WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioterrorism

  1. Biodefense and Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioterrorism attack is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs to cause illness or death. These ... Biodefense uses medical measures to protect people against bioterrorism. This includes medicines and vaccinations. It also includes ...

  2. Biowarfare and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Michael D

    2013-07-01

    Bioterrorism is not only a reality of the times in which we live but bioweapons have been used for centuries. Critical care physicians play a major role in the recognition of and response to a bioterrorism attack. Critical care clinicians must be familiar with the diagnosis and management of the most likely bioterrorism agents, and also be adequately prepared to manage a mass casualty situation. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the most likely agents of biowarfare and bioterrorism.

  3. Missouri nurses' bioterrorism preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Terri; Mohr, Lisa Buettner

    2008-09-01

    Nurses are the largest group of healthcare providers and will be at the forefront during a response to a bioterrorism attack in the U.S. However, nurses' bioterrorism risk perceptions and their participation in bioterrorism preparedness activities, such as bioterrorism-related exercises or drills, have not been evaluated. We mailed a survey to all members of the Missouri Nurses Association in July 2006, consisting of 1,528 registered nurses. The instrument measured risk perception, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, bioterrorism education received, participation in exercises/drills, and personal response plan thoroughness. The response rate was 31% (474/1,528). Most respondents believe that a bioterrorism attack will occur in the U.S. (82.3%; n = 390), but few (21.3%; n = 101) believe that one will occur in their community. The majority of nurses reported that they believe that a bioterrorism attack would have serious consequences (96.1%, n = 448), including having a serious impact on U.S. citizens' safety (90.7%, n = 446) and on their own safety (84.3%, n = 379). Most (60%, n = 284) reported that they had not received any bioterrorism-related education nor participated in any drills/exercises (82.7%, n = 392). Of those who had received education, most had participated in 3 or fewer programs and in only 1 drill. Few nurses (3.6%, n = 15) reported having all aspects of a personal bioterrorism response plan; approximately 20% (19.4%, n = 81) did not have any components of a plan. Most of the registered nurses in Missouri who were surveyed are not receiving bioterrorism education, participating in bioterrorism exercises, or developing thorough personal response plans. Nurses need to be aware of and encouraged to participate in the many education and training opportunities on bioterrorism and infectious disease disasters.

  4. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This video describes the Category A diseases: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, ...

  5. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  6. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Emergency Health Professionals Clinician Outreach (COCA) Crisis & Risk Communication (CERC) Laboratory Information Health Alert Network (HAN) ... Cleaning Public Health Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend ...

  7. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chemical Release Bioterrorism Information for Specific Groups Older Adults Children and Their Caregivers People with Disabilities People ... Disaster Public Health Assessment and Surveillance Tools Training & Education Emergency Responder Health Monitoring & Surveillance (ERHMS) ERHMS Online ...

  8. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  9. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Release Bioterrorism Information for Specific Groups Older Adults Children and Their Caregivers People with Disabilities People with ... people, they would cause the most illness and death. Watch this video to learn how some of ...

  10. Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-10-01

    Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern.

  11. Bioterrorism: Challenges and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioterrorism, the deliberate, private use of biological agents to harm and frighten the people of a state or society, is related to the military use of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons. Attacks with biological agents are among the most insidious and breed the greatest fear. Attacks could go undetected for a long time, potentially exposing a vast number of people, who are unaware of the threat. Dentist′s responses to catastrophes have been redefined by bioterrorism. Accurate and substantial information given to the public by credible public health and medical experts can do much to allay their fears and encourage their cooperation and participation in constructive, organized community response efforts. The dental profession could potentially play a significant role in the emergency response to a major bioterrorism attack.

  12. Bioterrorism and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Sun, B

    2010-08-01

    The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe and North and South America. Although it is not directly related to bioterrorism, the intentional release of non-native species, particularly undesired companion animals or wildlife, may also have a major economic impact on the environment and, possibly, on animal and human health, in the case of accidental release of zoonotic agents.

  13. A Program Against Bacterial Bioterrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Michael; Dargis, Rimtas; Andresen, Keld;

    2012-01-01

    In 2002 it was decided to establish laboratory facilities in Denmark for diagnosing agents associated with bioterrorism in order to make an immediate appropriate response to the release of such agents possible. Molecular assays for detection of specific agents and molecular and proteomic techniques...... for bacterial infections not associated with bioterrorism that are difficult to culture or identify....

  14. [Bioterrorism, parasites as potential bioterrorism agents and biosecurity studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Umit

    2006-01-01

    A variety of agents have a potential risk for being use as weapons of biological terrorism. However, the use of parasites as bioterrorism agents has not received so much attention. Parasites could contribute to the installation of fear in human population upon intentional addition to their food and water supplies. On the other hand, vector-borne parasites can also constitute risk of bioterrorism. Biosecurity issues are gaining importance as a consequence of globalization. Surveillance is critical in maintaining biosecurity and early detection of infectious disease agents is essential. In this review article, bioterrorism, the role of parasites as potential bioterrorism agents, studies on biosecurity and laboratory design for biosafety have been discussed under the light of recent literature.

  15. Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system.

  16. John Bartlett and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D A

    2014-09-15

    Until 1997, the subject of bioterrorism was not discussed within the medical community and deliberately ignored in national planning efforts. Biological weapons were regarded as "morally repulsive." This complacency stemmed from a 1972 Biological Weapons Convention where all countries agreed to cease offensive biological weapons research. In the 1990s, however, the Soviet Union was discovered to have an extensive bioweapons program and a Japanese religious cult sought to launch an anthrax attack on Tokyo. Biological weapons such as smallpox and anthrax had the potential to cause a national catastrophe. However, little was done until John Bartlett in 1997 led a symposium and program to educate the medical community and the country of the need for definitive bioweapons programs. It was highly persuasive and received a final stimulus when the anthrax attack occurred in the United States in 2001.

  17. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  18. Integrating the Agents of Bioterrorism into the General Biology Curriculum: 1. A Primer on Bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerville, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the history of and describes what biology educators should know about the topic of bioterrorism. Suggests materials that can be used to communicate more effectively with students and the community and prepare a classroom discussion on bioterrorism. (KHR)

  19. Bioterrorism and the Fermi Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    We proffer a contemporary solution to the so-called Fermi Paradox, which is concerned with conflict between Copernicanism and the apparent paucity of evidence for intelligent alien civilizations. In particular, we argue that every community of organisms that reaches its space-faring age will (1) almost immediately use its rocket-building computers to reverse-engineer its genetic chemistry and (2) self-destruct when some individual uses said technology to design an omnicidal pathogen. We discuss some of the possible approaches to prevention with regard to Homo sapiens' vulnerability to bioterrorism, particularly on a short-term basis.

  20. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks.

  1. Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations.

  2. LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    With advent of deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has furnished guidelines for microbiological...

  3. Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basis if the vaccine should be given. The anthrax vaccine is controlled by the U.S. Department of Defense ... in combat settings and people who work with anthrax in a laboratory setting. A note about vaccines Sometimes the amount of a certain vaccine cannot ...

  4. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. PMID:24890710

  5. Hawaii veterinarians' bioterrorism preparedness needs assessment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alan R; Nekorchuk, Dawn M; Holck, Peter S; Hendrickson, Lisa A; Imrie, Allison A; Effler, Paul V

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the objective bioterrorism-related knowledge base and the perceived response readiness of veterinarians in Hawaii to a bioterrorism event, and also to identify variables associated with knowledge-based test performance. An anonymous survey instrument was mailed to all licensed veterinarians residing in Hawaii (N = 229) up to three times during June and July 2004, using numeric identifiers to track non-respondents. The response rate for deliverable surveys was 59% (125 of 212). Only 12% (15 of 123) of respondents reported having had prior training on bioterrorism. Forty-four percent (55 of 125) reported being able to identify a bioterrorism event in animal populations; however, only 17% (21 of 125) felt able to recognize a bioterrorism event in human populations. Only 16% (20 of 123) felt they were able to respond effectively to a bioterrorist attack. Over 90% (106 of 116) expressed their willingness to provide assistance to the state in its response to a bioterrorist event. Veterinarians scored a mean of 70% correct (5.6 out of 8 questions) on the objective knowledge-based questions. Additional bioterrorism preparedness training should be made available, both in the form of continuing educational offerings for practicing veterinarians and as a component of the curriculum in veterinary schools.

  6. Biodefense and Bioterrorism - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Biodefense and Bioterrorism URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... XYZ List of All Topics All Biodefense and Bioterrorism - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Bioterrorism Preparedness: What School Counselors Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer N.; Rank, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    To ensure the safety of school-aged children and adolescents, school counselors must not ignore or deny the public health threat of bioterrorism (Henderson, 1998). Rather, school counselors must be prepared with knowledge about bioterrorism and intervention skills. Bioterrorism within the United States is a continuing threat. Because children and…

  8. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  9. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  10. [Protection against bioterrorism acts in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiczewski, Krzysztof

    2003-01-01

    In this article general principles of defense against bioterrorism are presented. Furthermore, the effort, already undertaken for organization of the system enabling effective countermeasures to this threat as well as liquidation of the effects of such an event, is shown. PMID:12910607

  11. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  12. Bioterrorism and Real-World Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carla

    2003-01-01

    Recent events, such as the anthrax scares and the SARS outbreak, have forced teachers to focus on issues such as disease control and bioterrorism in their own backyards. Students are aware of the current biological issues in the news and are curious about infectious diseases and the issues relating to biological warfare. In order to address the…

  13. Science Publishing in the Age of Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax bioterrorism mailings, the science community and others worried that technical articles might inadvertently aid those planning acts of terrorism. Some authors asked the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) for permission to withhold critical information from…

  14. [Bioterrorism: data of a recent history of risks and uncertainties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Dora Rambauske; Cardoso, Telma Abdalla de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Today, bioterrorism is a real threat in the whole world. Considering the actions of bioterrorism by using biological agents capable of promoting great epidemics and overload in the health systems of any city, state or country, the bioterrorism is not only a health professional concern, but government and military also. This article discusses a bibliographical review done in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO and REPIDISCA databases, during the period of 1997 the 2007, the characteristics of related national publications to the bioterrorism, the type of biological agents studied, and the existing knowledge in the country to face a bioterrorism event, in order to feed with information the professionals who will act in first reply to the bioterrorism events and that are essential to reduce the number of victims.

  15. Bioterrorism in 2001: How Ready Are We?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Lynn Johnston

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available On January 30, 2001, the federal Immigration Department's headquarters in Ottawa were evacuated and shut down following a bioterrorism scare, which turned out to be a hoax. The building reopened 48 h later, after it was determined that the substance found was not anthrax (1. In the same week, a similar hoax forced the evacuation of an Ontario provincial government building in Toronto (1.

  16. Rodents as potential couriers for bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Mare; Janse, Ingmar; van de Goot, Frank; van Rotterdam, Bart J

    2013-09-01

    Many pathogens that can cause major public health, economic, and social damage are relatively easily accessible and could be used as biological weapons. Wildlife is a natural reservoir for many potential bioterrorism agents, and, as history has shown, eliminating a pathogen that has dispersed among wild fauna can be extremely challenging. Since a number of wild rodent species live close to humans, rodents constitute a vector for pathogens to circulate among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. This article reviews the possible consequences of a deliberate spread of rodentborne pathogens. It is relatively easy to infect wild rodents with certain pathogens or to release infected rodents, and the action would be difficult to trace. Rodents can also function as reservoirs for diseases that have been spread during a bioterrorism attack and cause recurring disease outbreaks. As rats and mice are common in both urban and rural settlements, deliberately released rodentborne infections have the capacity to spread very rapidly. The majority of pathogens that are listed as potential agents of bioterrorism by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases exploit rodents as vectors or reservoirs. In addition to zoonotic diseases, deliberately released rodentborne epizootics can have serious economic consequences for society, for example, in the area of international trade restrictions. The ability to rapidly detect introduced diseases and effectively communicate with the public in crisis situations enables a quick response and is essential for successful and cost-effective disease control.

  17. Bioterrorism and Smallpox: Policies, Practices, and Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Romel W.; Mackelprang, Romel D.; Thirkill, Ashley D.

    2005-01-01

    Terrorist acts and the fear of terrorism have become a part of everyday life in the early 21st century. Among the threats most feared is bioterrorism, including the intentional release of smallpox. With the invasion of Iraq and toppling of the Saddam Hussein regime, acute bioterrorism fears have abated; however, an ongoing threat remains. This…

  18. Infectious agents of bioterrorism: a review for emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kman, Nicholas E; Nelson, Richard N

    2008-05-01

    The terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001 and the anthrax release soon after brought the issue of bioterrorism to the forefront in the medical community. Bioterrorism is the use of a biologic weapon to create terror and panic. Biologic weapons, or bioweapons, can be bacteria, fungi, viruses, or biologic toxins. Because the emergency department represents the front line of defense for the recognition of agents of bioterrorism, it is essential that emergency physicians have the ability to quickly diagnose victims of bioterrorism. This review examines the most deadly and virulent category A agents of bioterrorism, that is, anthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism, hemorrhagic fever viruses, and tularemia. The focus is on epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  19. Incorporating bioterrorism content in the nursing curriculum: a creative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Melondie R; Gaskins, Susan W

    2010-07-01

    The community health faculty has developed a creative and comprehensive approach with community agencies to present bioterrorism content that could be useful to community health faculty in other schools of nursing. Since September 11, 2001, the United States has recognized that the threat of bioterrorism is real. Nurses are recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing as key players in disaster response efforts. However, bioterrorism knowledge among nurses and nursing students has been reported to be low, and textbooks do not include comprehensive information about bioterrorism preparedness. Our college of nursing has collaborated with the U.S. Public Health Department to design a creative educational experience for community health students on bioterrorism and disaster preparedness. Content areas include the National Stockpile, the Planned Response to Pandemic Influenza provided by the U.S. Public Health Department, recognition and treatment of biological threats, and the care of patients with smallpox.

  20. Effect of Education on Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Bioterrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Hamzeh pour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioterrorism, as a major health problem, has received lots of attention in recent years. To date, the effect of education on knowledge and attitude of students regarding bioterrorism has not been evaluated in Iran. Therefore, this study aimed to determine how education affects knowledge and attitude of biological sciences students about bioterrorism. Methods: The present interventional before-after study was carried out on the students of different branches of biological sciences. The students’ level of knowledge on nature of bioterrorism and its causatives, diagnosing bioterrorism agents, management at the time of biological and bioterrorist attacks, and tendency to participate in relief at these events were evaluated before and after training using a pre-designed checklist. Then the effect of education on the students’ knowledge and attitude was evaluated based on their sex. Results: 120 students were included (60% female; mean age 21 ± 3.2 years. The knowledge score was not significantly different between female and male students before educational intervention (p > 0.05. After education, the knowledge score raised significantly in the 4 areas of bioterrorism nature (p < 0.0001, causative factors (p < 0.0001, diagnosing bioterrorism agents (p < 0.0001, and management at the time of bioterrorist attacks (p < 0.0001 in female participants, but not in male students (p > 0.05. In addition, after education both male and female participants showed greater tendency to work and do research in the field of bioterrorism (p < 0.0001 but the increase was more significant in females (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Educational intervention led to an improvement in female participants’ knowledge regarding bioterrorism nature, causative factors, diagnosing bioterrorism agents, and management at the time of bioterrorist attacks. Yet, the low level of knowledge and tendency of the students indicates the need for more education in this field.

  1. Bioterrorism: a laboratory who does it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, David W; Lee, Philip A; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire

    2014-07-01

    In October 2001, the first disseminated biological warfare attack was perpetrated on American soil. Initially, a few clinical microbiology laboratories were testing specimens from acutely ill patients and also being asked to test nasal swabs from the potentially exposed. Soon after, a significant number of clinical microbiology and public health laboratories received similar requests to test the worried well or evaluate potentially contaminated mail or environmental materials, sometimes from their own break rooms. The role of the clinical and public health microbiology laboratory in response to a select agent event or act of bioterrorism is reviewed.

  2. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  3. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later. PMID:24894605

  4. Brucella as a potential agent of bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Gizem D; Doganay, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Perception on bioterrorism has changed after the deliberate release of anthrax by the postal system in the United States of America in 2001. Potential bioterrorism agents have been reclassified based on their dissemination, expected rate of mortality, availability, stability, and ability to lead a public panic. Brucella species can be easily cultured from infected animals and human materials. Also, it can be transferred, stored and disseminated easily. An intentional contamination of food with Brucella species could pose a threat with low mortality rate. Brucella spp. is highly infectious through aerosol route, making it an attractive pathogen to be used as a potential agent for biological warfare purposes. Recently, many studies have been concentrated on appropriate sampling of Brucella spp. from environment including finding ways for its early detection and development of new decontamination procedures such as new drugs and vaccines. There are many ongoing vaccine development studies; some of which recently received patents for detection and therapy of Brucella spp. However, there is still no available vaccine for humans. In this paper, recent developments and recent patents on brucellosis are reviewed and discussed.

  5. Hospital bioterrorism planning and burn surge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B; Rich, Preston B; Hultman, C Scott; Charles, Anthony G; Jones, Samuel W; Schmits, Grace L; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity.

  6. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later.

  7. Biosensors for security and bioterrorism applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi

    2016-01-01

    This book offers comprehensive coverage of biomarker/biosensor interactions for the rapid detection of weapons of bioterrorism, as well as current research trends and future developments and applications. It will be useful to researchers in this field who are interested in new developments in the early detection of such. The authors have collected very valuable and, in some aspects indispensable experience in the area i.e. in the development and application of portable biosensors for the detection of potential hazards. Most efforts are centered on the development of immunochemical assays including flow-lateral systems and engineered antibodies and their fragments. In addition, new approaches to the detection of enzyme inhibitors, direct enzymatic and microbial detection of metabolites and nutrients are elaborated. Some realized prototypes and concept devices applicable for the further use as a basis for the cooperation programs are also discussed. There is a particular focus on electrochemical and optical det...

  8. Bioterrorism: intentional introduction of animal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N P; Rinderknecht, J L

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of the intentional introduction of animal disease as an act of bioterrorism adds a new dimension to the development of strategies for assessment, prevention, response and recovery from exotic diseases, including the zoonoses. The vulnerability of livestock operations, the likelihood of success, the possibility of the use of genetically engineered organisms and limited resources to handle multiple outbreaks place new pressures on policy-makers and emergency responders to make best use of limited resources. The methods for managing a natural occurrence or accidental introduction of high-consequence diseases are generally applicable to containment and recovery from outbreaks of intentionally introduced animal diseases. Zoonotic agents increase the complexity at both international and national levels. Modern biology provides both increased threat of new disease entities and methods for earlier and more effective detection and intervention. Improved methods are emerging for defining trade restrictions and animal movement and for determining when it is safe to resume normal trade.

  9. Bioterrorism education effect on knowledge and attitudes of nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Aghaei; Masoumeh Bagheri Nesami

    2013-01-01

    Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimenta...

  10. Challenges of Detecting Bioterrorism Agents in Complex Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Erica M.; Halden, Rolf U.

    This chapter offers an overview of the shift from the use of mass ­spectrometry for studying purified bioterrorism agents to the development of methods for rapid detection thereof in environmental and clinical samples. We discuss the difficulties of working with such complex matrices and present methods for quickly and effectively reducing complexity through sample preparation. Finally, we examine a success story wherein the common pathogen and potential bioterrorism agent norovirus is detected at clinically relevant levels in human stool.

  11. 75 FR 42363 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002; Biennial Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... republished the HHS select agent and toxin list in the Federal Register on October 16, 2008 (73 FR 61363). The... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and... Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (42 U.S.C. 262a) (the Bioterrorism Act) requires...

  12. 75 FR 44724 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select... accordance with the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002, we are soliciting public comment... and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 provides for the regulation of...

  13. Francisella tularensis as a potential agent of bioterrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Max

    2015-02-01

    Francisella tularensis is a category A bioterrorism agent. It is the etiological agent of tularemia, a zoonotic disease found throughout the northern hemisphere. The intentional spread of F. tularensis aerosols would probably lead to severe and often fatal pneumonia cases, but also secondary cases from contaminated animals and environments. We are not ready to face such a situation. No vaccine is currently available. A few antibiotics are active against F. tularensis, but strains resistant to these antibiotics could be used in the context of bioterrorism. We need new therapeutic strategies to fight against category A bioterrorism agents, including development of new drugs inhibiting F. tularensis growth and/or virulence, or enhancing the host response to infection by this pathogen.

  14. Bioterrorism education effect on knowledge and attitudes of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Aghaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. Statistical Analysis Used: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: Before education, the majority of units (96.9% had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%,whereas after education, the majority of them (100% had good knowledge(well done (66.7-100% score of 100%. And majority of units (96.9% before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%, whereas a majority of them (98.5% after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%. Conclusions: The education has a positive effect on nurses′ knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism.

  15. Identification and analysis of obstacles in bioterrorism preparedness and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, Suzanne Michele

    The focus of this study was to identify and analyze the obstacles to bioterrorism preparedness and response facing emergency management agencies and public authorities. In order to establish the limits of this discussion, the obstacles will examine a combined conceptual framework of public health, environmental security and social response. The interdisciplinary characteristics of this framework are ideal for addressing the issue of bioterrorism because of its simultaneous impact, which encompasses the complex interrelationships that pertain to public health and national security and social response. Based on a review of literature, the obstacles presented range from the absence of an effective surveillance system for biological terrorism related diseases to the inadequate training of first responders in bioterrorism preparedness and the difficult challenges of a mass casualty situation and the intense pressures associated with the crisis response. Furthermore, the impending reality of bioterrorism will further illustrate a close examination of the characteristics and management of three major biowarfare agents---anthrax, plague and smallpox. Finally, to provide a realistic understanding of the impact of bioterrorism, three case studies of actual events and two hypothetical scenarios will be discussed. Specifically, the discussion will provide the following three unconventional terrorist attacks: the recent anthrax attacks of 2001, the Aum Shinrikyo's attack of the Tokyo subway in 1995, and the Rajneeshees' use of salmonella poisoning in 1994. The inclusion of the hypothetical scenarios of two massive outbreaks of smallpox and anthrax will be presented to illuminate the seriousness and magnitude of the threat of bioterrorism and the probable consequences of failing to overcome the obstacles presented in this study. The importance of this research cannot be overemphasized, the threat is undeniably serious, and the potential for biological agents to cause devastating

  16. [Molecular and immunological detection of bacteria applied to bio-terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; La Scola, B

    2010-09-01

    Following the episode of letters containing anthrax in the USA in 2001, the fight against bio-terrorism became a priority for many countries (including France). The detection of bacteria in bio-terrorism settings is a major component of this fight. Indeed, the early detection of these bio-terrorism agents leads to an appropriate treatment and to a reduced transmission of the disease. Bacteria are important bio-terrorism agents, and the techniques used for their detection are constantly evolving. In this review, after describing the main bacteria that can be used for bio-terrorism, we also describe the techniques available for their detection: DNA or antigen detection. PMID:20400254

  17. The Delivery: A Case Study in Bioterrorism Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Judith; Davis, Kim; Fullwood, Angela; Lippek, Maryann; Middleton, Jill

    This paper describes a bioterrorism incident at a Connecticut elementary school. Flowers sent to a teacher were permeated with anthrax spores that infected the teacher, 12 of her students, 3 office staff members, and an administrator. The teacher subsequently died. The Connecticut Department of Public Health confirmed that the students and staff…

  18. Evaluation of an Online Bioterrorism Continuing Medical Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebeer, Linda; Andolsek, Kathryn; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Green, Joseph; Weissman, Norman; Pryor, Erica; Zheng, Shimin; Terndrup, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Much of the international community has an increased awareness of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear threats and the need for physicians to rapidly acquire new knowledge and skills in order to protect the public's health. The present study evaluated the educational effectiveness of an online bioterrorism continuing medical…

  19. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    After the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2002, and the subsequent deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department of ...

  20. Bioterrorism and Emergency Preparedness in Aging (BTEPA): HRSA-Funded GEC Collaboration for Curricula and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arleen; Roush, Robert E., Jr.; Howe, Judith L.; Sanders, Margaret; McBride, Melen R.; Sherman, Andrea; Palmisano, Barbara; Tumosa, Nina; Perweiler, Elyse A.; Weiss, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Frail elders living alone or in long-term care settings are particularly vulnerable to bioterrorism and other emergencies due to their complex physical, social and psychological needs. This paper provides an overview of the recent literature on bioterrorism and emergency preparedness in aging (BTEPA); discusses federal initiatives by the health…

  1. Use of medical simulation to teach bioterrorism preparedness: the anthrax example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Martin E

    2013-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax bioterrorism attacks demonstrated vulnerability for future similar attacks. This article describes mechanisms that can be used to prepare the medical community and healthcare facilities for the diagnosis and management of a subsequent bioterrorism attack should such an event occur and the fundamentals of medical simulation and its use in teaching learners about the diagnosis of management of anthrax exposure.

  2. 76 FR 61227 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... in both 9 CFR 121.4 and 42 CFR 73.4). On July 29, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR... 9 CFR Part 121 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the...

  3. The plague of Athens: an ancient act of bioterrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Synodinos, Philippos N; Stathi, Angeliki; Skevaki, Chrysanthi L; Zachariadou, Levantia

    2013-09-01

    Recent data implicate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi as a causative pathogen of the Plague of Athens during the Peloponnesian War (430-426 bc). According to Thucydides, the sudden outbreak of the disease may link to poisoning of the water reservoirs by the Spartans. The siege of a city was aimed at exhausting the supplies of a population, which often led to the outbreak and spread of epidemics. Poisoning of the water reservoirs of a besieged city as an act of bioterrorism would probably shorten the necessary time for such conditions to appear.

  4. Bioterrorism and the Role of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Regular review of the management of bioterrorism is essential for maintaining readiness for these sporadically occurring events. This review provides an overview of the history of biological disasters and bioterrorism. I also discuss the recent recategorization of tier 1 agents by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Laboratory Response Network (LRN), and specific training and readiness processes and programs, such as the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Laboratory Preparedness Exercise (LPX). LPX examined the management of cultivable bacterial vaccine and attenuated strains of tier 1 agents or close mimics. In the LPX program, participating laboratories showed improvement in the level of diagnosis required and referral of isolates to an appropriate reference laboratory. Agents which proved difficult to manage in sentinel laboratories included the more fastidious Gram-negative organisms, especially Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia spp. The recent Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic provided a check on LRN safety processes. Specific guidelines and recommendations for laboratory safety and risk assessment in the clinical microbiology are explored so that sentinel laboratories can better prepare for the next biological disaster.

  5. Bioterrorism versus radiological terrorism: notes from a bio/nuclear epidemiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    The antiterrorism and disaster planning communities often speak of the high potential for bioterrorism and possible potential for radioterrorism, specifically the explosion of a fission device on US soil. Information gained from an epidemiologist's work in the national and international scene, which inevitably involves Intel regarding the cultures and subcultures being studied, suggest that bioterrorism is far less likely to be a major threat, that has been over-emphasized at the state level due to warnings from Homeland Security, and that Homeland Security itself appears biased toward bioterrorism of late with very little available rational basis.

  6. [Analysis of policies in activating the Infectious Disease Specialist Network (IDSN) for bioterrorism events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang Soo

    2008-07-01

    Bioterrorism events have worldwide impacts, not only in terms of security and public health policy, but also in other related sectors. Many countries, including Korea, have set up new administrative and operational structures and adapted their preparedness and response plans in order to deal with new kinds of threats. Korea has dual surveillance systems for the early detection of bioterrorism. The first is syndromic surveillance that typically monitors non-specific clinical information that may indicate possible bioterrorism-associated diseases before specific diagnoses are made. The other is infectious disease specialist network that diagnoses and responds to specific illnesses caused by intentional release of biologic agents. Infectious disease physicians, clinical microbiologists, and infection control professionals play critical and complementary roles in these networks. Infectious disease specialists should develop practical and realistic response plans for their institutions in partnership with local and state health departments, in preparation for a real or suspected bioterrorism attack.

  7. [The strategic plan for preparedness and response to bioterrorism in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun Soon

    2008-07-01

    Following the Anthrax bioterrorism attacks in the US in 2001, the Korean government established comprehensive countermeasures against bioterrorism. These measures included the government assuming management of all infectious agents that cause diseases, including smallpox, anthrax, plaque, botulism, and the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fevers (ebola fever, marburg fever, and lassa fever) for national security. In addition, the Korean government is reinforcing the ability to prepare and respond to bioterrorism. Some of the measures being implemented include revising the laws and guidelines that apply to the use of infectious agents, the construction and operation of dual surveillance systems for bioterrorism, stockpiling and managing products necessary to respond to an emergency (smallpox vaccine, antibiotics, etc.) and vigorously training emergency room staff and heath workers to ensure they can respond appropriately. In addition, the government's measures include improved public relations, building and maintaining international cooperation, and developing new vaccines and drugs for treatments of infectious agents used to create bioweapons.

  8. Being prepared: bioterrorism and mass prophylaxis: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weant, Kyle A; Bailey, Abby M; Fleishaker, Elise L; Justice, Stephanie B

    2014-01-01

    Bioterrorism presents a real and omnipresent risk to public health throughout the world. More than 30 biological agents have been identified as possessing the potential to be deployed in a bioterrorist attack. Those that have been determined to be of the greatest concern and possess the greatest potential of use in this arena are known as the Category A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); Variola major (smallpox); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); viral hemorrhagic fevers; and Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism toxin). Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention utilizes surveillance systems to identify illnesses, the weight of diagnosing, effectively treating, and notifying the appropriate public health officials lies squarely on the shoulders of emergency care personnel. Part I of this two-part review will focus on the clinical presentation and treatment of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. The subsequent Part II of this review will discuss smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, botulism toxin, and the provision of mass prophylaxis.

  9. Bioterrorism preparedness and response in European public health institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coignard, B

    2001-11-01

    The terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and the deliberate release of anthrax in the United States had consequences for public health not only there, but also in Europe. Europe's public health systems had to manage numerous postal materials possibly contaminated with anthrax. Our survey aimed to document the response of European public health institutes to recent bioterrorist events to identify the gaps that need to be addressed; 18 institutes from 16 countries participated in this Euroroundup. Bioterrorist threats in Europe were hoaxes only, and should be considered as a "preparedness exercise" from which three lessons can be drawn. Firstly, because of inadequate preparedness planning and funding arrangements, Europe was not ready in October 2001 to respond to bioterrorism. Secondly, although European institutes reacted quickly and adapted their priorities to a new type of threat, they need adequate and sustained support from national governments to maintain their overall capacity. Thirdly, the recent crisis demonstrated the need for increased investment in epidemiology training programmes and the establishment of a technical coordination unit for international surveillance and outbreak response in the European Union. PMID:11891386

  10. Exercising multi-jurisdictional response to bioterrorism in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout 2007, the CRTI Biological Cluster conducted a series of biological terrorism exercises within a project entitled Bi-Ex West. The overall purpose of Bi-Ex West was to determine how the federal science and technology community could assist responders in a bio-terrorism attack involving a zoonotic agent. Bi-Ex West consisted of three immersive electronic tabletop exercises, which culminated into a two-day full-scale field exercise involving more than 200 players distributed throughout six sites. Participants represented 18 agencies, including agricultural, health and emergency management organizations at the federal, provincial and municipal levels, as well as first responders from the law enforcement and fire rescue communities. These exercises were conducted in a learning environment that fostered knowledge sharing between local, provincial and federal agencies and enabled participants to exercise their roles, responsibilities and procedures when responding to a biological terrorist event. It also provided agencies with an opportunity to gain a better understanding of how to integrate their various response plans to improve coordination. Observations and recommendations were collected from evaluators and participants over the course of the exercise. The resulting 70 recommendations have been grouped under the following categories: Roles and Responsibilities; Communication; Training, Education and Planning; Resources and Equipment; Security and; Exercise Design. In addition to action items attached to the recommendations, a number of CBRNE activities resulted from Bi-Ex West increasing the capacity of resources within the Federal Government and the Province of British Columbia.(author)

  11. Bio-terrorism: still interesting or concerning nowadays?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu E. Sbârcea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-terrorism involves using biological agents/toxins with the intent to intimidate or coerce a government or civilian population to further political or social objectives, usually leading to deaths or illnesses of humans but also of plants/animals. Their use would probably initially be considered as a natural or unintentional event, especially in case of live biological agents. Moreover, a natural occurring disease outbreak could have the same destructive outcome as an efficient biological weapon. There is a need for proper differentiation between natural and intentional events although in the first stages the medical response should be similar; however, the course of incident management would take different paths later on. Biological agents’ investigation of dangerous pathogens, from natural unusual outbreaks or bioterrorist attacks/other intentional use, imply the collaboration of different institutions with responsibilities in public health but also in national security and defense. The National Security and the Defense System institutions think mainly in security terms while national health care system institutions think principally` in medical care/prevention terms. These two ways of acting have to be combined in order to deal properly with hazardous biological agents.

  12. The Role of Practical Advice in Bioterrorism News Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Kristen Alley

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of crisis advice appearing in US news coverage of the 2001 anthrax attacks. Coverage of any crisis can spark public outrage, including fear, speculation, and contradictory or confusing evidence, especially when the stories do not contain practical advice. Five coders analyzed 833 news stories from 272 major US newspapers, the Associated Press, National Public Radio, and 4 major US television networks. Practical advice appeared in only a quarter of the stories, even though practical advice for self-protection was mentioned 3 times more often than the vague advice that simply advised people not to panic. Public health officials provided the most practical advice, while scientists provided the least practical advice. Stories containing practical advice also provided more elucidating information, explaining why the threat was low, reducible, treatable, and detectable. Over the 3 phases of the anthrax crisis, an inverse relationship appeared between the amount of news coverage containing practical advice compared to "outrage rhetoric." Stories mentioned practical advice more often during the post-impact phase than earlier in the crisis. Elucidating, explanatory advice emphasized actions, risk comparisons, and tradeoffs. The findings indicate that when journalists use credible sources to provide practical advice and avoid speculation, their coverage can prevent the spread of misinformation and confusion during a bioterror attack. Also, journalists should provide context and sourcing when discussing advice during the outbreak and impact phases of the crisis, because these explanations could counteract outrage and threat distortion.

  13. Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

    2013-08-01

    Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry.

  14. Are we preparing health services administration students to respond to bioterrorism and mass casualty management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Shannon H; Houser, Howard W

    2006-01-01

    Bioterrorism/natural disaster events add significant specialized demands and disrupt normal operation of the health system, often for an indefinite period of time. Health administration leaders should be educationally prepared for and informed about these potential events, but few receive this knowledge via their academic preparation in health administration. This study examined the existence of coverage of bioterrorism topics in health administration curricula and characteristics of bioterrorism coverage in current health administration programs through a self-completed survey among AUPHA graduate and undergraduate program members. Of the total survey respondents, only 32% of programs have current coverage of bioterrorism. The main reasons for nothavingbioterrorism coverage were not having enough resources; not having enough time to develop course/materials; and not thinking it is necessary to add these courses/materials. To prepare better and to inform future health administrators regarding major disruptive circumstances, advocacy and documentation are important to develop and implement bioterrorism awareness. Possibly, suggested minimum curricular requirements, content, and mechanisms for inclusion can be developed in the near future. Health administration educators should address the new reality and demonstrate that their graduates can function and lead in crises and situations disruptive to normal commerce.

  15. Training Future Physicians about Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report of the Expert Panel on Bioterrorism Education for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to share their insights about the learning objectives and educational experiences that they would recommend for the training of future physicians about bioterrorism. The expert panel broadened the scope of their discussion beyond bioterrorism to…

  16. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Lee, Deok-Sun; Burd, Henry; Blank, William; Kapatral, Vinayak

    2014-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents.

  17. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yeol Ahn

    Full Text Available The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents.

  18. Assessing bioterrorism preparedness and response of rural veterinarians: experiences and training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiehwen Ed; Jacobson, Holly; Feldman, Katherine; Miller, Jerry A; Rodriguez, Lori; Soto Mas, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Veterinarians play a unique role in emergency preparedness and response, and federal agencies and academic institutions therefore allocate considerable resources to provide training to enhance their readiness. However, the level of preparedness of veterinarians in many rural regions is yet to be improved. This article reports an assessment of the bioterrorism preparedness, specifically the experience and training needs, of rural veterinarians in North Texas. The study employed a cross-sectional design with a study population that included all veterinarians (N = 352) in the 37 counties within Texas Department of State Health Services Regions 2 and 3. Data on veterinarians practicing or residing in the target region were obtained from the Texas State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners. The response rate was 35% (n = 121). Results indicate that chemical exposure was the condition most frequently seen and treated, followed by botulism and anthrax. The majority (80%) of respondents indicated that they had not previously participated in training related to bioterrorism preparedness, and many (41%) also indicated a willingness to participate in a state health department-initiated bioterrorism response plan. However, only 18% were confident in their ability to diagnose and treat bioterrorism cases. These results suggest that many North Texas veterinarians practicing in rural regions could benefit from additional training in bioterrorism preparedness and response. An area in particular need of further training is the diagnosis and treatment of Category A agents. Federal, state, and local health agencies are urged to increase training opportunities and to make additional efforts to involve veterinarians in bioterrorism preparedness and response.

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Rural Primary Care: Improving Care for Mental Health Following Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Dobalian, Aram; Wiens, Brenda A.; Gylys, Julius A.; Evans, Garret D.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Recent bioterrorist attacks have highlighted the critical need for health care organizations to prepare for future threats. Yet, relatively little attention has been paid to the mental health needs of rural communities in the wake of such events. A critical aspect of bioterrorism is emphasis on generating fear and uncertainty, thereby…

  20. 76 FR 77914 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... submit comments. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published October 3, 2011 (76 FR 61228... INFORMATION: On October 3, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 61228-61244, Docket No. APHIS...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the...

  1. Kairos as Indeterminate Risk Management: The Pharmaceutical Industry's Response to Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Blake

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's response to the threat of bioterrorism following 9-11 invoked the rhetorical notion of kairos as an urgent and ongoing opportunity not only to protect the nation but also to improve the industry's reputation and fortify its political power. Yet the notion of kairos as seizing an advantage--grounded in modernist…

  2. Bioterrorism and radiation. What to do? What research is needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological and nuclear terrorism has emerged as a major concern. Often included within the broad category of bioterrorism, the response to the intentional exposure of populations to radiation requires governmental agencies, law enforcement agencies, policy-makers, experts in radiation medicine and radiation biology and an educated citizenry. Emerging knowledge of normal tissue injury following radiation will provide important areas for research, as outlined in a recent Radiation Research Program (RRP) Workshop from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) (Stone HB, Rad Res 157:204- 223, 2002). Such research involves radiation biology and wound healing and may ultimately provide strategies for pre-exposure radioprotectors as well as post-exposure strategies to prevent serious normal tissue damage. Radiation in the Moderate Dose range, defined as 1-10 Gy, applies to radiological and nuclear terrorism and also to clinical radiation therapy. (RRP Moderate Dose Radiation Workshop, Coleman CN, Rad Res, in press 2003). New approaches such as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) will expose more tissues to low doses of radiation. Strategies for developing agents for normal tissue targets (Tofilon). The successful application of radiotherapy as a cancer treatment modality is severely constrained by the risk for normal tissue injury. Because approximately half of all cancer patients receive radiation treatment, the ability to selectively protect normal tissue would be of obvious clinical benefit. In addition to cancer therapy, current geopolitical circumstances reinforce the need for generating agents that protect against the consequences of environmental radiation exposure, accidental or intentional. Currently, there are relatively few available agents with the potential to reduce or eliminate radiation-induced normal tissue injury after clinical and/or environmental exposure. A goal of the Radiation Research Program is to identify and develop novel radioprotectors

  3. Development of a highly efficacious vaccinia-based dual vaccine against smallpox and anthrax, two important bioterror entities

    OpenAIRE

    Tod J Merkel; Perera, Pin-Yu; Kelly, Vanessa K.; Verma, Anita; Llewellyn, Zara N.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Mosca, Joseph D.; Perera, Liyanage P.

    2010-01-01

    Bioterrorism poses a daunting challenge to global security and public health in the 21st century. Variola major virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, and Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax, remain at the apex of potential pathogens that could be used in a bioterror attack to inflict mass casualties. Although licensed vaccines are available for both smallpox and anthrax, because of inadequacies associated with each of these vaccines, serious concerns remain ...

  4. Community response grids: using information technology to help communities respond to bioterror emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T; Fleischmann, Kenneth R; Preece, Jennifer; Shneiderman, Ben; Wu, Philip Fei; Qu, Yan

    2007-12-01

    Access to accurate and trusted information is vital in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from an emergency. To facilitate response in large-scale emergency situations, Community Response Grids (CRGs) integrate Internet and mobile technologies to enable residents to report information, professional emergency responders to disseminate instructions, and residents to assist one another. CRGs use technology to help residents and professional emergency responders to work together in community response to emergencies, including bioterrorism events. In a time of increased danger from bioterrorist threats, the application of advanced information and communication technologies to community response is vital in confronting such threats. This article describes CRGs, their underlying concepts, development efforts, their relevance to biosecurity and bioterrorism, and future research issues in the use of technology to facilitate community response.

  5. Analysis of research publications that relate to bioterrorism and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gary C

    2013-09-01

    Research relating to bioterrorism and its associated risks is interdisciplinary and is performed with a wide variety of objectives. Although published reports of this research have appeared only in the past decade, there has been a steady increase in their number and a continuous diversification of sources, content, and document types. In this analysis, we explored a large set of published reports, identified from accessible indices using simple search techniques, and tried to rationalize the patterns and connectivity of the research subjects rather than the detailed content. The analysis is based on a connectivity network representation built from author-assigned keywords. Network analysis reveals a strong relationship between research aimed at bioterrorism risks and research identified with public health. Additionally, the network identifies clusters of keywords centered on emergency preparedness and food safety issues. The network structure includes a large amount of meta-information that can be used for assessment and planning of research activity and for framing specific research interests.

  6. Endemic, Notifiable Bioterrorism-Related Diseases, United States, 1992–1999

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Man-Huei; Glynn, M. Kathleen; Groseclose, Samuel L.

    2003-01-01

    Little information is available in the United States regarding the incidence and distribution of diseases caused by critical microbiologic agents with the potential for use in acts of terrorism. We describe disease-specific, demographic, geographic, and seasonal distribution of selected bioterrorism-related conditions (anthrax, botulism, brucellosis, cholera, plague, tularemia, and viral encephalitides) reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 1992–1999. Tularemia a...

  7. Prophylaxis and Treatment of Pregnant Women for Emerging Infections and Bioterrorism Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Cono, Joanne; Cragan, Janet D.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.

    2006-01-01

    Emerging infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism attacks warrant urgent public health and medical responses. Response plans for these events may include use of medications and vaccines for which the effects on pregnant women and fetuses are unknown. Healthcare providers must be able to discuss the benefits and risks of these interventions with their pregnant patients. Recent experiences with outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox, and anthrax, as well as response plan...

  8. The Critical Role of Pathology in the Investigation of Bioterrorism-Related Cutaneous Anthrax

    OpenAIRE

    Shieh, Wun-Ju; Guarner, Jeannette; Paddock, Christopher; Greer, Patricia; Tatti, Kathleen; Fischer, Marc; Layton, Marci; Philips, Michael; Bresnitz, Eddy; Quinn, Conrad P.; Popovic, Tanja; Perkins, Bradley A.; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2003-01-01

    Cutaneous anthrax is a rare zoonotic disease in the United States. The clinical diagnosis traditionally has been established by conventional microbiological methods, such as culture and gram staining. However, these methods often yield negative results when patients have received antibiotics. During the bioterrorism event of 2001, we applied two novel immunohistochemical assays that can detect Bacillus anthracis antigens in skin biopsy samples even after prolonged antibiotic treatment. These ...

  9. Dental professionals' knowledge and perceived need for education in bioterrorism preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoopathi, Vinodh; Mashabi, Samar Omar; Scott, Thayer E; Mascarenhas, Ana Karina

    2010-12-01

    Dental professionals should be well prepared to provide care during bioterrorist events. In this study, we assessed the knowledge, opinions about playing various roles during a bioterrorist event, and perceived need for education of dental professionals (dentists and dental hygienists) from one region (Oregon) that had been exposed to bioterrorism and from another region (New England) not exposed. This cross-sectional study used an eighteen-item pretested, self-administered questionnaire distributed at the 2005 Oregon Dental Conference (n=156) and 2005 Yankee Dental Conference (n=297). Dental professionals' knowledge and perceived need for education on bioterrorist preparedness were quantified by multivariate linear and logistic modeling. More than 90 percent of the dental professionals were willing to provide care during bioterrorist events. Perceived knowledge was high; however, actual knowledge was low. Dental professionals who wanted to attend a continuing education course and who thought dental professionals should play more roles during a bioterrorist attack had higher actual knowledge. Willingness to provide care was not supported by adequate knowledge. No significant differences between New England and Oregon dental professionals were observed in terms of actual knowledge or perceived need for bioterrorism education. Integrating training and education into the predoctoral dental and dental hygiene curricula and developing continuing education courses would improve knowledge and better prepare dental professionals to effectively perform American Dental Association-recommended roles during any future bioterrorism events.

