WorldWideScience

Sample records for biotechnology

  1. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article sets out to explain in simple terms the main concepts of Biotechnology beginning with traditional biotechnology to modern biotechnology. It outlines fundamentals of Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Genetic Engineering. The article offers a discussion of the benefits, disadvantages and the general public and policy concerns regarding genetically modified organisms

  2. Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vranken, Nancy S., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The field of biotechnology, and specifically recombinant DNA technology, is transforming the way that many feel about the nature and purposes of biology. This newsletter annual supplement contains several articles addressing the topic of biotechnology and the importance that the topic should be given in science classes. James D. Watson's article,…

  3. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming to develop and manufacture products of pharmaceutical interest. This program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological system of macromolecules

  4. Biotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Rival Alain; Tregear James; Jaligot Estelle; Morcillo Fabienne; Aberlenc Frédérique; Billotte Norbert; Richaud Frédérique; Beule Thierry; Borgel Alain; Duval Yves

    2001-01-01

    Today, a range of biotechnological approaches, from somatic embryogenesis to biomolecular research, play an increasingly important role in breeding strategies for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Clonal micropropagation. Methods of cloning by in vitro culture led to the development of a micropropagation technique for oil palm based on somatic embryogenesis which was tested at the pilot stage on elite genotypes, thus enabling the production of high oil yielding clones. This phase allowed th...

  5. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming to develop and manufacture products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological system of macromolecules. The Animal Laboratory Division of IPEN is responsible for the breeding and production of small laboratory animal.

  6. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of {sup 131}I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens

  7. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of 131I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens for

  8. Biotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rival Alain

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, a range of biotechnological approaches, from somatic embryogenesis to biomolecular research, play an increasingly important role in breeding strategies for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. Clonal micropropagation. Methods of cloning by in vitro culture led to the development of a micropropagation technique for oil palm based on somatic embryogenesis which was tested at the pilot stage on elite genotypes, thus enabling the production of high oil yielding clones. This phase allowed the identification of limiting factors associated with scaling-up, with respect in particular to the scale of mass production required to meet the needs of planters and to the problem of ensuring genetic fidelity in the regenerated plant material. These two concerns led researchers to look further into the underlying physiological and/or molecular mechanisms involved in somatic embryogenesis and the somaclonal variation events induced by the in vitro cloning procedure. Structural and functional genomics. Marker-assisted breeding in oil palm is a long-term multi-stage project including: molecular analysis of genetic diversity in both E. guineensis and E. oleifera germplasms; large scale development of PCR-based microsatellite markers; and parallel development of three genome mapping and QTL detection projects studying key agronomic characters. Post-genomics. In order to tackle the problem of the mantled flowering abnormality, which is induced during the micropropagation process, studies of gene expression have been carried out in tissue cultures as a means of establishing an early clonal conformity testing procedure. It is important to assess what kind of methodology is the most appropriate for clonal conformity testing by comparing RNA, protein and DNA (PCR based approaches. Parallel studies on genomic DNA methylation changes induced by tissue culture suggest that the latter may play an important role in the determination of the mantled abnormality.

  9. Biotechnology 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with Bio-vision 2016 on the meaning and important contents Next, it reveals vision of biotechnology, current condition of biotechnology in the main countries such as the U.S, Japan, Eu and China, promoting nation biotechnology with promotion policy, support policy for biotechnology such as agriculture and forestry and information and communication, competitiveness of biotechnology, research development by fields and related industries and regulation and system on biotechnology.

  10. Crop Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of crop biotechnology on outcomes of agricultural practices and economics is readily evidenced by the escalating acreage of genetically engineered crops, all occurring in a relatively short time span. Until the mid 1990s, virtually no acreage was planted with commercial genetically mo...

  11. Plant biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Fernández, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has seen an intense debate of the potential contribution of Plant Biotechnology to meeting present and future world demands of food and biomass. The discussion started in 1997 when the first genetically modified (GM) crops were approved by the EPA for commercial production. The debate has been later stimulated by the increasing awareness of the potential effects of global climate change on agricultural production, as the current crops may be poorly adapted...

  12. Cotton biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of the laboratory to the CRP related to the development of a new crop (Gossypium arboreum) for the USA, and to biotechnological applications for cotton (G. hirsutum) improvement. Within the framework of the CRP, a genotype of G. arboreum suitable for USA production and production strategies shown to be compatible with the existing cotton production and processing infrastructures were developed. In the area of biotechnology, molecular markers closely associated with genes which restore fertility to cytoplasmically male sterile lines of cotton were identified. Gene transcripts possibly associated with restoration were isolated and identified. Gene transcripts putatively associated with semigamy expression were also identified. A gene coding for a membrane-active peptide was constructed and tobacco, as a model system, has been genetically engineered with this gene. New methods for transformation of cotton are under investigation, and a number of new projects are being initiated. For the benefit of readers interested in biotechnology resources, a short list of website addresses are annotated in this report. (author)

  13. Microbial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, A L

    2000-01-01

    For thousands of years, microorganisms have been used to supply products such as bread, beer and wine. A second phase of traditional microbial biotechnology began during World War I and resulted in the development of the acetone-butanol and glycerol fermentations, followed by processes yielding, for example, citric acid, vitamins and antibiotics. In the early 1970s, traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield more than 40 biopharmaceutical products, such as erythropoietin, human growth hormone and interferons. Today, microbiology is a major participant in global industry, especially in the pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries. PMID:10631778

  14. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  15. Biotechnology: Beauty or Beast?

    OpenAIRE

    Ui Ghallachoir, Kate

    1993-01-01

    In recent years scientific advances have transformed that group of technologies referred to as biotechnology into a set of increasingly powerful tools for many industries. Biotechnology is identified by many as an important factor determining the future sucess of industries as diverse as healthcare and agriculture. In Ireland biotechnology use and development is a recognised area of strategic priority. The research presented here investigates factors suggested as affecting the rate and diffus...

  16. Biotechnology and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vines, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Biotechnology has the potential to reduce the application of agricultural chemicals for pest control and fertilization through the utilization of genetically modified microorganisms, plants, and animals.

  17. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

  18. Corporate intelligence in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persidis

    1999-05-01

    'Know thy neighbor' is a critical component of today's biotechnology practice. The industry is extremely rich in science and business information, and the pace of change is dramatic. Successful participation in biotechnology will always depend on good technology, management and money. In addition, an ingredient that needs more attention is competitive information- gathering and analysis. Competitive intelligence can be defined as actionable information that requires the ability to filter and synthesize relevant knowledge for the benefit of the company. Why is this necessary? How can it be done well? What examples are there? These are good questions that are inevitably faced by all biotechnology practitioners, and some answers are provided herein. PMID:10322287

  19. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg;

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...

  20. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  1. Calorimeters for biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isothermal and temperature scanning calorimeters manufactured by Calorimetry Sciences Corporation are briefly described. Applications of calorimetry to determine thermodynamics and kinetics of reactions of interest in biotechnology are described with illustrative examples

  2. Traditional Chinese biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed. PMID:19888561

  3. BIOTECHNOLOGY : AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology as a science includes various aspects of the management and manipulation of biological systems. Recent advances in immunology, molecular biology, cell culture and other associated areas provide an opportunity for scientists to move biology out of the laboratory and into the realms of society. This has many implications which mankind on a whole may not be prepared to cope with at this time. This new capability has been referred to as "Biotechnology". Biotechnology has also been defined as "the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering in order to achieve the capacities of microbes and culture cells". Genetic engineering which includes gene splicing and recombinant DNA-cloning is an example of a recent offshoot of biotechnology. Because of the advent of biotechnology, one can now think of the prospect of engineering tomorrows vaccines. In the past, vaccine development has been laborious and in many instances an unrewarding task. After years of effort only a handful of safe, effective vaccines have emerged. In the biotechnology arena, new methodologies and strategies for immunizing humans and domestic animals against infectious diseases are providing new hope for discovering successful vaccines. While most of the effort in the past has focused on viral vaccine development, attention is now being directed towards vaccines for protection against parasitic diseases. Currently, considerable effort is being made to develop vaccines for malaria, coccidiosis (in fowl, cholera, malaria, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis among others.

  4. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kavya, K. M.; Jerome, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  5. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology. PMID:25058832

  6. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer

    2010-01-01

    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  7. Silicon nano-biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yao

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews the latest advances in the development of silicon nano-biotechnology for biological and biomedical applications, which include biosensing, bioimaging, and cancer therapy. In this book, newly developed silicon nano-biotechnology and its biomedical applications are systematically introduced. For instance, fluorescent silicon nanoparticles, serving as novel high-performance biological nanoprobes, are superbly suited to real-time and long-term bioimaging. Silicon nanowire-based sensing platform is especially capable of sensitive, specific, and multiplexed detection of various bio

  8. Biotechnological production of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-08-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important aromatic flavor compounds used in foods, beverages, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals and is produced on a scale of more than 10 thousand tons per year by the industry through chemical synthesis. Alternative biotechnology-based approaches for the production are based on bioconversion of lignin, phenolic stilbenes, isoeugenol, eugenol, ferulic acid, or aromatic amino acids, and on de novo biosynthesis, applying fungi, bacteria, plant cells, or genetically engineered microorganisms. Here, the different biosynthesis routes involved in biotechnological vanillin production are discussed. PMID:11548997

  9. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  10. Projector Center. What Is Biotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzer, Bill; Case, Christine L.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a menu designed to illustrate some classical examples of fermentation. This may be used to discuss biotechnology from a technological perspective. Other examples of biotechnology used in the foods industry are described. (CW)

  11. Opportunities for Biotechnology and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental sa...

  12. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental sa...

  13. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  14. Biotechnology in weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  15. Biotechnology and derived products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...

  16. Patenting in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Bhattacharya

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the patentability of the biotechnological inventions and the international requirements and issues that emerge in addressing patenting of life forms and how they are resolved. It analyses the international patenting trends, patents that have significant impact and countries active in patenting. It also examines Indian patenting activity and its comparison with international trends to assess the Indian efforts.

  17. State responses to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response. PMID:26399943

  18. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  19. Advances in Alstroemeria Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshino, Yoichiro

    2008-01-01

    The genus Alstroemeria belongs to the family Alstroemeriaceae and comprises many ornamental species. This genus, including more than 60 species, is indigenous to South America. Thus far, numerous cultivars, which are used as cut flowers and potted plants worldwide, have been produced by interspecific hybridization and mutation breeding. Recently, biotechnological approaches are being applied in order to improve Alstroemeria strains. Interspecific hybrid plants have been produced by ovule cult...

  20. Microfluidics in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov Dimitri; Barry Richard

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Microfluidics enables biotechnological processes to proceed on a scale (microns) at which physical processes such as osmotic movement, electrophoretic-motility and surface interactions become enhanced. At the microscale sample volumes and assay times are reduced, and procedural costs are lowered. The versatility of microfluidic devices allows interfacing with current methods and technologies. Microfluidics has been applied to DNA analysis methods and shown to accelerate DNA microarra...

  1. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them. PMID:12402751

  2. Biotechnology: reality or dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of molecular biology and molecular genetics, especially of the recombinant DNA technology enabled improvement of experimental methods that provide manipulation within a cell-free system, such as cell and tissue cultures. Such methods resulted in the development of different new technologies with specific properties in relation to the conventional definitions. According to PERSLEY and lantin (2000 the following components are essential for the contemporary biotechnology: (i genomics - a molecular characterization of all genes and gene products of an organism (ii bioinformatics - the assembly of data from genomic analysis into accessible forms; (iii transformation - the introduction of genes controlling a trait of interest into a genome of a desired organism (micro organisms, plants, animal systems. By the application of cotemporary biotechnology new methods in the field of diagnostic are developed such as rapid and more accurate identification of the presence and absence of genes in the genome of the organism of interest (identification of pathogens prenatal diagnostics, molecular markers assisted breeding for plants, etc. The traits of an organism are determined by its genetic material, i.e. by a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. watson and crick (1953 were the first scientists to describe the structure of DNA as a double-stranded helix. Higher organisms contain a set of linear DNA molecules - chromosomes and a full set of chromosomes of an organism is a genome. Each genome is divided into a series of functional units, i.e. genes. The traits of an organism depend on genes, but their expression depends not only on genes but also on many other factors, including whether a gene, controlling the trait, expresses, specific cells in which it expresses and specially the mode by which the gene and its product interact with the environment. A special aspect within the application of biotechnology occurs as an interaction of a

  3. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits. PMID:26070432

  4. Seaweed Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Pereira, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic marine algae, typically known as macroalgae or seaweeds, form an important living resource of the oceans, as primary producers. People have collected seaweeds for food, both for humans and animals for millennia. They also have been a source of nutrient rich fertilizers, as well as a source of gelling agents known as phycocolloids. More recently macroalgae are playing significant roles in medicine and biotechnology. Although Biotechnology and in particular marine biotechnology may ...

  5. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  6. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops. PMID:26798073

  7. Biotechnological applications of microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Loy Chu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are important biologicalresources that have a wide range of biotechnologicalapplications. Due to their high nutritional value,microalgae such as Spirulina and Chlorella are beingmass cultured for health food. A variety of high-valueproducts including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA,pigments such as carotenoids and phycobiliproteins, andbioactive compounds are useful as nutraceuticals andpharmaceuticals, as well as for industrial applications. Interms of environmental biotechnology, microalgae areuseful for bioremediation of agro-industrial wastewater,and as a biological tool for assessment and monitoring ofenvironmental toxicants such as heavy metals, pesticidesand pharmaceuticals. In recent years, microalgae haveattracted much interest due to their potential use asfeedstock for biodiesel production. In Malaysia, therehas been active research on microalgal biotechnologyfor the past 30 years, tapping into the potential of ourrich microalgal resources for high-value products andapplications in wastewater treatment and assessmentof environmental toxicants. A culture collection ofmicroalgae has been established, and this serves asan important resource for microalgal biotechnologyresearch. Microalgal biotechnology should continue tobe regarded as a priority area of research in this country.

  8. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  9. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  10. Preface: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology with emphasis on bio-based products and agricultural biotechnology. Recent energy and food crises point out the importance of bio-based products from ren...

  11. Biotechnological advances in Lilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; van Tuyl, Jaap M

    2016-09-01

    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability. Different DNA molecular markers have been developed for rapid indirect selection, genetic diversity evaluation, mutation detection and construction of Lilium linkage map. Some disease resistance-QTLs are already mapped on the Lilium linkage map. This review presents latest information on in vitro propagation, genetic engineering and molecular advances made in lily. PMID:27318470

  12. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  13. Big is beautiful in biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, G.

    1984-01-01

    Venture capital has guaranteed the successful launch of biotechnology in the US since 1977. Established companies are then licensed to produce and distribute the latest inventions. By contrast in Japan established industrial companies are the leaders in biotechnology research, development and commercialization, building on existing technology and past experience and retraining staff. In the US electronics industry the acute shortage of electronic engineers combined with the high cost of capital and instability within venture capital companies to restrict the high level of innovation required looks likely to happen again in biotechnology.

  14. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a book of abstracts of oral communications and posters that were presented during the International Symposium on Biotechnology that was held in Sfax, Tunisia from May 4th to 8th, 2008. The following themes were covered : - Biotechnology for animal and human health and biopharmaceuticals; - Microbial and environmental biotechnology; - Agricultural, Food and marine biotechnology

  15. New Directions in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The macromolecule crystallization program within NASA is undergoing considerable pressure, particularly budgetary pressure. While it has shown some successes, they have not lived up to the expectations of others, and technological advances may rapidly overtake the natural advantages offered by crystallization in microgravity. Concomitant with the microgravity effort has been a research program to study the macromolecule crystallization process. It was believed that a better understanding of the process would lead to growth of improved crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. The results of the various research efforts have been impressive in improving our understanding of macromolecule crystallization, but have not led to any improved structures. Macromolecule crystallization for structure determination is "one of", the job being unique for every protein and finished once a structure is obtained. However, the knowledge gained is not lost, but instead lays the foundation for developments in new areas of biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this it is highly analogous to studies into small molecule crystallization, the results of which have led to our present day microelectronics-based society. We are conducting preliminary experiments into areas such as designed macromolecule crystals, macromolecule-inorganic hybrid structures, and macromolecule-based nanotechnology. In addition, our protein crystallization studies are now being directed more towards industrial and new approaches to membrane protein crystallization.

  16. Biotechnology of riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwechheimer, Susanne Katharina; Park, Enoch Y; Revuelta, José Luis; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) production has shifted from chemical synthesis to exclusive biotechnological synthesis in less than 15 years. The underlying extraordinary achievement in metabolic engineering and bioprocess engineering is reviewed in this article with regard to the two most important industrial producers Bacillus subtilis and Ashbya gossypii. The respective biosynthetic routes and modifications are discussed, and also the regulation of riboflavin synthesis. As the terminal biosynthesis of riboflavin starts from the two precursors, ribulose 5-phosphate and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), both strains have been optimized for an improved flux through the pentose phosphate pathway as well as the purine biosynthetic pathway. Specific targets for improvement of A. gossypii were the increase of the glycine pool and the increase of carbon flow through the glyoxylic shunt. In B. subtilis, research interest, amongst others, has focused on gluconeogenesis and overexpression of the rib operon. In addition, insight into large-scale production of vitamin B2 is given, as well as future prospects and possible developments. PMID:26758294

  17. Biotechnological manufacture of lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferle, Walter; Möckel, Bettina; Bathe, Brigitte; Marx, Achim

    2003-01-01

    L-Lysine has been manufactured using Corynebacterium glutamicum for more than 40 years. Nowadays production exceeds 600,000 tons per year. Based on conventionally bred strains, further improvement of lysine productivity has been achieved by genetic engineering. Pyruvate carboxylase, aspartate kinase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase, homoserine dehydrogenase and the specific lysine exporter were shown to be key enzymes for lysine production and were characterized in detail. Their combined engineering led to a striking increase in lysine formation. Pathway modeling with data emerging from 13C-isotope experiments revealed a coordinated flux through pentose phosphate cycle and tricarboxylic acid cycle and intensive futile cycling between C3 compounds of glycolysis and C4 compounds of tricarboxylic acid cycle. Process economics have been optimized by developing repeated fed-batch techniques and technical continuous fermentations. In addition, on-line metabolic pathway analysis or flow cytometry may help to improve the fermentation performance. Finally, the availability of the Corynebacterium glutamicum genome sequence has a major impact on the improvement of the biotechnological manufacture of lysine. In this context, all genes of the carbon flow from sugar uptake to lysine secretion have been identified and are accessible to manipulation. The whole sequence information gives access to post genome technologies such as transcriptome analysis, investigation of the proteome and the active metabolic network. These multi-parallel working technologies will accelerate the generation of knowledge. For the first time there is a chance of understanding the overall picture of the physiological state of lysine overproduction in a technical environment. PMID:12523389

  18. Is biotechnology the new alchemy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Georgiana

    2009-03-01

    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from advances in the field of biotechnology are interestingly similar to those that arose in reaction to the practice and prevalence of alchemy from its inception in Europe in the mid-twelfth century until at least the early modern period. I argue that a proper conception of the ethical issues and a sensible interpretation of the power and the promise of the science of biotechnology are most likely if we understand such attitudes to nature, and to the ethical issues surrounding technological and scientific developments, in terms of an historical and cultural continuum. That is, we should regard biotechnology as merely the latest in a string of technological and scientific developments rather than, as is often alleged, as something entirely new, requiring its own special ethical response. Finally, I suggest that examining the parallels between the ethical issues generated by alchemy and by biotechnology show us that such issues are best situated and discussed within a framework of virtue ethics, as it allows us to think seriously about the relationship between art and nature and the proper role of humans in relation to their technology. PMID:19831210

  19. Marine fungal biotechnology: An ecological perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    in biotechnology. The emphasis of this review is on marine fungi from a few unique ecological habitats and their potential in biotechnological applications. These habitats are endophytic or fungi associated with marine algae, seagrass and mangroves, fungi...

  20. Applied thermodynamics: A new frontier for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific career of one of the most outstanding scientists in molecular thermodynamics, Professor John M. Prausnitz at Berkeley, reflects the change in the agenda of molecular thermodynamics, from hydrocarbon chemistry to biotechnology. To make thermodynamics a frontier for biotechnology...

  1. Biotechnology Gains Brighten Resource Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1979-01-01

    This report details recent advances in fermentation biotechnology as presented by speakers at the 27th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Congress. Discussion centered around the use of bacteria, yeasts, and fungi as future sources of essential materials as food, fuel, and medicine. (BT)

  2. The Future of Plant Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant biotechnology has been wildly successful and has literally transformed plant agriculture. There are still undulating concerns about safety and sustainability that critics demand to be addressed. In that light, there are some biotechnoloogies that are being developed that might not only improve...

  3. Biotechnology in defence (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazar Mathew

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology, in its present perspective, encompasses activities, such as recombination of genes; cloning, or making genetically identical copies of a living thing; and splicing of genes from DNA of one organism into the genome of unrelated species, to create new, self-reproducing forms of life. The vast potential of biotechnology is being increasingly realised, and efforts are in progress to harness it for improving quality and quantity of bio-weapons, The bio-weapons, as such, are highly attractive because of their non-detection by routine security systems, ease of access, low production cost and easy transportation, A wide range of genetically manipulated organisms and their by-products are considered to have an added advantage, because these genetically manipulated biologics not only accentuate the existing properties of bio-weapons, but also could be made target-specific. Biotechnology, if used prudently, can play a significant role to counter such threats of biologics, viz., by producing (i bio-armoury comprising powerful antibiotics, antisera toxoids and vaccines to neutralise and eliminate a wide range of diseases, and (ii bio-sensors for rapid detection, identification and neutralisation of biological warfare agents. This article elucidates some facets of biological warfare, legal protective strategies emphasised through international consultation, cooperation and adherence to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and discusses how biotechnology could be effectively used to strengthen countries' defence and combat the threat of biological warfare.

  4. Biotechnology Facility (BTF) for ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Engineering mockup shows the general arrangement of the plarned Biotechnology Facility inside an EXPRESS rack aboard the International Space Station. This layout includes a gas supply module (bottom left), control computer and laptop interface (bottom right), two rotating wall vessels (top right), and support systems.

  5. Plant biotechnology in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef

    Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk, 2005, s. 27-36. (Conference Proceedings and Monographs. Biotechnology. 5). [International Review Conference. Vienna, (AT), 14.11.2004-18.11.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : plant biotechnology * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  6. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be foreseen, not only with respect of R&D, but also in general technological development represents scope of priority in the USA and in European Union (EU as well. It is accepted that the results achieved in biotechnology oversize scientific domain and find their entrance into economics, legislation, quality of life and even of politics. Corresponding with the definition of biotechnology as "the integration of natural sciences and engineering in the application of microorganisms, cells, their components and molecular analogues in production (General assembly of the European federation for Biotechnology, 1989 European Commission (1999 adopted the biotechnological taxonomy, i.e. fields and sub-fields of biotechnology. R&D activities in this domain are oriented to eight fields and branched through them. Fields of biotechnology (EC, 1999 are: 1 Plant biotechnology (agricultural cultivars, trees, bushes etc; 2 Animal biotechnology; 3 Biotechnology in environment protection; 4 Industrial biotechnology (food, feed, paper, textile, pharmaceutical and chemical productions; 5 Industrial biotechnology (production of cells and research of cells - producers of food and of other commodities; 6 Development of humane and veterinarian diagnostics (therapeutical systems 7 Development of the basic biotechnology, and 8 Nontechnical domains of biotechnology. In concordance with some judgments, in the World exist about 4000 biotechnological companies. World market of biotechnological

  7. IMPORTANCE OF IPR IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Mishra*

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to highlight and explore the inter-relationship and the functioning of the intellectual property right in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. The rising tide of patent applications can be witnessed globally in this industry as the need for such protection and licensing has become imperative so as to safeguard the rights of the inventor and also to encourage and promote new talents, inventions and innovations which can be a boon for the economy. The f...

  8. Engineered DNA Polymerases in Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Kranaster, Ramon; Marx, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    DNA polymerases are the enzymes that catalyse all DNA synthesis in Nature often with astounding speed and accuracy. Consequently, their features as molecular machines are exploited in a wide range of biotechnological applications. Some features are highlighted in the following. For example, DNA polymerases are useful enzymes to detect genomic alterations that can lead to the development of certain diseases such as cancer or to promote toxic side effects of drugs. Methods for the detection of ...

  9. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Almeida; Maria Helena Amaral; Paulo Lobão

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV) as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA tec...

  10. Human Health Biotechnologies to 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Arundel; David Sawaya; Ioana Valeanu

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the current use of biotechnology to produce human health products and short-term estimates of the number and types of these products that are likely to reach the market by 2015. Relevant health products include biopharmaceuticals, experimental therapies (e.g. cell/tissue engineering and gene therapy), small molecule therapeutics, diagnostics, bioinformatics (including DNA sequencing and pharmacogenetics), functional food and nutraceuticals, and medical dev...

  11. Insect Cell Culture and Biotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert R.Granados; Guoxun Li; G.W.Blissard

    2007-01-01

    The continued development of new cell culture technology is essential for the future growth and application of insect cell and baculovirus biotechnology. The use of cell lines for academic research and for commercial applications is currently dominated by two cell lines; the Spodoptera frugiperda line, SF21 (and its clonal isolate, SF9), and the Trichoplusia ni line, BTI 5B1-4, commercially known as High Five cells. The long perceived prediction that the immense potential application of the baculovirus-insect cell system, as a tool in cell and molecular biology, agriculture, and animal health, has been achieved. The versatility and recent applications of this popular expression system has been demonstrated by both academia and industry and it is clear that this cell-based system has been widely accepted for biotechnological applications. Numerous small to midsize startup biotechnology companies in North America and the Europe are currently using the baculovirus-insect cell technology to produce custom recombinant proteins for research and commercial applications. The recent breakthroughs using the baculovirus-insect cell-based system for the development of several commercial products that will impact animal and human health will further enhance interest in this technology by pharma. Clearly, future progress in novel cell and engineering advances will lead to fundamental scientific discoveries and serve to enhance the utility and applications of this baculovirus-insect cell system.

