; 尹波; 杨鸣波

    2012-01-01

    The authors prepared melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin via in-situ polymerization so as to microencapsulate ammonium polyphosphate(APP). The effect of particle size of APP on properties and morphology of the microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate(MC APP) were studied. Two kinds of MC APP (average particle size of APP was 5 μm and 15 μm, respectively) were added in polypropylene (PP) matrix; properties of the resultant PP/MCAPP flame retardant materials were investigated. The results show that all APP particles with different sizes can be microencapsulated completely by the MF resin and the microencapsulated APP's water solubility decreases drastically. The water resistance and limited oxygen index of the PP/MCAPP composites are improved to a certain extent. The APP with small particle size favors the microencapsulation by the MF resin and facilitates formation of a complete microencapsulation structure. There exists a strong synergistic effect between APP and MF resin, which can improve the flame retardancy of the PP/MCAPP composites. The role of the synergistic effect even gets more significant, especially when the APP particles are not well microencapsulated by the MF resin.%通过原位聚合法制备三聚氰胺-甲醛树脂(MF)徽胶囊包覆聚磷酸铵(APP)粒子,研究了APP粒径对微胶囊化APP(MCAPP)结构与性能的影响.将两种MCAPP(APP平均粒径分别为5,15 μm)添加至聚丙烯(PP)基体中,研究了PP/MCAPP阻燃材料的性能.结果表明:不同粒径的APP均能成功被MF包覆,且包覆后的APP粒子的水溶性均大幅下降.PP/MCAPP阻燃材料的耐渗析性和极限氧指数均得到一定程度的提高.粒径小的APP有利于MF的包覆,包覆结构层更完整.MF和APP有很好的协同作用,在APP包覆不完全的情况下,能更有效地发挥两者的相互作用,提高PP复合材料的阻燃性.

  9. Preparation, thermal properties and thermal reliabilities of microencapsulated n-octadecane with acrylic-based polymer shells for thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Xiaolin [Advanced Materials Institute and Clearer Production Key Laboratory, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Guolin; Chu, Xiaodong; Li, Xuezhu [Advanced Materials Institute and Clearer Production Key Laboratory, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tang, Guoyi, E-mail: tanggy@tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Institute and Clearer Production Key Laboratory, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer n-Octadecane was encapsulated by p(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and p(butyl acrylate). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcapsules using divinylbenzene as crosslinking agent have better quality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcapsule with butyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene has highest latent heat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcapsule with butyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene has greatest thermal stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase change temperatures and enthalpies of the microcapsules varied little after thermal cycle. - Abstract: Microencapsulation of n-octadecane with crosslinked p(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and p(butyl acrylate) (PBA) as shells for thermal energy storage was carried out by a suspension-like polymerization. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) were employed as crosslinking agents. The surface morphologies of the microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal properties, thermal reliabilities and thermal stabilities of the as-prepared microPCMs were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The microPCMs prepared by using DVB exhibit greater heat capacities and higher thermal stabilities compared with those prepared by using PETA. The thermal resistant temperature of the microPCM with BMA-DVB polymer was up to 248 Degree-Sign C. The phase change temperatures and latent heats of all the as-prepared microcapsules varied little after 1000 thermal cycles.

  10. Microencapsulation Technology and Its Application in Polymer Materials%微胶囊技术及其在聚合物材料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕波; 谢吉仁; 杨保平; 崔锦峰; 郭军红

    2016-01-01

    The development of microencapsulation technology in recent years is reviewed.The preparation methods for microcapsules are summarized, and the application of the microencapsulation technology in the improvement of self-healing,toughening,flame retardancy and friction and wear reduction properties of polymer materials are described emphatically.In addition,the prospects of the synergistic effects of microcapsules and other additives in multiple composite materials are suggested.%综述了近几年微胶囊技术的发展,归纳总结了微胶囊的制备方法,着重阐述了微胶囊技术在提高聚合物材料自修复、增韧、阻燃、减摩抗磨等性能方面的应用研究,并对多元复合材料体系中微胶囊及添加剂的协同效应提出了展望。

  11. Study on micro-encapsulation of reduced glutathione%还原型谷胱甘肽微胶囊化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽萍; 王鑫; 宋伟

    2012-01-01

    Spray drying was applied to prepare microencapsulated glutathione,adopted corn germ as the main raw material,glutathione as core-material and arabic gum and gelatin as wall-material.Optimization of microencapsulated was carried out through mono-factor and%采用喷雾干燥法对玉米胚中还原型谷胱甘肽进行微胶囊化研究,以还原型谷胱甘肽为芯材,阿拉伯胶和明胶为复合壁材,通过单因素实验及正交实验得出微胶囊化最佳工艺条件:壁材配比(阿拉伯胶与明胶)为3:2,固形物浓度为20%,壁材与芯材的比为1:20。此时还原型谷胱甘肽微胶囊的包埋率可达83.28%。

  12. Application of a novel 3-fluid nozzle spray drying process for the microencapsulation of therapeutic agents using incompatible drug-polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Tara; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel 3-fluid concentric nozzle (3-N) spray drying process for the microencapsulation of omeprazole sodium (OME) using Eudragit L100 (EL100). Feed solutions containing OME and/or EL100 in ethanol were assessed visually for OME stability. Addition of OME solution to EL100 solution resulted in precipitation of OME followed by degradation of OME reflected by a colour change from colourless to purple and brown. This was related to the low pH of 2.8 of the EL100 solution at which OME is unstable. Precipitation and progressive discoloration of the 2-fluid nozzle (2-N) feed solution was observed over the spray drying time course. In contrast, 3-N solutions of EL100 or OME in ethanol were stable over the spray drying period. Microparticles prepared using either nozzle showed similar characteristics and outer morphology however the internal morphology was different. DSC showed a homogenous matrix of drug and polymer for 2-N microparticles while 3-N microparticles had defined drug and polymer regions distributed as core and coat. The results of this study demonstrate that the novel 3-N spray drying process can allow the microencapsulation of a drug using an incompatible polymer and maintain the drug and polymer in separate regions of the microparticles.

  13. 高纯度粉末状大豆磷脂微胶囊化的研究%Study on microencapsulation of high purity soybean phosphatide powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 李学红; 高正波

    2001-01-01

    选用新型壁材—微孔淀粉,对制备高纯度粉末状大豆磷脂微胶囊产品的工艺条件进行研究。以100g大豆磷脂,100g微孔淀粉和40g明胶在40℃条件下制备初始液,在进料温度50~60℃,进风温度160℃左右,出风温度90℃左右条件下进行喷雾干燥,可获得最佳效果。最高包埋率可达71%。%With a new wall material-aperture starch, the technological parameters for high-purity soybean powder phosphatide microencapsulation was studied. For 100g soybean phosphatide, 100g aperture starch and 40g gelatin were added to form a 1500mL preliminary solution at 40℃. Condition of spry drying: Slurry temperature 50~60℃, inlet air temperature 150~160℃ and outlet air temperature 90℃, could obtain the optimal result and the best microencapsulated productivity reached 71%.

  14. Ofloxacin induces apoptosis via β1 integrin-EGFR-Rac1-Nox2 pathway in microencapsulated chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Huang, Wei [Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 1000191 (China); Liu, Yu-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Yuan, Ye [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhu, Ben-Zhan, E-mail: bzhu@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Quinolones (QNs)-induced arthropathy is an important toxic side-effect in immature animals leading to the restriction of their therapeutic use in pediatrics. Ofloxacin, a typical QN, was found to induce the chondrocytes apoptosis in the early phase (12–48 h) of arthropathy in our previous study. However, the exact mechanism(s) is unclear. Microencapsulated juvenile rabbit joint chondrocytes, a three-dimensional culture system, is utilized to perform the present study. Ofloxacin, at a therapeutically relevant concentration (10 μg/ml), disturbs the interaction between β1 integrin and activated intracellular signaling proteins at 12 h, which is inhibited when supplementing Mg{sup 2+}. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly increases in a time-dependent manner after exposure to ofloxacin for 12–48 h. Furthermore, ofloxacin markedly enhances the level of activated Rac1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation, and its inhibition in turn reduces the ROS production, apoptosis and Rac1 activation. Silencing Nox2, Rac1 or supplementing Mg{sup 2+} inhibits ROS accumulation, apoptosis occurrence and EGFR phosphorylation induced by ofloxacin. However, depletion of Nox2, Rac1 and inhibition of EGFR do not affect ofloxacin-mediated loss of interaction between β1 integrin and activated intracellular signaling proteins. In addition, ofloxacin also induces Vav2 phosphorylation, which is markedly suppressed after inactivating EGFR or supplementing Mg{sup 2+}. These results suggest that ofloxacin causes Nox2-mediated intracellular ROS production by disrupting the β1 integrin function and then activating the EGFR-Vav2-Rac1 pathway, finally resulting in apoptosis within 12–48 h exposure. The present study provides a novel insight regarding the potential role of Nox-driven ROS in QNs-induced arthropathy. - Highlights: ► Ofloxacin induces Nox2-driven ROS in encapsulated chondrocyte at 12–48 h. ► Ofloxacin stimulates ROS production via

  15. A microencapsulation process of liquid mercury by sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification technology. Part II: Durability of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Delgado, A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Under the European LIFE Program a microencapsulation process was developed for liquid mercury using Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS technology, obtaining a stable concrete-like sulfur matrix that allows the immobilization of mercury for long-term storage. The process description and characterization of the materials obtained were detailed in Part I. The present document, Part II, reports the results of different tests carried out to determine the durability of Hg-S concrete samples with very high mercury content (up to 30 % w/w. Different UNE and RILEM standard test methods were applied, such as capillary water absorption, low pressure water permeability, alkali/acid resistance, salt mist aging, freeze-thaw resistance and fire performance. The samples exhibited no capillarity and their resistance in both alkaline and acid media was very high. They also showed good resistance to very aggressive environments such as spray salt mist, freeze-thaw and dry-wet. The fire hazard of samples at low heat output was negligible.

    Dentro del Programa Europeo LIFE, se ha desarrollado un proceso de microencapsulación de mercurio liquido, utilizando la tecnología de estabilización/solidificación con azufre polimérico (SPSS. Como resultado se ha obtenido un material estable tipo concreto que permite la inmovilización de mercurio y su almacenamiento a largo plazo. La descripción del proceso y la caracterización de los materiales obtenidos, denominados concretos Hg-S, se detallan en la Parte I. El presente trabajo, Parte II, incluye los resultados de los diferentes ensayos realizados para determinar la durabilidad de las muestras de concreto Hg-S con un contenido de mercurio de hasta el 30 %. Se han utilizado diferentes métodos de ensayo estándar, UNE y RILEM, para determinar propiedades como la absorción de agua por capilaridad, la permeabilidad de agua a baja presión, la resistencia a álcali y ácido, el comportamiento en

  16. Preparation of Liquid Crystal Microencapsulation and the Optical Properties%液晶微囊化制备及光学性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟宁; 牛小玲

    2014-01-01

    为解决液晶分子在应用时封装复杂、难以成膜的问题,采用复凝聚法,利用液晶为囊芯材料,阿拉伯胶与明胶为璧材,对向列液晶5CB 进行了微囊化.分析了溶液 pH 值、反应温度、反应时间、壁材浓度、搅拌速率等因素对微胶囊产品质量的影响.通过偏光显微镜和紫外分光光度计对形貌及包囊情况进行表征.研究结果表明:制备液晶微胶囊的最佳工艺条件为明胶与阿拉伯胶浓度均为2%,且两者质量比为1:1,pH 值为4.0,搅拌速度为1500 r·min-1,反应温度为55℃,凝聚时间为15~20 min,固化温度为10℃,固化时间60 min.%In order to solve the complexity of liquid crystal molecules package and the difficulty of filming in applications,the co?acervation method is used in the liquid crystal microencapsulation where liquid crystal is used as core material,arabia glue and gelatin are used as wall materials,the nematic liquid crystal 5CB is microencapsulated.The pH value of solution,reaction temperature,reaction time, concentration,stirring rate are investigated.The morphology and encapsulation effects are characterized by POM and UV.The results show that the optimal conditions of liquid crystal microencapsulation are as follewing:concentration of arabia gelatin or gum of 2%,mass ratio of gelatin and gum arabia of 1:1, pH of 4.0,stirring speed of 1 500 r·min-1 ,reaction temperature of 55 ℃,solidifying temperature of 10℃ and solidifying time of 60 min.

  17. Study on preparation of the microencapsulated diet for larvae of Pseudosciaena crocea using fluidized bed coating process%流化床制备大黄鱼仔稚幼体微胶囊饲料的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢中国; 王芙蓉; 牛化欣; 祝爱侠; 袁信华; 过世东

    2011-01-01

    The basal diet as core material was made into ball-shape granule and the diet microencapsulated with ethyl cellulose was prepared using fluidized bed coating process. Over 70% of the microencapsulated diet were between 150~840μm in size. The inclusion efficiency and lipid encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulated diet was estimated to be 97.2% ± 1.7%, 63.2% ± 3.7% respectively. The nitrogen retention efficiency of the microencapsulated diet incubation in 35‰ NaCl solution for 20,40,60min was 3.6% ± 2.6% ,5.8% ± 3.5% ,53.7% ±4.2%, respectively. The surface superstructure of microencapsulated diet observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM)was of regulation and uniformity,not conglutination. The larvae of Pseudosciaena crocea of 15d after hatching were fed with the microencapsulated diet for 25d as experimental group and the control was fed with frozen copepods. At the end of the experiment,the survival of the larvae in experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group, however the body weight was greater than that in the control group.%将基础饲料先制成球丸,用流化床制备乙基纤维素包衣的微胶囊饲料.微胶囊饲料粒径为150~840μm的达70%.微胶囊饲料的包含率和脂类包埋率分别为97.2%±1.7%,63.2%±3.7%,在35.0%.的NaCl溶液中浸泡20,40,60min,氮保留率分别为73.6%±2.6%,65.8%±3.5%,53.7%±4.2%.扫描电镜(SEM)观察微胶囊饲料表面为均匀光滑一致的包衣膜,形状规则且无粘连现象.将微胶囊饲料饲喂15日龄大黄鱼25d作为实验组,对照组饲喂冷藏挠足类.实验结束时,实验组大黄鱼鱼苗的成活率虽显著低于对照组,但体重大于对照组.