  10. Nurses' intentions to respond to bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Deanna E; Mendias, Elnora P

    2010-01-01

    Although nurses historically have responded to natural disasters, little is known about nurses' intentions to respond during bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies where they and their families may be at risk. To investigate that question, we surveyed nurses following their participation in a class on bioterrorism. Participants (N = 292) completed a Personal/Professional Profile (PPP), Test of Bioterrorism Knowledge (BT Knowledge), and an Intention to Respond (IR) instrument. IR was measured by participants' scores on their likelihood to care for patients (0 = extremely unlikely, 10 = extremely likely) for each of 10 infectious disease scenarios reflecting different infection risk. We calculated scores for each scenario, totaled them, and examined the total IR related to the participant's PPP and scores on BT Knowledge. Additionally, we examined participants' written comments explaining the reasons for their IR. Total IR scores ranged from 8-100 (mean and median of 70). The IR was higher in scenarios where the infection risk was lower. Overall IR scores were positively related to BT Knowledge and having had previous emergency and disaster experience. Those less likely to respond had dependent children and more years in nursing. Results indicate that nurses differentiated risks associated with different infectious disease situations and may decide to respond during a real emergency based on such information. Implications for nursing administrators and nursing educators are discussed.

  11. Social Media and Its Dual Use in Biopreparedness: Communication and Visualization Tools in an Animal Bioterrorism Incident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C.; Landgren, Jonas;

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus of operandi, and defenders, including...... emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty...... in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism....

  12. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains — How biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick;

    2011-01-01

    A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents......) is crucial in any food-born outbreak and particular in the response to bioterrorism events. In the later case, tested and proven biotraceability improves the following; (i) international collaboration of validated tracing tools and detection methods, (ii) multi-disciplinary expertise and collaboration......, and (vi) high-throughput sequencing using bio-informatic platforms to speed up the characterization of the biological agent. By applying biotraceability, the response phase during a bioterrorism event may be shortened and is facilitated for tracing the origin of biological agent contamination....

  13. Pre-PCR processing in bioterrorism preparedness: improved diagnostic capabilities for laboratory response networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Johannes; Knutsson, Rickard; Ansell, Ricky; Rådström, Peter; Rasmusson, Birgitta

    2013-09-01

    Diagnostic DNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a valuable tool for rapid detection of biothreat agents. However, analysis is often challenging because of the limited size, quality, and purity of the biological target. Pre-PCR processing is an integrated concept in which the issues of analytical limit of detection and simplicity for automation are addressed in all steps leading up to PCR amplification--that is, sampling, sample treatment, and the chemical composition of PCR. The sampling method should maximize target uptake and minimize uptake of extraneous substances that could impair the analysis--so-called PCR inhibitors. In sample treatment, there is a trade-off between yield and purity, as extensive purification leads to DNA loss. A cornerstone of pre-PCR processing is to apply DNA polymerase-buffer systems that are tolerant to specific sample impurities, thereby lowering the need for expensive purification steps and maximizing DNA recovery. Improved awareness among Laboratory Response Networks (LRNs) regarding pre-PCR processing is important, as ineffective sample processing leads to increased cost and possibly false-negative or ambiguous results, hindering the decision-making process in a bioterrorism crisis. This article covers the nature and mechanisms of PCR-inhibitory substances relevant for agroterrorism and bioterrorism preparedness, methods for quality control of PCR reactions, and applications of pre-PCR processing to optimize and simplify the analysis of various biothreat agents. Knowledge about pre-PCR processing will improve diagnostic capabilities of LRNs involved in the response to bioterrorism incidents.

  14. Review of a new molecular virus pathotyping method in the context of bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Mikael; Belák, Sándor

    2013-09-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infect various avian species including domestic poultry. Clinical manifestations vary from subclinical or mild to severe multiorgan systemic disease with a near 100% mortality rate. Severe disease is caused by highly virulent specific virus strains, termed highly pathogenic AIV and velogenic NDV. Recent controversial influenza H5 adaptation studies in ferrets have highlighted the importance of preparedness against AIV as a bioterrorism agent. Furthermore, NDV also has zoonotic potential, although symptoms in humans are mild and self-limiting for naturally occurring viruses. Thus, both of these viruses pose a direct biothreat to domestic poultry but also indirectly to humans via zoonotic transmission. For diagnosis and rapid containment of disease, it is crucial to differentiate highly pathogenic AIVs and NDVs from frequently occurring low pathogenic variants. Recently, we developed a novel strategy for pathotyping of AIV and NDV that we review here. The method should be ideal for rapid testing and surveillance in food safety, for wild bird monitoring, and for combating acts of bioterrorism.

  15. A program against bacterial bioterrorism: improved patient management and acquisition of new knowledge on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Michael; Dargis, Rimtas; Andresen, Keld; Christensen, Jens Jørgen E

    2012-06-01

    In 2002 it was decided to establish laboratory facilities in Denmark for diagnosing agents associated with bioterrorism in order to make an immediate appropriate response to the release of such agents possible. Molecular assays for detection of specific agents and molecular and proteomic techniques for identification of bacteria were introduced as part of the program. All assays and techniques were made accessible for use in diagnosing patients, even when an intentional release was not suspected. Medical expertise on different diseases was established at the department as an integrated part of the program. The analyses included PCR assays for specific bacteria, identification of isolated bacteria by DNA sequencing, detection and identification of bacteria in clinical sample material by universal bacterial PCR and DNA sequencing, and identification of bacteria by mass spectrometry. The established analyses formed a basis on which a series of further developments was built. In addition to reducing the time for obtaining diagnoses and improving the accuracy of diagnosis of individual infected patients, the analyses provided new knowledge on the frequency and distribution of some bacterial infections, including Q fever, tularemia, trench fever, brucellosis, and melioidosis. The implementation of an antibioterrorism program in a clinical diagnostic setting improved the diagnostic possibilities for patients in Denmark and provided new epidemiologic information. It also introduced a number of diagnostic assays for bacterial infections not associated with bioterrorism that are difficult to culture or identify.

  16. Integrating the Agents of Bioterrorism into the General Biology Curriculum: II. Mode of Action of the Biological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerville, Jeffrey C.

    2003-01-01

    Integrates bioterrorism into the science curriculum and explains actions against serious agents such as anthrax, plague, smallpox, botulinum toxin, and ricin toxin. Uses the learning cycle as the instructional tool which is student-centered and has three phases that include exploring, explaining, and extending. (Contains 24 references.) (YDS)

  17. Bioterrorism and biological threats dominate federal health security research; other priorities get scant attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Connor, Kathryn; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Pillemer, Francesca Matthews; Mullikin, James M; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    The federal government plays a critical role in achieving national health security by providing strategic guidance and funding research to help prevent, respond to, mitigate, and recover from disasters, epidemics, and acts of terrorism. In this article we describe the first-ever inventory of nonclassified national health security-related research funded by civilian agencies of the federal government. Our analysis revealed that the US government's portfolio of health security research is currently weighted toward bioterrorism and emerging biological threats, laboratory methods, and development of biological countermeasures. Eight of ten other priorities identified in the Department of Health and Human Services' National Health Security Strategy-such as developing and maintaining a national health security workforce or incorporating recovery into planning and response-receive scant attention. We offer recommendations to better align federal spending with health security research priorities, including the creation of an interagency working group charged with minimizing research redundancy and filling persistent gaps in knowledge.

  18. Summary and results of the joint WMD-DAC/Alameda County bioterrorism response plan exercise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Lipkin, Joel; West, Todd H.; Tam, Ricky; Hirano, Howard H.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.

    2003-11-01

    On June 12,2003, the Alameda County Public Health Department and Sandia National Laboratories/CA jointly conducted an exercise that used a Weapons of Mass Destruction-Decision Analysis Center (WMD-DAC) bioterrorism attack simulation to test the effectiveness of the county's emergency response plan. The exercise was driven by an assumed release (in the vicinity of the Berkeley Marina), and subsequent spread, of a small quantity of aerosolized, weapons-grade anthrax spores. The simulation used several key WMD-DAC capabilities, namely: (1) integration with an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate expected dose levels in the affected areas, (2) a individual-tracking capability for both infected and non-infected persons as they made decisions, sought treatment, and received prophylaxis drugs, and (3) a user interface that allows exercise participants to affect the scenario evolution and outcome. The analysis of the county's response plan included documenting and reviewing the decisions made by participants during the exercise. Twenty-six local and regional officials representing the health care system, emergency medical services and law enforcement were involved in responding to the simulated attack. The results of this joint effort include lessons learned both by the Alameda County officials regarding implementation of their bioterrorism response plan and by the Sandia representatives about conducting exercises of this type. These observations are reviewed in this report, and they form a basis for providing a better understanding of group/individual decision processes and for identifying effective communication options among decision makers.

  19. An integrated and dynamic optimisation model for the multi-level emergency logistics network in anti-bioterrorism system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Lindu

    2012-08-01

    Demand for emergency resources is usually uncertain and varies quickly in anti-bioterrorism system. Besides, emergency resources which had been allocated to the epidemic areas in the early rescue cycle will affect the demand later. In this article, an integrated and dynamic optimisation model with time-varying demand based on the epidemic diffusion rule is constructed. The heuristic algorithm coupled with the MATLAB mathematical programming solver is adopted to solve the optimisation model. In what follows, the application of the optimisation model as well as a short sensitivity analysis of the key parameters in the time-varying demand forecast model is presented. The results show that both the model and the solution algorithm are useful in practice, and both objectives of inventory level and emergency rescue cost can be controlled effectively. Thus, it can provide some guidelines for decision makers when coping with emergency rescue problem with uncertain demand, and offers an excellent reference when issues pertain to bioterrorism.

  20. Predicting Response to Reassurances and Uncertainties in Bioterrorism Communications for Urban Populations in New York and California

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L.; Truman, Benedict I.; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.’s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian po...

  1. Prior notice of imported food under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final regulation that requires the submission to FDA of prior notice of food, including animal feed, that is imported or offered for import into the United States. The final rule implements the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act), which required prior notification of imported food to begin on December 12, 2003. The final rule requires that the prior notice be submitted to FDA electronically via either the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP or Customs) Automated Broker Interface (ABI) of the Automated Commercial System (ACS) or the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI). The information must be submitted and confirmed electronically as facially complete by FDA for review no less than 8 hours (for food arriving by water), 4 hours (for food arriving by air or land/rail), and 2 hours (for food arriving by land/road) before the food arrives at the port of arrival. Food imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice is subject to refusal and, if refused, must be held. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a draft compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled "Sec. 110.310 Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002." PMID:19112701

  2. Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism. PMID:23971817

  3. Managing bioterrorism mass casualties in an emergency department: lessons learned from a rural community hospital disaster drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism represents a threat for which most emergency departments (EDs) are ill prepared. In order to develop an evidence-based plan for ED and hospital management of contaminated patients, a review was conducted of the most effective strategies developed during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, as well as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and military guidelines on biowarfare. Six basic steps were identified: 1) lock down the hospital and control access to the ED; 2) protect emergency care personnel with appropriate personal protective equipment; 3) decontaminate and triage patients; 4) isolate patients; 5) treat patients with appropriate medications or measures, including decontamination of wounds; and 6) use restrictive admission and transfer guidelines. By emphasizing these six basic concepts, a rural ED passed an annual state-run bioterrorism mass-casualty drill. The drill provided health care personnel with the knowledge and skills necessary to prepare for future bioterrorism casualties. These same concepts could also be used to manage highly virulent viral or bacterial outbreaks.

  4. Agriculture bioterrorism:risk and management%农业生物恐怖的风险及其防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱联辉; 田德桥; 郑涛

    2014-01-01

    In recent years , a series of agriculture biosecurity accidents have occurred ,such as mad cow disease , foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza , which has aroused worldwide , concern over agriculture bioterrorist attacks .This paper comprehensively analyzes the history and impact of agriculture bioterrorism , the current status of international agricul-ture bioterrorism research , and important issues to be taken into account in future efforts to deal with agriculture bioterrorism .%近年来,疯牛病、口蹄疫和禽流感等重大农业安全事件不断发生,引起了国际社会的强烈关注,也更加引发了人们对农业生物恐怖袭击的担忧,如何应对农业生物恐怖威胁已成为国际社会无法回避的安全问题之一。该文通过综合分析农业生物恐怖的“历史”、实施后的危害效果以及国际上对农业生物恐怖的研究现状,提出加强农业生物恐怖防范的对策建议。

  5. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains--how biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick; De Medici, Dario; Fricker, Martina; Löfström, Charlotta; Agren, Joakim; Segerman, Bo; Andersson, Gunnar; Wielinga, Peter; Fenicia, Lucia; Skiby, Jeffrey; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2011-03-01

    A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents are outlined. Given the current scale of international trade any response need to be considered in an international context. Biotraceability (e.g. the ability to use downstream information to point to processes or within a particular food chain that can be identified as the source of undesirable agents) is crucial in any food-born outbreak and particular in the response to bioterrorism events. In the later case, tested and proven biotraceability improves the following: (i) international collaboration of validated tracing tools and detection methods, (ii) multi-disciplinary expertise and collaboration in the field of food microbiology and conceptual modeling of the food chain, (iii) sampling as a key step in biotracing (iv) optimized sample preparation procedures, including laboratory work in Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, (v) biomarker discovery for relevant tracing and tracking applications, and (vi) high-throughput sequencing using bio-informatic platforms to speed up the characterization of the biological agent. By applying biotraceability, the response phase during a bioterrorism event may be shortened and is facilitated for tracing the origin of biological agent contamination.

  6. Optimal swab processing recovery method for detection of bioterrorism-related Francisella tularensis by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Roblena E; Petersen, Jeannine M; Stephens, Kenyatta W; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2010-10-01

    Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is regarded as a potential bioterrorism agent. The advent of bioterrorism has heightened awareness of the need for validated methods for processing environmental samples. In this study we determined the optimal method for processing environmental swabs for the recovery and subsequent detection of F. tularensis by the use of real-time PCR assays. Four swab processing recovery methods were compared: heat, sonication, vortexing, and the Swab Extraction Tube System (SETS). These methods were evaluated using cotton, foam, polyester and rayon swabs spiked with six pathogenic strains of F. tularensis. Real-time PCR analysis using a multi-target 5'nuclease assay for F. tularensis showed that the use of the SETS method resulted in the best limit of detection when evaluated using multiple strains of F. tularensis. We demonstrated also that the efficiency of F. tularensis recovery from swab specimens was not equivalent for all swab processing methodologies and, thus, that this variable can affect real-time PCR assay sensitivity. The effectiveness of the SETS method was independent of the automated DNA extraction method and real-time PCR platforms used. In conclusion, diagnostic laboratories can now potentially incorporate the SETS method into specimen processing protocols for the rapid and efficient detection of F. tularensis by real-time PCR during laboratory bioterrorism-related investigations.

  7. Guidelines to implement medical examiner/coroner-based surveillance for fatal infectious diseases and bioterrorism ("Med-X").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Kurt B; Fischer, Marc; Reagan, Sarah; Lynfield, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    Medical examiners and coroners investigate deaths that are sudden, unexplained, and violent. Oftentimes these deaths are a consequence of infections, many of which have public health consequences. Additionally, because deaths from bioterrorism are homicides, they fall under the jurisdiction of medical examiners and coroners. Surveillance for infectious disease-related deaths can enhance the opportunities to recognize these deaths. Beginning in 2000, the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator developed and tested a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality ("Med-X") using a set of symptoms to determine which cases should receive an autopsy and a set of pathology-based syndromes for early reporting of cases to public health authorities. This model demonstrated that many of the symptoms had a high predictive value for infections and were useful criteria for autopsy performance. The causative organism was identified for 81% of infections of which 58% were notifiable conditions by public health standards. Uniform criteria for performing autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the probability of recognizing fatalities related to bioterrorism. We have developed guidelines for medical examiners, coroners and their public health partners to use in implementing Med-X surveillance in their jurisdictions. These guidelines encompass definitions of symptoms and syndromes, specimen collection and storage procedures, laboratory diagnostic approaches, and processes for case flow, case reporting, and data collection. We also suggest resources for autopsy biosafety information and funding.

  8. Patients' request for and emergency physicians' prescription of antimicrobial prophylaxis for anthrax during the 2001 bioterrorism-related outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aber Robert C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate use of antibiotics by individuals worried about biological agent exposures during bioterrorism events is an important public health concern. However, little is documented about the extent to which individuals with self-identified risk of anthrax exposure approached physicians for antimicrobial prophylaxis during the 2001 bioterrorism attacks in the United States. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of randomly selected members of the Pennsylvania Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians to assess patients' request for and emergency physicians' prescription of antimicrobial agents during the 2001 anthrax attacks. Results Ninety-seven physicians completed the survey. Sixty-four (66% respondents had received requests from patients for anthrax prophylaxis; 16 (25% of these physicians prescribed antibiotics to a total of 23 patients. Ten physicians prescribed ciprofloxacin while 8 physicians prescribed doxycycline. Conclusion During the 2001 bioterrorist attacks, the majority of the emergency physicians we surveyed encountered patients who requested anthrax prophylaxis. Public fears may lead to a high demand for antibiotic prophylaxis during bioterrorism events. Elucidation of the relationship between public health response to outbreaks and outcomes would yield insights to ease burden on frontline clinicians and guide strategies to control inappropriate antibiotic allocation during bioterrorist events.

  9. Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism.

  10. Prior notice of imported food under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final regulation that requires the submission to FDA of prior notice of food, including animal feed, that is imported or offered for import into the United States. The final rule implements the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act), which required prior notification of imported food to begin on December 12, 2003. The final rule requires that the prior notice be submitted to FDA electronically via either the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP or Customs) Automated Broker Interface (ABI) of the Automated Commercial System (ACS) or the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI). The information must be submitted and confirmed electronically as facially complete by FDA for review no less than 8 hours (for food arriving by water), 4 hours (for food arriving by air or land/rail), and 2 hours (for food arriving by land/road) before the food arrives at the port of arrival. Food imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice is subject to refusal and, if refused, must be held. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a draft compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled "Sec. 110.310 Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002."

  11. The germs of terror – Bioterrorism and science communication after September 11 (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Montani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The attacks of September 11 2001 and in particular, the sending of letters containing anthrax spores the following October had a profound effect on society, and at the same time on science and its communicative mechanisms. Through a quanto-qualitative analysis of articles taken from four publications: two daily newspapers, the Corriere della Sera from Italy and the New York Times from the United States and two science magazines, Science and Nature, we have shown how the aforementioned events provoked the emergence of media attention regarding bioterrorism. A closer reading of the articles shows that today, science – including that found in science magazines – is closely related to politics, economics and the debate over the freedom to practice communicate. The very mechanisms of communication between scientists were changed as a result of this debate, as can be seen from the signing of the Denver Declaration in February 2003, which brought about the preventative self-censorship of publication of biomedical research findings.

  12. The germs of terror – Bioterrorism and science communication after September 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Montani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The attacks of September 11 2001 and in particular, the sending of letters containing anthrax spores the following October had a profound effect on society, and at the same time on science and its communicative mechanisms. Through a quanto-qualitative analysis of articles taken from four publications: two daily newspapers, the Corriere della Sera from Italy and the New York Times from the United States and two science magazines, Science and Nature, we have shown how the aforementioned events provoked the emergence of media attention regarding bioterrorism. A closer reading of the articles shows that today, science – including that found in science magazines – is closely related to politics, economics and the debate over the freedom to practice communicate. The very mechanisms of communication between scientists were changed as a result of this debate, as can be seen from the signing of the Denver Declaration in February 2003, which brought about the preventative self-censorship of publication of biomedical research findings.

  13. Negative impact of laws regarding biosecurity and bioterrorism on real diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, N; Grobusch, M P; Raoult, D

    2014-06-01

    Research on highly pathogenic microorganisms in biosafety level 3 and 4 laboratories is very important for human public health, as it provides opportunities for the development of vaccines and novel therapeutics as well as diagnostic methods to prevent epidemics. However, in recent years, after the anthrax and World Trade Center attacks in 2001 in the USA, the threat of bioterrorism has grown for both the public and the authorities. As a result, technical and physical containment measures and biosafety and biosecurity practices have been implemented in laboratories handling these dangerous pathogens. Working with selected biological agents and toxins is now highly regulated, owing to their potential to pose a threat to public health and safety, despite the fact that the anthrax attack was found to be the result of a lack of security at a US Army laboratory. Thus, these added regulations have been associated with a large amount of fruitless investment. Herein, we describe the limitations of research in these facilities, and the multiple consequences of the increased regulations. These limitations have seriously negatively impacted on the number of collaborations, the size of research projects, and, more generally, scientific research on microbial pathogens. Clearly, the actual number of known victims and fatalities caused by the intentional use of microorganisms has been negligible as compared with those caused by naturally acquired human infections.

  14. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively).

  15. Addressing bioterrorism concerns: options for investigating the mechanism of action of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C D; Griffiths, G D

    2013-06-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is of concern to military and civilian populations as a bioterrorism threat agent. It is a highly potent toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus and is stable in storage and under aerosolisation; it is able to produce prolonged highly incapacitating illness at very low-inhaled doses and death at elevated doses. Concerns regarding SEB are compounded by the lack of effective medical countermeasures for mass treatment of affected populations. This article considers the mechanism of action of SEB, the availability of appropriate experimental models for evaluating the efficacy of candidate medical countermeasures with particular reference to the need to realistically model SEB responses in man and the availability of candidate countermeasures (with an emphasis on commercial off-the-shelf options). The proposed in vitro approaches would be in keeping with Dstl’s commitment to reduction, refinement and replacement of animal models in biomedical research, particularly in relation to identifying valid alternatives to the use of nonhuman primates in experimental studies.

  16. Unfinished business: efforts to define dual-use research of bioterrorism concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmorzynska, Anna; Suk, Jonathan E; Biederbick, Walter; Maidhof, Heinrich; Sasse, Julia; Semenza, Jan C; Hunger, Iris

    2011-12-01

    Biotechnological research poses a special security problem because of the duality between beneficial use and misuse. In order to find a balance between regulating potentially dangerous research and assuring scientific advancement, a number of assessments have tried to define which types of research are especially open to misuse and should therefore be considered dual-use research of special concern requiring rigorous oversight. So far, there has been no common understanding of what such activities are. Here we present a review of 27 assessments focusing on biological dual-use issues published between 1997 and 2008. Dual-use research activities identified by these assessments as being of special concern were compiled and compared. Moreover, from these 27 assessments, the primary research publications explicitly identified as examples of concerning research activities were extracted and analyzed. We extracted a core list of 11 activities of special concern and show that this list does not match with the reasons why primary research publications were identified as being of special concern. Additionally, we note that the 11 activities identified are not easily conducted or replicated, and therefore the likelihood of their being used in a high-tech mass casualty bioterrorism event should be reevaluated.

  17. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat. PMID:25247187

  18. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

  19. Possible use of bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other B. cereus group members in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Kłak, Marlena; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

  20. Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare, from Past to the Present: A classic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zare Bidaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioterrorism is defined as any terrorist action of intentional release or dissemination of highly pathogenic biological agents, including a variety of microorganisms or biological toxins. With the growing threat of terrorism, is necessary that the potential danger of various microorganisms – as a powerful tool of aggression and threat- to be taken seriously. This review tries to explain the concept of biological weapons and their historical development process with an emphasis on efforts to control the proliferation of these types of weapons over the last century. Potential impact of infectious diseases on people and armed forces was known from since 600 BC. Using the victims of the plague as a weapon in medieval warfare and spread of smallpox as a weapon during the war against the Indians when initially America was discovered, the development of biological weapons during the World War I, World War II and the Cold War, and even since the beginning of the third millennium, all show the strategic importance of pathogenic microorganisms as a deterrent power for the superiority of some governments and cults. Historical attempts to use infectious diseases as biological weapons reveal that the distinction between a natural outbreak of an infectious disease and that of a deliberate biological attack is very difficult. Abusing this characteristic of infectious diseases has made it possible for the purposes of superiority. International agreements to control the development of biological weapons, such as “the 1925 Geneva Protocol” and “the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Biological and Toxic Weapons” have not been able to control the development and using of biological warfare.  The current paper is a classic review (Overview article aiming at increasing the knowledge and awareness of people especially of health authorities and government officials.

  1. LAMP using a disposable pocket warmer for anthrax detection, a highly mobile and reliable method for anti-bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Ben; Maki, Takayuki; Obara, Takeyuki; Fukumoto, Hitomi; Hagisawa, Kohsuke; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Okutani, Akiko; Bazartseren, Boldbaastar; Inoue, Satoshi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    A quick, reliable detection system is necessary to deal with bioterrorism. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a DNA amplification method that can amplify specific DNA fragments in isothermal conditions. We developed a new highly mobile and practical LAMP anthrax detection system that uses a disposable pocket warmer without the need for electricity (pocket-warmer LAMP). In our tests, the detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was 1,000 copies of Bacillus anthracis pag and capB gene fragments per tube. The pocket-warmer LAMP also detected B. anthracis genes from DNA extracted from 0.1 volume of a B. anthracis colony. The lower detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was not significantly different from that of a conventional LAMP using a heat block, and was not changed under cold (4 degrees C) or warm (37 degrees C) conditions in a Styrofoam box. The pocket-warmer LAMP could be useful against bioterrorism, and as a sensitive, reliable detection tool in areas with undependable electricity infrastructures. PMID:20093760

  2. 生物恐怖对公众心理健康的影响及应对%Effects and Response of a Bioterrorism to Public Mental Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅霓

    2012-01-01

    In this article,the effects and response of a bioterrorism emergency to public mental health has introduced.Based on the characteristics of the bioterrorism,reviewed the effects to public mental health,the strategies for preparation and response to bioterrorism were suggested.Bioterrorism presents special challenges with psychological disorders or physical illnesses for the society.Initial psychosocial interventions also include effective psycho-education and the delivery of authoritative information,may release their fear of infection.So it was concluded that the effective response will reduce even eliminate the bioterrorism's effects to public mental health.%[目的]探讨生物恐怖突发公共卫生事件对公众心理健康的影响及应对。[方法]通过分析生物恐怖事件的特点,探讨其对公众心理健康的影响,并提出应对措施。[结果]生物恐怖事件的发生,必然会给社会公众带来不同程度的心理影响。通过健康教育的普及,权威信息的及时发布以及切实的心理干预,可以有效降低公众的恐惧心理。[结论]生物恐怖事件对公众心理健康的影响,可通过有效的应对措施予以减轻或消除。

  3. Retroviruses and other latent viruses: the deadliest of pathogens are not necessarily the best candidates for bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Cassandra D; Kilby, J Michael

    2009-06-01

    HIV-1 (and other viral causes of latent, chronic infections) is not a likely candidate for bioterrorism. Scenarios resulting in the introduction of retroviral infections into a large population generally seem impractical and unpredictable as bioterrorist plots, especially relative to the frightening simplicity of deadly anthrax spores or smallpox virions. As evidenced in the above discussion, contaminating the blood supply would require a highly sophisticated plan resulting in effects of rather limited ultimate scope, and would have to evade an extremely effective screening process already in full force. Contaminating other agents given parenterally is also a potential concern, but again the virus has rather fastidious growth characteristics outside of the human host, and even if this could be accomplished it would presumably affect only a very limited number of targeted individuals. Finally, the idea of a kind of"sexual suicide bomber", an individual deliberately introduced into the community to spread a deadly infectious disease might be proposed. However, as discussed in this commentary, the impact of this rather implausible scenario would be substantially delayed, unreliable, and ultimately could be controlled through a heightened response of already existing public health mechanisms. Whereas HIV has resulted in the "perfect storm" of a devastating pandemic, a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality that is tremendously challenging to control, it does not match up very effectively with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Category A definition of an ideal agent of bioterrorism. It is not easily spread through casual or incidental contact and does not cause a substantial immediate death toll. Instead it is spread only through sexual, parenteral, or maternal/fetal transmission, and generally requires a prolonged and variable clinical latency period prior to disease progression and death. The U.S. public health system is already reasonably

  4. Predicting response to reassurances and uncertainties in bioterrorism communications for urban populations in New York and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L; Truman, Benedict I; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S

    2012-06-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.'s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N=320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent interpretation

  5. Predicting response to reassurances and uncertainties in bioterrorism communications for urban populations in New York and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L; Truman, Benedict I; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S

    2012-06-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.'s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N=320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent interpretation

  6. Methods and procedures for the collection and disposal of bioterrorism agents at border ports%国境口岸生物恐怖剂标本采集和处理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆琳; 车志军; 孙福军; 王飞; 刘国传

    2011-01-01

    本文建立了国境口岸生物恐怖剂标本采集和处理的规范程序和方法,对于提高国境口岸生物恐怖防控能力建设,有效防止生物恐怖有害因子入境,保障口岸安全具有重要意义.%This paper establishes standards, procedures, and methods of collecting and disposing of bioterrorism agents at border ports. The capacity for bioterrorism prevention and control should be enhanced at border ports, potential bioterrorism agents should be prevented from entering the country, and port security should be ensured.

  7. Multi-platform comparison of ten commercial master mixes for probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bioterrorism threat agents for surge preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzard, Gregory S; Baker, Daniel; Wolcott, Mark J; Norwood, David A; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2012-11-30

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United States Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases have developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of bioterrorism threat agents. These assays all rely on a limited number of approved real-time PCR master mixes. Because the availability of these reagents is a critical element of bioterrorism preparedness, we undertook a joint national preparedness exercise to address the potential surge needs resulting from a large-scale bio-emergency. We identified 9 commercially-available potential alternatives to an existing approved master mix (LightCycler FastStart DNA Master HybProbes): the TaqMan Fast Universal PCR master mix, OmniMix HS, FAST qPCR master mix, EXPRESS qPCR SuperMix kit, QuantiFast Probe PCR kit, LightCycler FastStart DNA Master(PLUS) HybProbe, Brilliant II FAST qPCR master mix, ABsolute Fast QPCR Mix and the HotStart IT Taq master mix. The performances of these kits were evaluated by the use of real-time PCR assays for four bioterrorism threat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei and Francisella tularensis. The master mixes were compared for target-specific detection levels, as well as consistency of results among three different real-time PCR platforms (LightCycler, SmartCycler and 7500 Fast Dx). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that all ten kits performed well for agent detection on the 7500 Fast Dx instrument; however, the QuantiFast Probe PCR kit yielded the most consistently positive results across multiple real-time PCR platforms. We report that certain combinations of commonly used master mixes and instruments are not as reliable as others at detecting low concentrations of target DNA. Furthermore, our study provides laboratories the option to select from the commercial kits we evaluated to suit their preparedness needs.

  8. Development of a comparative risk ranking system for agents posing a bioterrorism threat to human or animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomuzia, Katharina; Menrath, Andrea; Frentzel, Hendrik; Filter, Matthias; Weiser, Armin A; Bräunig, Juliane; Buschulte, Anja; Appel, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    Various systems for prioritizing biological agents with respect to their applicability as biological weapons are available, ranging from qualitative to (semi)quantitative approaches. This research aimed at generating a generic risk ranking system applicable to human and animal pathogenic agents based on scientific information. Criteria were evaluated and clustered to create a criteria list. Considering availability of data, a number of 28 criteria separated by content were identified that can be classified in 11 thematic areas or categories. Relevant categories contributing to probability were historical aspects, accessibility, production efforts, and possible paths for dispersion. Categories associated with impact are dealing with containment measures, availability of diagnostics, preventive and treatment measures in human and animal populations, impact on society, human and veterinary public health, and economic and ecological consequences. To allow data-based scoring, each criterion was described by at least 1 measure that allows the assignment of values. These values constitute quantities, ranges, or facts that are as explicit and precise as possible. The consideration of minimum and maximum values that can occur due to natural variations and that are often described in the literature led to the development of minimum and maximum criteria and consequently category scores. Missing or incomplete data, and uncertainty resulting therefrom, were integrated into the scheme via a cautious (but not overcautious) approach. The visualization technique that was used allows the description and illustration of uncertainty on the level of probability and impact. The developed risk ranking system was evaluated by assessing the risk originating from the bioterrorism threat of the animal pathogen bluetongue virus, the human pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, the zoonotic Bacillus anthracis, and Botulinum neurotoxin.

  9. Technologies and equipments of the individual decontamination for medicinal rescue against bioterrorism attack%反生物恐怖袭击医学救援中人员洗消技术与装备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇平; 贾德胜

    2012-01-01

    This paper made a discussion an the realistic threats of bioterrorism attack in the world and China,the principles and the basic methods of mass decontamination of individuals during a bioterrorism attack incident,the re-search developments at home and abroad and the existing problems in our nation on technology and equipment of de-contamination against bioterrorism attack, in order to provide the references for further improving the preparedness of emergency rescue and carrying out the research on technology and equipment of individual decontamination against bioterrorism attack.%本文探讨了生物恐怖袭击在世界和我国威胁的现实性、反生物恐怖袭击大量人员洗消的原则和基本方法、反生物恐怖袭击洗消技术和装备的研究进展以及我国在反生物恐怖袭击洗消技术和装备存在的问题,为进一步做好反生物恐怖袭击应急救援准备工作和开展生防人员洗消技术装备研究提供参考.

  10. 生物恐怖袭击的救援策略%Rescue strategy against bioterrorism attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常留栓; 李蓉; 张婷婷; 赵艳梅

    2015-01-01

    随着国际恐怖主义势力的抬头和生物科学技术的快速发展,生物恐怖袭击因其低廉的成本、巨大的破坏力、特殊的战斗性能等多种独特的优点逐渐成为恐怖分子实施恐吓或袭击的重要手段。当前,我国所面临的生物恐怖威胁非常不容乐观,防范和处置生物恐怖袭击事件仍是我国反恐工作中不可忽视的内容。防范和应对生物恐怖袭击,需整合卫生行政部门、疾病预防控制中心(CDC)、部队、医院、消防、交通等多个部门的力量,组建应急救援工作队。一旦发生疑似生物恐怖事件,应根据事件性质立即设立临时现场指挥部,并调配应急救援工作队,负责生物恐怖事件的现场处置。加强生物安全与反生物恐怖的基础和应用研究,针对未来可能遇到的生物恐怖袭击,强化统筹谋划,建立一支拉得出、打得赢的应急反应队伍,提高生物恐怖袭击突发事件处置能力,有效保护公众的生命和财产安全,仍是我国面临的重大问题。%Bioterrorism attack has been gradually becoming an important threat in the world and in China asa well. To prevent and dispose bioterrorist attack, an emergency rescue team that integrates multiple departments including administrative department of public health, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), army, hospital, fire department, traffic department, etc. should be established now. Once suspected bioterrorist incidents occurr a temporary headquarter at the scene should be set up and emergency rescue teams should be mobilized immediately. It is necessary to strengthen biosafety and conduct basic and applied counter-bioterrorist research , develop an overall project, establish an emergency response team so as to protect the life and property of the public effectively.

  11. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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    Full Text Available ... Biological Warfare and Terrorism: The Military and Public Health Response," co-produced by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Centers for Disease Control and ...

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  1. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  4. Bioterror Paper Gets Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erika; Check; 秦艳艳

    2005-01-01

    牛奶是大多数人每天必不可少的食品。如果有恐怖分子在牛奶中下毒,后果将不堪设想。美国国家科学院最近发表的一篇文章就提出了这一假设,这将成为潜伏在美国人生活中的新的恐怖危机。而这篇文章也招来了美国各界的激烈争议。

  5. FOOD SAFETY AND BIOTERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the scope of the bioterrorist threat to the United States food supply in terms of food service establishments. Descriptions include the organisms and other agents that may be disseminated by food ingestion and the challenges in differentiation of intentional and unintenti...

  6. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  8. Comparison of quantitative PCR and culture-based methods for evaluating dispersal of Bacillus thuringiensis endospores at a bioterrorism hoax crime scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crighton, Taryn; Hoile, Rebecca; Coleman, Nicholas V

    2012-06-10

    Since the anthrax mail attacks of 2001, law enforcement agencies have processed thousands of suspicious mail incidents globally, many of which are hoax bioterrorism threats. Bio-insecticide preparations containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores have been involved in several such threats in Australia, leading to the requirement for rapid and sensitive detection techniques for this organism, a close relative of Bacillus anthracis. Here we describe the development of a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of Bt crystal toxin gene cry1, and evaluation of the method's effectiveness during a hoax bioterrorism event in 2009. When combined with moist wipe sampling, the cry1 qPCR was a rapid, reliable, and sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting and quantifying Bt contamination, and mapping endospore dispersal within a mail sorting facility. Results from the cry1 qPCR were validated by viable counts of the same samples on Bacillus-selective agar (PEMBA), which revealed a similar pattern of contamination. Extensive and persistent contamination of the facility was detected, both within the affected mailroom, and extending into office areas up to 30m distant from the source event, emphasising the need for improved containment procedures for suspicious mail items, both during and post-event. The cry1 qPCR enables detection of both viable and non-viable Bt spores and cells, which is important for historical crime scenes or scenes subjected to decontamination. This work provides a new rapid method to add to the forensics toolbox for crime scenes suspected to be contaminated with biological agents. PMID:22227150

  9. Comparison of quantitative PCR and culture-based methods for evaluating dispersal of Bacillus thuringiensis endospores at a bioterrorism hoax crime scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crighton, Taryn; Hoile, Rebecca; Coleman, Nicholas V

    2012-06-10

    Since the anthrax mail attacks of 2001, law enforcement agencies have processed thousands of suspicious mail incidents globally, many of which are hoax bioterrorism threats. Bio-insecticide preparations containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores have been involved in several such threats in Australia, leading to the requirement for rapid and sensitive detection techniques for this organism, a close relative of Bacillus anthracis. Here we describe the development of a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of Bt crystal toxin gene cry1, and evaluation of the method's effectiveness during a hoax bioterrorism event in 2009. When combined with moist wipe sampling, the cry1 qPCR was a rapid, reliable, and sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting and quantifying Bt contamination, and mapping endospore dispersal within a mail sorting facility. Results from the cry1 qPCR were validated by viable counts of the same samples on Bacillus-selective agar (PEMBA), which revealed a similar pattern of contamination. Extensive and persistent contamination of the facility was detected, both within the affected mailroom, and extending into office areas up to 30m distant from the source event, emphasising the need for improved containment procedures for suspicious mail items, both during and post-event. The cry1 qPCR enables detection of both viable and non-viable Bt spores and cells, which is important for historical crime scenes or scenes subjected to decontamination. This work provides a new rapid method to add to the forensics toolbox for crime scenes suspected to be contaminated with biological agents.

  10. Suggestions about the ability to respond to bioterrorism in military hospitals%军队医院应对生物恐怖能力现状调查及能力提高的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 吴杰; 于弘; 郑涛; 孙建中

    2014-01-01

    根据军队医院在应对生物恐怖能力现状调查中获得的结果,针对现阶段军队医院存在的薄弱环节,提出应对生物恐怖能力的建议:平战结合,整体提高;立足自身,任务牵引;危机管理,分级响应;军地联动,依托社会。%According to the investigation about the current ability of military hospitals to cope with bioterrorism , we suggest that military hospitals improve the capability for bioterrorism response based on the research above by satisfying mission requirements , combining peacetime with wartime , carrying out crisis management , classifying response and cooperating with local sectors .

  11. Progress on prevention and therapy against category A of bioterrorism agents in U.S.%美国针对A类生物恐怖剂的医学防护技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 张传本; 王磊; 王松俊

    2008-01-01

    "Anthrax incident"happened in U.S.demonstrates the reality of the threat of bioterrorism.It also stimulates scientists to study the prevention against bioterrorism.The CDC has defined Bacillus anthracis,Smallpox virus,Yersinia pestis,Clostridium botulinum toxin,Francisella tularensis and Hemorrhagic fevers virus as category A of bioterrorism agents,meaning they present the greatest potential threats for harming public health.In the review,progress on prevention and therapy against these agents studied in U.S.will be summarized.%美国"炭疽事件"充分说明了生物恐怖威胁的现实性,同时也刺激了美国科技界对生物恐怖防护技术的研究.此文就美国针对A类生物恐怖剂预防和治疗相关技术的研究进展作了综述.

  12. Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category "A" DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. Henrickson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Assays to simultaneously detect multiple potential agents of bioterrorism are limited. Two multiplex PCR and RT-PCR enzyme hybridization assays (mPCR-EHA, mRT-PCR-EHA were developed to simultaneously detect many of the CDC category “A” bioterrorism agents. The “Bio T” DNA assay was developed to detect: Variola major (VM, Bacillus anthracis (BA, Yersinia pestis (YP, Francisella tularensis (FT and Varicella zoster virus (VZV. The “Bio T” RNA assay (mRT-PCR-EHA was developed to detect: Ebola virus (Ebola, Lassa fever virus (Lassa, Rift Valley fever (RVF, Hantavirus Sin Nombre species (HSN and dengue virus (serotypes 1-4. Sensitivity and specificity of the 2 assays were tested by using genomic DNA, recombinant plasmid positive controls, RNA transcripts controls, surrogate (spiked clinical samples and common respiratory pathogens. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD of the DNA asssay for genomic DNA was 1×100~1×102 copies/mL for BA, FT and YP. The LOD for VZV whole organism was 1×10-2 TCID50/mL. The LOD for recombinant controls ranged from 1×102~1×103copies/mL for BA, FT, YP and VM. The RNA assay demonstrated LOD for RNA transcript controls of 1×104~1×106 copies/mL without extraction and 1×105~1×106 copies/mL with extraction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. The LOD for dengue whole organisms was ~1×10-4 dilution for dengue 1 and 2, 1×104 LD50/mL and 1×102 LD50/mL for dengue 3 and 4. The LOD without extraction for recombinant plasmid DNA controls was ~1×103 copies/mL (1.5 input copies/reaction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. No cross-reactivity of primers and probes used in both assays was detected with common respiratory pathogens or between targeted analytes. Clinical sensitivity was estimated using 264 surrogate clinical samples tested with the BioT DNA assay and 549 samples tested with the BioT RNA assay. The clinical specificity is 99.6% and 99.8% for BioT DNA assay and BioT RNA assay, respectively. The

  13. 生物恐怖应对的健康教育研究进展%Progress in Health Education on Bioterrorism Preparedness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐韬; 侯培森; 胡俊峰

    2002-01-01

    @@ 美国“9·11”事件及邮件炭疽袭击事件发生以来,生物恐怖活动受到人们的高度重视。各国政府正在加紧采取措施,防范生物恐怖事件的发生。 生物恐怖(bioterrorism)是使用致病性微生物或毒素等作为恐怖袭击武器,通过一定的途径散布致病性细菌、病毒,造成烈性传染病的暴发、流行,导致人群失能和死亡,引发社会动荡。由于生物恐怖技术含量低、隐蔽性强、威胁性大,一旦发生,后果极为严重[1]。

  14. Research progress in response strategies to smallpox bioterrorism%生物恐怖视角下的天花应对策略研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖正虎; 许晴; 张文斗; 徐致靖; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2013-01-01

    Emergency prevention and control of smallpox transmission in the context of bioterrorism require effective response strategies. This paper began by describing the general process of computational experiments on smallpox response strategies. Then,the current achievement of this method was summarized in terms of the experimental environment, the computational model and intervention strategies. Finally, problems with smallpox response strategy simulation and directions of further research were discussed.%生物恐怖视角下天花传播的应急防控需要科学的应对策略.本文首先介绍天花应对策略计算实验的一般过程,然后从实验环境、计算模型及干预策略3个方面总结当前的研究及取得的进展,并就天花应对策略模拟存在的问题及进一步研究方向进行讨论.

  15. 生物恐怖事件计算实验支持平台及研究实例%Computational experiment supported platform for bioterrorism events and research examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晴; 祖正虎; 张文斗; 刘健; 徐致靖; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the process of bioterrorism events is great significance for national biosecurity strategies and emergency response to such attacks. This article focuses on providing support for quantificational analysis of the whole process of various bioterrorism events, including providing infrastructure datasets, models and algorithm system-executing computational experiments-reproducing scenarios shown in 3D,and constructing a bioterrorism events computational experiment supported platform. On the basis of the platform, we make a case study of a potential anthrax aerosol attack a-gainst Beijing and assess the hazard.%定量分析研究生物恐怖事件过程对国家生物安全战略和有效处置生物恐怖事件具有重要意义.本研究着眼于为定量研究各种类型生物恐怖事件过程提供从基础数据、模型及算法体系一计算实验一情景重现、三维可视化显示的全过程支持,建立生物恐怖事件计算实验支持平台,并以此平台为基础,以北京城区遭受炭疽芽孢杆菌气溶胶袭击为想定进行实例研究并对所造成的危害进行评估.