  12. Interface of nuclear and biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addressing nuclear and biotechnologies in the International Year of Physics should begin by highlighting the important role that this science has played in the development of both branches of science and technologies. The first as a direct consequence of the Theory of Relativity, the further was considerably influenced by Schroedinger's remarks that there must be a code of some kind that allowed molecules in cells to carry information, making a connection between genes and proteins. Both, like any highly technical endeavor, have also in common that the use of technologies demands a vast accumulation of knowledge, i.e. volumes of scientific research, engineering analysis, strict regulatory controls and a huge amount of information combined with a complex assortment of people with the required educational background, expertise and skills to master it. This presentation briefly explores the ways in which nuclear technology has been used in the last decades of the 20th century in the field of biomedicine applications, which includes the use of radiation to obtain accurate images as well as in diagnosis and therapy. The paper looks at the present prospects of some nuclear methods and instrumentation in the so-called Red biotechnology and its genetically engineered therapeutic agents and diagnostic tests as well as some related perspectives in the field of bioinformatics. As an example of biotechnology being successfully applied to health problems in developing countries the presentation gives an outlook of relevant Cuban achievements in this field. (author)

  13. Interface of nuclear and biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Addressing nuclear and biotechnologies in the International Year of Physics should begin by highlighting the important role that this science has played in the development of both branches of science and technologies. The first as a direct consequence of the Theory of Relativity, the further was considerably influenced by Schroedinger's remarks that there must be a code of some kind that allowed molecules in cells to carry information, making a connection between genes and proteins. Both, like any highly technical endeavor, have also in common that the use of technologies demands a vast accumulation of knowledge, i.e. volumes of scientific research, engineering analysis, strict regulatory controls and a huge amount of information combined with a complex assortment of people with the required educational background, expertise and skills to master it. This presentation briefly explores the ways in which nuclear technology has been used in the last decades of the 20th century in the field of biomedicine applications, which includes the use of radiation to obtain accurate images as well as in diagnosis and therapy. The paper looks at the present prospects of some nuclear methods and instrumentation in the so-called Red biotechnology and its genetically engineered therapeutic agents and diagnostic tests as well as some related perspectives in the field of bioinformatics. As an example of biotechnology being successfully applied to health problems in developing countries the presentation gives an outlook of relevant Cuban achievements in this field. (author)

  14. Innovation Challenges in Malaysia SME Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Tuck Keong

    2013-01-01

    The study was to find out the supporting elements that lead to innovation in Malaysia SME biotechnology firms. The context of this study was to understand the collaboration process that lead to better innovation for their product and service development. The results is to assist potential new start-up to navigate Malaysia biotechnology landscape as a lessons learned and what it takes to be successful in biotechnology investment. There are four settings that author was trying to uncover like c...

  15. Les Biotechnologies Marines dans le Grand Ouest

    OpenAIRE

    Boyen, Catherine; Jaouen, Pascal; Blanchard, Gilbert; Compere, Chantal; Dufour, Alain; Durand, Patrick; Guerard, Fabienne; Hallouin, Florence; Jebbar, Mohamed; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Le Deit, Hervé; Le Seyec, Jocelyne; Monks, Brian; Portal-sellin, Rachel; Probert, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Marine (= blue) biotechnology, i.e. the utilization of marine bio-resources as a target or source of biotechnological applications, is a field with massive potential for innovation and economic growth. In a context of rapid climate change and increasing pressure on natural resources, renewed interest in marine biotechnology has been promoted by application of recent methodological and technological advances, notably in bioprocessing and in the various –omics domains, to the study of marine bi...

  16. Biotechnology information service of the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a survey of the biotechnology information in the GDR and describes the establishment of the Biotechnology Information Service of the GDR (BioInfo GDR). BioInfo GDR is a referral database and is to provide information on information sources available in the GDR, and on institutions working in the various fields of biotechnology in the GDR. In addition, some general problems of the building and use of databases are discussed. (author). 8 refs

  17. ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Sharad; Dwivedi Jaya; Jha A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Biotechnologies have played an important role in the development of food products over many centuries. In recent years the "modern biotechnologies" of molecular biology and gene technologies have gained a significant role in the cereals sector, sustainable development goals that embody ecological, social, and economic requirements. In addition, biotechnology should be considered one tool in a larger portfolio of technological options, to be applied where it is needed and where it offers the b...

  18. The biotechnology industry in Germany and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Christian

    2001-01-01

    Biotechnology is considered as one of the key high-technology sectors in the future. It has been increasingly accepted that small, innovative businesses were the major stimulus for the development of this emerging industry. Many studies on new entrepreneurial entrants in biotechnology are mainly addressed to the situation in the United States and neglected developments in other countries. Therefore, the present paper concentrates on two latecomers into the industry of biotechnology, namely Ja...

  19. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of ne...

  20. Biotechnology in India : Current scene (Review Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nagaratnam

    2001-01-01

    Realising the immense potential of biotechnology in the fields of agricultural production and health care, especially in developing countries, India has been devoting special attention over the past two decades to biotechnology and its applications. Necessary infrastructure has been built-up, the human resources and technical expertise built-up, and fruitful interactions between academic institutions and industries supported. The Department of Biotechnology, Govt of India has been play...

  1. ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sharad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnologies have played an important role in the development of food products over many centuries. In recent years the "modern biotechnologies" of molecular biology and gene technologies have gained a significant role in the cereals sector, sustainable development goals that embody ecological, social, and economic requirements. In addition, biotechnology should be considered one tool in a larger portfolio of technological options, to be applied where it is needed and where it offers the best available option for solving specific problems. Biotechnology contributes a significant role to fulfill the desired nutritional requirements of blasting population of the world.

  2. Perspectives in biotechnology and applied microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alani, D.I.

    1986-01-01

    Upon an invitation from Arab Burea of Education for the Gulf States 'ABEGS', an International Converence on Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology was held in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The conference was sponsored by ABEGS and organised through cooperation with Saudi Biological Society (SEBS). The main topics were grouped into sections representing seven themes of Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology-production of microbial proteins; utilization of microorganisms for the production of chemicals; microbial treatment and utilization of waste; continuous culture; application of biotechnology in plant science; applied microbiology and environment and applied microbiology and biotechnology; international cooperation between developed and developing countries.

  3. Biotechnology for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, A.; Maule, J.; Toporski, J.; Parro-Garcia, V.; Briones, C.; Schweitzer, M.; McKay, D.

    With the advent of a new era of astrobiology missions in the exploration of the solar system and the search for evidence of life elsewhere, we present a new approach to this goal, the integration of biotechnology. We have reviewed the current list of biotechnology techniques, which are applicable to miniaturization, automatization and integration into a combined flight platform. Amongst the techniques reviewed are- The uses of antibodies- Fluorescent detection strategies- Protein and DNA chip technology- Surface plasmon resonance and its relation to other techniques- Micro electronic machining (MEMS where applicable to biologicalsystems)- nanotechnology (e.g. molecular motors)- Lab-on-a-chip technology (including PCR)- Mass spectrometry (i.e. MALDI-TOF)- Fluid handling and extraction technologies- Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)- Raman Spectroscopy We have begun to integrate this knowledge into a single flight instrument approach for the sole purpose of combining several mutually confirming tests for life, organic and/or microbial contamination, as well as prebiotic and abiotic organic chemicals. We will present several innovative designs for new instrumentation including pro- engineering design drawings of a protein chip reader for space flight and fluid handling strategies. We will also review the use of suitable extraction methodologies for use on different solar system bodies.

  4. New trends in biotechnology. Biotechnology no atarashii choryu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karube, I. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology)

    1993-11-30

    This paper focuses on application of the recent biotechnology and introduces its new trends. What has triggered the boom in the application is when the technology has been applied to medicines in the 1970's. Beginning with insulin and interferon, various fibrinolytic agents including tPA and monoclonals have been put on markets one after another in 1991. Progress in humangenomic analysis has led to implementation of gene therapies and diagnoses using genes on gene diseases. Sweeteners used in a large quantity in the foodstuff field are fructoses made by isomerizing glucose produced by using enzymatic bioreactors. Needless to say about production of amino acid, organic acids, saccharides, antibiotics, steroids, and nucleic acid-based compounds by using enzymatic bioreactors, chemicals including acrylic amide from acrylonitrile, enzyme detergents, and bio-herbicides are available commercially. Progress in the technology is seen in all of the fields, including electronics industry and environmental preservation. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig, M.G.; Martin Rodriguez, M.J.M.; Cachaza, J.M. (Univ. de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica); Mendoza Sanchez, L. (C/Sol Oriente, Salamanca (Spain). Estudios y Proyectos); Kennedy, J.F. (Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Research Lab. for the Chemistry of Bioactive Carbohydrates and Proteins)

    1993-07-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents. It was foreseen in 1980 that biotechnology would foster the creation of new industries with low energy requirements. This is because the growth of microorganisms provides a renewable source of energy.

  6. Assessment and diffusion of biotechnology drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart-van Rijkom, J.E.F.

    2002-01-01

    Biotechnology, viewed as a young and innovative field, is associated with great possibilities and high expectation on patient benefits. But there are also public controversies on ethical, social and economic issues. Beginning with recombinant human insulin in 1982, more than 50 biotechnology drugs h

  7. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology…

  8. Biotechnology in the Middle School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, De Ann

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology is a fairly new concept for middle school students as well as teachers. If the latest craze of TV shows focused on crime scene investigation events were not so popular, the term and concept might be even obscure to the public. There is an increased presence of biotechnology in our daily surroundings that makes it practical and…

  9. Interdisciplinarity in Biotechnology, Genomics and Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimeriks, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study developments in biotechnology, genomics and nanotechnology in the period 1998–2008. The fields show changing interdisciplinary characteristics in relation to distinct co-evolutionary dynamics in research, science and society. Biotechnology emerged as a discipline in publicatio

  10. Agricultural Biotechnology Research and Development in Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Recent agricultural biotechnology research and advances in the province are reviewed. Targets and practices for biotechnological development in depth are discussed, with stress on the talent's training, new techniques' establishment and its industrialization, starting from the existing level and problems in the field in the province.

  11. Biotechnological prospects for managing insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounting problems with resistance and residues threaten the long term utility of many chemical insecticides and drive the search for biotechnological alternatives. The potential impact that molecular and other biotechnologies may have on three pest control strategies, involving biological insecticides, insect resistant hosts and genetically engineered insects, is discussed in this article. 46 refs

  12. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blessed with extremely rich biodiversity, Malaysia is all geared up to explore new high technology to utilize the advantage it possesses whilst to protect its environment. Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities for industrial growth, health and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to address the evolution of biotechnology institutions and the stumbling blocks in developing the Malaysian biotechnology industry. This paper identifies three main impediments in the current Malaysian biotechnology, namely lack of skilled human capital; weak industrial base; and lack of commercialization effort. Besides, a set of strategies are discussed with aim to further improve and strengthen the Malaysian biotechnology industry. In general, the arguments are presented by mapping out the symbiotic relationship between data from elite interviews, archival data and observations.

  13. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  14. Biotechnology in India : Current scene (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagaratnam

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Realising the immense potential of biotechnology in the fields of agricultural production and health care, especially in developing countries, India has been devoting special attention over the past two decades to biotechnology and its applications. Necessary infrastructure has been built-up, the human resources and technical expertise built-up, and fruitful interactions between academic institutions and industries supported. The Department of Biotechnology, Govt of India has been playing a major role in this endeavour. Special efforts are being made to ensure practical applications of laboratory research. Salient achievements in the areas of agriculture (including tissue culture, transgenics, sericulture, animal, marine and microbial biotechnology, biofertilisers, bio-control agents, bio-prospecting, conservation of biodiversity and environment and health care (including genetic counselling, DNA fingerprinting, preservation and propagation of human cell lines, medicinal biotechnology with special reference to indigenous medicinal plants, and immunodiagnostics for human beings and animals are reviewed.

  15. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come. PMID:23797042

  16. Biotechnological opportunities in biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geys, Robin; Soetaert, Wim; Van Bogaert, Inge

    2014-12-01

    In the recent years, biosurfactants proved to be an interesting alternative to petrochemically derived surfactants. Two classes of biosurfactants, namely glycolipids and lipopeptides, have attracted significant commercial interest. Despite their environmental advantages and equal performance, commercialization of these molecules remains a challenge due to missing acquaintance of the applicants, higher price and lack of structural variation. The latter two issues can partially be tackled by screening for novel and better wild-type producers and optimizing the fermentation process. Yet, these traditional approaches cannot overcome all hurdles. In this review, an overview is given on how biotechnology offers opportunities for increased biosurfactant production and the creation of new types of molecules, in this way enhancing their commercial potential. PMID:24995572

  17. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Max

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.

  18. Biotechnology and bioforensics new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This Brief covers broad areas of Applied Biology specifically into the domains of Biotechnology/Biomedicine and Forensic Science. Chapters included here would also explain the role of bioinformatics in protein and gene characterization, modeling of the protein structure, survey related to the chromosomal effect on Human Disorders like Diabetes and Cardiac Problems. This Brief is full of Innovative Literature like Use of Microbes in Electricity Production, Brain connection to Type 2 Diabetes etc. Interesting issues in Forensic biology and the aspects of Bioforensics like STR profiling of exhumed bones makes this brief truly useful and informative for Researchers. It also includes the advancements and new ideologies in understanding crop improvements & crop quality. This Brief witnesses Innovative Research related to the Bio and Agri software development too which are capable of accelerating Insilico biological data analysis.

  19. [Bacillus thuringiensis: a biotechnology model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, V; Lereclus, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper is on the different biotechnological approaches that have been used to improve Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for the control of agricultural insect pests and have contributed to the successful use of this biological control agent; it describes how a better knowledge of the high diversity of Bt strains and toxins genes together with the development of efficient host-vector systems has made it possible to overcome a number of the problems associated with Bt based insect control measures. First we present an overview of the biology of Bt and of the mode of action of its insecticidal toxins. We then describe some of the progress that has been made in furthering our knowledge of the genetics of Bt and of its insecticidal toxin genes and in the understanding of their regulation. The paper then deals with the use of recombinant DNA technology to develop new Bt strains for more effective pest control or to introduce the genes encoding partial-endotoxins directly into plants to produce insect-resistant trangenic plants. Several examples describing how biotechnology has been used to increase the production of insecticidal proteins in Bt or their persistence in the field by protecting them against UV degradation are presented and discussed. Finally, based on our knowledge of the mechanism of transposition of the Bt transposon Tn4430, we describe the construction of a new generation of recombinant strains of Bt, from which antibiotic resistance genes and other non-Bt DNA sequences were selectively eliminated, using a new generation of site-specific recombination vectors. In the future, continuing improvement of first generation products and research into new sources of resistance is essential to ensure the long-term control of insect pests. Chimeric toxins could also be produced so as to increase toxin activity or direct resistance towards a particular type of insect. The search for new insecticidal toxins, in Bt or other microorganisms, may also provide new weapons

  20. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  1. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  2. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Hurlbert, Katy

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput.

  3. Social Responsibility in Developing New Biotechnology : Interpretations of Responsibility in the Governance of Finnish Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Snell, Karoliina

    2009-01-01

    The object of the dissertation is to analyse the concept of social responsibility in relation to research and development of new biotechnology. This is done by examining the relevant actors – researchers, administrators, decision-makers, experts, industry, and the public – involved in the Finnish governance of biotechnology through their roles and responsibilities. Existing practises of responsibility in biotechnology governance, as well as the discourses of responsibility – the actorsâ...

  4. Framing Biotechnology in Iranian TV Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khaniki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Media as public opinion formers have crucial role in supporting the growth and development of science and technology . They form media frames in various fields of science and Technology. This paper seeks to identify frames which Iranian television series depict biotechnology. The Biotechnology frames Identified through qualitative framing analysis. To achieve this goal, all TV series of Five main national channels for a five-year period (2008-2013 were considered and two TV series – “Balhayeh Khis, 1392 (Wet Wings,2013 and ” Factoreh hasht, 1387” (Factor 8, 2008 were selected. The central theme in these series was Biotechnology. To identify frames a combination of content analysis and semiotics were used. Findings show that six main frame were used for representation of Biotechnology in Iranian TV series which includes: conspiracy, ideology - spiritual values, scientific progress, ethics, economy and independence.

  5. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  6. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 μm plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  7. Ethics in biotechnology and biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jameel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Great advances in technology produce unique challenges. Every technology also has a dual use, which needs to be understood and managed to extract maximum benefits for mankind and the development of civilization. The achievements of physicists in the mid-20th century resulted in the nuclear technology, which gave us the destructive power of the atomic bomb as also a source of energy. Towards the later part of the 20th century, information technology empowered us with fast, easy and cheap access to information, but also led to intrusions into our privacy. Today, biotechnology is yielding life- saving and life-enhancing advances at a fast pace. But, the same tools can also give rise to fiercely destructive forces. How do we construct a security regime for biology? What have we learnt from the management of earlier technological advances? How much information should be in the public domain? Should biology, or more broadly science, be regulated? Who should regulate it? These and many other ethical questions need to be addressed.

  8. Immunoassays in monitoring biotechnological drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygax, D; Botta, L; Ehrat, M; Graf, P; Lefèvre, G; Oroszlan, P; Pfister, C

    1996-08-01

    For the evaluation and interpretation of pharmacokinetic data reliable quantitative determinations are a requirement that can only be met by well-characterized and fully validated analytical methods. To cope with these requirements a method is being established that is based on an integrated and automated fiber-optic biospecific interaction analysis system (FOBIA) for immunoassays. Performance characteristics of this system used in monitoring of recombinant hirudin (CGP 39 393) are presented. Recombinant hirudin is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of human thrombin. Owing to its size and charge, recombinant hirudin is mainly eliminated by glomerular filtration. But only a fraction of the hirudin dose seems to be reabsorbed at the proximal tubule by luminal endocytosis and hydrolyzed by lysosomal enzymes, leaving approximately 50% of the dose to be extracted in the urine. Thus, renal clearance of recombinant hirudin in the absence of renal insufficiency appears to depend primarily on the glomerular filtration rate. During a 3-month i.v. tolerability study in dogs, some of the dogs developed antibodies against recombinant hirudin. The hirudin-antibody complex accumulated in plasma and apparent hirudin plasma concentrations were therefore much higher than expected from single-dose kinetics. Hirudin captured by antibodies showed an extended half-life and the hirudin-antibody complex is still pharmacologically active, as demonstrated by the observed increase in thrombin time. In conclusion, only appropriate analytical methods allow adequate monitoring and pharmacokinetic characterization of biotechnology drugs in biological materials. PMID:8857560

  9. Plant Biotechnology: Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Lakshmana Rao

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of procedures in cell biology to regenerate plants from single cells in any desired quantity provides the prerequisite for the practical use of plant tissue culture and genetic engineering in crop improvement. Such regenerating cell cultures are used for selection of mutants and for DNA transformation experiments. DNA transfer by means of engineered Ti and Ri plasmids has become an established technique for the rapidly growing list of dicotyledonous plants. Considerable success has also been achieved in making gene transfer techniques independent of cell culture methods. These techniques have given the opportunity to create, characterise and select plant cultivars which cannot be obtained by traditional breeding methods. The exploitation of plant cell cultures for production of pharmaceuticals, natural products of commercial importance and mass propagation of high-value crops by automation, have developed into an important industry with considerable potential for future. This paper discusses the recent advances and applications of plant biotechnology in agriculture and industry and the challenges the still exist.

  10. Yeasts: from genetics to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, S; Berkovitz Siman-Tov, R; Poli, G

    1995-01-01

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the "biotechnological revolution" by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. PMID:9003692

  11. Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    1995-12-31

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. New biotechnologies in Serbian forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galović Vladislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the results achieved in the laboratory for molecular studies of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad, in the field of biotechnology, mainly in molecular genetics, genomics and functional genomics. Researches are designed to serve as a breeding tool. The aim was to clarify the processes of classical genetics by applying modern methods and enable a qualitative and rapid progress in understanding the processes that occur at the level of genes in the genome of forest plant species and thus help the processes of conservation of valuable taxa at the time of global climate change. The results are presented within various research fields and by type of forest trees that were given priority by importance in forest ecosystems. Studies have in most cases been of applicative character with the aim of solving the major problems in forestry, but also of fundamental nature when they were necessary to elucidate the response of forest species to the induced stress, which is an inevitable component of the time characterized by tolerance and adaptation as keywords. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike SRbije, br. III 43002: Biosenzing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirano istraživanje i integrisano upravljanje ekosistemima i br. III 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje i IPA - OXIT

  13. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Menendez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellulases have numerous applications in several industries, including biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, pulp and paper, textile, laundry, and agriculture.Cellulose-degrading bacteria are widely spread in nature, being isolated from quite different environments. Cellulose degradation is the result of a synergic process between an endoglucanase, an exoglucanase and a,β-glucosidase. Bacterial endoglucanases degrade ß-1,4-glucan linkages of cellulose amorphous zones, meanwhile exoglucanases cleave the remaining oligosaccharide chains, originating cellobiose, which is hydrolyzed by ß-glucanases. Bacterial cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 are comprised in fourteen Glycosil Hydrolase families. Several advantages, such as higher growth rates and genetic versatility, emphasize the suitability and advantages of bacterial cellulases over other sources for this group of enzymes. This review summarizes the main known cellulolytic bacteria and the best strategies to optimize their cellulase production, focusing on endoglucanases, as well as it reviews the main biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases in several industries, medicine and agriculture.

  14. Intellectual property and the valuation of biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Elli Malki

    1997-01-01

    The role of intellectual property (IP) as an important value determinant is widely recognized. This article tries to quantify the role of IP in companies valuation by comparing a sample of biotechnology companies (46 companies included in the Genetic Engineering News Index:GEN-Dex) to the companies included in the Dow Jones Index. Conventional wisdom suggests that the biotechnology sector derives more significant portion of its value from IP. The article proposes a new measure for the signifi...

  15. What is the future of animal biotechnology?

    OpenAIRE

    Alison L Van Eenennaam

    2006-01-01

    Animal biotechnology encompasses a broad range of techniques for the genetic improvement of domesticated animal species, although the term is increasingly associated with the more controversial technologies of cloning and genetic engineering. Despite the many potential applications of these two biotechnologies, no public or private entity has yet delivered a genetically engineered food-animal product to the global market, and the sale of milk or meat from cloned animals and their offspring is...

  16. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR; Mahalingam, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Blessed with extremely rich biodiversity, Malaysia is all geared up to explore new high technology to utilize the advantage it possesses whilst to protect its environment. Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities for industrial growth, health and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to address the evolution of biotechnology in...

  17. Framing Biotechnology in Iranian TV Series

    OpenAIRE

    H. Khaniki; M. H. Panahi; M. A. Ghaneirad; Z. Zardar

    2014-01-01

    Media as public opinion formers have crucial role in supporting the growth and development of science and technology . They form media frames in various fields of science and Technology. This paper seeks to identify frames which Iranian television series depict biotechnology. The Biotechnology frames Identified through qualitative framing analysis. To achieve this goal, all TV series of Five main national channels for a five-year period (2008-2013) were considered and two TV series – “Balhaye...

  18. TRENDS IN CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE AND AWARENESS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Hoban, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    The promise of agricultural biotechnology has become reality. Foods produced through biotechnology will become increasingly common in the food production and distribution system. Consumer reaction to these foods will be an important factor in determining the ultimate success of the biotechnology enterprise. This paper reviews trends in U.S. consumers' awareness and acceptance of biotechnology. Results of several national surveys show that biotechnology has not been an issue for the vast major...

  19. Biotechnology Education. Engaging the Learner: Embedding Information Literacy Skills into a Biotechnology Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Helena; Hockey, Julie

    2007-01-01

    One of the challenges of the Biotechnology industry is keeping up to date with the rapid pace of change and that much of the information, which students learn in their undergraduate studies, will be out of date in a few years. It is therefore crucial that Biotechnology students have the skills to access the relevant information for their studies…

  20. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. [Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  1. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  2. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Black, R; F. Fava; Mattei, N.; Robert, Vincent; Seal, S; Verdier, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare (...

  3. Biotechnology Approaches to Life Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Andrew; McKay, David; Schweitzer, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The direct detection of organic biomarkers for living or fossil microbes on Mars by an in situ instrument is a worthy goal for future lander missions. Several new and innovative biotechnology approaches are being explored. Firstly we have proposed an instrument based on immunological reactions to specific antibodies to cause activation of fluorescent stains. Antibodies are raised or acquired to a variety of general and specific substances that might be in Mars soil. These antibodies are then combined with various fluorescent stains and applied to micron sized numbered spots on a small (2-3 cm) test plate where they become firmly attached after freeze drying. Using technology that has been developed for gene mining in DNA technology up to 10,000 tests per square inch can now be applied to a test plate. On Mars or the planet/moon of interest, a sample of soil from a trench or drill core is extracted with water and/or an organic solvent and ultrasonication and then applied to the test plate. Any substance, which has an antibody on the test plate, will react with its antibody and activate its fluorescent stain. At the moment a small UV light source will illuminate the test plate, which is observed with a small CCD camera, although other detection systems will be applied. The numbered spots that fluoresce indicate the presence of the tested-for substance, and the intensity indicates relative amounts. Furthermore with up to a thousand test plates available false positives and several variations of antibody can also be screened for. The entire instrument can be quite small and light, on the order of 10 cm in each dimension. A possible choice for light source may be small UV lasers at several wavelengths. Some of the wells or spots can contain simply standard fluorescent stains used to detect live cells, dead cells, DNA, etc. The stains in these spots may be directly activated, with no antibodies being necessary. The proposed system will look for three classes of

  4. Forest biotechnology advances to support global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Harfouche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world is shifting to an innovation economy and forest biotechnology can play a major role in the bio-economy by providing farmers, producers, and consumers with tools that can better advance this transition. First-generation or conventional biofuels are primarily produced from food crops and are therefore limited in their ability to meet challenges for petroleum-product substitution and climate change mitigation, and to overcome the food-versus-fuel dilemma. In the longer term, forest lignocellulosic biomass will provide a unique renewable resource for large-scale production of bioenergy, biofuels and bio-products. These second-generation or advanced biofuels and bio-products have also the potential to avoid many of the issues facing the first-generation biofuels, particularly the competition concerning land and water used for food production. To expand the range of natural biological resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can ameliorate the conversion process, lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of forest biomass feedstock and the product of interest. Therefore, linking forest biotechnology with industrial biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert woody lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-products. Major advances and applications of forest biotechnology that are being achieved to competitively position forest biomass feedstocks with corn and other food crops are outlined. Finally, recommendations for future work are discussed.

  5. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I M; Nawar, Ali I; Rohila, Jai S

    2013-01-01

    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path toward crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. PMID:23450788

  6. Proteomics: A Biotechnology Tool for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa eEldakak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path towards crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.

  7. Biotechnology Facility: An ISS Microgravity Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will support several facilities dedicated to scientific research. One such facility, the Biotechnology Facility (BTF), is sponsored by the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Division (MSAD) and developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The BTF is scheduled for delivery to the ISS via Space Shuttle in April 2005. The purpose of the BTF is to provide: (1) the support structure and integration capabilities for the individual modules in which biotechnology experiments will be performed, (2) the capability for human-tended, repetitive, long-duration biotechnology experiments, and (3) opportunities to perform repetitive experiments in a short period by allowing continuous access to microgravity. The MSAD has identified cell culture and tissue engineering, protein crystal growth, and fundamentals of biotechnology as areas that contain promising opportunities for significant advancements through low-gravity experiments. The focus of this coordinated ground- and space-based research program is the use of the low-gravity environment of space to conduct fundamental investigations leading to major advances in the understanding of basic and applied biotechnology. Results from planned investigations can be used in applications ranging from rational drug design and testing, cancer diagnosis and treatments and tissue engineering leading to replacement tissues.