  18. 静电喷雾法制备微胶囊化乳酸菌及其储存稳定性的研究%Preparation of Microencapsulated Lactobacilli by Electrostatic Spray and It's Storage Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯琼; 李保国; 刘畅; 张灼阳; 郭晓奎

    2009-01-01

    采用微孔淀粉吸附乳酸菌,以海藻酸钠和明胶的混合体系为壁材,对其进行静电喷雾包埋,并在模拟胃肠液环境中进行耐酸性和肠溶性实验.得出用6%的微孔淀粉吸附乳酸菌,活菌数最高,当芯壁材比为1∶3时包埋率为85.88%,微胶囊化乳酸菌在经人工胃液处理2 h后,活菌数比未经微胶囊化的对照组高出2个数量级;经人工肠液处理40 min后,乳酸菌可全部释放.微胶囊化乳酸菌饮料在4℃冰箱储藏4 w后,其活菌数仅是在同一数量级上有少许下降,而对照组未经包埋的乳酸菌和市售乳酸菌饮料下降了约2个数量级,经微胶囊化的乳酸菌具有较好的储存稳定性.%Lactobacilli were adsorbed in microporous starch and then encapsulated by the mixture of alginate-sodium and glutin with the method of electrostatic spray. The results showed that the viability of microencapsulated lactobacilli was the highest when absorbed with 6% microporous starch. The encapsulation efficiency reached 85. 88% at the ratio of the core volume to the wall volume being 1: 3. After treated by artificial gastric juice for 2 h,the viability of microencapsulated lactobacilli was 2 log more than that of control group. As microencapsulated lactobacilli were treated by artificial intestinal juice for 40 minutes,the microencapsulated lactobacilli was completely released. During the four weeks the milk drink with microencapsulated lactobacilli were stored in 4℃ refrigerator,the number of alive lactobacilli decreased a little,whereas for those without encapsulated lactobacilli and on the market,the number declined about 2 log. The conclusion is that microencapsulated lactobacilli has better storage stability.

  19. PHASE DIAGRAM OF GELATINE-POLYURONATE COLLOIDS: ITS APPLICATION FOR MICROENCAPSULATION AND NOT ONLY

    OpenAIRE

    Alexei Baerle; Olga Dimova; Irina Urumoglova; Pavel Tatarov; Larisa Zadorojnai

    2016-01-01

    Phase state and the charge of colloidal particles in the gelatine-polyuronate system were studied. A method for comparative evaluation of molecular weight of colloids by means of viscosimetric measurements and electrophoresis was developed. It is shown that the Diagram {Phase state = f (composition, pH)} contains six well-defined regions. The diagram explains and predicts the behaviour of protein-polysaccharide colloids, which are included in beverages or forms the shells of oil-containing mi...

  20. PHASE DIAGRAM OF GELATINE-POLYURONATE COLLOIDS: ITS APPLICATION FOR MICROENCAPSULATION AND NOT ONLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Baerle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phase state and the charge of colloidal particles in the gelatine-polyuronate system were studied. A method for comparative evaluation of molecular weight of colloids by means of viscosimetric measurements and electrophoresis was developed. It is shown that the Diagram {Phase state = f (composition, pH} contains six well-defined regions. The diagram explains and predicts the behaviour of protein-polysaccharide colloids, which are included in beverages or forms the shells of oil-containing microcapsules.

  1. 有机烷烃相变材料及其微胶囊化%Organic Alkane Phase Change Materials and Their Microencapsulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建伟; 余冬梅; 赵蕴慧; 苏峻峰; 袁晓燕

    2011-01-01

    本文详细阐述了近年来有机烷烃相变材料(PCMs)及其微胶囊化的研究进展和应用前景.单一组分的有机烷烃PCMs一般均具有理想的相变性质,但由于相变点固定使其应用受到限制,为了满足实际需要,通过不同组分的复配,可以实现对相变温度范围的调节.单一组分直链烷烃PCMs的价格往往很高,石蜡由于含有不同碳原子数的有机烷烃而常被用作PCMs.另一方面,由于有机烷烃PCMs发生固-液相变时,通常会伴有体积膨胀等问题而带来不便.微胶囊化可以将PCMs转化为固体粉末,并通过增加比表面积来提高传热效率,在传热、储能和控温等方面具有广泛的应用价值.本文重点介绍了PCMs微胶囊化的三种化学方法,即原位聚合、界面聚合和悬浮聚合,并与喷雾干燥、相分离和溶胶.凝胶等方法进行了比较.%In this paper,research progresses of organic alkane phase change materials(PCMs) and potential applications of their microencapsulation are introduced systematically. The pure alkane has ideal phase change properties, but its fixed phase change point limits its applications. Practical needs are usually met by mixing different components of alkanes for adjusting their phase change properties. Generally speaking, homogeneous mixing is required to obtain a narrow temperature range of phase transition without phase separation. Because of the high cost of pure alkanes, applied researches were focused on paraffin systems. On the other hand, most of organic alkane PCMs undergo solid-liquid phase change, which can lead to inconvenience by swelling. Microencapsulation is an effective way to solve the problem of liquid PCMs. By means of chemical methods, such as in situ polymerization,interface polymerization and suspension polymerization, liquid PCMs can be enwrapped into microcapsules and turned into solid powders. Additionally, spray drying, phase separation and sol-gel methods are also available to

  2. Research Development of Micro-encapsulated Phase Change Materials%相变储热微胶囊的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清璠; 洪卫; 潘圣阳; 王梁元

    2014-01-01

    The research developments for preparation methods of micro-encapsulated phase change materials were reviewed, which was expounded mainly from the aspects of in-situ polymerization,suspension polymerization and interfacial polymerization. The applications,current existing problems and corresponding methods to overcome these problems of the micro-encapsualted phase change materials were also introduced.%综述了储热相变微胶囊制备方法的研究进展,重点从原位聚合、悬浮聚合及界面聚合等方面进行了论述。同时介绍了储热相变微胶囊的应用领域以及目前存在的问题和应对方法。

  3. Thermal Properties of Low Melting Point Microencapsulated Paraffin Insulation Mortar%低熔点石蜡微胶囊保温砂浆的热性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏华; 张剑; 陈淑莲; 王雪梅

    2012-01-01

    以低熔点石蜡微胶囊为相变材料,制备石蜡微胶囊保温砂浆.测试了保温砂浆的热焓、相变温度、导热系数和相变蓄热性能.结果表明:石蜡微胶囊保温砂浆具有良好的蓄热、调温功能和较长的热循环寿命,砂浆体系的相变温度为33℃,相变潜热13.42 J/g;随着偶联剂和粘结剂掺量的增加,保温砂浆的导热系数呈下降趋势;随着石蜡微胶囊掺量增加,保温砂浆的导热系数先减后增;与空白试件相比较,相变蓄热砂浆的升降温速率明显要滞后,呈现出较好的蓄热、调温性能.%Microencapsulated paraffin insulation mortar (MPIM) was prepared by using low melting point microencapsulated paraffin (MCP) as phase change material. The phase change temperature, enthalpy, thermal conductivity coefficient and phase change thermal storage properties were tested. The result shows phase change temperature and enthalpy of the.MPIM are 33 ℃ and 13. 42 J/g, respectively. The thermal conductivity coefficient decreases with the increase in the dosage of silane coupling and binder. The thermal conductivity coefficient decreases with the increase in the dosage of the MCP, and then increases. Compared with blank specimens, the heating rate and cooling rate of the MPIM is definitely lagged, and it has good thermal storage properties.

  4. 四种复合壁材对微胶囊大豆油的性能影响%The influence of four blended wall materials on soybean oil microencapsulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞毅舒; 童群义

    2012-01-01

    The influence of four blended wall materials on spray-dried soybean oil microencapsulation was studied. Those four blended wall materials were composed by arabic gum(AG), starch octenylsuccinate(OSA), sodium carboxymethylcellulose ( CMC), carrageenin ( CAR), maltodextrin ( M D), soy protein isolate ( SPI ). The. performance of microencapsulation was characterized by microencapsulation efficiency, thermal stability, glass transition temperature(Tg) and surface morphology. All samples were broken down at 250~C, the microencapsulation efficiency of microencapsulation made by CAR-SPI-MD wall material was the highest which was 95.10% ,and its glass transition temperature ( Tg ) was 48.9℃. The microencapsulation made by CMC- SPI - MD had the lowest microencapsulation efficiency and Tg, and both of the microencapsulation made by AG-MD and OSA-MD had moderate value.According to scanning electron microscope(SEM) ,the particles were rounded, and most of them had no distinct fissures and holes, but there were some fissures and holes around the particle surface made by CAR-SPI-MD,so further studies were needed to improve it.%研究了4种复合壁材对喷雾干燥微胶囊大豆油的性能影响。4种复合壁材由阿拉伯胶(AG)、辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯(OSA)、羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)、卡拉胶(CAR)、麦芽糊精(MD)、大豆分离蛋白(SPI)复配形成。以微胶囊效率、热稳定性、玻璃化转变温度(_rg)和表面形态表征微胶囊性能。结果表明:四种微胶囊均在250℃发生降解,CAR—SPI—MD复合壁材制备的微胶囊,微胶囊效率最高,为95.10%,Tg为48.9℃;CMC—SPI—MD制备的微胶囊,微胶囊效率和Tg最低;而由AG-MD及OSA—MD制备的微胶囊,其微胶囊效率和Tg居两者之间。扫描电镜图(SEM)显示微胶褒呈球形,大部分颗粒表面无显著缝隙和孔洞,但CAR—SPI—MD制备的微胶囊部分颗粒表面存在缝隙和孔洞,需要进一步实验。

  5. Research Progress on Microencapsulation of Poorly Soluble Solid Pesticides and Controlled Release%难溶性固体农药微胶囊化及控制释放研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢向阳

    2013-01-01

      难溶性固体化合物广泛存在于农药、医药等领域,其稳定性受多种环境因素影响,在应用上存在微胶囊化的需要。介绍了难溶性农药微胶囊化适用的制备方法、芯材释放速率的调控方法和影响因素的研究进展。%Poorly soluble solids existed extensively in pesticides, medicines and other fields. Their stabilities were affected by many environmental factors, therefore microencapsulations were needed in their applications. This article described the research progress on the suitable preparation methods of poorly soluble solid microencapsulations, the control methods of core release rates and influence factors.

  6. Microencapsulation of Nigella sativa oleoresin by spray drying for food and nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edris, Amr E; Kalemba, Danuta; Adamiec, Janusz; Piątkowski, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    Oleoresin of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) was obtained from the seeds using hexane extraction at room temperature. The oleoresin was emulsified in an aqueous solution containing gum Arabic/maltodextrin (1:1 w/w) and then encapsulated in powder form by spray drying. The characteristics of the obtained powder including moisture content, bulk density, wettability, morphology, encapsulation efficiency were evaluated. The effect of the spray drying on the chemical composition of the volatile oil fraction of N. sativa oleoresin was also evaluated using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis. Results indicated that the encapsulation efficiency of the whole oleoresin in the powder can range from 84.2±1.5% to 96.2±0.2% depending on the conditions of extracting the surface oil from the powder. On the other hand the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile oil fraction was 86.2% ±4.7. The formulated N. sativa L. oleoresin powder can be used in the fortification of processed food and nutraceuticals.

  7. Flicking technique for microencapsulation of cells in calcium alginate leading to the microtissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Soon Chuan; Soon, Chin Fhong; Leong, Wai Yean; Tee, Kian Sek

    2016-01-01

    Microbeads have wide applications in biomedical engineering field that include drug delivery, encapsulation of biomolecules, tissue padding and tissue regeneration. In this paper, we report a simple, yet efficient, flicking technique to produce microcapsules of calcium alginate at a narrow distribution of size. The system consists of an infusion pump and a customised flicker that taps the syringe needle for dispersing microcapsules of sodium alginate that polymerised in the calcium chloride solution. The flow rate of the syringe pump and the velocity of the flicker were studied to achieve a well controlled and tunable size distribution of microbeads ranging from 200 to 400 μm. At a flow rate of 4 μl/min and flicking rate of 80 rpm, a narrow size distribution of microbeads were produced. Via this technique, HaCaT cells were encapsulated in calcium alginate microbeads that grown into microtissues with a size ranging from 100 to 300 μm after two weeks of culture. These microtissues could be potentially useful for pharmacological application.