  16. Enfrentando el bioterrorismo: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y preventivos de la viruela Confronting bioterrorism: epidemiologic, clinical, and preventive aspects of smallpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Franco-Paredes

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los grandes logros de la salud pública mundial, la erradicación de la viruela, puede verse mermado por el posible riesgo de bioterrorismo. El debate acerca de la destrucción de los restos del virus en los dos laboratorios de referencia de la Organización Mundial de la Salud ha cambiado diametralmente debido a los eventos terroristas y a la dispersión intencional de Bacillus anthracis ocurridos en poblaciones civiles en Estados Unidos de América en el año 2001. La liberación del virus Variola con fines terroristas constituye un riesgo mínimo no cuantificable, pero desafortunadamente real. El impacto podría ser devastador debido a la elevada morbimortalidad de la enfermedad aunada al pánico y a la desestabilización social que podría ocasionar. Es por ello que el establecimiento de un plan de respuesta, sumado a disponibilidad de vacuna para ser utilizada pos-exposición, es importante dentro de los planes de contingencia contra el bioterrorismo. El reiniciar un programa limitado de vacunación contra la viruela, como parte de dicho plan, ha sido recientemente recomendado por el Comité Asesor de Vacunación, del Centro para el Control de las Enfermedades, pero la vacuna disponible puede causar complicaciones graves e incluso la muerte, por lo que dicha recomendación no ha sido universalmente aceptada. No obstante, el personal médico y de salud pública requiere de información actualizada sobre la viruela y su prevención, ya que ellos son la primera línea de defensa en caso de un posible brote a consecuencia de un ataque bioterrorista. El presente artículo presenta una revisión dirigida a proporcionar al personal de salud un enfoque clínico, epidemiológico y preventivo sobre la viruela.The worldwide eradication of smallpox, a major achievement in public health, is currently threatened by the risk of bioterrorism. The debate on the destruction of the Variola virus in the two reference laboratories of the World Health

  17. 美国应对地铁生物恐怖袭击的科技措施与启示%Technological response measures against subway bioterrorism in the United States:investigation and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德桥; 祖正虎; 刘健; 许晴; 朱联辉; 黄培堂; 沈倍奋; 郑涛

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large population and relatively closed space environment , the subway system is vulnerable to bioterrorist attacks.This paper analyzes the technological response measures against subway bioterrorism in the United States, including Detect to Protect program of Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and PROTECTS program of Depart-ment of Energy ( DOE) .We also put forward some proposals on how to improve China′s capability of prevention of and response to subway bioterrorism .%地铁系统由于人口流动性大和相对封闭的空间环境是遭受潜在生物恐怖袭击的一个重要目标。该文分析了美国防范和应对地铁系统生物恐怖袭击的一些科技措施,包括国土安全部提高地铁生物监测预警能力措施以及能源部开展的地铁化学和生物恐怖袭击应对与技术支持项目情况等,并提出了提高我国地铁生物恐怖应对能力的一些措施建议。

  18. Construction of evaluation systems for the ability to respond to bioterrorism in military hospitals%军队医院应对生物恐怖能力评估指标体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 郑涛; 孙建中

    2012-01-01

    作者运用自由列举访谈法、系统分析法、德尔菲法、层次分析法,对军队医院应对生物恐怖能力要素构成进行分析,提出军队医院应对生物恐怖能力评价指标体系.所构建的军队医院应对生物恐怖能力评价指标体系具有较高的科学性和可靠性.%The elements of the ability to respond to bioterrorism in military hospitals were analyzed using free list interviews , systematic analysis, Delphi method, and the analytic hierarchy process. An evaluation system for such response was constructed, which is a highly scientific and reliable index system.

  19. Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a potential agent of bioterrorism, has a short distribution and a long elimination half-life, and induces kidney and thymus lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue-Nan; Wang, Sheng-Han; Li, Tao; Wang, Qin; Tu, Wei; Cai, Kun; Hou, Xiao-Jun; Tian, Ren-Mao; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Hao; Xiao, Le; Shi, Jing; Cheng, Yuan-Guo; Li, Jian-Chun; Wang, Hui

    2011-09-01

    Shiga toxin type 2, a major virulence factor produced by the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, is a potential toxin agent of bioterrorism. In this study, iodine-125 (125I) was used as an indicator to describe the in vivo Stx2 biodistribution profile. The rats were injected intravenously (i.v.) with 125I-Stx2 at three doses of 5.1-127.5 μg/kg body weight. Stx2 had a short distribution half-life (t (1/2)α, less than 6 min) and a long elimination half-life in rat. The toxicokinetics of Stx2 in rats was dose dependent and nonlinear. Stx2 concentrations in various tissues were detected at 5-min, 0.5-h, and 72-h postinjection. High radioactivity was found in the lungs, kidneys, nasal turbinates, and sometimes in the eyes, which has never been reported in previous studies. In a preliminary assessment, lesions were found in the kidney and thymus.

  20. 反生物恐怖袭击医学救援中人员洗消装置的生物学效果观察%Biological efficacy of the individual decontamination equipment for medicinal rescue of bioterrorism attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾德胜; 钱万红; 王忠灿; 谭伟龙; 曹勇平; 郑剑; 韩招久; 陆年宏; 王长军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test biological efficacy of the individual decontamination equipment developed for medicinal rescue of bioterrorism attack. Methods Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis used as indicator respectively were applied to the detection zones marked on the objects clothed ordinary clothing and protective clothing. The test groups were treated by showering decontamination with the equipment. In 5 min contact time after decontaminating, the test groups and the control groups no decontaminating were sampled on the detection zones. The samples were cultured and the colony numbers were counted to calculate the average killing log values ( KLV). Results By decontaminating with richloroisocyanuric acid solution containing available chlorine 1000 mg/L, KLVs of the ordinary clothing group for Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were 4.26 (t = 26.359, P < 0.001) and 4.03 (( = 21.053 ,P < 0.001) respectively, but KLVs of the protective clothing group were 5.12(t =24.178,P <0.001 )and 4. 64(( =23. 398,P <0.001). Conclusion KLVs all exceeded 3 on field tests. The biological efficacy of the equipment developed satisfied decontamination requirements for medicinal rescue of bioterrorism attack.%目的 测试研制的反生物恐怖袭击医学救援中人员洗消装置的现场洗消生物学效果.方法 以大肠杆菌和枯草杆菌为指示剂涂于分别着普通衣物和防化服的受试对象标定的检测区,试验组通过洗消装置喷淋洗消,5 min后对试验组和未洗消的对照组的检测区采样,培养计数菌落数,计算落数平均杀灭对数值( KLV).结果 用含1 000mg/L有效氯浓度的三氯异氰脲酸剂洗消剂喷淋洗消,着普通衣物组的大肠杆菌和枯草杆菌KLV为4.26(t=26.359,P<0.001)和4.03(t=21.053,P<0.001),着防化服组两菌KLV分别为5.12(t=24.178,P<0.001)和4.64(t=23.398,P<0.001).结论 现场测试KLV均大于3,采用装置喷淋洗消达到洗消的生物学效果.

  1. Development of individual decontamination equipment for medicinal rescue of bioterrorism attack%反生物恐怖袭击医学救援中人员洗消装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾德胜; 钱万红; 王忠灿; 李乐平; 谭伟龙; 曹勇平; 陆年宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a individual decontamination equipment based on power sprayer not only for disinfection and disinsection spraying but also for medicinal rescue of bioterrorism attack. Methods Based on home and abroad decontamination equipments referenced and experiences summarized on exercises and major activities services for NBC medicinal rescue for years, a showering decontamination device matched with medium - sized power sprayer was developed, and a individual decontamination equipment integrated was tested on the field. Results The equipment was composed of a decontamination showering device, a power sprayer and appurtenances. The deployment and retraction times of equipment operation were 6 min and 8 min respectively. The circulation was 360 indi-vidual/h. The average amount of decontamination solution was 2. 1 L/individual. In decontamination trial used rich-loroisocyanuric acid solution containing available chlorine 1 000 mg/L with a 5 min contact time after decontamination, the average killing log values of Escherichia coll and Bacillus subtilis were 4. 26 (t =26. 359 , P < 0. 001 ) and 4.03 (t = 21. 053 ,P <0. 001) respectively. Conclusion The equipment was characteristic of combination of multiple functions, combination of military and civilian purposes, combination of usual and emergency uses, reduction of personnel training, reduction of storage costs, convenient maintenance and projection. It satisfied requirements for medicinal rescue of bioterrorism attack.%目的 研制基于机动喷雾器的反生物恐怖袭击医学救援中人体洗消装置,集成消毒杀虫和人员生物洗消多功能于一体.方法 参考国内外洗消装置和结合多年三防医学救援演练和重大活动安保三防医学救援保障的经验,研制可与中型机动喷雾器匹配的洗消喷淋器,集成洗消装置,并现场测试性能.结果 人员洗消装置由研制的洗消喷淋器、机动喷雾器和附件组成.展开和撤收时间分别为6

  2. 国境口岸生物恐怖特征及医学现场关键应对要点的分析%Analysis of bioterrorism characteristics and key measures at medical site of frontier ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车志军; 陆琳; 孙福军; 王飞; 杨秀娟; 刘国传

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨分析国境口岸生物恐怖特征及医学现场关键应对要点.方法 结合《国际卫生条例(2005)》和卫生检疫工作实践,对国境口岸生物恐怖特征及医学现场关键应对要点进行分析和探讨.结果 我国面对国际生物恐怖活动的威胁依然存在,国境卫生检疫机构作为第一道防线,应提高认识,从人员防护、技术能力建设、生物战剂样品采集与制备、现场监测、现场排查以及现场处置等方面制定应对措施.结论 国境口岸卫生检疫机构应进一步加强生物恐怖医学应对能力建设,切实加强并提高针对生物恐怖活动的防备和应急能力.%Objective To analyze bioterrorism response characteristics and key elements of medical field at frontier . Ports. Methods International Health Regulation (2005) was combined with the quarantine practice, and the measures of response to biological terrorism was discussed in frontier health quarantine agencies. Results The threaten of biological terrorism emergency still existed. In order to response to emergency, we must build personnel protection, technical capacity, biological warfare agents and preparation of sample collection, field monitoring, field investigation and on-site disposal. Conclusion It is very significant to enhance the supervision and control of the biological terrorism emergency.

  3. 美国生物防御对策研究与国家战略储备药物分析%U.S. bioterrorism countermeasures and strategic national stockpile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇玮祎; 余云舟; 孙志伟; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2012-01-01

    To address the increasingly severe bio-terrorism threats, the United States government issued a series of regulations and research plans. In this article, we discussed American national biological defense strategies and their derivative plans based on the core of Project BioShield, including Department of Health and Human Service ( DHHS)/Biomedical Advanced R&D Authority(BARDA) biological terrorist response plan and budget plan, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pathogens based top priority chemical, biological, rediological and nuclear (CBRN) threat countermeasures scheme and other important pathogenic organisms defense plans. Atter that, we also discussed the trend of research and development of the Strategical National Stockpile.%美国政府为应对日趋严峻的生物恐怖威胁,出台了一系列针对生化袭击的法规和研究计划.本文研究了以生物盾牌计划为核心的美国国家生物防御应对策略及其衍生计划,包括卫生与公众服务部( DHHS)/生物医学高级研究发展局(BARDA)生物恐怖应对计划及预算方案、以疾控中心(CDC)病原体清单为基础的顶级核化生威胁对策方案及其他重要病原体生物防御治疗研究计划等.分析了目前以上述研究为依托纳入国家战略储备体系的药物及研发趋势.

  4. Comparing electronic news media reports of potential bioterrorism-related incidents involving unknown white powder to reports received by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Federal Bureau of Investigation: U.S.A., 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Geroncio C; Posid, Joseph; Papagiotas, Stephen; Lowe, Luis

    2015-01-01

    There have been periodic electronic news media reports of potential bioterrorism-related incidents involving unknown substances (often referred to as "white powder") since the 2001 intentional dissemination of Bacillus anthracis through the U.S. Postal System. This study reviewed the number of unknown "white powder" incidents reported online by the electronic news media and compared them with unknown "white powder" incidents reported to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) during a 2-year period from June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2011. Results identified 297 electronic news media reports, 538 CDC reports, and 384 FBI reports of unknown "white powder." This study showed different unknown "white powder" incidents captured by each of the three sources. However, the authors could not determine the public health implications of this discordance.

  5. Bioterrorism, embryonic stem cells, and Frankenstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The stem cell controversy raises a fundamental question for humankind. Does science have a right to pursue knowledge whatever the cost? Our Enlightenment culture says yes. However, human history and literature are sending warning signals. Ethical issues impact the "knowledge for its own sake" imperative, and must be addressed.

  6. Protecting HVAC systems from bio-terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arterburn, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The FBI, in the wake of the September 11 attacks, issued an advisory to state and local law enforcement authorities and the public asking to remain especially alert to any unusual activities around ventilation systems. It noted that while the Bureau possessed no specific threats regarding the release of toxic chemicals into air handling systems, building owners and managers should be well-aware of the potential for contamination of such systems. This article presents recommendations of air-handling experts and associations for operators to consider.

  7. Forensic microbiology and bioterrorism risk (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nasso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of the causal agent, as so as epidemiologic investigation, but with higher-resolution characterization. The tools for a successful attribution include genetically based-assays to determine the exact strain of isolate, aiming the individualization of the source of the pathogen used in a biological weapon. Following the 2001 anthrax attacks, genotyping of B. anthracis was done on 8 variable number tandem repeats loci (VNTR polymorphisms, with multilocus variable number tandem repeats (MLVA method. In recent years some research groups have increased the VNTR markers number to 25 loci, while other groups have identified single nucleotide repeat (SNR polymorphisms, which display very high mutation rates. SNR marker system allows the distinguishing of isolates with extremely low levels of genetic diversity within the same MLVA genotype.

  8. 生物恐怖%bioterrorism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮冰; 白雪玲

    2005-01-01

    生物恐怖(bioterrorism)是指利用各种手段故意施放致病性微生物或生物毒素,造成人群、禽畜、农作物和环境危害,引起社会的广泛恐慌或威胁社会安定以达到政治或信仰目的的行为。生物恐怖与生物战(biological warfare)使用的都是生物武器,但使用的场合和目的不同。生物恐怖具有潜伏性、隐蔽性、突发性、多样性、欺骗性、协同性及散发性等特点。

  9. Use of syndromic surveillance to early detect bioterrorism-related diseases in foreign military facilities and some revelations%症状监测在外军生物恐怖早期预警中的应用及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程瑾; 祖正虎; 徐致靖; 孙建中; 郑涛

    2012-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance, based on non-specific pre-diagnosis and other information, can give nearly real-time detection and early warning of potential bioterrorist and emerging infectious threats. This paper introduced the syndromic surveillance systems developed in military facilities of the U. S. , France, Canada and Singapore. It also discussed the trends of syndromic surveillance in early warning of bioterrorism and some revelations to China.%以非特异的症候群和(或)其他相关指示数据为基础的症状监测,能够对潜在生物恐怖袭击进行近乎实时的监测预警.本文在简介生物恐怖相关疾病症状监测系统特点的基础上,简要介绍美国、法国、加拿大和新加坡等外军医疗卫生系统应用的症状监测系统,讨论症状监测用于生物恐怖早期预警的发展趋势,以及对我国生物恐怖防御的启示.

  10. Anthrax: a continuing concern in the era of bioterrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Anthrax, a potentially fatal infection, is a virulent and highly contagious disease. It is caused by a gram-positive, toxigenic, spore-forming bacillus: Bacillus anthracis. For centuries, anthrax has caused disease in animals and, although uncommonly, in humans throughout the world. Descriptions of this naturally occurring disease begin in antiquity. Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores, which are infected by ingestion of spores from the soil. With the advent of modern microbiology, P...

  11. Forensic microbiology and the bioterrorism risk (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nasso

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of the causal agent, as so as epidemiologic investigation, but with higher-resolution characterization. The tools for a successful attribution include genetically based-assays to determine the exact strain of isolate, aiming the individualization of the source of the pathogen used in a biological weapon. Following the 2001 anthrax attacks, genotyping of B. anthracis was done on 8 variable number tandem repeats loci (VNTR polymorphisms, with multilocus variable number tandem repeats (MLVA method. In recent years some research groups have increased the VNTR markers number to 25 loci, while other groups have identified single nucleotide repeat (SNR polymorphisms, which display very high mutation rates. SNR marker system allows the distinguishing of isolates with extremely low levels of genetic diversity within the same MLVA genotype.

  12. Bioterrorism-Related Anthrax Surveillance, Connecticut, September–December, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Alcia A.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Adrian STOICA; Ridzon, Renee; Kirschke, David L.; Meyer, Richard F.; McClellan, Jennifer; Fischer, Marc; Nelson, Randy; Cartter, Matt; Hadler, James L; Jernigan, John A.; Mast, Eric E.; Swerdlow, David L.; ,

    2002-01-01

    On November 19, 2001, a case of inhalational anthrax was identified in a 94-year-old Connecticut woman, who later died. We conducted intensive surveillance for additional anthrax cases, which included collecting data from hospitals, emergency departments, private practitioners, death certificates, postal facilities, veterinarians, and the state medical examiner. No additional cases of anthrax were identified. The absence of additional anthrax cases argued against an intentional environmental ...

  13. [Dimensional analysis of the concept of biosafety due to bioterrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Shaha, Maya

    2014-03-01

    In recent years with the strengthening of the discourse surrounding the biological risk of bioterrorist nature, the concept of biosafety emerged gradually. A dimensional analysis was used to contextualize the concept. Initially, biosafety was essentially a technical term related to the risks of contamination in laboratories or food industry and then be used to protect biodiversity against the spread of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment. Now, it is increasingly used in reference to the prevention and infections control, even though its use remains marginal. However, biosecurity may be defined as the security of life and therefore affect the safety devices participating in the government of bodies and power over life. A more critical approach including social and political dimensions within a Foucauldian perspective is needed to expand the scope of the biosecurity concept up to biological hazards constructs. PMID:24830220

  14. A decade of countering bioterrorism: incremental progress, fundamental failings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzig, Richard

    2012-03-01

    The fear and disruption caused by the 2001 anthrax attacks understandably led Americans to seek enhanced biodefenses. However, the path followed since those attacks has left the country inadequately prepared to face further risks from biological attacks. Why has security against these threats been only partially achieved? This article suggests that our responses over the past decade can be sorted into 4 levels in order of increasing difficulty. First, we rapidly appropriated funds, augmented personnel, and mandated reorganization of agencies. Though not easy to accomplish, these steps were easily conceptualized and, whatever their imperfections, could rather assuredly be achieved. A second level was more demanding, but also quite achievable. It involved the amplification of ongoing efforts. These efforts sometimes suffered as they scaled up, but, though they were qualified by delays and uncertainties, we can point to real achievements at this level. A third level was more difficult: It required evolving new strategies to deal with this largely unprecedented problem. In this regard, we have so far had only glimmers of possibility. At a fourth level, our performance and our prospects are worse still. At this level, our problems stem from resistances inherent in our country's cultural and political framework. This article identifies some of these problems and suggests, regrettably, that they are not likely to be resolved until change is catalyzed by further, and more dramatically traumatic, attacks or natural disasters. If this situational assessment is correct, what remedial strategies should we pursue? The article distinguishes 3 strategic approaches: an evolutionary one in which the U.S. continues advancing along its present path; a radical approach that attempts to address the fourth-level issues; and a third approach that prepares for punctuated evolution. This third approach accepts the improbability of level 4 change either by gradual evolution or by radical argument, but asserts that it is possible to lay the conceptual groundwork now for the radical changes that will be possible, even demanded, after a catastrophic incident. This approach, neglected at present, would be a valuable addition to our present efforts.

  15. Bioterrorism Preparedness in Public Health: Knowledge Needs for Robust Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Minu

    2007-01-01

    The typical response of organizations dealing with external uncertainty is to develop strategies to adapt to the situation and focus on regaining a stable state. A crucial element of responding successfully to external uncertainties is to identify changes in knowledge needs within core organizational processes. This paper discusses the changing…

  16. Labs Urged to Pre-empt Bioterrorism Threat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erika; Check; 尚文

    2004-01-01

    恐怖分子可以利用的手段是层出不穷的。为了将风险降到最低,两个非盈利组织于2月20日在华盛顿宣布要采取措施,并且敦促生化技术公司防范它们的员工或实验室成为恐怖活动的源头。然而,各个方面对此的反应却不尽相同。

  17. Being prepared: bioterrorism and mass prophylaxis: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weant, Kyle A; Bailey, Abby M; Fleishaker, Elise L; Justice, Stephanie B

    2014-01-01

    Although several biological agents have been recognized as presenting a significant threat to public health if used in a bioterrorist attack, those that are of greatest importance are known as the Category A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola major (smallpox); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); ribonucleic acid viruses (hemorrhagic fevers); and Clostridium botulinum (botulism toxin). In the previous issue, Part I of this review focused on the clinical presentation and treatment of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. In this second part of this 2-part review of these agents, the focus is on the clinical presentation and treatment of smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, and botulism toxin. The utilization of mass prophylaxis to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with all these agents is also discussed along with the role emergency care personnel play in its implementation.

  18. [Dimensional analysis of the concept of biosafety due to bioterrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Shaha, Maya

    2014-03-01

    In recent years with the strengthening of the discourse surrounding the biological risk of bioterrorist nature, the concept of biosafety emerged gradually. A dimensional analysis was used to contextualize the concept. Initially, biosafety was essentially a technical term related to the risks of contamination in laboratories or food industry and then be used to protect biodiversity against the spread of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment. Now, it is increasingly used in reference to the prevention and infections control, even though its use remains marginal. However, biosecurity may be defined as the security of life and therefore affect the safety devices participating in the government of bodies and power over life. A more critical approach including social and political dimensions within a Foucauldian perspective is needed to expand the scope of the biosecurity concept up to biological hazards constructs.

  19. Why It Takes Prevention, Not Detection, to Fight Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Jiri (Art)

    2005-01-01

    Following the events which took place on September 11, 2001, and the anthrax attacks which occurred after that date, US authorities became concerned with the idea that an assault with chemical or biological weapons could take place on American territory or in American ships or planes. A worrisome model for such an assault was the 1995 terrorist…

  20. In the Event of Bioterrorism: Protecting Families from Deadly Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that smallpox had been eliminated worldwide. In the United States, doctors stopped giving routine smallpox vaccines to children in 1971. After the terrorist attacks of September 2001, however, concern about smallpox reemerged ...

  1. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF CATEGORY "A" BIO-TERRORISM AGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster presents information on the inactivation of select bioterrorist agents. Information will be presented on chlorine disinfection of vegetative cells of Brucella suis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis and endos...

  2. 反生物恐怖袭击医学救援中人员洗消不同方法的效果比较%Comparative study on biological efficacies of individual decontamination with different methods for medicinal rescue against bioterrorism attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾德胜; 钱万红; 王忠灿; 谭伟龙; 曹勇平; 郑剑; 韩招久; 陆年宏; 王长军

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较反生物恐怖袭击医学救援中人员洗消不同方法的效果.方法 以大肠杆菌和枯草杆菌为指示菌,现场测试采用有效氯浓度为500 mg/L洗消剂喷淋,作用不同时间、喷淋再用沐浴液和自来水淋浴洗消以及只用沐浴液和自来水淋浴方法的生物学效果.结果 用有效氯浓度为500 mg/L的三氯异氰脲酸洗消剂喷淋洗消,作用5 min后大肠杆菌和枯草杆菌菌数平均杀灭对数值(KLV)分别为3.90(t=19.733,P<0.001)和2.93(t=20.012,P<0.001),作用时间10 min时两菌KLV为4.66(t=16.251,P<0.001)和4.55(t=20.023,P<0.001).喷淋洗消作用5min后再沐浴液洗浴,两菌KLV为4.25(t =12.567,P<0.001)和4.19(t=14.217,P<0.001).只用沐浴液洗浴的两菌KLV为2.05(t=6.078,P<0.001)和1.93(t=6.593,P<0.001).对照组不作任何处理5 min和10 min两菌KLV为0.21(t =0.833,P=0.420)和0.25(t=1.154,P=0.269).结论 降低洗消剂有效氯浓度后延长洗消液作用时间和洗消后再沐浴液洗浴能确保洗消效果,只用沐浴液和自来水淋浴有部分效果,不处理则不同时间指示菌数量无变化.%Objective To compare the biological efficacies of individual decontamination with different methods for medicinal rescue against bioterrorism attack. Methods With Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis used as indicator, the biological efficacies were tested with different methods by disinfectant contact time after showering decontamination agent and/or by bathing with bath liquid and water. Results By showering with decontaminating a-gent used richloroisocyanuric acid solution containing available chlorine 500 mg/L, the average killing logarithm values (KLV) of two indicator respectively were 3.90 (t = 19.733 ,P <0.001) and 2.93 (t =20.012 ,P <0.001) in 5 min of contact time, but 4. 66 (t = 16. 251 ,P <0. 001) and 4.55 (t =20. 023 ,P <0. 001) in 10 min. By bathing with bath liquid and water after showering with decontaminating agent in 5 min, KLVs were

  3. Public perception and risk communication in regard to bioterrorism against animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G S

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the total international prohibition on the use of disease to attack humans, animals and plants, noting that in the past several countries had developed programmes for attacks on animals and plants as well as humans. Current activities undertaken by intergovernmental organisations - the World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)--to counter the threat of attacks on humans, animals and plants are examined. Effective countermeasures to deliberate attacks need to be developed in harmony with existing measures to control natural or accidental outbreaks of disease. Finally the paper assesses the risk and the public perception of it, and considers what risk communication is needed and to whom. Clear mandates are needed for the FAO and OIE to be prepared to deal with outbreaks of disease, and with contamination of the food supply chain, whether accidental or intentional.

  4. Distributed micro-releases of bioterror pathogens : threat characterizations and epidemiology from uncertain patient observables.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Michael M. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Marzouk, Youssef M.; Adams, Brian M.; Devine, Karen Dragon; Ray, Jaideep; Najm, Habib N.

    2008-10-01

    Terrorist attacks using an aerosolized pathogen preparation have gained credibility as a national security concern since the anthrax attacks of 2001. The ability to characterize the parameters of such attacks, i.e., to estimate the number of people infected, the time of infection, the average dose received, and the rate of disease spread in contemporary American society (for contagious diseases), is important when planning a medical response. For non-contagious diseases, we address the characterization problem by formulating a Bayesian inverse problem predicated on a short time-series of diagnosed patients exhibiting symptoms. To keep the approach relevant for response planning, we limit ourselves to 3.5 days of data. In computational tests performed for anthrax, we usually find these observation windows sufficient, especially if the outbreak model employed in the inverse problem is accurate. For contagious diseases, we formulated a Bayesian inversion technique to infer both pathogenic transmissibility and the social network from outbreak observations, ensuring that the two determinants of spreading are identified separately. We tested this technique on data collected from a 1967 smallpox epidemic in Abakaliki, Nigeria. We inferred, probabilistically, different transmissibilities in the structured Abakaliki population, the social network, and the chain of transmission. Finally, we developed an individual-based epidemic model to realistically simulate the spread of a rare (or eradicated) disease in a modern society. This model incorporates the mixing patterns observed in an (American) urban setting and accepts, as model input, pathogenic transmissibilities estimated from historical outbreaks that may have occurred in socio-economic environments with little resemblance to contemporary society. Techniques were also developed to simulate disease spread on static and sampled network reductions of the dynamic social networks originally in the individual-based model, yielding faster, though approximate, network-based epidemic models. These reduced-order models are useful in scenario analysis for medical response planning, as well as in computationally intensive inverse problems.

  5. Curricular and pedagogic questions raised by recent medical education efforts on bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heun, Linda R

    2002-12-01

    This article outlines the development of learning materials to educate osteopathic medical students about biological terrorism at the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM). The author then poses two questions that arose from this and concurrent AACOM projects and new technologic developments in medical education, regarding what colleges of osteopathic medicine teach and how they teach it. PMID:12501984

  6. 75 FR 50730 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002: Biennial Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... FR 42363) must be received on or before August 30, 2010. Comments received after August 30, 2010 will... Proposed Rulemaking (75 FR 42363) should be marked ``Comments on the changes to the list of select agents... Register (75 FR 42363) requesting public comment on the current HHS list of select agents and toxins....

  7. Animal Botulism Outcomes in the AniBioThreat Project. Biosecur. Bioterror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, C.; Tevell Aberg, A.; Skarin, H.; Anniballi, F.; Medici, De D.; Bano, L.; Koene, M.G.J.; Löfström, Ch.; Hansen, T.; Hedeland, M.; Fach, P.

    2013-01-01

    Botulism disease in both humans and animals is a worldwide concern. Botulinum neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other Clostridium species are the most potent biological substances known and are responsible for flaccid paralysis leading to a high mortality rate. Clostridium botulinum

  8. Bioterrorism Threats Must Unite Academe and the U.S. Intelligence Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Rindskopf

    2004-01-01

    The National Research Council recently issued a report that suggested ways in which to improve the management of potentially dangerous biomedical research in both academe and private industry, without unduly restricting scientists in their research activities. Here, the author shares her views on the report as well as the estrangement of the…

  9. 生化恐怖袭击处置流程%Disposal Process of Bioterrorism Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪俊君

    2010-01-01

    当今恐怖主义盛行,生化恐怖袭击与使用核材料为手段的恐怖袭击一起并称为现代超级恐怖主义.公众对生化恐怖的危害只有模糊了解,对其发生后该如何应对知晓甚少.因此,政府及相关部门在生化袭击应急处置中担负着主要责任,而在生化恐怖袭击处置流程中,快速反应、科学处置是重要一环.

  10. 生物恐怖:威胁和解决%Bioterrorism: from Threats to Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Steffen

    2002-01-01

    @@ Robert Steffen, Scientist, WHO Project Improving public health preparedness on diseases associated with biological warfare; Co-chair, Swiss B Committee: University of Zurich, Switzerland. The goal of any emergency preparedness and response planning is to keep it an emergency and to avert a disaster.

  11. Initiating informatics and GIS support for a field investigation of Bioterrorism: The New Jersey anthrax experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skinner Ric

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The investigation of potential exposure to anthrax spores in a Trenton, New Jersey, mail-processing facility required rapid assessment of informatics needs and adaptation of existing informatics tools to new physical and information-processing environments. Because the affected building and its computers were closed down, data to list potentially exposed persons and map building floor plans were unavailable from the primary source. Results Controlling the effects of anthrax contamination required identification and follow-up of potentially exposed persons. Risk of exposure had to be estimated from the geographic relationship between work history and environmental sample sites within the contaminated facility. To assist in establishing geographic relationships, floor plan maps of the postal facility were constructed in ArcView Geographic Information System (GIS software and linked to a database of personnel and visitors using Epi Info and Epi Map 2000. A repository for maintaining the latest versions of various documents was set up using Web page hyperlinks. Conclusions During public health emergencies, such as bioterrorist attacks and disease epidemics, computerized information systems for data management, analysis, and communication may be needed within hours of beginning the investigation. Available sources of data and output requirements of the system may be changed frequently during the course of the investigation. Integrating data from a variety of sources may require entering or importing data from a variety of digital and paper formats. Spatial representation of data is particularly valuable for assessing environmental exposure. Written documents, guidelines, and memos important to the epidemic were frequently revised. In this investigation, a database was operational on the second day and the GIS component during the second week of the investigation.

  12. 生物恐怖主义与人兽共患病%Bioterrorism and zoonoses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于恩庶; 刘岱伟; 黄丰

    2003-01-01

    @@ 生物恐怖简单说就是指使用生物为武器或手段进行战争或伤害人群或破坏动植物的活动.美国联邦调查局给生物恐怖下过这样定义:"对政府或团体以非法的武力或暴力,企图达到其政治或社会改革的行为"[1].生物恐怖活动的目的是造成人群死亡,或造成重症病患;引起大量植物或动物的疾病,破坏经济,导致经济衰退;扰乱社会秩序,导致民众恐慌;或者恐吓对方,勒索财物;或从中挑拨,破坏团结.

  13. Complex of the new generation of the instrumental analytical approaches to prevent dangerous bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, Nickolaj F.; Shavanova, Kateryna; Karpiuk, Andrii

    2014-10-01

    The real manifestations of biowarfare were only during local military conflicts. In previous times the danger with this factor forms through activation of terrorist organizations. To prevent non-desirable consequences and to preserve the lives and health of people it is necessary to provide constant control by the application of complex of the new generation of the instrumental devices based on the principles of biosensorics which allow rapid revealing step by step: total toxicity of environmental objects, presence of appropriate groups and specific chemical substances among them. It is demonstrated simple and rapid estimation of the total toxicity through the control of the intensity of chlorophyll fluorescence (IChF) by the direct or remote ways by the device "Floratest" (Ukraine). There is possible on the basis of IChF curve of growing plants from some territory during appropriate period to reveal appearance of toxic substances in this area. Their presence in more local cases may be done by using bioluminescent bacteria (pure Ukrainian strains) or/and controlling short term Daphnia living medium by developed portable chemiluminometer. For the revealing of some groups of toxic elements it is recommended the cerium oxide ISFETs based enzymatic biosensors. The last and devices based on SPR ("Plasmotest", Ukraine), porous silicon (with the registration of biospecific interaction macromolecules by luminescence or electro conductivity) and some nano-metal oxides were realized in immune biosensors at the determination of content of number of mycotoxins, some microorganisms (Salmonella spp.) and diagnostics of viral disease (retroviral leucosis). We present the main characteristics of the above mentioned devices and give confirmation that all the analysis meets practice demands. Overall time of analysis is in range 10 min and it is very simple and may be realized in field conditions.

  14. Viral bioterrorism: Learning the lesson of Ebola virus in West Africa 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenciarelli, Orlando; Gabbarini, Valentina; Pietropaoli, Stefano; Malizia, Andrea; Tamburrini, Annalaura; Ludovici, Gian Marco; Carestia, Mariachiara; Di Giovanni, Daniele; Sassolini, Alessandro; Palombi, Leonardo; Bellecci, Carlo; Gaudio, Pasquale

    2015-12-01

    Among the potential biological agents suitable as a weapon, Ebola virus represents a major concern. Classified by the CDC as a category A biological agent, Ebola virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever, characterized by high case-fatality rate; to date, no vaccine or approved therapy is available. The EVD epidemic, which broke out in West Africa since the late 2013, has got the issue of the possible use of Ebola virus as biological warfare agent (BWA) to come to the fore once again. In fact, due to its high case-fatality rate, population currently associates this pathogen to a real and tangible threat. Therefore, its use as biological agent by terrorist groups with offensive purpose could have serious repercussions from a psychosocial point of view as well as on closely sanitary level. In this paper, after an initial study of the main characteristics of Ebola virus, its potential as a BWA was evaluated. Furthermore, given the spread of the epidemic in West Africa in 2014 and 2015, the potential dissemination of the virus from an urban setting was evaluated. Finally, it was considered the actual possibility to use this agent as BWA in different scenarios, and the potential effects on one or more nation's stability.

  15. Fast, reagentless and reliable screening of "white powders" during the bioterrorism hoaxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarski, Maksymilian; Kaliszewski, Miron; Trafny, Elżbieta Anna; Szpakowska, Małgorzata; Lewandowski, Rafał; Bombalska, Aneta; Kwaśny, Mirosław; Kopczyński, Krzysztof; Mularczyk-Oliwa, Monika

    2015-03-01

    The classification of dry powder samples is an important step in managing the consequences of terrorist incidents. Fluorescence decays of these samples (vegetative bacteria, bacterial endospores, fungi, albumins and several flours) were measured with stroboscopic technique using an EasyLife LS system PTI. Three pulsed nanosecond LED sources, generating 280, 340 and 460nm were employed for samples excitation. The usefulness of a new 460nm light source for fluorescence measurements of dry microbial cells has been demonstrated. The principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) have been used for classification of dry biological samples. It showed that the single excitation wavelength was not sufficient for differentiation of biological samples of diverse origin. However, merging fluorescence decays from two or three excitation wavelengths allowed classification of these samples. An experimental setup allowing the practical implementation of this method for the real time fluorescence decay measurement was designed. It consisted of the LED emitting nanosecond pulses at 280nm and two fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for signal detection in two fluorescence bands simultaneously. The positive results of the dry powder samples measurements confirmed that the fluorescence decay-based technique could be a useful tool for fast classification of the suspected "white powders" performed by the first responders.

  16. Bioterrorism in Canada: An Economic Assessment of Prevention and Postattack Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald St John

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper calculates the human and economic consequences of a bioterrorist attack on Canadian soil using aerosolized Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum. The study assumed that 100,000 people in a Canadian suburban neighbourhood were exposed over a 2 h period to an infectious dose of one of the agents. Using an epidemic curve based on the epidemiology and management of anthrax and botulinum poisoning, the costs of intervention and treatment after an attack were compared with the costs of preparedness before a bioterrorist attack. The results show that an investment in planning and preparedness to manage the consequences of an attack can reduce morbidity, mortality and economic costs. The sooner that an intervention program is instituted, the more significant are the health and economic benefits. The greatest benefits were realized when postattack intervention was initiated before day 3 after the event. The economic impact of a bioterrorist attack in Canada could range from $6.4 billion/100,000 exposed to B anthracis to $8.6 billion/100,000 exposed in an attack using C botulinum. Without the benefit of an effective consequence management program, predicted deaths totalled 32,875 from anthrax and 30,000 from botulinum toxin. Rapid implementation of a postattack prophylaxis program that includes the stockpiling of antibiotics, vaccines and antitoxins; training of first responders in the diagnosis, handling and treatment of pathogens; and the general enhancement of Canada's response capability would reduce both human and economic losses.

  17. 77 FR 61055 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ..., 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 44724-44725, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0070) an advance... the Federal Register (76 FR 61228-61244, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0070) a proposal\\2\\ regarding our... published in the Federal Register on December 15, 2011 (76 FR 77914, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0070)....

  18. Mass spectrometry for the detection of bioterrorism agents: from environmental to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriez, Elodie; Armengaud, Jean; Fenaille, François; Ezan, Eric

    2016-03-01

    In the current context of international conflicts and localized terrorist actions, there is unfortunately a permanent threat of attacks with unconventional warfare agents. Among these, biological agents such as toxins, microorganisms, and viruses deserve particular attention owing to their ease of production and dissemination. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques for the detection and quantification of biological agents have a decisive role to play for countermeasures in a scenario of biological attacks. The application of MS to every field of both organic and macromolecular species has in recent years been revolutionized by the development of soft ionization techniques (MALDI and ESI), and by the continuous development of MS technologies (high resolution, accurate mass HR/AM instruments, novel analyzers, hybrid configurations). New possibilities have emerged for exquisite specific and sensitive detection of biological warfare agents. MS-based strategies for clinical application can now address a wide range of analytical questions mainly including issues related to the complexity of biological samples and their available volume. Multiplexed toxin detection, discovery of new markers through omics approaches, and identification of untargeted microbiological or of novel molecular targets are examples of applications. In this paper, we will present these technological advances along with the novel perspectives offered by omics approaches to clinical detection and follow-up. PMID:26956386

  19. EVALUATION OF UV IRRADIATION CONTROL MEASURES FOR REDUCING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION (BIO-TERRORISM SAFETY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposures from indoor environments are a major issue for evaluating total long-term personal exposures to the fine fraction (Biocontaminants such as some mold spores or pollen grains, because of their size and mass, settle rapidly within the indoor environment. Over time the...

  20. Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of glanders and melioidosis and bioterrorism-related glanders and melioidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Philippe; Tegnell, Anders; Baka, Agoritsa; Van Loock, Frank; Hendriks, Jan; Werner, Albrecht; Maidhof, Heinrich; Gouvras, Georgios

    2004-12-15

    Glanders and melioidosis are two infectious diseases that are caused by Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei respectively. Infection may be acquired through direct skin contact with contaminated soil or water. Ingestion of such contaminated water or dust is another way of contamination. Glanders and melioidosis have both been studied for weaponisation in several countries in the past. They produce similar clinical syndromes. The symptoms depend upon the route of infection but one form of the disease may progress to another, or the disease might run a chronic relapsing course. Four clinical forms are generally described: localised infection, pulmonary infection, septicaemia and chronic suppurative infections of the skin. All treatment recommendations should be adapted according to the susceptibility reports from any isolates obtained. Post-exposure prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is recommended in case of a biological attack. There is no vaccine available for humans.

  1. From Molecules to Medicines Structure of Biological Macromolecules and Its Relevance in Combating New Diseases and Bioterrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Sussman, Joel L

    2009-01-01

    The synergism played by crystallography and drug discovery is the central focus of this volume which comprises papers presented at the 40th Erice Course held from 28 May to 8 June 2008. A key theme throughout the book is the dependence of modern structural science on multiple experimental and computational techniques, and it is the development of these techniques and their integration that will take us forward in the future.

  2. Preliminary study on the prevention and control of bioterrorism%生物恐怖袭击防控初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小莺; 钟发刚; 张海亮; 陈琛

    2008-01-01

    生物恐怖袭击的历史表明,生物恐怖袭击有可能在人群中散布病原体、袭击特定人群、通过食物链传播、通过实验室等要害部门制造灾难、生物手段的经济战以及其他生物灾难效果.应对、防范措施应从源头上堵住病原体外泄,建立生化监控和预警机制,开发高危病原体快速诊断、防治技术,建立灾难处理预案和快速反应机制.政府在灾难处理中应居核心地位,协调各部门、设立统筹机构,并资助生物反恐的科技研发.

  3. 炭疽芽胞杆菌的感染与生物恐怖%Bacillus anthracis Infection and Bioterrorism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张致一; 陈锦英

    2003-01-01

    综述了炭疽生物恐怖、炭疽在中国的流行概况、实验室诊断方法的最新进展.同时介绍了炭疽的预防与控制,提出了应对可能发生的生物恐怖应采取的措施.

  4. High-level specification of a proposed information architecture for support of a bioterrorism early-warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2013-01-01

    Current information systems for use in detecting bioterrorist attacks lack a consistent, overarching information architecture. An overview of the use of biological agents as weapons during a bioterrorist attack is presented. Proposed are the design, development, and implementation of a medical informatics system to mine pertinent databases, retrieve relevant data, invoke appropriate biostatistical and epidemiological software packages, and automatically analyze these data. The top-level information architecture is presented. Systems requirements and functional specifications for this level are presented. Finally, future studies are identified.

  5. Generation and detection of pulsed T-rays for use in the study of biological and bioterrorism issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedju, Thomas M.; Bosacchi, Bruno; Warren, Warren S.; Nahata, Ajay; Kuenstner, Todd

    2004-09-01

    Terahertz (T-rays) spectroscopy has recently emerged as a powerful method to access a heretofore barely explored region of the electromagnetic spectrum where fundamental molecular resonances occur. Besides their importance for fundamental research, these resonances could be used as signatures in the identification of molecular species and as sensitive probes in a wide variety of molecular processes. In this paper we consider the potential of THz spectroscopy in the application to relevant biomedical and homeland security problems such as the analysis of normal and diseased tissues and the detection of toxic biomolecules. As examples, we present preliminary experimental data which suggest that THz spectroscopy: 1) can discriminate between cancerous and normal tissue, and 2) can reveal the presence of foreign substances hidden in an envelope and even allow their specific identification. This capability is of particular relevance as a straightforward homeland security tool for the detection of anthrax and other biotoxic molecules.

  6. The threat and countermeasure of bioterrorism%生物恐怖的威胁及其对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜庆五

    2003-01-01

    @@ 2001年9月11日美国遭遇恐怖袭击,一年多以来美国民众除一直沉浸在恐慌和哀伤之中外,还时时处于面临邮件炭疽袭击的危险中.生物恐怖袭击已经成为世界各国无法回避的问题.目前,有关生物性攻击的威胁以及可能造成的灾难和人类将面临何种生物威胁都成为国家安全与公共卫生关注的焦点.

  7. Bioterrorism in new century%新世纪"生物恐怖"的出现与遏制前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏承毓

    2002-01-01

    @@ 进入新世纪的第一年,就发生了纽约世贸大厦9.11恐怖袭击事件.当多数美国人还在惊魂未定之际,自10月5日起又在佛罗里达州、纽约、新泽西州等地陆续出现了由邮递白色粉末引发的炭疽病例及感染者并有人死亡,从而使美国上下又陷入一场所谓"生物恐怖"的阴霾之中,也引起世界的普遍关注.回顾历史,帝国主义者以病原微生物作为战剂,在交战双方的军队、居民及牲畜中进行人工制造瘟疫的所谓生物战,远非自今日始,但公开提出所谓生物恐怖却是前所未有的.笔者认为有必要就生物武器、生物战及所谓生物恐怖等公众关心的话题进行简要的回顾与探讨,从中汲取教益.

  8. Emergency response and disease control--a discussion of alternative objectives for zoning in the age of agricultural bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Fonda A

    2007-01-01

    Emergency planning activities in most developed countries have increased as a result of such events as the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and the emergence of the highly pathogenic Asian strain of avian influenza, H5N1. The threat of terrorist activities, combined with advances in science and technology, have resulted in an expanded spectrum of threat for humans, animals, plants and the environment. It is possible that an attack or disease incursion could be so catastrophic and devastating that the resources to combat it would be rapidly overwhelmed. In these cases, it may be necessary to develop an alternative strategy. The author discusses the concept of protective zoning. Protective zoning is a strategy to salvage or protect a smaller segment of an agriculture sector or geographic area when resources are insufficient to protect the entire sector or area. This change in orientation will be extremely controversial and the exact criteria to determine when the situation warrants a change in objective, as well as the precise activities to be performed, must be determined by all stakeholders well in advance. Changes to other activities in current emergency plans may be required. The impact on the recovery phase plans will be significant. PMID:20411521

  9. High-level specification of a proposed information architecture for support of a bioterrorism early-warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2013-01-01

    Current information systems for use in detecting bioterrorist attacks lack a consistent, overarching information architecture. An overview of the use of biological agents as weapons during a bioterrorist attack is presented. Proposed are the design, development, and implementation of a medical informatics system to mine pertinent databases, retrieve relevant data, invoke appropriate biostatistical and epidemiological software packages, and automatically analyze these data. The top-level information architecture is presented. Systems requirements and functional specifications for this level are presented. Finally, future studies are identified. PMID:23263311

  10. Sugar-Coated PPE's, Novel Nanomaterial's and Sensing Modules for Disease and Bioterrorism Related Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunz, Uwe [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2003-11-21

    The detection and sensing of biological warfare agents (ricin, anthrax toxin), of disease agents (cholera, botulinum, and tetnus toxins, influenza virus, etc.) and of biologically active species important for national security and disease control.