  8. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  9. A sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    to exemplify what is the relevance of a sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology. In particular, I introduce the notion of digital-analogical consensus as a semiotic pattern for the creation of complex logical products that constitute specific signs. The chapter ends with some examples of conspicuous semiotic......, translation, transformation and transmission of information. The idea is also to investigate how this debate may influence the “integrative agenda” in biology, especially at a time in which biotechnology is considered to be the industrial use of “biological information”. I introduce concepts....... Finally I make a connection between a sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology and sustainability, with a glimpse into the future....

  10. Biotechnological applications of extremophiles, extremozymes and extremolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura

    2015-08-14

    In the last decade, attention to extreme environments has increased because of interests to isolate previously unknown extremophilic microorganisms in pure culture and to profile their metabolites. Microorganisms that live in extreme environments produce extremozymes and extremolytes that have the potential to be valuable resources for the development of a bio-based economy through their application to white, red, and grey biotechnologies. Here, we provide an overview of extremophile ecology, and we review the most recent applications of microbial extremophiles and the extremozymes and extremolytes they produce to biotechnology.

  11. Biotechnology and medicine of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practice of biology and medicine has been revolutionized during the past ten years by the advent of three biotechnologies-recombinant DNA techniques, the monoclonal antibody technology, and the development of microchemical instrumentation, machines that permit the rapid and effective synthesis and sequence analysis of proteins and genes. In this article, these powerful biotechnologies are discussed, with particular emphasis on microchemical instrumentation, a major focus of my efforts for the past 15 years. The author also discusses two fundamental problems in modern medicine that are being explored in the laboratory using these techniques-genetic engineering of the nervous system and the mapping and sequencing of the human genome

  12. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  13. Nuclear technology and biotechnology for enhancing agricultural production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation discussed the following subjects: sustainable development, agriculture in Malaysia, role of biotechnology, role of nuclear technology, improving crops through induced mutations with Malaysian experience in rice and roselle, fusion of nuclear and biotechnology challenges and opportunities

  14. What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

  15. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Pogue, Brian W.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Tunnell, James W.; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, “Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery,” which includes 12 contributions from attendees of the 2011 conference Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XII.

  16. Biotechnology for site restoration: scope of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitchaeva, O.

    1996-09-18

    The potential of modern biotechnology for solving problems related with the nuclear industry, especially site restoration, are investigated. The advantages of biotechnology, the current applications in Russia, main points of international collaboration, and political considerations are discussed.

  17. Star Scientists, Institutions, and the Entry of Japanese Biotechnology Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R. Darby; Lynne G. ZUCKER

    1996-01-01

    Advance of science and its commercial applications are in a close, symbiotic relationship in the U.S. biotechnology industry. Comparing Japan and the U.S., the structure of the science appears broadly similar, but the organization of the biotechnology industry is quite dissimilar. In the U.S., some 77 percent of new biotechnology enterprises (NBEs) were dedicated new biotechnology firms (NBFs) started for this purpose while 88 percent of Japanese biotech firms in our data base were subunits o...

  18. Initiatives on a sustainable development strategy for Finnish biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Raine; Kulvik, Martti

    2005-01-01

    The need for the strategic initiatives for biotechnology strategy emerged in interviews with 90 Finnish biotechnology leaders in the ETLA Biotechnology Survey, conducted at the end of 2004. This paper discusses on the policy implications for the project on “The biotechnology industry as a part of the Finnish National Innovation System” financed by Tekes, the National Technology Agency of Finland. Tekes has strongly encouraged the formation of policy implications and strategic initiatives for ...

  19. Magnetic nano- and microparticles in biotechnology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2009), s. 497-505. ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetic particles * smart material Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2009

  20. National strategy of safety of biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document was drafted in the frame of the sustainable development, the social fairness, the citizen participation; in Bolivia the management of the biotechnology and the security of the same one are identified for the first time to the actors involved in constituting in a document for the sustainable management of the conservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity in Bolivia

  1. Personality and Impersonality in Biotechnology Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2006-01-01

    With the emergence of biotechnology, the field account has been replaced by something that we may refer to as a laboratory account - a kind of narrative that constitutes the Materials and Methods section of the IMRD model (introduction, methods, results and discussion). Research focusing on field...

  2. Biotechnology Education in India: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kirti; Mehra, Kavita; Govil, Suman; Singh, Nitu

    2013-01-01

    Among the developing countries, India is one of those that recognises the importance of biotechnology. The trajectory of different policies being formulated over time is proof that the government is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency. However, to cater to the ever-growing biotech industry, skilled manpower is required. This article…

  3. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  4. ENZYMES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY: GREEN CHEMISTRY CHALLENGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocatalysts play important roles in various biotechnology products and processes in food and beverage industry and have already been recognized as valuable catalysts for various organic transformations and production of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. At present, the most commonly used biocata...

  5. BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES OF AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Jigău; Maria Motelica; Elena Tofan

    2012-01-01

    Alternative agriculture is developing within the conventional agriculture which requires exclusion or minimizing of the negative consequences of the latest practical technologies. Ecological agriculture is an integral part of the conservativeagriculture. This presupposes practice of agricultural biotechnologyproduction based on the principles of landscape adaptationto agroecosystems and their biologization. The practices of agricultural ecological biotechnologies ensure expandedreproduction ...

  6. BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES OF AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Jigău

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternative agriculture is developing within the conventional agriculture which requires exclusion or minimizing of the negative consequences of the latest practical technologies. Ecological agriculture is an integral part of the conservativeagriculture. This presupposes practice of agricultural biotechnologyproduction based on the principles of landscape adaptationto agroecosystems and their biologization. The practices of agricultural ecological biotechnologies ensure expandedreproduction of the soil ecosystem

  7. Energy Crop and Biotechnology for Biofuel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangcai Peng; Neal Gutterson

    2011-01-01

    @@ Selection of energy crops is the first priority for large-scale biofuel production in China.As a major topic, it was extensively discussed in the Second International Symposium on Bioenergy and Biotechnology, held from October 16-19(th), 2010 in Huazhong Agricultural University(HZAU), Wuhan, China, with more than one hundred registered participants(Figure 1).

  8. Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

  9. Mathematical Modelling of Continuous Biotechnological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, T.; Hristozov, I.; Shannon, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    Biotechnological processes (BTP) are characterized by a complicated structure of organization and interdependent characteristics. Partial differential equations or systems of partial differential equations are used for their behavioural description as objects with distributed parameters. Modelling of substrate without regard to dispersion…

  10. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  11. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  12. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  13. Biotechnological valorization potential indicator for lignocellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luís C; Esteves, Maria P; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Gírio, Francisco M

    2007-12-01

    This report introduces the biotechnological valorization potential indicator (BVPI) concept, a metric to measure the degree of suitability of lignocellulosic materials to be used as feedstock in a biorefinery framework. This indicator groups the impact of the main factors influencing upgrade-ability, both the biological/chemical nature of the materials, and the economical, technological and geographical factors. The BVPI was applied to the identification of the most relevant opportunities and constraints pertaining to the lignocellulosic by-products from the Portuguese agro-industrial cluster. Several by-products were identified with a high valorization potential, e.g., rice husks, brewery's spent grain, tomato pomace, carob pulp, de-alcoholized grape bagasse, and extracted olive bagasse, that would greatly benefit from the further development of specific biotechnology processes, specifically concerning the upgrade of their hemicellulosic fraction. PMID:18061896

  14. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  15. UNIVERSITY BASIC RESEARCH AND APPLIED AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Yin

    2004-01-01

    I examine the effects of R&D inputs on the subset of life-science outputs which demonstrably has influenced later technology, as evidenced by literature citations in agricultural biotechnology patents. Universities are found to be a principal seedbed for cutting-edge technology development. A university's life-science research budget strongly affects its technology-relevant life-science output as well as graduate education.

  16. The Nose Knows: Biotechnological Production of Vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Remko T.; van Beek, Hugo L.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin, the compound responsible for the well-known vanilla aroma, is almost exclusively produced via a chemical process, with only a small fraction extracted from natural sources, namely, the bean of the orchid Vanilla planifolia. Research is being done towards a green chemistry process to obtain natural vanillin. A model biotechnological process is described that exposes students to the essentials of a greener, chemoenzymatic synthesis of vanillin in a multiday laboratory experiment. Bact...

  17. New challenges and opportunities for industrial biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Industrial biotechnology has not developed as fast as expected due to some challenges including the emergences of alternative energy sources, especially shale gas, natural gas hydrate (or gas hydrate) and sand oil et al. The weaknesses of microbial or enzymatic processes compared with the chemical processing also make industrial biotech products less competitive with the chemical ones. However, many opportunities are still there if industrial biotech processes can be as similar as th...

  18. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper. PMID:26683567

  19. FDA Regulation of Food and Drug Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Thelen, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    In its broadest sense, referring to the application of a biological process to provide a good or service, biotechnology has been affecting the human food supply for centuries In products such as beer and cheese. Similarly, since the shift from hunters and gatherers to farmers humans have been selecting and propagating certain varieties of organisms based on their genetic makeup. The discovery of DNA as the mediator of this heritable property forty years ago introduced a novel type of biotechn...

  20. Novel oscillatory flow reactors for biotechnological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica This thesis explores the biotechnological applications of two novel scale-down oscillatory flow reactors (OFRs). A micro-bioreactor (working mostly in batch) and a continuous meso-reactor systems were developed based on a 4.4 mm internal diameter tube with smooth periodic constrictions (SPC), both operating under oscillatory flow mixing (OFM). The first part is dedicated to the flow characterisation in the novel SPC geom...

  1. Reproductive biotechnologies in Swedish male alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Maria Celina

    2016-01-01

    Alpacas have become more popular during the last decades. The herds have been built up by importing live animals since reproductive biotechnologies, for example artificial insemination and semen preservation, are not well-developed in this species. A major problem is the viscosity of the seminal plasma which hinders processing or evaluation of the semen. Enzymes have been used to deal with the viscous seminal plasma but they may damage spermatozoa or render them incapable of fertilization. Th...

  2. Lignicolous Basidiomycetes as Valuable Biotechnological Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana-Virginia Petre

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignicolous basidiomycetes are highly specialized organisms that are capable of degrading lignin, one of the most abundant and resistant organic compounds. Through their enzymes and secondary metabolites, these fungi have a great potential that can be successfully used in various biotechnological processes, ranging from mycoremediation of different pollutants and isolation of bioactive molecules with applications in the pharmacological industry and agriculture, as biocontrol agents of phytopathogens.

  3. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.

    1995-03-01

    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  4. Plant biotechnology : Future perspectives (Review Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Ananda Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Plant biotechnology has made significant strides in thc past 15 years encompassing within its fold the spectacular developments in plant molecular biology and genetic engineering. Some of the most vexing problems faced in agricultural ecosystems could be solved with the introduction of transgenic crops endowed with traits for insect pest resistance, herbicide tolerance and resistance to viral diseases. Attention is now being focussed on the development of transgenic plants having indus...

  5. Electrodes and Electrokinetic Systems for Biotechnological Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Research in bioelectronics studies biological systems and materials in combination with electronic interfaces for the development of devices, e.g., for medical applications, drug and toxicity tests, and biotechnology in general. Neural implants and pacemakers are examples of products developed from this area of research. Conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) bridge biology and electronics with a combination of biocompatibility, flexibility, and capability to the...

  6. Extremophiles and biotechnology: current uses and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Coker, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology has almost unlimited potential to change our lives in very exciting ways. Many of the chemical reactions that produce these products can be fully optimized by performing them at extremes of temperature, pressure, salinity, and pH for efficient and cost-effective outcomes. Fortunately, there are many organisms (extremophiles) that thrive in extreme environments found in nature and offer an excellent source of replacement enzymes in lieu of mesophilic ones currently used in these ...

  7. Biotechnological production of limonene in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules

    2016-01-01

    This mini review describes novel, biotechnology-based, ways of producing the monoterpene limonene. Limonene is applied in relatively highly priced products, such as fragrances, and also has applications with lower value but large production volume, such as biomaterials. Limonene is currently produced as a side product from the citrus juice industry, but the availability and quality are fluctuating and may be insufficient for novel bulk applications. Therefore, complementary microbial producti...

  8. New biotechnological procedures in swine reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.

  9. Biodiversity, biotechnologies and the philosophy of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleni, Lodovico

    2004-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that in front of the development of biotechnology and of the capacity of techniques of altering the living, there is still a very old philosophy of biology. A rapid historical view is given where the rise and diffusion of the reductionistic paradigm is presented and the connections between this paradigm and biotechnologies are traced. Curiously biotechnologies are still based on the philosophy of F. Bacon. Then the necessity of a new paradigm in biology based on the recent discoveries of complexity is underlined. It is reminded that the main discovery of science of the XX century is that we are living in a small planet of limited resources and frail equilibriums. This discovery asks for a different view of the scientific progress, more linked to the conservation of the Biosphere than to its alteration. Stability is the task for the future interactions of human-kind with nature. For this reason the relationships between stability and diversity are summarised. Finally, as the species is the main step of Biodiversity, a brief discussion of the problems posed by the altering of species barriers is presented. PMID:15612188

  10. Biotechnology for uranium extraction and environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is looking forward to augmenting mining and extraction of uranium mineral for its nuclear energy needs. Being a radio-active mineral, mining and processing of uranium ore deposits need be carried out in an environmentally acceptable fashion. In this respect, a biotechnological approach holds great promise since it is environment-friendly, cost-effective and energy-efficient. There are several types of microorganisms which inhabit uranium ore bodies and biogenesis plays an important role in the mineralisation and transport of uranium-bearing minerals under the earth's crust. Uranium occurrences in India are only meagre and it becomes essential to tap effectively all the available resources. Uraninite and pitchblende occurring along with sulfide mineralisation such as pyrite are ideal candidates for bioleaching. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans present ubiquitously in the ore deposits can be isolated, cultured and utilised to bring about efficient acidic dissolution of uranium. Many such commercial attempts to extract uranium from even lean ores using acidophilic autotrophic bacteria have been made in different parts of the world. Anaerobes such a Geobacter and Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) can be effectively used in uranium mining for environmental control. Radioactive uranium mined wastes and tailing dumps can be cleaned and protected using microorganisms. In this lecture use of biotechnology in uranium extraction and bioremediation is illustrated with practical examples. Applicability of environment-friendly biotechnology for mining and extraction of uranium from Indian deposits is outlined. Commercial potentials for bioremediation in uranium-containing wastes are emphasised. (author)

  11. Methods in industrial biotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with the definition that biotechnology is really no more than a name given to a set of techniques and processes, the authors apply some set of fuzzy techniques to chemical industry problems such as finding the proper proportion of raw mix to control pollution, to study flow rates, to find out the better quality of products. We use fuzzy control theory, fuzzy neural networks, fuzzy relational equations, genetic algorithms to these problems for solutions. When the solution to the problem can have certain concepts or attributes as indeterminate, the only model that can tackle such a situation is the neutrosophic model. The authors have also used these models in this book to study the use of biotechnology in chemical industries. This book has six chapters. First chapter gives a brief description of biotechnology. Second chapter deals will proper proportion of mix of raw materials in cement industries to minimize pollution using fuzzy control theory. Chapter three gives the method of determination of te...

  12. International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Baker, K. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a premier culture collection of tropical marine microorganisms able to generate hydrogen from water or organic substances. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms will serve as the biological reservoir or {open_quotes}library{close_quotes} for other DOE Hydrogen Program contractors, the biohydrogen research community and industry. This project consists of several tasks: (a) transfer of the Mitsui-Miami strains to Hawaii`s International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC) housed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI); (b) maintain and distribute Mitsui-Miami strains; (c) characterize key strains by traditional and advanced biotechnological techniques; (d) expand Hawaii`s IMBCC; and (e) establish and operate an information resource (database). The project was initiated only late in the summer of 1995 but progress has been made on all tasks. Of the 161 cyanobacterial strains imported, 147 survived storage and importation and 145 are viable. with most exhibiting growth. Of the 406 strains of other photosynthetic bacteria imported, 392 survived storage and importation and 353 are viable, with many exhibiting growth. This project is linked to cooperative efforts being supported by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through its Marine Biotechnology Institute (MBI) and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).

  13. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.

    2003-01-01

    Public debate on biotechnology is embroiled in controversy over the risks and benefits associated with this emerging technology. Using data from a national survey, this study analyzes public acceptance of biotechnology in food production. Empirical results suggest that while there is general optimism about biotechnology and support for its use in plants, public approval of its use in animals is perhaps more limited. Younger and more-educated individuals are generally more supportive of biotec...

  14. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.

    2002-01-01

    Public debate on biotechnology is embroiled in controversy over the risks and benefits associated with this emerging technology. Using data from a national survey, this study analyzes public acceptance of biotechnology in food production. Empirical results suggest that while there is general optimism about biotechnology, and support for its use in plants, public approval of its use in animals is perhaps more limited. Younger and more educated individuals are generally more supportive of biote...

  15. The science communication environment: biotechnology researchers' discourse on communication

    OpenAIRE

    Merton, Eve

    2009-01-01

    Communication is problematic for biotechnology because biotechnology uses or changes life processes, which leads us to question ourselves and our definitions of life — it is controversial. Yet, communication is crucial for engagement and understanding among research scientists and the wider community. This thesis examined the communication beliefs, attitudes and practices of researchers at the National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology (NICB) in Ireland, using semi- structured, face-to...

  16. Systems biology solutions to challenges in marine biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Gov, Esra; Arga, Kazim Y

    2014-01-01

    Marine biotechnology can be considered as the use of marine bioresources as the target or source of biotechnological applications. Despite many successes have been achieved in marine biotechnology, still many gaps remain to be filled in our basic knowledge on marine science before it could be fully exploited. Systems biology focuses on complex interactions within biological systems, using a holistic approach instead of the traditional reductionism. Marine ecosystems, with different levels of ...

  17. UNCOVERING FACTORS INFLUENCING PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.

    2002-01-01

    Significant divergence exists in public opinions about biotechnology. Although there is broad support for plant biotechnology for health benefits, opinions differ on the issue of animal genetics for pure economic benefits. While some are opposed to it, many are undecided about genetically modified foods. Considerable skepticism exists about scientists, corporations and government which have negative influence on public acceptance of food biotechnology. Consumers' personal attributes have sign...

  18. Advancement of Marketing Developing Biotechnology-Based Business

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidas Vilmantas; Borisas Melnikas

    2014-01-01

    The article, in a complex way, analyzes the needs of marketing improvement in developing biotechnology­based business and highlights its role in the context of modern society and globalization challenges. The article distinguishes between the existing problems of biotechnology business, the present perspectives and specific characteristics of developing the marketing of biotechnological business. The paper represents the possibility of the substantial modernization of marketing tools with reg...

  19. Biotechnology as a competitive edge for the Finnish forest cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Hakala, Terhi

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have collected information by interviewing all identified parties within the Finnish forest sector who might have a potential biotechnology connection : university research groups, research institutions, small and medium-sized biotechnology-companies and up to the largest forest companies. The ultimate goal was to assess how resources have been allocated and biotechnologies utilized within the value chain of the entire forest sector. This study aimed at providing answers to t...

  20. Biotechnology as a Competitive Edge for the Finnish Forest Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Hakala, Terhi; Haltia, Olli; Hermans, Raine; Kulvik, Martti; Nikinmaa, Hanna; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Pursula, Tiina

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have collected information by interviewing all identified parties within the Finnish forest sector who might have a potential biotechnology connection : university research groups, research institutions, small and medium-sized biotechnology-companies and up to the largest forest companies. The ultimate goal was to assess how resources have been allocated and biotechnologies utilized within the value chain of the entire forest sector. This study aimed at providing answers to t...

  1. Excitement of biotechnology in the new economy (Review Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw

    2001-01-01

    "Today the world economy is no longer driven by material wealth but instead powered by intellectual wealth. Knowledge in the economic context translates to technology, of which information technology and biotechnology are the prime drivers, India has made it in information technology. but not yet in biotechnology. The exciting synergy between information technology and biotechnology in the form of bioinformatics is paving the way for intellectual wealth creation in the areas of health...

  2. [Trends of microalgal biotechnology: a view from bibliometrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Yinsong; Yan, Jinding; Song, Haigang; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-10-01

    Microalgae is a single-cell organism with the characteristics of high light energy utilization rate, fast growth rate, high-value bioactive components and high energy material content. Therefore, microalgae has broad application prospects in food, feed, bioenergy, carbon sequestration, wastewater treatment and other fields. In this article, the microalgae biotechnology development in recent years were fully consulted, through analysis from the literature and patent. The progress of microalgal biotechnology at home and abroad is compared and discussed. Furthermore, the project layout, important achievements and development bottlenecks of microalgae biotechnology in our country were also summarized. At last, future development directions of microalgae biotechnology were discussed. PMID:26964332

  3. Production of vanillin: a biotechnological opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural aroma compounds are of major interest to the food and fragrance industry. Vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) was isolated from the vanilla beans in 1816 and its world consumption has reached today about 12000 tons per year. But only approximately 50 tons per year are extracted from vanilla pods (Vanilla planifolia). The remainder is provided by synthetic vanillin. This review is about alternative processes to produce natural vanillin de novo or by biotransformation using biotechnological methods involving enzymes, microorganisms and plant cells. (author)

  4. Biotechnology Protein Expression and Purification Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Project Scientist Core Facility is to provide purified proteins, both recombinant and natural, to the Biotechnology Science Team Project Scientists and the NRA-Structural Biology Test Investigators. Having a core facility for this purpose obviates the need for each scientist to develop the necessary expertise and equipment for molecular biology, protein expression, and protein purification. Because of this, they are able to focus their energies as well as their funding on the crystallization and structure determination of their target proteins.

  5. Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., one of the world’s most important ornamentals, is a very well-studied topic and shows numerous strides each year. This mini-review condenses the knowledge that has been published on chrysanthemum biotechnology, especially in vitro culture in the wider plant science literature. In 2013 and 2014, important strides were made in molecular breeding, particularly anti-viral strategies, including through transgenics, and our understanding of flower genetics and flowering regulation.

  6. New developments in Biotechnology-an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    人类运用生物技术已经几千年了.直到上个世纪,发酵方法生产啤酒、白酒、面包、酱油以及其它食品都是在农产品领域的主要应用.自从50年前DNA和RNA结构和作用被揭示以来,一场生物技术的革命便产生了,并导致了两项关键技术的发展:1)通过基因技术进行遣传因素的修改;2)新型快速多样分析工具;最新的发展都基于遗传学.这篇文章我将探讨以下问题:遗传因子修改的进展和公众认可的争论;基因学技术在农产品领域的应用;我的TNO研究所与中国伙伴联合的生物技术项目的例子;谷物科技方面的生物技术.%Mankind applies biotechnology already for thousands of years. Until the last century, fermentation processes for producing beer, wine, bread, soy sauces and other food products were the main application in the agri- food area. The elucidation of the structure and role of DNA and RNA in living organisms since the past 50 years has created a revolution in biotechnology, resulting in two key technological developments: 1) Genetic modification by gene technology 2) New rapid and multiple analytical tools; the latest developments being based on genomics. In this presentation I will discuss: - progress in genetic modification and the issue of public acceptance - application of genomic based technologies in the agri- food field - examples of joint biotechnology projects of my TNO institute with partners in China - biotechnology in cereal science and technology

  7. Biotechnological production of xylitol with Candida yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Granström, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a biotechnological production process for xylitol. The xylitol production characteristics of Candida millerii, Candida guilliermondii and Candida tropicalis were compared. C. tropicalis was the best xylitol producer. A volumetric productivity of 5.7 g xylitol L-1 h-1 was achieved with 69 % yield from D-xylose on a mineral medium with a modified repeated fed batch production method. The xylitol production mechanism was confirmed by chemostat cultivation stu...

  8. Biotechnology network promotes knowledge of transgenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red de Ingenieria Genetica Aplicada al Mejoramiento de Cultivos Tropicales (Rigatrop) integrated by a group of scientists from the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Universidad Nacional (UNA) and of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (TEC) have organized two forums on the topic of transgenics. The first forum has shown successful experiences of development of transgenic crops in Latin America, as for example: the transgenic bean, project realized in Brazil and transgenic eggplant in Bangladesh. The second forum has been about transgenics and environment effected at the UCR, on the occasion of World Environment Day. Rigatrop members are working currently in two projects applying biotechnological tools to coffee

  9. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  10. Biotechnology Education as Social and Cultural Production/Reproduction of the Biotechnology Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study…

  11. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL POULTRY MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garda S. A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics based on normal microflora of the birds using perspective strains become increasingly popular for treatment and prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis in poultry. The purpose of the work is the biotechnological data analysis of the composition and functions of the microflora of different birds’ biotopes. One of biotechnological methods for the study of bacterial flora in the birds is a method of in vivo bacteriological control — analysis of group samples of fresh droppings. To study bird bacterial microflora the method based on vital bacteriological control (group sample study of fresh brood is the most effective. Only 60–70% of microorganisms are identified during the analysis of bowels bird microflora. It is shown that the normal microflora of the birds has a protective function because it is colonized on epithelial intestinal area and competes for power sources, has a wider set of enzymes, and also produces a wide range of exometabolites that determine their antagonistic action on pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic transient microorganisms. To improve modern technologies concerning cultivation of various breeds of birds with high genetic potential it needs full understanding of endogenous microflora role in a bird body. We found that as a source of probiotic strains it is better to use gastrointestinal tract laying hens and/or to make a selection of group tests of their fresh litter. Thus the best probiotic properties are characterized by microorganisms genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The results could be used for selection of promising strains to create a acomplex probiotic.

  12. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted. PMID:25025271

  13. Plant biotechnology : Future perspectives (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ananda Kumar

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant biotechnology has made significant strides in thc past 15 years encompassing within its fold the spectacular developments in plant molecular biology and genetic engineering. Some of the most vexing problems faced in agricultural ecosystems could be solved with the introduction of transgenic crops endowed with traits for insect pest resistance, herbicide tolerance and resistance to viral diseases. Attention is now being focussed on the development of transgenic plants having industrial, economic, pharmaceutical, nutritional and environmental importance. In the next millennium, crops will serve as factories for the synthesis of valuable metabolites and organic compounds. Agronomically important characters, such as drought tolerance, efficiency in photosynthesis, nutrient use and nitrogen fixation will be manipulated in the next century to enhance the genetic and physiological potential of the crops. Recent developments in the genome sequencing of Arabidopsis, rice and maize will have far reaching implications for future agriculture. Structural and functional genomics of plant species will virtually revolutionise the complexion of agricultural biotechnology as well as human health care. It is imperative that the developing world adopts these fast-changing technologies soon and harness their unprecedented potential for the benefit of the mankind. "

  14. Governing nanobiotechnology: lessons from agricultural biotechnology regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article uses lessons from biotechnology to help inform the design of oversight for nanobiotechnology. Those lessons suggest the following: first, oversight needs to be broadly defined, encompassing not just regulatory findings around safety and efficacy, but also public understanding and acceptance of the technology and its products. Second, the intensity of scrutiny and review should reflect not just risks but also perceptions of risk. Finally, a global marketplace argues for uniform standards or commercially practical solutions to differences in standards. One way of designing oversight to achieve these purposes is to think about it in three phases—precaution, prudence, and promotion. Precaution comes early in the technology or product’s development and reflects real and perceived uncertainties. Prudence governs when risks and hazards have been identified, containment approaches established, and benefits broadly defined. Transparency and public participation rise to the fore. The promotional phase moves toward shaping public understanding and acceptance and involves marketing issues rather than safety ones. This flexible, three-phase approach to oversight would have avoided some of the early regulatory problems with agricultural biotechnology. It also would have led to a more risk-adjusted pathway to regulatory approval. Furthermore, it would avoid some of the arbitrary, disruptive marketing issues that have arisen.