  8. Microencapsulation of maltogenic α-amylase in poly(urethane-urea) shell: inverse emulsion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciulyte, Sandra; Kochane, Tatjana; Budriene, Saulute

    2015-01-01

    The novel poly(urethane-urea) microcapsules (PUUMC) were obtained by the interfacial polyaddition reaction between the oil-soluble hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) and the water soluble poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion. The PVA was used instead of diols. Maltogenase L (maltogenic α-amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (E. C. 3.2.1.133) (MG) was encapsulated in the PUUMC during or after formation of capsules. The PUUMC were thoroughly characterised by chemical analytical methods, FT-IR, SEM, thermal analysis, surface area, pore volume and size analysis. Furthermore, by carefully analysing the influencing factors including: catalyst and surfactants and their concentrations, the initial molar ratio of PVA and HMDI, stirring rate and ratio of dispersed phase to external phase, the optimum synthesis conditions were found out. A controlled release of MG could be observed in many cases. Delayed-release capsules were obtained when initial concentration of HMDI was increased. These capsules have potential application in biotechnology for saccharification of starch.

  9. Process considerations related to the microencapsulation of plasmid DNA via ultrasonic atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jenny; Wang, Huanting; Forde, Gareth M

    2008-09-01

    An effective means of facilitating DNA vaccine delivery to antigen presenting cells is through biodegradable microspheres. Microspheres offer distinct advantages over other delivery technologies by providing release of DNA vaccine in its bioactive form in a controlled fashion. In this study, biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres containing polyethylenimine (PEI) condensed plasmid DNA (pDNA) were prepared using a 40 kHz ultrasonic atomization system. Process synthesis parameters, which are important to the scale-up of microspheres that are suitable for nasal delivery (i.e., less than 20 microm), were studied. These parameters include polymer concentration; feed flowrate; volumetric ratio of polymer and pDNA-PEI (plasmid DNA-polyethylenimine) complexes; and nitrogen to phosphorous (N/P) ratio. PDNA encapsulation efficiencies were predominantly in the range 82-96%, and the mean sizes of the particle were between 6 and 15 microm. The ultrasonic synthesis method was shown to have excellent reproducibility. PEI affected morphology of the microspheres, as it induced the formation of porous particles that accelerate the release rate of pDNA. The PLGA microspheres displayed an in vitro release of pDNA of 95-99% within 30 days and demonstrated zero order release kinetics without an initial spike of pDNA. Agarose electrophoresis confirmed conservation of the supercoiled form of pDNA throughout the synthesis and in vitro release stages. It was concluded that ultrasonic atomization is an efficient technique to overcome the key obstacles in scaling-up the manufacture of encapsulated vaccine for clinical trials and ultimately, commercial applications.

  10. Microencapsulated 3-dimensional sensor for the measurement of oxygen in single isolated pancreatic islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxygen consumption reflects multiple processes in pancreatic islets including mechanisms contributing to insulin secretion, oxidative stress and viability, providing an important readout in studies of islet function, islet viability and drug testing. Due to the scarcity, heterogeneity, and intrinsic kinetic properties of individual islets, it would be of great benefit to detect oxygen consumption by single islets. We present a novel method we have developed to image oxygen in single islets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a microfluidics system, individual islets and a fluorescent oxygen-sensitive dye were encased within a thin alginate polymer layer. Insulin secretion by the encapsulated islets was normal. Fluorescent signal from the encased dye, detected using a standard inverted fluorescence microscope and digital camera, was stable and proportional to the amount of oxygen in the media. When integrated into a perifusion system, the sensing system detected changes in response to metabolic substrates, mitochondrial poisons, and induced-oscillations. Glucose responses averaged 30.1±7.1% of the response to a metabolic inhibitor (cyanide, increases were observed in all cases (n = 6, and the system was able to resolve changes in oxygen consumption that had a period greater than 0.5 minutes. The sensing system operated similarly from 2-48 hours following encapsulation, and viability and function of the islets were not significantly affected by the encapsulation process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: An oxygen-dependent dye situated around and within a pancreatic islet encapsulated by a thin layer of alginate was sensitive to changes in oxygen consumption, and was not harmful to the function or viability of islets over the course of two days. The microcapsule-based sensing method is particularly suited to assessing the effects of compounds (dose responses and time courses and chronic changes occurring over the course of days. The

  11. Microencapsulation of protein drugs for drug delivery: strategy, preparation, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guanghui

    2014-11-10

    Bio-degradable poly(lactide) (PLA)/poly(lactide-glycolide) (PLGA) and chitosan microspheres (or microcapsules) have important applications in Drug Delivery Systems (DDS) of protein/peptide drugs. By encapsulating protein/peptide drugs in the microspheres, the serum drug concentration can be maintained at a higher constant value for a prolonged time, or injection formulation can be changed to orally or mucosally administered formulation. PLA/PLGA and chitosan are most often used in injection formulation and oral formulation. However, in the preparation and applications of PLA/PLGA and chitosan microspheres containing protein/peptide drugs, the problems of broad size distribution and poor reproducibility of microspheres, and deactivation of protein during the preparation, storage and release, are still big challenges. In this article, the techniques for control of the diameter of microspheres and microcapsules will be introduced at first, then the strategies about how to maintain the bioactivity of protein drugs during preparation and drug release will be reviewed and developed in our research group. The membrane emulsification techniques including direct membrane emulsification and rapid membrane emulsification processes were developed to prepare uniform-sized microspheres, the diameter of microspheres can be controlled from submicron to 100μm by these two processes, and the reproducibility of products can be guaranteed. Furthermore, compared with conventional stirring method, the big advantages of membrane emulsification process were that the uniform microspheres with much higher encapsulation efficiency can be obtained, and the release behavior can be adjusted by selecting microsphere size. Mild membrane emulsification condition also can prevent the deactivation of proteins, which frequently occurred under high shear force in mechanical stirring, sonification, and homogenization methods. The strategies for maintaining the bioactivity of protein drug were

  12. A microencapsulation process of liquid mercury by sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification technology. Part I: Characterization of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Delgado, A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available European Directives consider mercury a priority hazardous substance due to its adverse effects on human health and the environment. In response to environmental concerns, a microencapsulation process has been developed within the European LIFE program as a long-term storage option for mercury. This process leads to the obtainment of a stable concrete-like sulfur matrix that allows the immobilization of mercury. The final product, in the form of a solid block containing up to 30 % Hg, exhibits excellent mechanical properties (compressive strength 53-61MPa and flexural strength 7-10 MPa, low porosity (0.57 % PHe, very low total pore volume (0.63x10-2 cm3 g-1, and extremely low permeability (coefficient of water absorption by capillarity 0.07 g cm-2. Toxicity characteristic leaching tests reveal a mercury concentration in leachates well below the 0.2 mg L-1 set out in US EPA Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs. The values of mercury vapor emissions of final products were lower than those of cinnabar and metacinnabar.

    Resumen Las Directivas Europeas consideran al mercurio una sustancia de peligrosidad prioritaria debido a sus efectos adversos sobre la salud humana y sobre el medio ambiente. En respuesta a estas preocupaciones ambientales, y dentro del Programa Europeo LIFE, se ha desarrollado un proceso de microencapsulación como una opción al almacenamiento a largo plazo del mercurio. Con este proceso se obtiene un material estable, tipo concreto, de matriz de azufre que permite la inmovilización del mercurio. El producto final, en forma de un bloque sólido, contiene hasta un 30 % de Hg, presenta excelentes propiedades mecánicas (resistencia a la compresión 53-61 MPa, y a la flexión 7-10 MPa, baja porosidad (0,57 % PHe, muy bajo volumen total de poro (0,63 x 10-2 cm3 g-1 y una permeabilidad extremadamente baja (coeficiente de absorción de

  13. Research Progress of Microencapsulated Powdered Oil by Spray Drying%喷雾干燥法制备微胶囊化粉末油脂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓霞; 侯利霞; 刘玉兰; 纪俊敏; 杨书平

    2013-01-01

    Powdered oil is made by food microencapsulation technology.Because of its convenient operation,good stability and long shelf life,it is widely used in food industry.Currently,the most common microencapsulation method is spray drying.In this paper,the characteristics of powdered oil,the method of microencapsulation and the select of wall materials are summarized.Meanwhile,the application of this technology in Chinese condiment industry is put forward.%粉末油脂是食品微胶囊技术的产品,因其具有方便操作、稳定性好和货架期长等特点,而被广泛应用于食品工业中.目前用于食品工业制造粉末油脂的微胶囊化方法主要是喷雾干燥法.文章就粉末油脂的特点、喷雾干燥制备粉末油脂的方法及壁材选择等进行总结,并提出这项技术在中国调味品工业中的应用.

  14. Optimization of Technological Conditions for Garlic Oil Microencapsulation Using Starch Octenylsuccinate%变性淀粉对大蒜精油微胶囊化工艺条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贝贝; 谭书明

    2011-01-01

    为得到成本低、包埋率高的大蒜精油微胶囊化产品,以辛烯基琥珀酸酯化淀粉HI-CAP100与麦芽糊精为壁材,采用冷冻干燥法对大蒜精油微胶囊化工艺条件进行了优化,得出的最佳工艺条件为壁材MHI-CAP100∶M麦芽糊精=5∶1,M精油∶M(壁)材=1∶4,加水量为40%,在此条件下大蒜精油微胶囊包埋率高达93.45%.%To obtain microencapsulated garlic oil with low cost and high embedding rate, the freeze-drying method was used to optimize the technological conditions for garlic oil microencapsulation taking starch octenylsuccinate HI-CAP100 and malto dextrin as the wall materials. The optimum conditions for garlic oil microencapsulation were Mhi-cap100 : Mmalto dextrin= 5 :1, Moil : Mwall material = 1: 4 and water adding amount 40%. The embedding rate could be up to 93. 45% under the optimized conditions.

  15. Study on the Extraction, Purification and Microencapsulation of Blueberry Anthocyanins%蓝莓花青素的提取、分离及微胶囊化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚银花; 刘悦; 刘茜茜; 杨敏; 冯贵涛; 马义虔

    2015-01-01

    Using alcohol as solvent, ultrasonic-assisted extraction was performed to extract anthocyanins from blueberry. Seven extraction parameters were examined, such as ethanol content, extraction times, ratio of solid to solvent, ultrasonic time, pH, extraction temperature, different acids. The extraction solution was concentrated, purified with AB-8 macroporous resin, and the parts containing anthocyanins were concentrated and microencapsulated with orifice method. The parameters of purification, and microencapsulation were tested. The technological process of the extraction, purification, and microencapsulation of blueberry anthocyanins were achieved.%用乙醇作溶剂对蓝莓果中花青素进行了超声提取,考察了乙醇体积分数、提取次数、料液比、时间、 pH 值、温度、酸的种类7个因素对提取蓝莓果花青素的影响。提取液经浓缩后,通过AB-8大孔树脂纯化,浓缩后,采用锐孔法制备微胶囊,考察了纯化和微囊化的相关参数,实现了蓝莓花青素的提取、分离及微胶囊化的工艺过程。

  16. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  17. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Recent papers mention ideas on the topics of biodiversity conservation strategies and priorities (Redford et al. 2003; Lamoreux et al. 2006; Rodrı´guez et al. 2006), the current status of biodiversity (Loreau et al. 2006), the obligations of conservation biologists regarding management policies...... (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture...

  18. Microencapsulation Of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

  19. Influence of homogenization pressure and spray drying temperature on microencapsulated fish oil%均质压力及喷雾干燥温度聂鱼油微胶囊化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盛楠; 刘书来; 丁玉庭

    2012-01-01

    采用辛烯基琥珀酸酯淀粉Hi—Cap100和葡萄糖浆作为鱼油微胶囊的壁材。研究了不同均质压力下乳化液黏度、粒径和粒径分布规律,考察了不同均质压力下乳化液特性与鱼油微胶囊包埋率、表面油含量之间的相关性,探讨了喷雾干燥温度对包埋率和鱼油过氧化值(POV)的影响。研究结果表明,随着均质压力的增加,乳化液黏度和平均粒径逐渐减小,而粒径分布离散度总体呈下降趋势,在40MPa时最小,说明此时粒径分布均一性最佳;喷雾干燥温度增加时,鱼油包埋率先增后减,POV值先减后增,在进/出口温度为140℃/70℃时有最高的包埋率和最低的POV值。通过分析确定最佳工艺参数如下,均质压力为40MPa,喷雾干燥进口温度为140℃,出I:2温度为70℃。在上述最适工艺条件下,鱼油微胶囊平均粒径为5.97μm,表面油含量为2.03%,微胶囊化包埋率为95.6%,在扫描电镜下观察微胶囊表面和内部结构良好,具有良好的包埋效果。%Fish oil was microencapsulated in the wall material of n-octenylsuccinate-derivatized starch (Hi-Cap 100) and glucose syrup. Effects of homogenization pressure on emulsion viscosity, particle size and particle size distribution were studied. The correlation between emulsion characteristic with the microencapsulation efficiency and the surface oil content was shown under different homogenization pressure, the influence of spray drying inlet/outlet air temperature on the morphology, microencapsulation efficiency and peroxide value (POV) was discussed. The results was shown that the emulsion viscosity and average particle decrease, with the increase of the homogenization pressure, while the particle size distribution showing a downward trend in general, and reached the maximum values in 40 MPa, then increased slightly in high pressure. The microencapsulation efficiency of fish oil increased

  20. Study of microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells and its cryopreservation in vitro%微囊化牛嗜铬细胞及冷冻保存的体外培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学伟; 黄乔东; 章乐虹; 胡以则