  11. Risk communication, the West Nile virus epidemic, and bioterrorism: responding to the commnication challenges posed by the intentional or unintentional release of a pathogen in an urban setting

    OpenAIRE

    Covello, Vincent T.; Peters, Richard G.; Wojtecki, Joseph G.; Hyde, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    The intentional or unintentional introduction of a pathogen in an urban setting presents severe communication chanllenges. Risk communication—a science-based approach for communicating effectively in high-concern situations—provides a set of principles and tools for meeting those challenges. A brief overview of the risk communication theoretical perspective and basic risk communication models is presented here, and the risk communication perspective is applied to the West Nile virus epidemic ...

  12. Technical Report for DE-FG02-03ER46029 Sugar-Coated PPEs, Novel Nanomaterials and Sensing Modules for Disease and Bioterrorism Related Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwe Bunz

    2003-08-27

    The detection and sensing of biological warfare agents (Ricin, Anthrax toxin), of disease agents (cholera, botulinum and tetanus toxins, influenza virus etc) and of biologically active species is important for national security and disease control. A premiere goal would be the simple colorimetric or fluorimetric detection of such toxins by a dipstick test. It would be desirable to sense 5,000-10,000 toxin molecules, i.e. 10-100 fg of a toxin contained 1-5 mL of sample. Fluorescent conjugated polymers should be particularly interesting in this regard, because they can carry multiple identical and/or different recognition units. Such an approach is particularly valuable for the detection of lectin toxins, because these bind to oligomeric carbohydrate displays. Lectins bind multivalently to sugars, i.e. several covalently connected sugar moieties have to be exposed to the lectin at the same time to obtain binding. The requirement of multivalency of the lectin-sugar interactions should allow a very sensitive detection of lectins with sugar coated conjugated polymers in an agglutination type assay, where the fluorescence of the PPEs disappears upon binding to the lectins. High molecular weights of the used PPEs would mean high sensitivity. Herein we present our progress towards that goal up to date.

  13. Overview of vaccines for the prevention against bioterrorism%反生物恐怖袭击防护疫苗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 王松俊; 张传本

    2008-01-01

    近年来,全球反生物恐怖形势仍然严峻 .疫苗对于生物恐怖袭击的防护具有重要意义.本文重点介绍灭活和减毒活疫苗、亚单位疫苗、病毒载体疫苗、多肽疫苗、核酸疫苗、转基因植物疫苗等6类疫苗的研究概况与进展, 并对各种疫苗的优缺点、存在的问题及应用前景等进行论述.

  14. Biocidal and Sporicidal Efficacy of Pathoster® 0.35% and Pathoster® 0.50% Against Bacterial Agents in Potential Bioterrorism Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeliere, Antonio; Donatiello, Adelia; Pagano, Stefania; Iatarola, Michela; Tolve, Francesco; Antonino, Leonardo; Fasanella, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The use of products that can neutralize or significantly reduce the microbial load and that are not harmful to human health and the environment represents a milestone in the fight against the spread of infectious diseases. Peracetic acid, besides being an excellent sterilizing and sporicidal agent, is harmless to humans and the environment when it is used in a common dosage. However, the high costs and loss of efficacy of the product very quickly after its reconstitution limit its use. We evaluated the efficacy and stability of 2 commercial products, based on stabilized peracetic acid (Pathoster® 0.35% and Pathoster® 0.50%) used against spores of Bacillus anthracis and spores of Bacillus cereus and vegetative forms of Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis. The efficacy tests were based on the direct contact of the products with a standard suspension of the bacteria. The stability of the products was defined as the period of time during which the biocidal and sporicidal properties remained unchanged. The limit of effectiveness was the period after which the product was unable to exert a complete sterilization after a contact of 5 minutes with at least 1 of the 8 bacteria used in this work. Both formulations showed good efficacy against the microorganisms used in the study, confirming the utility of peracetic acid as a sterilizing product. After the reconstitution, Pathoster® 0.35% was stable until 16±1 days, while Pathoster® 0.50% was stable until 24±1 days. The formulations used in this study showed good performance and a significant stability of peracetic acid. PMID:27482880

  15. Characteristics and prophylactic strategy against bioterrorism%生物恐怖威胁特点及医学防御对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠娥

    2005-01-01

    2001年发生于美国的炭疽芽孢邮件事件引起了人们对生物战剂恐怖威胁的关注,也对生物恐怖剂的医学防范和流行病学的科学认识提出了挑战,因此,公共健康和医学工作者迫切需要了解生物恐怖袭击引起损害的预防和治疗措施.本文介绍了生物恐怖的概念、特点、恐怖活动可能使用的生物战剂清单,以及炭疽杆菌、鼠疫耶尔森菌、天花病毒、出血热病毒、肉毒毒素等A类生物战剂的致病特征以及医学防护对策.

  16. 蓖麻毒素生物恐怖及其医学防护%Bioterrorism of Ricin and Its Medical Prophyaxis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景林

    2003-01-01

    @@ 自美国"9.11"恐怖袭击和炭疽芽孢事件发生后,世界各国开始高度关注生物恐怖袭击.鉴于一些生物化学战剂在非战场被恐怖或极端分子使用的可能性和危险性,一些国家把天花病毒(Variolavirus)、肉毒毒素(Botulinum toxin)同炭疽杆菌(Bacillus anthracis)一起列为可能被使用的生物恐怖病原[1-2].

  17. 医学生应加强防范"生物恐怖"的意识%Defending Against Bioterrorism: One Thing That Medical Student Should Bring in Mind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢燕; 张茂先

    2002-01-01

    @@ 生物武器已成为二十一世纪全人类的威胁,防范生物恐怖是我们的当务之急.首先医疗卫生部门应加强自身防范生物恐怖的意识和能力.其次,加大生物武器对人类危害的宣传教育.第三,加强生物化学实验室的管理.第四,完善防范生物武器系统.

  18. Preparedness for epidemic disease or bioterrorism: minimum cost planning for the location and staffing of urban point-of-dispensing centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, William M; Chen, Jen-Yi; Tukel, Oya I

    2014-01-01

    Urban health authorities in the United States have been charged with developing plans for providing the infrastructure necessary to dispense prophylactic medications to their populations in the case of epidemic disease outbreak or bioterrorist attack. However, no specific method for such plans has been prescribed. This article formulates and demonstrates the use of an integer programming technique for helping to solve a part of the dispensing problem faced by cities, namely that of providing the federally required infrastructure at minimum cost, using their limited time and resources. Specifically, the technique minimizes the number of point-of-dispensing (POD) centers while covering every resident in all the census tracts within the city's jurisdiction. It also determines the optimal staffing requirement in terms of the number of nurses at each POD. This article includes a demonstration of the model using real data from Cleveland, OH, a mid-sized US city. Examples are provided of data and computational results for a variety of input parameter values such as population throughput rate, POD capacities, and distance limitations. The technique can be readily adapted to a wide range of urban areas.

  19. Microbial forensics and its role in anti-bioterrorism%微生物法医学及其在反生物恐怖中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海洪; 杨瑞馥

    2004-01-01

    微生物法医学的概念是因生物恐怖出现而提出,并在已有学科基础上发展起来的,其内容包括传统的微生物学、微生物基因组学、系统发生学和信息学,并汲取了人类DNA法医学和法医信息学的经验.微生物法医学的核心是检测和鉴定生物犯罪中使用的微生物并追踪其来源,提供快速、准确的生物恐怖情报,从而更好地完成预测,做出反应,有效地预防和阻止生物犯罪.

  20. Materials Support for Medical Rescue Team of Bioterrorism%生物恐怖事件医学救援队伍物资保障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱勇喆; 徐庆强; 丁一波; 陈新民; 华显; 唐海琳; 赵平; 朱诗应; 任浩

    2016-01-01

    生物恐怖事件医学救援物资装备保障,是有效组织实施防生救援的关键环节之一.本文结合实践经验,分析生物恐怖事件医学救援队伍物资装备保障的特点与难点,探讨救援队伍物资保障与个人装备保障的主要做法,并总结物资装备配备应注意的主要问题.

  1. Bioterrorism in New Century and Counter Plan of Its Prevention%新世纪生物恐怖的成因及其防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万德年

    2003-01-01

    生物恐怖因其巨大的杀伤威力而备受国际恐怖组织的青睐,是恐怖袭击活动新的发展趋势,它将给人类社会带来灾难.本文对生物恐怖的历史和现状进行了回顾和分析,描述了生物武器的实质及其优势,指出了防反生物恐怖的对策.

  2. 国外反生物恐怖演习对我国的启示%What we can learn from the overseas bioterrorism response exercises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德桥; 郑涛

    2006-01-01

    目的 介绍国外重要反生物恐怖演习,分析演习所取得的经验教训,为我国的生物恐怖应对及开展反生物恐怖演习服务.方法 搜集整理相关网站及论著中关于反生物恐怖演习的介绍及报告,从这些演习中找到一些规律.结果 等一些发达国家非常重视反生物恐怖演习工作,通过演习可以发现存在的一些问题以得到改进.结论 我国有必要开展相应的反生物恐怖演习,在演习中需要重视及检验:领导层的决策,部门间的合作,新成立机构的作用,现存的一些机制需要改进的方面,国际合作,通讯交流,疾病预防控制措施,医疗机构的应对,疫苗及药品的储备等.

  3. 生物恐怖因子检测技术的进展%Advancement in research of detecting techniques for bioterrorism factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边归国

    2004-01-01

    由于生物恐怖的频发,对生物恐怖因子的快速鉴定和检测技术的要求越来越高,本文对生物传感器、质谱仪、免疫检测、光雷达、生物标志物鉴定等检测技术的进展予以评述.

  4. On character and prevention of Botulinum toxin concerned bioterrorism%生物恐怖相关肉毒毒素的特征与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁军; 魏永新

    2008-01-01

    生物恐怖是指使用致病性微生物或毒素等作为恐怖袭击的武器,经过一定的途径散布致病性细菌或病毒,造成烈性传染病的爆发流行,导致人群失能和死亡,引发社会动荡。

  5. Medical prophylaxis and strategy on pathogenic organisms of bioterrorism%重要生物恐怖病原及其医学防护对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景林; 杨瑞馥

    2003-01-01

    生物恐怖问题由来已久,但直到美国"9.11"事件后的炭疽芽孢袭击才引起人们广泛关注.生物恐怖已成为21世纪全人类的威胁,防范生物恐怖病原袭击已成为各国政府的当务之急.本文主要介绍了对生物恐怖的定义、生物恐怖病原种类和致病特征,以及医学防护对策.

  6. 77 FR 56861 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection, Comments Requested Extension of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Requested Extension of a Currently Approved Collection Bioterrorism Preparedness Act: Entity/Individual.../collection: Federal Bureau of Investigation Bioterrorism Preparedness Act: Entity/Individual Information. (3... by individuals requesting access to specific agents or toxins, and consult with appropriate...

  7. 77 FR 56862 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection, Comments Requested; Extension of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Requested; Extension of a Currently Approved Collection; Bioterrorism Preparedness Act: Entity/Individual.../collection: Federal Bureau of Investigation Bioterrorism Preparedness Act: Entity/Individual Information. (3... by individuals requesting access to specific agents or toxins, and consult with appropriate...

  8. 77 FR 56863 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection, Comments Requested Extension of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Requested Extension of a Currently Approved Collection Bioterrorism Preparedness Act: Entity/Individual.../collection: Federal Bureau of Investigation Bioterrorism Preparedness Act: Entity/Individual Information. (3... by individuals requesting access to specific agents or toxins, and consult with appropriate...

  9. Study on the Bioterrorism Emergency Handling in Large Activity and Its Handling System Development%大型活动生物恐怖应急处置研究与系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖正虎; 郑涛; 许晴; 王玉民

    2009-01-01

    针对非传统安全威胁的现状及其应急处置中的主要问题,以典型的非传统安全事件一大型活动举办过程中生物恐怖事件为背景,通过比较分析,给出了生物恐怖的定义;从大型活动生物恐怖应急指挥与处置的角度,通过应急处置业务流程分析,提出了大型活动生物恐怖事件应急处置的系统框架;根据系统框架和处置功能分析,基于三维GIS和AJAX技术开发了大型活动生物恐怖应急处置原型系统,对复杂的应急处置体系进行了分层模块化和可视化,可为应急救援部门制定更为详细的救援方案和应急决策提供技术参考.

  10. The Construction of Anti-bioterrorism Information System in USA and Its Inspiration%美国反生物恐怖信息系统建设及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱联辉; 郑涛; 赵达生

    2007-01-01

    生物恐怖是现今人类社会面临的重大威胁,反生物恐怖信息系统的建设,对于提高国家应对生物恐怖等生物突发事件的能力,维护人民健康水平具有重要意义.构建有效的反生物恐怖防御体系,是国际社会面临的重要课题.美国经过长期建设已建立了较为完善的反生物恐怖信息系统,同时在应对生物危害事件中得到了检验和应用.我国也面临着严峻的生物危害安全形势,为此,在介绍美国已建立的反生物恐怖相关信息系统的基础上,探讨了其对我国的启示,提出:为有效地防范和应对此类事件,要重视和加强信息系统的建设,以促进国家对于生物恐怖等生物突发事件的有效准备和反应.

  11. 武警医院应急处置生物恐怖预案的制订%Plan development for security management of bioterrorism in the Armed Police Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白银; 王洪亮; 包春雨; 尚国利

    2010-01-01

    @@ 为加强武警医院(总部,总队,机动师医院)应对生物恐怖应急处置准备,有效预防与控制生物恐怖的危害,适应未来军事斗争卫勤准备的需求,应急处置中迅速评估,自救与互救,现场急救治疗原则,现将武警医院科学合理地制定生物恐怖应急处置预案问题作一探讨.

  12. 五种生物恐怖细菌基因悬浮芯片多重检测方法的建立%Development of a Multiplex PCR-suspension Array for Simultaneous Detection of Five Bioterrorism Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文海燕; 王静; 刘衡川; 杨宇; 胡孔新; 孙肖红

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立5种生物恐怖细菌的快速、高通量的基因悬浮芯片检测方法 ,即炭疽芽胞杆菌、鼠疫耶尔森菌、布鲁菌、土拉弗朗西斯菌和类鼻疽伯克霍尔德菌的多重检测.方法 针对炭疽芽孢杆菌、鼠疫耶尔森菌、布鲁菌、土拉弗朗西菌、类鼻疽伯克霍尔德菌的特异性基因序列设计6对引物和相应的特异性探针,经多重PCR扩增并用生物素标记相应的基因片段,标记的PCR产物与包被在不同编码微球上的相应探针杂交,用悬浮芯片扫描仪检测.结果 多重PCR悬浮芯片检测体系能够正确的检测和鉴定5种生物恐怖细菌,特异性好,灵敏度高,可用于恐怖样本的高通量筛查.结论 建立了多重PCR基因悬浮芯片快速检测几种生物恐怖细菌的方法 .

  13. Potential bioterrorism agents:analysis of world journal articles from 1997 to 2006%1997~2006年主要国家(地区)生物恐怖剂文献统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德桥; 郑涛; 沈倍奋

    2007-01-01

    目的:统计1997~2006年各国(地区)生物恐怖剂文献数量变化以及我国潜在生物恐怖剂文献情况,分析其趋势.方法:通过美国国家生物技术信息中心(NCBI)网站的PubMed进行搜索,对结果进行统计分析.结果:不论在生物恐怖剂文献数量还是研究种类方面,西方发达国家特别是美国显著多于我国.结论:我国生物恐怖剂研究与发达国家相比还有很大差距,我国应加强生物恐怖剂的研究.

  14. Collaborative Decision-making Theory in Emergency Management of Anti-bioterrorism%生物反恐应急管理中的协同决策理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明; 萧毅鸿

    2013-01-01

    应急决策比任何常规决策更能考验政府的决策机制和决策能力,生物恐怖事件发生后的应急决策尤其如是.本文通过引入协同决策理论和方法,在生物危险源扩散网络与应急物流网络协同机制方面,分析了生物危险源扩散演化方法和应急资源时变需求预测模式,提出了“演化—预测—配置”的生物反恐应急协同决策模式;在应急物流网络协同优化机制方面,重点挖掘了多种应急物资混合协同配送机制、多层次多部门应急物流网络动态协同机制以及有补给源和无补给源情况下的应急救援协同机制.通过不同视角探讨了生物反恐应急协同决策生成理论,为政府应急管理部门提供决策参考.

  15. 深化植物检疫建设防控新型生物恐怖%Strengthen the Establishment of Plant Quarantine to Defense Against a New Type of Bioterrorism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    通过分析新型生物恐怖的特点,回顾了美国防控农业生物恐怖的工作及其对我国深化国境生物安全建设的启示,以期通过加强立法、注重技术研究、聚焦防御策略、强化公众参与、加快生物安全信息收集和分析、完善合作机制,建立健全的预防和应急机制,维护我国国家安全、经济发展和社会稳定.

  16. 自动化实验室报告在疾病监测及防止生物恐怖中的应用%The Application of Reporting from Automated Laboratory in Disease Surveillance and Protect from Bioterrorism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文元; 杨亚冬; 何浙生

    2004-01-01

    报告疾病的主要目的是及时启动公共卫生反应以进一步预防疾病及消除公共恐慌。突发性传染病及生物恐怖袭击的威胁进一步提高了疾病监测的要求,使得疾病监测朝着更加敏感、特异、快速的方向发展。疾病监测系统变化日新月异,新发现传染病、突发性传染病、生物恐怖等,均需要各级部门和机构加强监测。最近进展表明实验室信息系统管理

  17. 7 CFR 3.91 - Adjusted civil monetary penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of law or issuance violated, etc.) under which the penalties are assessed. Persons should consult the... that violates certain regulations under the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002...

  18. 20 CFR 1002.5 - What definitions apply to USERRA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employed in a workplace in a foreign country by an employer that is an entity incorporated or organized in... the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, Public Law 107-188... by law (10 U.S.C. 12503 or 32 U.S.C. 115). The Public Health Security and Bioterrorism...

  19. 75 FR 39437 - Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Attorney General to implement the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 and the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002. (b) ``Select Agent Regulations'' (SAR... representatives from the following, who may consult with additional experts from their department or agency...

  20. 76 FR 69033 - Microbiology Devices; Classification of In Vitro Diagnostic Device for Yersinia Species Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... the FD&C Act and the regulations, FDA consulted with the panel, regarding the classification of this... interest in biological warfare and bioterrorism has generated interest in devices that would identify Y... pathogen as an instrument of bioterrorism, the potential consequences could be substantial. False...

  1. 75 FR 67978 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Restaurant Menu...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... of July 23, 2010 (75 FR 43182) (the July 23, 2010, notice) to explain how retail food establishments... Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002'' (68 FR 5378, February 3, 2003) (Ref. 1). FDA estimates... the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002,'' 68 FR...

  2. Academic Pork Barrel Tops $2-Billion for the First Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Borrego, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes how, despite the growing budget deficit, Congress directed a record $2 billion to college projects in 2003, many of them dealing with security and bioterrorism. Includes data tables on the earmarks. (EV)

  3. WORKSHOP REPORT: MOLECULAR & CELLULAR BIOLOGY OF MODERATE DOSE (1-10 GY) RADIATION & POTENTIAL MECHANISMS OF RADIATION PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARYNormal tissue response and injury after exposure to ionizing radiation are of great importance to patients with cancer, populations potentially subjected to military, accidental or intentional exposure including bioterrorism, and workers in the nuclear po...

  4. Actionable Knowledge and Strategic Decision Making for Bio- and Agroterrorism Threats: Building a Collaborative Early Warning Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mårtensson, Per-Åke; Hedström, Lars; Sundelius, Bengt;

    2013-01-01

    commission reports that reflect concerns about non-state actors in asymmetric threats. The intersectoral and international nature of bioterrorism and agroterrorism threats requires collaboration across several sectors including intelligence, police, forensics, customs, and other law enforcement organizations...

  5. Separated by a Common Language: Awareness of term usage differences between languages and disciplines in biopreparedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Tomuzia, K.; Löfström, Ch.; Appel, B.; Bano, L.; Keremidis, H.; Knutsson, R.; Leijon, M.; Ekströmer Lövgren, S.; Medici, D.; Menrath, A.; Rotterdam, van B.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barker, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Preparedness for bioterrorism is based on communication between people in organizations who are educated and trained in several disciplines, including law enforcement, health, and science. Various backgrounds, cultures, and vocabularies generate difficulties in understanding and interpretating terms

  6. Bubonic Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has the potential to be used as a weapon of bioterrorism; if this were to happen, the ... rat fleas and bubonic plague include India, Vietnam, parts of Africa, and the former Soviet Union. People ...

  7. 生物恐怖行为所致吸入性炭疽病的临床表现2例幸存病例报告%Clinical Presentation of Inhalational Anthrax Following Bioterrorism Exposure Report of 2 Surviving Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thom A.Mayer; Glenn Druckenbrod; Dan Hanfling; Naaz Fatteh; Anthony Napoli; Ashna Nayyar, MS, PA-C; Elise L. Berman; Susan Bersoff-Matcha; Cecele Murphy; James Earls; Scott Harper; Denis Pauze; Michael Nguyen; Jonathan Rosenthal; Donald Cerva, Jr

    2002-01-01

    @@ 近几周来,炭疽杆菌作为生物恐怖主义的武器,已从理论变成现实.随着含炭疽芽孢的信件邮寄至一位美国参议员,已在华盛顿特区主要邮电部门的工作人员发生5例吸入性炭疽病.本报告详细描述了其中2例的临床表现、诊断检查经过和初步治疗.此2例的临床病程在某些方面不同于教科书中描述的吸入性炭疽病的典型模式.1例病人入院前3天出现低热、寒战、咳嗽和全身不适,以后呼吸困难呈进行性加重并于入院当日咳血痰.另1例病人诉头痛进行性加重3天,伴恶心、寒战和盗汗,但入院当天并无呼吸系统症状.2例病人X线胸片均显示异常.非对照增强胸部CT显示纵隔淋巴结肿大,使医师对此2例作出吸入性炭疽病的推测性诊断.经血培养和多聚酶链反应检测确定了诊断.抗生素治疗包括,静脉应用环丙沙星、利福平和克林霉素.支持治疗可延缓吸入性炭疽病的进展,使病人生存至今.

  8. Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Bioterrorism has received a lot of attention in the first decade of this century. Biological agents are considered attractive weapons for bioterrorism as these are easy to obtain, comparatively inexpensive to produce and exhibit widespread fear and panic than the actual potential of physical damage. Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), the etiologic agent of anthrax is a Gram positive, spore forming, non-motile bacterium. This is supposed to be one of the most potent BW agents because its spore...

  9. Biological terrorism preparedness evaluating the performance of the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) syndromic surveillance algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Hegler, Benjamin L.

    2007-01-01

    After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, questions developed over how quickly the country could respond if a bioterrorism attack was to occur. "Syndromic surveillance" systems are a relatively new concept that is being implemented and used by public health practitioners to attempt to detect a bioterrorism attack earlier than would be possible using conventional biosurveillance methods. The idea behind using syndromic surveillance is to detect a bioterrorist attack by monitoring ...

  10. Current status of vaccine development for tularemia preparedness

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kee-Jong; Park, Pil-Gu; Seo, Sang-Hwan; Rhie, Gi-eun; Hwang, Kyuh-Jam

    2013-01-01

    Tularemia is a high-risk infectious disease caused by Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. Due to its high fatality at very low colony-forming units (less than 10), F. tularensis is considered as a powerful potential bioterrorism agent. Vaccine could be the most efficient way to prevent the citizen from infection of F. tularensis when the bioterrorism happens, but officially approved vaccine with both efficacy and safety is not developed yet. Research for the development of tularem...

  11. Assessment of community healthcare providers ability and willingness to respond to emergencies resulting from bioterrorist attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crane Jeffery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous findings have demonstrated that preparedness and planning within the public health system are inadequately developed to respond to an act of biological or chemical terrorism. Methods:This investigation used Internet-based surveys to assess the level of preparedness (PL and willingness to respond (WTR to a bioterrorism attack, and identify factors that predict PL and WTR among Florida community healthcare providers. Invitations were sent to 22,800 healthcare providers in Florida, which resulted in 2,279 respondents. Results: Respondents included physicians (n=604, nurses (n=1,152, and pharmacists (n=486. The results indicated that only 32% of Florida healthcare providers were competent and willing to respond to a bioterrorism attack, 82.7% of providers were willing to respond in their local community, and 53.6% within the State. Respondents were more competent in administrative skills than clinical knowledge (62.8% vs. 45%. Areas in which respondents had the highest competency were the initiation of treatment and recognition of their clinical and administrative roles. Areas in which respondents showed the lowest competency were the ability to identify cases and the ability to communicate risk to others. About 55% of the subjects had previous bioterrorism training and 31.5% had conducted emergency drills. Gender, race, previous training and drills, perceived threats of bioterrorism attack, perceived benefits of training and drills, and feeling prepared were all predictors of overall preparedness. Conclusions: The findings suggest that only one-third of Florida community healthcare providers were prepared for a bioterrorism attack, which is an insufficient response rate to effectively respond to a bioterrorism incident.

  12. Sequencing of 16S rRNA Gene: A Rapid Tool for Identification of Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Sacchi, Claudio T.; Whitney, Anne M.; Mayer, Leonard W.; Morey, Roger; Steigerwalt, Arnold; Boras, Ariana; Weyant, Robin S.; Popovic, Tanja

    2002-01-01

    In a bioterrorism event, a tool is needed to rapidly differentiate Bacillus anthracis from other closely related spore-forming Bacillus species. During the recent outbreak of bioterrorism-associated anthrax, we sequenced the 16S rRNA generom these species to evaluate the potential of 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a diagnostic tool. We found eight distinct 16S types among all 107 16S rRNA gene seqs fuences that differed from each other at 1 to 8 positions (0.06% to 0.5%). All 86 B. anthracis had...

  13. Detecting anthrax in the palm of your hand: applications of a smartphone microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erikson, Rebecca L.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2015-11-14

    Bacillus anthracis is a bacterial pathogen that causes the disease anthrax. In 2001, B. anthracis was used in a bioterrorism attack in the United States that resulted in 22 individuals becoming infected, 5 of whom died as a result of this attack. A great deal of attention has been dedicated to responding to bioterrorism events to reduce the potential loss of lives. One such area of research has focused on the development of new technologies to detect and respond to the intentional release of bacterial pathogens such as B. anthracis.

  14. Animal Botulism Outcomes in the AniBioThreat Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woudstra, Cédric; Tevell Åberg, Annica; Skarin, Hanna;

    2013-01-01

    and botulinum neurotoxins are considered potential weapons for bioterrorism and have been included in the Australia Group List of Biological Agents. In 2010 the European Commission (DG Justice, Freedom and Security) funded a 3-year project named AniBioThreat to improve the EU's capacity to counter animal...... bioterrorism threats. A detection portfolio with screening methods for botulism agents and incidents was needed to improve tracking and tracing of accidental and deliberate contamination of the feed and food chain with botulinum neurotoxins and other Clostridia. The complexity of this threat required acquiring...

  15. Hooked on Science: How an Ohio Teacher is Training Students to Be Linked in to Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article features Ohio teacher Carol Fleck's use of videoconferencing in teaching Contemporary BioScience and Genetics. Fleck, who says her initial vision for the class was "science without classroom walls," covers such topics as emerging diseases, bioterrorism, and forensic science. Collaboration between schools is a key part of the course…

  16. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  17. Centrifugal microfluidic platform for ultrasensitive detection of Botulinum Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botulinum neurotoxin – a global public health threat and category A bioterrorism agent - is the most toxic substance known and one of the most challenging toxins to detect due to its lethality at extremely low concentrations. Hence the live-mouse bioassay because of its superior sensitivity, remains...

  18. Disease: H00328 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ial use of the bacteria for bioterrorism has focused interest on it. B. anthracis causes symptoms ranging from cutaneous anthrax... that resolves spontaneously to gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax...ar bat bai bax] Bacillus cereus [GN:bal] anthrax toxin [KO:K11029 K11030 K08645] pore-forming toxin [KO:K110

  19. Gram Stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea . Gram-positive bacilli— Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) can cause skin infections or pneumonia (also a bioterrorism agent ); Listeria monocytogenes can cause foodborne ... an AFB (acid-fast bacillus) smear and culture may be ordered on a ...

  20. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... detention of food for human or animal consumption under the Bioterrorism Act (68 FR 25242 at 25250). The... rule) in the Federal Register of May 9, 2003 (68 FR 25242), proposing procedures for the administrative detention of an article of food. In the Federal Register of June 4, 2004 (69 FR 31660), the Agency...

  1. Pieces of Civic Intelligence: Towards a Capacities Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Civic intelligence is the capacity of collectivities--from small informal groups to humanity as a whole--to equitably and effectively address important shared problems such as poverty, bioterrorism, and natural disasters. It's an abstract concept that can be expressed in policy, art, demonstrations, or conversation. In this article, civic…

  2. Health significance of metal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    focus on existing web-based resources for further reading New information on community-based participatory research Timely new chapter on bioterrorism and preparedness Additional insights on the amelioration of disease-producing lifestyles Research-enhancing lists and catalogs based on federal and other...

  3. 最新英文防护文献报道(五):病原体自动探测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铁虎

    2004-01-01

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September ii, 2001,

  4. Usefulness of data from primary care for real-time surveillance of diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.M.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Verheij, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The increased threat of bioterrorism and the outbreaks of new infectious diseases require rapid identification of clusters of illness. The increased availability of electronic data in health care makes real-time surveillance of diseases possible. Therefore, we investigated the possibilit

  5. Prophylaxis after Exposure to Coxiella burnetii

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. David Swerdlow discusses prophylaxis after exposure to Coxiella burnetii. It is important to know who should be treated and how they should be treated after an intentional release with possible bioterrorism agents, including Coxiella burnetii.  Created: 10/2/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  6. Human monoclonal antibodies against anthrax lethal factor and protective antigen act independently to protect against Bacillus anthracis infection and enhance endogenous immunity to anthrax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, Mark T.; Li, Han; Williamson, E. Diane; LeButt, Chris S.; Flick-Smith, Helen C.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Westra, Hans; Galloway, Darrell; Mateczun, Alfred; Goldman, Stanley; Groen, Herman; Baillie, Les W. J.

    2007-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of bioterrorism and the absence of real-time detection systems have highlighted the need for an efficient postexposure therapy for Bacillus anthracis infection. One approach is passive immunization through the administration of antibodies that mitigate the biological action

  7. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis of Francisella tularensis strains demonstrates extensive genetic conservation within the species but identifies regions that are unique to the highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijsen, M.P.; Larsson, P.; Johansson, A.; Byström, M.; Eriksson, U.; Larsson, E.; Prior, R.G.; Sjöstedt, A.; Titball, R.W.; Forsman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a potent pathogen and a possible bioterrorism agent. Little is known, however, to explain the molecular basis for its virulence and the distinct differences in virulence found between the four recognized subspecies, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, F. tularensis subsp. medi

  8. Issues and Trends in Higher Education Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen-Smith, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Public speculation about bioterrorism and the increasing obesity epidemic are examples of current public health issues that continue to be illuminated in the spotlight. Major public health threats continue to drive the health job market and impact higher education health curricula (e.g., public health, health promotion, community health). Also,…

  9. 7 CFR 2.22 - Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 1531-1544); (xvii) Executive Order 11987, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 116; (xviii) Section 101(d), Organic.... (ii) Title II, Subtitles B and C, of the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and... products, the Assistant Secretary shall consult and coordinate activities of Department agencies with...

  10. Harmonization of European Laboratory Response networks by implementing CWA 15793: Use of a gap analysis and an "insider" exercise as tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundqvist, B.; Allard Bengtsson, U.; Wisselink, H.J.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Rotterdam, van B.; Kampert, E.; Bereczky, S.; Olsson, N.G.J.; Szekely Björndal, A.; Zini, S.; Allix, S.; Knutsson, R.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory response networks (LRNs) have been established for security reasons in several countries including the Netherlands, France, and Sweden. LRNs function in these countries as a preparedness measure for a coordinated diagnostic response capability in case of a bioterrorism incident or other b

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D10 values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased (P10 values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  12. Rapid and high-throughput detection of highly pathogenic bacteria by Ibis PLEX-ID technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Jacob

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we describe the identification of highly pathogenic bacteria using an assay coupling biothreat group-specific PCR with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS run on an Ibis PLEX-ID high-throughput platform. The biothreat cluster assay identifies most of the potential bioterrorism-relevant microorganisms including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei and pseudomallei, Brucella species, and Coxiella burnetii. DNA from 45 different reference materials with different formulations and different concentrations were chosen and sent to a service screening laboratory that uses the PCR/ESI-MS platform to provide a microbial identification service. The standard reference materials were produced out of a repository built up in the framework of the EU funded project "Establishment of Quality Assurances for Detection of Highly Pathogenic Bacteria of Potential Bioterrorism Risk" (EQADeBa. All samples were correctly identified at least to the genus level.

  13. 美国发布食品进口事先告知规章的过渡性执法政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董耿

    2004-01-01

    2003年12月11日,美国FDA与海关和边境防卫局(U.S.Bureauof Customs and Border Protection[CBP])发布了一项执法政策指南(compliance policy guide)。该政策指南阐述了他们在按照《2002年公众健康安全和生物恐怖活动防范与应对法》(Public Health Secu-rity and Bioterrorism Prepared-ness and Response Act of 2002)《反生物恐怖活动法》(BioterrorismAct)改善进口食品安全性的同时,维

  14. Biosurveillance: A Review and Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E. Kman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the terrorist attacks and anthrax release in 2001, almost $32 billion has been allocated to biodefense and biosurveillance in the USA alone. Surveillance in health care refers to the continual systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data. When attempting to detect agents of bioterrorism, surveillance can occur in several ways. Syndromic surveillance occurs by monitoring clinical manifestations of certain illnesses. Laboratory surveillance occurs by looking for certain markers or laboratory data, and environmental surveillance is the process by which the ambient air or environment is continually sampled for the presence of biological agents. This paper focuses on the ways by which we detect bioterrorism agents and the effectiveness of these systems.

  15. Science and Technology Review June 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, K.

    2002-06-01

    This Science and Technology Review has the following stories: (1) Fighting Bioterrorism, Fighting Cancer; (2) A Two-Pronged Attack on Bioterrorism--synthetic two-legged molecules will be excellent detectors of biowarfare agents and cancer cells; (3) Adaptive Optics Sharpen the View from Earth--astronomers are obtaining images with unprecedented resolution, thanks to telescopes equipped with adaptive optics developed at Livermore; (4) Experiments Re-create X Rays from Comets--Experiments using the Laboratory's electron beam ion trap and an x-ray spectrometer designed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are shedding light on how comets emit x rays as they pass the Sun; (5) Chemistry--50 Years of exploring the Material World--from isotopic analysis to atomic-level simulations of material behavior, Livermore's chemists and materials scientists apply their expertise to fulfill the Laboratory's mission.

  16. Pneumonic Tularemia in Rabbits Resembles the Human Disease as Illustrated by Radiographic and Hematological Changes after Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Douglas S.; Smith, Le'Kneitah; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Ortiz, Luis A.; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Background Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of the gram negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Because of concerns that tularemia could be used as a bioterrorism agent, vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed. Animal models of pneumonic tularemia with a pathophysiology similar to the human disease are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these potential medical countermeasures. Principal Findings Rabbits exposed to aerosols containing Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 ...

  17. Anthrax Protective Antigen Delivered by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Ty21a Protects Mice from a Lethal Anthrax Spore Challenge▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, Manuel; Wu, Yanping; Singh, Sunil; Tod J Merkel; Bhattacharyya, Siba; Blake, Milan S.; Kopecko, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax disease, is a proven weapon of bioterrorism. Currently, the only licensed vaccine against anthrax in the United States is AVA Biothrax, which, although efficacious, suffers from several limitations. This vaccine requires six injectable doses over 18 months to stimulate protective immunity, requires a cold chain for storage, and in many cases has been associated with adverse effects. In this study, we modified the B. anthracis protective ant...

  18. A cationic lipid-formulated plasmid DNA vaccine confers sustained antibody-mediated protection against aerosolized anthrax spores

    OpenAIRE

    Hermanson, G; Whitlow, V.; Parker,S; Tonsky, K.; Rusalov, D.; Ferrari, M.; Lalor, P; Komai, M.; Mere, R.; Bell, M.; Brenneman, K; Mateczun, A.; Evans, T.; Kaslow, D.; Galloway, D

    2004-01-01

    DNA vaccines provide an attractive technology platform against bioterrorism agents due to their safety record in humans and ease of construction, testing, and manufacture. We have designed monovalent and bivalent anthrax plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccines encoding genetically detoxified protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) proteins and tested their immunogenicity and ability to protect rabbits from an aerosolized inhalation spore challenge. Immune responses after two or three injections of...

  19. A plant-produced protective antigen vaccine confers protection in rabbits against a lethal aerosolized challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores

    OpenAIRE

    Chichester, Jessica A.; Manceva, Slobodanka D; Rhee, Amy; Coffin, Megan V.; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Mett, Vadim; Shamloul, Moneim; Norikane, Joey; Streatfield, Stephen J.; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2013-01-01

    The potential use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioterrorism weapon threatens the security of populations globally, requiring the immediate availability of safe, efficient and easily delivered anthrax vaccine for mass vaccination. Extensive research efforts have been directed toward the development of recombinant subunit vaccines based on protective antigen (PA), the principal virulence factor of B. anthracis. Among the emerging technologies for the production of these vaccine antigens is our la...

  20. Bacillus anthracis infections – new possibilities of treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Żakowska; Michał Bartoszcze; Marcin Niemcewicz; Agata Bielawska-Drózd; Józef Knap; Piotr Cieślik; Krzysztof Chomiczewski; Janusz Kocik

    2015-01-01

    [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. [i]Bacillus anthracis[/i] is one of biological agents which may be used in bioterrorism attacks. The aim of this study a review of the new treatment possibilities of anthrax, with particular emphasis on the treatment of pulmonary anthrax. [b]Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge[/b]. Pulmonary anthrax, as the most dangerous clinical form of the disease, is also extremely difficult to treat. Recently, considerable progress in finding new dru...

  1. Genomic Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates Selected for Medical Countermeasures Testing: Comparative Genomics Associated with Differential Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Sahl, Jason W.; Allender, Christopher J.; Colman, Rebecca E.; Califf, Katy J.; Schupp, James M.; Currie, Bart J.; Van Zandt, Kristopher E.; H Carl Gelhaus; Paul Keim; Apichai Tuanyok

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis and a potential bioterrorism agent. In the development of medical countermeasures against B. pseudomallei infection, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) animal Rule recommends using well-characterized strains in animal challenge studies. In this study, whole genome sequence data were generated for 6 B. pseudomallei isolates previously identified as candidates for animal challenge studies; an additional 5 isolates were seque...

  2. Antibodies are necessary for rVSV/ZEBOV-GP–mediated protection against lethal Ebola virus challenge in nonhuman primates

    OpenAIRE

    Marzi, Andrea; Engelmann, Flora; Feldmann, Friederike; Haberthur, Kristen; Shupert, W. Lesley; Brining, Douglas; Scott, Dana P.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Michael G Katze; Feldmann, Heinz; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2013-01-01

    Ebola viruses cause hemorrhagic disease in humans and nonhuman primates with high fatality rates. These viruses pose a significant health concern worldwide due to the lack of approved therapeutics and vaccines as well as their potential misuse as bioterrorism agents. Although not licensed for human use, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) expressing the filovirus glycoprotein (GP) has been shown to protect macaques from Ebola virus and Marburg virus infections, both prophylactically...

  3. New smallpox vaccines for an ancient scourge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Sharon E

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of variola virus, a Class A agent of bioterrorism, remains a concern. In an effort to prepare for a possible smallpox outbreak due to an intentional release of variola, the U.S. government and industry have been evaluating vaccines stored in the National Strategic Stockpile including cell culture grown ACAM2000 and modified vaccinia Ankara, IMVAMUNE, in clinical studies. This paper discusses smallpox vaccines studies conducted at the Saint Louis University Center for Vaccine Development.

  4. The Burkholderia pseudomallei Δasd Mutant Exhibits Attenuated Intracellular Infectivity and Imparts Protection against Acute Inhalation Melioidosis in Mice ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Michael H. Norris; Propst, Katie L.; Kang, Yun; Dow, Steven W.; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Hoang, Tung T.

    2011-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the cause of serious and life-threatening diseases in humans, is of national biodefense concern because of its potential use as a bioterrorism agent. This microbe is listed as a select agent by the CDC; therefore, development of vaccines is of significant importance. Here, we further investigated the growth characteristics of a recently created B. pseudomallei 1026b Δasd mutant in vitro, in a cell model, and in an animal model of infection. The mutant was typified b...

  5. Evasion of Complement-Mediated Lysis and Complement C3 Deposition Are Regulated by Francisella tularensis Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen1

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Corey D.; Soni, Shilpa; Gunn, John S.; Schlesinger, Larry S.

    2008-01-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis (Ft) is a potential weapon of bioterrorism when aerosolized. Macrophage infection is necessary for disease progression and efficient phagocytosis by human macrophages requires serum opsonization by complement. Microbial complement activation leads to surface deposition of a highly regulated protein complex resulting in opsonization or membrane lysis. The nature of complement component C3 deposition, i.e., C3b (opsonization and lysis) or C3bi (opsonization ...

  6. Assessing the effectiveness of biosurveillance via discrete event simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Bioterrorism is not a new threat, but the potential for disastrous outcomes is greater than it has ever been. In order to confront this threat, biosurveillance systems are utilized to provide early warning of health threats, early detection of health events, and situational awareness of disease activity. To date, there is little known about the performance of such biosurveillance systems in comparison to diagnosis capabilities of medi...

  7. Dentistry and Mass Disaster – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, Mark David Edward; Sakthi, D Sri

    2014-01-01

    Mass disaster situations may arise from natural or manmade circumstances like bioterrorism and dentists or dental responders have significant roles in human identification, following such occurrences. The various roles of dentists in mass disaster management, that include bio surveillance and notification, diagnosis and monitoring, triage, referrals of patients, immunizations, decontamination and infection control would be considered. The varying extents of use of forensic dental techniques a...

  8. Traceability for Food Safety and Quality Assurance: Mandatory Systems Miss the Mark

    OpenAIRE

    Golan, Elise H.; Krissoff, Barry; Kuchler, Fred; Nelson, Kenneth E.; Price, Gregory K.; Calvin, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Traceability systems are record-keeping systems that are primarily used to help keep foods with different attributes separate from one another. When information about a particular attribute of a food product is systematically recorded from creation through marketing, traceability for that attribute is established. Recently, policy makers in many countries have begun weighing the usefulness of mandatory traceability for managing such diverse problems as the threat of bio-terrorism, country-of-...

  9. Cethromycin-Mediated Protection against the Plague Pathogen Yersinia pestis in a Rat Model of Infection and Comparison with Levofloxacin ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Brackman, Sheri M.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Sha, Jian; Erova, Tatiana E.; Yeager, Linsey A.; Peterson, Johnny W.; Xu, Ze-Qi; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis, has historically been regarded as one of the deadliest pathogens known to mankind, having caused three major pandemics. After being transmitted by the bite of an infected flea arthropod vector, Y. pestis can cause three forms of human plague: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic, with the latter two having very high mortality rates. With increased threats of bioterrorism, it is likely that a multidrug-resistant Y. pestis strain would be emplo...

  10. Monoclonal Antibody Therapies against Anthrax

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaochun Chen; Mahtab Moayeri; Robert Purcell

    2011-01-01

    Anthrax is a highly lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It not only causes natural infection in humans but also poses a great threat as an emerging bioterror agent. The lethality of anthrax is primarily attributed to the two major virulence factors: toxins and capsule. An extensive effort has been made to generate therapeutically useful monoclonal antibodies to each of the virulence components: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and ede...

  11. PCR Assay To Detect Bacillus anthracis Spores in Heat-Treated Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Fasanella, A.; Losito, S.; Adone, R.; Ciuchini, F.; Trotta, T.; Altamura, S. A.; D. Chiocco; Ippolito, G

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in anthrax is due to its potential use in bioterrorism and as a biowarfare agent against civilian populations. The development of rapid and sensitive techniques to detect anthrax spores in suspicious specimens is the most important aim for public health. With a view to preventing exposure of laboratory workers to viable Bacillus anthracis spores, this study evaluated the suitability of PCR assays for detecting anthrax spores previously inactivated at 121°C for 45 min. The resu...

  12. GcoGSA-BA: A Global Core Genome SNP Analysis for Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Akifmi; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    As an issue of biosecurity, it is important to identify the origin of a suspected sample to distinguish whether it originated from the release of a bioterrorism agent or from environmental contamination with a virulent agent. Here we have developed an analytical pipeline that can infer the phylogenetic position of Bacillus cereus group species, including B. anthracis, from next-generation sequencing reads without extensive genomics skills. GcoGSA-BA can also detect the existence of anthrax pl...

  13. Anthrax lethal and edema toxins in anthrax pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shihui; Moayeri, Mahtab; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiological effects resulting from many bacterial diseases are caused by exotoxins released by the bacteria. Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming bacterium, is such a pathogen, causing anthrax through a combination of bacterial infection and toxemia. B. anthracis causes natural infection in humans and animals and has been a top bioterrorism concern since the 2001 anthrax attacks in the USA. The exotoxins secreted by B. anthracis use CMG2 as the major toxin receptor and play essentia...