  15. Plant biotechnological patents from the legal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhah Abdullah

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which plant biotechnological patent in terms of natural product which has human intervention, different from other product and the entitlement of such a patent whether it is the inventor or biological donor s patent? In addition, the article discusses how would one determine the value added” by the company s researchers as opposed to the value contributed by the original genetic material. Meanwhile, the poor farmers and indigenous people who are the pioneers in terms of the knowledge of the plant, they are left unprivileged and deprived of their contribution and benefits. Thus, this article would highlight the significance of the contribution made by the original donor especially, in a poor developing country whose natural heritage has been taken away without any consideration, acknowledgment and how to strike a balance between the rights of an inventor and biological donor? Keywords: Plant Biotechnology, Patents, Inventor, Biological Donor, Developing countries Received: 7 July 2009 / Received in revised form: 28 August 2009, Accepted: 28 August 2009, Published online: 22 September 2009

  16. Concept of Halal Food and Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost every Muslim either fully practicing Islam or not is seriously concerned about what he or she eats. Muslims observe the divine laws in every aspect of life. There is a complete code of dietary laws present in the Holy Quran for the followers of Islam. Some basic principles are described as all foods are permitted except those mentioned clearly in the Holy Quran. The most recent advancements of biotechnology in field of food industry like status of GMO’s, use of genes, enzymes, food additives or enhancer in food in Islam deduced by the Ijma or Qiyas. These if obtained from plant origin would be considered as Halal. If obtained from animals then Islamic Shari’ah put some restrictions about the animal that it should be permitted by Supreme law giver, and should be fit, clean and wholesome for health. The world has become global supermarket with the presence of improved communication and transportation system. Islam is the world second largest religion and more than 1.2 billion Muslims consume Halal products. The need of Halal food increases with the increase of Muslim population globally. The Halal foods should be mentioned clearly by labeling the hidden food ingredients, for example enzymes. The Muslim scholars need to infer opinions with the advancement of biotechnology.

  17. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Lopes, Mariana R; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Long, Tanya M; Calvey, Christopher H; Aerts, Andrea L; Barry, Kerrie W; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P; Hanson, Sara J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lipzen, Anna M; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Ohm, Robin A; Otillar, Robert P; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos A; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A; Slot, Jason C; Stielow, J Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2016-08-30

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as xylose utilization, remains unresolved. Our data also provide insight into early evolution of ascomycetes. We document the loss of H3K9me2/3 heterochromatin, the origin of ascomycete mating-type switching, and panascomycete synteny at the MAT locus. These data and analyses will facilitate the engineering of efficient biosynthetic and degradative pathways and gateways for genomic manipulation. PMID:27535936

  18. Microbial lipases: Production, properties and biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josana Maria Messias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipases belong to the group of hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol lipids to free fatty acids and glycerol. They have significant potential biotechnological applications in catalyzing organic synthesis reactions in non-aqueous solvents using simplified procedures resulting in conversions of high yields. Lipase production has conventionally been performed by submerged fermentation; however, solid-state fermentation processes have been prominent when residues are used as substrates because they serve as low-cost nutrient sources. Microbial lipases can be used as additives in foods to modify and enhance organoleptic properties, as well as in detergents to hydrolyse fats in the treatment of oily effluents, and also have value for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, and oil chemical industries. More recently, they are used in transesterification reactions to convert plant seed oils into biodiesel. The objective of this work was to review the published literature on the production, properties and applications of microbial lipases, and its biotechnological role in producing biodiesel.

  19. The application of biotechnology in animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal food has to incorporate multiple objectives, ie. it should provide good animal health, good production and reproductive performance, reduce pollution of the environment as well as have the impact on food of animal origin, by supplying it, in addition to basic nutrients, with certain useful substances that can act preventively on the occurrence of various diseases in humans in modern living conditions. This complex task implies the application of scientific knowledge concerning biotechnology in the field of animal feed production, and also includes the use of specific nutrients that are the result of the latest developments in specific disciplines such as molecular biology and genetic engineering. As a result of researches in these areas there were created some varieties of cereals and legumes with improved nutritional properties. On the other hand, obtaining a safe food of animal origin product imposes the use of substances of natural origin (such as probiotics, prebiotics, phytobiotics, enzymes, chelating forms .., which provide better digestibility and more complete utilization of certain nutrients from the feedstuff. In this way, the quantity of undigested substances are significantly reduced as well as soil and the atmosphere pollution. The use of specific additives in animal nutrition resulting from biotechnological research is most frequent when a problem concerning certain level of production or animal health has to be overcome. This implies a group of non-nutritional ingredients which are aimed to regulate the digestive tract microflora, pH, weight gain, as well as to modify metabolic processes etc.

  20. Halophiles, coming stars for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jin; Chen, Jin-Chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-11-15

    Industrial biotechnology aims to produce chemicals, materials and biofuels to ease the challenges of shortage on petroleum. However, due to the disadvantages of bioprocesses including energy consuming sterilization, high fresh water consumption, discontinuous fermentation to avoid microbial contamination, highly expensive stainless steel fermentation facilities and competing substrates for human consumption, industrial biotechnology is less competitive compared with chemical processes. Recently, halophiles have shown promises to overcome these shortcomings. Due to their unique halophilic properties, some halophiles are able to grow in high pH and high NaCl containing medium under higher temperature, allowing fermentation processes to run contamination free under unsterile conditions and continuous way. At the same time, genetic manipulation methods have been developed for halophiles. So far, halophiles have been used to produce bioplastics polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), ectoines, enzymes, and bio-surfactants. Increasing effects have been made to develop halophiles into a low cost platform for bioprocessing with advantages of low energy, less fresh water consumption, low fixed capital investment, and continuous production. PMID:25447783

  1. Transforming exoelectrogens for biotechnology using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TerAvest, Michaela A; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular electron transfer pathways allow certain bacteria to transfer energy between intracellular chemical energy stores and extracellular solids through redox reactions. Microorganisms containing these pathways, exoelectrogens, are a critical part of microbial electrochemical technologies that aim to impact applications in bioenergy, biosensing, and biocomputing. However, there are not yet any examples of economically viable microbial electrochemical technologies due to the limitations of naturally occurring exoelectrogens. Here we first briefly summarize recent discoveries in understanding extracellular electron transfer pathways, then review in-depth the creation of customized and novel exoelectrogens for biotechnological applications. We analyze engineering efforts to increase current production in native exoelectrogens, which reveals that modulating certain processes within extracellular electron transfer are more effective than others. We also review efforts to create new exoelectrogens and highlight common challenges in this work. Lastly, we summarize work utilizing engineered exoelectrogens for biotechnological applications and the key obstacles to their future development. Fueled by the development of genetic tools, these approaches will continue to expand and genetically modified organisms will continue to improve the outlook for microbial electrochemical technologies. PMID:26284614

  2. 78 FR 27977 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA... Acid Molecules (NIH Guidelines) SUMMARY: The NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (NIH OBA) proposes... by mail to the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health, 6705...

  3. 75 FR 28811 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA... Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) by the Institutional Biosafety Committee at Lawrence Livermore... Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  4. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. T. Clint Nesbitt, Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory...://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet_proc_imp.shtml . Current Comment Process for Petitions...

  5. 75 FR 69091 - Office of the Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities.... Agenda: The Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA), NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee and the... George, Program Assistant, Office of Science Policy, Office of Biotechnology Activities,...

  6. 76 FR 44339 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA... Minor Action under the NIH Guidelines. SUMMARY: The Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) is updating... Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda,...

  7. Current and Future Leaders' Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Miller, Rene P.

    2009-01-01

    Were elected state FFA officers' attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology significantly different from elected Texas legislators' attitudes about the same topic? The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed in agricultural biotechnology perceptions or information source preferences when compared by leadership status:…

  8. Too New for Textbooks: The Biotechnology Discoveries & Applications Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Madelene; Lamb, Neil E.

    2013-01-01

    The "Biotechnology Discoveries and Applications" guidebook aims to provide teachers with an overview of the recent advances in genetics and biotechnology, allowing them to share these findings with their students. The annual guidebook introduces a wealth of modern genomic discoveries and provides teachers with tools to integrate exciting…

  9. Using the Mystery of the Cyclopic Lamb to Teach Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie L.

    2010-01-01

    I present a learning cycle that explores different biotechnologies using the process of in situ hybridization as a platform. Students are presented with a cyclopic lamb and must use biotechnology to discover the mechanism behind the deformity. Through this activity, students learn about signal transduction and discover the processes of polymerase…

  10. State FFA Officers' Confidence and Trustworthiness of Biotechnology Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.

    2007-01-01

    Are state FFA officers' awareness levels of agricultural topics reported in mass media superior to those who do not serve in leadership roles? The purpose of this study was to determine elected state FFA officers' awareness of biotechnology, and their confidence and trust of biotechnology information sources. Descriptive survey methods were used…

  11. Multidimensional Analysis of High-School Students' Perceptions about Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about public understanding of biotechnology have motivated educational initiatives to improve students' competency to make scientifically sustained decisions regarding controversial issues. Understanding students' perceptions about biotechnology is essential to determine the effectiveness of these programmes. To assess how students'…

  12. Anticipating the future: 'Biotechnology for the poor' as unrealized promise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.; Gupta, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses visions of the future articulated by proponents of `biotechnology for the poor¿, those who claim that an embrace of transgenic technology in agriculture is critical to alleviating poverty in developing countries. Specifically, we analyse how such `biotechnology for the poor¿ pr

  13. Agricultural Communications Students' Awareness and Perceptions of Biotechnology Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.; Dunsford, Deborah W.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural communications students (n=330) from 11 universities were most aware of biotechnology effects on food, less aware of effects on health and the environment. They were somewhat accepting of genetic modifications for plants, not humans. Sources of biotechnology knowledge were science classes, labs, and university professors' beliefs.…

  14. Role of biotechnology in sustainable development of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prospect of biotechnology to provide cost-efficient sustainable cotton production under a safe environment for the 21st century is enormous. The role of plant biotechnology in the improvement of cotton is a rapidly evolving area and very broad. The specific objective of this paper is to provide...

  15. Preface: Biocatalysis and Biotechnology for Functional Foods and Industrial Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth review of biocatalysis and biotechnology with emphasis on functional foods and industrial products. Biocatalysis and biotechnology defined in this book include enzyme catalysis, biotransformation, bioconversi...

  16. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  17. MPACT OF GENETIC BIOTECHNOLOGIES ON BIOSECURITY AND FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICA-BADEA DELIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity is a relatively new area global, being promoted by the significant results, particularly in the last 20 years, fundamental and applied research. Biotechnology is a collection of techniques that can be used in the agro-food, medical and industrial. The paper examines the potential impact of transgenic biotechnology, vulnerabilities, implications, benefits and risks, quality of life and health. Introduction into the environment, cross-border trade and use of GMOs resulting from modern biotechnology can untoward effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, food security and safety. It is openly acknowledged that modern biotechnology has great potential to promote human welfare, in particular, to overcome the critical needs in food, agriculture and human health. Establish appropriate safety measures when using genetically modified organisms (biosecurity policy, regulatory regime, scientific and technical measures is a highly sensitive process, aiming both to maximize the benefits of modern biotechnology and to minimize potential risk

  18. 77 FR 16846 - National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity Meeting; Office of Biotechnology Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ...; Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Closed...: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive,...

  19. New challenges and opportunities for industrial biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guo-Qiang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Industrial biotechnology has not developed as fast as expected due to some challenges including the emergences of alternative energy sources, especially shale gas, natural gas hydrate (or gas hydrate and sand oil et al. The weaknesses of microbial or enzymatic processes compared with the chemical processing also make industrial biotech products less competitive with the chemical ones. However, many opportunities are still there if industrial biotech processes can be as similar as the chemical ones. Taking advantages of the molecular biology and synthetic biology methods as well as changing process patterns, we can develop bioprocesses as competitive as chemical ones, these including the minimized cells, open and continuous fermentation processes et al.

  20. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students

  1. Plant cell cultures and their biotechnological potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, W.; Ellis, B.E.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of plant cell suspension cultures for the biotechnological production of high-cost, plant-specific compounds is critically evaluated. The basic roles of nutrient media and phytohormones are described followed by a description of the recent progress in mass cultivation of plant cell cultures as measured by biomass and doubling time. The accumulation of secondary constituents in cell cultures is reviewed and methods for the selection of high-producing strains are described. The essential features of the selection strategy are the establishment of cell cultures from high-producing plants and a sensitive assay (e.g. radio-immunoassay) for the screening of microcolonies grown on petri dishes. The accumulation of biosynthetic intermediates of secondary constituents in cell culture strains will possibly lead to the isolation of novel compounds.

  2. Nonclinical statistics for pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a reference text for regulatory, industry and academic statisticians and also a handy manual for entry level Statisticians. Additionally it aims to stimulate academic interest in the field of Nonclinical Statistics and promote this as an important discipline in its own right. This text brings together for the first time in a single volume a comprehensive survey of methods important to the nonclinical science areas within the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Specifically the Discovery and Translational sciences, the Safety/Toxiology sciences, and the Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls sciences. Drug discovery and development is a long and costly process. Most decisions in the drug development process are made with incomplete information. The data is rife with uncertainties and hence risky by nature. This is therefore the purview of Statistics. As such, this book aims to introduce readers to important statistical thinking and its application in these nonclinical areas. The cha...

  3. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, WS; Yuan, JS; Stewart, CN

    2013-10-09

    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  4. Biotechnological production of limonene in microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules

    2016-04-01

    This mini review describes novel, biotechnology-based, ways of producing the monoterpene limonene. Limonene is applied in relatively highly priced products, such as fragrances, and also has applications with lower value but large production volume, such as biomaterials. Limonene is currently produced as a side product from the citrus juice industry, but the availability and quality are fluctuating and may be insufficient for novel bulk applications. Therefore, complementary microbial production of limonene would be interesting. Since limonene can be derivatized to high-value compounds, microbial platforms also have a great potential beyond just producing limonene. In this review, we discuss the ins and outs of microbial limonene production in comparison with plant-based and chemical production. Achievements and specific challenges for microbial production of limonene are discussed, especially in the light of bulk applications such as biomaterials. PMID:26915992

  5. Biotechnological solutions to the nitrogen problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Giles E D; Dixon, Ray

    2014-04-01

    The availability of nitrogen is one of the major limiting factors to crop growth. In the developed world, farmers use unsustainable levels of inorganic fertilisers to promote crop production. In contrast, in the developing world inorganic fertilisers are often not available and small-holder farmers suffer the resultant poor yields. Finding alternatives to inorganic fertilisers is critical for sustainable and secure food production. Bacteria and Archaea have evolved the capability to fix atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, a form readily usable in biological processes. This capability presents an opportunity to improve the nutrition of crop plants, through the introduction into cereal crops of either the nitrogen fixing bacteria or the nitrogenase enzyme responsible for nitrogen fixation. While both approaches are challenging, recent advances have laid the groundwork to initiate these biotechnological solutions to the nitrogen problem. PMID:24679253

  6. Synthesis of aromatic cytokinins for plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plíhalová, Lucie; Vylíčilová, Hana; Doležal, Karel; Zahajská, Lenka; Zatloukal, Marek; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Cytokinins represent an important group of plant growth regulators that can modulate several biotechnological processes owing to their ability to influence almost all stages of plant development and growth. In addition, the use of purine based cytokinins with aromatic substituent in C6 position of the purine moiety in tissue culture techniques is currently experiencing a surge in interest, made possible by the ongoing systematic synthesis and study of these compounds. This review article outlines progress in the synthesis of aromatic cytokinins, the in vitro and in vivo effects of these substances and insights gleaned from their synthesis. As the purine moiety in these compounds can be substituted at several positions, we examine each of the substitution possibilities in relation to the derivatives prepared so far. The discussion highlights the gradual simplification of their preparation in relation to their application in practice and summarizes the relevant organic chemistry literature and published patents. PMID:26703810

  7. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  8. Biotechnology in petroleum recovery. The microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further

  9. A bibliometric assessment of ASEAN collaboration in plant biotechnology

    KAUST Repository

    Payumo, Jane

    2015-04-03

    This study draws on publication and citation data related to plant biotechnology from a 10-year (2004–2013) period to assess the research performance, impact, and collaboration of member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Plant biotechnology is one of the main areas of cooperation between ASEAN member states and among the research areas promoted to achieve regional food security and sustainable development. In general, findings indicate increased scientific output, influence, and overall collaboration of ASEAN countries in plant biotechnology over time. Research performance and collaboration (domestic, regional, and international) of the region in plant biotechnology are linked to the status of the economic development of each member country. Thailand produced the most publications of the ASEAN member states while Singapore had the highest influence as indicated by its citation activity in plant biotechnology among the ASEAN countries. Domestic and international collaborations on plant biotechnology are numerous. Regional collaboration or partnership among ASEAN countries was, however, was found to be very limited, which is a concern for the region’s goal of economic integration and science and technology cooperation. More studies using bibliometric data analysis need to be conducted to understand plant biotechnology cooperation and knowledge flows between ASEAN countries. © 2015 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary

  10. Biotechnology in the 21st Century (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Das

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The two technologies that will essentially determine the shape of things to come in the present century are biotechnology and information technology. A merger of biotechnology and information technology is happening right now, a significant example of which is the success of the human genome project. Biotechnology can be said to have started with the unravelling of the structure of DNA in 1953. The next decade saw exciting developments in our understanding of the fundamentals of functioning of biological system, including the role of DNA in protein synthesis. The discovery of reverse transcriptase and restriction enzymes in 1970s paved the way for further advances, including recombinant DNA and hybridoma technologies, often called 'genetic engineering'. The discovery of polymerase chain reaction in 1986 laid the foundation for large-scale applications of biotechnology in various fields. The practical applications of mapping of the entire human genome would be enormous in terms of better overall health care (diagnosis, therapy and management of disorders. In the field of flora and fauna, it generally happens that biotechnologically-rich countries have poor biodiversity and vice versa. But countries like India and China that have rich biodiversity have, by the use of biotechnology, the potential to become also biotechnologically rich.

  11. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad Deepa L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology

  12. Biofuel processes to be developed by French biotechnology company, Biomethodes

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Bioméhodes, a French biotechnology company in Evry, has signed an exclusive and worldwide option-to-license agreement with Virginia Tech Intellectual Properties Inc. (VTIP) for multiple technologies for converting biomass to bioethanol and biohydrogen.

  13. Australian Undergraduate Biotechnology Student Attitudes towards the Teaching of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Tamra; Rosenberger, Philip J., III; Kerridge, Ian

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, ethics has become part of most tertiary biotechnology curricula. There is, however, considerable variation in the extent and manner of ethics education provided to students in different institutions. In addition, the perceived need that students and employers have regarding ethics education, and the aims and expected outcomes of ethics education, are rarely made clear. This research reports the findings of a questionnaire administered to 375 undergraduate biotechnology students from 19 Australian universities to determine their attitudes towards the teaching of ethics. The results suggest that undergraduate biotechnology students generally regard ethics education to be important and that ethics should be included in undergraduate biotechnology curricula. Students tended, however, to emphasize the professional and industrial side of ethics and not to recognize the personal effects of morals and behaviour. We provide suggestions for rethinking how ethics should be taught.

  14. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops. PMID:26785813

  15. Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and nuclear techniques in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and other nuclear techniques has contributed a great deal in our understanding of microbial plant and animal biochemistry and molecular biology. Electron microscopy has provided visual evidence for molecular events. Developments in cell tissue culture of both plants and animals and immunology have contributed to advances in what we now refer as biotechnology. This paper focuses on the applications in the high-tech end of biotechnology, limited to the use of recombinant-DNA techniques. Molecular identification of the genes, their cloning and horizontal transfer across the species of microbes, plants and animals and expression of the transferred genes is the major strength of modern biotechnology. The techniques described in this paper have played a significant role in the development of biotechnology. 6 refs

  16. Potential of industrial biotechnology with cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Wijffels; O. Kruse; K.J. Hellingwerf

    2013-01-01

    Both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae are promising organisms for sustainable production of bulk products such as food, feed, materials, chemicals and fuels. In this review we will summarize the potential and current biotechnological developments. Cyanobacteria are promising host organisms fo

  17. Isolation and Purification of Biotechnological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbuch, Jürgen; Kula, Maria-Regina

    2007-05-01

    The production of modern pharma proteins is one of the most rapid growing fields in biotechnology. The overall development and production is a complex task ranging from strain development and cultivation to the purification and formulation of the drug. Downstream processing, however, still accounts for the major part of production costs. This is mainly due to the high demands on purity and thus safety of the final product and results in processes with a sequence of typically more than 10 unit operations. Consequently, even if each process step would operate at near optimal yield, a very significant amount of product would be lost. The majority of unit operations applied in downstream processing have a long history in the field of chemical and process engineering; nevertheless, mathematical descriptions of the respective processes and the economical large-scale production of modern pharmaceutical products are hampered by the complexity of the biological feedstock, especially the high molecular weight and limited stability of proteins. In order to develop new operational steps as well as a successful overall process, it is thus a necessary prerequisite to develop a deeper understanding of the thermodynamics and physics behind the applied processes as well as the implications for the product.

  18. Biological basis of beam application in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy particle beams have relatively high value of linear energy transfer (LET), and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). There is a sharp increase in ionization density (LET) in the so-called Bragg peak, close to the end of each track. The LET and RBE may, therefore, be high at the distal edge of the biological target volume. It is well-known that as the LET is increased beyond about 30 keV/um the RBE increases to a peak at 100 to 110 keV/um and then falls. At the same time the oxygen-enhancement ratio (OER) decreases steadily. The reason of these events has a greater chance per unit dose of depositing a certain minimum energy of about 300 eV, that is, 10 to 15 ionizations into each biological target volume of 5 to 10 nm diameter. These biological targets may be pictured as double strands of DNA and histones, 2 or 3 nm in diameter, with a surrounding water sheath of a few nm thick. The drop of RBE with increasing LET past the peak of RBE is due to either overkill or the recombinations of electrons and ions and of chemical radicals in the higher LET track. Large new accelerators have allowed the effects of heavy particle irradiation to be investigated. In biotechnology, radiation methods have found application as tools to explore some basic problems and this aspect of radiation research is likely to expand in the future. (author)

  19. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research. PMID:25721271

  20. Biotechnology and the fight against onchocerciasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biotechnology has recently broken into the rather closed field of human and animal disease vectors and vector control. With regard to blackflies which carry onchocerciasis, in particular, some possible directions which initial research is taking, and which future research might follow are: identification of vectors among the species making up the Simulium damnosum group; identification in the vectors of Onchocerca volvulus strains, of greater or lesser pathogenic nature according to the geographical area; identification of the source of the blood meal; and identification of resistance on an individual level. This research will all contribute towards the development of tools for use in the field, which will enable the epidemiology of onchocerciasis to be better understood, and the fight against this form of parasitosis to be better planned. After a long period using chemical insecticides, the discovery of the larvicidal properties of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar 14 (B.t. H-14), and of Bacillus sphaericus, opens up new horizons. However, the formulation of these biological insecticides is not entirely satisfactory, and research is therefore in progress to discover the toxins inside the commensal organisms of certain disease vectors. (author). 29 refs

  1. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert W.; Wang, Baojun

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field. PMID:25579192

  2. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert W; Wang, Baojun

    2015-12-25

    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field. PMID:25579192

  3. [Biotechnology, especially genetic modification, and legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sitter, H; Peters, P W J

    2002-05-15

    Biotechnology and genetic modification (GM) related legislation is not yet fully developed in the European Union (EU). New legislation has been recently issued ('Introduction of GMO's in the environment') and recently proposals from the European Commission ('GMO's in food and feed' and 'Traceability and labelling of GMO's') entered the decision-making process in the end of 2001. The proposals for the establishment of the European Food Authority play a role in this respect. GMO legislation is complex not in the least because of the demands for the dossiers, to be submitted with an application, while these procedures for admission must become more transparent. In this paper the relevant legislation will be discussed with the exception of that related to human health. Because of dissatisfaction with the present legislation, the European Commission in the past years granted no new approvals for introductions on the market of GMO's and for GM novel foods. New legislation should suspend the present de-facto moratorium. The tasks and position of the Inspectorate for the Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health is discussed. A provision has been made in the legislation with respect to adventitious or technically unavoidable contamination of raw materials with GMO's up to a maximum of 1%, of which the enforcement is not yet watertight. The analytical methods are being still developed. PMID:12056264

  4. Biotechnology core facilities: trends and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanetich, K M; Niece, R L; Rohde, M; Fowler, E; Hayes, T K

    1993-09-01

    A survey of 128 biotechnology core facilities has provided data on the finances, services, space requirements, and personnel. An average facility had four full-time personnel and 7.5 major instrument systems, and occupied 969 sq. ft. Average total income was $244,000/year, but annual user fee income was only $125,000. Typically, facilities required substantial institutional support or grants. Cost recovery (user fee income divided by total income) averaged 49%. During the last 5 years user fee income, total income, and cost recovery have increased. In-house charges for protein sequencing and peptide synthesis increased approximately 30%, while oligonucleotide synthesis charges decreased by 74%. The costs (charges corrected for subsidy from non-user fee income) for most services did not significantly change, except that oligonucleotide synthesis costs decreased by 25% in 1992. DNA synthesis had the highest throughout per month (116 samples), followed by amino acid analysis (86 samples) and DNA sequencing (67 samples). Other services averaged from 5 to 60 samples. DNA synthesis and purification were the services used by the greatest number of principal investigators. A number of services including DNA sequencing, mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis, RNA synthesis, electroblotting, and carbohydrate analysis have been introduced in the last 3 years. Although these services are characterized by high levels of methods development and non-user runs, they are offered by twice the percentage of facilities as in 1989, and are increasingly contributing to facility income. PMID:8375609

  5. Biotechnological production and application of fructooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Maltos, Dulce A; Mussatto, Solange I; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Teixeira, José A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2016-01-01

    Currently, prebiotics are all carbohydrates of relatively short chain length. One important group is the fructooligosaccharides (FOS), a special kind of prebiotic associated to the selective stimulation of the activity of certain groups of colonic bacteria. They have a positive and beneficial effect on intestinal microbiota, reducing the incidence of gastrointestinal infections and also possessing a recognized bifidogenic effect. Traditionally, these prebiotic compounds have been obtained through extraction processes from some plants, as well as through enzymatic hydrolysis of sucrose. However, different fermentative methods have also been proposed for the production of FOS, such as solid-state fermentations utilizing various agro-industrial by-products. By optimizing the culture parameters, FOS yields and productivity can be improved. The use of immobilized enzymes and cells has also been proposed as being an effective and economic method for large-scale production of FOS. This article is an overview of the results considering recent studies on FOS biosynthesis, physicochemical properties, sources, biotechnological production and applications. PMID:25519697

  6. Bargaining in Technology Markets: An empirical study of biotechnology alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Kinukawa, Shinya; Motohashi, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    We empirically examine the distribution of bargaining power between buyers and sellers on the biotechnology markets by estimating the extracted surplus in alliance agreements, which depends on each party's bargaining power. The results show that buyers have extracted more surplus than sellers. However, these also reveal that the surplus extracted by buyers has been decreasing while that of the sellers has been increasing. We construe that the prices of biotechnologies have been lower than the...