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the viability of microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells and their viability after cryopreservation, explore a cryopreservation mean for the microencapsulated chomaffin cells, and build a clinical foundation for the future large-scale clinical cell transplantation for treatment of pain. Methods Bovine adrenal medullary was digested into single chromaffin with collagenase digestion, then microencapsulated it. The cells were cryopreservated and some of them were thawed for in vitro culture to observe the cell growth; Culture medium was collected for the analysis of norepinephrine and methyl-endomorphin concentration by radioimmunoassay. Cell viability was evaluated by the secretion under high potassium and acetylcholine stimulation. Results Microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells displayed their morphology structural integrity and functioned well after cryopreservation. The cells maintained the ability to secrete catecholamines and methyl-endomorphin. The basic and stimulated secretion volume of microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells recovered from cryopreservation were 92% of that of fresh chromaffin cells. The norepinephrine and methyl-endomorphin levels were significantly higher after stimulation (P<0.01). Conclusion Microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells and thawed cells from cryopreservation show the ability to secret both catecholamines and methyl-endomorphin well, which demonstrated that the microencapsulation and cryopreservation are useful method to preserve bovine chromaffin cells.%目的 观察体外培养的微囊化牛嗜铬细胞及其冷冻保存复苏后的细胞活力,探索微囊化牛嗜铬细胞的冻存保存方法,为将来进行大规模细胞移植治疗疼痛奠定临床基础.方法 经胶原酶消化成单细胞,微囊包裹,并取部分进行冷冻保存及复温,观察细胞的生长情况;放免法分别检测其培养液中去甲肾上腺素、甲-脑啡呔的含量和在高钾、乙酰胆碱刺激下

  1. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  2. Research on Microencapsulation Technology of α-Linolenic Acid%α-亚麻酸微胶囊化技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 郑联合; 潘善甫

    2012-01-01

    This study enriched a-linolenic acid by urea adduct method, inorder to reduce its oxidation speed, researched the microencapsulation of ot -linolenic acid by spray drying, optimized the ratio of microcapsule wall materials and process parameters, then the products were observed by electronic microscopic and determinated the oxidative stability. The experimental results demonstrated that, the wall materials were complexed of cyclodextrin, alginate sodium and lecithin, the mass ratio of wall materials was 7:2:1, the optimized process parameters of microcapsule were as follows, the proportion of core material and wall material was 1: 1:5, solid concetration was 20% ,emulsifier dosage was 2.0% , emulsification temperature was 65 ℃ ,air inlet temperature of spray drying was 180 ℃. ,air outlet temperature was 80 ℃roduced the best microencapsulation of a-linolenic acid and the encapsulation efficiency was 87.6%. The microcapsule granules were round and orderly, the structure was compact, and its oxidative stability was greatly superior than a-linolenic acid stock solution.%采用尿素包合法富集橡胶籽油中的α-亚麻酸,为降低其氧化速度,采用喷雾干燥法对α-亚麻酸进行微胶囊化研究,优化微胶囊壁材的组成配比及工艺参数,并对制备的微胶囊产品进行电镜观察及氧化稳定性测试.结果表明,α-亚麻酸微胶囊化壁材的组成采用β-环糊精、海藻酸钠、卵磷脂的质量比为7∶2∶1;优化的微胶囊化工艺参数为:芯材与壁材的配比为1∶1.5,固形物浓度为20%,乳化剂用量为2.0%,乳化温度为65℃,喷雾干燥进风温度180℃、出风温度80℃,制得的α-亚麻酸微胶囊的包埋效果最好,包埋率可达87.6%,微胶囊颗粒圆整,结构致密,氧化稳定性大大优于α-亚麻酸原液.

  3. Preparation of sesame oil microencapsulation by single coacervation method%单凝聚法芝麻油微胶囊制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩; 王春玉; 姜文利; 王世清

    2014-01-01

    For the sake of improving the stability and practicability of sesame oil,sesame oil microencapsulations were prepared by single coacervation method with gelatin as wall material, sesame oil as core material,and the adding of right amount of emulsifier. On the basis of single factor experiments,effects of mass fraction of wall,core wall and operating temperature on embedding rate were studied and microencapsulation molding effect was also studied by response surface methodology. The results showed that the concentration gelatin mass was 4%,the core wall ratio was 0.25,the concentration of monoglyceride was 0.3%,the operation temperature was 60 ℃,and the embedding rate of sesame oil could be obtained 79.42%.%为了提高芝麻油的稳定性和实用性,通过单凝聚法,以明胶为壁材,芝麻油为芯材,添加适量的乳化剂来制备微胶囊化芝麻油。以微胶囊成型效果和包埋率为指标,研究了壁材质量分数、芯壁比、乳化剂单甘脂浓度及操作温度对包埋效果的影响。在单因素试验的基础上,采用响应面法确定了单凝聚法制备芝麻油微胶囊的最佳工艺。实验结果表明:最佳工艺为明胶质量浓度4%,芯壁比1∶4,单甘脂浓度0.3%,操作温度60℃时,所得芝麻油微胶囊的包埋率最大为79.42%。

  4. Material Performance of Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel under Selected LWR Design Basis Scenarios: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Boer; R. S. Sen; M. A. Pope; A. M. Ougouag

    2011-09-01

    The extension to LWRs of the use of Deep-Burn coated particle fuel envisaged for HTRs has been investigated. TRISO coated fuel particles are used in Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel within a SiC matrix rather than the graphite of HTRs. TRISO particles are well characterized for uranium-fueled HTRs. However, operating conditions of LWRs are different from those of HTRs (temperature, neutron energy spectrum, fast fluence levels, power density). Furthermore, the time scales of transient core behavior during accidents are usually much shorter and thus more severe in LWRs. The PASTA code was updated for analysis of stresses in coated particle FCM fuel. The code extensions enable the automatic use of neutronic data (burnup, fast fluence as a function of irradiation time) obtained using the DRAGON neutronics code. An input option for automatic evaluation of temperature rise during anticipated transients was also added. A new thermal model for FCM was incorporated into the code; so-were updated correlations (for pyrocarbon coating layers) suitable to estimating dimensional changes at the high fluence levels attained in LWR DB fuel. Analyses of the FCM fuel using the updated PASTA code under nominal and accident conditions show: (1) Stress levels in SiC-coatings are low for low fission gas release (FGR) fractions of several percent, as based on data of fission gas diffusion in UO{sub 2} kernels. However, the high burnup level of LWR-DB fuel implies that the FGR fraction is more likely to be in the range of 50-100%, similar to Inert Matrix Fuels (IMFs). For this range the predicted stresses and failure fractions of the SiC coating are high for the reference particle design (500 {micro}mm kernel diameter, 100 {micro}mm buffer, 35 {micro}mm IPyC, 35 {micro}mm SiC, 40 {micro}mm OPyC). A conservative case, assuming 100% FGR, 900K fuel temperature and 705 MWd/kg (77% FIMA) fuel burnup, results in a 8.0 x 10{sup -2} failure probability. For a &apos

  5. Prevention of carcinogen and inflammation-induced dermal cancer by oral rapamycin includes reducing genetic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Vinh; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Liu, Yang; Hurez, Vincent; Dodds, Sherry; Callaway, Danielle; Liu, Aijie; Hasty, Paul; Sharp, Zelton D; Curiel, Tyler J

    2015-05-01

    Cancer prevention is a cost-effective alternative to treatment. In mice, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin prevents distinct spontaneous, noninflammatory cancers, making it a candidate broad-spectrum cancer prevention agent. We now show that oral microencapsulated rapamycin (eRapa) prevents skin cancer in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) carcinogen-induced, inflammation-driven carcinogenesis. eRapa given before DMBA/TPA exposure significantly increased tumor latency, reduced papilloma prevalence and numbers, and completely inhibited malignant degeneration into squamous cell carcinoma. Rapamycin is primarily an mTORC1-specific inhibitor, but eRapa did not reduce mTORC1 signaling in skin or papillomas, and did not reduce important proinflammatory factors in this model, including p-Stat3, IL17A, IL23, IL12, IL1β, IL6, or TNFα. In support of lack of mTORC1 inhibition, eRapa did not reduce numbers or proliferation of CD45(-)CD34(+)CD49f(mid) skin cancer initiating stem cells in vivo and marginally reduced epidermal hyperplasia. Interestingly, eRapa reduced DMBA/TPA-induced skin DNA damage and the hras codon 61 mutation that specifically drives carcinogenesis in this model, suggesting reduction of DNA damage as a cancer prevention mechanism. In support, cancer prevention and DNA damage reduction effects were lost when eRapa was given after DMBA-induced DNA damage in vivo. eRapa afforded picomolar concentrations of rapamycin in skin of DMBA/TPA-exposed mice, concentrations that also reduced DMBA-induced DNA damage in mouse and human fibroblasts in vitro. Thus, we have identified DNA damage reduction as a novel mechanism by which rapamycin can prevent cancer, which could lay the foundation for its use as a cancer prevention agent in selected human populations.

  6. 共微囊化大鼠肝细胞和骨髓间充质干细胞体外功能评价%The preparation and in vitro functional evaluation of co-microencapsulated rat hepatocytes with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 陈学敏; 孙冬林; 刘胜勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To achieve co-microencapsulated rat hepatocytes with bone marrow mesen-chymal stem cells (BMSCs),and study the maintenance of rat hepatocyte viability and functions within comicroencapsules.Methods The rat hepatocytes were co-microencapsulated with BMSCs at ratio of2:1 via encapsulator for 7 days in vitro.Microencapsulated hepatocytes alone or cocultivation with BMSCs without microencapsulating were set up as control.The functions and viability of co-microencapsulated hepatocytes were evaluated by secretion of albumin and urea,as well as hepatocyte morphology,respectively.Results Hepatocyte performance levels such as albumin secretion and urea synthesis were all significantly enhanced in co-microencapsulation compared with microencapsulated hepatocytes alone (P < 0.05).The best hepatic function levels were achieved on day 2 and moderately decreased in the following days.It was still detectable at the endpoint of our experiment (day 7).Conclusion Co-microencapsulation of rat hepatocytes and BMSCs could maintain hepatic functions,morphology and survival in vitro.%目的 制备共微囊化肝细胞和骨髓间充质干细胞(BMSCs),观察微囊内BMSCs对肝细胞生物学活性的支持.方法 利用微囊发生器制备微囊进行体外培养,同时建立微囊化肝细胞、非微囊化的单纯肝细胞培养组、肝细胞与BMSCs共培养组,通过观察囊内肝细胞形态和测定培养液上清中白蛋白和尿素的浓度评价肝细胞活性和功能.结果 肝细胞与BMSCs共微囊化组肝细胞分泌白蛋白水平、尿素合成能力自第1天起均显著高于单纯肝细胞微囊化组(P<0.05),并在第2天达到高峰,而且下降趋势缓慢,在第7天仍有表达.结论 肝细胞和BMSCs共微囊化能明显改善囊内肝细胞的功能和生存时间.

  7. Microencapsulation of grape (Vitis labrusca var. Bordo) skin phenolic extract using gum Arabic, polydextrose, and partially hydrolyzed guar gum as encapsulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuck, Luiza Siede; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata

    2016-03-01

    Bordo grape skin extract was microencapsulated by spray-drying and freeze-drying, using gum arabic (GA), partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), and polydextrose (PD) as encapsulating agents. Total phenolics and total monomeric anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, color, moisture, water activity (aw), solubility, hygroscopicity, glass transition temperature (Tg), particle size, and microstructure of the powders were evaluated. The retention of phenolics and anthocyanins ranged from 81.4% to 95.3%, and 80.8% to 99.6%, respectively, while the retention of antioxidant activity ranged from 45.4% to 83.7%. Treatments subjected to spray-drying had lower moisture, aw, and particle size, and greater solubility, while the freeze-dried samples were less hygroscopic. Tg values ranged from 10.1 to 52.2°C, and the highest values corresponded to the spray-dried microparticles. The spray-dried particles had spherical shape, while the freeze-dried powders showed irregular structures. The spray drying technique and the use of 5% PHGG and 5% PD has proven to be the best treatment.

  8. Efficacy of a microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate-fortified fruit juice: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Spanish iron-deficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Toxqui, Laura; González-Vizcayno, Carmen; Delgado, Marco A; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2011-06-01

    Fe-deficiency anaemia is a worldwide health problem. We studied the influence of consuming an Fe-fortified fruit juice on Fe status in menstruating women. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 16 weeks of duration was performed. Subjects were randomised into two groups: the P group (n 58) or the F group (n 64), and consumed, as a supplement to their usual diet, 500 ml/d of a placebo fruit juice or an Fe-fortified fruit juice, respectively. The Fe-fortified fruit juice, containing microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate, provided 18 mg Fe/d (100 % of the RDA). At baseline and monthly, dietary intake, body weight and Fe parameters were determined: total erythrocytes, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), Hb, serum Fe, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). The fruit juice consumption involved increased intake of carbohydrates and vitamin C, and increased BMI within normal limits. Ferritin was higher in the F group after week 4 (P fruit juice improves Fe status and may be used to prevent Fe-deficiency anaemia.

  9. The Effect of Emulsifier Dosage on the Performance of Microencapsulated Paraffin%乳化剂用量对石蜡微胶囊性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祎彧

    2011-01-01

    针对太阳能利用以及一些蓄热场合,选取了熔点合适的石蜡,以脲醛树脂为囊壁,采用原位聚合法制备了石蜡—脲醛树脂微胶囊,拟将此微胶囊添加到上述应用场合的传热流体中,提高传热流体的热容。探讨了乳化剂用量对微胶囊蓄热性能和表观形态的影响,可望为工业化生产应用、开发新的储热材料提供技术指导。%Certain paraffin was chosen for core material,which was adapted to solar energy utilizing and the other thermal storage system.Urea-formaldehyde polymer was used as wall material.Urea-formaldehyde microencapsulated paraffin by means of situ polymerization,which was hoped to be added into heat transfer fluid of solar energy utilizing and other thermal storage system to increase the specific heat of fluid.The effect of emulsifier dosage on the performance of microencapsualtion was studied.The results of experiment were analyzed,and the guidance is brought up to develop industrial production and new thermal storage material.