  14. Anthrax: has the clinical milieu changed since 2001?

    OpenAIRE

    Adalja, Amesh A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the anthrax attacks of 2001 (Amerithrax), several important improvements in the knowledge of Bacillus anthracis and the clinical condition it causes have occurred. While much remains to be known about the optimal management of anthrax patients, several approaches that were not widely utilized, available, or known in 2001 would be used in the treatment of critically ill anthrax patients in 2012.Keywords: Anthrax; bioterrorism(Published: 16 July 2012)Citation: Journal of Community Hospita...

  15. Mucosal Immunization Induces a Higher Level of Lasting Neutralizing Antibody Response in Mice by a Replication-Competent Smallpox Vaccine: Vaccinia Tiantan Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Lu; Wenbo Yu; Xiaoxing Huang; Haibo Wang; Li Liu; Zhiwei Chen

    2011-01-01

    The possible bioterrorism threat using the variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, has promoted us to further investigate the immunogenicity profiles of existing vaccines. Here, we study for the first time the immunogenicity profile of a replication-competent smallpox vaccine (vaccinia Tiantan, VTT strain) for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) through mucosal vaccination, which is noninvasive and has a critical implication for massive vaccination programs. Four different routes ...

  16. Anthrax Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Daniel A.; Caitlin W. Hicks; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described ...

  17. Effective Antimicrobial Regimens for Use in Humans for Therapy of Bacillus anthracis Infections and Postexposure Prophylaxis†

    OpenAIRE

    Deziel, Mark R.; Heine, Henry; Louie, Arnold; Kao, Mark; Byrne, William R.; Basset, Jennifer; Miller, Lynda; Bush, Karen; Kelly, Michael; Drusano, G L

    2005-01-01

    Expanded options for treatments directed against pathogens that can be used for bioterrorism are urgently needed. Treatment regimens directed against such pathogens can be identified only by using data derived from in vitro and animal studies. It is crucial that these studies reliably predict the efficacy of proposed treatments in humans. The objective of this study was to identify a levofloxacin treatment regimen that will serve as an effective therapy for Bacillus anthracis infections and p...

  18. Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits the Effects of Gram Positive Select Agents on Eukaryotic Cells†

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Marnie L.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2006-01-01

    Many exotoxins of gram positive bacteria, such as superantigens (staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 [TSST-1], and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins) and anthrax toxin are bioterrorism agents that cause diseases by immunostimulation or cytotoxicity. Glycerol monolaurate (GML), a fatty acid monoester found naturally in humans, has been reported to prevent synthesis of gram positive bacterial exotoxins. This study explored the ability of GML to inhibit the effects of exoto...

  19. Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits Virulence Factor Production in Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Vetter, Sara M; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2005-01-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, has been brought to the public's attention because of the 2001 bioterrorism attacks. However, anthrax is a disease that poses agricultural threats in the United States as well as human populations in Europe, China, Africa, and Australia. Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a compound that has been shown to inhibit exotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus and other gram-positive bacteria. Here, we study the effects of GML on growth and toxin production in B...

  20. A Field Investigation of Bacillus anthracis Contamination of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Other Washington, D.C., Buildings during the Anthrax Attack of October 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, James A.; Cooper, Mary; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda; Black, Scott; Miller, David; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Manthey, Erlynn; Breeze, Roger; Perdue, Michael L

    2003-01-01

    In response to a bioterrorism attack in the Washington, D.C., area in October 2001, a mobile laboratory (ML) was set up in the city to conduct rapid molecular tests on environmental samples for the presence of Bacillus anthracis spores and to route samples for further culture analysis. The ML contained class I laminar-flow hoods, a portable autoclave, two portable real-time PCR devices (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device [RAPID]), and miscellaneous supplies and equipment to pr...

  1. The role of anthrolysin O in gut epithelial barrier disruption during Bacillus anthracis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Brian L.; Lodolce, James P.; Kolodziej, Lauren; Boone, David L.; Tang, Wei Jen

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax, caused by the bacterial infection of Bacillus anthracis, posts a significant bioterrorism threat by its relatively high mortality rate in humans. Different from inhalational anthrax by the route of infection, accumulating evidence indicates the bypass of vegetative bacteria across GI epithelium is required to initiate GI anthrax. Previously, we reported that purified anthrolysin O (ALO), instead of tripartite anthrax edema and lethal toxins, is capable of disrup...

  2. Identification of a LolC Homologue in Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Novel Protective Antigen for Melioidosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Harland, David N; Chu, Karen; Haque, Ashraful; Nelson, Michelle; Walker, Nicola J.; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Timothy P.; Moore, Benjamin; Brown, Katherine A.; Bancroft, Gregory; Titball, Richard W.; Atkins, Helen S.

    2007-01-01

    Melioidosis is an emerging disease of humans in Southeast Asia and tropical Australia. The bacterium causing this disease, Burkholderia pseudomallei, is also considered a bioterrorism agent, and as yet there is no licensed vaccine for preventing B. pseudomallei infection. In this study, we evaluated selected proteins (LolC, PotF, and OppA) of the ATP-binding cassette systems of B. pseudomallei as candidate vaccine antigens. Nonmembrane regions of the B. pseudomallei proteins were expressed an...

  3. Public Response to an Anthrax Attack: A Multiethnic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    SteelFisher, Gillian K; Blendon, Robert J.; Brulé, Amanda S.; Ben-Porath, Eran N.; Ross, Laura J.; Atkins, Bret M.

    2012-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax attacks emphasized the need to develop outreach that would more effectively support racial/ethnic minority populations during a bioterrorism incident. Given the importance of antibiotic prophylaxis in a future anthrax attack, it should be a priority to better support racial/ethnic minorities in mass dispensing programs. To examine the needs and perspectives of racial/ethnic minorities, this study used a nationally representative poll of 1,852 adults, including 1,240 whites, 2...

  4. The Systemic and Pulmonary Immune Response to Staphylococcal Enterotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Anthony T.; Sanjeev Kumar; Soo-Mun Ngoi; Antoine Ménoret

    2010-01-01

    In response to environmental cues the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus synthesizes and releases proteinaceous enterotoxins. These enterotoxins are natural etiologic entities of severe food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome, and acute diseases. Staphylococcal enterotoxins are currently listed as Category B Bioterrorism Agents by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. They are associated with respiratory illnesses, and may contribute to exacerbation of pulmonary disease. This likely s...

  5. Leadership Principles for Developing a Statewide Public Health and Clinical Laboratory System

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Steven A.; Brokopp, Charles D.; Size, Tim

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation established the national Laboratory Response Network (LRN) for bioterrorism readiness. A more broad application of the LRN is the National Laboratory System (NLS), an effort to promote the 10 Essential Public Health Services and the Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories (hereafter, Core Functions). State publ...

  6. System of Systems - A Holistic Approach for Telemedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Petrescu; Viorel Petcu

    2011-01-01

    New pressure factors are threatening the sustainability of the modern health systems. According to theEuropean Commission assessments [1], the demographic changes, are changing the diseases patternsand, along with the bioterrorism and the major physical and biological hazards induced by thetechnological and economic growth is causing new transmissible disease patterns. A second majoraspect is the population ageing – a phenomena which is affecting the developed countries. All thoseissues, cata...

  7. Detection of Ammonia in Liquids Using Millimeter Wave Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmi Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of ammonia plays a vital role for counter-bioterrorism applications. Using millimeter wave absorption measurements, ammonia dissolved in water solution is analyzed and compared to water-only solution. The inversion of ammonia molecule results in split rotational spectral lines and transitions of these lines can be detected. Two-port measurements were carried out with vector network analyzer and measurements revealed that ammonia presence can be identified, especially between 30–35 GHz.

  8. Syndromic surveillance:A necessary public health tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2012-01-01

    Of late much has been said about emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. The focus has been on continuous public health surveillance for early detection of outbreaks and potential threats. Preparedness is the way forward and relevant institutions and organizations need to make the necessary investments early. Familiarity, good coordination, active participation and a change of mindset amongst personnel is crucial to make the system work. We also share a general approach to using electronic Emergency Department data for syndromic surveillance.

  9. Public health preparedness evaluation and measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Savoia; Jamie Morano; David Cote; Sanjay Rampal; Diego Villa; Marcia Testa

    2004-01-01

    Dear Sir;
    Public health preparedness refers to the ability of different local, state, and federal entities to carry out a prompt,effective response to any public health threat.[1] Indeed,it is clear that the term “threat”could embrace
    a myriad of elements. Recently, the main focus has been on bioterrorism, defined as the terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive weapons of mass destruction.

    However, preparedness ...

  10. The current state of bioterrorist attack surveillance and preparedness in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Grundmann O

    2014-01-01

    Oliver Grundmann Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: The use of biological agents as weapons to disrupt established structures, such as governments and especially larger urban populations, has been prevalent throughout history. Following the anthrax letters sent to various government officials in the fall of 2001, the US has been investing in prevention, surveillance, and preparation for a potential bioterrorism attack...

  11. Biologické zbraně a připravenost složek IZS na biologický útok

    OpenAIRE

    KVÍDEROVÁ, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    As the topic for my Bachelor Thesis I have chosen the Biological Weapons and Readiness of Integrated Rescue System for Biological Attack. The bioterrorism has recently become one of the most critical worldwide problems. The terrorist organizations that would misuse the biological weapons as a tool of pressure and blackmail to enforce their own interests would choose mainly civilian population as the target of their attack. The Integrated Rescue System plays an important role in protecting the...

  12. Antibody Quality and Protection from Lethal Ebola Virus Challenge in Nonhuman Primates Immunized with Rabies Virus Based Bivalent Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Blaney, Joseph E.; Marzi, Andrea; Willet, Mallory; Papaneri, Amy B.; Wirblich, Christoph; Feldmann, Friederike; Holbrook, Michael; Jahrling, Peter; Feldmann, Heinz; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2013-01-01

    Author Summary Ebola virus (EBOV) has been associated with outbreaks in human and nonhuman primate populations since 1976. With a fatality rate approaching 90%, EBOV is one of the most lethal infectious diseases in humans. The increased frequency of EBOV outbreaks along with its potential to be used as a bioterrorism agent has dramatically strengthened filovirus vaccine research and development. While there are currently no approved vaccines or post exposure treatments available for human use...

  13. Microbial forensics: The next great forensic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Deliberately spreading disease among the enemy has been occasionally practiced over hundreds of years. But modern bioterrorism is more chilling than ever because of rapidly expanding knowledge about infectious diseases and biotoxins and their potential to wreak havoc in complex, interdependent societies. The nation is in the process of developing a strong microbial forensic program to attribute and prosecute such attacks, and perhaps deter them.

  14. Biopreparedness in the Age of Genetically Engineered Pathogens and Open Access Science: An Urgent Need for a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, C Raina

    2015-09-01

    Our systems, thinking, training, legislation, and policies are lagging far behind momentous changes in science, and leaving us vulnerable in biosecurity. Synthetic viruses and genetic engineering of pathogens are a reality, with a rapid acceleration of dual-use science. The public availability of methods for dual-use genetic engineering, coupled with the insider threat, poses an unprecedented risk for biosecurity. Case studies including the 1984 Rajneesh salmonella bioterrorism attack and the controversy over engineered transmissible H5N1 influenza are analyzed. Simple probability analysis shows that the risks of dual-use research are likely to outweigh potential benefits, yet this type of analysis has not been done to date. Many bioterrorism agents may also occur naturally. Distinguishing natural from unnatural epidemics is far more difficult than other types of terrorism. Public health systems do not have mechanisms for routinely considering bioterrorism, and an organizational culture that is reluctant to consider it. A collaborative model for flagging aberrant outbreak patterns and referral from the health to security sectors is proposed. Vulnerabilities in current approaches to biosecurity need to be reviewed and strengthened collaboratively by all stakeholders. New systems, legislation, collaborative operational models, and ways of thinking are required to effectively address the threat to global biosecurity. PMID:26327545

  15. Knowledge and Attitude of Iranian Red Crescent Society Volunteers in Dealing with Bioterrorist attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Bahreini Moghadam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioterrorism is a worldwide problem and has been the focus of attention during recent decades. There is no precise information on the knowledge, attitude, and preparedness of Iranian Red Crescent volunteers in dealing with bioterrorism. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the above-mentioned parameters in Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, the knowledge of 120 volunteers was evaluated and rated as poor, moderate, and good. In addition, attitude of the volunteers and preparedness of Mahabad Red Crescent Society was rated as inappropriate and appropriate using a questionnaire. Results: The mean age of volunteers was 32.0 ± 8.2 years (62.5% male. 2 (1.7% volunteers had good knowledge while 94 (78.3% had no knowledge regarding bioterrorist attack management. Only 1 (0.8%  volunteer had appropriate attitude and 6 (5.0% stated their preparedness for being sent out to the crisis zone. 116 volunteers (96.7% indicated that Mahabad Red Crescent Society has an inappropriate level of preparedness to encounter bioterrorist attacks. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed poor knowledge and inappropriate attitude of Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers in encountering probable bioterrorist attacks. Furthermore, the Red Crescent Society of this town had an inappropriate level of preparedness in the field of bioterrorism from the viewpoint of the studied volunteers.

  16. Fluorescent Quantum Dots for Biological Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gene; Nadeau, Jay; Nealson, Kenneth; Storrie-Lomardi, Michael; Bhartia, Rohit

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots that can serve as "on/off" labels for bacteria and other living cells are undergoing development. The "on/off" characterization of these quantum dots refers to the fact that, when properly designed and manufactured, they do not fluoresce until and unless they come into contact with viable cells of biological species that one seeks to detect. In comparison with prior fluorescence-based means of detecting biological species, fluorescent quantum dots show promise for greater speed, less complexity, greater sensitivity, and greater selectivity for species of interest. There are numerous potential applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and detection of bioterrorism.

  17. Smallpox: a disease of the past? Consideration for midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Carolyn M; Martinelli, Angela M; Foster, Stanley O; Bonney, Elizabeth A; Strickland, Ora L

    2003-01-01

    Smallpox infection was often more severe in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women or in men, regardless of vaccination status. Women with smallpox infection during pregnancy have higher rates of abortions, stillbirths, and preterm deliveries than women without the disease. Pregnant women have high incidences of hemorrhagic-type and flat-type smallpox, which are associated with extremely high fatality rates. Although smallpox was eradicated in the late 1970s, current international concern exists regarding the potential use of smallpox virus as an agent for bioterrorism. This manuscript reviews clinical aspects of smallpox, smallpox immunization, and outcomes in pregnant women.

  18. Group interest versus self-interest in smallpox vaccination policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Chris T; Galvani, Alison P; Earn, David J D

    2003-09-01

    The recent threat of bioterrorism has fueled debate on smallpox vaccination policy for the United States. Certain policy proposals call for voluntary mass vaccination; however, if individuals decide whether to vaccinate according to self-interest, the level of herd immunity achieved may differ from what is best for the population as a whole. We present a synthesis of game theory and epidemic modeling that formalizes this conflict between self-interest and group interest and shows that voluntary vaccination is unlikely to reach the group-optimal level. This shortfall results in a substantial increase in expected mortality after an attack.

  19. [Molecular-genetic approaches to diagnosis and intraspecific typing of causative agents of glanders and melioidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, V A; Iliukhin, V I

    2005-01-01

    Pathogenic Burkholderia--Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei--are causative agents of glanders and melioidosis, severe infectious diseases of man and animals. They are regarded as potential agents of bioterrorism. The existing bacteriological and immunological methods of identification of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are not efficient enough for the rapid diagnosis and typing of strains. Described in the paper are molecular methods of detection of the agents by PCR, hybridization and strain typing made on the basis of bacterial total cell protein profiles, RAPD, ribotyping as well as of plasmid and DNA microrestriction analyses.

  20. [The use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of the agents of glanders and melioidosis using experimental infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altukhova, V V; Antonov, V A; Tkachenko, G A; Zinchenko, O V; Zamaraev, V S; Plekhanova, N G; Iliukhin, V I; Trofimov, D Iu

    2007-01-01

    Glanders and melioidosis are severe infectious diseases of people and animals. The causative agents of these infections refer to the potential agents of bioterrorism of group B. In this work the possibility of use of flagellin-based primers for the identification of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei and for diagnosis of experimental glanders and melioidosis was studied. The obtained results permit to make a conclusion that PCR using the developed primers may be recommended for the incorporation in the scheme of laboratory diagnosis of glanders and melioidosis both for the identification of clean cultures and in experimental clinical material.

  1. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei: the causative micro-organisms of glanders and melioidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Jacob

    2007-11-01

    Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei are the causative micro-organisms of Glanders and Melioidosis, respectively. Although now rare in Western countries, both micro-organisms have recently gained much interest because of their unique potential as bioterrorism agents. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of Melioidosis and Glanders. Recent patents relating to these micro-organisms, especially potential vaccines, are presented. Continued research and development is urgently needed, especially in regard to rapid and accurate diagnosis of melioidosis and glanders, efficacious therapy and primary and secondary prevention.

  2. Anthrax lethal and edema toxins in anthrax pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shihui; Moayeri, Mahtab; Leppla, Stephen H

    2014-06-01

    The pathophysiological effects resulting from many bacterial diseases are caused by exotoxins released by the bacteria. Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming bacterium, is such a pathogen, causing anthrax through a combination of bacterial infection and toxemia. B. anthracis causes natural infection in humans and animals and has been a top bioterrorism concern since the 2001 anthrax attacks in the USA. The exotoxins secreted by B. anthracis use capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2) as the major toxin receptor and play essential roles in pathogenesis during the entire course of the disease. This review focuses on the activities of anthrax toxins and their roles in initial and late stages of anthrax infection.

  3. Detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA by LightCycler PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Constance A.; Uhl, James R.; Hadfield, Ted L.; David, John C.; Meyer, Richard F.; Smith, Thomas F.; Cockerill III, Franklin R.

    2002-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease that is also well recognized as a potential agent of bioterrorism. Routine culture and biochemical testing methods are useful for the identification of Bacillus anthracis, but a definitive identification may take 24 to 48 h or longer and may require that specimens be referred to another laboratory. Virulent isolates of B. anthracis contain two plasmids (pX01 and pX02) with unique targets that allow the rapid and specific identification of B. anthracis by PCR. We ...

  4. The Need for Continued Development of Ricin Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Reisler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ricin toxin, an extremely potent and heat-stable toxin produced from the bean of the ubiquitous Ricinus communis (castor bean plant, has been categorized by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as a category B biothreat agent that is moderately easy to disseminate. Ricin has the potential to be used as an agent of biological warfare and bioterrorism. Therefore, there is a critical need for continued development of ricin countermeasures. A safe and effective prophylactic vaccine against ricin that was FDA approved for “at risk” individuals would be an important first step in assuring the availability of medical countermeasures against ricin.

  5. Ebola Virus ─ A Global Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Mejbah Uddin Ahmed; Sushmita Roy

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is a filamentous, enveloped, non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus. It belongs to the Filoviridae and was first recognized near the Ebola River valley in Zaire in 1976. Since then most of the outbreaks have occurred to both human and nonhuman primates in sub-Saharan Africa. Ebola virus causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to hemorrhagic fever, it could be used as a bioterrorism agent. Although its natural reservoir is...

  6. Is there a way out for the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Angelo; Binoun A Egom, Christian; Kruzliak, Peter; Egom, Emmanuel E

    2015-10-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, primarily affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, has exceeded all previous Ebola outbreaks in the number of cases and in international response. Although infections only occur frequently in Western Africa, the virus has the potential to spread globally and is classified as a category A pathogen that could be misused as a bioterrorism agent. This review aims (i) to discuss the latest data to aid our current recommendations for the prevention and control of the Ebola virus infection, (ii) to review its pathophysiology as well as offering insights on the most current data available about Ebola vaccine progress and potential use.

  7. Advanced Development of the rF1V and rBV A/B Vaccines: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kate Hart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of vaccines for microorganisms and bacterial toxins with the potential to be used as biowarfare and bioterrorism agents is an important component of the US biodefense program. DVC is developing two vaccines, one against inhalational exposure to botulinum neurotoxins A1 and B1 and a second for Yersinia pestis, with the ultimate goal of licensure by the FDA under the Animal Rule. Progress has been made in all technical areas, including manufacturing, nonclinical, and clinical development and testing of the vaccines, and in assay development. The current status of development of these vaccines, and remaining challenges are described in this chapter.

  8. Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzenbach, Linda D; Buttner, Mark P; Cruz, Patricia

    2004-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of airborne microorganisms has received attention in recent years owing to concerns with mold contamination in indoor environments and the threat of bioterrorism. Traditionally, the detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms has been conducted using light microscopy and/or culture-based methods; however, these analyses are time-consuming, laborious, subjective and lack sensitivity and specificity. The use of molecular methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification, can enhance monitoring strategies by increasing sensitivity and specificity, while decreasing the time required for analysis.

  9. Structural Characterisation of the Beta-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthases, FabF and FabH, of Yersinia pestis

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Nanson; Himiari, Zainab; Swarbrick, Crystall M. D.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic, pneumonic, and septicaemic plague, remains a major public health threat, with outbreaks of disease occurring in China, Madagascar, and Peru in the last five years. The existence of multidrug resistant Y. pestis and the potential of this bacterium as a bioterrorism agent illustrates the need for new antimicrobials. The β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthases, FabB, FabF, and FabH, catalyse the elongation of fatty acids as part of the type II f...

  10. 警惕生物恐怖袭击

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫海宁; 张毅; 卫好国

    2009-01-01

    @@ 二十一世纪初的生物恐怖(bioterrorism)施放首先发生在美国"9·11"恐怖袭击后的几起炭疽芽孢邮件,共造成50多人被感染和5人因患肺炭疽而死亡[1],因而生物恐怖威胁美国并震惊世界引起公众恐慌和社会混乱.

  11. 美国《食品反恐怖法》浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思行

    2004-01-01

    根据美国《2002年公共卫生健康安全及生物恐怖主义准备及应对法》(Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002)所赋予的权力,美国食品药物管理局(FDA)宣布几项新的管理草案,要求出口海产品至美国的个人和公司都要严格执行。

  12. Flow-cytometric Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kamboj

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Flow-cytometric technique has been established as a powerful tool for detection andidentification of microbiological agents. Unambiguous and rapid detection of Bacillus anthracisspores has been reported using immunoglobulin G-fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate againstlive spores. In addition to the high sensitivity, the present technique could differentiate betweenspores of closely related species, eg, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis using fluorescenceintensity. The technique can be used for detection of live as well as inactivated spores makingit more congenial for screening of suspected samples of bioterrorism.

  13. Expansion of Microbial Forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedes, Sarah E; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Microbial forensics has been defined as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of evidence related to bioterrorism, biocrimes, hoaxes, or the accidental release of a biological agent or toxin for attribution purposes. Over the past 15 years, technology, particularly massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics advances now allow the characterization of microorganisms for a variety of human forensic applications, such as human identification, body fluid characterization, postmortem interval estimation, and biocrimes involving tracking of infectious agents. Thus, microbial forensics should be more broadly described as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of microbial evidence in criminal and civil cases for investigative purposes. PMID:26912746

  14. Biosecurity reference : CFR-listed agent and toxin summaries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Natalie Beth

    2003-09-01

    This reference document provides summary information on the animal, plant, zoonotic, and human pathogens and toxins regulated and categorized by 9 CFR 331 and 7 CFR 121, 'Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Possession, Use and Transfer of Biological Agents and Toxins,' and 42 CFR 73, 'Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins.' Summary information includes, at a minimum, a description of the agent and its associated symptoms; often additional information is provided on the diagnosis, treatment, geographic distribution, transmission, control and eradication, and impacts on public health.

  15. Globalization and disease: in an unequal world, unequal health!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marchiori Buss

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, originally presented at an event held by the National Institutes of Health (NIH in the United States, the author analyzes the repercussions of globalization on various health aspects: the spread of infectious and parasitic diseases, bioterrorism, and new behavioral patterns in health, among others. He goes on to examine the positive and negative effects of international agreements on health, particularly in the trade area, including the TRIPS Agreement on medicines in the area of public health. The paper concludes that the resumption of cooperation among nations is the best way to achieve world progress in public health.

  16. Full-spectrum disease response : beyond just the flu.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knazovich, Michael Ward; Cox, Warren B.; Henderson, Samuel Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Why plan beyond the flu: (1) the installation may be the target of bioterrorism - National Laboratory, military base collocated in large population center; and (2) International Airport - transport of infectious agents to the area - Sandia is a global enterprise and staff visit many foreign countries. In addition to the Pandemic Plan, Sandia has developed a separate Disease Response Plan (DRP). The DRP addresses Category A, B pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The DRP contains the Cities Readiness Initiative sub-plan for disbursement of Strategic National Stockpile assets.

  17. When pestilence prevails...physician responsibilities in epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Samuel J; Wynia, Matthew K

    2004-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism, the emergence of the SARS epidemic, and a recent focus on professionalism among physicians, present a timely opportunity for a review of, and renewed commitment to, physician obligations to care for patients during epidemics. The professional obligation to care for contagious patients is part of a larger "duty to treat," which historically became accepted when 1) a risk of nosocomial infection was perceived, 2) an organized professional body existed to promote the duty, and 3) the public came to rely on the duty. Physicians' responses to epidemics from the Hippocratic era to the present suggests an evolving acceptance of the professional duty to treat contagious patients, reaching a long-held peak between 1847 and the 1950's. There has been some professional retrenchment against this duty to treat in the last 40 years but, we argue, conditions favoring acceptance of the duty are met today. A renewed embrace of physicians' duty to treat patients during epidemics, despite conditions of personal risk, might strengthen medicine's relationship with society, improve society's capacity to prepare for threats such as bioterrorism and new epidemics, and contribute to the development of a more robust and meaningful medical professionalism.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeollabuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyoung-Hee [Department of Oral Microbiology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeollabuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon, E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.k [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeollabuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D{sub 10} values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased (P<0.05) as irradiation dose increased, and no differences (P>=0.05) in cell counts of the bacteria were observed among different levels of NaCl and pH. D{sub 10} values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  19. Notes and comments "High and dry?" The Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act and liability protection for pharmaceutical manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper, B Kurt

    2007-01-01

    In an era filled with fears of bioterrorism, Congress approved the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act (PREPA) to encourage development of vaccines and other countermeasures. By providing pharmaceutical manufacturers with protection from liability for potential side effects, Congress has attempted to motivate manufacturers to produce a national stockpile of countermeasures. As part of PREPA, the government established a compensatory system intended to provide compensation to persons injured by countermeasures used during a public health emergency. Although the Act provides for a compensation fund, it fails to allocate monies for that fund. Thus, in the absence of further congressional action, PREPA will not provide compensation to those injured by countermeasures. Failing to assure the American public of a compensation program constitutes bad public policy and risks inspiring potential vaccinees to refuse necessary drugs. Additionally, arguments as to the constitutionality of the Act exist should Congress fail to adequately fund the program, and the existence of those arguments undermines the purpose of the Act--namely to assure pharmaceutical manufacturers that they will not be sued into oblivion should they attempt to aid national pandemic protection. In addition to detailing both the Act and the statutory precedent for congressional attempts to spur biodefense, this Article addresses important issues of healthcare, tort, and constitutional law that will continue to manifest themselves in this new era of bioterrorism. PMID:17549932

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis ( Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis ( Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D10 values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased ( Pbacteria were observed among different levels of NaCl and pH. D10 values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  1. Human anthrax as a re-emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores and the etiological agent is B. anthracis which is a gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming, and rod shaped bacterium. Bacillus anthracis spores are highly resistant to heat, pressure, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, chemical agents and disinfectants. For these reasons, B. anthracis spores are an attractive choice as biological agents for the use of bioweapon and/or bioterrorism. Soil is the main reservoir for the infectious agent. The disease most commonly affects wild and domestic mammals. Human are secondarily infected by contact with infected animals and contaminated animal products or directly expose to B. anthracis spores. Anthrax occurs worldwide. This infection is still endemic or hyperendemic in both animals and humans in some part of areas of the world; particularly in Middle East, West Africa, Central Asia, some part of India, South America. However, some countries are claiming free of anthrax, and anthrax has become a re-emerging disease in western countries with the intentional outbreak. Currently, anthrax is classified according to its setting as (1) naturally occurring anthrax, (2) bioterrorism-related anthrax. Vast majority of human anthrax are occurring as naturally occurring anthrax in the world. It is also a threaten disease for western countries. The aim of this paper is to review the relevant patents, short historical perspective, microbiological and epidemiological features, clinical presentations and treatment.

  2. Human anthrax as a re-emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores and the etiological agent is B. anthracis which is a gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming, and rod shaped bacterium. Bacillus anthracis spores are highly resistant to heat, pressure, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, chemical agents and disinfectants. For these reasons, B. anthracis spores are an attractive choice as biological agents for the use of bioweapon and/or bioterrorism. Soil is the main reservoir for the infectious agent. The disease most commonly affects wild and domestic mammals. Human are secondarily infected by contact with infected animals and contaminated animal products or directly expose to B. anthracis spores. Anthrax occurs worldwide. This infection is still endemic or hyperendemic in both animals and humans in some part of areas of the world; particularly in Middle East, West Africa, Central Asia, some part of India, South America. However, some countries are claiming free of anthrax, and anthrax has become a re-emerging disease in western countries with the intentional outbreak. Currently, anthrax is classified according to its setting as (1) naturally occurring anthrax, (2) bioterrorism-related anthrax. Vast majority of human anthrax are occurring as naturally occurring anthrax in the world. It is also a threaten disease for western countries. The aim of this paper is to review the relevant patents, short historical perspective, microbiological and epidemiological features, clinical presentations and treatment. PMID:25851429

  3. Taking due care: moral obligations in dual use research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlau, Frida; Eriksson, Stefan; Evers, Kathinka; Höglund, Anna T

    2008-11-01

    In the past decade, the perception of a bioterrorist threat has increased and created a demand on life scientists to consider the potential security implications of dual use research. This article examines a selection of proposed moral obligations for life scientists that have emerged to meet these concerns and the extent to which they can be considered reasonable. It also describes the underlying reasons for the concerns, how they are managed, and their implications for scientific values. Five criteria for what constitutes preventable harm are suggested and a number of proposed obligations for life scientists are considered against these criteria, namely, the obligations to prevent bioterrorism; to engage in response activities; to consider negative implications of research; not to publish or share sensitive information; to oversee and limit access to dangerous material; and to report activities of concern. Although bioterrorism might be perceived as an imminent threat, the analysis illustrates that this is beyond the responsibility of life scientists either to prevent or to respond to. Among the more reasonable obligations are duties to consider potential negative implications of one's research, protect access to sensitive material, technology and knowledge, and report activities of concern. Responsibility, therefore, includes obligations concerned with preventing foreseeable and highly probable harm. A central conclusion is that several of the proposed obligations are reasonable, although not unconditionally. PMID:18959730

  4. Culture-Independent Diagnostics for Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Norman A; Mukundan, Harshini; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Slezak, Tom R; Chain, Patrick S; Morse, Stephen; Anderson, Kevin; Hodge, David R; Pillai, Segaran

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen considerable development in the diagnostic application of nonculture methods, including nucleic acid amplification-based methods and mass spectrometry, for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. The implications of these new culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) include bypassing the need to culture organisms, thus potentially affecting public health surveillance systems, which continue to use isolates as the basis of their surveillance programs and to assess phenotypic resistance to antimicrobial agents. CIDTs may also affect the way public health practitioners detect and respond to a bioterrorism event. In response to a request from the Department of Homeland Security, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cosponsored a workshop to review the impact of CIDTs on the rapid detection and identification of biothreat agents. Four panel discussions were held that covered nucleic acid amplification-based diagnostics, mass spectrometry, antibody-based diagnostics, and next-generation sequencing. Exploiting the extensive expertise available at this workshop, we identified the key features, benefits, and limitations of the various CIDT methods for providing rapid pathogen identification that are critical to the response and mitigation of a bioterrorism event. After the workshop we conducted a thorough review of the literature, investigating the current state of these 4 culture-independent diagnostic methods. This article combines information from the literature review and the insights obtained at the workshop. PMID:27314653

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus:An occupational health hazard in the prehospital setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alaa Al Amiry

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious nosocomial infection within healthcare settings, and with its community version worldwide (i.e. community-acquired-MRSA), it is safe now to classify it as an epidemic. The aim of this paper is to build the logic for the reader to understand why this drug-resistant infection can impose an occupational hazard towards emergency health services personnel in the prehospital settings. This logic started with a model, the author conceptualizes as a cross-transmission continuum, in which the author explains the role of emergency medical service personnel in possibly contributing to the transmission of MRSA back and forth the community. A solution to interrupt this continuum, particularly surveillance systems within the emergency medical service field, is suggested and discussed. This is especially important in the light of bioterrorism as surveillance can become a necessity in preparation for biological disasters whether they are intentional (i.e. bioterrorism) or natural (i.e. outbreaks).

  6. Probabilistic risk analysis and terrorism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Barry Charles; Bennett, Steven P; von Winterfeldt, Detlof; Sokolowski, John; Collins, Andrew J

    2010-04-01

    Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent establishment of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), considerable efforts have been made to estimate the risks of terrorism and the cost effectiveness of security policies to reduce these risks. DHS, industry, and the academic risk analysis communities have all invested heavily in the development of tools and approaches that can assist decisionmakers in effectively allocating limited resources across the vast array of potential investments that could mitigate risks from terrorism and other threats to the homeland. Decisionmakers demand models, analyses, and decision support that are useful for this task and based on the state of the art. Since terrorism risk analysis is new, no single method is likely to meet this challenge. In this article we explore a number of existing and potential approaches for terrorism risk analysis, focusing particularly on recent discussions regarding the applicability of probabilistic and decision analytic approaches to bioterrorism risks and the Bioterrorism Risk Assessment methodology used by the DHS and criticized by the National Academies and others.

  7. Historical precedence and technical requirements of biological weapons use : a threat assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, Daniel P.; Vogel, Kathleen Margaret; Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Hickok, Lauren T.; Jung, Danielle F.; Barnett, Natalie Beth; Frerichs, Rebecca L.; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson

    2004-05-01

    The threat from biological weapons is assessed through both a comparative historical analysis of the patterns of biological weapons use and an assessment of the technological hurdles to proliferation and use that must be overcome. The history of biological weapons is studied to learn how agents have been acquired and what types of states and substate actors have used agents. Substate actors have generally been more willing than states to use pathogens and toxins and they have focused on those agents that are more readily available. There has been an increasing trend of bioterrorism incidents over the past century, but states and substate actors have struggled with one or more of the necessary technological steps. These steps include acquisition of a suitable agent, production of an appropriate quantity and form, and effective deployment. The technological hurdles associated with the steps present a real barrier to producing a high consequence event. However, the ever increasing technological sophistication of society continually lowers the barriers, resulting in a low but increasing probability of a high consequence bioterrorism event.

  8. Notes and comments "High and dry?" The Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act and liability protection for pharmaceutical manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper, B Kurt

    2007-01-01

    In an era filled with fears of bioterrorism, Congress approved the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act (PREPA) to encourage development of vaccines and other countermeasures. By providing pharmaceutical manufacturers with protection from liability for potential side effects, Congress has attempted to motivate manufacturers to produce a national stockpile of countermeasures. As part of PREPA, the government established a compensatory system intended to provide compensation to persons injured by countermeasures used during a public health emergency. Although the Act provides for a compensation fund, it fails to allocate monies for that fund. Thus, in the absence of further congressional action, PREPA will not provide compensation to those injured by countermeasures. Failing to assure the American public of a compensation program constitutes bad public policy and risks inspiring potential vaccinees to refuse necessary drugs. Additionally, arguments as to the constitutionality of the Act exist should Congress fail to adequately fund the program, and the existence of those arguments undermines the purpose of the Act--namely to assure pharmaceutical manufacturers that they will not be sued into oblivion should they attempt to aid national pandemic protection. In addition to detailing both the Act and the statutory precedent for congressional attempts to spur biodefense, this Article addresses important issues of healthcare, tort, and constitutional law that will continue to manifest themselves in this new era of bioterrorism.

  9. Science and Technology Review May 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, V E

    2004-04-02

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) ''A Multidisciplinary Attack on Bioterrorism''--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia. (2) ''Life at the Nanoscale''--Livermore researchers are exploring the molecules of life at the nanoscale to fight bioterrorism, improve human health, and understand how proteins function. (3) ''Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat''--A detection system for cargo containers will search for hidden nuclear materials that terrorists might try to ship to U.S. seaports. (4) ''Improved Algorithms Speed It Up for Codes''--Recent changes to the algorithms used in Monte Carlo calculations are reducing the time needed to run the high-fidelity simulations being developed for the nation's supercomputers. (5) ''The Siren Call of the Seas: Sequestering Carbon Dioxide''--Scientists at Livermore evaluate possible methods for removing carbon dioxide from Earth's atmosphere and storing it in the planet's waters.

  10. Ebola virus vaccines: an overview of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Heinz

    2014-04-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is one of the most fatal viral diseases worldwide affecting humans and nonhuman primates. Although infections only occur frequently in Central Africa, the virus has the potential to spread globally and is classified as a category A pathogen that could be misused as a bioterrorism agent. As of today there is no vaccine or treatment licensed to counteract Ebola virus infections. DNA, subunit and several viral vector approaches, replicating and non-replicating, have been tested as potential vaccine platforms and their protective efficacy has been evaluated in nonhuman primate models for Ebola virus infections, which closely resemble disease progression in humans. Though these vaccine platforms seem to confer protection through different mechanisms, several of them are efficacious against lethal disease in nonhuman primates attesting that vaccination against Ebola virus infections is feasible.

  11. 1,5-Iodonaphthyl azide-inactivated V3526 protects against aerosol challenge with virulent venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Paridhi; Sharma, Anuj; Spurgers, Kevin B; Bakken, Russell R; Eccleston, Lori T; Cohen, Jeffrey W; Honnold, Shelley P; Glass, Pamela J; Maheshwari, Radha K

    2016-05-27

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus. VEEV is highly infectious in aerosolized form and has been identified as a bio-terrorism agent. There is no licensed vaccine for prophylaxis against VEEV. The current IND vaccine is poorly immunogenic and does not protect against an aerosol challenge with virulent VEEV. We have previously shown that VEEV inactivated by 1,5-iodonaphthyl azide (INA) protects against footpad challenge with virulent VEEV. In this study, we inactivated an attenuated strain of VEEV, V3526, with INA and evaluated its protective efficacy against aerosol challenge with wild type VEEV. We demonstrated that among three routes of immunization, intramuscular immunization with INA-inactivate V3526 (INA-iV3526) provided complete protection against aerosol challenge with virulent VEEV. Our data suggests that INA-iV3526 can be explored further for development as an effective vaccine candidate against aerosol challenge of virulent VEEV. PMID:27129427

  12. Mass Spectrometric Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin by Measuring its Activity in Serum and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Suzanne R.; Pirkle, James L.; Barr, John R.

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are bacterial protein toxins which are considered likely agents for bioterrorism due to their extreme toxicity and high availability. A new mass spectrometry based assay called Endopep MS detects and defines the toxin serotype in clinical and food matrices via toxin activity upon a peptide substrate which mimics the toxin's natural target. Furthermore, the subtype of the toxin is differentiated by employing mass spectrometry based proteomic techniques on the same sample. The Endopep-MS assay selectively detects active BoNT and defines the serotype faster and with sensitivity greater than the mouse bioassay. One 96-well plate can be analyzed in under 7 h. On higher level or "hot" samples, the subtype can then be differentiated in less than 2 h with no need for DNA.

  13. Types of fraud in meat and meat products: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Affects the food control. The globalization, increased imports and exports and free trade agreements have led to greater sharing and access to food worldwide; along with it, the problems associated with fraud such as adulteration, substitution, intentionality, and counterfeiting have been increased. Therefore, there are various tasks associated with food fraud, which in most reviews published only new identification techniques have been discussed. However, a discussion about the types of fraud and its impact on society, bioterrorism and religion, has been little commented. This review focuses primarily on describing the types of fraud that has as objective to obtain economic benefit or cause terrorism. Also, latest techniques available for detecting meat adulteration are mentioned.

  14. Smallpox: clinical highlights and considerations for vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox virus has gained considerable attention as a potential bioterrorism agent. Recommendations for smallpox (vaccinia vaccination presume a low risk for use of smallpox as a terrorist biological agent and vaccination is currently recommended for selected groups of individuals such as health care workers, public health authorities, and emergency/rescue workers, among others. Information about adverse reactions to the smallpox vaccine is based upon studies completed during the 1950s and 1960s. The prevalence of various diseases has changed over the last four decades and new disease entities have been described during this period. The smallpox vaccination may be contra-indicated in many of these conditions. This has made pre-screening of potential vaccines necessary. It is believed that at present, the risks of vaccine-associated complications far outweigh the potential benefits of vaccination in the general population.

  15. Biosimmer: A Virtual Reality Simulator for Training First Responders in a BW Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawver, D.M.; Sobel, A.L.; Stansfield, S.A.

    1998-11-11

    BioSimMER (Bioterrorism Simulated Medical Emergency Response) is a Virtual Reality-based mission rehearsal and training environment. BioSimMER employs contingency-oriented, multiple-path algorithms and MOESINIOPS focused on real-world operations. BioSimMER is network-based and immerses multiple trainees in a high resolution synthetic environment, including virtual casualties and instruments that they may interact with and manipulate. Trainees are represented as individuals by virtual human Avatars. The simulation consists of several components: virtual casualties dynamically manifest the symptoms of their injuries and respond to the intervention of the trainees. Agent transport analysis is used to simulate casualty exposures and to drive the responses of simulated sensors/detectors. The selected prototype scenario is representative of combined injuries anticipated in BW operations.

  16. Respiratory-borne Disease Outbreaks in Populations: Contact Networks and the Spread of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourbohloul, Babak; Meyers, Lauren A.; Newman, Mark E. J.; Skowronski, Danuta M.

    2005-03-01

    A large class of infectious diseases spread through direct person-to-person contact. Traditional ``compartmental'' modeling in epidemiology assumes that in population groups every individual has an equal chance of spreading the disease to every other. The patterns of these contacts, however, tend to be highly heterogeneous. Explicit models of the patterns of contact among individuals in a community, contact network models, underlie a powerful approach to predicting and controlling the spread of such infectious disease and provide detailed and valuable insight into the fate and control of an outbreak. We use contact network epidemiology to predict the impact of various control policies for both a mildly contagious disease such as SARS and a more highly contagious disease such as smallpox. We demonstrate how integrating these tools into public health decision-making should facilitate more rational strategies for managing newly emerging diseases, bioterrorism and pandemic influenza in situations where empirical data are not yet available to guide decision making.

  17. Testing the accuracy ratio of the Spatio-Temporal Epidemiological Modeler (STEM) through Ebola haemorrhagic fever outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassi, F; D'Amico, F; Carestia, M; Cenciarelli, O; Mancinelli, S; Gilardi, F; Malizia, A; DI Giovanni, D; Soave, P M; Bellecci, C; Gaudio, P; Palombi, L

    2016-05-01

    Mathematical modelling is an important tool for understanding the dynamics of the spread of infectious diseases, which could be the result of a natural outbreak or of the intentional release of pathogenic biological agents. Decision makers and policymakers responsible for strategies to contain disease, prevent epidemics and fight possible bioterrorism attacks, need accurate computational tools, based on mathematical modelling, for preventing or even managing these complex situations. In this article, we tested the validity, and demonstrate the reliability, of an open-source software, the Spatio-Temporal Epidemiological Modeler (STEM), designed to help scientists and public health officials to evaluate and create models of emerging infectious diseases, analysing three real cases of Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreaks: Uganda (2000), Gabon (2001) and Guinea (2014). We discuss the cases analysed through the simulation results obtained with STEM in order to demonstrate the capability of this software in helping decision makers plan interventions in case of biological emergencies. PMID:27029910

  18. Surface plasmon resonance detection of E. coli and methicillin-resistant S. aureus using bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawil, Nancy; Sacher, Edward; Mandeville, Rosemonde; Meunier, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are key elements in preventing resultant life-threatening illnesses, such as hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and septicemia. In this report, we describe the use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for the biodetection of pathogenic bacteria, using bacteriophages as the recognition elements. T4 bacteriophages were used to detect E. coli, while a novel, highly specific phage was used to detect MRSA. We found that the system permits label-free, real-time, specific, rapid and cost-effective detection of pathogens, for concentrations of 10(3) colony forming units/milliliter, in less than 20 min. This system promises to become a diagnostic tool for bacteria that cause major public concern for food safety, bioterrorism, and nosocomial infections.

  19. Synthetic biology: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I examine the positive and negative features of synthetic biology ('SynBio') from a utilitarian ethical perspective. The potential beneficial outcomes from SynBio in the context of medicine are substantial; however it is not presently possible to predict precise outcomes due to the nascent state of the field. Potential negative outcomes from SynBio also exist, including iatrogenesis and bioterrorism; however it is not yet possible to quantify these risks. I argue that the application of a 'precautionary' approach to SynBio is ethically fraught, as is the notion that SynBio-associated knowledge ought to be restricted. I conclude that utilitarians ought to support a broadly laissez-faire stance in respect of SynBio.