  7. Regional differences in the development of biotechnology in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Boguś; Sławomir Dorocki

    2012-01-01

    Modern biotechnology is widely regarded as information technology, a new wave of knowledge-based economy. It is characterized by innovation and a very fast pace of development, which is associated with the involvement of highly qualified specialists, research centers equipped with a specialized instruments, a variety of sources of innovation, investment expenditure as well as interconnections to guarantee the flow of information. Biotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 20th centur...

  8. Acceptance of biotechnology and social-cultural implications in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Quaye, Wilhemina; Yawson, Ivy; Yawson, Robert M.; Williams, Irene E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite major scientific progress in the application of biotechnology in agriculture, public attitudes towards biotechnology in general and genetically modified food (GM food) products in particular remain mixed in Africa. Examining responses on acceptance of GM food through a stakeholder survey in Ghana, it was established that half of the 100 people sample interviewed were not in favor of GM foods. To this group acceptance of GM foods would make farmers loose focus on the traditional ways o...

  9. IMPACT OF GENETIC BIOTECHNOLOGIES ON BIOSECURITY AND FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    NICA-BADEA DELIA

    2014-01-01

    Biosecurity is a relatively new area global, being promoted by the significant results, particularly in the last 20 years, fundamental and applied research. Biotechnology is a collection of techniques that can be used in the agro-food, medical and industrial. The paper examines the potential impact of transgenic biotechnology, vulnerabilities, implications, benefits and risks, quality of life and health. Introduction into the environment, crossborder trade and use of GMOs resulting from moder...

  10. MPACT OF GENETIC BIOTECHNOLOGIES ON BIOSECURITY AND FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    NICA-BADEA DELIA

    2014-01-01

    Biosecurity is a relatively new area global, being promoted by the significant results, particularly in the last 20 years, fundamental and applied research. Biotechnology is a collection of techniques that can be used in the agro-food, medical and industrial. The paper examines the potential impact of transgenic biotechnology, vulnerabilities, implications, benefits and risks, quality of life and health. Introduction into the environment, cross-border trade and use of GMOs resulti...

  11. Variability in forms of organisation in biotechnology firms

    OpenAIRE

    Luukkonen, Terttu

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines variability in forms of organisation, in terms of forward and backward networking versus vertical integration, in biotechnology SMEs. The study examines forms of organisation in a set of firms across different application segments. The forms of organisation vary by application segment in biotechnology, but differences are not clear-cut, and a firm can apply different forms to different application segments in its activities. Reasons for the variability are related to the s...

  12. The capital structure of Finnish biotechnology SMEs: An empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tahvanainen, Antti-Jussi

    2003-01-01

    This empirical study tests three different theoretical frameworks of capital structure choice on a cross-sectional data of 59 Finnish biotechnology SMEs. The theoretical approaches comprehend principal-agent, asymmetric information and trade-off theories. The purpose of the paper is to trial the validity of the theories applied and, more importantly, to deepen and broaden existing knowledge on a young and scarcely studied sector showing great potential, the Finnish biotechnology industry. The...

  13. Economic Benefits and Costs of Biotechnology Innovations in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    GianCarlo Moschini

    2001-01-01

    The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the larger share of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distribution ...

  14. Constraints and Incentives for Agricultural Biotechnology in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Izaías de C. Borges; José Maria F. J. da Silveira; Andrea Leda R. O. Ojima

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the co-evolution between agricultural biotechnology and biosafety process, with a special focus on Brazilian case. This rapid diffusion process has occurred in parallel with a high transaction cost process of regulation, combining local, territorial, national and supranational evolution of rules and norms involving public sector, private representatives and other stakeholders. So Forth, Brazilian case is one of the most interesting biotechnology regulation ...

  15. Possible effect of biotechnology on plant gene pools in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Aynur

    2014-01-01

    The recent rapid developments in biotechnology have made great contributions to the study of plant gene pools. The application of in vitro methods in freeze storage and DNA protection techniques in fast production studies has made major advances. From that aspect, biotechnology is an indispensable means for the protection of plant gene pools, which includes the insurance of sustainable agriculture and development of species. Besides all the positive developments, one of the primary risks pose...

  16. Biotechnology and health Biotecnología y salud

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo C.; Reguero M. T

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology plays an important role in the Health Sciences. The production of immunoreagents and biological drugs, gene therapy, the food industry and the environmental protection have been using the molecular biology and genetic engineering knowledge to improve the quality of life. This review summarizes the contribution and impact of the Biotechnology to the advance of the Biomedical Sciences. The work is framed within the idea that the healthdisease process changes according to specific ...

  17. Expectations, Reality and Performance in the Finnish Biotechnology Business

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulainen, Tuomo; Tahvanainen, Antti-Jussi; Kulvik, Martti

    2012-01-01

    In this paper our aim is to assess the evolution of the Finnish biotechnology sector during the 2000's. Particular focus is given to the growth expectations and realized outcomes of Finnish biotechnology companies, to the evolution of public investments, and to potential determinants of company performance in the sector. The empirical results suggest that there is considerable disparity between the companies' growth expectations and actual performance. Roughly one third of the expected sales ...

  18. Role of biotechnology in textile industry: а review

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2013-01-01

    Textile processing is a growing industry that traditionally has used a lot of water, energy and harsh chemicals. They are also not easily biodegradable. Biotechnology in textiles is one of the revolutionary ways to advance the textile field. Biotechnology offers the potential for new industrial processes that require less energy and are based on renewable raw materials, as well as the application of green technologies with low energy consumption and environmentally healthy practices. Due to t...

  19. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Neven, David; Peterson, H. Christopher; Weatherspoon, Dave D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years agricultural technology has created remarkable commodity production growth rates and enhanced general economic growth through food production, manufactured goods and trade for most nations. Biotechnology holds the promise of continuing this remarkable record. There is a long list of potential benefits of biotechnology but unfortunately the perceived costs/risks are also many. These concerns have lead to significant consumer reluctance to accept the technology and, in some cases...

  20. The biotechnology innovation system of Brazil (part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Judice; Connie Vedovello

    2007-01-01

    Scientific and technological development of the past 30 years, and a breakthrough in the field of biotechnology resulted in appearance of new knowledge-based industries related to knowledge and technology, interdisciplinary life sciences. It covers a variety of sectors, products, processes and services, entering into such sectors as health, agriculture, food processing, environmental protection, new materials and energy sources. Biotechnology industry is far from an organizational maturity, a...

  1. Consumer knowledge and acceptance of agricultural biotechnology vary

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer S. James

    2004-01-01

    Results from consumer surveys reveal some basic conclusions about consumer attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology. First, consumers do not agree about whether biotech foods are good or bad. Second, a small group of people strongly opposes them. Third, the majority of consumers are uninformed about the technology and how food is produced. Relatively small but vocal anti-biotechnology activist groups are successful at influencing public opinion because of consumers’ lack of knowledge, crea...

  2. Use of biotechnology in flax germplasm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Andro, CDC Normandy, CDC Triffid, and Linola 989 are examples of flax varieties that have been developed through the application of biotechnology. Somaclonal variation, cell selection, haploid breeding, mutagenesis, genetic engineering and molecular marker development are all being employed in flax germplasm development. Tissue culture techniques such as somaclonal variation (CDC Normandy) and cell selection (Andro) have been successful, but the greatest potential for the use of tissue culture methodology is the application of haploid breeding. While a number of groups worldwide have had limited success in producing doubled haploid plants from anther and/or microspore culture [Chen et al. 1998, Plant Breeding 117: 463; Friedt et al. 1995, Plant Breeding 114: 322; Nichterlein and Friedt 1993, Plant Cell Rep. 12: 426], the frequency of regeneration has limited its application in variety development. Several groups are currently using anther culture within their breeding programs, but the ultimate success of haploid breeding will undoubtedly depend on developing an efficient microspore-derived system for doubled haploid production. Perhaps the most successful technique to date, in terms of germplasm development, has been the use of mutagenesis. The Linola types [Dribnenki et al. 1996, Can. J. Plant Sci. 76:329; Dribnenki and Green 1995, Can. J. Plant Sci. 75: 201], have already been released, and other modified oil types are currently being developed [Saeidi and Rowland 1997, J. Hered. 88: 466; Ntiamoah et al. 1995, Crop Sci. 35: 148]. Additional traits being investigated in mutagenized populations include seed colour, reduced levels of anti nutritional factors in seed, increased nutraceutical content, and traits of agronomic interest. For example, screening of an EMS-treated population of McGregor flax at the Crop Development Centre identified three mutant lines which had greatly reduced levels of cyanogenic glucosides. Flax has proven to be amenable to

  3. AMELIORATION DES PLANTES Biotechnologies et arachide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavel Danièle

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches sur les biotechnologies de l’arachide sont principalement conduites aux États-Unis mais également à travers des programmes collaboratifs internationaux où interviennent l’Icrisat et le Cirad. Malgré une forte variation phénotypique, l’arachide cultivée montre peu de variabilité moléculaire. L’arachide étant une culture alimentaire et de rente très importante dans les régions sahéliennes, la sécheresse et la contamination des graines par l’aflatoxine en cours de culture constituent des contraintes majeures. La seule application connue en sélection assistée par marqueurs d’ADN fait intervenir des gènes provenant d’une espèce sauvage compatible en croisement avec l’espèce cultivée. Les principaux résultats publiés jusqu’à présent concernent la mise au point de techniques de régénération et de transfert de gènes. Le marquage moléculaire s’avérant inefficace, les recherches s’orientent aujourd’hui sur la génomique fonctionnelle du fait de la disponibilité des techniques de transformation génétique. L’objectif est de développer de nouveaux outils moléculaires capables d’assister les programmes de sélection pour la résistance à ces deux traits complexes.

  4. Biotechnology in China II. Chemicals, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, G.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lab. Renewable Resources Engineering; Ouyang, Pingkai [Nanjing Univ. of Technology (China). College of Life Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering; Chen, Jian (eds.) [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Biotechnology

    2010-07-01

    The biochemical engineering and biotechnology is now becoming the most important industry all over the world. China, as a country that has more than 1.3 billion people, has become one of the fastest growing countries in the world during the last several decades. Both the Chinese government and companies pay more and more attention on the research and the application of biotechnology. In the 11th five-year plan (2006-2010), Chinese government unprecedented enhanced the support on the biotechnology in both policy and finance. Currently, the biotechnology gains the most R and D funding in China. With the great support and the increasingly frequent exchanges from abroad, the biotechnology in China becomes more and more important in the world. In recognition of the enormous advances in biotechnology in China, we are pleased to present the second volume of Advances in Biochemical Engineering/ Biotechnology: Biotechnology in China II, edited by P. K. Ouyang, J. Chen and G. T. Tsao, relatively soon after the introduction of the first volume of this multivolume comprehensive books. Since the previous volume was extremely well accepted by the scientific community, we have maintained the overall goal of creating a number of chapters, each devoted to a certain topic by several Chinese research groups working in the field, which provide scientists in academia and public institutions with a well-balanced and comprehensive overview of this growing field in China. We have fully revised the volume and expanded it from bioreaction, bioseparation and bioremediation to more extensive issues in order to cover all recent developments in China into account as much as possible. The new volume of Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology: Biotechnology in China II is a comprehensive description of the state-of-the-art in China, and a guide to the understanding the work of Chinese biochemical engineering and biotechnology researchers. It is specifically directed to microbiologists

  5. A perspective on the economic valorization of gene manipulated biotechnology: Past and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Knockaert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct fields of gene manipulated biotechnology have so far been economically exploited: medical biotechnology, plant biotechnology and industrial biotechnology. This article analyzes the economic evolution and its drivers in the three fields over the past decades, highlighting strong divergences. Product and market characteristics, affecting firms’ financing options, are shown to be important enablers or inhibitors. Subsequently, the lack of commercialization in a fourth type of gene manipulated biotechnology, namely environmental biotechnology, is explained by the existence of strong barriers. Given the latter’s great promises for environmental sustainability, we argue for a need to push the commercial valorization of environmental biotechnology. Our research has strong implications for (technology management research in biotechnology, pointing to a need to control for and/or distinguish between different biotechnology fields.

  6. Advanced health biotechnologies in Thailand: redefining policy directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Román Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thailand faces a significant burden in terms of treating and managing degenerative and chronic diseases. Moreover, incidences of rare diseases are rising. Many of these—such as diabetes, cancer, and inherited inborn metabolic diseases—have no definite treatments or cure. Meanwhile, advanced health biotechnology has been found, in principle, to be an effective solution for these health problems. Methods Qualitative approaches were employed to analyse the current situation and examine existing public policies related to advanced health biotechnologies in Thailand. The results of this analysis were then used to formulate policy recommendations. Results Our research revealed that the system in Thailand in relation to advanced health biotechnologies is fragmented, with multiple unaddressed gaps, underfunding of research and development (R&D, and a lack of incentives for the private sector. In addition, there are no clear definitions of advanced health biotechnologies, and coverage pathways are absent. Meanwhile, false advertising and misinformation are prevalent, with no responsible bodies to actively and effectively provide appropriate information and education (I&E. The establishment of a specialised institution to fill the gaps in this area is warranted. Conclusion The development and implementation of a comprehensive national strategic plan related to advanced health biotechnologies, greater investment in R&D and I&E for all stakeholders, collaboration among agencies, harmonisation of reimbursement across public health schemes, and provision of targeted I&E are specifically recommended.

  7. Development of marine biotechnology as a resource for novel proteases and their role in modern biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaei, Ahmad; Lavajoo, Fatemeh; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2016-07-01

    Marine environment consists of the largest sources diversified genetic pool of material with an enormous potential for a wide variety of enzymes including proteases. A protease hydrolyzes the peptide bond and most of proteases possess many industrial applications. Marine proteases differ considerably from those found in internal or external organs of invertebrates and vertebrates. In common with all enzymes, external factors such as temperature, pH and type of media are important for the activity, catalytic efficiency, stability and proper functioning of proteases. In this review valuable characteristics of proteases in marine organisms and their applications are gathered from a wide literature survey. Considering their biochemical significance and their increasing importance in biotechnology, a thorough understanding of marine proteases functioning could be of prime importance. PMID:27086293

  8. Oil cakes and their biotechnological applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sumitra; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Larroche, Christian; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Pandey, Ashok

    2007-07-01

    Oil cakes have been in use for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industry. Being rich in protein, some of these have also been considered ideal for food supplementation. However, with increasing emphasis on cost reduction of industrial processes and value addition to agro-industrial residues, oil cakes could be ideal source of proteinaceous nutrients and as support matrix for various biotechnological processes. Several oil cakes, in particular edible oil cakes offer potential benefits when utilized as substrate for bioprocesses. These have been utilized for fermentative production of enzymes, antibiotics, mushrooms, etc. Biotechnological applications of oil cakes also include their usages for vitamins and antioxidants production. This review discusses various applications of oil cakes in fermentation and biotechnological processes, their value addition by implementation in feed and energy source (for the production of biogas, bio-oil) as well. PMID:17023161

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF EXTERNAL CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Gholamali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is expected to change production methods, the products themselves and the structure of the industries in the new economies. Hopefully, countries in the Middle-East, Latin America, Asia and Africa have already recognized the importance of  biotechnology's promise. In this sense, the importance of externalities which might affect the success or failure of these companies becomes an issue of paramount importance. In the present study, we will try to identify the main external factors which could lead in the success of  biotechnology firms in Iran. To do so, the research follows a qualitative research design to answer this main question. Based on our findings, critical success factors are categorized in the following categories: General Environment (GE, Political Position (PP, Economic Position (EP, and Market Position (MP.

  10. Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) at a glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) was established in 1993 as one of the research, development and technology transfer institutes of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). This was to help the GAEC to expand its research and development in the area of biotechnology and nuclear agriculture, which have been found to have a major impact on the agricultural development in countries involved in peaceful application of nuclear energy. The main objective of the Institute is to explore and exploit the application of isotopes, ionizing radiation and biotechnologies for increased agricultural and economic development of Ghana and to help the Country attain self-sufficiency in food and agriculture in order to alleviate malnutrition, hunger and poverty. This brochure describes the organizational structure; research facilities and programmes; services of the various departments of the Institute as well as achievements

  11. Success Factors of Biotechnology Industry Based on Triangular Fuzzy Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei; LEI

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of competitive advantage and value chain, this paper establishes the indicator system, and develop the strategic framework using the fuzzy Delphi method. Then the triangular fuzzy number model is established using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, and the key factors influencing biotechnology industry are extracted. The results show that in terms of weight, the key factors influencing the success of biotechnology industry are sequenced as follows: "open innovation capacity", "quality and cost control ability", "advanced customer-oriented product manufacturing capacity", "technology R & D personnel’s capacity", "brand image building capacity", "logistics and sales capacity", "grasping the market demand trends". The manufacturers and government decision-making body can use this as the basis, to promote the development of the biotechnology industry.

  12. Essential Features of Responsible Governance of Agricultural Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sarah; Wickson, Fern

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology continues to generate considerable controversy. We argue that to address this controversy, serious changes to governance are needed. The new wave of genomic tools and products (e.g., CRISPR, gene drives, RNAi, synthetic biology, and genetically modified [GM] insects and fish), provide a particularly useful opportunity to reflect on and revise agricultural biotechnology governance. In response, we present five essential features to advance more socially responsible forms of governance. In presenting these, we hope to stimulate further debate and action towards improved forms of governance, particularly as these new genomic tools and products continue to emerge. PMID:27144921

  13. Symposium on chemistry and biotechnology for national development. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the full proceedings of the symposium on chemistry and biotechnology for national development held at SHESTCO in 1995. It contains the full texts of a forward, opening and special remarks, welcome and keynote addresses and abstracts and texts of 21 technical papers. The subjects covered included information technology,chemistry and biotechnology in agriculture, health care and industrial development. Additionally, the abstracts in respect of 19 other papers are included. We wish to thank the Coordinator of SHESTCO for making available this proceedings

  14. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David E.; Pollard, Martin J.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2009-02-03

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetic or magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are further improvements to aspects of the hybrid magnetic structure, including additional elements and for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use in biotechnology and high throughput processes.

  15. Possible application of brewer’s spent grain in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin Jelena D.; Radosavljević Miloš S.; Grujić Olgica S.; Mojović Ljiljana V.; Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.; Nikolić Svetlana B.; Đukić-Vuković Aleksandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain is the major by-product in beer production. It is produced in large quantities (20 kg per 100 liters of produced beer) throughout the year at a low cost or no cost, and due to its high protein and carbohydrates content it can be used as a raw material in biotechnology. Biotechnological processes based on renewable agro-industrial by-products have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products) and economical (cheap raw materials and reduction of storage cos...

  16. Tissue culture-mediated biotechnological intervention in pomegranate: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Soumendra K; Chand, Pradeep K

    2011-05-01

    The past 30 years have witnessed a series of systematic biotechnological advances made in pomegranate. These encompass optimization and establishment of in vitro culture techniques including micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, synthetic seed production, plant regeneration via callus-mediated shoot organogenesis, adventitious shoot regeneration, anther culture, tetraploid induction and genetic transformation. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account on the tissue culture-mediated biotechnological interventions made in pomegranate aimed at complementing conventional programmes for improvement of this nutraceutically important fruit crop. PMID:21161233

  17. Biopolicies and biotechnologies: reflections on surrogate maternity in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Amador

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of biotechnology, particularly on assisted reproductive technologies such as surrogate motherhood. The study is based on interviews and field work conducted in the city of Hyderabad in India within the frame of the seminar on “Research Methodology” given by Dr. Rohan D´Souza at the Centre for Studies in Science Policy at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in India. The theoretical framework of this analysis focuses on exploring concepts such as cyborg (Haraway,1991 and subaltern subject (Spivak, 1998 in the context of biotechnological production in India

  18. (Workshop on Willow Breeding and Biotechnology Development Activities)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, P.A.

    1988-10-12

    P.A. Layton attended a workshop on Willow Breeding and Biotechnology Development Activities,'' which was organized by the International Energy Agency/Bioenergy Agreement (IEA/BA) Task II. The traveler spent 1 d prior to the meeting to visit scientists and administrators of Shell Research Limited. Physiology and Biological Chemistry Division to discus their interest in biomass production research as well as their other research interests in tissue culture, biotechnology, and management of forests and agricultural crops that are pertinent to the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Biomass Production program.

  19. Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications grant was funded by NASA's Kennedy Space Center in FY 2002 to provide dedicated biotechnology and agricultural research focused on the regeneration of space flight environments with direct parallels in Earth-based applications for solving problems in the environment, advances in agricultural science, and other human support issues amenable to targeted biotechnology solutions. This grant had three project areas, each with multiple tasks. They are: 1) Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education, 2) Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications, and 3) Commercial Applications. The Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE) Center emphasized the fundamental biology of organisms involved in space flight applications, including those involved in advanced life support environments because of their critical role in the long-term exploration of space. The SABRE Center supports research at the University of Florida and at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications component focused on developing and applying sensor technologies to space environments and agricultural systems. The research activities in nanosensors were coordinated with the SABRE portions of this grant and with the research sponsored by the NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center located in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Initial sensor efforts have focused on air and water quality monitoring essential to humans for living and working permanently in space, an important goal identified in NASA's strategic plan. The closed environment of a spacecraft or planetary base accentuates cause and effect relationships and environmental impacts. The limited available air and water resources emphasize the need for reuse, recycling, and system monitoring. It is essential to

  20. Sharing Malaysian experience with the development of biotechnology-derived food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Umi K; Pillai, Vilasini; Hashim, Marzukhi; Daud, Hassan Mat

    2005-12-01

    Biotechnology-derived food crops are currently being developed in Malaysia mainly for disease resistance and improved post harvest quality. The modern biotechnology approach is adopted because of its potential to overcome constraints faced by conventional breeding techniques. Research on the development of biotechnology-derived papaya, pineapple, chili, passion fruit, and citrus is currently under way. Biotechnology-derived papaya developed for resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and improved postharvest qualities is at the field evaluation stage. Pineapple developed for resistance to fruit black heart disorder is also being evaluated for proof-of-concept. Other biotechnology-derived food crops are at early stages of gene cloning and transformation. Activities and products involving biotechnology-derived crops will be fully regulated in the near future under the Malaysian Biosafety Law. At present they are governed only by guidelines formulated by the Genetic Modification Advisory Committee (GMAC), Malaysia. Commercialization of biotechnology-derived crops involves steps that require GMAC approval for all field evaluations and food-safety assessments before the products are placed on the market. Public acceptance of the biotechnology product is another important factor for successful commercialization. Understanding of biotechnology is generally low among Malaysians, which may lead to low acceptance of biotechnology-derived products. Initiatives are being taken by local organizations to improve public awareness and acceptance of biotechnology. Future research on plant biotechnology will focus on the development of nutritionally enhanced biotechnology-derived food crops that can provide more benefits to consumers. PMID:16465992

  1. 75 FR 10293 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science.... Laurie Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science.... Patterson, Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. BILLING CODE...

  2. 75 FR 15713 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science..., Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the... of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  3. National Center for Biotechnology Information Celebrates 25th Anniversary | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. National Center for Biotechnology Information Celebrates 25th Anniversary Past Issues / Winter 2014 ... Photo courtesy of NLM The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of NLM, celebrated its ...

  4. 78 FR 14103 - Request for Information (RFI) Regarding the Planned Biotechnology Development Module (BDM) as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Request for Information (RFI) Regarding the Planned Biotechnology Development Module (BDM) as Part... information regarding utilization alternatives for the planned Biotechnology Development Module (BDM)...

  5. Zvláštnosti podnikání v biotechnologiích

    OpenAIRE

    MIKULÁŠOVÁ, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Use of biotechnology in agriculture has become beneficial for many farmers. However, growing of genetically modified crops has it's own specifics. Paper describes and evaluates specifics of use of biotechnologies in agriculture in the Czech Republic.

  6. Progress on research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigaki, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application in Takasaki Establishment was reviewed. Especially, the recent progresses of research on semiconductors in space, creation of new functional materials and topics in biotechnology were reported. (author)

  7. Australian Undergraduate Biotechnology Student Attitudes towards the Teaching of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Tamra; Rosenberger, Philip J., III; Kerridge, Ian

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, ethics has become part of most tertiary biotechnology curricula. There is, however, considerable variation in the extent and manner of ethics education provided to students in different institutions. In addition, the perceived need that students and employers have regarding ethics education, and the aims and expected outcomes of…

  8. Attitudes of Secondary School Students towards Modern Biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Klop (Tanja)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractI interviewed a group of four sixteen-year old secondary school students about their attitudes towards modern biotechnology. When I asked them what they knew about this subject, one girl responded: “Well, I know it’s about genes, they are located in your DNA, and within your genes is all

  9. A REVIEW ON REGULATORY ASPECTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY DERIVED PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modh Nehal M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals are a well established and growing part of the therapeutic armamentarium. Beginning with recombinant versions of products such as insulin that were previously manufactured by extraction from animal and human sources, licensed biotechnology drugs and those in development now span an ever-increasing range of product types and therapeutic categories. As a consequence of this diversity, both general and product class-specific scientific guidelines have been developed on a regional (e.g. EU/US or international (e.g. ICH – International Conference on Harmonization basis. The current portfolio of nonclinical guidelines, particularly ICH S6, emphasizes flexibility and adaptability to the specific circumstances of the individual biotechnology product and its intended indication, taking into account factors not generally applicable to small-molecule drugs, such as pharmacodynamic responsiveness of safety and efficacy models, species specificity, and antibody formation. Guidelines developed principally with small-molecule drugs in mind may, nevertheless, have some applicability to biotechnology drugs on issues such as safety pharmacology, as well as on regulatory, procedural and dossier submission requirements. Scientific guidelines, such as those providing nonclinical guidance, are just one, albeit important, component of an increasingly complex legal/scientific environment in drug development.