  10. Steady- and transient-state analysis of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel with randomly dispersed tristructural isotropic particles via two-temperature homogenized model-I: Theory and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Cho, Bum Hee; Cho, Nam Zin [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    As a type of accident-tolerant fuel, fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel was proposed after the Fukushima accident in Japan. The FCM fuel consists of tristructural isotropic particles randomly dispersed in a silicon carbide (SiC) matrix. For a fuel element with such high heterogeneity, we have proposed a two-temperature homogenized model using the particle transport Monte Carlo method for the heat conduction problem. This model distinguishes between fuel-kernel and SiC matrix temperatures. Moreover, the obtained temperature profiles are more realistic than those of other models. In Part I of the paper, homogenized parameters for the FCM fuel in which tristructural isotropic particles are randomly dispersed in the fine lattice stochastic structure are obtained by (1) matching steady-state analytic solutions of the model with the results of particle transport Monte Carlo method for heat conduction problems, and (2) preserving total enthalpies in fuel kernels and SiC matrix. The homogenized parameters have two desirable properties: (1) they are insensitive to boundary conditions such as coolant bulk temperatures and thickness of cladding, and (2) they are independent of operating power density. By performing the Monte Carlo calculations with the temperature-dependent thermal properties of the constituent materials of the FCM fuel, temperature-dependent homogenized parameters are obtained.

  11. 喷雾干燥法和复合凝聚法制备仔稚鱼微胶囊饲料的研究%Study on Microencapsulated Diets for Marine Fish Larvae Prepared by Spray- drying and Coacervation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢中国; 王芙蓉; 祝爱霞; 牛化欣; 过世东

    2011-01-01

    The diet microencapsulated with gelatin and gelatin/maltodextrin for fish larvae respectively was prepared by spray - drying. The gelatin/gum arabic - walled microencapsulated diet was prepared for fish larvae by coacervation. The frequent distributions of the microencapsulated diets were in normal distribution. Micrographs showed the gelatin - walled microcapsules and gelatin/maltodextrin - walled microcapsules with a regular and uniform film around the core, but the gelatin/gum arabic microencapsulated diet was not with a uniform film and conglutinates each other.The lipid encapsulation efficiency of gelatin - walled, gelatin/maltodextrin - walled, gelatin/gum arabic - walled microencapsulated diets was 26.59%, 18.07% and 26.37% respectively ,the nitrogen retention efficiency of the microencapsulate diets immersed in 100mL water of 35.0‰ salinity at 20 ℃ for 30 min was 36.03%, 24.93% and 27.47% respectively. The retention efficiency of coated Vitamin C was 20.51% during the spray drying process.%采用喷雾干燥法和复合凝聚法制备仔稚鱼微胶囊饲料.喷雾干燥法选用的壁材分别为明胶、明胶和麦芽糊精的复合物(1∶1);复合凝聚法选用的壁材是明胶和阿拉伯胶的复合物(1∶1).结果显示,喷雾干燥法、复合凝聚法制备的微胶囊饲料粒径较小,大部分小于178 μm.扫描电镜显示喷雾干燥法有较好的包埋效果,明胶为壁材的微胶囊表面有褶皱,明胶和麦芽糊精为壁材的微胶囊表面有许多小孔;明胶和阿拉伯胶复合凝聚的微胶囊出现粘连,没有明显的包埋效果.壁材明胶、明胶和麦芽糊精复合物、明胶和阿拉伯胶复合物3种微胶囊的脂类包埋率分别为26.59%、18.07%、26.37%,于20℃在3.5%NaCl溶液中放置30 min氮保留率分别为36.03%、24.93%、27.47%.喷雾干燥过程中包膜维生素C的保留率仅为20.51%.

  12. 微胶囊C.I.分散蓝56对PLA织物的无助剂染色%Dyeing of PLA fibers using microencapsulated C.I. Disperse Blue 56 without auxiliaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓雯; 钟毅; 杜鹃; 罗艳

    2012-01-01

    将C.I.分散蓝56的微胶囊染料与商品染料分别对PLA织物实施无助剂染色及常规助剂染色,比较相应的上染曲线、提升力曲线、匀染性、摩擦牢度及皂洗牢度.结果表明:微胶囊分散染料可在不经还原清洗、更少工艺步骤且无需助剂的条件下对PLA织物染得和商品分散染料常规助剂染色相当的色深,各项色牢度亦相当.故微胶囊分散染料可对生态聚酯类PLA织物实施无助剂清洁染色.%The Polylactide (PLA) fabrics were dyed by microencapsulated C.I. Disperse Blue 56 without auxiliary and commercial dye with auxiliary, respectively. The corresponding dyeing properties, such as exhausting curve, building up property, leveling property, rubbing fastness and soaping fastness were compared in details. The results showed that the color depth and color fastness of microencapsulated disperse dyed PLA fabric in the absence of auxiliaries and without reduction clearing were similar with those of commercial dyed fabric with auxiliary. Accordingly, microencapsulated disperse dye could be applied in dyeing of ecological polyester type PLA fabric without auxiliary.

  13. Study on extraction by aqueous enzymatic method and microencapsulation of osmanthus fragrans oil%响应面优化水酶法提取桂花油及其微胶囊化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿敬章

    2015-01-01

    该文采用桂花为原料,研究了水酶法提取桂花油及其微胶囊化工艺。通过响应面分析法和正交试验,获得水酶法提取桂花油的最佳工艺及其微胶囊化最佳工艺。结果表明;水酶法提取桂花油最佳工艺为碱性蛋白酶添加量为1.0%,料液比为1∶13.5,酶解时间为3.6 h,酶解温度为43.1℃。微胶囊化最佳工艺条件为壁材浓度12%,芯壁质量比1∶3,均质压力25 MPa,进出风温度为160/85℃。%This study mainly discussed the extraction by aqueous enzymatic method and microencapsulation of osmanthus fragrans oil. The response surface methodology and orthogonal test were designed to obtain the optimum extraction condition by aqueous enzymatic method and microencapsulation condition of osmanthus fragrans oil. The optimum extraction condition by aqueous enzymatic method of osmanthus fragrans oil were as follows:amount of alkaline protease was 1.0%,ratio of material to solution was 1∶13.5,enzymolysis time was 3.6 h,enzymolysis temperature was 43.1 ℃ . The optimum microencapsulation condition of osmanthus fragrans oil was as follows:compound wall material concentration was 12%,ratio of core material to wall material weight was 1∶3,homogenizing pressure was 25 MPa,air inlet temperature and air outlet temperature were 160 ℃ and 85 ℃ .

  14. 以雪莲果汁为壁材制备月见草油微胶囊粉末%Preparation of Microencapsulated Evening Primrose Oil Powder Using Yacon Juice as Wall Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高媛媛; 郑为完; 杨婧; 刘凡; 冯韬霖; 薛军; 陈倩雯

    2011-01-01

    以月见草油为芯材、雪莲果汁等为壁材,采用喷雾干燥微胶囊技术制备新型的雪莲果汁粉末油脂。结果表明:最佳工艺配方为月见草油30%、聚甘油酯1.7%、自制辛烯基琥珀酸糯玉米非晶化淀粉酯14%、稳定剂藻酸丙二醇酯0.5%、黄原胶0.5%、羧甲基纤维素钠0.5%、雪莲果汁(以干基计)25%、麦芽糊精27.8%。制备的雪莲果汁粉末油脂表面油含量1.20%、包埋率96.0%,富含低聚果糖,冲溶后的乳状液有雪莲果香且稳定性好。%A new type of yacon(Smallanthus sonchifolius) juice microencapsulated oil powder was prepared by spray drying using evening primrose oil as the core material and Yacon juice as the wall material.The results showed that the optimal formula was 30% evening primrose oil,1.7% polyglycerol ester,14% self-made octenyl succinic anhydride-modified maize starch,0.5% propylene glycol alginate(PGA),0.5% xanthan gum,0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC),25% yacon juice(dry matter basis),and 27.8% maltodextrin.The oil content on the surface of microencapsulated evening primrose oil powder was 1.20% and the embedding efficiency of evening primrose oil 96.0%.Meanwhile,microencapsulated evening primrose oil powder was rich in fructo-oligosaccharide(FOS).After dissolved,microencapsulated evening primrose oil powder became an emulsion with good stability and yacon flavor.

  15. Chitosan-based formulations of drugs, imaging agents and biotherapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amidi, M.; Hennink, W.E.

    2010-01-01

    This preface is part of the Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews theme issue on “Chitosan-Based Formulations of Drugs, Imaging Agents and Biotherapeutics”. This special Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews issue summarizes recent progress and different applications of chitosanbased formulations.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF BIOTHERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF PIMENTA DIOICA (ALLSPICE LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Pratima Khandelwal et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available All-spice (pimenta is one of the under-utilized resources available in the tropical regions of the globe. It is a variety of sweet pepper used as a spice and its leaves are used for traditional culinary purpose. Researchers have studied the antioxidant potentials of the berries of the plant, but no documented work is reported on its stem, leaf and roots for antimicrobial properties. Thus, the present investigation was carried out to access the antimicrobial and anti-oxidation potentials of leaf extracts using three solvent systems, (Aqueous, acetone and methanol. All solvent systems at different concentrations were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal and reducing capacity against selected bacterial and fungal pathogens; zone of inhibition was exhibited by methanol leaf extracts in decreasing order for Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Lesser inhibitory zones were obtained by acetone leaf extracts, whereas, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not inhibited by any extracts. Aqueous extract demonstrated no inhibitory activity against tested bacterial pathogens. All the three leaf extracts were found to be ineffective against fungal strains (Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans tested. Protein content in each extract was determined and reducing capability was estimated which was found to be high in methanol and acetone extract whereas aqueous extract showed low reducing ability.

  17. 香茅精油微胶囊对锦纶织物的驱蚊整理%Mosquito repellent finishing of nylon fabric with microencapsulated citronella oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁水华; 化丹丹; 蒋耀兴; 谢洪德

    2015-01-01

    用复凝聚法制成的香茅精油微胶囊整理锦纶织物,研究了整理织物的驱蚊性;将覆盖整理织物的手置于有蚊虫的环境中来评估其驱蚊效果.与单纯喷洒精油乙醇溶液的织物相比,香茅精油微胶囊整理的织物具有更高和更持久的驱蚊性,并且保持90%驱蚊效果的时间长达3周.通过检测纺织品中剩余的精油量,间接检测出纺织品中精油的释放规律.%Microcapsules containing citronella oil were prepared by complex coacervation method and ap-plied in mosquito repellent finishing of nylon fabric, the mosquito repellent efficiency of the finished fabrics was studied. The repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand covered with the treated fab-ric to mosquitoes environment. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella oil presented a higher and longer lasting protection from mosquitoes compared to the fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the es-sential oil, keeping a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Citronel a oil released from treated tex-tiles was indirectly monitored by the excess oil content of treated fabric.

  18. 喷雾干燥法制备无花果微胶囊的研究%Study on Microencapsulation of Ficus carica L. by Spray Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤慧民

    2012-01-01

    以阿拉伯胶和麦芽糊精为壁材,以无花果的乙醇提取物为芯材,用喷雾干燥法制取无花果微胶囊粉。通过正交试验分析,确定了最佳生产工艺条件:芯材与壁材的比例为1:4,阿拉伯胶与麦芽糊精的比例为1:1,固形物浓度为30%,乳化剂用量为O.3%,30MPa均质2遍,进风温度200℃,出风温度为81℃。生产出的微胶囊无花果粉色泽、溶解性好,水、表面油含量低,无甚粘壁现象,适合于工业化生产。%With arabic gum and maltodextrin as wall material, fig ethanol extracts as core material, the fig microencapsulation powder was produced by spray drying. Through orthogonal experiment, the optimum technological conditions was determined as follows: the ratio of core material and wall material was 1:4, the ratio of arabic gum and maltodextrin 1 : 1, the concentration of solid content 30%, emulsifier addition 0.3%, homogenized at 30 MPa twice, inlet air temperature 200 ~C and outlet air temperature 81 qC. The acquired product is well in color and solubility, low in water and surface oil content, seldom wall sticking, suitable for industrial production.

  19. Mechanisms of pheromone communication disruption in Choristoneura rosaceana exposed to microencapsulated (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate formulated with and without horticultural oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wins-Purdy, Andreas H; Judd, Gary J R; Evenden, Maya L

    2008-08-01

    Flight tunnel and electrophysiological assays with male Choristoneura rosaceana Harris (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were conducted to investigate the non-competitive mechanisms of communication disruption caused by microencapsulated (MEC) (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (3M MEC-LR) formulated with and without horticultural oil (Purespray Green). Male C. rosaceana were exposed for 1 h by resting on metal surfaces sprayed with either water, 2% oil in water, MEC-LR in water, or MEC-LR + 2% oil in water. In one experiment, sprayed surfaces were allowed to age up to 47 days in a laboratory fume hood prior to moth exposure to examine the effect of ageing on the disruptive efficacy of the formulations. In flight tunnel assays with calling females, males exposed to MEC or MEC + oil treatments for 1 h were significantly disrupted up to 1 h after exposure, and both treatments were effective for 47 days. Electroantennograms revealed no reduction in antennal sensitivity when measured 75 s after a 1-h exposure. Collectively, these results support habituation as a key mechanism of communication disruption for C. rosaceana exposed to the MEC formulations tested here. Male proximity to the pheromone-treated surfaces appears to be important in maintaining a disruptive effect as MEC treatments age and pheromone release rates decline. The addition of 2% oil increased the number of microcapsules deposited on sprayed surfaces and caused a moderate but significant increase in the disruptive effect of the MEC formulation. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie disruption by MEC formulations, and how an adjuvant like horticultural oil may enhance these mechanisms, may lead to improvements in this technology.