  20. μHall chip for sensitive detection of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Chung, Hyun Jung; Chung, Jaehoon; Budin, Ghyslain; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2013-09-01

    Sensitive, rapid and phenotype-specific enumeration of pathogens is essential for the diagnosis of infectious disease, monitoring of food chains, and for defense against bioterrorism. Microbiological culture and genotyping, techniques that sensitively and selectively detect bacteria in laboratory settings, have limited application in clinical environments due to high cost, slow response times, and the need for specially trained staff and laboratory infrastructure. To address these challenges, we developed a microfluidic chip-based micro-Hall (μHall) platform capable of measuring single, magnetically tagged bacteria directly in clinical specimens with minimal sample processing. We demonstrated the clinical utility of the μHall chip by enumerating Gram-positive bacteria. The overall detection limit of the system was similar to that of culture tests (~10 bacteria), but the assay time was 50-times faster. This low-cost, single-cell analytical technique is especially well-suited to diagnose infectious diseases in resource-limited clinical settings.

  1. Evaluation of a latex agglutination assay for the identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Brea D; Elrod, Mindy G; Gee, Jay E; Chantratita, Narisara; Tandhavanant, Sarunporn; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Cases of melioidosis and glanders are rare in the United States, but the etiologic agents of each disease (Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, respectively) are classified as Tier 1 select agents because of concerns about their potential use as bioterrorism agents. A rapid, highly sensitive, and portable assay for clinical laboratories and field use is required. Our laboratory has further evaluated a latex agglutination assay for its ability to identify B. pseudomallei and B. mallei isolates. This assay uses a monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes the capsular polysaccharide produced by B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, but is absent in closely related Burkholderia species. A total of 110 B. pseudomallei and B. mallei were tested, and 36 closely related Burkholderia species. The latex agglutination assay was positive for 109 of 110 (99.1% sensitivity) B. pseudomallei and B. mallei isolates tested.

  2. [Glanders, melioidosis and biowarfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhot, Amélie; Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

    2005-01-29

    MANY COMMON FACTORS: Glanders and melioidosis are infectious diseases that are caused by the bacteria of the Burkholderia species. These infections are endemic in tropical regions and can lead to la broad spectrum of common clinical manifestations. TWO PRINCIPLE CLINICAL FORMS: The most frequent clinical presentation is the pulmonary form, which can mimic pulmonary tuberculosis. The septicemic form is the most severe form, and lethal in nearly 50% of cases. WEAPONS FOR BIOTERRORISM AND WAR: Very few organisms are required to cause disease by aerosolisation, which could be the main route of contamination for humans after a deliberate release. This property has permitted yet the use of these bacteria as biological warfare weapon during the past century. We have to consider these agents as possible biological warfare agents. Europeans guidelines for treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis are detailed.

  3. Resolution in forensic microbial genotyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S P

    2005-08-30

    Resolution is a key parameter for differentiating among the large number of strain typing methods that could be applied to pathogens involved in bioterror events or biocrimes. In this report we develop a first-principles analysis of strain typing resolution using a simple mathematical model to provide a basis for the rational design of microbial typing systems for forensic applications. We derive two figures of merit that describe the resolving power and phylogenetic depth of a strain typing system. Rough estimates of these figures-of-merit for MLVA, MLST, IS element, AFLP, hybridization microarrays, and other bacterial typing methods are derived from mutation rate data reported in the literature. We also discuss the general problem of how to construct a ''universal'' practical typing system that has the highest possible resolution short of whole-genome sequencing, and that is applicable with minimal modification to a wide range of pathogens.

  4. Epidemics of panic during a bioterrorist attack--a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljevic, Vladan; Radunovic, Desanka; Belojevic, Goran

    2009-09-01

    A bioterrorist attacks usually cause epidemics of panic in a targeted population. We have presented epidemiologic aspect of this phenomenon as a three-component model--host, information on an attack and social network. We have proposed a mathematical model of panic and counter-measures as the function of time in a population exposed to a bioterrorist attack. The model comprises ordinary differential equations and graphically presented combinations of the equations parameters. Clinically, we have presented a model through a sequence of psychic conditions and disorders initiated by an act of bioterrorism. This model might be helpful for an attacked community to timely and properly apply counter-measures and to minimize human mental suffering during a bioterrorist attack. PMID:19423234

  5. Testing the accuracy ratio of the Spatio-Temporal Epidemiological Modeler (STEM) through Ebola haemorrhagic fever outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassi, F; D'Amico, F; Carestia, M; Cenciarelli, O; Mancinelli, S; Gilardi, F; Malizia, A; DI Giovanni, D; Soave, P M; Bellecci, C; Gaudio, P; Palombi, L

    2016-05-01

    Mathematical modelling is an important tool for understanding the dynamics of the spread of infectious diseases, which could be the result of a natural outbreak or of the intentional release of pathogenic biological agents. Decision makers and policymakers responsible for strategies to contain disease, prevent epidemics and fight possible bioterrorism attacks, need accurate computational tools, based on mathematical modelling, for preventing or even managing these complex situations. In this article, we tested the validity, and demonstrate the reliability, of an open-source software, the Spatio-Temporal Epidemiological Modeler (STEM), designed to help scientists and public health officials to evaluate and create models of emerging infectious diseases, analysing three real cases of Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreaks: Uganda (2000), Gabon (2001) and Guinea (2014). We discuss the cases analysed through the simulation results obtained with STEM in order to demonstrate the capability of this software in helping decision makers plan interventions in case of biological emergencies.

  6. Challenges and opportunities in developing and marketing vaccines for OIE List A and emerging animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, C G; Salt, J; Balaski, C

    2003-01-01

    Veterinary pharmaceutical products generated 14.5 billion U.S. Dollars (USD) in worldwide sales in 2000, with biological products contributing 16.2 percent or 2.3 billion USD. The leading biological products were foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines, with 284 million USD in sales, representing 26.4 percent of the entire livestock biological business. Despite the potential opportunities for the biologicals industry, non-vaccination policies and undefined control and eradication strategies have deterred the private sector from significant investments in the research and development of vaccines against List A diseases. The primary research focus remains vaccines for infectious diseases that have an impact on current domestic herd health management systems. Changing the vaccine paradigm, investing in new technologies, and creating the future by integrating into key alliances with producers and regulatory authorities will be paramount in protecting our poultry and livestock industries against highly infectious diseases and potential acts of bioterrorism. PMID:14677694

  7. Scalable Entity-Based Modeling of Population-Based Systems, Final LDRD Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, A J; Smith, S G; Vassilevska, T K; Jefferson, D R

    2005-01-27

    The goal of this project has been to develop tools, capabilities and expertise in the modeling of complex population-based systems via scalable entity-based modeling (EBM). Our initial focal application domain has been the dynamics of large populations exposed to disease-causing agents, a topic of interest to the Department of Homeland Security in the context of bioterrorism. In the academic community, discrete simulation technology based on individual entities has shown initial success, but the technology has not been scaled to the problem sizes or computational resources of LLNL. Our developmental emphasis has been on the extension of this technology to parallel computers and maturation of the technology from an academic to a lab setting.

  8. Engineering Values Into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela L; Cho, Mildred K

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have been used to "edit" genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing the Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a "gene drive" that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant DNA techniques. The scientific and bioethics communities have built substantial literatures about the ethical and policy implications of genetic engineering, especially in the age of bioterrorism. However, recent CRISPr/Cas experiments have triggered a rehashing of previous policy discussions, suggesting that the scientific community requires guidance on how to think about social responsibility. We propose a framework to enable analysis of social responsibility, using two examples of genetic engineering experiments. PMID:26632356

  9. Overview of the CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, John

    2016-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases arising from livestock and wildlife pose serious threats to global human health, as shown by a series of continuous outbreaks involving highly pathogenic influenza, SARS, Ebola and MERS. The risk of pandemics and bioterrorism threats is ever present and growing, but our ability to combat them is limited by the lack of available vaccines, therapeutics and rapid diagnostics. The use of high bio-containment facilities, such as the CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, plays a key role studying these dangerous pathogens and facilitates the development of countermeasures. To combat diseases like MERS, we must take a holistic approach that involves the development of early biomarkers of infection, a suite of treatment options (vaccines, anti-viral drugs and antibody therapeutics) and appropriate animal models to test the safety and efficacy of candidate treatments. PMID:27118215

  10. Clinical laboratories, the select agent program, and biological surety (biosurety).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, Ross H; Demmin, Gretchen; Severson, Grant; Torres-Cruz, Rafael; Trevino, Jorge; Kelly, John; Arrison, Jay; Christman, Joy

    2006-06-01

    The threat of bioterrorism has led to increased concerns over the availability of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT). Congress has implemented several public laws that have led to the development of federal regulations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Department of Agriculture. The CDC regulation 42 CFR 73 has a direct impact on all clinical laboratories that may at some time identify BSAT in a clinical specimen. The Department of Defense has imposed a more stringent layer of regulation called biological surety (biosurety) on top of the requirements of 42 CFR 73 for military laboratories that possess BSAT. However,42 CFR 73 falls into the framework of biosurety. Both sets of regulations have four pillars (safety, physical security, agent account-ability, and personnel reliability) that are built on a foundation of training and covered by a roof of management (operations and plans).

  11. Rift Valley fever and a new paradigm of research and development for zoonotic disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Osman; McIntyre, Sabrina; Hogarth, Sue; Heymann, David

    2013-02-01

    Although Rift Valley fever is a disease that, through its wider societal effects, disproportionately affects vulnerable communities with poor resilience to economic and environmental challenge, Rift Valley fever virus has since its discovery in 1931 been neglected by major global donors and disease control programs. We describe recent outbreaks affecting humans and animals and discuss the serious socioeconomic effects on the communities affected and the slow pace of development of new vaccines. We also discuss the mixed global response, which has largely been fueled by the classification of the virus as a potential bioterrorism agent and its potential to migrate beyond its traditional eastern African boundaries. We argue for a refocus of strategy with increased global collaboration and a greater sense of urgency and investment that focuses on an equity-based approach in which funding and research are prioritized by need, inspired by principles of equity and social justice. PMID:23347653

  12. Nanotechnology: A new frontier in virus detection in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are expanding the applications of nanotechnology in the field of medicine since mid-2000. These technologies include nanoarrays, protein arrays, nanopore technology, nanoparticles as a contrivance in immunoassays and nanosensors, among others. Nanobiotechnologies are clinically applicable and possess the potential to be useful in laboratory diagnosis of infections in general and viral infections in particular. Nanotechnology is a significant advance in molecular diagnostics. The technology strengthens and expands the DNA and protein microarray methods. In particular, the waveguide technology is an emergent area with many diagnostic applications. Nanosensors are the new contrivance for detection of bioterrorism agents. All these new technologies would have to be evaluated in clinical settings before their full import is appreciated and accepted.

  13. Efficiency of Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP Bioaerosol Sampler for Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag eSharma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The threat of bioterrorism and pandemics has highlighted the urgency for rapid and reliable bioaerosol detection in different environments. Safeguarding against such threats requires continuous sampling of the ambient air for pathogen detection. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP 2800 bioaerosol sampler to collect representative samples of air and identify specific viruses suspended as bioaerosols. To test this concept, we aerosolized an innocuous replication-defective bovine adenovirus serotype 3 (BAdV3 in a controlled laboratory environment. The ASAP efficiently trapped the surrogate virus at 5×10E3 plaque-forming units (p.f.u. [2×10E5 genome copy equivalent] concentrations or more resulting in the successful detection of the virus using quantitative PCR. These results support the further development of ASAP for bioaerosol pathogen detection.

  14. 鼠疫耶尔森菌的研究及其军事医学意义%Progress in research concerning Yersinia pestis and its significance in military medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞馥

    2012-01-01

    As the military medicine progresses, the scope of protective medicine against biological threats should be extended to any facets that caused biological threats, including biowarfare, bioterrorisms, invasion of alien organisms, loss of biological resources, geneticany modified organisms, and emerging infectious diseases. Yersinia pestis is the pathogen for a typical zoonotic disease, plague, and it is also one of important biowarfare or bioterrorism agents. In history, this pathogen once caused three pandemics, and it was employed several time in war causing infection of military personnels many times. Currently, plague is distributed in Asia, former Soviet Union region, Africa and America. In China, there are 12 kinds of natural plague foci at present, distributing in 19 provincinal regions and covering about 1596 of our land area. Plague surveillance demonstrated that animal plagueis active in some foci, area of plague foci is increasing gradually and extending to the border of cities, indicating that we have faced a great challenge for plague prevention and control. After terrorism attack in U. S. A. In 2001, studies on Y. Pestis grew very rapidly and the progress has laid a solid foundation for researches on other bioterrorism-associated pathogens. Source-tracing database for microbial forensics analysis of Y. Pestis and the rapid no-site detection method for this pathogen are also excellent experience for establishing other bioterrorism agents.%随着军事医学的发展,防生物危害医学学科研究的范畴应当包括目前认识到的所有可以导致生物危害的领域,包括生物战、生物恐怖、外来有害生物入侵、生物资源流失、转基因生物安全和研发、突发疫情的应对研究等.鼠疫耶尔森菌是导致自然疫源性疾病鼠疫的病原菌,也是重要的生物战和生物恐怖剂之一,历史上曾3次导致世界鼠疫大流行,多次被用于战争,并多次在战争中导致军队感染.目前鼠疫主

  15. Applications and Nanotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in Biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Fisher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their unique mechanical, electrical, optical, and thermal properties, carbon nanostructures including carbon nanotubes and graphenes show great promise for advancing the fields of biology and medicine. Many reports have demonstrated the promise of these carbon nanostructures and their hybrid structures (composites with polymers, ceramics, and metal nanoparticles, etc. for a variety of biomedical areas ranging from biosensing, drug delivery, and diagnostics, to cancer treatment, tissue engineering, and bioterrorism prevention. However, the issue of the safety and toxicity of these carbon nanostructures, which is vital to their use as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in biomedical fields, has not been completely resolved. This paper aims to provide a summary of the features of carbon nanotube and graphene-based materials and current research progress in biomedical applications. We also highlight the current opinions within the scientific community on the toxicity and safety of these carbon structures.

  16. Non-Human Primate Models of Orthopoxvirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schmitt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox, one of the most destructive diseases, has been successfully eradicated through a worldwide vaccination campaign. Since immunization programs have been stopped, the number of people with vaccinia virus induced immunity is declining. This leads to an increase in orthopoxvirus (OPXV infections in humans, as well as in animals. Additionally, potential abuse of Variola virus (VARV, the causative agent of smallpox, or monkeypox virus, as agents of bioterrorism, has renewed interest in development of antiviral therapeutics and of safer vaccines. Due to its high risk potential, research with VARV is restricted to two laboratories worldwide. Therefore, numerous animal models of other OPXV infections have been developed in the last decades. Non-human primates are especially suitable due to their close relationship to humans. This article provides a review about on non-human primate models of orthopoxvirus infections.

  17. 美国FDA食品机构注册法规将于2003年12月12日生效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林泉

    2003-01-01

    2001年9.11恐怖袭击事件使加强美国的食品供应安全成为当务之急。鉴于此,美国国会通过了公共卫生和预防与应对生物恐怖袭击法案(简称:生物反恐法案 The US Bioterrorism Act of 2002),并由布什总统于2002年6月12日签署,2002年美国生物反恐法案,FDA(美国食品和药品管理局)于2003年10月10日正式公布食品机构注册和进口食品预先通报法案,

  18. Risk Analysis for Tea Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Itis lbviors that after all the disasters with dilxins, BSE, pathogcns,Footand Mouth disease a. o. and now shortly because of the possibillties of bioterrorism, thatFoodSafetyisalmostatthetopoftheagendaoftheEUfor theyearstocome The implementaion of certainhy gicneprinci plessuchas HA C C P and a transparent hygiene policy applicable to all food and all food operators, from the farm to the table, togetherwith effoctiveinstruments to manage Food Safety will form fsubstantialpart on this agenda. As an example external quality factors such as certain pathogens in tea will. be discussed. Since risk analysis of e. g. my cotoxing have already a quite long histoy and development in sereral international bodies and tea might bear unwanted (or deliberately added by terroristic action)contaminants, the need to monitor teamuch more regularly than is being done today, seems to be a"conditio sine qua non ". Recentoy developed Immuno Flow tests may one day help the consumer perhaps to find out if he gets poisoned.

  19. Rapid high resolution genotyping of Francisella tularensis by whole genome sequence comparison of annotated genes ("MLST+".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus H Antwerpen

    Full Text Available The zoonotic disease tularemia is caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. This pathogen is considered as a category A select agent with potential to be misused in bioterrorism. Molecular typing based on DNA-sequence like canSNP-typing or MLVA has become the accepted standard for this organism. Due to the organism's highly clonal nature, the current typing methods have reached their limit of discrimination for classifying closely related subpopulations within the subspecies F. tularensis ssp. holarctica. We introduce a new gene-by-gene approach, MLST+, based on whole genome data of 15 sequenced F. tularensis ssp. holarctica strains and apply this approach to investigate an epidemic of lethal tularemia among non-human primates in two animal facilities in Germany. Due to the high resolution of MLST+ we are able to demonstrate that three independent clones of this highly infectious pathogen were responsible for these spatially and temporally restricted outbreaks.

  20. Biophysics and the Challenges of Emerging Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, Joseph D

    2009-01-01

    This volume is a collection of articles from the proceedings of the International School of Structural Biology and Magnetic Resonance 8th Course: Biophysics and the Challenges of Emerging Threats. This NATO Advance Study Institute (ASI) was held in Erice at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture on 19 through 30 June 2007. The ASI brought together a diverse group of experts who bridged the fields of virology and biology, biophysics, chemistry and physics. Prominent lecturers and students from around the world representant a total of 24 countries participated in the NATO ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi (Stanford University, USA) and Alexander Arseniev (Moscow, RU). The central hypothesis underlying this ASI was that interdisciplinary research, merging principles of physics, chemistry and biology, can drive new discovery in detecting and fighting bioterrorism agents, lead to cleaner environments, and help propel development in NATO partner countries. The ASI merged the relat...

  1. Biophysics and Structure to Counter Threats and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Margaris, Manolia

    2013-01-01

    This ASI brought together a diverse group of experts who span virology, biology, biophysics, chemistry, physics and engineering.  Prominent lecturers representing world renowned scientists from nine (9) different countries, and students from around the world representing eighteen (18) countries, participated in the ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi (Stanford University, USA) and Alexander Arseniev (Moscow, RU).   The central hypothesis underlying this ASI was that interdisciplinary research, merging principles of physics, chemistry and biology, can drive new discovery in detecting and fighting chemical and bioterrorism agents, lead to cleaner environments and improved energy sources, and help propel development in NATO partner countries.  At the end of the ASI students had an appreciation of how to apply each technique to their own particular research problem and to demonstrate that multifaceted approaches and new technologies are needed to solve the biological challenges of our time.  The course...

  2. Engineering Values Into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela L; Cho, Mildred K

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have been used to "edit" genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing the Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a "gene drive" that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant DNA techniques. The scientific and bioethics communities have built substantial literatures about the ethical and policy implications of genetic engineering, especially in the age of bioterrorism. However, recent CRISPr/Cas experiments have triggered a rehashing of previous policy discussions, suggesting that the scientific community requires guidance on how to think about social responsibility. We propose a framework to enable analysis of social responsibility, using two examples of genetic engineering experiments.

  3. Automated Syndromic Surveillance for the 2002 Winter Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteland, Per H.; Gardner, Reed M.; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U.; Rolfs, Robert T.; James, Brent C.; Chapman, Wendy W.; Moore, Andrew W.; Wagner, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Olympic Winter Games were held in Utah from February 8 to March 16, 2002. Following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and the anthrax release in October 2001, the need for bioterrorism surveillance during the Games was paramount. A team of informaticists and public health specialists from Utah and Pittsburgh implemented the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) system in Utah for the Games in just seven weeks. The strategies and challenges of implementing such a system in such a short time are discussed. The motivation and cooperation inspired by the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were a powerful driver in overcoming the organizational issues. Over 114,000 acute care encounters were monitored between February 8 and March 31, 2002. No outbreaks of public health significance were detected. The system was implemented successfully and operational for the 2002 Olympic Winter Games and remains operational today. PMID:12925547

  4. Rapid deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system in the state of Utah for the 2002 Olympic Winter Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteland, Per H.; Wagner, Michael M.; Chapman, Wendy W.; Espino, Jeremy U.; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Gardner, Reed M.; Rolfs, Robert T.; Dato, Virginia; James, Brent C.; Haug, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    The key to minimizing the effects of an intentionally caused disease outbreak is early detection of the attack and rapid identification of the affected individuals. The Bush administration's leadership in advocating for biosurveillance systems capable of monitoring for bioterrorism attacks suggests that we should move quickly to establish a nationwide early warning biosurveillance system as a defense against this threat. The spirit of collaboration and unity inspired by the events of 9-11 and the 2002 Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City provided the opportunity to demonstrate how a prototypic biosurveillance system could be rapidly deployed. In seven weeks we were able to implement an automated, real-time disease outbreak detection system in the State of Utah and monitored 80,684 acute care visits occurring during a 28-day period spanning the Olympics. No trends of immediate public health concern were identified. PMID:12463832

  5. Pathomics: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turteltaub, K W; Ascher, M; Langlois, R; Fodor, I; Kercher, J; Laughlin, K M; Nelson, D; Colston, W; Milanovich, F P

    2006-12-08

    Pathomics is a research project to explore the feasibility for developing biosignatures for early infectious disease detection in humans, particularly those that represent a threat from bioterrorism. Our goal is to use a science-based approach to better understand the underlying molecular basis of disease and to find sensitive, robust, and specific combinations of biological molecules (biosignatures) in the host that will indicate the presence of developing infection prior to overt symptoms (pre-syndromic). The ultimate goal is develop a national surveillance system for monitoring for the release and managing the consequences of a biothreat agent or an emerging disease. Developing the science for a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of infectious disease and the development of biosignature-based diagnostics could help detect both emerging and engineered treats to humans.

  6. Public health preparedness evaluation and measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Savoia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Dear Sir;
    Public health preparedness refers to the ability of different local, state, and federal entities to carry out a prompt,effective response to any public health threat.[1] Indeed,it is clear that the term “threat”could embrace
    a myriad of elements. Recently, the main focus has been on bioterrorism, defined as the terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive weapons of mass destruction.

    However, preparedness also involves other threats such as seasonal influenza epidemics, earthquakes or electricity failures. Programs aimed at improving the level of preparedness of different types of agencies (such as law enforcement, public health agencies, fire services, emergency medical services etc. in case of terrorist attacks could largely improve the overall ability of the public health system in addressing any threat to health, in particular those related to infectious diseases.[2]

  7. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  8. Smallpox vaccine: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belongia, Edward A; Naleway, Allison L

    2003-04-01

    Smallpox inarguably shaped the course of human history by killing countless millions in both the Old World and the New World. Dr. Edward Jenner's discovery of vaccination in the late 18th century, and the global eradication of smallpox in the 1970s, rank among the greatest achievements in human history. Amidst recent growing concerns about bioterrorism, smallpox vaccination has resurfaced from the history books to become a topic of major importance. Inoculation with vaccinia virus is highly effective for the prevention of smallpox infection, but it is associated with several known side effects that range from mild and self-limited to severe and life-threatening. As the United States moves forward with plans to vaccinate selected health care workers and the military, and perhaps offer the vaccination to all citizens in the future, it is important to fully understand and appreciate the history, risks, and benefits of smallpox vaccination.

  9. Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM) for Public Health: An Overview of Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Amicizia, Daniela; Panatto, Donatella; Tramalloni, Daniela; Valle, Ivana; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Nanobiotechnologies, from the convergence of nanotechnology and molecular biology and postgenomics medicine, play a major role in the field of public health. This overview summarizes the potentiality of piezoelectric sensors, and in particular, of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM), a physical nanogram-sensitive device. QCM enables the rapid, real time, on-site detection of pathogens with an enormous burden in public health, such as influenza and other respiratory viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and drug-resistant bacteria, among others. Further, it allows to detect food allergens, food-borne pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, and food chemical contaminants, as well as water-borne microorganisms and environmental contaminants. Moreover, QCM holds promises in early cancer detection and screening of new antiblastic drugs. Applications for monitoring biohazards, for assuring homeland security, and preventing bioterrorism are also discussed.

  10. Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Potential Model for Toxinological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rafael Antonio; Sarmiento, Karen; Vásquez, Isabel Cristina

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish are an emerging basic biomedical research model that has multiple advantages compared with other research models. Given that biotoxins, such as toxins, poisons, and venoms, represent health hazards to animals and humans, a low-cost biological model that is highly sensitive to biotoxins is useful to understand the damage caused by such agents and to develop biological tests to prevent and reduce the risk of poisoning in potential cases of bioterrorism or food contamination. In this article, a narrative review of the general aspects of zebrafish as a model in basic biomedical research and various studies in the field of toxinology that have used zebrafish as a biological model are presented. This information will provide useful material to beginner students and researchers who are interested in developing toxinological studies with the zebrafish model. PMID:26196742

  11. The planning, execution, and evaluation of a mass prophylaxis full-scale exercise in cook county, IL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilianski, Andy; O'Rourke, Amy T; Carlson, Crystal L; Parikh, Shannon M; Shipman-Amuwo, Frankie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing threats of bioterrorism and the emergence of novel disease agents, including the recent international outbreaks of H7N9 influenza and MERS-CoV, have stressed the importance and highlighted the need for public health preparedness at local, regional, and national levels. To test plans that were developed for mass prophylaxis scenarios, in April 2013 the Cook Country Department of Public Health (CCDPH) and the Triple Community (TripCom) Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) executed a full-scale mass prophylaxis exercise in response to a simulated anthrax bioterrorism attack. The exercise took place over 2 days and included the TripCom Point-of-Dispensing (POD) Management Team, volunteers from the TripCom MRC, and neighboring public health departments and MRCs. Individuals from the community volunteered as actors during the exercise, while local municipal, police, and fire personnel coordinated their responses to create the most realistic simulation possible. The exercise was designed to test the capacity of TripCom and CCDPH to implement plans for organizing municipal staff and volunteers to efficiently distribute prophylaxis to the community. Based on results from POD clinic flow, accuracy of prophylaxis distribution, and observations from evaluators, the exercise was successful in demonstrating areas that were operationally efficient as well as identifying areas that can be improved on. These include improvements to the just-in-time training for POD staff, the health screening and consent forms handed out to patients, the physical setup of the POD, and the command structure and communication for the management of POD operations. This article demonstrates the need for full-scale exercises and identifies gaps in POD planning that can be integrated into future plans, exercises, and emergency response. PMID:24697783

  12. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the "myths".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Catherine; Lentzos, Filippa; Marris, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology, a field that aims to "make biology easier to engineer," is routinely described as leading to an increase in the "dual-use" threat, i.e., the potential for the same scientific research to be "used" for peaceful purposes or "misused" for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the "de-skilling" of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of do-it-yourself (DIY) biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend toward greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify five "myths" that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these "myths" play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a "promissory" field of research and as an "emerging technology" in need of governance. PMID:25191649

  13. Risk assessment of malicious biocontamination of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, Daniel

    2005-06-01

    Throughout the last decades of the 20th century, the biological threat evolved from primarily a government-controlled weapon to a tool of terrorism. One of the consequences of this trend is the near impossibility of foreseeing when and how an act of bioterrorism will occur. The suitability of food products for such an act stems from the multitude of microorganisms that may be used for contamination and the vulnerability of the products during and after processing. Tests that would enable the detection of a large variety of microorganisms quickly, reliably, and economically should also provide satisfactory means to prevent acts of malicious biocontamination of food products. Until such means become available, a priority-based approach to the problem is probably the most practical. Priorities should be determined based on a systematic risk assessment to define the relative likelihood of a certain microorganism being used in an act of malicious food contamination. Criteria to be evaluated are availability, weaponization processes, delivery of an effective dose, probability of early detection, and the microorganism's resistance to the conditions to which it will be exposed. Because the results of such an assessment may vary according to prevailing conditions, the assessment must be based on the existing circumstances. The results of the assessment should then be applied to the various procedures of food processing, which should further reduce the number of potential microbial threats. Existing methods of screening food for contaminating microorganisms and existing food safety and security procedures such as hazard analysis and critical control point programs may have to be modified to become suitable for the detection of acts of bioterrorism.

  14. Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budowle, Bruce; Murch, Randall; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2005-11-01

    Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics--microbial forensics--has been created, which is focused on characterization of evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or an inadvertent release. Forensic microbiological investigations are essentially the same as any other forensic investigation regarding processing. They involve crime scene(s) investigation, chain of custody practices, evidence collection, handling and preservation, evidence shipping, analysis of evidence, interpretation of results, and court presentation. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidence, the forensic investigation will attempt to determine the etiology and identity of the causal agent, often in a similar fashion as in an epidemiologic investigation. However, for attribution, higher-resolution characterization is needed. The tools for attribution include genetic- and nongenetic-based assays and informatics to attempt to determine the unique source of a sample or at least eliminate some sources. In addition, chemical and physical assays may help determine the process used to prepare, store, or disseminate the bioweapon. An effective microbial forensics program will require development and/or validation of all aspects of the forensic investigative process, from sample collection to interpretation of results. Quality assurance (QA) and QC practices, comparable to those used by the forensic DNA science community, are being implemented. Lastly, partnerships with other laboratories will be requisite, because many of the necessary capabilities for analysis will not reside in the traditional forensic laboratory.

  15. The bioscience revolution & the biological weapons threat: levers & interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December 2008, the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism, released a report, World At Risk. The Report points to the fact that, not only is the use of a weapon of mass destruction in a terrorist attack before the end of 2013, more likely than not, but also to the fact that terrorists are more likely to be able to obtain and use biological weapons than nuclear. This paper examines the recommendations of the report in the context of the historic and geopolitical changes, in particular globalization. The authors highlight the "dual-use" dilemma, as described in the report, as the paradoxical use of technology developed for the benefit of mankind being used for sinister purposes. The mitigation of such a threat lies in broad stakeholder involvement and cooperation, including non-state actors, governments and the bio-tech industry itself. The importance of vigilance measures within the life science community is emphasized and, the authors propose, could include a web-based didactic course in bioterrorism and weapons of mass destruction identification. The site could outline safety protocols, have detailed disaster management tutorials, and could be specifically tailored for different subsets of industry and health professionals. The paper concludes with an endorsement of a multi-pronged approach including strong international guidelines and intelligence cooperation and preparatory measures such as the wide-spread use of detection systems as well as diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism detection at the local level.

  16. U.S.Mexico cross-border workforce training needs:survey implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Cecilia B.; Nuno, Tomas; Dieke, Ada; Galvez, Francisco Navarro; Dutton, Ronald J.; Guerrero, Robert; Dulin, Paul; Jiménez, Elisa Aguilar; Granillo, Brenda; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. Methods: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. Results: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30%) of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations). Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. Conclusions: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals whose

  17. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the ‘myths’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eJefferson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology, a field that aims to ‘make biology easier to engineer’, is routinely described as leading to an increase in the ‘dual use’ threat, i.e. the potential for the same piece of scientific research to be ‘used’ for peaceful purposes or ‘misused’ for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the ‘de-skilling’ of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of DIY biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend towards greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify 5 ‘myths’ that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these ‘myths’ play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a ‘promissory’ field of research and as an ‘emerging technology’ in need of governance.

  18. 微生物法医学的研究现状与进展%The research progress in microbial forensics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵书民; 李成涛

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing threat of bioterrorism and biological warfare , the concept of microbial forensics has been proposed . The main task of microbial forensics is to track down the source of a microbe , whether in a criminal investigation of bioterrorism attacks or a study of naturally occurring disease outbreak , and to determine the genetic relationship of microbes through microbiology , immunology, molecular biology, analytical chemistry and other technical means . In recent years , great progress has been made in the areas of pathogen identification , national computer networks , and multispecies identification methods and quality control. In this paper , the research progress in microbial forensics has been reviewed .%随着生物恐怖与生物战威胁的增加,微生物法医学的概念应运而生.微生物法医学的主要任务就是通过微生物学、免疫学、分子生物学和分析化学等各种技术手段,为生物恐怖袭击或自然发生的暴发性疾病追踪微生物的来源,推测微生物间的亲缘关系或为传播途径提供科学证据.近年来,微生物法医学在生物恐怖病原体的法医学鉴定、国家计算机网络的建立及多种鉴定方法的建立和质量控制方面取得较大进展,本文对此进行综述.

  19. U.S.-Mexico cross-border workforce training needs: survey implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Guernsey de Zapien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. METHODS: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. RESULTS: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30% of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations. Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals

  20. The acquisition of dangerous biological materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceto, Donato Gonzalo; Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M.; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.

    2007-11-01

    Numerous terrorist organizations have openly expressed interest in producing and deploying biological weapons. However, a limiting factor for many terrorists has been the acquisition of dangerous biological agents, as evidenced by the very few successful instances of biological weapons use compared to the number of documented hoaxes. Biological agents vary greatly in their ability to cause loss of life and economic damage. Some agents, if released properly, can kill many people and cause an extensive number of secondary infections; other agents will sicken only a small number of people for a short period of time. Consequently, several biological agents can potentially be used to perpetrate a bioterrorism attack but few are likely capable of causing a high consequence event. It is crucial, from a US national security perspective, to more deeply understand the likelihood that terrorist organizations can acquire the range of these agents. Few studies have attempted to comprehensively compile the technical information directly relevant to the acquisition of dangerous bacteria, viruses and toxins. In this report, technical fact sheets were assembled for 46 potentially dangerous biological agents. Much of the information was taken from various research sources which could ultimately and significantly expedite and improve bioterrorism threat assessments. By systematically examining a number of specific agent characteristics included in these fact sheets, it may be possible to detect, target, and implement measures to thwart future terrorist acquisition attempts. In addition, the information in these fact sheets may be used as a tool to help laboratories gain a rudimentary understanding of how attractive a method laboratory theft is relative to other potential acquisition modes.

  1. The current state of bioterrorist attack surveillance and preparedness in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grundmann O

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Grundmann Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: The use of biological agents as weapons to disrupt established structures, such as governments and especially larger urban populations, has been prevalent throughout history. Following the anthrax letters sent to various government officials in the fall of 2001, the US has been investing in prevention, surveillance, and preparation for a potential bioterrorism attack. Additional funding authorized since 2002 has assisted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Environmental Protection Agency to invest in preventative research measures as well as preparedness programs, such as the Laboratory Response Network, Hospital Preparedness Program, and BioWatch. With both sentinel monitoring systems and epidemiological surveillance programs in place for metropolitan areas, the immediate threat of a large-scale bioterrorist attack may be limited. However, early detection is a crucial factor to initiate immediate response measures to prevent further spread following dissemination of a biological agent. Especially in rural areas, an interagency approach to train health care workers and raise awareness for the general public remain primary tasks, which is an ongoing challenge. Risk-management approaches in responding to dissemination of biological agents, as well as appropriate decontamination measures that reduce the probability of further contamination, have been provided, and suggest further investments in preparedness and surveillance. Ongoing efforts to improve preparedness and response to a bioterrorist attack are crucial to further reduce morbidity, mortality, and economic impact on public health. Keywords: bioterrorism, public health policy, risk management, community preparedness

  2. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The

  3. 基于荧光检测的新型细胞传感器%Novel Cell-based Biosensors Based on Measurement of Fluorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛文文; 王景林

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of infectious diseases, the monitoring of environment and detection of potential bioterrorism agents greatly require a pathogen identification method with better combined speed, accuracy and sensitivity. Here, a kind of novel cell-based biosensors based on measurement of fluorescence is introduced, which could detect pathogens and other antigens by measuring fluorescent signals within minutes. It is based on the specifically bind character of antigens and antibodies and the theory of bioluminescence or chemiluminescence.The cell could emit light via calcium chemically fluorescent indicators such as Fluo-4, or calcium fluorescent proteins such as aequorin, green fluorescent protein. B cell-based biosensors and mast cell-based biosensors have been applied in some fields. This kind of biosensors has advantages in combined sensitivity, accuracy and speed,while it also has disadvantages such as cross reactivity and problems with cellular storage and maintenance. This is a promising kind of biosensors applied in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, the monitoring of environment and detection of potential bioterrorism agents.%主要介绍了一类基于荧光检测的新型细胞传感器,这类传感器利用免疫细胞表面分子特异性识别、结合抗原的特性和生物(或化学)发光技术,通过检测荧光信号在数分钟内达到检测病原体或其他抗原的目的.这类传感器的发光原理主要是利用钙离子敏感型化学荧光探针发光,如Fluo-4等,或钙离子敏感型发光蛋自发光,如水母发光蛋白、绿色荧光蛋白等.现在已经应用的主要是B细胞传感器和肥大细胞传感器.这类传感器具有灵敏度高、检测准确、反应速度快的优点.同时又存在交叉反应、细胞不易保存等不足之处.这类传感器在疾病诊断、环境监测、生物战剂检测等领域具有较大的应用前景.

  4. Metrology and visualized analysis of anthrax research literature%国内外炭疽研究文献计量与可视化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 吴曙霞; 盛立; 陈婷; 张筱菁; 刁天喜

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索炭疽研究领域的发展情况、研究趋势及动态前沿,以期为我国炭疽研究提供信息支持,为生物反恐提供策略思路。方法基于Web of Knowledge文献数据平台( SCI),综合应用Pajek、VOSviewer、Bibexcel软件;基于中国科学引文数据库( CSCD)数据平台,使用Excel软件。结果通过文献计量可视化分析显示,炭疽研究主要分布在欧美国家,美国炭疽研究整体实力最强,军事医学科学院、中国科学院等机构为我国炭疽主要科研力量,但我国与国际相关研究机构尚存在一定差距。结论我国应加强炭疽研究,提高整体研究实力,为应对可能发生的生物恐怖事件提供必要的保障。%Objective To explore the development of the anthrax research field in order to provide information and strategies for anti-bioterrorism in China.Methods Pajek, Vosviewer, Bibexcel running on Web of Knowledge platform, and Excel running on CSCD platform were used.Results According to the results of anthrax literature metrology,the USA is by far the leader in research while the Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and other in-stitutions are our main anthrax research institutions in China, but there is a gap between China and international research institutions.Conclusion We should strengthen anthrax research, improve the overall research strength, and provide the necessary protection to respond to potential bioterrorism incidents.

  5. Ruolo ed organizzazione della microbiologia clinica di domani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Mucignat

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases continue to represent an important preventive and clinical problem especially in the light of the emergence of new pathogens, of the return of infrequent pathogens and of the increased risk of infective pathologies associated with migratory flow. Another critical point is represented by the possible insurgence of infections due to agents used in bioterrorism. More than ever it is indispensable for our country to define a network of structures able to give an organized response to these relevant problems both in terms of prevention and assistance. It is therefore important to define a protocol for clinical microbiology on a national basis that responds to different levels of activity. Keeping in mind that the fundamental objectives of microbiology are: - diagnosis of infective diseases - determination of resistance to antimicrobic drugs as a valid instrument to allow the clinician to proceed with specific treatment - control of infection spreading in the sanitary structures (hospital infections - to develop front line defence in new infections and bioterrorism, in collaboration with the department of prevention - to be a reference centre for specific training The principals on which one must base the reorganization are essentially three: 1. to configurate the microbiology service on the basis of real needs of the local population 2. to give qualitatively optimal results in real time 3. supporting “good clinical practice” to assure adequate patient results and acceptable costs for the regionale sanitary system (SSR The organization of microbiology should therefore foresee a microbiology department, structured on a provincial basis or a vast area including a structured centralized complex with peripheral structures (even simplified. This must integrate actively with the department of prevention in regard to the dynamics of infectious diseases in the territory and with the Division of Infectious Diseases (where this exists

  6. Bibliometrics and visualized analysis of plague research literature%国内外鼠疫研究文献计量可视化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章欣; 盛立; 刁天喜

    2016-01-01

    Objective By analyzing domestic and foreign papers on plague research with bibliometrics and visualized methods, we explored the current situation research trends and cutting-edge dynamics in order to provide information sup-port for plague research as well as strategies for countering bioterrorism.Methods Based on data sources from SCI and CNKI databases, bibliometrics and visualized methods were adopted,including Pajek,VOSviewer, Bibexcel and Citespace, so as to show the major cutting-edge areas of plague research.Results Comprehensive research analysis showed that the USA is leading in plague research, with some strong related institutions.There is still a gap between China and international community for research.Academy of Military Medical Sciences and other institutions are our main plague research efforts. Conclusion We should strengthen plague research, improve our overall level of plague research to provide the necessary support for effective response to natural epidemics and potential bioterrorism incidents.%目的:通过对国内外鼠疫研究进行文献计量及可视化分析,探索该领域的发展情况、研究趋势及动态前沿,以期为我国的鼠疫相关研究提供信息支持并为应对生物恐怖提供策略思路。方法运用文献计量和可视化分析方法,以SCI和CNKI数据库为数据来源,综合应用Pajek、VOSviewer、Bibexcel、Citespace软件,展示全球鼠疫研究主要领域和前沿。结果鼠疫文献计量可视化分析显示,美国在鼠疫研究领域处于领先地位,相关机构研究实力较强。我国与国际水平还有一定差距,军事医学科学院、中国科学院等机构为我国鼠疫主要研究力量。结论我国应加强鼠疫研究,提高整体实力水平,为有效应对自然疫情以及可能暴发的生物恐怖事件提供保障。

  7. Research on Simulation of Bioaerosols Diffusion in a Housing Estate%城市小区环境生物剂气溶胶的扩散模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健; 祖正虎; 许晴; 张文斗; 郑涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究城市小区中生物剂气溶胶的扩散模拟和污染区域的划分,为反生物恐怖危害评估及应急响应提供决策依据.方法:以典型生物剂炭疽为例,利用计算流体力学中的离散相模型对小区环境中生物剂气溶胶的扩散规律进行研究;对扩散后生物剂气溶胶的数目分布进行量化分析,结合吸入式炭疽的剂量-反应模型进行污染区域的划分.结果:通过计算机模拟,得到了生物剂气溶胶在小区环境中的扩散规律及数目分布,并依据人员感染炭疽概率的不同划分出小区内的污染区域.结论:利用离散相模型和剂量-反应模型,可以对城市小区中生物剂气溶胶的扩散规律进行模拟并划分污染区域,为反生物恐怖危害评估及应急响应提供决策依据.%Objective: Simulation of bioaerosols diffusion and division of contaminated areas were researched in this study, providing decision-making foundation according to which hazard assessment and emergency response against bioterrorism can be performed. Methods: Taking anthrax as an example, we did research on the diffusion of bioaerosols in a housing estate, using discrete phase model in computational fluid dynamics (CFD); we also made a quantitative analysis on the distribution of bioaerosols after the diffusion, and divided different contaminated areas using inhalation anthrax dose-response model. Results: Through computational simulation, the diffusion of bioaerosols in a housing estate was revealed, and different contaminated areas were divided according to the probability of infection. Conclusion: Using discrete phase model and dose-response model, bioaerosols diffusion in a housing estate can be simulated and division of contaminated areas can be made, which will provide decision-making foundation according to which hazard assessment and emergency response against bioterrorism can be performed.

  8. Assessment of electrical charge on airborne microorganisms by a new bioaerosol sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-An; Willeke, Klaus; Mainelis, Gediminas; Adhikari, Atin; Wang, Hongxia; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2004-03-01

    Bioaerosol sampling is necessary to monitor and control human exposure to harmful airborne microorganisms. An important parameter affecting the collection of airborne microorganisms is the electrical charge on the microorganisms. Using a new design of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for bioaerosol sampling, the polarity and relative strength of the electrical charges on airborne microorganisms were determined in several laboratory and field environments by measuring the overall physical collection efficiency and the biological collection efficiency at specific precipitation voltages and polarities. First, bacteria, fungal spores, and dust dispersed from soiled carpets were sampled in a walk-in test chamber. Second, a simulant of anthrax-causing Bacillus anthracis spores was dispersed and sampled in the same chamber. Third, bacteria were sampled in a small office while four adults were engaged in lively discussions. Fourth, bacteria and fungal spores released from hay and horse manure were sampled in a horse barn during cleanup operations. Fifth, bacteria in metalworking fluid droplets were sampled in a metalworking simulator. It was found that the new ESP differentiates between positively and negatively charged microorganisms, and that in most of the tested environments the airborne microorganisms had a net negative charge. This adds a signature to the sampled microorganisms that may assist in their identification or differentiation, for example, in an anti-bioterrorism network.

  9. Pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles the human disease as illustrated by radiographic and hematological changes after infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S Reed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of the gram negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Because of concerns that tularemia could be used as a bioterrorism agent, vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed. Animal models of pneumonic tularemia with a pathophysiology similar to the human disease are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these potential medical countermeasures. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rabbits exposed to aerosols containing Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 developed a rapidly progressive fatal pneumonic disease. Clinical signs became evident on the third day after exposure with development of a fever (>40.5°C and a sharp decline in both food and water intake. Blood samples collected on day 4 found lymphopenia and a decrease in platelet counts coupled with elevations in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, granulocytes and monocytes. Radiographs demonstrated the development of pneumonia and abnormalities of intestinal gas consistent with ileus. On average, rabbits were moribund 5.1 days after exposure; no rabbits survived exposure at any dose (190-54,000 cfu. Gross evaluation of tissues taken at necropsy showed evidence of pathology in the lungs, spleen, liver, kidney and intestines. Bacterial counts confirmed bacterial dissemination from the lungs to the liver and spleen. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The pathophysiology of pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles what has been reported for humans. Rabbits therefore are a relevant model of the human disease caused by type A strains of F. tularensis.