  10. Ion beam biotechnology and its application to maize breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid of 1980's, ion beam had been widely used in mutagenic breeding of various crops. Ion beam biotechnology had provided a new way for improving corn variety and creating new germplasm resources, and had promoted the development of maize breeding. The ion beam characteristics, the mutagenic mechanism and its application in maize breeding were described. (authors)

  11. Root-targeted hormonal biotechnology to improve crop stress tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since plant root systems capture both water and nutrients essential for the formation of crop yield, there has been renewed biotechnological focus on root system improvement. Although water and nutrient uptake can be facilitated by membrane proteins known as aquaporins and nutrient transporters resp...

  12. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY ON ENVIRONMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Marijan Jošt

    2003-01-01

    The application of modern biotechnology in agricultural production processes has generated new ethical, economic, social and environmental dilemmas confronting scientists all over the world. While current knowledge is insufficient for assessing the promised benefits and possible risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the principle of “substantial equivalence” in comparing GM and conventional food is profoundly flawed and scientifically insupportable. The current generatio...

  13. Integrating Interdisciplinary Research-Based Experiences in Biotechnology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa S.; Wales, Melinda E.

    2012-01-01

    The increasingly interdisciplinary nature of today's scientific research is leading to the transformation of undergraduate education. In addressing these needs, the University of Houston's College of Technology has developed a new interdisciplinary research-based biotechnology laboratory curriculum. Using the pesticide degrading bacterium,…

  14. Using Digital Photography to Supplement Learning of Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norflus, Fran

    2012-01-01

    The author used digital photography to supplement learning of biotechnology by students with a variety of learning styles and educational backgrounds. Because one approach would not be sufficient to reach all the students, digital photography was used to explain the techniques and results to the class instead of having to teach each student…

  15. An Integrated Strategy for Teaching Biochemistry to Biotechnology Specialty Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liming; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2007-01-01

    The faculty of biochemistry established an integrated teaching strategy for biotechnology specialty students, by intermeshing the case-study method, web-assistant teaching, and improved lecture format with a brief content and multimedia courseware. Teaching practice showed that the integrated teaching strategy could retain the best features of…

  16. Herbicide-resistant crop biotechnology: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide-resistant crops are an important agricultural biotechnology that can enable farmers to effectively control weeds without harming their crops. Glyphosate-resistant (i.e. Roundup Ready) crops have been the most commercially successful varieties of herbicide-resistant crops and have been plan...

  17. The Benefits of Using Authentic Inquiry within Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki; Bigler, Amber

    2010-01-01

    A broad continuum exists to describe the structure of inquiry lessons (Hanegan, Friden, & Nelson, 2009). Most teachers have heard inquiry described from a range of simple questioning to completely student-designed scientific studies (Chinn & Malhotra, 2002). Biotechnology education often uses a variety of inquiries from cookbook laboratory…

  18. Epistemic Beliefs and Conceptual Understanding in Biotechnology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; McClure, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore students' epistemic beliefs and conceptual understanding of biotechnology. Epistemic beliefs can influence reasoning, how individuals evaluate information, and informed decision making abilities. These skills are important for an informed citizenry that will participate in debates regarding areas in…

  19. A Methods-Based Biotechnology Course for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Debopam

    2009-01-01

    This new course in biotechnology for upper division undergraduates provides a comprehensive overview of the process of drug discovery that is relevant to biopharmaceutical industry. The laboratory exercises train students in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Oral presentations by the students delve into recent progress in drug discovery.…

  20. Biotechnology: An Assessment of Agricultural Science Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…

  1. CONSUMER CONCERNS ABOUT BIOTECHNOLOGY:I NTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Hallman, William K.

    2000-01-01

    A national survey conducted by the Food Policy Institute demonstrates the lack of knowledge and awareness most Americans have of genetically modified foods. The paper provides insight into public perceptions of food biotechnology's risks and benefits and a preliminary examination of consumers' stated preferences for genetically modified functional foods.

  2. Past, Present, and Future Industrial Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Ji, Xiaojun; Kan, Suli; Qiao, Hongqun; Jiang, Min; Lu, Dingqiang; Wang, Jun; Huang, He; Jia, Honghua; Ouyuang, Pingkai; Ying, Hanjie

    Fossil resources, i.e. concentrated carbon from biomass, have been irrecoverably exhausted through modern industrial civilization in the last two hundred years. Serious consequences including crises in resources, environment and energy, as well as the pressing need for direct and indirect exploitation of solar energy, pose challenges to the science and technology community of today. Bioenergy, bulk chemicals, and biomaterials could be produced from renewable biomass in a biorefinery via biocatalysis. These sustainable industries will match the global mass cycle, creating a new form of civilization with new industries and agriculture driven by solar energy. Industrial biotechnology is the dynamo of a bioeconomy, leading to a new protocol for production of energy, bulk chemicals, and materials. This new mode of innovation will place the industry at center stage supported by universities and research institutes. Creativity in industrial biotechnology will be promoted and China will successfully follow the road to green modernization. China's rapid economic development and its traditional capacity in fermentation will place it in an advantageous position in the industrial biotechnology revolution. The development and current status of industrial biotechnology in China are summarized herein.

  3. Biotechnology Symposium - In Memoriam, the Late Dr. Allan Zipf

    Science.gov (United States)

    A one-day biotechnology symposium was held at Alabama A&M University (AAMU), Normal, AL on June 4, 2004 in memory of the late Dr. Allan Zipf (Sept 1953-Jan 2004). Dr. Zipf was a Research Associate Professor at the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, AAMU, who collaborated extensively with ARS/MS...

  4. Potential of industrial biotechnology with cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Kruse, O.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae are promising organisms for sustainable production of bulk products such as food, feed, materials, chemicals and fuels. In this review we will summarize the potential and current biotechnological developments.Cyanobacteria are promising host organisms for

  5. Information Equity, Public Understanding of Science, and the Biotechnology Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Susanna Hornig

    1995-01-01

    States that media effects are largely long-term and indirect, and that lay publics associate more risk with science and technology in their social context than with the underlying science itself. Uses biotechnology to explore media effects issues. Concludes that the scientific community's interests would be better served by news addressing…

  6. Analysis of Classroom Debating Strategies in the Field of Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneaux, Laurence

    2002-01-01

    Presents a method for analyzing the didactic strategies put forward to develop students' argumentation skills in biotechnology. Considers five supporting examples and focuses successively on the social characteristics at play and the procedures. Attempts to produce analytical tools to support designers and users of teaching materials in making…

  7. Spider silk as a resource for future biotechnologies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sponner, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2007), s. 238-250. ISSN 1738-2297 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5007402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : biomaterial * biotechnology * fiber Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  8. The ARS Culture Collection and Developments in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) has played a prominent role in the development of biotechnology since its founding in 1940 when the Northern Regional Research Laboratory opened. Early discoveries included selection of production strains for penicillin, dextran blood extender, xanthan gum and the v...

  9. Working Towards Disease Resistance in Peanuts Through Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant cultivars are the most desirable approach to disease control in agriculture. Early and late leaf spot are the most important foliar diseases of peanut worldwide. Significant progress for leaf spot resistance in peanut can be achieved through biotechnology. The National Peanut Research ...

  10. Biotechnology Firms Gird for Clash over Patent Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, David

    1984-01-01

    Examines issues and trends related to biotechnology patents, providing data that show that foreign concerns have gained a large share of United States patents. Also lists the number of patents assigned to companies, foreign countries, and universities during 1983 and 1984. (JN)

  11. Studying Biotechnological Methods Using Animations: The Teacher's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, Hagit; Yarden, Anat

    2011-12-01

    Animation has great potential for improving the way people learn. A number of studies in different scientific disciplines have shown that instruction involving computer animations can facilitate the understanding of processes at the molecular level. However, using animation alone does not ensure learning. Students sometimes miss essential features when they watch only animations, mainly due to the cognitive load involved. Moreover, students seem to attribute a great deal of authority to the computer and may develop misconceptions by taking animations of abstract concepts too literally. In this study, we attempted to explore teachers' perceptions concerning the use of animations in the classroom while studying biotechnological methods, as well as the teachers' contribution to the enactment of animations in class. Thirty high-school biotechnology teachers participated in a professional development workshop, aimed at investigating how teachers plan for and support learning with animation while studying biotechnological methods in class. From that sample, two teachers agreed to participate in two case studies aimed at characterizing teachers' contribution to the enactment of animations in class while studying biotechnological methods. Our findings reveal marked teacher contribution in the following three aspects: establishing the "hands-on" point of view, helping students deal with the cognitive load that accompanies the use of animation, and implementing constructivist aspects of knowledge construction while studying using animations.

  12. Laccase-functionalized magnetic beads for biotechnology applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rotková, J.; Šuláková, R.; Zdražilová, P.; Korecká, L.; Jandová, M.; Lenfeld, Jiří; Horák, Daniel; Bílková, Z.

    Vancouver : University of British Columbia, 2008. s. 107. [International Conference on Scientific and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Carriers /7./. 20.05.2008-24.05.2008, Vancouver] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : enzyme laccase * magnetic beads * biotechnology applications Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  13. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF PURPLE NON SULPHUR PHOTOTROPHIC BACTERIA: A MINIREVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchander Merugu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria play in vital role in the production of variety of products, including certain plastics and enzymes used in detergents, textiles and pharmaceutical industries. Production of chemicals using bacteria and other microorganisms is not only economical sustainable but also ecofriendly. Modern biotechnology entails the use of cell fusion, bioinformatics, genetic engineering, structure based molecular design and hybridoma technology.

  14. Biotechnology regulation: limiting or contributing to biotech development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Grethe

    2001-01-01

    Modern biotechnology has been characterized by being surrounded by scientific and public debate and by interest conflicts. An early Danish debate and regulation has been criticized for inhibiting or retarding development and thus growth. Though much regulation and debate have been transferred to...

  15. The development of microalgal biotechnology in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masojídek, Jiří; Prášil, Ondřej

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 12 (2010), s. 1307-1317. ISSN 1367-5435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Green algae * Biotechnology * Chlorella Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2010

  16. Ethical Principles in European regulation of biotechnology - possibilities and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Berit Andersen; Nielsen, Linda

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to discribe, analyse and assess the varying methods of operationalising ethical principles within European regulation of biotechnology, with the inclusion of proposals for different tools and models for use in future regulation. The aim of the report is first and...

  17. Evolution of Human Rights in the Age of Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hron, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…

  18. Biotechnological approaches for resistance to viruses, viroids and phytoplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of biotechnology, specifically pathogen-derived resistance (PDR) (Sanford and Johnston, 1985), to the control of major pathogens of fruit crops is now feasible. Here, we present some of the different approaches that have been explored to combat viruses, viroids and phytoplasmas base...

  19. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The First Spanish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-01-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is…

  20. 75 FR 42114 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Action Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA... transgenic rodent and a non-transgenic rodent). The NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) received a... to the same email address or by fax to 301-496-9839 or mail to the Office of Biotechnology...

  1. Student Content Knowledge Increases after Participation in a Hands-on Biotechnology Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Amber M.; Hanegan, Nikki L.

    2011-01-01

    Implementing biotechnology education through hands-on teaching methods should be considered by secondary biology teachers. This study is an experimental research design to examine increased student content knowledge in biotechnology after a hands-on biotechnology intervention. The teachers from both school groups participated in, Project Crawfish,…

  2. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry,...

  3. 75 FR 25282 - Office of the Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities; Notice of a Safety Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities.... Chezelle George, Administrative Assistant, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of the Director... a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Agenda: The Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) and NIH Recombinant...

  4. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are May 29-30, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  5. 78 FR 66751 - Office of Science Policy, Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Science Policy, Office of Biotechnology... Biotechnology Activities (OBA) is updating Appendix B (Classification of Human Etiologic Agents on the Basis of... mail to the Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health, 6705 Rockledge...

  6. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21) for a 2- year period. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Committee Purpose: USDA supports the responsible development and application of biotechnology within...

  7. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are March 5-6, 2012..., 2012. The AC21 consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food...

  8. Technology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Its Instruction in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuksoo; Chang, Mido

    2009-01-01

    The increased public awareness of the significance and necessity of biotechnology has encouraged educators to implement biotechnology instruction in various educational settings. One example is the great effort made by educational researchers and practitioners internationally to integrate biotechnology in technology education. Despite the gains in…

  9. 76 FR 27301 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant... petition from Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status for cotton..., Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD 20737-1236; (301) 734-5720,...

  10. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  11. 75 FR 69687 - Office of Biotechnology Activities Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities Recombinant DNA Research... Biotechnology Activities (OBA). The data to be considered for certifying a new host-vector system can be found... 301-496-9839 or sent by U.S. mail to the Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes...

  12. Are Students Prepared to Communicate? A Case Study of an Australian Degree Course in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Joanne; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns about biotechnology have resulted in greater attention being paid to the mechanisms by which biotechnology is communicated with non-scientists, including the provision of science communication training. As undergraduate and postgraduate courses form the foundation of the biotechnology sector by providing a pipeline of university…

  13. High School and University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology: A Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…

  14. The integrated web service and genome database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, ChangKug; Park, DongSuk; Seol, YoungJoo; Hahn, JangHo

    2011-01-01

    The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) constructed an agricultural biology-based infrastructure and developed a Web based relational database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information. The NABIC has concentrated on functional genomics of major agricultural plants, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on genomics of major agricultural resources. This genome database provides annotated genome information...

  15. Utilization of Biotechnology on Some Forest Trees in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Nurten Yer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Raw wood material requirements are increasing with rapid population growth both in Turkey and in the world. In order to supply deficit for closure of forest products, productivity and quality of production should be improved. Basic ways to increase efficiency in forest production involves silvicultural implementations and classical tree breeding studies. Genetic variation can be increased by utilizing the existing diversity. Thus, new combinations can be obtained and we can raise efficiency using some selection strategies. At this point, biotechnological methods are required to meet the genetic material. Studies of forest tree breeding are a slow process due to the size of the genome and the length of the tree life span. Biotechnological applications in forest trees provide many important benefits in terms of time saving and reducing cost when compared to classical breeding studies. Sustainable forestry practices are gaining rapid acceleration via biotechnology and modern sciences practices. In this study, for some forest tree species in Turkey, the evaluated biotechnology methods included; 1- tissue culture and clonal propagation, 2- molecular marker applications, 3- marker assisted selection and breeding, 4-genomic and proteomic studies, 5- genetic modification and genetic engineering applications. Conclusions: In this study, the works were carried out on forest tree breeding/propagation in Turkey and it was mainly focused on vegetative production techniques with 25 broadleaves and 9 conifer taxa, which were possible to express. Molecular genetic studies were carried out on 12 broad leaves taxa and 9 conifer taxa; genetic transformation studies were conducted on poplar species. Thus, it might be suggested that a combination of biotechnological tools and traditional propagation methods will ensure advantage for the development of forest-tree species.

  16. UK biotechnology companies lead the way for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    A number of new well-structured biotechnology companies have been launched in Britain over the last few years, e.g. Imperial Biotechnology, IQ(Bio) and Celltech, while Wellcome and Searle (U.K.) are established firms, keeping up with the new technology. Imperial Biotechnology, with its accent on development rather than research and making products not in anyone else's catalogue, has produced a whole range of enzymes, biopolymers, antibiotics, and human proteins under contract. Its long term objective is to develop its own bioproducts. IQ(Bio) is poised to enter the diagnostic big league with its enzyme-linked immunoassay (Aelia) technology and intends to pursue opportunities where there is a strict regulatory climate prohibiting the growth of radioimmunoassays, e.g. France and Japan. It plans to produce kits that a doctor can use simply and give results in less than 30 minutes. Celltech has a culture products division which supplies large quantities of monoclonal antibodies, it has a diagnostics and health care research section, a speciality chemicals area and an industrial microbiology sector. Wellcome Biotechnology has an interferon programme which includes a broad range of chemical trials in the anticancer and antiviral areas. The company could supply the entire world market for interferon using cell culture and produces a very large range of conventional vaccines. Searle uses biotechnology as just another means of producing new drugs as they have a large drug development machine in place. A considerable amount of process development work has focused on Searle's artificial sweetener, aspartame, and they are looking at all the technical approaches to aspartame production.

  17. Excitement of biotechnology in the new economy (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available "Today the world economy is no longer driven by material wealth but instead powered by intellectual wealth. Knowledge in the economic context translates to technology, of which information technology and biotechnology are the prime drivers, India has made it in information technology. but not yet in biotechnology. The exciting synergy between information technology and biotechnology in the form of bioinformatics is paving the way for intellectual wealth creation in the areas of health care (including pharmaceuticals, food and agriculture. The race for discovering new lead molecules is frenzied in the pharmaceutical arena, being mined by high throughput screening techniques for new chemical entities. The Himalayan yew tree. for example, has provided a billion dollar cancer drug. taxol. Pharmacogenomics is providing ' a wealth of information pertaining to defective or missing genes-a new avenue for drug research. A new trend in bioinformatics is in silica testing, which involves computational simulation of in vivo and in vitro tests, providing better predictability of clinical trials. In gene therapy cloning and expressing healthy genes is simple, but finding a mechanism to deliver these genes into target cells is the difficult part. Promising methods include virus as well as non-virus-based delivery systems. How Indians can take advantage of the exciting opportunities in biotechnology? One can boast of a treasure chest of biodiversities-microbial, plant, animal and human, but it is largely unutilised. A large number of inbred communities in India are offering unique human genome pools for genomic studies. We have the main ingredient for global success in biotechnology-our scientific manpower. We need to harness this talent in an enabling business environment and a pragmatic, entrepreneurial mindset. "

  18. Rational selection of alternative, environmentally compatible surfactants for biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals--a step toward green biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jürg Oliver; Shearer, Russel; Studer, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The biotechnological production of pharmaceutical active substances needs ancillary substances. Surfactants are used at the end of the cell culture as a protection against potential viral or bacterial contamination and to lyse the producing cells for isolation and purification of the products. To find a replacement for a surfactant that had raised environmental concern, environmentally relevant data for potential alternatives were searched for in the literature. Significant data gaps were filled with additional tests: biodegradability, algal growth inhibition, acute daphnid immobilization and chronic daphnid reproduction toxicity, acute fish toxicity, and activated sludge respiration inhibition. The results were used to model removal in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serving 3 biotechnological production sites in the Roche Group. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated using realistic amounts of surfactants and site-specific wastewater fluxes, modeled removals for the WWTPs and dilution factors by the respective receiving waters. Predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived for WWTPs and for both fresh and marine receiving waters as the treated wastewater of 1 production site is discharged into a coastal water. This resulted in a spreadsheet showing PECs, PNECs, and PEC ÷ PNEC risk characterization ratios for the WWTPs and receiving waters for all investigated surfactants and all 3 sites. This spreadsheet now serves as a selection support for the biotechnological developers. This risk-based prioritization of surfactants is a step toward green biotechnological production. PMID:24917475

  19. Medium and long-term opportunities and risk of the biotechnological production of bulk chemicals from renewable resources - The potential of white biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    M. Patel; Crank, M.; Dornberg, V.; Hermann, B.; Roes, L.; Hüsing, B.; Overbeek, van, L.S.; Terragni, F.; Recchia, E.

    2006-01-01

    This report studies processes which convert biomass-derived feedstocks (e.g. fermentable sugar) into organic bulk chemicals (e.g. lactic acid, acetic acid, butanol and ethanol) by means of white biotechnology (e.g. fermentation or enzymatic conversion), either with or without genetically modified organisms. Apart from white biotechnology, also conventional chemistry is involved in all processes. All white biotechnology products are compared to functionally equivalent petrochemical products. T...

  20. Biotechnological industries in Russia and in the world: typology and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudriavtceva Olga Vladimirovna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes analysis of typologies of biotechnological industries which are used by Russian business and by scientists, who study biotechnological markets. In the next part we show the dynamic of the biotechnology industries classifications used in the international practice and the literature from 2003 to the present time. In conclusion, we propose the new typology of biotechnologies developing in Russia. It is built on the principle of input-output model. The aim of this typology is to reflect the relationship between different biotechnological industries.

  1. Final Report: Northern Virginia Community College Training for Biotechnology Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Johanna V

    2010-05-31

    The intent of this project was to expand Northern Virginia Community College's capability to offer training to support the Biotechnology Industry in the northern Virginia region. The general goal of this project was to create a College Biotechnology Program; specific goals of the project were to a) design curricula/courses to prepare students to become entry-level lab technicians, b) redesign and equip lab space to better suit the needs of the program, c) develop partnerships with the local industry through outreach and the formation on an advisory board, d) recruit students into the program, and e) provide instructional support for local high school teachers. At the end of the grant period, NOVA has successfully created two new curricula in biotechnology: an Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S.) in Biotechnology (initiated in Fall 2008) and a Career Studies Certificate for Biotechnology Lab Technicians (to be initiated in Fall 2010). These curricula were designed with advice from an external advisory committee which is comprised of representatives from industry, transfer institutions and high school administrators. To date, almost all courses have been designed and piloted; the equipment needed for the courses and the initial supplies were paid for by the grant as was the re-modeling of some lab space to be used for the biotech courses. In order to market the program, the NOVA Biotech Program has also established relationships with the local high schools. Presentations were given at several local high schools and on-site workshops were held for high school students and teachers. As a result, close to 1000 students have attended program open houses, presentations within the high schools, or workshops held in the summer. Over 100 teachers have received information and/or training in biotechnology. These outreach efforts as well as high quality curricula have started to attract a number of students to the program – for example, there are currently 70 students

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-11-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.

  3. The Landscape of Mass Mediated Articulations of Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Maja

    The objective of this paper is to explore the associations made in mass mediatedarticulations of biotechnology. It serves as the basis for further analyses of massmediated controversies and the purpose is to establish a map of the landscape ofmass mediated articulation of biotechnology. Which kinds...... based on a relational ontologyinspired by French philosopher Bruno Latour, supplemented with the method ofcontent analysis developed within sociology of mass media. The aim is to studythe production of networks of articulation in mass media by looking at theoutcome (the articles), which they produce....... of genetic researchand technology are articulated in what way? What can be associated to what inthe mass mediation and when is it portrayed as controversial? In short this is astudy of associations in the news production that serves as a way of establishingan empirical archive for further work. It is...

  4. Intellectual Property Rights and Agro-Biotechnology: Limitations and Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Luz Yaya-Lancheros

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property rights have led to stimulating innovation in different fields such as biotechnology. Patents, plant variety protection, industrial secrets and material transfer agreements are legal terms individually and/or collectively protecting materials or processes deemed necessary for agricultural-biotech product development. Such terms may often accumulate to such an extent that this hinders a product’s development and commercial release. Some current initiatives are aimed at facilitating access to basic technology for agricultural-biotech product development, including public organisation cooperation networks, requests for special licences for humanitarian programmes and open access projects. These may be good short-and medium-term alternatives for carrying out biotechnological research in countries like Colombia.

  5. The Battle for Patent Rights in Plant Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    . Results indicate that the opposition rate is far greater in plant biotechnology than in other emerging industries. Consistent with theoretical predictions, the empirical findings suggest that opposed patents are disproportionately those that score high on features that proxy for their “value” or “quality......This paper describes and analyzes the occurrence and extent of oppositions initiated against plant biotechnology patents granted by the European Patent Office (EPO). The opposition mechanism is a legal procedure that allows any third party to challenge the validity of patents awarded by the EPO......”. In contrast to previous findings, however, the results show that large-volume applicants are more likely to be opposed. Because the boundaries of plant biotech patents are ill-defined, large patent portfolios do not promote cooperative behavior such as licensing or settlements. The analysis rejects...

  6. Italian R and D in field of environmental biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis carried out on the Italian R and D allows to draw the following conclusions: 1) There are about 1,000 'inside workers' totalling an outlay of 2,700 billion Italian Liras per year. 2) In the five years from 1987 to 1992, state financing to R and D on environmental biotechnologies was around 80 billion Italian Liras, averaging 16 billion Italian Liras a year. 3) Although these are rough estimates, it can be seen that, given the gap between resources made available and actual expense, there must be other incentive mechanism justifying the commitment of Italian R and D and the quality of the work so far carried out in this specific field. 4) These mechanisms could possibly be of two kinds; the realization that a large part of the market is dissatisfied; the pervasiveness of biotechnologies, especially in the field of environmental conservation

  7. Mineral-microbe interactions: biotechnological potential of bioweathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Balloi, Annalisa; Rolli, Eleonora; Cappitelli, Francesca; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2012-02-20

    Mineral-microbe interaction has been a key factor shaping the lithosphere of our planet since the Precambrian. Detailed investigation has been mainly focused on the role of bioweathering in biomining processes, leading to the selection of highly efficient microbial inoculants for the recovery of metals. Here we expand this scenario, presenting additional applications of bacteria and fungi in mineral dissolution, a process with novel biotechnological potential that has been poorly investigated. The ability of microorganisms to trigger soil formation and to sustain plant establishment and growth are suggested as invaluable tools to counteract the expansion of arid lands and to increase crop productivity. Furthermore, interesting exploitations of mineral weathering microbes are represented by biorestoration and bioremediation technologies, innovative and competitive solutions characterized by economical and environmental advantages. Overall, in the future the study and application of the metabolic properties of microbial communities capable of weathering can represent a driving force in the expanding sector of environmental biotechnology. PMID:22138043

  8. Insect gut microbiome - An unexploited reserve for biotechnological application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muthukalingan Krishnan; Chinnapandi Bharathiraja; Jeyaraj Pandiarajan; Vimalanathan Arun Prasanna; Jeyaprakash Rajendhran; Paramasamy Gunasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics research has been developed over the past decade to elucidate the genomes of the uncultured microorganisms with an aim of understanding microbial ecology. On the other hand, it has also been provoked by the increasing biotechnological demands for novel enzymes, antibiotic and signal mimics. The gut microbiota of insects plays crucial roles in the growth, development and environmental adaptation to the host insects. Very recently, the insect microbiota and their genomes (microbiome), isolated from insects were recognized as a major genetic resources for bio-processing industry. Consequently, the exploitation of insect gut microbiome using metagenomic approaches will enable us to find novel biocatalysts and to develop innovative strategies for identifying smart molecules for biotechnological applications. In this review, we discuss the critical footstep in extraction and purification of metagenomic DNA from insect gut, construction of metagenomic libraries and screening procedure for novel gene identification. Recent innovations and potential applications in bioprocess industries are highlighted.