  20. 大蒜精油微胶囊包埋工艺研究%Study on the microencapsulation of garlic oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赛赛; 陶宁萍

    2011-01-01

    The spray-drying was used to embed the garlic oil into certain wall materials.Taking microencapsulatior efficiency as the main evaluating index, and by single-factor experiment, the optimum processing conditions of microencapsulation of garlic oil were determined as follows: homogenizing times, homogenizing time, and homogenizing pressure were once, two minutes, 25MPa respectively.The wall materials were determined as follows:modified starch 20% ,β-cyclodextrin 30% ,sodium caseinate 2%,and the proportion of garlic oil was 20%.Under the optimum conditions,the encapsulation efficiency can achieve 91.08%.By scanning electron microscppe (SEM)the micro-structure observation of the microcapsule of garlic oil,the results showed that both the surface and inside structures were good.%以大蒜精油为研究对象,采用喷雾干燥技术对大蒜精油进行包理,以包埋率为主要测定指标,通过单因素实验确定最佳工艺参数为均质1次,均质时间2min,均质压力25 MPa,大蒜精油添加量为20%;壁材组成为预糊化淀粉20%,β-环糊精30%,酪蛋白酸钠2%,所得产品包埋率可达91.08%.电子扫描显微镜观察到微胶囊产品表面及内部结构良好,具有良好的包埋效果.

  1. Characterisation of the xenogeneic immune response to microencapsulated fetal pig islet-like cell clusters transplanted into immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaganapathy Vaithilingam

    Full Text Available Xenotransplantation of microencapsulated fetal pig islet-like cell clusters (FP ICCs offers a potential cellular therapy for type 1 diabetes. Although microcapsules prevent direct contact of the host immune system with the xenografted tissue, poor graft survival is still an issue. This study aimed to characterise the nature of the host immune cells present on the engrafted microcapsules and effects on encapsulated FP ICCs that were transplanted into immunocompetent mice. Encapsulated FP ICCs were transplanted into the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6 mice. Grafts retrieved at days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 post-transplantation were analysed for pericapsular fibrotic overgrowth (PFO, cell viability, intragraft porcine gene expression, macrophages, myofibroblasts and intraperitoneal murine cytokines. Graft function was assessed ex vivo by insulin secretion studies. Xenogeneic immune response to encapsulated FP ICCs was associated with enhanced intragraft mRNA expression of porcine antigens MIP-1α, IL-8, HMGB1 and HSP90 seen within the first two weeks post-transplantation. This was associated with the recruitment of host macrophages, infiltration of myofibroblasts and collagen deposition leading to PFO which was evident from day 7 post-transplantation. This was accompanied by a decrease in cell viability and loss of FP ICC architecture. The only pro-inflammatory cytokine detected in the murine peritoneal flushing was TNF-α with levels peaking at day 7 post transplantation. This correlated with the onset of PFO at day 7 implying activated macrophages as its source. The anti-inflammatory cytokines detected were IL-5 and IL-4 with levels peaking at days 1 and 7, respectively. Porcine C-peptide was undetectable at all time points post-transplantation. PFO was absent and murine intraperitoneal cytokines were undetectable when empty microcapsules were transplanted. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the macrophages are direct effectors of the xenogeneic

  2. Thermal degradation kinetics of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate flame retarded epoxy resin%微胶囊化APP阻燃环氧树脂的动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕波; 王学宝; 乙华

    2012-01-01

    Melamine formaldehyde resin microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate(MPP) wax prepared by in situ polymerization. The structure was characterized by FTIR and the SEM. The thermal degradation behaviors of EP blended MPP were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the flame retarded EP was encouraged to form char by MPP. Furthermore, thermal degradation kinetic parameters of EP and flame retarded EP were investigated by using Kissinger equation and Ozawa equation. The average value of thermal degradation activation energy of EP and flame retarded EP were 227.808,152.309 kJ/mol, respectively.%通过原位聚合法利用三聚氰胺-甲醛树脂对聚磷酸铵进行了微胶囊包覆,并将其用于环氧树脂(EP)的阻燃,采用FTIR和SEM对包覆前后的聚磷酸铵样品进行表征,并用热重分析仪对阻燃环氧树脂的热失重特性进行了测试.结果表明,成功实现了对聚磷酸铵的微胶囊包覆,并且由微胶囊化聚磷酸铵组成的膨胀型阻燃剂能有效地促进环氧树脂的分解成炭.通过Kissinger法和Ozawa法研究了阻燃剂对环氧树脂热分解动力学的影响.两种方法求出的热分解表观活化能相近,EP和阻燃EP的热分解表观活化能平均值为227.808、152.309 kJ/mol.

  3. 微胶囊技术在维生素药物中的应用%Microencapsulation technology in the vitamin pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉岩

    2015-01-01

    微胶囊是一种直径约为1~1000μm的微型容器。根据其性质、囊壁形成的机制的成囊条件具体可以分为物理法、物理化学法和化学法三大类制备技术。而微囊技术在维生素药品中的应用是为了防止维生素药物在加工和储藏的环节被外界的环境所感染或者破坏而丧失其原有的药性。应进一步加强和深化高分子材料在维生素药物中的应用,逐步实现微胶囊技术的普及性和成熟性。%The microcapsules is a diameter of about 1~1 000μm miniature container. By their nature, into the capsule wall formation conditions specific mechanisms can be divided into physical, physico-chemical and chemical methods into three categories preparation techniques. The microcapsules technology in vitamin drugs is to prevent vitamin drug in the processing and storage of part of being infected or destroy the external environment and the loss of its original potency. Should further strengthen and deepen the polymer materials used in vitamin drugs, the progressive realization of microencapsulation technology popularity and maturity.

  4. Study of microencapsulation technology of sesame oil by spray-drying%喷雾干燥法制备芝麻油微胶囊的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楠楠

    2013-01-01

    以阿拉伯胶、大豆分离蛋白为壁材,采用喷雾干燥法对芝麻油进行包埋.以微胶囊包埋率为评价指标,通过正交试验优化影响包埋率的主要因素:阿拉伯胶与大豆分离蛋白的比例、芯材占固形物的含量和固形物质量分数.结果表明,最佳工艺参数为阿拉伯胶和大豆分离蛋白比例1∶1,芯材占固形物含量的25%,固形物质量分数23%.微胶囊产品外形成球状,体积平均粒径为41.19 μm,热重分析表明,微胶囊的形成提高了芝麻油的热稳定性.%The present work discussed the manufacture of microencap-sulation of Sesame oil by spray drying using Soy protein isolate and Arabic gum as the appropriate wall material The effect of the ratio between Arabic gum between Soy protein isolate, core material content of total solids and mass fraction of solids were discussed by analyzing microcapsule efficiency as the index. The results showed that the optimum conditions were as fellows: the ratio of Soy protein isolate and Arabic gum 1 : 1, the core material content of total solids 25%, the mass fraction of solids 23%. The microcapsules were spherical, the volume average particle diameter of 41.19 μm. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed that the formation of microcapsules improve the thermal stability of sesame oil.

  5. 配方食品中功能油脂及其微胶囊化研究进展%Advances on functional oil and its microencapsulation of formula foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李高阳; 李忠海; 任国谱

    2011-01-01

    多不饱和脂肪酸因其非常重要的功能特性而成为研究的热点,广泛应用于食品工业中.文章阐述配方食品中主要添加多不饱和脂肪酸的种类和功能特性,介绍国内外多不饱和脂肪酸添加标准.同时,概述微胶囊化技术在多不饱和脂肪酸等功能油脂领域的研究进展,以期为微胶囊技术在配方食品中功能油脂保质上的应用提供参考.%Polyunsaturated fatty acids is very important because of their functional properties and become a hot research is widely used in food industry.In this paper, the main type and functional properties of polyunsaturated fatty acids are introduced, and implications for fatty acid requirements in domestic and international standards.At the same time, an overview on research development of polyunsaturated fatty acids microencapsulating technology, which provide reference for shelf life of functional oil in formula food by microencapsulating technology.

  6. Residual effect of a micro-encapsulated formulation of organophosphates and piriproxifen on the mortality of deltamethrin resistant Triatoma infestans populations in rural houses of the Bolivian Chaco region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Gemio Alarico

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bolivian Chaco is part of the endemic region of Chagas disease and an area where pyrethroid resistant Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae populations has been reported. The World Health Organization identified these resistant populations as an important focus for research. The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual effect of a micro-encapsulated formulation containing organophosphate active ingredients and a juvenile hormone analogue (Inesfly 5A IGR on the mortality of T. infestans. Studies took place in rural houses of the Bolivian Chaco that were treated up to 34 months before and evaluated the susceptibility to pyrethroids of the offspring of field collected insects. Thirty houses were randomly selected within three communities to carry out wall bio-assays with T. infestans nymphs. Mortality was recorded 24, 48 and 72 h after wall contact. Eggs laid by females collected in the area were used to obtain first-instar nymphs and carry out pyrethroid susceptibility tests. The wall bio-assays showed that the micro-encapsulated insecticide eliminates T. infestans populations and produces detectable mortality of insects exposed to walls treated 34 months prior to the tests. The discriminant dose of deltamethrin (0.01 mg/mL showed 65% nymph survival, whereas at the highest tested dose (1.0 mg/mL 14% of the nymphs survived. These results show that Inesfly 5A IGR is an appropriate tool for the elimination of intradomestic and peridomestic populations of T. infestans resistant to pyrethroids.

  7. 白豆蔻挥发油微胶囊对香肠防腐作用研究%Preservation of Sausage by Microencapsulation of Volatile Oil from Fructus Amomi Rotundus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超

    2015-01-01

    In order to prolong the shelf-life of sausage,the samples of sausage are added with microencapsulation of volatile oil from Fructus Amomi Rotundus,and pH values,TBA values, TVB-N values and total amount of bacteria are used to evaluate the quality of sausage.The results show that the different mass concentration of microencapsulation has preservation effect on sausage. 3 .2% mass concentration of Fructus Amomi Rotundus has the best preservation effect.So it can be concluded that volatile oil from Fructus Amomi Rotundus significantly prolongs the shelf-life of sausage.%以p H 值、TBA值、TVB-N值和细菌总数为指标,研究白豆蔻挥发油微胶囊对香肠的影响。实验结果表明:在香肠防腐过程中,不同质量浓度的白豆蔻挥发油微胶囊对香肠均有一定的防腐作用,其中以3.2%的白豆蔻挥发油微胶囊对香肠防腐效果较好,其能有效地抑制p H 值、TBA值、TVB-N值和细菌总数的上升速度,从而延长香肠的保质期。

  8. CLA-TG oil and its micro-encapsulation formulation in Yogurt%酸奶中CLA-TG油与CLA-TG微囊粉强化方式的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李代; 张月梅; 陈剑彬; 吴迪; 马俊杰; 顾广伟; 吴文忠

    2011-01-01

    比较了共轭亚油酸三甘酯(CLA-TG油)和CLA-TG微囊粉两种不同形式不同质量分数的共轭亚油酸(CLA)对酸奶的感官可接受性、酸度、保水性的影响,并研究了这两种强化方式的CLA在酸奶中的稳定性.结果表明,酸奶中添加CLA-TG微囊粉比中添加CLA-TG油感官可接受性好,并具有良好的稳定性.%The effects of fortification with two different form of CLA-TG on the sensory acceptability, Ph, acid degree and the water holding capacity yogurt were studied. The stability of the two form of CLA-TG in yogurt have been studied. Results: The yogurt show the better sensory acceptability when fortified with CLA-TG micro-encapsulation than CLA-TG. CLA-TG micro-encapsulation have good stability in the yogurt.

  9. RSD法优化微胶囊化乳清小肽喷雾干燥工艺研究%Optimization of spray drying conditions for microencapsulated small whey peptides by response surface design(RSD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖功年; 何光华; 储小军; 尤玉如

    2011-01-01

    The dissolving ability of the microencapsulated whey small peptides and spray drying conditions were studied.The results showed that when the apparent density was between 0.3519g·cm-3 and 0.3785g·cm-3,the dissolving ability of the microencapsulated small whey peptides was the best,through Box-Behnken experimental response surface design(RSD),the spray drying optimization conditions were reactant concentration 27.75%,intake air volume 3.72m3/min and temperature of entering air 190℃.%对乳清小肽粉的表观密度大小与溶解冲调性的关系进行了研究。密度在0.3519~0.3785g·cm-3的粉粒,溶解冲调性最好。研究了料液浓度、进风量、进口温度对干燥粉末的影响,并采用响应面分析法(RSD)优化了微胶囊化乳清小肽喷雾干燥的工艺参数。实验结果表明,喷雾干燥的最佳条件为:料液浓度27.75%、进风量3.72m3/min、进风温度190℃。

  10. Steady- and transient-state analysis of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel with randomly dispersed tristructural isotropic particles via two-temperature homogenized model-II: Applications by coupling with COREDAX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Cho, Bum Hee; Cho, Nam Zin [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In Part I of this paper, the two-temperature homogenized model for the fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel, in which tristructural isotropic particles are randomly dispersed in a fine lattice stochastic structure, was discussed. In this model, the fuel-kernel and silicon carbide matrix temperatures are distinguished. Moreover, the obtained temperature profiles are more realistic than those obtained using other models. Using the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of uranium nitride and the silicon carbide matrix, temperature-dependent homogenized parameters were obtained. In Part II of the paper, coupled with the COREDAX code, a reactor core loaded by fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel in which tristructural isotropic particles are randomly dispersed in the fine lattice stochastic structure is analyzed via a two-temperature homogenized model at steady and transient states. The results are compared with those from harmonic- and volumetric-average thermal conductivity models; i.e., we compare keff eigenvalues, power distributions, and temperature profiles in the hottest single channel at a steady state. At transient states, we compare total power, average energy deposition, and maximum temperatures in the hottest single channel obtained by the different thermal analysis models. The different thermal analysis models and the availability of fuel-kernel temperatures in the two-temperature homogenized model for Doppler temperature feedback lead to significant differences.