  10. Converging requirements and emerging challenges to public health diseases surveillance and bio surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disease surveillance systems are a critical component of an early warning system for public health agencies to prepare and respond to major public health catastrophes. With a growing emphasis for more robust early indicator and warning systems to track emerging and dangerous diseases of suspicious nature, considerable emphasis is now placed on deployment of more expanded electronic disease surveillance systems. The architectural considerations for bio surveillance information system are based on collection, analysis and dissemination of human, veterinary and agricultural related disease surveillance to broader regional areas likely to be affected in the event of an emerging disease, or due to bioterrorism and better coordinate plans, preparations and response by governmental agencies and multilateral forums. The diseases surveillance systems architectures by intent and design could as well support biological threat monitoring and threat reduction initiatives. As an illustrative sample set, this paper will describe the comparative informatics requirements for a disease surveillance systems developed by CSC for the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) currently operational nationwide, and biological weapons threat assessment developed as part of the Threat Agent Detection and Response (TADR) Network under the US Biological Threat Reduction Program and deployed at Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.(author)

  11. Public health crises: the development of a consensus document on their management in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, T; Caylà, Ja

    2011-01-01

    Several public health crises in Europe have led to sustained outbreaks, political problems, or have generated social alarm. For this reason, a nationwide study was conducted in Spain with the objective to determine which public health events provoke the most frequent crises, to reach a consensus regarding the appropriate actions to be taken when responding to public health crises, and to provide recommendations for their management. The events which had most frequently provoked crises between 1999 and 2004 were identified. A consensus was obtained by public health experts from the 17 Autonomous Regions of Spain and the National Epidemiological Centre using the RAND/UCLA method which combines the Nominal Groups and Delphi techniques. Legionellosis, foodborne diseases, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), bioterrorism, meningococcal meningitis, tuberculosis, heat waves, and influenza epidemics were found to be cause for most public health crises. In Spain, 75% of the crises identified by senior public health experts from the Autonomous Regions involved infectious diseases. Factors triggering a crisis included the type of disease, social alarm, population affected, and the course of action taken by public institutions and reporting in the media. There was consensus that correct information, qualified personnel, availability of standardised protocols for investigation and control, information distribution, and setting up of ‘crisis offices’ were actions with a positive effect regarding crisis resolution. Appropriate management of outbreaks or other situations being perceived as a risk to health can mitigate or even contain the generation of public health crises. PMID:21507319

  12. Knowledge communication: a key to successful crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anders; Härenstam, Malin

    2013-09-01

    A winning concept of crisis management can be summarized in 2 words: knowledge communication. If decision makers, communicators, experts, and the public understand what the crisis is about and share their knowledge, the process of handling it will be optimized. Effective crisis communication implies the necessity of an unhindered but purposeful exchange of information within and between authorities, organizations, media, involved individuals, and groups before, during, and after a crisis. This article focuses on the importance of the before, or prevention, part of a crisis since it holds a rich possibility to enhance the chances for successful crisis management of a bioterrorism incident. An extended perspective on crisis communication efficiently links to a more thorough understanding of risk perception with various stakeholders and the public, which also will be helpful for situational awareness. Furthermore, the grounded baseline for the dialogue type of crisis communication suitable in modern society and to modern social media is achieved by linking to those risk communication efforts that are made. The link between risk and crisis should be afforded more attention since, especially in biosecurity, there would be no crisis without risk negligence and poor or malfunctioning preventive efforts. PMID:23971816

  13. A distributed national network for label-free rapid identification of emerging pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. Paul; Rajwa, Bartek P.; Dundar, M. Murat; Bae, Euiwon; Patsekin, Valery; Hirleman, E. Daniel; Roumani, Ali; Bhunia, Arun K.; Dietz, J. Eric; Davisson, V. Jo; Thomas, John G.

    2011-05-01

    Typical bioterrorism prevention scenarios assume well-known and well-characterized pathogens like anthrax or tularemia, which are serious public concerns if released into food and/or water supplies or distributed using other vectors. Common governmental contingencies include rapid response to these biological threats with predefined treatments and management operations. However, bioterrorist attacks may follow a far more sophisticated route. With the widely known and immense progress in genetics and the availability of molecular biology tools worldwide, the potential for malicious modification of pathogenic genomes is very high. Common non-pathogenic microorganisms could be transformed into dangerous, debilitating pathogens. Known pathogens could also be modified to avoid detection, because organisms are traditionally identified on the basis of their known physiological or genetic properties. In the absence of defined primers a laboratory using genetic biodetection methods such as PCR might be unable to quickly identify a modified microorganism. Our concept includes developing a nationwide database of signatures based on biophysical (such as elastic light scattering (ELS) properties and/or Raman spectra) rather than genetic properties of bacteria. When paired with a machine-learning system for emerging pathogen detection these data become an effective detection system. The approach emphasizes ease of implementation using a standardized collection of phenotypic information and extraction of biophysical features of pathogens. Owing to the label-free nature of the detection modalities ELS is significantly less costly than any genotypic or mass spectrometry approach.

  14. Review of bioaerosols in indoor environment with special reference to sampling, analysis and control mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bipasha; Lal, Himanshu; Srivastava, Arun

    2015-12-01

    Several tiny organisms of various size ranges present in air are called airborne particles or bioaerosol which mainly includes live or dead fungi and bacteria, their secondary metabolites, viruses, pollens, etc. which have been related to health issues of human beings and other life stocks. Bio-terror attacks in 2001 as well as pandemic outbreak of flue due to influenza A H1N1 virus in 2009 have alarmed us about the importance of bioaerosol research. Hence characterization i.e. identification and quantification of different airborne microorganisms in various indoor environments is necessary to identify the associated risks and to establish exposure threshold. Along with the bioaerosol sampling and their analytical techniques, various literatures revealing the concentration levels of bioaerosol have been mentioned in this review thereby contributing to the knowledge of identification and quantification of bioaerosols and their different constituents in various indoor environments (both occupational and non-occupational sections). Apart from recognition of bioaerosol, developments of their control mechanisms also play an important role. Hence several control methods have also been briefly reviewed. However, several individual levels of efforts such as periodic cleaning operations, maintenance activities and proper ventilation system also serve in their best way to improve indoor air quality. PMID:26436919

  15. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  16. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD in humans and non-human primates (NHPs. Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs, vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirus∆VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  17. Plastic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)-on-a-chip biosensor for botulinum neurotoxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung-Mok; Cho, Joung-Hwan; Cho, Il-Hoon; Paek, Eui-Hwan; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Bong-Su; Ryu, Chunsun; Lee, Kyunghee; Kim, Young-Kee; Paek, Se-Hwan

    2007-03-21

    A plastic ELISA-on-a-chip (EOC) employing the concept of cross-flow immuno-chromatographic analysis was applied to the measurement of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) as agent for bio-terrorism. Two monoclonal antibodies specific to the heavy chain of the toxin were raised and identified to form sandwich binding complexes as the pair with the analyte. For the construction of an immuno-strip, one was utilized as the capture antibody immobilized onto nitrocellulose membrane and the other as the detection coupled to an enzyme, horseradish peroxidase. The two plates of EOC used in this study were fabricated by injection molding of polycarbonate to improve the reproducibility of manufacture and, after inclusion of the immuno-strip, bonded using a UV-sensitive adhesive. Under optimal conditions of analysis, the chip produced a color signal in proportion to the analyte dose and the signal was quantified using a detector equipped with a digital camera. From the dose-response curve, the detection limit of BoNT/A was 2.0 ng mL(-1), approximately five times more sensitive than a commercial-version detection kit employing colloidal gold tracer.

  18. Recent advances in the study of live attenuated cell-cultured smallpox vaccine LC16m8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Akiko; Saito, Tomoya; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Kanatani, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-01

    LC16m8 is a live, attenuated, cell-cultured smallpox vaccine that was developed and licensed in Japan in the 1970s, but was not used in the campaign to eradicate smallpox. In the early 2000s, the potential threat of bioterrorism led to reconsideration of the need for a smallpox vaccine. Subsequently, LC16m8 production was restarted in Japan in 2002, requiring re-evaluation of its safety and efficacy. Approximately 50,000 children in the 1970s and about 3500 healthy adults in the 2000s were vaccinated with LC16m8 in Japan, and 153 adults have been vaccinated with LC16m8 or Dryvax in phase I/II clinical trials in the USA. These studies confirmed the safety and efficacy of LC16m8, while several studies in animal models have shown that LC16m8 protects the host against viral challenge. The World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization recommended LC16m8, together with ACAM2000, as a stockpile vaccine in 2013. In addition, LC16m8 is expected to be a viable alternative to first-generation smallpox vaccines to prevent human monkeypox.

  19. Global health security and the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Otavio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global nuclear proliferation, bioterrorism, and emerging infections have challenged national capacities to achieve and maintain global security. Over the last century, emerging infectious disease threats resulted in the development of the preliminary versions of the International Health Regulations (IHR of the World Health Organization (WHO. The current HR(2005 contain major differences compared to earlier versions, including: substantial shifts from containment at the border to containment at the source of the event; shifts from a rather small disease list (smallpox, plague, cholera, and yellow fever required to be reported, to all public health threats; and shifts from preset measures to tailored responses with more flexibility to deal with the local situations on the ground. The new IHR(2005 call for accountability. They also call for strengthened national capacity for surveillance and control; prevention, alert, and response to international public health emergencies beyond the traditional short list of required reporting; global partnership and collaboration; and human rights, obligations, accountability, and procedures of monitoring. Under these evolved regulations, as well as other measures, such as the Revolving Fund for vaccine procurement of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO, global health security could be maintained in the response to urban yellow fever in Paraguay in 2008 and the influenza (H1N1 pandemic of 2009-2010.

  20. Poxviruses: smallpox vaccine, its complications and chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Remichkova

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mimi RemichkovaDepartment of Pathogenic Bacteria, The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, BulgariaAbstract: The threat of bioterrorism in the recent years has once again posed to mankind the unresolved problems of contagious diseases, well forgotten in the past. Smallpox (variola is among the most dangerous and highly contagious viral infections affecting humans. The last natural case in Somalia marked the end of a successful World Health Organization campaign for smallpox eradication by vaccination on worldwide scale. Smallpox virus still exists today in some laboratories, specially designated for that purpose. The contemporary response in the treatment of the post-vaccine complications, which would occur upon enforcing new programs for mass-scale smallpox immunization, includes application of effective chemotherapeutics and their combinations. The goals are to provide the highest possible level of protection and safety of the population in case of eventual terrorist attack. This review describes the characteristic features of the poxviruses, smallpox vaccination, its adverse reactions, and poxvirus chemotherapy.Keywords: poxvirus, smallpox vaccine, post vaccine complications, inhibitors

  1. Algorithms for rapid outbreak detection: a research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, David L; Burkom, Howard; Campbell, Murray; Hogan, William R; Moore, Andrew W

    2005-04-01

    The threat of bioterrorism has stimulated interest in enhancing public health surveillance to detect disease outbreaks more rapidly than is currently possible. To advance research on improving the timeliness of outbreak detection, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency sponsored the Bio-event Advanced Leading Indicator Recognition Technology (BioALIRT) project beginning in 2001. The purpose of this paper is to provide a synthesis of research on outbreak detection algorithms conducted by academic and industrial partners in the BioALIRT project. We first suggest a practical classification for outbreak detection algorithms that considers the types of information encountered in surveillance analysis. We then present a synthesis of our research according to this classification. The research conducted for this project has examined how to use spatial and other covariate information from disparate sources to improve the timeliness of outbreak detection. Our results suggest that use of spatial and other covariate information can improve outbreak detection performance. We also identified, however, methodological challenges that limited our ability to determine the benefit of using outbreak detection algorithms that operate on large volumes of data. Future research must address challenges such as forecasting expected values in high-dimensional data and generating spatial and multivariate test data sets. PMID:15797000

  2. Lessons learned from a regional strategy for resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Janine C; Stapley, Jonathan; Akins, Ralitsa; Silenas, Rasa; Williams, Josie R

    2005-01-01

    Two qualitative case studies focus on the allocation of CDC funds distributed during 2002 for bioterrorism preparedness in two Texas public health regions (each as populous and complex as many states). Lessons learned are presented for public health officials and others who work to build essential public health services and security for our nation. The first lesson is that personal relationships are the cornerstone of preparedness. A major lesson is that a regional strategy to manage funds may be more effective than allocating funds on a per capita basis. One regional director required every local department to complete a strategic plan as a basis for proportional allocation of the funds. Control of communicable diseases was a central component of the planning. Some funds were kept at the regional level to provide epidemiology services, computer software, equipment, and training for the entire region. Confirmation of the value of this regional strategy was expressed by local public health and emergency management officials in a focus group 1 year after the strategy had been implemented. The group members also pointed out the need to streamline the planning process, provide up-to-date computer networks, and receive more than minimal communication. This regional strategy can be viewed from the perspective of adaptive leadership, defined as activities to bring about constructive change, which also can be used to analyze other difficult areas of preparedness.

  3. Plant molecular pharming for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoger, Eva; Fischer, Rainer; Moloney, Maurice; Ma, Julian K-C

    2014-01-01

    Plant molecular pharming has emerged as a niche technology for the manufacture of pharmaceutical products indicated for chronic and infectious diseases, particularly for products that do not fit into the current industry-favored model of fermenter-based production campaigns. In this review, we explore the areas where molecular pharming can make the greatest impact, including the production of pharmaceuticals that have novel glycan structures or that cannot be produced efficiently in microbes or mammalian cells because they are insoluble or toxic. We also explore the market dynamics that encourage the use of molecular pharming, particularly for pharmaceuticals that are required in small amounts (such as personalized medicines) or large amounts (on a multi-ton scale, such as blood products and microbicides) and those that are needed in response to emergency situations (pandemics and bioterrorism). The impact of molecular pharming will increase as the platforms become standardized and optimized through adoption of good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards for clinical development, offering a new opportunity to produce inexpensive medicines in regional markets that are typically excluded under current business models. PMID:24579993

  4. Implementation of a data fusion algorithm for RODS, a real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Douglas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-10-01

    Due to the nature of many infectious agents, such as anthrax, symptoms may either take several days to manifest or resemble those of less serious illnesses leading to misdiagnosis. Thus, bioterrorism attacks that include the release of such agents are particularly dangerous and potentially deadly. For this reason, a system is needed for the quick and correct identification of disease outbreaks. The Real-time Outbreak Disease Surveillance System (RODS), initially developed by Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh, was created to meet this need. The RODS software implements different classifiers for pertinent health surveillance data in order to determine whether or not an outbreak has occurred. In an effort to improve the capability of RODS at detecting outbreaks, we incorporate a data fusion method. Data fusion is used to improve the results of a single classification by combining the output of multiple classifiers. This paper documents the first stages of the development of a data fusion system that can combine the output of the classifiers included in RODS.

  5. Nanoscale detection of bacteriophage triggered ion cascade (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobozi-King, Maria; Seo, Sungkyu; Kim, Jong U.; Cheng, Mosong; Kish, Laszlo B.; Young, Ryland

    2005-05-01

    In an era of potential bioterrorism and pandemics of antibiotic-resistant microbes, bacterial contaminations of food and water supplies is a major concern. There is an urgent need for the rapid, inexpensive and specific identification of bacteria under field conditions. Here we describe a method that combines the specificity and avidity of bacteriophages with fluctuation analysis of electrical noise. The method is based on the massive, transitory ion leakage that occurs at the moment of phage DNA injection into the host cell. The ion fluxes require only that the cells be physiologically viable (i.e., have energized membranes) and can occur within seconds after mixing the cells with sufficient concentrations of phage particles. To detect these fluxes, we have constructed a nano-well, a lateral, micron-size capacitor of titanium electrodes with gap size of 150 nm, and used it to measure the electrical field fluctuations in microliter (mm3) samples containing phage and bacteria. In mixtures where the analyte bacteria were sensitive to the phage, large stochastic waves with various time and amplitude scales were observed, with power spectra of approximately 1/f2 shape over at 1 - 10 Hz. Development of this SEPTIC (SEnsing of Phage-Triggered Ion Cascades) technology could provide rapid detection and identification of live, pathogenic bacteria on the scale of minutes, with unparalleled specificity. The method has a potential ultimate sensitivity of 1 bacterium/microliter (1 bacterium/mm3).

  6. Bio-diversity: an effective safety net against environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiversity is the feedstock for the biotechnology industry. Hence, the conservation, enhancement and sustainable and equitable use of biodiversity should be accorded high priority in all national environment protection programmes. Lichens serve as useful indicators of environmental health. Similarly, several blue green algae help to sequester salt from water. There is need for the more widespread use of such biomonitoring and bioremediation agents. Bioprospecting research designed to identify novel metabolites must be rooted in the principle of equity in sharing benefits with the holders of traditional knowledge. There is need for greater vigil against alien invasive species, since with growing world trade in food grains and other agricultural commodities, there is an increasing possibility of introducing new pests, weeds and harmful micro-organisms. Finally, biological scientists should place emphasis on their ethical responsibility for the consequences of their research, since otherwise bioterrorism could become a major threat to human security. - The age of biological diversity serves as an impetus for the future of biotechnology

  7. Capripoxviruses: an emerging worldwide threat to sheep, goats and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiuk, S; Bowden, T R; Boyle, D B; Wallace, D B; Kitching, R P

    2008-09-01

    Capripoxviruses are the cause of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpy skin disease (LSD) of cattle. These diseases are of great economic significance to farmers in regions in which they are endemic and are a major constraint to international trade in livestock and their products. Although the distribution of capripoxviruses is considerably reduced from what it was even 50 years ago, they are now expanding their territory, with recent outbreaks of sheeppox or goatpox in Vietnam, Mongolia and Greece, and outbreaks of LSD in Ethiopia, Egypt and Israel. Increased legal and illegal trade in live animals provides the potential for further spread, with, for instance, the possibility of LSD becoming firmly established in Asia. This review briefly summarizes what is known about capripoxviruses, including their impact on livestock production, their geographic range, host-specificity, clinical disease, transmission and genomics, and considers current developments in diagnostic tests and vaccines. Capripoxviruses have the potential to become emerging disease threats because of global climate change and changes in patterns of trade in animals and animal products. They also could be used as economic bioterrorism agents. PMID:18774991

  8. Data mining: childhood injury control and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepas, Joseph J

    2009-08-01

    Data mining is defined as the automatic extraction of useful, often previously unknown information from large databases or data sets. It has become a major part of modern life and is extensively used in industry, banking, government, and health care delivery. The process requires a data collection system that integrates input from multiple sources containing critical elements that define outcomes of interest. Appropriately designed data mining processes identify and adjust for confounding variables. The statistical modeling used to manipulate accumulated data may involve any number of techniques. As predicted results are periodically analyzed against those observed, the model is consistently refined to optimize precision and accuracy. Whether applying integrated sources of clinical data to inferential probabilistic prediction of risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia or population surveillance for signs of bioterrorism, it is essential that modern health care providers have at least a rudimentary understanding of what the concept means, how it basically works, and what it means to current and future health care. PMID:19667841

  9. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Davis, Keith R

    2016-01-01

    The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology. PMID:27274814

  10. Knowledge communication: a key to successful crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anders; Härenstam, Malin

    2013-09-01

    A winning concept of crisis management can be summarized in 2 words: knowledge communication. If decision makers, communicators, experts, and the public understand what the crisis is about and share their knowledge, the process of handling it will be optimized. Effective crisis communication implies the necessity of an unhindered but purposeful exchange of information within and between authorities, organizations, media, involved individuals, and groups before, during, and after a crisis. This article focuses on the importance of the before, or prevention, part of a crisis since it holds a rich possibility to enhance the chances for successful crisis management of a bioterrorism incident. An extended perspective on crisis communication efficiently links to a more thorough understanding of risk perception with various stakeholders and the public, which also will be helpful for situational awareness. Furthermore, the grounded baseline for the dialogue type of crisis communication suitable in modern society and to modern social media is achieved by linking to those risk communication efforts that are made. The link between risk and crisis should be afforded more attention since, especially in biosecurity, there would be no crisis without risk negligence and poor or malfunctioning preventive efforts.

  11. Mass violence and mental health--a view from forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda-Flórez, Julio

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this paper are to develop insights into the mind of the terrorist, to conduct a review of health impacts on the health of populations, especially from the point of view of mental health impacts caused by terrorist attacks and to discern the role to be played by forensic psychiatry in emergencies caused by terrorist actions. These objectives are developed at the population level and at the individual level from the point of view of a description of the terrorist and of victim's need for forensic intervention and representation. On entrance, the paper starts with a general frame of definitions and a historical overview of terrorism as an ancient, purposeful, political tool used to change a situation objectionable to the terrorist group via intimidation of a captive population. People are used as expendable pawns and become psychologically captive to the aims of the terrorist group. As well, the paper reviews the new reality of bioterrorism and the use of improved technologies to inflict expensive damage to national infrastructures and massive loss of life. PMID:17566899

  12. Fieldable genotyping of Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis based on 25-loci Multi Locus VNTR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carattoli Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthrax and plague are diseases caused by Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis respectively. These bacteria are etiological agents for worldwide zoonotic diseases and are considered among the most feared potential bioterror agents. Strain differentiation is difficult for these microorganisms because of their high intraspecies genome homogeneity. Moreover, fast strain identification and comparison with known genotypes may be crucial for naturally occurring outbreaks versus bioterrorist events discrimination. Results Thirty-nine B. anthracis and ten Y. pestis strains, representative of the species genetic diversity, were genotyped by Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer using previously described Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis assays (MLVA. Results were compared to previous data obtained by standard genotyping system (capillary electrophoresis on automatic sequencer and, when necessary, direct amplicon sequencing. A reference comparison table containing actual fragment sizes, sequencer sizes and Agilent sizes was produced. Conclusion In this report an automated DNA electrophoresis apparatus which provides a cheaper alternative compared to capillary electrophoresis approaches was applied for genotyping of B. anthracis and Y. pestis. This equipment, uses pre-cast gels and provides easy transportation, low maintenance and overall general logistic requirements and costs, is easy to set up and provides rapid analysis. This platform is a candidate for on-site MLVA genotyping of biothreat agents as well as other bacterial pathogens. It is an alternative to the more expensive and demanding capillary electrophoresis methods, and to the less expensive but more time-consuming classical gel electrophoresis approach.

  13. APDS: The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B; Makarewicz, A; Setlur, U; Henderer, B; McBride, M; Dzenitis, J

    2004-10-04

    We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic-acid based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for seven days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported.

  14. Bridging the health security divide: department of defense support for the global health security agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudy, Robin M; Ingerson-Mahar, Michael; Kanter, Jordan; Grant, Ashley M; Fisher, Dara R; Jones, Franca R

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, President Obama addressed the United Nations General Assembly and urged the global community to come together to prevent, detect, and fight every kind of biological danger, whether a pandemic, terrorist threat, or treatable disease. Over the past decade, the United States and key international partners have addressed these dangers through a variety of programs and strategies aimed at developing and enhancing countries' capacity to rapidly detect, assess, report, and respond to acute biological threats. Despite our collective efforts, however, an increasingly interconnected world presents heightened opportunities for human, animal, and zoonotic diseases to emerge and spread globally. Further, the technical capabilities required to develop biological agents into a weapon are relatively low. The launch of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) provides an opportunity for the international community to enhance the linkages between the health and security sectors, accelerating global efforts to prevent avoidable epidemics and bioterrorism, detect threats early, and respond rapidly and effectively to biological threats. The US Department of Defense (DoD) plays a key role in achieving GHSA objectives through its force health protection, threat reduction, and biodefense efforts at home and abroad. This article focuses on GHSA activities conducted in the DoD Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Defense.

  15. Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Direct in-situ Analysis of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Youngsu; Lee, Jonghee; Kim, Seongsoo [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The rapid and accurate identification of biological agents is a critical step in the case of bio-terror and biological warfare attacks. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been widely used for the identification of microorganisms. In this study, we describe a method for the rapid and accurate discrimination of Bacillus anthracis spores using MALDI-TOF MS. Our direct in-situ analysis of MALDI-TOF MS does not involve subsequent high-resolution mass analyses and sample preparation steps. This method allowed the detection of species-specific biomarkers from each Bacillus spores. Especially, B. anthracis spores had specific biomarker peaks at 2503, 3089, 3376, 6684, 6698, 6753, and 6840 m/z. Cluster and PCA analyses of the mass spectra of Bacillus spores revealed distinctively separated clusters and within-groups similarity. Therefore, we believe that this method is effective in the real-time identification of biological warfare agents such as B. anthracis as well as other microorganisms in the field.

  16. Surfactant-modified zeolite can protect drinking water wells from viruses and bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Pillai, Suresh D.; Guan, Huade; Bowman, Robert; Couroux, Emile; Hielscher, Frank; Totten, James; Espinosa, Isabell Y.; Kretzschmar, Thomas

    Septic tanks, sewage effluents, and landfills can release microbial pathogens into groundwater. This problem is amplified in the so-called colonias along the U.S.-Mexico border and other low-income areas around the world that have no public sewage systems. The result is often outbreaks of groundwater-associated disease for which enteric viruses and bacteria, spread via a fecal-oral route, are responsible. However, due to difficulties and limitations in detection and surveillance of disease outbreaks, the causative agents for more than 50% of the outbreaks are unknown, though the clinical features suggest a viral etiology for most of those cases [U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1993]. Enteric pathogens such as E coli 0157:H7, Campylobacter, Enteroviruses, Hepatitis A virus, and caliciviruses have been responsible for groundwater-related microbial infections in humans. Inexpensive solutions to this problem are urgently needed. The recent threat of bio-terrorism and concerns about the safety of drinking water supplies further add to that urgency.

  17. The Airborne Metagenome in an Indoor Urban Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, Susannah; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Xuguo; Yu, Yiting; Lee, Wah Heng; Yap, Jennifer; Yao, Fei; Suan, Sim Tiow; Ing, Seah Keng; Haynes, Matthew; Rohwer, Forest; Wei, Chia Lin; Tan, Patrick; Bristow, James; Rubin, Edward M.; Ruan, Yijun

    2008-02-12

    The indoor atmosphere is an ecological unit that impacts on public health. To investigate the composition of organisms in this space, we applied culture-independent approaches to microbes harvested from the air of two densely populated urban buildings, from which we analyzed 80 megabases genomic DNA sequence and 6000 16S rDNA clones. The air microbiota is primarily bacteria, including potential opportunistic pathogens commonly isolated from human-inhabited environments such as hospitals, but none of the data contain matches to virulent pathogens or bioterror agents. Comparison of air samples with each other and nearby environments suggested that the indoor air microbes are not random transients from surrounding outdoor environments, but rather originate from indoor niches. Sequence annotation by gene function revealed specific adaptive capabilities enriched in the air environment, including genes potentially involved in resistance to desiccation and oxidative damage. This baseline index of air microbiota will be valuable for improving designs of surveillance for natural or man-made release of virulent pathogens.

  18. Plant molecular pharming for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoger, Eva; Fischer, Rainer; Moloney, Maurice; Ma, Julian K-C

    2014-01-01

    Plant molecular pharming has emerged as a niche technology for the manufacture of pharmaceutical products indicated for chronic and infectious diseases, particularly for products that do not fit into the current industry-favored model of fermenter-based production campaigns. In this review, we explore the areas where molecular pharming can make the greatest impact, including the production of pharmaceuticals that have novel glycan structures or that cannot be produced efficiently in microbes or mammalian cells because they are insoluble or toxic. We also explore the market dynamics that encourage the use of molecular pharming, particularly for pharmaceuticals that are required in small amounts (such as personalized medicines) or large amounts (on a multi-ton scale, such as blood products and microbicides) and those that are needed in response to emergency situations (pandemics and bioterrorism). The impact of molecular pharming will increase as the platforms become standardized and optimized through adoption of good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards for clinical development, offering a new opportunity to produce inexpensive medicines in regional markets that are typically excluded under current business models.

  19. [Comparative assessment of DNA extraction methods for identification of glanders and melioidosis etiological agents by PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, O V; Antonov, V A; Tkachenko, G A; Altukhova, V V; Zamaraev, V S; Piven', N N; Goloseev, Iu A; Vasil'ev, V P; Lomova, L V; Alekseev, V V

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic Burkholderia are considered as a cause of dangerous infections and potential agents of bioterrorism. Comparative assessment of different methods of extraction and purification of DNA for PCR analysis of pure cultures and samples contaminated by etiological agents of glanders and melioidosis was performed. Samples of soil and food artificially contaminated by pathogenic Burkholderia as well as organs of infected animals were tested. DNA was extracted by methods of boiling, nucleosorption with presence of guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine thiocyanatephenol extraction, guanidine thiocyanate-phenol extraction with additional purification of DNA by nucleosorption. Amplification was performed by "Flash" technique and detector of fluorescence was used for analysis of PCR products. Utilization of the recommended methods of preparation depending on the nature of sample let to detect by the "Flash" technique the etiological agents of glanders and melioidosis in concentration =10(3) microbial cells per ml. Choice of DNA extraction and purification methods is determined by type of a sample and presence in it of admixtures inhibiting PCR.

  20. Present and future therapeutic strategies for melioidosis and glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, D Mark; Dow, Steven W; Schweizer, Herbert P; Torres, Alfredo G

    2010-03-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Both Gram-negative pathogens are endemic in many parts of the world. Although natural acquisition of these pathogens is rare in the majority of countries, these bacteria have recently gained much interest because of their potential as bioterrorism agents. In modern times, their potential destructive impact on public health has escalated owing to the ability of these pathogens to cause opportunistic infections in diabetic and perhaps otherwise immunocompromised people, two growing populations worldwide. For both pathogens, severe infection in humans carries a high mortality rate, both species are recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy - B. pseudomallei more so than B. mallei - and no licensed vaccine exists for either prophylactic or therapeutic use. The potential malicious use of these organisms has accelerated the investigation of new ways to prevent and to treat the diseases. The availability of several B. pseudomallei and B. mallei genome sequences has greatly facilitated target identification and development of new therapeutics. This review provides a compilation of literature covering studies in antimelioidosis and antiglanders antimicrobial drug discovery, with a particular focus on potential novel therapeutic approaches to combat these diseases.

  1. Lung dendritic cells rapidly mediate anthrax spore entry through the pulmonary route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleret, Aurélie; Quesnel-Hellmann, Anne; Vallon-Eberhard, Alexandra; Verrier, Bernard; Jung, Steffen; Vidal, Dominique; Mathieu, Jacques; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas

    2007-06-15

    Inhalational anthrax is a life-threatening infectious disease of considerable concern, especially because anthrax is an emerging bioterrorism agent. The exact mechanisms leading to a severe clinical form through the inhalational route are still unclear, particularly how immobile spores are captured in the alveoli and transported to the lymph nodes in the early steps of infection. We investigated the roles of alveolar macrophages and lung dendritic cells (LDC) in spore migration. We demonstrate that alveolar macrophages are the first cells to phagocytose alveolar spores, and do so within 10 min. However, interstitial LDCs capture spores present in the alveoli within 30 min without crossing the epithelial barrier suggesting a specific mechanism for rapid alveolus sampling by transepithelial extension. We show that interstitial LDCs constitute the cell population that transports spores into the thoracic lymph nodes from within 30 min to 72 h after intranasal infection. Our results demonstrate that LDCs are central to spore transport immediately after infection. The rapid kinetics of pathogen transport may contribute to the clinical features of inhalational anthrax. PMID:17548636

  2. Mucosal immunization induces a higher level of lasting neutralizing antibody response in mice by a replication-competent smallpox vaccine: vaccinia Tiantan strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Yu, Wenbo; Huang, Xiaoxing; Wang, Haibo; Liu, Li; Chen, Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    The possible bioterrorism threat using the variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, has promoted us to further investigate the immunogenicity profiles of existing vaccines. Here, we study for the first time the immunogenicity profile of a replication-competent smallpox vaccine (vaccinia Tiantan, VTT strain) for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) through mucosal vaccination, which is noninvasive and has a critical implication for massive vaccination programs. Four different routes of vaccination were tested in parallel including intramuscular (i.m.), intranasal (i.n.), oral (i.o.), and subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculations in mice. We found that one time vaccination with an optimal dose of VTT was able to induce anti-VTT Nabs via each of the four routes. Higher levels of antiviral Nabs, however, were induced via the i.n. and i.o. inoculations when compared with the i.m. and s.c. routes. Moreover, the i.n. and i.o. vaccinations also induced higher sustained levels of Nabs overtime, which conferred better protections against homologous or alternating mucosal routes of viral challenges six months post vaccination. The VTT-induced immunity via all four routes, however, was partially effective against the intramuscular viral challenge. Our data have implications for understanding the potential application of mucosal smallpox vaccination and for developing VTT-based vaccines to overcome preexisting antivaccinia immunity.

  3. Mucosal Immunization Induces a Higher Level of Lasting Neutralizing Antibody Response in Mice by a Replication-Competent Smallpox Vaccine: Vaccinia Tiantan Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible bioterrorism threat using the variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, has promoted us to further investigate the immunogenicity profiles of existing vaccines. Here, we study for the first time the immunogenicity profile of a replication-competent smallpox vaccine (vaccinia Tiantan, VTT strain for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs through mucosal vaccination, which is noninvasive and has a critical implication for massive vaccination programs. Four different routes of vaccination were tested in parallel including intramuscular (i.m., intranasal (i.n., oral (i.o., and subcutaneous (s.c. inoculations in mice. We found that one time vaccination with an optimal dose of VTT was able to induce anti-VTT Nabs via each of the four routes. Higher levels of antiviral Nabs, however, were induced via the i.n. and i.o. inoculations when compared with the i.m. and s.c. routes. Moreover, the i.n. and i.o. vaccinations also induced higher sustained levels of Nabs overtime, which conferred better protections against homologous or alternating mucosal routes of viral challenges six months post vaccination. The VTT-induced immunity via all four routes, however, was partially effective against the intramuscular viral challenge. Our data have implications for understanding the potential application of mucosal smallpox vaccination and for developing VTT-based vaccines to overcome preexisting antivaccinia immunity.

  4. Review of the literature and proposed guidelines for the use of oral ribavirin as postexposure prophylaxis for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Hadi, Christiane M; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Lertora, Juan J L

    2010-12-15

    Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic illness; the virus is endemic in West Africa and also of concern with regard to bioterrorism. Transmission of Lassa virus between humans may occur through direct contact with infected blood or bodily secretions. Oral administration of the antiviral drug ribavirin is often considered for postexposure prophylaxis, but no systematically collected data or uniform guidelines exist for this indication. Furthermore, the relatively low secondary attack rates for Lassa fever, the restriction of the area of endemicity to West Africa, and the infrequency of high-risk exposures make it unlikely that controlled prospective efficacy trials will ever be possible. Recommendations for postexposure use of ribavirin can therefore be made only on the basis of a thorough understanding and logical extrapolation of existing data. Here, we review the pertinent issues and propose guidelines based on extensive review of the literature, as well as our experience in this field. We recommend oral ribavirin postexposure prophylaxis for Lassa fever exclusively for definitive high-risk exposures. These guidelines may also serve for exposure to other hemorrhagic fever viruses susceptible to ribavirin. PMID:21058912

  5. Anthrax as an example of the One Health concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengis, R G; Frean, J

    2014-08-01

    Anthrax is a peracute, acute or subacute multispecies bacterial infection that occurs on many continents. It is one of the oldest infectious diseases known; the biblical fifth and sixth plagues (Exodus chapters 7 to 9) that affected first livestock and then humans were probably anthrax. From the earliest historical records until development of an effective vaccine midway through the 20th Century, anthrax was one of the foremost causes of uncontrolled mortality in cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs, with 'spill over' into humans, worldwide. With the development of the Sterne spore vaccine, a sharp decline in anthrax outbreaks in livestock occurred during the 1930-1980 era. There were successful national vaccination programmes in many countries during this period, complemented by the liberal use of antibiotics and the implementation of quarantine regulations and carcass disposal. However, a resurgence of this disease in livestock has been reported recently in some regions, where complacency and a false sense of security have hindered vaccination programmes. The epidemiology of anthrax involves an environmental component, as well as livestock, wildlife and human components. This makes anthrax an ideal example for discussion in the One Health context. Many outbreaks of anthrax in wildlife are undetected or unreported, owing to surveillance inadequacies and difficulties. Human disease is generally acquired accidentally during outbreaks of anthrax in domestic livestock and wildlife. The exception is deliberate targeting of humans with anthrax in the course of biowarfare or bioterrorism.

  6. Interdisciplinary approach to all-hazards preparedness: are you ready? How do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Leonard A; Rokusek, Cecilia F; Bragg, Sally M; Howell, James T

    2009-03-01

    The Center for Bioterrorism and All-Hazards Preparedness (CBAP) at Nova Southeastern University College of Osteopathic Medicine is part of the National Education Strategy Team supported by the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. It developed and implemented an extensive interdisciplinary community-focused, all-hazards preparedness program as a template for use nationally. CBAP provides discipline-customized education and training experiences in emergency and disaster preparedness using multiple formats. In addition to addressing competencies that all responders must have, the CBAP National Education Strategy Team has special emphasis areas in personal planning, vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations, the employment of "cells" in the community, evidence-based evaluation including a unique casualty objective-structured clinical examination, use of student and faculty and Medical Reserve Corps volunteers, all-hazards preparedness aimed at school children, and programs addressing campus violence. CBAP emphasizes that all-hazards preparedness is an academic discipline that necessitates those trained have periodic updates to maintain their currency. PMID:19202400

  7. Recommended Immunological Strategies to Screen for Botulinum Neurotoxin-Containing Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Simon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs cause the life-threatening neurological illness botulism in humans and animals and are divided into seven serotypes (BoNT/A–G, of which serotypes A, B, E, and F cause the disease in humans. BoNTs are classified as “category A” bioterrorism threat agents and are relevant in the context of the Biological Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT was conducted to evaluate detection, quantification and discrimination capabilities of 23 expert laboratories from the health, food and security areas. Here we describe three immunological strategies that proved to be successful for the detection and quantification of BoNT/A, B, and E considering the restricted sample volume (1 mL distributed. To analyze the samples qualitatively and quantitatively, the first strategy was based on sensitive immunoenzymatic and immunochromatographic assays for fast qualitative and quantitative analyses. In the second approach, a bead-based suspension array was used for screening followed by conventional ELISA for quantification. In the third approach, an ELISA plate format assay was used for serotype specific immunodetection of BoNT-cleaved substrates, detecting the activity of the light chain, rather than the toxin protein. The results provide guidance for further steps in quality assurance and highlight problems to address in the future.

  8. Anthrax as an example of the One Health concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengis, R G; Frean, J

    2014-08-01

    Anthrax is a peracute, acute or subacute multispecies bacterial infection that occurs on many continents. It is one of the oldest infectious diseases known; the biblical fifth and sixth plagues (Exodus chapters 7 to 9) that affected first livestock and then humans were probably anthrax. From the earliest historical records until development of an effective vaccine midway through the 20th Century, anthrax was one of the foremost causes of uncontrolled mortality in cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs, with 'spill over' into humans, worldwide. With the development of the Sterne spore vaccine, a sharp decline in anthrax outbreaks in livestock occurred during the 1930-1980 era. There were successful national vaccination programmes in many countries during this period, complemented by the liberal use of antibiotics and the implementation of quarantine regulations and carcass disposal. However, a resurgence of this disease in livestock has been reported recently in some regions, where complacency and a false sense of security have hindered vaccination programmes. The epidemiology of anthrax involves an environmental component, as well as livestock, wildlife and human components. This makes anthrax an ideal example for discussion in the One Health context. Many outbreaks of anthrax in wildlife are undetected or unreported, owing to surveillance inadequacies and difficulties. Human disease is generally acquired accidentally during outbreaks of anthrax in domestic livestock and wildlife. The exception is deliberate targeting of humans with anthrax in the course of biowarfare or bioterrorism. PMID:25707186

  9. Multigeneration Cross-Contamination of Mail with Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Jason; Lindquist, H D Alan; Sabol, Jonathan; Martinez, Kenneth; Shadomy, Sean; Cymet, Tyler; Emanuel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The release of biological agents, including those which could be used in biowarfare or bioterrorism in large urban areas, has been a concern for governments for nearly three decades. Previous incidents from Sverdlosk and the postal anthrax attack of 2001 have raised questions on the mechanism of spread of Bacillus anthracis spores as an aerosol or contaminant. Prior studies have demonstrated that Bacillus atrophaeus is easily transferred through simulated mail handing, but no reports have demonstrated this ability with Bacillus anthracis spores, which have morphological differences that may affect adhesion properties between spore and formite. In this study, equipment developed to simulate interactions across three generations of envelopes subjected to tumbling and mixing was used to evaluate the potential for cross-contamination of B. anthracis spores in simulated mail handling. In these experiments, we found that the potential for cross-contamination through letter tumbling from one generation to the next varied between generations while the presence of a fluidizer had no statistical impact on the transfer of material. Likewise, the presence or absence of a fluidizer had no statistically significant impact on cross-contamination levels or reaerosolization from letter opening. PMID:27123934

  10. The lessons of Asilomar and the H5N1 "affair".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkow, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    In mid-1974, soon after the first recombinant DNA molecules were replicated in Escherichia coli, scientists called for, and observed, a voluntary moratorium on certain experiments. One goal of the moratorium was to hold a conference (Asilomar) to evaluate the risks, if any, of this new technology. The Asilomar conference concluded that recombinant DNA research should proceed but under strict guidelines. The furor surrounding the recent genetic manipulation of the transmissibility of avian influenza virus H5N1 led to a short-term moratorium that has been extended indefinitely. The question is how long should the moratorium remain in place, or should it be permanent? Voltaire observed, "History never repeats itself; man always does." I believe the parallels of Asilomar can be applied to the problem facing biomedical science today. We should move forward to establish standardized guidelines, using common sense and scientific creativity. The onus of responsibility falls on the individual scientist and involves the education of a new generation of scientists into the social and ethical implications of genetic engineering in a new age of genomics and synthetic biology. In addition, scientists who work with infectious agents must deal not only with biosafety but also, alas, with bioterrorism. The H5N1 "affair" is not a question of freedom of inquiry or the dissemination of scientific research; it is a question of the social responsibility of science and scientists to ensure that the public understands why this work is beneficial and worthwhile. PMID:23047749

  11. Stem cell therapy: From bench to bedside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several countries have increased efforts to develop medical countermeasures to protect against radiation toxicity due to acts of bio-terrorism as well as cancer treatment. Both acute radiation injuries and delayed effects such as cutaneous effects and impaired wound repair depend, to some extent, on angiogenesis deficiency. Vascular damage influences levels of nutrients, oxygen available to skin tissue and epithelial cell viability. Consequently, the evolution of radiation lesions often becomes uncontrolled and surgery is the final option-amputation leading to a disability. Therefore, the development of strategies designed to promote healing of radiation injuries is a major therapeutic challenge. Adult mesenchymal stem cell therapy has been combined with surgery in some cases and not in others and successfully applied in patients with accidental radiation injuries. Although research in the field of radiation skin injury management has made substantial progress in the past 10 y, several strategies are still needed in order to enhance the beneficial effect of stem cell therapy and to counteract the deleterious effect of an irradiated tissue environment. This review summarises the current and evolving advances concerning basic and translational research based on stem cell therapy for the management of radiological burns. (authors)

  12. Anthrax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Daniel A; Hicks, Caitlin W; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q

    2011-12-15

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described with cutaneous anthrax, it appears much more common with gastrointestinal, inhalational (5 of 11 patients in the 2001 outbreak in the United States), and injectional anthrax. Based in part on case series, the estimated mortalities of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational, and injectional anthrax are 1%, 25 to 60%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. Nonspecific early symptomatology makes initial identification of anthrax cases difficult. Clues to anthrax infection include history of exposure to herbivore animal products, heroin use, or clustering of patients with similar respiratory symptoms concerning for a bioterrorist event. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with Gram stain and culture from blood or surgical specimens followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR or immunohistochemistry). Although antibiotic therapy (largely quinolone-based) is the mainstay of anthrax treatment, the use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists is a consideration. PMID:21852539

  13. Non-Replicating Adenovirus-Vectored Anthrax Vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As bioterrorism is emerging as a national threat, it is urgent to develop a new generation of anthrax vaccines that can be rapidly produced and mass administered in an emergency setting. We have demonstrated that protective immunity against anthrax spores could be elicited in mice by intranasal administration of a non-replicating human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in a single-dose regimen. The potency of an Ad5 vector encoding PA was remarkably enhanced by codon optimization of the PA gene to match the tRNA pool found in human cells. This nasal vaccine can be mass-administered by non-medical personnel during a bioterrorist attack. In addition, replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free Ad5-vectored anthrax vaccines can be mass produced in PER.C6 cells in serum-free wave bioreactors and purified by column chromatography to meet a surge in demand. The non-replicating nature of this new generation of anthrax vaccine ensures an excellent safety profile for vaccines and the environment.(author)

  14. The role of anthrolysin O in gut epithelial barrier disruption during Bacillus anthracis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Brian L; Lodolce, James P; Kolodziej, Lauren E; Boone, David L; Tang, Wei Jen

    2010-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax, caused by the bacterial infection of Bacillus anthracis, posts a significant bioterrorism threat by its relatively high mortality rate in humans. Different from inhalational anthrax by the route of infection, accumulating evidence indicates the bypass of vegetative bacteria across GI epithelium is required to initiate GI anthrax. Previously, we reported that purified anthrolysin O (ALO), instead of tripartite anthrax edema and lethal toxins, is capable of disrupting gut epithelial tight junctions and barrier function in cultured cells. Here, we show that ALO can disrupt intestinal tissue barrier function in an ex vivo mouse model. To explore the effects of ALO in a cell culture model of B. anthracis infection, we showed that anthrax bacteria can effectively reduce the monolayer integrity of human Caco-2 brush-border expressor (C2BBE) cells based on the reduced transepithelial resistance and the increased leakage of fluorescent dye. This disruption is likely caused by tight junction dysfunction observed by the reorganization of the tight junction protein occludin. Consequently, we observe significant passage of vegetative anthrax bacteria across C2BBE cells. This barrier disruption and bacterial crossover requires ALO since ALO-deficient B. anthracis strains fail to induce monolayer dysfunction and allow the passage of anthrax bacteria. Together these findings point to a pivotal role for ALO within the establishment of GI anthrax infection and the initial bypass of the epithelial barrier. PMID:20188700

  15. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay for surface array protein, a Bacillus anthracis biomarker using Au-Pd nanocrystals loaded on boron-nitride nanosheets as catalytic labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Narayanan, J; Pardasani, Deepak; Srivastava, Divesh N; Upadhyay, Sanjay; Goel, Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-15

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a well known bioterrorism agent. The determination of surface array protein (Sap), a unique biomarker for B. anthracis can offer an opportunity for specific detection of B. anthracis in culture broth. In this study, we designed a new catalytic bionanolabel and fabricated a novel electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of B. anthracis Sap antigen. Bimetallic gold-palladium nanoparticles were in-situ grown on poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized boron nitride nanosheets (Au-Pd NPs@BNNSs) and conjugated with the mouse anti-B. anthracis Sap antibodies (Ab2); named Au-Pd NPs@BNNSs/Ab2. The resulting Au-Pd NPs@BNNSs/Ab2 bionanolabel demonstrated high catalytic activity towards reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The sensitivity of the electrochemical immunosensor along with redox cycling of 4-aminophenol to 4-quinoneimine was improved to a great extent. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor exhibited a wide working range from 5 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL with a minimum detection limit of 1 pg/mL B. anthracis Sap antigen. The practical applicability of the immunosensor was demonstrated by specific detection of Sap secreted by the B. anthracis in culture broth just after 1h of growth. These labels open a new direction for the ultrasensitive detection of different biological warfare agents and their markers in different matrices. PMID:26874112

  16. Summary Document: Restoration Plan for Major Airports after a Bioterrorist Attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, E

    2007-01-11

    This document provides general guidelines for developing a Restoration Plan for a major airport following release of a biological warfare agent. San Francisco International Airport was selected as the example airport during development of the Plan to illustrate specific details. The spore forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis was selected as the biological agent of primary concern because it is the most difficult of known bioterrorism agents to inactivate and is considered to be one of the agents most likely to be used as a biological weapon. The focus of the Plan is on activities associated with the Characterization, Remediation, and Clearance Phases that are defined herein. Activities associated with the Notification and First-Response Phases are briefly discussed in Appendixes A and B, respectively. In addition to the main text of this Plan and associated appendixes, a data supplement was developed specifically for San Francisco International Airport. Requests for the data supplement must be made directly to the Emergency Planning Operations Division of San Francisco International Airport.