  9. Non clinical research at CENTIS supporting biotechnological and pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drugs production is a highly demanding industry because the rigor of legislations and guidelines. Standards are applied to manufacturing facilities and also to research and development stage. Our national biotechnological industry is developing and producing important medications for diseases like cancer, some of them in the national and international market. Isotopes Centre is an institution supporting such development by means of a work platform to carry out researches in the field of pharmacokinetic and biodistribution in experimental models. Accumulated experience allows us to contribute to research and development of different kind of molecules as pharmaceuticals, specially the biotechnological ones. We are evolving in direction to new technologies and methodologies more suitable to current standards. Radiolabeling is still a convenient choice considering present and new imaging technologies to investigate distribution and kinetic in living subjects. With the techniques we have and the ones to incorporate in a near future, new and more demanding investigations will be affordable. (author)

  10. Comparing the Governance of Novel Products and Processes of Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus

    The emergence of novel products and processes of biotechnology in medicine, industry and agriculture has been accompanied by promises of healthier, safer and more productive lives and societies. However, biotechnology has also served as cause and catalyst of social controversy about the physical...... safety and social desirability of novel technologies. Such controversies have put the principles, institutions and instruments of governance, which has conventionally guided the interactions between science and society, under pressure. While researchers in science and technology studies (STS) have done...... extensive work on the substance and processes of such controversies, they have devoted less effort to link their work to the broader tradition in political science and political sociology, which analyses more general principles and varieties of governance in modern societies. This paper presents an attempt...

  11. Reproductive biotechnologies: a new approach for Cervids conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Uccheddu, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive biotechnologies have great potential as a tool for the conservation of endangered mammal species. We tried to apply some assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in the sardinian regional context, widely considered for its peculiar biodiversity. Our research had been driven in particular at cervids, Fallow deer (Dama dama, Linneus 1758) and Sardinian red deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus, Exrleben 1777). This subspecies is strictly protected and is included as a Near Threatened on th...

  12. Biotechnology entrepreneurship and ethics: principles, paradigms, and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszler, Patricia C

    2006-09-01

    Biotechnology, whether in the context of new drugs derived from DNA and genetic technology, genetically modified food, or biologics making use of living cells, raises ethical concerns at a variety of different levels. At the research level, there is concern that the very nature of research is being subverted, rather than enhanced, by entrepreneurship. This area of ethical concern has intensified in the United States as a result of the conflicts of interests resulting from the growing alliance between University academia and private industry in the research enterprise. As we travel down the research path into development of a drug or technology, ethical questions arise with respect to protecting human subjects and society from danger and exploitation by researchers. As development gives way to marketing and dissemination of a new product, government regulators are pressed to get drugs and biologics through the regulatory pipeline into the market faster, walking an ethical tightrope between speed and safety. As new biotechnology products enter the market place, doctors and patients traverse yet another tightrope, that between unknown risk and the promise of benefit. And finally, patent protection is increasingly viewed as a unethical culprit in keeping prices high and depriving the global poor from lifesaving drugs and biologics. Bioethics has, to date, been largely a creation of Western research and medicine. As such it is wholly inadequate to respond to the cascade of ethical issues that flow from a vibrant biotechnology industry. And if biotechnology is in its infancy, as most believe, it is crucial that scientists, entrepreneurs and governments engage in dialogue about the ethical and societal questions raised on the road of scientific progress. PMID:17078522

  13. Withania Coagulans (Stocks Dunal: Biotechnological Achievements And Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Withania coagulans (Stocks Dunal is an important medicinal plant of the Solanaceae. Biotechnological studies on this plant started in 2009 and are still in a nascent phase of development. Even so, some important advances have been made, particularly in the field of tissue culture, which is an important means for its large-scale propagation and in vitro conservation. This review focuses on methods for surface sterilization, culture initiation, multiplication, rooting and acclimatization of W. coagulans.

  14. Biotechnology and the Development of Food Markets: Retrospect and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    GianCarlo Moschini

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has had an important impact on the agricultural and food industries over the last twelve years by way of fast and extensive adoption of a few genetically modified (GM) crops. This has produced large efficiency gains, including higher yields and reduced costs of weed and pest control, as well as some environmental benefits. The expected development of crops with additional agronomic traits, and with output traits to improve the nutrition and health attributes of food products, ho...

  15. Chronological development avenues in biotechnology across the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Y Mali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is expected to be a great technological revolution followed by information technology. It is an application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of material by biological agents to provide better goods and services to mankind. Commercially its techniques are applied long back in 6 th century in the art of brewing, wine making and baking. It has progressed there after crossing different land marks. Modern biotechnology has developed significantly in the late 19 th century with groundbreaking discoveries applicable in medicine, food, agriculture, chemistry, environmental protection and many more industries. It is widely used in the development of high-yielding, disease-resistant, better quality varieties by applying tissue culture and recombinant DNA techniques. It has wide application in animal breeding using techniques such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Specific enzymes used in laundry, fuel and leather industries for better quality, economically feasible and environmental friendly production. Biotechnology in healthcare system uses body′s own tools and weapons to fight against diseases, manufacturing of targeted therapeutic proteins, gene therapy and so on. Novel approaches such as proteomics and structural biology are contributing to understanding the chemistry of life and diseases. Malfunctioning gene replaced with correctly functioning gene by using gene therapy. Tissue engineering has opened up the use of in vitro developed tissue or organ in repairing wounded tissue and system biology which is a computer-based approach to understand cell functions. Although every new discovery related to biology and its implications is significant and has taken the technology ahead. This includes applications, commercialization, controversies, media exposure and so on. Hence, we have enlisted some of the chronological development avenues in biotechnology across the world.

  16. Economic Impacts of Policies Affecting Crop Biotechnology and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kym Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnologies, and especially transgenic crops, have the potential to boost food security in developing countries by offering higher incomes for farmers and lower-priced and better quality food for consumers. That potential is being heavily compromised, however, because the European Union and some other countries have implemented strict regulatory systems to govern their production and consumption of genetically modified (GM) food and feed crops, and to prevent imports of foods...

  17. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Lucht, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM) crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths—also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops—of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. T...

  18. Strategic Linkages for Innovation in the Biotechnology Industry in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Azhar, Adlan Hafiz

    2013-01-01

    National Innovation Systems is a framework developed to measure the economic contributions of innovation which cannot be captured by mainstream macroeconomic theory. The National Innovation System looks at the interactions between the Public sector, the private sector and all stakeholders which creates, develops and markets the technologies. In terms of the industry in question for this research, the Biotechnology industry was chosen as it relies closely on innovation and high ...

  19. Producers and Consumer attitudes toward Biotechnology in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Nsafoah, Annie; Dicks, Michael R.; Osei, Collins

    2011-01-01

    Over 265 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa face malnutrition, chronic hunger, and poverty. One of the technologies that could help alleviate the perpetuating cycle of chronic hunger is biotechnology. Genetic modification (GM) has the potential to enhance agricultural productivity and improve Africa’s food security, but little is known about the potential benefits and costs of using genetically modified maize in Africa - Ghana. African and Ghanaian policy makers, farmers, and consumers ofte...

  20. Intellectual Property Rights and Agro-Biotechnology: Limitations and Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Luz Yaya-Lancheros; Alejandro Chaparro-Giraldo

    2008-01-01

    Intellectual property rights have led to stimulating innovation in different fields such as biotechnology. Patents, plant variety protection, industrial secrets and material transfer agreements are legal terms individually and/or collectively protecting materials or processes deemed necessary for agricultural-biotech product development. Such terms may often accumulate to such an extent that this hinders a product’s development and commercial release. Some current initiatives are aimed ...

  1. New Cooperation Modes: An Opportunity for Polish Biotechnological Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasz Puslecki; Michal Staszkow

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews new cooperation forms between companies, referring to the latest data from the asap (the Association of Strategic Alliance Professionals). Potential cooperation between companies, universities and research institutes in the field of biotechnology in Poland based on a model of open innovation alliances are presented. Biopharmaceutical companies are looking for new and innovative paths of development. They try to implement new strategies to transfer their ...

  2. New Cooperation Modes: An Opportunity for Polish Biotechnological Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasz Puslecki; Michal Staszkow

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews new cooperation forms between companies, referring to the latest data from the asap (the Association of Strategic Alliance Professionals). Potential cooperation between companies, universities and research institutes in the field of biotechnology in Poland based on a model of open innovation alliances are presented. Biopharmaceutical companies are looking for new and innovative paths of development. They try to implement new strategies to transfer their research processes...

  3. Microcalorimetry: a response to challenges in modern biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Krell, Tino

    2007-01-01

    Summary Almost any process in life is accompanied by heat changes which can be monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both techniques are now established tools in fundamental research but over the last decade a clear tendency towards more problem‐driven applications is noted. This review aims at summarizing these problem‐oriented applications of microcalorimetry and the solutions both techniques can provide to problems in biotechnology...

  4. The biotechnology innovation system of Brazil (part II)

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Judice; Connie Vedovello

    2007-01-01

    Scientific and technological infrastructure in the field of biotechnology covers many universities, research centers, interrogators, technological institutes, research funds, which carry out research and training. To assess the scope of their activities in Brazil authors used a database prepared by the research group of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). With its help the most important biotech sectors at both the national and international lev...

  5. Chemical sensors and gas sensors for process control in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the possibilities for chemical measurement of the progress of biotechnological processes which are offered by devices already developed for other demanding applications. It considers the potential use of ultrasonic instrumentation originally developed for the nuclear industry, gas measurement methods from the fields of environmental monitoring and combustion control, nuclear instruments developed for the oil, mining and chemical industries, robotic systems and advanced control techniques. (author)

  6. High-pressure biotechnology in medicine and pharmaceutical science

    OpenAIRE

    Masson Patrick; Tonello Carole; Balny Claude

    2001-01-01

    High-pressure (HP) biotechnology is an emerging technique initially applied for food processing and more recently in pharmaceutical and medical sciences. Pressure can stabilize enzymes and modulate both their activity and specificity. HP engineering of proteins may be used for enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and production of modified proteins of medical or pharmaceutical interest. HP inactivation of biological agents is expected to be applicable to sterilizatio...

  7. Biotechnological Applications Derived from Microorganisms of the Atacama Desert

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Atacama Desert in Chile is well known for being the driest and oldest desert on Earth. For these same reasons, it is also considered a good analog model of the planet Mars. Only a few decades ago, it was thought that this was a sterile place, but in the past years fascinating adaptations have been reported in the members of the three domains of life: low water availability, high UV radiation, high salinity, and other environmental stresses. However, the biotechnological applications deriv...

  8. Information resources at the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodsmall, R M; Benson, D A

    1993-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the National Library of Medicine, was established in 1988 to perform basic research in the field of computational molecular biology as well as build and distribute molecular biology databases. The basic research has led to new algorithms and analysis tools for interpreting genomic data and has been instrumental in the discovery of human disease genes for neurofibromatosis and Kallmann syndrome. The principal database responsibi...

  9. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    D. I. Ferreira

    1995-01-01

    The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with b...

  10. Metal resistance in acidophilic microorganisms and its significance for biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopson, Mark; Holmes, David S

    2014-10-01

    Extremely acidophilic microorganisms have an optimal pH of biomining for sulfide mineral dissolution, biosulfidogenesis to produce sulfide that can selectively precipitate metals from process streams, treatment of acid mine drainage, and bioremediation of acidic metal-contaminated milieux. This review describes how acidophilic microorganisms tolerate extremely high metal concentrations in biotechnological processes and identifies areas of future work that hold promise for improving the efficiency of these applications. PMID:25104030

  11. Survey on the Finnsh biotechnology industry: Background and descriptive statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Raine; Kulvik, Martti; Tahvanainen, Antti-Jussi

    2005-01-01

    ETLA, the Research Institute of the Finnish Economy, conducted surveys at the end of 2004 and at the beginning of 2002 on the enterprises listed in the Index of Biotechnology Companies in the Finnish Bioindustries organization. The surveys provide data on financial accounting, R&D activities, intellectual property rights, and sales forecasts. In addition to the updates, the ETLA 2004 Survey also provides detailed linkages to product-level information that incorporates R&D- and sales figures, ...

  12. Computational approaches for the study of biotechnologically-relevant macromolecules.

    OpenAIRE

    Filippi, G.

    2016-01-01

    Computer-based techniques have become especially important in molecular biology, since they often represent the only viable way to understand some phenomena at atomic and molecular level. The complexity of biological systems, which usually needs to be analyzed with different levels of accuracy, requires the application of different approaches. Computational methodologies applied to biotechnologies allow a molecular comprehension of biological systems at different levels of depth. Quantum mech...

  13. Attitudes in China about Crops and Foods Developed by Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Fei; Zhou, Dingyang; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their ...

  14. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Ferreira

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with both Cell Biology (tissue culture and Molecular Biology (genetic engineering.

  15. Business development in Global Markets. The case of biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzi,, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    High levels of scientific and technological complexity along with extremely uncertain and long R&D processes make firms growth in the biotechnology industry a particularly tough goal to pursue. In such a context, globalization requires companies to operate according to a competitive market-oriented management (market-driven management), which leads to the development of an “outside-in” thinking process. It follows that organizations able to timely monitor information derived from the outsi...

  16. The Organization of Biotechnology Science and Its Commercialization in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Lynne G. ZUCKER; Michael R. Darby

    1994-01-01

    The biotechnology revolution is of particular interest both for the sociology of science and for industrial organization. Indeed, the closeness of progress in the basic science to applications in industry makes it impossible to understand the development of the industry without understanding the progress of the science and linkages between the two domains. In the U.S., Zucker, Darby, and Brewer (1994) demonstrates that where and when “star” scientists at the research frontier (and, in later y...

  17. Biotechnological approaches to the treatment of aspermatogenic men

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Manuel Aponte; Stefan Schlatt; Luiz Renato de Franca

    2013-01-01

    Aspermatogenesis is a severe impairment of spermatogenesis in which germ cells are completely lacking or present in an immature form, which results in sterility in approximately 25% of patients. Because assisted reproduction techniques require mature germ cells, biotechnology is a valuable tool for rescuing fertility while maintaining biological fatherhood. However, this process involves, for instance, the differentiation of preexisting immature germ cells or the production/derivation of sper...

  18. Yarrowia lipolytica and Its Multiple Applications in the Biotechnological Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, F. A. G.; Colen, G.; Takahashi, J A

    2014-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a nonpathogenic dimorphic aerobic yeast that stands out due to its ability to grow in hydrophobic environments. This property allowed this yeast to develop an ability to metabolize triglycerides and fatty acids as carbon sources. This feature enables using this species in the bioremediation of environments contaminated with oil spill. In addition, Y. lipolytica has been calling the interest of researchers due to its huge biotechnological potential, associated with the p...

  19. UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY RELATIONSHIPS AND THE DESIGN OF BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hui; Buccola, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    The central objective of the present paper is to examine how university bioscientists select their research agendas, with special attention to biotechnology firms' influence on those agendas. Among other issues, we will assess UIRs' potential effects on the private appropriability of the characteristics of bioengineered crop and animal varieties, and on the basicness and breadth of a scientist's research. Factors that potentially would affect scientists' research agenda include the university...

  20. Investing in Food Security? Philanthrocapitalism, Biotechnology and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of philanthropic involvement in developing country agriculture from the ‘scientific philanthropy’ of the Rockefeller Foundation during and after the Green Revolution era to the ‘philathrocapitalism’ of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, by examining two cases of ‘pro-poor’ agricultural biotechnology research: pro-Vitamin A-enriched ‘Golden Rice’ and drought tolerant maize. In each case, novel institutions developed for technology transfer have created...

  1. Possible application of brewer’s spent grain in biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Jelena D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain is the major by-product in beer production. It is produced in large quantities (20 kg per 100 liters of produced beer throughout the year at a low cost or no cost, and due to its high protein and carbohydrates content it can be used as a raw material in biotechnology. Biotechnological processes based on renewable agro-industrial by-products have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products and economical (cheap raw materials and reduction of storage costs advantages. The use of brewer’s spent grain is still limited, being basically used as animal feed. Researchers are trying to improve the application of brewer’s spent grain by finding alternative uses apart from the current general use as an animal feed. Its possible applications are in human nutrition, as a raw material in biotechnology, energy production, charcoal production, paper manufacture, as a brick component, and adsorbent. In biotechnology brewer’s spent grain could be used as a substrate for cultivation of microorganisms and enzyme production, additive of yeast carrier in beer fermentation, raw material in production of lactic acid, bioethanol, biogas, phenolic acids, xylitol, and pullulan. Some possible applications for brewer’s spent grain are described in this article including pre-treatment conditions (different procedures for polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and cellulose hydrolysis, working microorganisms, fermentation parameters and obtained yields. The chemical composition of brewer’s spent grain varies according to barley variety, harvesting time, malting and mashing conditions, and a quality and type of unmalted raw material used in beer production. Brewer’s spent grain is lignocellulosic material rich in protein and fibre, which account for approximately 20 and 70% of its composition, respectively.

  2. Biotechnology risks and benefits: Science instructor perspectives and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant Ean

    Developing scientifically literate students who understand the socially contextualized nature of science and technology is a national focus of science education reform. Understanding teachers' views on this topic is of equal importance. This document focuses on the topic of risks and benefits posed by science and technology as an important topic for which the socially contextualized nature of science and technology readily emerges. Following introduction of a theoretical model and a review of the literature, two research studies are described that examined teachers' perceptions of the risks posed by biotechnology and the role of risk topics in an undergraduate science course. The first research study examines four groups of science educators; pre-service science teachers, in-service science teachers, science graduate teaching assistants, and science professors (n = 91). The participants completed a survey and card sort task to determine their perceptions of the risks of biotechnology. The results show that teacher perceptions were shaped by the risk severity, regulation processes, public acceptance, fear, reciprocal benefits, and whether the applications would impact humans or the environment. Factors determining risk perception included personal worldviews, trust in communicating institutions, and personal experiences with biotechnology. The different types of science teachers were compared and contrasted in light of these factors and the implications of instructor perceptions on science pedagogy are discussed. The second research manuscript describes a case study in which six biology graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) were observed teaching as lesson on the potential risks and benefits of biotechnology. The data sources included classroom observations and semi-structured interviews. Qualitative analysis reveals that GTAs framed the instruction of risk in one of three ways: analytical, focus on perspectives and biases, and promotion of individual reflection

  3. Experiences in Engaging the Public on Biotechnology Advances and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Quinlan, M. Megan; Smith, Joe; Layton, Raymond; Keese, Paul; Agbagala, Ma. Lorelie U.; Palacpac, Merle B.; Ball, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Public input is often sought as part of the biosafety decision-making process. Information and communication about the advances in biotechnology are part of the first step to engagement. This step often relies on the developers and introducers of the particular innovation, for example, an industry-funded website has hosted various authorities to respond to questions from the public. Alternative approaches to providing information have evolved, as demonstrated in sub-Saharan Africa where non-g...

  4. The review of recent advances in fish genetics and biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Mgbabu , Christopher Nwokwa

    2012-01-01

    Great advances have been, and are being made in our knowledge of the genetics and molecular biology (including genomics, proteomics and structural biology). Global molecular profiling technologies such as microassays using DNA or oligonucleotide chip, and protein and lipid chips are being developed. The application of such biotechnological advances are inevitable in aquaculture in the areas of improvement of aquaculture stocks where many molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLDs and RAPD are now...

  5. Electroanalysis may be used in the vanillin biotechnological production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, William; Mirabel, Marie; Comtat, Maurice

    2014-02-01

    This study shows that electroanalysis may be used in vanillin biotechnological production. As a matter of fact, vanillin and some molecules implicated in the process like eugenol, ferulic acid, and vanillic acid may be oxidized on electrodes made of different materials (gold, platinum, glassy carbon). By a judicious choice of the electrochemical method and the experimental conditions the current intensity is directly proportional to the molecule concentrations in a range suitable for the biotechnological process. So, it is possible to imagine some analytical strategies to control some steps in the vanillin biotechnological production: by sampling in the batch reactor during the process, it is possible to determine out of line the concentration of vanillin, eugenol, ferulic acid, and vanillic acid with a gold rotating disk electrode, and low concentration of vanillin with addition of hydrazine at an amalgamated electrode. Two other possibilities consist in the introduction of electrodes directly in the batch during the process; the first one with a gold rotating disk electrode using linear sweep voltammetry and the second one requires three gold rotating disk electrodes held at different potentials for chronoamperometry. The last proposal is the use of ultramicroelectrodes in the case when stirring is not possible. PMID:24307140

  6. Epistemic Beliefs and Conceptual Understanding in Biotechnology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; McClure, Bruce A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore students' epistemic beliefs and conceptual understanding of biotechnology. Epistemic beliefs can influence reasoning, how individuals evaluate information, and informed decision making abilities. These skills are important for an informed citizenry that will participate in debates regarding areas in science such as biotechnology. We report on an in-depth case study analysis of three undergraduate, non-science majors in a biotechnology course designed for non-biochemistry majors. We selected participants who performed above average and below average on the first in-class exam. Data from multiple sources—interviews, exams, and a concept instrument—were used to construct (a) individual profiles and (b) a cross-case analysis of our participants' conceptual development and epistemic beliefs from two different theoretical perspectives—Women's Ways of Knowing and the Reflective Judgment Model. Two independent trained researchers coded all case records independently for both theoretical perspectives, with resultant initial Cohen's kappa values above .715 (substantial agreement), and then reached consensus on the codes. Results indicate that a student with more sophisticated epistemology demonstrated greater conceptual understandings at the end of the course than a student with less sophisticated epistemology, even though the latter performed higher initially. Also a student with a less sophisticated epistemology and low initial conceptual performance does not demonstrate gains in their overall conceptual understanding. Results suggest the need for instructional interventions fostering epistemological development of learners in order to facilitate their conceptual growth.

  7. Yarrowia lipolytica and Its Multiple Applications in the Biotechnological Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. G. Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yarrowia lipolytica is a nonpathogenic dimorphic aerobic yeast that stands out due to its ability to grow in hydrophobic environments. This property allowed this yeast to develop an ability to metabolize triglycerides and fatty acids as carbon sources. This feature enables using this species in the bioremediation of environments contaminated with oil spill. In addition, Y. lipolytica has been calling the interest of researchers due to its huge biotechnological potential, associated with the production of several types of metabolites, such as bio-surfactants, γ-decalactone, citric acid, and intracellular lipids and lipase. The production of a metabolite rather than another is influenced by the growing conditions to which Y. lipolytica is subjected. The choice of carbon and nitrogen sources to be used, as well as their concentrations in the growth medium, and the careful determination of fermentation parameters, pH, temperature, and agitation (oxygenation, are essential for efficient metabolites production. This review discusses the biotechnological potential of Y. lipolytica and the best growing conditions for production of some metabolites of biotechnological interest.

  8. High throughput biotechnology in traditional fermented food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Xu, Rong-man; Song, Jia; Wang, Wei-min

    2010-11-01

    Traditional fermented food is not only the staple food for most of developing countries but also the key healthy food for developed countries. As the healthy function of these foods are gradually discovered, more and more high throughput biotechnologies are being used to promote the old and new industry. As a result, the microflora, manufacturing processes and product healthy function of these foods were pushed forward either in the respect of profundity or extensiveness nowadays. The application and progress of the high throughput biotechnologies into traditional fermented food industries were different from each other, which was reviewed and detailed by the catalogues of fermented milk products (yogurt, cheese), fermented sausages, fermented vegetables (kimchi, sauerkraut), fermented cereals (sourdough) and fermented beans (tempeh, natto). Given the further promotion by high throughput biotechnologies, the middle and/or down-stream process of traditional fermented foods would be optimized and the process of industrialization of local traditional fermented food having many functional factors but in small quantity would be accelerated. The article presents some promising patents on traditional fermented food industry. PMID:20863273

  9. A European Competence Framework for Industrial Pharmacy Practice in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The PHAR-IN (“Competences for industrial pharmacy practice in biotechnology” looked at whether there is a difference in how industrial employees and academics rank competences for practice in the biotechnological industry. A small expert panel consisting of the authors of this paper produced a biotechnology competence framework by drawing up an initial list of competences then ranking them in importance using a three-stage Delphi process. The framework was next evaluated and validated by a large expert panel of academics (n = 37 and industrial employees (n = 154. Results show that priorities for industrial employees and academics were similar. The competences for biotechnology practice that received the highest scores were mainly in: “Research and Development”, ‘“Upstream” and “Downstream” Processing’, “Product development and formulation”, “Aseptic processing”, “Analytical methodology”, “Product stability”, and “Regulation”. The main area of disagreement was in the category “Ethics and drug safety” where academics ranked competences higher than did industrial employees.