  11. Review of protein and its application in microencapsulation of probiotics%蛋白质微胶囊对益生菌包埋的最新研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘达玉; 邹强; 王卫

    2012-01-01

    Protein was the main ingredient in food system, which had a lot of excellent physical and chemical properties.Protein could be used in microencapsulation of probiotics, which not only improve the survival rate of probiotic cells in adverse conditions, but also be used as the vector for intestinal delivery of probiotics. The application principle of protein in probiotic microencapsulation and its application progress were mainly reviewed in this manuscript.%蛋白质作为食品体系中的主要成分,具有多种优良的理化特性。将其作为益生菌的包埋壁材,不仅可以提高益生菌在不良环境中的存活率,还可以用于益生菌肠道定位释放的载体。综述了蛋白质在益生菌包埋方面的应用原理及其最新进展。

  12. Effect of Free and Microencapsulation Probiotic Bacteria on Yogurt Sensory Attributes%游离与微胶囊化益生菌对酸奶感官性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王潆雪

    2011-01-01

    对游离益生菌与微胶囊化益生菌(嗜酸乳杆菌和双歧杆菌)的存活率、pH、胞外多糖的产生进行了比较,且对添加这两种形式的益生菌酸奶,在贮存7周后的感官性质进行了评定.结果表明,微胶囊有助于提高益生菌在酸奶中存活率,且添加游离或包埋益生菌的酸奶在贮存期间,其外观、色泽、风味及酸度并无显著变化,但酸奶的质地(光滑程度)变化显著.%The survival rate, pH and the generation of extracellular polysaccharide were compared between free probiotic bacteria and microencapsulation probiotic bacteria ( Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis )in this paper.Sensory attributes of the yoghurt with this two kind of probiotic bacteria respectively were also evaluated as stored for 7 weeks.Result showed that microencapsulation could hardly change the appearance, color, flavor and acidity of the yoghurt, but could greatly enhance the survival rate of the probiotic bacteria in yogurt and improve the taste of the yogurt.

  13. Monoclonal antibody:the corner stone of modern biotherapeutics%Monoclonal antibody: the corner stone of modern biotherapeutics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhi-nan; CAI Xue-ting; CAO Peng

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide sales of biologic drugs exceeded 100 billion USD in 2011.About 32% is from therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb).With many blockbuster biopharmaceutical patents expiring over the next decade,there is a great opportunity for biosimilar to enter the worldwide especially emerging market.Both European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have introduced regulatory frameworks for the potential approval of biosimilar mAb therapeutics.Rather than providing a highly abbreviated path,as in the case for small molecule chemical drug,approval for biosimilar mAb will require clinical trial and the details will be very much on a case-by-case basis.Since mAb is the dominant category of biologic drugs,mAb will be the focus of this review.First,the United States (US) and European Union (EU) approved mAb and those in phase 3 trials will be reviewed,then strategies on how to win biosimilar competition will be reviewed.

  14. Microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cell xenotransplants into hemiparkinsonian rats%偏侧帕金森病样大鼠脑内移植微囊化牛嗜铬细胞的行为和组织学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高军茂; 薛毅珑; 齐增飞; 王振福; 李新建; 崔忻; 罗芸; 李崇辉; 王鲁宁

    1999-01-01

    目的 观察微囊化牛嗜铬细胞(BCC)大鼠脑内移植的效果及微囊的作用.方法 将微囊化或非微囊化BCC和空微囊分别移植于帕金森病(PD)样大鼠脑纹状体内,观察术后阿朴吗啡诱发大鼠异常旋转行为的变化;用蔗糖-磷钾酸-乙醛酸(SPG)荧光染色和HE染色观察脑组织中植入的BCC及微囊的状态.结果 空囊组PD样大鼠异常旋转行为改变不明显(n=6,P>0.05);非微囊组16只PD样大鼠中9只大鼠移植后1周旋转圈数下降到移植前的44.0%~60.9%(P<0.01),移植6个月时仍有BCC在部分受体脑内存活,移植区有较明显的炎性反应,另有7只PD样大鼠移植后异常旋转行为无明显改善(P>0.05),其脑内未见存活的BCC,移植区有较明显的炎性反应;微囊组16只PD样大鼠移植后旋转圈数下降到移植前的17.6%~35.6%(P<0.01),移植后10个月时大鼠脑内仍存在大量存活的微囊化BCC,无明显的炎性反应.微囊化BCC移植改善PD样大鼠异常旋转行为的效果明显优于非微囊者(P<0.01).结论 BCC脑内移植可改善PD样大鼠的异常旋转行为;大鼠旋转行为的改善与BCC在脑内的存活状态有关;海藻酸钠及多聚赖氨酸制作的微囊可降低异种BCC移植的排斥反应发生率.%Objective To observe the immune separation effects of micro-capsules from alginate-polylysine-alginate(APA)in the rat cerebral transplantation of bovine chromaffin cell(BCC) grafts. Methods Microeneapsulated BCC, non-microencapsulated BCC or empty microencapsulated BCC were grafted into the striatum of the hemiparkinsonian disease( PD) -like rats respectively. The abnormal rotational behavior induced by apomorphine was observed in the rats after operation. At the end of experiments the rats were killed and transcardially perfused with 300 ml normal saline. The brains were removed and frozen sections were cut in coronal plane on a freezing microtome. The BCC grafts and micro-capsules in the brains were

  15. Evaluation of the Pelletizing Stability of Micro-encapsulated and Coated Enterococcus faecium%微囊包被处理屎肠球菌制粒耐受性的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文彬; 马秋刚; 邓程君; 魏秀莲; 张建云; 计成

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The viable count of the micro-encapsulated and coated Enterococcus faecium was compared with its normal freeze-drying powder under different heat treatment conditions to observe the protective effect of micro-encapsulation. And the pelletizing stability of the micro-encapsulated and coated E. Faecium were evaluated through a laboratory heating trial. [ Method ] Two probiotics products were treated at 65"C or 85'C heated air for 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min. The preparations of 0.01% micro-encapsulated and coated E. Faecium were supplemented in piglet diets and being pelletized at 55T?and 65"C. [Result] The viable count of the micro-encapsulated and coated products, heated at 65'C for 60 min, were higher (,P=0.037) than the normal powder under the same condition. When the two products were heated at 85 °C for 30 or 60 min, the survival rates of the micro-encapsulated and coated ones were higher (P=0.002) than the normal powder. The Enterococcus faecium supplemented in piglet diet was more fragile than itself directly in heat air. The destruction of being pelletized in factory was much higher than being heated in the lab. The survival rate of E. Faecium after being pelletized at 55°C equivalent to that of being air-heated at 65 "C for 28 min or at 85'C for 11 min in the same diet, while the survival rate after being pelletized at 65 °C equivalent to that of being air-heated at 65'C for 48 min or at 85"C for 23 min. [Conclusion] The micro-encapsulation and coating process could improve thethermal stability ofE. Faecium in a certain extent. Directly air-heated treatment of E. Faecium probiotics couldn't represent their thermal stability during pelletizing, but it could be quickly evaluated through air-heated treatment to diets supplemented with them.%[目的]通过对比微囊包被与普通粉末状屎肠球菌在不同热处理条件下的活菌数,观察微囊包被处理对屎肠球菌在高温环境下的保护效果,并通过实验室模拟热处理

  16. Research on high lutein content microencapsulate by nano-disperse%纳米分散高含量叶黄素微囊化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周迪; 邵斌; 许新德; 周玉春; 刘爱琴; 代志凯

    2012-01-01

    叶黄素不溶于水,微溶于植物油,有限的溶解性和对氧化的高敏感性,阻碍了合成得到的粗产品在食品和饲料染色中的直接使用,为增加得色量并增加可吸收性和生物利用率,必须将活性物质的粒径减小到10μm以下,甚至有的达到了纳米级,因为叶黄素的着色效力和生物利用率与其在介质中的粒径和分散性直接相关,为此本文研究了以叶黄素为原料,通过单因素实验,分析了油、溶解温度、时间、喷雾干燥工艺对微囊化叶黄素产品的影响,确定了瞬时高温油溶和喷雾冷凝法微囊化叶黄素新工艺;并通过正交实验,从产品感观质量和稳定性入手,确定了合理的水溶性5%叶黄素微囊化产品配方,解决了高含量叶黄素产品的稳定性、异构和高脂溶难吸收的三大难题.%Lutein' s insolubility in water, slight solubility in vegetable oils, and high sensitivity to oxidation inhibit its crude products from being directly applied as dyes in the food and feed industry. Research showed that if the size of the active substance is reduced to 10 microns or to the nanometer level, the coloring effect and absorbance all increased. This is because the coloring effects of lutein and its bioavailability are correlated with its particle size. By a single factor experiment and analysis, oil, solution temperature, time, and spray -drying process are selected as the main factors. By orthogonal experiment, combined with sensory quality and stability, the formula for 5% water - soluble lutein microencapsulated products is optimized. It solved three major problems of high concentrated lutein products; stability, heterogeneous and difficult solubility in fat.

  17. 板蓝根油的提取及其微胶囊化的研究%Distillation and Microencapsulation of the Essential Oil from Radix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁泽; 胡洋; 梁根泉; 陈文珊; 李颖; 郑丽华; 杨卓鸿

    2011-01-01

    本文采用水蒸气蒸馏法和溶剂提取法提取扳蓝根油,并对提取物进行抗菌测试.通过明胶,阿拉伯胶复凝聚法制备板蓝根挥发油微胶囊,并对影响微胶囊形貌的因素进行初步探讨.结果表明,两种方法所提取的板蓝根挥发油的抗茵效果达到高敏程度;板蓝根挥发油微胶囊制备条件在壁材系统浓度为1.0%、复凝与固化搅拌速度为400 r/min时,所得微胶囊分数性良好、球形规则,且微胶囊的最高载药量与最高包封率分别为23.68%、60.85%.本文制得的板蓝根挥发油微胶囊,为深度挖掘板蓝根的利用价值提供了一种新的途径和方法.%In this study, essential oil extracted from Radix was obtained by steam distillation and solvent extraction, and its antimicrobial testing was carried out. Microcapsules of essential oil from Radix were prepared by coaeervation of gelatin-acacia complex and the factors that affect the morphology of microcapsules were discussed. The results showed that the essential oil extracted fi'om Radix by both techniques has excellent antibacterial ability. The conditions of preparation microcapsules of essential oil from radix were: the concentration of wall material 1.0%and complex coacervafion and solidify stirring speed of 400 r/min. Under these conditions, the microcapsules of essential oil were well dispersed.The highest microencapsulated drag loading and highest encapsulation efficiency were 23.68% and 60.85% respectively. The research provided a new method to use Radix.

  18. 一种天然维生素E微囊的制备及其性能表征%Microencapsulation and characterization of natural vitamin E

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昱; 吴文忠; 李延志; 陈剑彬; 张春枝

    2011-01-01

    使用几种不同的壁材及乳化剂对天然维生素E进行微胶囊化,通过对比微囊化效果确定最佳选材及条件,并对最终产品各项性能指标进行测定.结果表明,最佳壁材为纯胶(GUM 2000)与蔗糖,最佳乳化剂为蔗糖酯S1570(HLB 15),壁材比例m(纯胶)∶ m(蔗糖)为2∶1,乳化剂加入量为0.5%,喷雾干燥进风口温度180~190℃,出风口温度80℃,制得的天然维生素E微囊粉产品性能良好.其中维生素E质量分数能达到35%以上,包埋率达到99%以上,表面油质量分数可以控制在1%以下,含水质量分数也在1%以内,产品的色泽,气味,流动性以及在冷水中的分散性都十分理想.%Different wall materials and emulsifiers were used to estimate the best materials and conditions for microencapsulating natural vitamin E. The results show that the best wall materials are the pure gum (GUM 2000) and sucrose and the best emulsifier is the sucrose ester (HLB 15). In this condition the microcapsule powder of natural vitamin E products had good property, in which the concentration of vitamin E can reach more than 35% while the encapsulation rate can reach more than 99%. The surface oil and the water content can be reduced to 1%, and the color, odor, mobility and dispersion in cold water are all in good conditions.

  19. 鸭肉香精制备响应面优化及其微胶囊化研究%Preparation Technology of Duck Essence by Response Surface Methodology and Its Microencapsulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖

    2015-01-01

    This study mainly discusses the preparation technology and microencapsulation of duck essence.The response surface methodology and orthogonal test are designed to obtain the optimum preparation condition and microencapsulation condition of duck essence.The optimum preparation condition of duck essence is as follows:the thermal reaction time is 79.8 min,the thermal reaction temperature is 118.5 ℃,pH is 5.2,and the additive amount of xylose is 9.5%,the additive amount of L-cysteine hydrochloride is 2 .5%.The optimum microencapsulation condition of duck essence is as follows:the compound wall material concentration is 1 6%,the core material/wall material weight ratio is 1 ∶5,the homogenizing pressure is 28 MPa,the air inlet temperature and air outlet temperature is 130 ℃ and 75 ℃.%以鸭肉为原料,研究了鸭肉香精工艺及其微胶囊化工艺。通过响应面分析法和正交试验,获得鸭肉香精的最佳制备工艺及其微胶囊化最佳工艺。结果表明:鸭肉香精制备最佳工艺条件为热反应时间79.8 min,热反应温度118.5℃,pH 5.2,木糖添加量9.5%,L-半胱氨酸盐酸盐添加量2.5%。鸭肉香精微胶囊化最佳工艺条件为壁材浓度16%,芯壁质量比1∶5,均质压力28 MPa,进、出风温度130,75℃。

  20. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease causes different symptoms depending on ...