  17. Optimizing Health Care Coalitions: Conceptual Frameworks and a Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupert, Nathaniel; Biala, Karen; Holland, Tara; Baehr, Avi; Hasan, Aisha; Harvey, Melissa

    2015-12-01

    The US health care system has maintained an objective of preparedness for natural or manmade catastrophic events as part of its larger charge to deliver health services for the American population. In 2002, support for hospital-based preparedness activities was bolstered by the creation of the National Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program, now called the Hospital Preparedness Program, in the US Department of Health and Human Services. Since 2012, this program has promoted linking health care facilities into health care coalitions that build key preparedness and emergency response capabilities. Recognizing that well-functioning health care coalitions can have a positive impact on the health outcomes of the populations they serve, this article informs efforts to optimize health care coalition activity. We first review the landscape of health care coalitions in the United States. Then, using principles from supply chain management and high-reliability organization theory, we present 2 frameworks extending beyond the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response's current guidance in a way that may help health care coalition leaders gain conceptual insight into how different enterprises achieve similar ends relevant to emergency response. We conclude with a proposed research agenda to advance understanding of how coalitions can contribute to the day-to-day functioning of health care systems and disaster preparedness. PMID:26545194

  18. Neutralization of botulinum neurotoxin by a human monoclonal antibody specific for the catalytic light chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad P Adekar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are a family of category A select bioterror agents and the most potent biological toxins known. Cloned antibody therapeutics hold considerable promise as BoNT therapeutics, but the therapeutic utility of antibodies that bind the BoNT light chain domain (LC, a metalloprotease that functions in the cytosol of cholinergic neurons, has not been thoroughly explored. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used an optimized hybridoma method to clone a fully human antibody specific for the LC of serotype A BoNT (BoNT/A. The 4LCA antibody demonstrated potent in vivo neutralization when administered alone and collaborated with an antibody specific for the HC. In Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells, the 4LCA antibody prevented the cleavage of the BoNT/A proteolytic target, SNAP-25. Unlike an antibody specific for the HC, the 4LCA antibody did not block entry of BoNT/A into cultured cells. Instead, it was taken up into synaptic vesicles along with BoNT/A. The 4LCA antibody also directly inhibited BoNT/A catalytic activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: An antibody specific for the BoNT/A LC can potently inhibit BoNT/A in vivo and in vitro, using mechanisms not previously associated with BoNT-neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies specific for BoNT LC may be valuable components of an antibody antidote for BoNT exposure.

  19. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR POTASSIUM IODIDE (KI) DISTRIBUTION IN NEW YORK CITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOSS, STEVEN

    2005-04-29

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH), Bureau of Environmental Science and Engineering, Office of Radiological Health (ORH) [as the primary local technical consultant in the event of a radiological or nuclear incident within the boundaries of New York City] requested the assistance of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with the development of a Feasibility Study for Potassium Iodide (KI) distribution in the unlikely event of a significant release of radioactive iodine in or near New York City. Brookhaven National Laboratory had previously provided support for New York City with the development of the radiological/nuclear portions of its All Hazards Emergency Response Plans. The work is funded by Medical and Health Research Association (MHRA) of New York City, Inc., under a work grant by the Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. This report is part of the result of that effort. The conclusions of this report are that: (1) There is no credible radiological scenario that would prompt the need for large segments of the general population of New York City to take KI as a result of a projected plume exposure to radioiodine reaching even the lowest threshold of 5 rem to the thyroid; and (2) KI should be stockpiled in amounts and locations sufficient for use by first responders/emergency responders in response to any localized release of radioiodine.

  20. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof.

  1. 04-ERD-052-Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loots, G G; Ovcharenko, I; Collette, N; Babu, P; Chang, J; Stubbs, L; Lu, X; Pennachio, C; Harland, R M

    2007-02-26

    Generating the sequence of the human genome represents a colossal achievement for science and mankind. The technical use for the human genome project information holds great promise to cure disease, prevent bioterror threats, as well as to learn about human origins. Yet converting the sequence data into biological meaningful information has not been immediately obvious, and we are still in the preliminary stages of understanding how the genome is organized, what are the functional building blocks and how do these sequences mediate complex biological processes. The overarching goal of this program was to develop novel methods and high throughput strategies for determining the functions of ''anonymous'' human genes that are evolutionarily deeply conserved in other vertebrates. We coupled analytical tool development and computational predictions regarding gene function with novel high throughput experimental strategies and tested biological predictions in the laboratory. The tools required for comparative genomic data-mining are fundamentally the same whether they are applied to scientific studies of related microbes or the search for functions of novel human genes. For this reason the tools, conceptual framework and the coupled informatics-experimental biology paradigm we developed in this LDRD has many potential scientific applications relevant to LLNL multidisciplinary research in bio-defense, bioengineering, bionanosciences and microbial and environmental genomics.

  2. A generic open-source software framework supporting scenario simulations in bioterrorist crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falenski, Alexander; Filter, Matthias; Thöns, Christian; Weiser, Armin A; Wigger, Jan-Frederik; Davis, Matthew; Douglas, Judith V; Edlund, Stefan; Hu, Kun; Kaufman, James H; Appel, Bernd; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2013-09-01

    Since the 2001 anthrax attack in the United States, awareness of threats originating from bioterrorism has grown. This led internationally to increased research efforts to improve knowledge of and approaches to protecting human and animal populations against the threat from such attacks. A collaborative effort in this context is the extension of the open-source Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler (STEM) simulation and modeling software for agro- or bioterrorist crisis scenarios. STEM, originally designed to enable community-driven public health disease models and simulations, was extended with new features that enable integration of proprietary data as well as visualization of agent spread along supply and production chains. STEM now provides a fully developed open-source software infrastructure supporting critical modeling tasks such as ad hoc model generation, parameter estimation, simulation of scenario evolution, estimation of effects of mitigation or management measures, and documentation. This open-source software resource can be used free of charge. Additionally, STEM provides critical features like built-in worldwide data on administrative boundaries, transportation networks, or environmental conditions (eg, rainfall, temperature, elevation, vegetation). Users can easily combine their own confidential data with built-in public data to create customized models of desired resolution. STEM also supports collaborative and joint efforts in crisis situations by extended import and export functionalities. In this article we demonstrate specifically those new software features implemented to accomplish STEM application in agro- or bioterrorist crisis scenarios.

  3. Identification of different species of Bacillus isolated from Nisargruna Biogas Plant by FTIR, UV-Vis and NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S. B.; Bhattacharya, K.; Nayak, S.; Mukherjee, P.; Salaskar, D.; Kale, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    Definitive identification of microorganisms, including pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, is extremely important for a wide variety of applications including food safety, environmental studies, bio-terrorism threats, microbial forensics, criminal investigations and above all disease diagnosis. Although extremely powerful techniques such as those based on PCR and microarrays exist, they require sophisticated laboratory facilities along with elaborate sample preparation by trained researchers. Among different spectroscopic techniques, FTIR was used in the 1980s and 90s for bacterial identification. In the present study five species of Bacillus were isolated from the aerobic predigester chamber of Nisargruna Biogas Plant (NBP) and were identified to the species level by biochemical and molecular biological (16S ribosomal DNA sequence) methods. Those organisms were further checked by solid state spectroscopic absorbance measurements using a wide range of electromagnetic radiation (wavelength 200 nm to 25,000 nm) encompassing UV, visible, near Infrared and Infrared regions. UV-Vis and NIR spectroscopy was performed on dried bacterial cell suspension on silicon wafer in specular mode while FTIR was performed on KBr pellets containing the bacterial cells. Consistent and reproducible species specific spectra were obtained and sensitivity up to a level of 1000 cells was observed in FTIR with a DTGS detector. This clearly shows the potential of solid state spectroscopic techniques for simple, easy to implement, reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria from environmental samples.

  4. Tecovirimat for smallpox infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolken, T C; Hruby, D E

    2010-02-01

    SIGA Technologies, Inc. is a small biotech company committed to developing novel products for the prevention and treatment of serious viral diseases, with an emphasis on products to combat outbreaks that could result from bioterrorism. With government support, SIGA has developed the necessary infrastructure to successfully advance new antiviral drugs from the discovery stage through to licensing. Currently, there is a need to develop safe and effective inhibitors for poxvirus-induced diseases such as smallpox caused by variola, which is a potential biological warfare agent. Likewise emerging zoonotic infections due to cowpox virus and monkeypox virus require the development of effective countermeasures. Tecovirimat, also known as ST-246, has shown efficacy in all small animal and nonhuman primate prophylaxis and therapeutic efficacy models of poxvirus-induced disease tested to date. Phase I clinical trials and new drug application-enabling toxicology studies have been completed with tecovirimat. A phase II clinical study is being run and SIGA has initiated commercial scale-up manufacturing and preparation for the pivotal safety and efficacy studies. SIGA is committed to getting approval for tecovirimat and supplying it to the Strategic National Stockpile, the Department of Defense and global health authorities. PMID:20393639

  5. Development of a Highly Sensitive Cell-Based Assay for Detecting Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A through Neural Culture Media Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Won S; Pezzi, Hannah M; Schuster, Andrea R; Berry, Scott M; Sung, Kyung E; Beebe, David J

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most lethal naturally produced neurotoxin. Due to the extreme toxicity, BoNTs are implicated in bioterrorism, while the specific mechanism of action and long-lasting effect was found to be medically applicable in treating various neurological disorders. Therefore, for both public and patient safety, a highly sensitive, physiologic, and specific assay is needed. In this paper, we show a method for achieving a highly sensitive cell-based assay for BoNT/A detection using the motor neuron-like continuous cell line NG108-15. To achieve high sensitivity, we performed a media optimization study evaluating three commercially available neural supplements in combination with retinoic acid, purmorphamine, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), and ganglioside GT1b. We found nonlinear combinatorial effects on BoNT/A detection sensitivity, achieving an EC50 of 7.4 U ± 1.5 SD (or ~7.9 pM). The achieved detection sensitivity is comparable to that of assays that used primary and stem cell-derived neurons as well as the mouse lethality assay.

  6. Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Direct in-situ Analysis of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid and accurate identification of biological agents is a critical step in the case of bio-terror and biological warfare attacks. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been widely used for the identification of microorganisms. In this study, we describe a method for the rapid and accurate discrimination of Bacillus anthracis spores using MALDI-TOF MS. Our direct in-situ analysis of MALDI-TOF MS does not involve subsequent high-resolution mass analyses and sample preparation steps. This method allowed the detection of species-specific biomarkers from each Bacillus spores. Especially, B. anthracis spores had specific biomarker peaks at 2503, 3089, 3376, 6684, 6698, 6753, and 6840 m/z. Cluster and PCA analyses of the mass spectra of Bacillus spores revealed distinctively separated clusters and within-groups similarity. Therefore, we believe that this method is effective in the real-time identification of biological warfare agents such as B. anthracis as well as other microorganisms in the field

  7. Rapid identification and typing of Yersinia pestis and other Yersinia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drancourt Michel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate identification is necessary to discriminate harmless environmental Yersinia species from the food-borne pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and from the group A bioterrorism plague agent Yersinia pestis. In order to circumvent the limitations of current phenotypic and PCR-based identification methods, we aimed to assess the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF protein profiling for accurate and rapid identification of Yersinia species. As a first step, we built a database of 39 different Yersinia strains representing 12 different Yersinia species, including 13 Y. pestis isolates representative of the Antiqua, Medievalis and Orientalis biotypes. The organisms were deposited on the MALDI-TOF plate after appropriate ethanol-based inactivation, and a protein profile was obtained within 6 minutes for each of the Yersinia species. Results When compared with a 3,025-profile database, every Yersinia species yielded a unique protein profile and was unambiguously identified. In the second step of analysis, environmental and clinical isolates of Y. pestis (n = 2 and Y. enterocolitica (n = 11 were compared to the database and correctly identified. In particular, Y. pestis was unambiguously identified at the species level, and MALDI-TOF was able to successfully differentiate the three biotypes. Conclusion These data indicate that MALDI-TOF can be used as a rapid and accurate first-line method for the identification of Yersinia isolates.

  8. Public health crises: the development of a consensus document on their management in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, T; Caylà, Ja

    2011-01-01

    Several public health crises in Europe have led to sustained outbreaks, political problems, or have generated social alarm. For this reason, a nationwide study was conducted in Spain with the objective to determine which public health events provoke the most frequent crises, to reach a consensus regarding the appropriate actions to be taken when responding to public health crises, and to provide recommendations for their management. The events which had most frequently provoked crises between 1999 and 2004 were identified. A consensus was obtained by public health experts from the 17 Autonomous Regions of Spain and the National Epidemiological Centre using the RAND/UCLA method which combines the Nominal Groups and Delphi techniques. Legionellosis, foodborne diseases, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), bioterrorism, meningococcal meningitis, tuberculosis, heat waves, and influenza epidemics were found to be cause for most public health crises. In Spain, 75% of the crises identified by senior public health experts from the Autonomous Regions involved infectious diseases. Factors triggering a crisis included the type of disease, social alarm, population affected, and the course of action taken by public institutions and reporting in the media. There was consensus that correct information, qualified personnel, availability of standardised protocols for investigation and control, information distribution, and setting up of ‘crisis offices’ were actions with a positive effect regarding crisis resolution. Appropriate management of outbreaks or other situations being perceived as a risk to health can mitigate or even contain the generation of public health crises.

  9. Worldwide risks of animal diseases: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J E

    2006-01-01

    Animal diseases impact food supplies, trade and commerce, and human health and well-being in every part of the world. Outbreaks draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies, and government, as well as the general public. This was demonstrated by the 2000-2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa and by the recent increased occurrence of emerging diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of these emerging zoonotic diseases are highly pathogenic avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is also the risk of well-known and preventable zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, brucellosis, leishmaniasis, and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, in certain countries; these diseases have a high morbidity with the potential for a very high mortality. Animal agriculturalists should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them; in order to better respond to these diseases, they should develop the skills and competencies in politics, media interactions, and community engagement. This issue of Veterinaria Italiana presents information on the risk of animal diseases; their impact on animals and humans at the international, national, industry, and societal levels; and the responses to them. In addition, specific information is provided on national and international disease monitoring, surveillance and reporting, the risk of spread of disease by bioterrorism and on import risk analysis.

  10. The use of resazurin as a novel antimicrobial agent against Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Deanna M; O'Dee, Dawn M; Cowan, Brianna N; Birch, James W-M; Mazzella, Leanne K; Nau, Gerard J; Horzempa, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The highly infectious and deadly pathogen, Francisella tularensis, is classified by the CDC as a Category A bioterrorism agent. Inhalation of a single bacterium results in an acute pneumonia with a 30-60% mortality rate without treatment. Due to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need for new types of antibacterial drugs. Resazurin is commonly used to measure bacterial and eukaryotic cell viability through its reduction to the fluorescent product resorufin. When tested on various bacterial taxa at the recommended concentration of 44 μM, a potent bactericidal effect was observed against various Francisella and Neisseria species, including the human pathogens type A F. tularensis (Schu S4) and N. gonorrhoeae. As low as 4.4 μM resazurin was sufficient for a 10-fold reduction in F. tularensis growth. In broth culture, resazurin was reduced to resorufin by F. tularensis. Resorufin also suppressed the growth of F. tularensis suggesting that this compound is the biologically active form responsible for decreasing the viability of F. tularensis LVS bacteria. Replication of F. tularensis in primary human macrophages and non-phagocytic cells was abolished following treatment with 44 μM resazurin indicating this compound could be an effective therapy for tularemia in vivo. PMID:24367766

  11. Biosecurity in a global market place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International travel and free trade are modern bywords and the international movement of people, animals and livestock products seen as essential for the global market place to function. Yet is this compatible with a national bio-secure environment? Governments around the world seek to manage the risks posed by infectious disease to livestock, man, the environment and related ecosystems whilst at the same time permitting free trade. Ample examples exist of these competing elements as illustrated by recent outbreaks of avian influenza, bluetongue, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and most recently in Australia, equine influenza. Whilst the recognition that some 70% of new infectious diseases in man come from animals, even those diseases that affect only animals such as foot and mouth disease, can have devastating effects on trade and economies. The word 'biosecurity' now encompasses most of these elements with processes being developed to identify, mitigate or eliminate these biosecurity risks, and ultimately to prevent adverse events. An added dimension to be considered recently is that of bio-terrorism. So is it time for a new global co-ordinated and collaborative approach to managing biosecurity that recognises the need to encourage not restrict, the global market place? Are there newer approaches that could encourage global trade in livestock and livestock products? One such strategy could be to consider the biosecurity risks of the commodity as opposed to the disease status of the country of origin as a more effective approach for the future. (author)

  12. Structure-Based Design of Ricin Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon D. Robertus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a potent cytotoxin easily purified in large quantities. It presents a significant public health concern due to its potential use as a bioterrorism agent. For this reason, extensive efforts have been underway to develop antidotes against this deadly poison. The catalytic A subunit of the heterodimeric toxin has been biochemically and structurally well characterized, and is an attractive target for structure-based drug design. Aided by computer docking simulations, several ricin toxin A chain (RTA inhibitors have been identified; the most promising leads belonging to the pterin family. Development of these lead compounds into potent drug candidates is a challenging prospect for numerous reasons, including poor solubility of pterins, the large and highly polar secondary binding pocket of RTA, as well as the enzyme’s near perfect catalytic efficiency and tight binding affinity for its natural substrate, the eukaryotic ribosome. To date, the most potent RTA inhibitors developed using this approach are only modest inhibitors with apparent IC50 values in the 10−4 M range, leaving significant room for improvement. This review highlights the variety of techniques routinely employed in structure-based drug design projects, as well as the challenges faced in the design of RTA inhibitors.

  13. Oculocutaneous anthrax: detection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada David

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sarada David1, Jayanthi Peter1, Renu Raju2, P Padmaja2, Promila Mohanraj21Department of Ophthalmology, Schell Eye Hospital, Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, India; 2Department of Microbiology, Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, IndiaAbstract: Anthrax, a zoonotic disease that primarily affects herbivores, has received recent attention as a potential agent of bioterrorism. We report a patient who presented with a 4-day history of pain, watering and difficulty in opening the left upper and lower eyelids, and fever. Clinical examination revealed brawny nonpitting edema with serosanguinous discharge. The history of the death of his sheep 1 week prior to the illness provided the clue to the diagnosis. Although standard cultures of the blood and the serous fluid from the lesion were negative, probably as a result of prior treatment, the diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax was made by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR test of the serous fluid. Serial photographs demonstrating resolution of the lesion with appropriate antibiotic therapy are presented.Keywords: anthrax, polymerase chain reaction, treatment

  14. Preventive self-governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturloni Giancarlo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available No field of western society has remained untouched by the events of September 11. Lastly, science and science communication are also bearing the consequences. During the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Denver, Colorado, on February 15, 2003, the major international scientific magazines, faced with the bioterrorism alarm and the fear of seeing important information fall in the wrong hands, announced their intention to resort to an unprecedented security measure: preventive self-governance.1 They consider the Statement on Scientific Publication and Security as a manifesto of the sense of responsibility that the scientific community feels about global terror. In part four, after recalling the 9/11tragedy, the 32 publishers, scientific associations and scientists who signed the Statement (among which also the directors of Nature and Science stated that “On occasion an editor may conclude that the potential harm of publication outweighs the potential societal benefits. Under such circumstances, the paper should be modified, or not be published ”

  15. Multigeneration Cross-Contamination of Mail with Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Edmonds

    Full Text Available The release of biological agents, including those which could be used in biowarfare or bioterrorism in large urban areas, has been a concern for governments for nearly three decades. Previous incidents from Sverdlosk and the postal anthrax attack of 2001 have raised questions on the mechanism of spread of Bacillus anthracis spores as an aerosol or contaminant. Prior studies have demonstrated that Bacillus atrophaeus is easily transferred through simulated mail handing, but no reports have demonstrated this ability with Bacillus anthracis spores, which have morphological differences that may affect adhesion properties between spore and formite. In this study, equipment developed to simulate interactions across three generations of envelopes subjected to tumbling and mixing was used to evaluate the potential for cross-contamination of B. anthracis spores in simulated mail handling. In these experiments, we found that the potential for cross-contamination through letter tumbling from one generation to the next varied between generations while the presence of a fluidizer had no statistical impact on the transfer of material. Likewise, the presence or absence of a fluidizer had no statistically significant impact on cross-contamination levels or reaerosolization from letter opening.

  16. 生物恐怖性炭疽杆菌病与抗生素的防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浴生; 周黎明

    2004-01-01

    生物恐怖性疾病(Bioterrorism Diseases)由来已久。是病原微生物及其产生毒素引起的疾病。病原微生物可以是天然界存在的以直接或经媒介如动物而传染至人体而发病。作为生物恐怖疾病的特点是个体在一次受侵袭后,即能迅速传播于人群。病情发展快而严重,出现大批死亡,导致社会混乱与恐慌。生物恐怖性疾病的病原体非常多,其中如炭疽杆菌(Bacillus anthracis),鼠疫杆菌(Yersinia pestis)及霍乱弧菌(Vibrio cholerae)。

  17. Progression of pathogenic events in cynomolgus macaques infected with variola virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Wahl-Jensen

    Full Text Available Smallpox, caused by variola virus (VARV, is a devastating human disease that affected millions worldwide until the virus was eradicated in the 1970 s. Subsequent cessation of vaccination has resulted in an immunologically naive human population that would be at risk should VARV be used as an agent of bioterrorism. The development of antivirals and improved vaccines to counter this threat would be facilitated by the development of animal models using authentic VARV. Towards this end, cynomolgus macaques were identified as adequate hosts for VARV, developing ordinary or hemorrhagic smallpox in a dose-dependent fashion. To further refine this model, we performed a serial sampling study on macaques exposed to doses of VARV strain Harper calibrated to induce ordinary or hemorrhagic disease. Several key differences were noted between these models. In the ordinary smallpox model, lymphoid and myeloid hyperplasias were consistently found whereas lymphocytolysis and hematopoietic necrosis developed in hemorrhagic smallpox. Viral antigen accumulation, as assessed immunohistochemically, was mild and transient in the ordinary smallpox model. In contrast, in the hemorrhagic model antigen distribution was widespread and included tissues and cells not involved in the ordinary model. Hemorrhagic smallpox developed only in the presence of secondary bacterial infections - an observation also commonly noted in historical reports of human smallpox. Together, our results support the macaque model as an excellent surrogate for human smallpox in terms of disease onset, acute disease course, and gross and histopathological lesions.

  18. Francisella tularensis: No Evidence for Transovarial Transmission in the Tularemia Tick Vectors Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Genchi

    Full Text Available Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the Francisella tularensis, a highly infectious Gram-negative coccobacillus. Due to easy dissemination, multiple routes of infection, high environmental contamination and morbidity and mortality rates, Francisella is considered a potential bioterrorism threat and classified as a category A select agent by the CDC. Tick bites are among the most prevalent modes of transmission, and ticks have been indicated as a possible reservoir, although their reservoir competence has yet to be defined. Tick-borne transmission of F. tularensis was recognized in 1923, and transstadial transmission has been demonstrated in several tick species. Studies on transovarial transmission, however, have reported conflicting results.The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ticks as reservoirs for Francisella, assessing the transovarial transmission of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in ticks, using experimentally-infected females of Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed F. tularensis within oocytes. However, cultures and bioassays of eggs and larvae were negative; in addition, microscopy techniques revealed bacterial degeneration/death in the oocytes.These results suggest that bacterial death might occur in oocytes, preventing the transovarial transmission of Francisella. We can speculate that Francisella does not have a defined reservoir, but that rather various biological niches (e.g. ticks, rodents, that allow the bacterium to persist in the environment. Our results, suggesting that ticks are not competent for the bacterium vertical transmission, are congruent with this view.

  19. Comparison of Two Suspension Arrays for Simultaneous Detection of Five Biothreat Bacterial in Powder Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed novel Bio-Plex assays for simultaneous detection of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Brucella spp., Francisella tularensis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Universal primers were used to amplify highly conserved region located within the 16S rRNA amplicon, followed by hybridized to pathogen-specific probes for identification of these five organisms. The other assay is based on multiplex PCR to simultaneously amplify five species-specific pathogen identification-targeted regions unique to individual pathogen. Both of the two arrays are validated to be flexible and sensitive for simultaneous detection of bioterrorism bacteria. However, universal primer PCR-based array could not identify Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Brucella spp. at the species level because of the high conservation of 16S rDNA of the same genus. The two suspension arrays can be utilized to detect Bacillus anthracis sterne spore and Yersinia pestis EV76 from mimic “write powder” samples, they also proved that the suspension array system will be valuable tools for diagnosis of bacterial biothreat agents in environmental samples.

  20. Ebola Virus ─ A Global Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejbah Uddin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus is a filamentous, enveloped, non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus. It belongs to the Filoviridae and was first recognized near the Ebola River valley in Zaire in 1976. Since then most of the outbreaks have occurred to both human and nonhuman primates in sub-Saharan Africa. Ebola virus causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to hemorrhagic fever, it could be used as a bioterrorism agent. Although its natural reservoir is yet to be proven, current data suggest that fruit bats are the possibility. Infection has also been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines. Human infection is caused through close contact with the blood, secretion, organ or other body fluids of infected animal. Human-to-human transmission is also possible. Ebola virus infections are characterized by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock. The virus constitutes an important public health threat in Africa and also worldwide as no effective treatment or vaccine is available till now

  1. Development of an ELISA microarray assay for the sensitive and simultaneous detection of ten biodefense toxins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenko, Kathryn; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kostenko, Yulia; Fan, Yongfeng; Garcia-Rodriguez, Consuelo; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2014-10-21

    Plant and microbial toxins are considered bioterrorism threat agents because of their extreme toxicity and/or ease of availability. Additionally, some of these toxins are increasingly responsible for accidental food poisonings. The current study utilized an ELISA-based protein antibody microarray for the multiplexed detection of ten biothreat toxins, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) A, B, C, D, E, F, ricin, shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx), and staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB), in buffer and complex biological matrices. The multiplexed assay displayed a sensitivity of 1.3 pg/mL (BoNT/A, BoNT/B, SEB, Stx-1 and Stx-2), 3.3 pg/mL (BoNT/C, BoNT/E, BoNT/F) and 8.2 pg/mL (BoNT/D, ricin). All assays demonstrated high accuracy (75-120 percent recovery) and reproducibility (most coefficients of variation < 20%). Quantification curves for the ten toxins were also evaluated in clinical samples (serum, plasma, nasal fluid, saliva, stool, and urine) and environmental samples (apple juice, milk and baby food) with overall minimal matrix effects. The multiplex assays were highly specific, with little crossreactivity observed between the selected toxin antibodies. The results demonstrate a multiplex microarray that improves current immunoassay sensitivity for biological warfare agents in buffer, clinical, and environmental samples.

  2. An Epidemiological Model of Rift Valley Fever with Spatial Dynamics

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    Tianchan Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a category A agent in the Center for Disease Control bioterrorism list, Rift Valley fever (RVF is considered a major threat to the United States (USA. Should the pathogen be intentionally or unintentionally introduced to the continental USA, there is tremendous potential for economic damages due to loss of livestock, trade restrictions, and subsequent food supply chain disruptions. We have incorporated the effects of space into a mathematical model of RVF in order to study the dynamics of the pathogen spread as affected by the movement of humans, livestock, and mosquitoes. The model accounts for the horizontal transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV between two mosquito and one livestock species, and mother-to-offspring transmission of virus in one of the mosquito species. Space effects are introduced by dividing geographic space into smaller patches and considering the patch-to-patch movement of species. For each patch, a system of ordinary differential equations models fractions of populations susceptible to, incubating, infectious with, or immune to RVFV. The main contribution of this work is a methodology for analyzing the likelihood of pathogen establishment should an introduction occur into an area devoid of RVF. Examples are provided for general and specific cases to illustrate the methodology.

  3. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Davis, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology. PMID:27274814

  4. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology.

  5. Rapid Detection and Identification of Yersinia pestis from Food Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley K. Amoako

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest has recently been renewed in the possible use of Y. pestis, the causative agent of plague, as a biological weapon by terrorists. The vulnerability of food to intentional contamination coupled with reports of humans having acquired plague through eating infected animals that were not adequately cooked or handling of meat from infected animals makes the possible use of Y. pestis in a foodborne bioterrorism attack a reality. Rapid, efficient food sample preparation and detection systems that will help overcome the problem associated with the complexity of the different matrices and also remove any ambiguity in results will enable rapid informed decisions to be made regarding contamination of food with biothreat agents. We have developed a rapid detection assay that combines the use of immunomagnetic separation and pyrosequencing in generating results for the unambiguous identification of Y. pestis from milk (0.9 CFU/mL, bagged salad (1.6 CFU/g, and processed meat (10 CFU/g. The low detection limits demonstrated in this assay provide a novel tool for the rapid detection and confirmation of Y. pestis in food without the need for enrichment. The combined use of the iCropTheBug system and pyrosequencing for efficient capture and detection of Y. pestis is novel and has potential applications in food biodefence.

  6. Molecular and Cellular Basis of Pathogenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei%类鼻疽伯克霍尔德菌致病机制的分子与细胞基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹旺斌; 贺英

    2012-01-01

    类鼻疽伯克霍尔德菌(Burkholderia pseudomallei)是引起主要发生在东南亚和澳大利亚北部的一种人兽共患病类鼻疽的潜在病原。明确该疾病致病机理及其宿主与病原的互作将加强对该条件致病菌的发病机制的理解。本研究从影响细菌致病性的毒力因子和病原与宿主互作两个方面阐述类鼻疽伯克霍德尔菌的致病机理,为该菌的有效控制提供可能的机制。%Burkholderia pseudomallei is a potential bioterror agent and the causative agent of melioidosis, a se- vere disease that is endemic in areas of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Studying how the disease is ac- quired and the host-pathogen interactions involved will underpin understanding of the bacteria, This review presents an overview focused on current knowledge of putative virulence factors and the host-pathogen interac- tions,led to understanding of the infection process of Burkholderia pseudomallei and effective control strategy.

  7. 轻巧的机身灵活的安装——多米诺喷S+系列激光打码机的应用案例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    多米诺喷码技术有限公司

    2007-01-01

    @@ 位于美国弗吉尼亚的温彻斯特城的东南容器公司(South Eastern Container),是可口可乐公司最大的PET瓶制造商.根据美国相关法律,尤其是USA Bioterrorism Act的具体规定,所有成品都必须标有清晰的产品标识可追溯至原料源头.为了全面执行此项法律的规定,该公司要求激光机供应商在PET瓶身上打印一行由7个字母和数字组成的日期,另附上特制的标签对产品进行追踪追溯.同时该公司还要求激光机的打码速度能够达到44000瓶/小时,比一般的PET瓶打码速度快了将近2000瓶/小时.

  8. A New Generation Microarray for the Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Yersinia pestis and Bacillus anthracis in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Goji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microarrays as a multiple analytic system has generated increased interest and provided a powerful analytical tool for the simultaneous detection of pathogens in a single experiment. A wide array of applications for this technology has been reported. A low density oligonucleotide microarray was generated from the genetic sequences of Y. pestis and B. anthracis and used to fabricate a microarray chip. The new generation chip, consisting of 2,240 spots in 4 quadrants with the capability of stripping/rehybridization, was designated as “Y-PESTIS/B-ANTHRACIS 4x2K Array.” The chip was tested for specificity using DNA from a panel of bacteria that may be potentially present in food. In all, 37 unique Y. pestis-specific and 83 B. anthracis-specific probes were identified. The microarray assay distinguished Y. pestis and B. anthracis from the other bacterial species tested and correctly identified the Y. pestis-specific oligonucleotide probes using DNA extracted from experimentally inoculated milk samples. Using a whole genome amplification method, the assay was able to detect as low as 1 ng genomic DNA as the start sample. The results suggest that oligonucleotide microarray can specifically detect and identify Y. pestis and B. anthracis and may be a potentially useful diagnostic tool for detecting and confirming the organisms in food during a bioterrorism event.

  9. Francisella philomiragia Adenitis and Pulmonary Nodules in a Child with Chronic Granulomatous Disease

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    Timothy Mailman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisella philomiragia is a rare and opportunistic pathogen capable of producing invasive infection in patients with compromised neutrophil function and in patients that have survived a near-drowning. A case of F philomiragia adenitis and lung nodules, refractory to cephalosporin therapy, is reported in a 10-year-old boy with chronic granulomatous disease following a facial abrasion from a saltwater crab. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first Canadian clinical isolate to be reported. Genus and species identification was confirmed via 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis. A literature review revealed three groups at risk of F philomiragia infection: young patients with chronic granulomatous disease; adults with hematogenous malignancy; and near-drowning patients. Pneumonia, fever without an apparent source and sepsis are the main clinical presentations. Invasive procedures may be required to isolate this organism and ensure appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Limited awareness of F philomiragia has led to delayed identification, patient death and misidentification as Francisella tularensis - a biosafety level three pathogen and potential bioterrorism agent.

  10. Status and prospect of global biosecurity%当前国际生物安全形势与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑涛; 黄培堂; 沈倍奋

    2012-01-01

    Biosecurity refers to the ability of a country to respond effectively to biological and biotechnical threats, safeguard and protect national security and interest in the era of globalization. Based on analysis of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, bioterrorism, infectious diseases, biotechnology abuse and biosecurity of CM foods,this article argues that the current situation in global biosecurity as a whole tends to become severe, but biosecurity in China is becoming stable. This article recommends that China should attach importance to sustainable development of biosecurity.%生物安全是指全球化时代国家有效应对生物及生物技术因素的影响和威胁,维护和保障自身安全与利益的状态和能力.本文通过对《禁止生物武器公约》履约、生物恐怖、传染病以及生物技术谬用、转基因生物安全等的形势分析,认为总体上,国际生物安全形势趋于负面,我国生物安全形势趋于平稳,建议国家重视生物安全的可持续发展.

  11. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  12. Rickettsial Diseases of Military Importance: An Australian Perspective

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    Stephen Frances

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The threat of rickettsial diseases to Australian Defence Force (ADF personnel is reviewed, focusing on the historical impact and epidemiology of these diseases. Scrub typhus, a mite borne disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi is historically the most important rickettsial disease, and continues to cause morbidity in ADF personnel today. The historical occurrence of tick typhus, murine typhus, epidemic typhus and Q fever has been limited, and modern diagnostic tools and antibiotic therapy mean that their impact is minimal. Deployment of troops to endemic areas, bioterrorism and exposure during humanitarian missions mean that rickettsial diseases will remain a threat to ADF personnel. Several rickettsial diseases have the potential to impact on military deployments. This article is a review of the information concerning the ecology, epidemiology and historical impact of rickettsial diseases on the Australian Defence Force (ADF personnel in peace and in wartime. Probably the most widespread and important rickettsial disease is scrub typhus, while diseases such as tick typhus, murine typhus, epidemic typhus and Q fever have been of lesser importance.

  13. Two common structural motifs for TCR recognition by staphylococcal enterotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödström, Karin E. J.; Regenthal, Paulina; Bahl, Christopher; Ford, Alex; Baker, David; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Superantigens are toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus, called staphylococcal enterotoxins (abbreviated SEA to SEU). They can cross-link the T cell receptor (TCR) and major histocompatibility complex class II, triggering a massive T cell activation and hence disease. Due to high stability and toxicity, superantigens are potential agents of bioterrorism. Hence, antagonists may not only be useful in the treatment of disease but also serve as countermeasures to biological warfare. Of particular interest are inhibitors against SEA and SEB. SEA is the main cause of food poisoning, while SEB is a common toxin manufactured as a biological weapon. Here, we present the crystal structures of SEA in complex with TCR and SEE in complex with the same TCR, complemented with computational alanine-scanning mutagenesis of SEA, SEB, SEC3, SEE, and SEH. We have identified two common areas that contribute to the general TCR binding for these superantigens. This paves the way for design of single antagonists directed towards multiple toxins. PMID:27180909

  14. In vitro susceptibilities of Brucella melitensis isolates to eleven antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukaides Feidias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is an endemic disease present in many countries worldwide, but it is rare in Europe and North America. Nevertheless brucella is included in the bacteria potentially used for bioterrorism. The aim of this study was the investigation of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of brucella isolates from areas of the eastern Mediterranean where it has been endemic. Methods The susceptibilities of 74 Brucella melitensis isolates derived from clinical samples (57 and animal products (17 were tested in vitro. The strains originate from Crete (59, Cyprus (10, and Syria (5. MICs of tetracycline, rifampicin, streptomycin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and erythromycin were detected by E-test method. The NCCLS criteria for slow growing bacteria were considered to interpret the results. Results All the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and levofloxacin. Two isolates presented reduced susceptibility to rifampicin (MIC value: 1.5 mg/l and eight to SXT (MIC values: 0.75–1.5 mg/l. Erythromycin had the highest (4 mg/l MIC90value and both norfloxacin and erythromycin the highest (1.5 mg/l MIC50 value. Conclusion Brucella isolates remain susceptible in vitro to most antibiotics used for treatment of brucellosis. The establishment of a standardized antibiotic susceptibility method for Brucella spp would be useful for resistance determination in these bacteria and possible evaluation of bioterorism risks.

  15. Harnessing DNA Synthesis to Develop Rapid Responses to Emerging and Pandemic Pathogens

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    Lisa M. Runco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the interconnected nature of our world today, emerging pathogens and pandemic outbreaks are an ever-growing threat to the health and economic stability of the global community. This is evident by the recent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1 pandemic, the SARS outbreak, as well as the ever-present threat of global bioterrorism. Fortunately, the biomedical community has been able to rapidly generate sequence data so these pathogens can be readily identified. To date, however, the utilization of this sequence data to rapidly produce relevant experimental results or actionable treatments is lagging in spite of obtained sequence data. Thus, a pathogenic threat that has emerged and/or developed into a pandemic can be rapidly identified; however, translating this identification into a targeted therapeutic or treatment that is rapidly available has not yet materialized. This commentary suggests that the growing technology of DNA synthesis should be fully implemented as a means to rapidly generate in vivo data and possibly actionable therapeutics soon after sequence data becomes available.

  16. Parallel simulation of smallpox spreading in large populations based on social contact networks%基于社会接触网络的大规模人群天花传播并行仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晴; 祖正虎; 张文斗; 徐致靖; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2012-01-01

    天花生物恐怖是世界各国面临的重大潜在威胁.本文利用并行仿真的技术手段,研究天花在大规模城市人群中的传播规律并对环形接种和大规模疫苗接种这两种主要的天花疫苗接种策略进行有效性分析,结果表明环形接种措施能够有效控制天花疫情的扩散,在天花疫苗储备不足的情况下可以优先考虑采用该措施.%Smallpox bioterrorism is a potentially significant threat to the world. This paper used the parallel simulation method to study the spread of smallpox in large urban populations and analyzed the effectiveness of two main smallpox vaccination strategies,which are ring vaccination and mass vaccination. The result showed that ring vaccination strategy can effectively control smallpox epidemic and should be given priority in case of shortage of smallpox vaccine reserves.

  17. Identification of Genome-Wide Mutations in Ciprofloxacin-Resistant F. tularensis LVS Using Whole Genome Tiling Arrays and Next Generation Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaing, Crystal J.; McLoughlin, Kevin S.; Thissen, James B.; Zemla, Adam; Vergez, Lisa M.; Bourguet, Feliza; Mabery, Shalini; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y.; Koshinsky, Heather; Jackson, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is classified as a Class A bioterrorism agent by the U.S. government due to its high virulence and the ease with which it can be spread as an aerosol. It is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) is a broad spectrum antibiotic effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Increased Cipro resistance in pathogenic microbes is of serious concern when considering options for medical treatment of bacterial infections. Identification of genes and loci that are associated with Ciprofloxacin resistance will help advance the understanding of resistance mechanisms and may, in the future, provide better treatment options for patients. It may also provide information for development of assays that can rapidly identify Cipro-resistant isolates of this pathogen. In this study, we selected a large number of F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) isolates that survived in progressively higher Ciprofloxacin concentrations, screened the isolates using a whole genome F. tularensis LVS tiling microarray and Illumina sequencing, and identified both known and novel mutations associated with resistance. Genes containing mutations encode DNA gyrase subunit A, a hypothetical protein, an asparagine synthase, a sugar transamine/perosamine synthetase and others. Structural modeling performed on these proteins provides insights into the potential function of these proteins and how they might contribute to Cipro resistance mechanisms. PMID:27668749

  18. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  19. 炭疽恐怖事件人员危害定量评估研究状况和前瞻%Quantitative hazard assessment of persons against anthrax terrorism:research actualities and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健; 祖正虎; 许晴; 张文斗; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of bioterrorism, especially anthrax terrorism,has been developed a lot since 2001 anthrax attack in the United States. In this paper, by summarizing dispersion models calculating the concentration distribution of Bacillus anthracis spores and dose-response models determining the relationship between morbidity and spore dose, the research actualities and prospects in the current quantitative hazard assessment of persons against anthrax terrorism are reviewed.%2001年美国炭疽邮件恐怖事件发生后,相关学者对生物恐怖,特别是对炭痘恐怖事件的危害评估,展开了深入研究.本文从确定炭疽芽孢杆茵芽孢浓度分布的扩散模型和确定发病率同芽孢剂量关系的剂量响应模型两个方面,对目前炭疽恐怖事件的人员危害的定量评估研究状况和前瞻作一综述.

  20. Estimation of hospital emergency room data using otc pharmaceutical sales and least mean square filters

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    Magruder SF

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance of Over-the-Counter pharmaceutical (OTC sales as a potential early indicator of developing public health conditions, in particular in cases of interest to Bioterrorism, has been suggested in the literature. The data streams of interest are quite non-stationary and we address this problem from the viewpoint of linear adaptive filter theory: the clinical data is the primary channel which is to be estimated from the OTC data that form the reference channels. Method The OTC data are grouped into a few categories and we estimate the clinical data using each individual category, as well as using a multichannel filter that encompasses all the OTC categories. The estimation (in the least mean square sense is performed using an FIR (Finite Impulse Response filter and the normalized LMS algorithm. Results We show all estimation results and present a table of effectiveness of each OTC category, as well as the effectiveness of the combined filtering operation. Individual group results clearly show the effectiveness of each particular group in estimating the clinical hospital data and serve as a guide as to which groups have sustained correlations with the clinical data. Conclusion Our results indicate that Multichannle adaptive FIR least squares filtering is a viable means of estimating public health conditions from OTC sales, and provide quantitative measures of time dependent correlations between the clinical data and the OTC data channels.