  1. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  2. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two complementary analy

  3. The influence to flame retardance characteristics of flame retardant painting by microencapsulation flame retardant%微胶囊化阻燃剂对防火涂料的性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓宁; 丁璐; 胡源; 姜利

    2011-01-01

    针对普通水性膨胀型防火涂料在使用过程中耐水性差的问题,应用在阻燃剂领域的微胶囊技术,自制水性膨胀型防火涂料.将含密胺包裹聚磷酸铵或普通聚磷酸铵的两种防火涂料进行试验,对比两种涂料的防火性能、热稳定性和耐水性能.结果表明:密胺包裹APP的热分解温度比普通APP的热分解温度提高了约100~150℃.采用微胶囊技术包裹APP可使膨胀型防火涂料的耐水性得到很大改善,受火后炭层内部较添加普通型APP的涂料致密,能起到持久有效的防火作用.%A waterborne intumescent fire-retardant painting was synthesized with the microencapsulation technology aiming at the bad water resisting property of normal waterborne intumes cent fire-retardant painting. The thermal stability, fire retarding performance, and water-resistant property of flame retardant painting with microencapsulation APP( MAPP) or general APP were studied. The results showed that: The pyrolysis temperature of MAPP is 100~150 'C higher than APP. MAPP enhances the water-resistant property of flame retardant painting obviously. The intumescent fire-retardant painting with MAPP has compacter carbon layer than the painting with APP after fire, and can resist fire longer.

  4. Optimization of the Preparation Technology of Duck Essence Microencapsulation by Response Surface Method%响应面优化鸭肉香精微胶囊化制备工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝耀宏

    2014-01-01

    Take gelatin and gum arabic as wall material;use complex coacervation method for embed-ding duck essence,take embedding rate as response value and use response surface methodology to op-timize the main factors that affect the embedding rate:wall material concentration,ratio of the core material and wall material,pH.It is found that the optimal parameters for preparing duck essence mi-croencapsulation by complex coacervation method are:when the wall material concentration is 2.23%,the ratio of core material and wall material is 1.19,pH is 4.32,the maximum embedding rate of duck essence microencapsulation is 81.61%,which is basically consistent with the theoretical value.%以明胶、阿拉伯胶作壁材,利用复凝聚法对鸭肉香精进行包埋,以包埋率为响应值,运用响应面分析法优化影响包埋率的主要因素:壁材浓度、芯壁比和pH。研究发现,复凝聚法制备鸭肉香精微胶囊的最佳工艺参数为:在壁材浓度为2.23%,芯壁比为1.19,pH 为4.32的条件下,鸭肉香精微胶囊化包埋率最大值为81.61%,与理论值基本相符。

  5. 超声法制备苘麻籽油微胶囊的工艺优化%Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction and Micro-encapsulation of Essential Oil from Semen Abutili

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 肖佰惠

    2011-01-01

    以β-环糊精为壁材,采用单因素试验和Box-Behnken试验对超声法制备苘麻籽油微胶囊的工艺进行优化。结果表明:最佳工艺条件为超声功率75W、包埋温度62.3℃、包埋时间88min,在此条件下实际包埋率为81.35%,与模型预测值之间具有较好的拟合性;在3个因素中,包埋温度和包埋时间对包埋率的影响极显著,超声功率影响显著。该方法简单可行,是一种制备苘麻籽油微胶囊的较好方法。%The essential oil of Semen Abutili was extracted by petroleum ether under ultrasonic assistance and microencapsulated using β-cyclodextrin(β-CD) as the wall material.Based on one-factor-at-a-time experiments,Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface analysis was applied to optimize process conditions for the extraction and microencapsulation of the oil.The optimal process conditions were determined as follows: 75 W ultrasonic power,62.3℃ encapsulation temperature and 88 min encapsulation time.Under the optimal conditions,the observed value of encapsulation rate was 81.35%,which was in good agreement with the predicted value.Encapsulation rate was highly significantly affected by encapsulation temperature(P0.01) and time(P0.01).Ultrasonic power presented a significant effect(P0.05).

  6. Use of spray-cooling technology for development of microencapsulated capsicum oleoresin for the growing pig as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics: a study of release using in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, J-P; Cardot, J-M; Manzanilla, E G; Wysshaar, M; Alric, M

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop sustained release microspheres of capsicum oleoresin as an alternative to in-feed additives. Two spray-cooling technologies, a fluidized air bed using a spray nozzle system and a vibrating nozzle system placed on top of a cooling tower, were used to microencapsulate 20% of capsicum oleoresin in a hydrogenated, rapeseed oil matrix. Microencapsulation was intended to reduce the irritating effect of capsicum oleoresin and to control its release kinetics during consumption by the animal. Particles produced by the fluidized air bed process (batch F1) ranged from 180 to 1,000 microm in size. The impact of particle size on release of capsaicin, the main active compound of capsicum oleoresin, was studied after sieving batch F1 to obtain 4 formulations: F1a (180 to 250 microm), F1b (250 to 500 microm), F1c (500 to 710 microm), and F1d (710 to 1,000 microm). The vibrating nozzle system can produce a monodispersive particle size distribution. In this study, particles of 500 to 710 microm were made (batch F2). The release kinetics of the formulations was estimated in a flow-through cell dissolution apparatus (CFC). The time to achieve a 90% dissolution value (T90%) of capsaicin for subbatches of F1 increased with the increase in particle size (P granulated vs. 32.4 +/- 1.4% when feed had not been granulated, which suggests that the feed granulation process could lead to a partial degradation of the microspheres and to a limitation of the sustained release effect. This study demonstrates the potential and the limitations of spray-cooling technology to encapsulate feed additives.

  7. Allograft of microencapsulated ovarian cells affects bone collagen metabolism in ovariectomized mice%卵巢细胞微囊移植对去卵巢小鼠的骨胶原代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓霞; 周金玲; 许晴; 史小林

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gonad hormones are essential for the maintenance of skeletal integrity. The in vitro cultured ovarian cells can secrete estradiol and progesterone. Alginic acid-polylysine-alginic acid microcapsule provides a barrier between the graft and the recipient, thus promoting the survival of heterotransplants.OBJECTIVE: To explore the survival and secretion functions of allografted microencapsulated ovarian cells in ovariectomized mice and their effect on bone collagen metabolism after ovariectomy (OVX).METHODS: Ovarian cells separated from female Kunming mice (6 weeks old) were cultured and microencapsulated with alginic acid-polylysine-alginic acid. A total of 24 female Kunming mice (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups (n=8):normal group: OVX was not performed; OVX group: OVX was performed; transplantation group: microencapsulated ovarian cells were transplanted into abdominal cavity after OVX. Estradiol and/or progesterone levels of the medium of microencapsulated ovarian cells and mice serum were determined by radioimmunoassay. Ⅰ type collagen fibers in the bone matrix were showed by Van Gieson staining. The concentrations of hydroxyproline, Ca, and P were measured in the left femurs of mice.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The concentrations of estradiol and progesterone in the culture medium were not significantly different between the cultured ovarian cells and microencapsulated ovarian cells. The serum estradiol concentration at 90 days after transplantation had no significant difference compared with that of normal group, whereas the serum estradiol concentration of the OVX group was significantly lower than that of the normal group. In the transplantation group, the distribution of collagen fibers was similar to that of the normal group determined by Van Gieson staining. In comparison to the normal group, the OVX group had less, thinner trabecular matrix, and fewer collagen fibers, more free trabecular terminals, and a thinner uncalcified

  8. ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE CYCLE LENGTHS FOR FULLY-CERAMIC MICRO-ENCAPSULATED FUEL-BASED LIGHT WATER REACTOR CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu; Francesco Venneri

    2012-04-01

    The use of TRISO-particle-based dispersion fuel within SiC matrix and cladding materials has the potential to allow the design of extremely safe LWRs with failure-proof fuel. This paper examines the feasibility of LWR-like cycle length for such a low enriched uranium fuel with the imposed constraint of strictly retaining the original geometry of the fuel pins and assemblies. The motivation for retaining the original geometry is to provide the ability to incorporate the fuel 'as-is' into existing LWRs while retaining their thermal-hydraulic characteristics. The feasibility of using this fuel is assessed by looking at cycle lengths and fuel failure rates. Other considerations (e.g., safety parameters, etc.) were not considered at this stage of the study. The study includes the examination of different TRISO kernel diameters without changing the coating layer thicknesses. The study shows that a naive use of UO{sub 2} results in cycle lengths too short to be practical for existing LWR designs and operational demands. Increasing fissile inventory within the fuel compacts shows that acceptable cycle lengths can be achieved. In this study, starting with the recognized highest packing fraction practically achievable (44%), higher enrichment, larger fuel kernel sizes, and the use of higher density fuels have been evaluated. The models demonstrate cycle lengths comparable to those of ordinary LWRs. As expected, TRISO particles with extremely large kernels are shown to fail under all considered scenarios. In contrast, the designs that do not depart too drastically from those of the nominal NGNP HTR fuel TRISO particles are shown to perform satisfactorily and display a high rates of survival under all considered scenarios. Finally, it is recognized that relaxing the geometry constraint will result in satisfactory cycle lengths even using UO{sub 2}-loaded TRISO particles-based fuel with enrichment at or below 20 w/o.

  9. Effect of the dosage of low melting point microencapsulated paraffin on the properties of the phase change thermal insulation mortar%低熔点石蜡微胶囊掺量对相变蓄热砂浆性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑; 晏华; 陈淑莲; 王雪梅

    2012-01-01

    以低熔点石蜡微胶囊为相变储能材料,配以水泥、砂和外加剂制成低熔点石蜡微胶囊相变蓄热砂浆.研究了低熔点石蜡微胶囊掺量对相变蓄热砂浆施工性能、力学性能以及热工性能的影响,并进行了模拟上墙试验.结果表明,石蜡微胶囊掺量对相变蓄热砂浆的性能有着重要的影响,当其掺量在6.5%~10%时,其施工性能、力学性能和热工性能达到最佳;掺量为8%时,相变蓄热砂浆上墙无开裂,适宜于工程应用.%Phase-change thermal storage insulation mortar was prepared by using low melting point paraffin as phase change material) added with appropriate cement, sand and additive. The effect of different dosage of microencapsulated paraffin on construction performance, mechanical and thermal properties of the insulation mortar were tested, and simulation experiment with insulation mortar on the wall was analyzed in this paper. The result shows: the dosage of the microencapsulated paraffin has an important impact on the properties of the insulation mortar. When the dosage of the microencapsulated paraffin is in 6.5%~10%,the insulation mortar has the best construction performance,mechanical and thermal properties. When the dosage of the microencapsulated paraffin is 8%,the simulation wall with the insulation mortar has no crack,which is suitable for engineering application.

  10. 植物精油产品对饲用微胶囊乳酸菌的影响及对大肠杆菌的抑菌效应研究%Effects of Essential Oil Products on Raising-use Microencapsulation of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Antimicrobial Activity against Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄丽; 朱彩彩; 邵静

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory activities of essential oil products like XTRACTTM and RO on Escherichia coli were studied, and the effects of them on raising-use microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria were studied. The microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria and Escherichia coli were cultivated under adaptive cultivating conditions, and then differences between the group of adding essential oil and the contrast group were measured so as to study the effects of essential oil products on raising-use microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria and the inhibitory activities against Escherichia coli. Results showed that essential oil products within certain added concentration could be used together with the raising-use microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria, furthermore essential oil products had good inhibitory activities against Escherichia coll.%研究植物精油类产品动力源和RO对大肠杆菌的抑制活性,以及与饲用微胶囊乳酸菌同时使用时对微胶囊乳酸菌的影响。在相应的培养条件下对微胶囊乳酸菌和大肠杆菌进行培养,测定添加植物精油组和对照组菌量的差异,得出植物精油产品对大肠杆菌的抑制活性和对微胶囊乳酸菌的影响作用。结果表明,在一定添加浓度范围内,植物精油产品可以与微胶囊乳酸菌产品同时使用,而此时植物精油产品具有良好的抑制致病菌的作用。

  11. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., drunkenness, vagrancy, disturbing the peace, curfew violation, loitering, false fire alarm, non-specific charges of suspicion or investigation, and traffic violations (except data will be included on arrests...

  12. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  13. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  14. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  15. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  16. Including the Excluded: One School for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFA 2000 Bulletin, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of "EFA 2000" focuses on the theme of inclusive education, i.e., including children with disabilities in general education classrooms. The cover story discusses a 1995 UNESCO survey of 63 countries that showed that integration of children with disabilities in regular schools is a declared policy in almost every country.…

  17. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE...) Cash working capital. The average amount of investor-supplied capital needed to provide funds for...

  18. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  19. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  20. An acoustic finite element including viscothermal effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Wijnant, Y.H.; Boer, de A.

    2007-01-01

    In acoustics it is generally assumed that viscous- en thermal boundary layer effects play a minor role in the propagation of sound waves. Hence, these effects are neglected in the basic set of equations describing the sound field. However, for geometries that include small confinements of air or thi