  10. Development and application of biotechnologies in the metal mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D Barrie

    2013-11-01

    Metal mining faces a number of significant economic and environmental challenges in the twenty-first century for which established and emerging biotechnologies may, at least in part, provide the answers. Bioprocessing of mineral ores and concentrates is already used in variously engineered formats to extract base (e.g., copper, cobalt, and nickel) and precious (gold and silver) metals in mines throughout the world, though it remains a niche technology. However, current projections of an increasing future need to use low-grade primary metal ores, to reprocess mine wastes, and to develop in situ leaching technologies to extract metals from deep-buried ore bodies, all of which are economically more amenable to bioprocessing than conventional approaches (e.g., pyrometallurgy), would suggest that biomining will become more extensively utilized in the future. Recent research has also shown that bioleaching could be used to process a far wider range of metal ores (e.g., oxidized ores) than has previously been the case. Biotechnologies are also being developed to control mine-related pollution, including securing mine wastes (rocks and tailings) by using "ecological engineering" approaches, and also to remediate and recover metals from waste waters, such as acid mine drainage. This article reviews the current status of biotechnologies within the mining sector and considers how these may be developed and applied in future years. PMID:23329131

  11. Characterization Study of Accelerator for Application in Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of accelerator for application in biotechnology was studied. Accelerator is a machine to produce ion beam particles. Accelerator can be used for biotechnology experiments. Ion beam particles irradiation on the biological material will produced variabilities of genetics and induced mutations. In general, new varieties were found by hybridization method or mutation breeding method by gamma rays irradiation. Ion beam particles can be used for biological material irradiation to find variabilities of genetics and induced mutations. The high percentage of mutation rate and LET value by ion beam particles irradiation was found higher than by gamma rays irradiation. Ion beam particle irradiation can also be controlled and foewed to target in biological material. The characterization of accelerator needed for biotechnology experiments are types of accelerator (Tandem Van de Graff, AVF Cyclotron, Synchrotron, Rilac), types of ion particles (C, He, electron, Ar, Ne, Ni, Al, Xe and Au), range of energy (5 - 2.090 MeV), range of dose irradiation (10 - 250 Gy), range of ion current (0.02 - 20 nA), range of ion beam particles diameter (10 - 100 μm), range of LET value (300 - 1.800 keV/μm ) and irradiation time (5 - 30 seconds/samples). (author)

  12. Overview on the biotechnological production of L-DOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoungseon; Park, Kyungmoon; Park, Don-Hee; Yoo, Young Je

    2015-01-01

    L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine) has been widely used as a drug for Parkinson's disease caused by deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Since Monsanto developed the commercial process for L-DOPA synthesis for the first time, most of currently supplied L-DOPA has been produced by the asymmetric method, especially asymmetric hydrogenation. However, the asymmetric synthesis shows critical limitations such as a poor conversion rate and a low enantioselectivity. Accordingly, alternative biotechnological approaches have been researched for overcoming the shortcomings: microbial fermentation using microorganisms with tyrosinase, tyrosine phenol-lyase, or p-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase activity and enzymatic conversion by immobilized tyrosinase. Actually, Ajinomoto Co. Ltd commercialized Erwinia herbicola fermentation to produce L-DOPA from catechol. In addition, the electroenzymatic conversion system was recently introduced as a newly emerging scheme. In this review, we aim to not only overview the biotechnological L-DOPA production methods, but also to briefly compare and analyze their advantages and drawbacks. Furthermore, we suggest the future potential of biotechnological L-DOPA production as an industrial process. PMID:25432672

  13. Yarrowia lipolytica and its multiple applications in the biotechnological industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, F A G; Colen, G; Takahashi, J A

    2014-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a nonpathogenic dimorphic aerobic yeast that stands out due to its ability to grow in hydrophobic environments. This property allowed this yeast to develop an ability to metabolize triglycerides and fatty acids as carbon sources. This feature enables using this species in the bioremediation of environments contaminated with oil spill. In addition, Y. lipolytica has been calling the interest of researchers due to its huge biotechnological potential, associated with the production of several types of metabolites, such as bio-surfactants, γ-decalactone, citric acid, and intracellular lipids and lipase. The production of a metabolite rather than another is influenced by the growing conditions to which Y. lipolytica is subjected. The choice of carbon and nitrogen sources to be used, as well as their concentrations in the growth medium, and the careful determination of fermentation parameters, pH, temperature, and agitation (oxygenation), are essential for efficient metabolites production. This review discusses the biotechnological potential of Y. lipolytica and the best growing conditions for production of some metabolites of biotechnological interest. PMID:24715814

  14. Improving microalgae for biotechnology--From genetics to synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavova, Monika; Turoczy, Zoltan; Bisova, Katerina

    2015-11-01

    Microalgae have traditionally been used in many biotechnological applications, where each new application required a different species or strain expressing the required properties; the challenge therefore is to isolate or develop, characterize and optimize species or strains that can express more than one specific property. In agriculture, breeding of natural variants has been successfully used for centuries to improve production traits in many existing plant and animal species. With the discovery of the concepts of classical genetics, these new ideas have been extensively used in selective breeding. However, many biotechnologically relevant algae do not possess the sexual characteristics required for traditional breeding/crossing, although they can be modified by chemical and physical mutagens. The resulting mutants are not considered as genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their cultivation is therefore not limited by legislation. On the other hand, mutants prepared by random or specific insertion of foreign DNA are considered to be GMOs. This review will compare the effects of two genetic approaches on model algal species and will summarize their advantages in basic research. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential of mutagenesis to improve microalgae as a biotechnological resource, to accelerate the process from specific strain isolation to growth optimization, and discuss the production of new products. Finally, we will explore the potential of algae in synthetic biology. PMID:25656099

  15. The role of biotechnology in combating climate change: A question of politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerni, Philipp; Gagalac, Florabelle; Scholderer, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is a platform technology that may significantly contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Yet, biotechnology is hardly ever referred to as “clean technology”. This paper investigates why biotechnology tends to be ignored in this context. A global stakeholder survey on...... biotechnology and climate change was conducted with 55 representatives of 44 institutions. The results of a perception pattern analysis show that the majority of stakeholder representatives had a neutral or positive attitude towards the use of biotechnology and regarded its potential to address climate change...... problems as significant. The survey results further reveal a significant relationship between a representative’s institutional and disciplinary background and his or her attitude. The respective background appears to determine to a considerable extent whether biotechnology is framed as a risk or an...

  16. Development and enhancement of agricultural biotechnology in some countries in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, B R; Pasternak, J J; Downer, R G; Dumbroff, E B; Winter, K A

    1991-03-01

    A number of research institutions and both local and international agencles in Latin America are using biotechnology as part of an effort to enhance agricultural productivity. However, it is very much an open question as to whether all of these various organizations can provide the best means of realizing this goal. Latin American countries vary dramatically in their knowledge base and current use of modern biotechnology. Thus, while some countries lack the ability to develop, or possibly even implement, many aspects of modern biotechnology, others are quite advanced in this regard. This review provides a somewhat selective overview of current research in the area of agricultural biotechnology in Mexico, Costa Rica and Ecuador, with emphasis on how the existing agencies and institutions have responded to the challenge of biotechnology. In addition, general strategies for the development of agricultural biotechnology in these countries are presented and discussed. PMID:24424928

  17. Key Factors Affecting the Implementation of Biotechnology Instruction in Secondary School Level Technology Education Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyuksoo

    2009-01-01

    The growing impact of biotechnology globally and nationally over the past few decades has prompted the need for elevating general biotechnological literacy levels in all populations. This need is currently being addressed through the field of technology education (TE). Although included in the Standards for Technological Literacy (ITEA, 2000), the actual delivery of biotechnology instruction in TE classrooms has not realized broad implementation. Previous studies have recognized this issue an...

  18. Intellectual property protection for agricultural biotechnological inventions: a case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Suzi Fadhilah

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on the current legal protection for agricultural biotechnological inventions in Europe and the U.S. It has been a subject of debate whether plants and agricultural biotechnological inventions which includes plants, transgenic plants and plant varieties, can be the subject of patent protection, in addition to or as an alternative to the protection afforded by plant variety rights. Biotechnological patents have been criticized for granting an excessive scope of protection ...

  19. INDUSTRIAL AGRO-BIOTECHNOLOGY: KNOWLEDGE UPGRADING AS A PREREQUISITE FOR HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi FARID

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology development relates to the quality and skills of human resources. During the Ninth Malaysian Plan 2006-2010, higher education institutions have produced more than 4000 graduates and in service training programs for human resource development and are providing more scholarships to serving officers to pursue post graduate degree in biotechnology. However, gaps still continue to exist between demand for and supply of biotechnology skills and there is an alarming shortage of biotech...

  20. Enterprise Factors Contributing to The Success of Malaysian Biotechnology SMEs: A Grounded Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Saridan Abu Bakar; Mohamed Sulaiman; Intan Osman

    2007-01-01

    While numerous empirical studies have been conducted in Western countries on biotechnology enterprises, little empirical research has been done in Malaysia especially in respect to the factors that contribute to the success of biotechnology small and medium enterprises (SMEs). In view of this, a study was undertaken recently in Malaysia to address this gap in the existing body of biotechnology knowledge. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study managed to develop a conceptual ...

  1. Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-01-01

    Rai MK (2010) Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Biodiversitas 11: 157-166. The use of medicinal plants is as old as human civilization. The biotechnological tools play a crucial role in conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The rapid depletion of plant genetic diversity has made essential to develop new in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Advances in biotechnology offer new methods for conservation of rare and...

  2. Synchronised national publics as functional equivalent of an integrated European public. The case of biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Seifert

    2006-01-01

    In the second half of the nineties, a number of EU Member States went through intense public controversies over agro-food biotechnology. These controversies occurred almost synchronously, brought about parallel issue-framings and actor-constellations, led national governments to adopt biotechnology aversive policies, and prompted a considerable tightening of the EU’s agro-food biotechnology regulation. This article analyses these events against the background of the current discussion on the ...

  3. Perceived Risks of Agro-Biotechnology and Organic Food Purchases in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Moon, Wanki; Balasubramanian, Siva K.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the role of consumers' perceived risks and benefits of agro-biotechnology in shaping purchase patterns for organic food among U.S. consumers. Perceived risks and benefits of biotechnology, general purchase behavior, knowledge of GM technology, and socio-demographic variables are examined in relation to their impact on organic food purchases. Consumers who are concerned about negative attributes of agro-biotechnology, including long-term health and environmental hazards, in...

  4. Hot topics and application trends of the anammox biotechnology: a review by bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zuotao; Liu, Sitong

    2014-01-01

    Anammox has been extensively identified as a novel and sustained biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the hot topics and application trends of anammox biotechnology by bibliometric analysis. The results show that “Water science and technology” and “Environmental science ecology” are the prevalent journal and category in this field. Many researches about “process” and “inhibition” have been carried out to conquer common challenges of anammox biotechnolog...

  5. THE ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malabika Roy Pathak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological diversity provides the variety of life on the Earth and can be defined as the variability among and between the living organisms and species of surrounding ecosystems and ecological complexes of their life support. It has been estimated that one third of the global plant species are threatened in different level according to the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN.The major threat to rapid loss and extinction of genetic diversity due to habitat destruction, pollution, climate change, invasion of exotic species, human population pressure, ever increasing agricultural pressure and practices, life style change etc. are well-known. Biodiversity conservation is a global concern. All member states of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD took measure to preserve both native and agricultural biodiversity. The global concern of biodiversity conservation initiated either by in situ or ex situ methods. In situ methods protect both plants and their natural habitat. On the other hand, ex situ methods involves preservation and maintenance of plant species or plant parts (such as seeds, cuttings, rhizomes, tubers etc. outside their natural habitat for the purpose of developing seed banks or more preciously gene banks following classical / advanced methods of plant propagation. Classical methods of plant propagations have certain limitations in terms of rapid production of plants or plant propagules and their long term conservation. So, the biotechnological methods such as plant tissue culture, plant cell culture, anther culture, embryo culture etc. are quite applicable and useful techniques for ex situ conservation. On the other hand, the production of superior quality seeds has enhanced by the application of plant biotechnology. So, plant biotechnology offers new means of improving biodiversity conservation rather than threatening biodiversity in various ways.

  6. The role of biotechnology to ensure rice food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice as a food is key to the survival of more than 60% of the world population, most of whom live in Asia. Food security in Asia is therefore strongly dependent on an adequate, available supply of affordable rice. Experts estimate that global rice supply would need to increase at an average of 1.7% per annum for the next 20 years, and average rice yields must roughly double in the next 20 years in both the irrigated and favourable rainfed lowland environments, if a global shortage is to be avoided. At the same time that the need to increase total production, and unit area productivity is being felt, society is also demanding that agricultural practices be environment friendly and be part of a sustainable agricultural system. Rice breeders have seen increased difficulties to source and utilize new genetic resources for genetic improvement of yield potential from within the rice genome. As with other cereals, rice yield potential has not been dramatically increased in the last decade when compared to the quantum increase of the early Green Revolution years. Furthermore, pest-induced losses currently account for up to 30% of the loss in yield potential. Biotechnology, especially recombinant DNA technology, offers tools to transfer genes from outside the rice genome to address the critical issues of raising the yield potential, increasing tolerance or resistance to insects, diseases and a biotic stresses, to increase the efficiency of pest management, and also to improve the nutritive value of the rice grain. Genetically modified crops have a demonstrated record of environmental and food safety, and all such crops undergo a process of safety assessment and regulatory approval before they are put into the marketplace. Serious social issues, however, arise in matching the capacity of biotechnology to change crops, and in what changes society is willing to accept; and at this early stage of biotechnology applications, science-based approaches are important so that emotion

  7. Pharma Success in Product Development—Does Biotechnology Change the Paradigm in Product Development and Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Ronald P

    2016-01-01

    The biotechnology segment of the overall biopharma industry has existed for only about 40–45 years, as a driver of new product development. This driving force was initiated with the FDA approval of recombinant human insulin in 1982, originating from the Genentech company. The pharma industry in the early years of 1970s and 1980s engaged with biotechnology companies only to a small extent with their in-licensing of a few recombinant molecules, led by Roche, Eli Lilly, and Johnson and Johnson. However, subsequently and dramatically over the last 25 years, biotechnology has become a primary driver of product and technology innovation and has become a cornerstone in new product development by all biopharma companies. This review demonstrates these evolutionary changes regarding approved products, product pipelines, novelty of the products, FDA approval rates, product sales, financial R&D investments in biotechnology, partnerships, mergers and acquisitions, and patent issues. We now have about 300 biotechnology products approved in USA covering 16 medical disciplines and about 250 indications, with the engagement of 25 pharma companies, along with their biotechnology company innovators and partners. The biotechnology pipeline involves over 1000 molecules in clinical trials, including over 300 molecules associated with the top 10 pharma companies. Product approval rates by the FDA for biotechnology products are over double the rate for drugs. Yes, the R&D paradigm has changed with biotechnology now as one of the major focuses for new product development with novel molecules by the whole biopharma industry. PMID:26475480

  8. The Challenge of Ecophysiological Biodiversity for Biotechnological Applications of Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Barra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we aim to explore the potential of microalgal biodiversity and ecology for biotechnological use. A deeper exploration of the biodiversity richness and ecophysiological properties of microalgae is crucial for enhancing their use for applicative purposes. After describing the actual biotechnological use of microalgae, we consider the multiple faces of taxonomical, morphological, functional and ecophysiological biodiversity of these organisms, and investigate how these properties could better serve the biotechnological field. Lastly, we propose new approaches to enhancing microalgal growth, photosynthesis, and synthesis of valuable products used in biotechnological fields, mainly focusing on culture conditions, especially light manipulations and genetic modifications.

  9. Strategic Partnerships and Open Innovation in the Biotechnology Industry in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Segers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Strategic partnerships in the biotechnology industry allow new technology-based firms to gain a foothold in this high-cost, high-risk industry. In this article, we examine the impact of strategic partnerships and open innovation on the success of new biotechnology firms in Belgium by developing multiple case studies of firms in regional biotechnology clusters. We find that, despite their small size and relative immaturity, new biotechnology firms are able to adopt innovative business models by providing R&D and services to larger firms and openly cooperating with them through open innovation.

  10. Biotechnology in agriculture. How to obtain its benefits while limiting its risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biotechnology is emerging as one of the most innovative achievements of life sciences in this century, and agriculture is certainly one of the sectors which has benefited most from this technological innovation. If the benefits of biotechnology are to reach developing countries, particularly those with food deficits, it will be necessary to employ a strategy that will gradually give them access to the most appropriate biotechnologies. Agricultural systems have met the constantly increasing demand for food since earliest human times. However, problems do exist; crop uniformity may foster genetic erosion, reduce the genetic base of plant populations and enhanced the vulnerability of cultivated plants to pests, diseases and adverse environmental factors such as salinity and drought stress. The path this science is taking, however, is oriented almost exclusively towards crops of high global economic importance. Other species, which are of great socioeconomic importance to developing countries but of little interest to international markets, do not appear on the priority list of the leading biotechnology companies. Under these circumstances it seems that any research on the biotechnological improvement of these and other underresearched food species will have to take place locally within interested countries. FAO initiatives in promoting plant biotechnology include promoting the exchange of biotechnology information, advising members on the development of national biotechnology programmes, supporting national programme infrastructures and promoting research and technology transfer. The greatest risk for developing countries would be not to be part of this new revolution in agricultural biotechnology. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  11. New biotechnology enhances the application of cisgenesis in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei eHou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cisgenesis is genetic modification to transfer beneficial alleles from crossable species into a recipient plant. The donor genes transferred by cisgenesis are the same as those used in traditional breeding. It can avoid linkage drag, enhance the use of existing gene alleles. This approach combines traditional breeding techniques with modern biotechnology and dramatically speeds up the breeding process. This allows plant genomes to be modified while remaining plants within the gene pool. Therefore, cisgenic plants should not be assessed as transgenics for environmental impacts.

  12. Nano-biotechnology for biomedical and diagnostic research

    CERN Document Server

    Zahavy, Eran; Yitzhaki, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    The title ""Nano Biotechnology for Biomedical and Diagnostics Research"" will address research aspects related to nanomaterial in imaging and biological research, nanomaterials as a biosensing tool, DNA nanotechnology, nanomaterials for drug delivery, medicinal and therapeutic application and cytotoxicity of nanomaterials. These topics will be covered by 16 different manuscripts. Amongst the authors that will contribute to the book are major scientific leaders such as S. Weiss - UCLA, I. Willner, and G. Golomb -- HUJI, S. Esener - UCSD, E.C. Simmel - Tech. Univ. Munchen, I. Medintz -- NRL, N.

  13. [Multi-Species Biofilms in Ecology, Medicine, and Biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozhevnikova, A N; Botchkova, E A; Plakunov, V K

    2015-01-01

    The structure, composition, and developmental patterns of multi-species biofilms are analyzed, as well as the mechanisms of interaction of their microbial components. The main methodological approaches used for analysis of multi-species biofilms, including omics technologies, are characterized. Environmental communities (cyanobacterial mats and methanotrophic communities), as well as typical multi-species communities of medical importance (oral cavity, skin, and gut microbiomes) are described. A special section deals with the role of multi-species biofilms in such biotechnological processes as wastewater treatment, heavy metal removal, corrosion control, and environmental bioremediation. PMID:26964353

  14. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    OpenAIRE

    . .

    2012-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Primer-BLAST, COBALT, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, H...

  15. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, David L.; Church, Deanna M.; Federhen, Scott; Lash, Alex E.; Madden, Thomas L.; Pontius, Joan U.; Schuler, Gregory D.; Schriml, Lynn M; Sequeira, Edwin; Tatusova, Tatiana A.; Wagner, Lukas

    2003-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides data analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through NCBI's Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), LocusLink, the NCBITaxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR (e-PCR), Open Reading Frame (ORF) Finder, References Sequence (RefSeq), UniGene, HomoloGe...

  16. Conceptions of elementary and high school teachers on biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Miranda

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The progress in the areas of molecular biology and biotechnology has been demonstrating the importance of the teaching-learning of those subjects to students and teachers of the elementary and high school as well as to the society in general.In this sense, the Scientific Dissemination Coordination of CBME has as objective contributes for the dissemination and learning of techniques and basic concepts in that area of the knowledge, in order to awake in the public the scientific interest and the critical sense related to these advances.  With the goal to offer elements for the elaboration of activities addressed to science teachers of elementary and high school, a survey of their conceptions on science and biotechnology was made. A questionnaire was applied to 30 teachers that participated in updating courses and training, being that 13 teachers belonged to the region of São Carlos city (SP, 8 belonged to the region of Campinas city (SP and 9 belonged to Fortaleza city (CE.  The questionnaire was applied to the teachers in the beginning of the courses and it was composed of different types of questions, which allowed capturing their personal reflections about science, their knowledge on basic concepts of cell and molecular biology, and their opinions about the applications of the biotechnology.  In the analysis of the question What you think about using the modern biotechnology in the production of foods to increase its protein content, in order to turn it larger or to change its taste?, 57% of the teachers agreed partially that this application is useful for the society, 52% agreed totally that the application is morally acceptable while 70% totally disagree as for the encouragement of this application.Some conflicts presented in the registered answers reflect, in certain way, the conflict shown by the academic and scientific communities, as for the ethical aspects of some applications such as transgenic foods, genetic

  17. Oil palm biotechnologies are definitely out of infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rival Alain

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Although biotechnologies and sustainable development are often considered as antagonists, there is increasing evidence for a role for this approach in the ecological intensification of oil palm cultivation. Ecological intensification is based on the understanding of how nature functions so as to exploit its resources without destroying it. Living organisms are supported by the genome (DNA through the action of the transcriptome (RNAs, proteome, metabolome, and ionome, the four basic pillars of functional genomics. These pillars represent the sum of all the expressed genes, proteins, metabolites, and elements within an organism. The dynamic response and interaction of these biochemical “omes” defines how a living system functions, and its study, systems biology, is now one of the biggest challenges in life sciences. In oil palm, as in many major crops, functional genomics is still at its beginning, although there are no reasons why oil palm should not rapidly benefit from the fast progresses generated by automated and high-throughput technologies. The success of sequencing projects on model plants has created a widespread interest in exploring the structure and expression patterns of the genome. Indeed, several institutions have now achieved the full sequencing of the oil palm genome, paving the way for the rapid evolution of various genomics-based approaches. Oil palm breeding has provided an average 1% of genetic gain per year since the early 1960s and such an impressive increase in oil yield will be maintained in future generations with a major contribution from biotechnology. Indeed, the recent adoption of biotechnological approaches has already proven very useful in major areas such as cloning of outstanding material, identity checking of progenies/mother palms, identification and characterization of genes underlying agricultural traits, etc. Phenotypic differences among individuals are partly the result of quantitative differences in

  18. Consumer perceptions of the application of biotechnology in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Background: There has been considerable enthusiasm among scientists and industry about the possibilities of biotechnology and especially genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food production. At the same time, there has been considerable scepticism by consumers, much public debate, and a cautious...... approach from retailers. On this background, a study was designed to answer four questions: 1. How negative are consumer attitudes to GMO applications in food? 2. How much do these attitudes affect product evaluation and purchase behaviour? 3. How deeply rooted are these attitudes? 4. Can the attitudes...

  19. Six priorities proposed for marine biotechnology in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Torger

    A survey initiated by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries in 2010 resulted in six priorities for the development of marine biotechnology in Denmark. Business opportunities were suggested and some elements for a successful strategy were proposed. The six priorities are the following...... biochemical components. Complex structures with special properties can be included in pharmaceutical products, cosmetics and special foods. - Biofilm – from ships over the food industry to the interior of the human body. Biofilm is a deposit and growth of organisms on surfaces, usually with consequences...

  20. Attitudes of Secondary School Students towards Modern Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Klop, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    textabstractI interviewed a group of four sixteen-year old secondary school students about their attitudes towards modern biotechnology. When I asked them what they knew about this subject, one girl responded: “Well, I know it’s about genes, they are located in your DNA, and within your genes is all the information for your body …or something like that.” Her fellow student immediately reacted: “It’s about genetic manipulation; they can change something without you knowing about it.” One of th...

  1. Improvement of Musa through biotechnology and mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edible Musa, i.e. bananas, plantains and cooking bananas, are mostly sterile polyploids with a reproductive system that is extremely difficult to manipulate. The presently used breeding methods based on crossing of near-sterile triploids with semi-wild diploids is time consuming and laborious. The cultivation of bananas in many regions is seriously threatened by several diseases caused by pathogenic fungi (Mycosphaerella, Fusarium), bacteria (Pseudomonas), viruses (esp. bunchy top virus) and nematodes. Breeding for resistance requires new strategies and the implementation of biotechnology. The current applications of biotechnology in Musa improvement include; (1) embryo culture for hybridization, (2) shoot-tip culture in micropropagation, (3) in vitro mutation induction, (4) somatic embryogenesis and somaclonal variation, (5) in vitro screening and selection, (6) artificial seed production and (7) DNA fingerprinting applied to genomic analysis. The results and ongoing projects of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme are: (1) development of in vitro mutation systems in shoot-tip cultures, (2) development of a mutant clone with superior performance to the original Cavendish type ''Grain Nain'', (3) somatic embryogenesis in cell suspensions of Musa, (4) protocols for the isolation and short term culture of protoplasts, (5) the study of somaclonal variation for the genetic improvement of banana, (6) encapsulation of somatic embryos for artificial seed production, (7) selection techniques and nursery screening techniques for disease resistance breeding of Musa and, (8) protein electrophoresis and DNA fingerprinting for genomic characterization of different Musa clones. 11 refs, 1 fig

  2. Applications of microfluidics in microalgae biotechnology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Yi-Je; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2016-03-01

    Microalgae have been one of the important sources for biofuel production owing to their competitive advantages such as no need to tap into the global food supply chain, higher energy density, and absorbing carbon dioxide to mitigate global warming. One of the key factors to ensure successful biofuel production is that it requires not only bioprospecting of the microalgae with high lipid content, high growth rate and tolerance to environmental parameters but also on-site monitoring of the cultivation process and optimization of the culturing conditions. However, as the conventional techniques usually involve in complicated procedures, or are time-consuming or labor intensive, microfluidics technology offers an attractive alternative to resolve these issues. In this review, applications of microfluidics to bioprospecting in microalgae biotechnology were discussed such as cell identification, cell sorting/screening, cell culturing and cell disruption. In addition, utilization of microalgae in micro-sized fuel cells and microfluidic platforms for biosensing was addressed. This review reports the recent studies and offers a look into how microfluidics is exploited to tackle the issues encountered in the microalgae biotechnology. PMID:26807667

  3. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucht, Jan M

    2015-08-01

    A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM) crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths-also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops-of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer's attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion-including calls for labeling of GM food-in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers' concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers' attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values. PMID:26264020

  4. Attitudes in China about Crops and Foods Developed by Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Zhou, Dingyang; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their attitudes. Data were collected using interview surveys of consumer households, farmer households and scientists. A discrete choice approach was used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Two separate probit models were developed to examine the effect of various factors on the choices of the respondents. Bt cotton farmers had a very positive attitude because Bt cotton provided them with significant economic benefits. Chinese consumers from developed regions had a higher acceptance and willingness to pay for GM foods than consumers in other regions. The positive attitude toward GM foods by the scientific community will help to promote biotechnology in China in the future. Our survey emphasized that educational efforts made by government officials, the media and scientists can facilitate the acceptance of GM technology in China. Further educational efforts will be critical for influencing consumer attitudes and decisions of government agencies in the future. More effective educational efforts by government agencies and public media concerning the scientific facts and safety of GM foods would enhance the acceptance of GM crops in China. PMID:26418161

  5. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Lucht

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths—also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops—of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer’s attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion—including calls for labeling of GM food—in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers’ concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers’ attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values.

  6. Economic impacts of policies affecting crop biotechnology and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kym

    2010-11-30

    Agricultural biotechnologies, and especially transgenic crops, have the potential to boost food security in developing countries by offering higher incomes for farmers and lower priced and better quality food for consumers. That potential is being heavily compromised, however, because the European Union and some other countries have implemented strict regulatory systems to govern their production and consumption of genetically modified (GM) food and feed crops, and to prevent imports of foods and feedstuffs that do not meet these strict standards. This paper analyses empirically the potential economic effects of adopting transgenic crops in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. It does so using a multi-country, multi-product model of the global economy. The results suggest the economic welfare gains from crop biotechnology adoption are potentially very large, and that those benefits are diminished only very slightly by the presence of the European Union's restriction on imports of GM foods. That is, if developing countries retain bans on GM crop production in an attempt to maintain access to EU markets for non-GM products, the loss to their food consumers as well as to farmers in those developing countries is huge relative to the slight loss that could be incurred from not retaining EU market access. PMID:20478422

  7. Attitudes in China about Crops and Foods Developed by Biotechnology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Han

    Full Text Available Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their attitudes. Data were collected using interview surveys of consumer households, farmer households and scientists. A discrete choice approach was used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Two separate probit models were developed to examine the effect of various factors on the choices of the respondents. Bt cotton farmers had a very positive attitude because Bt cotton provided them with significant economic benefits. Chinese consumers from developed regions had a higher acceptance and willingness to pay for GM foods than consumers in other regions. The positive attitude toward GM foods by the scientific community will help to promote biotechnology in China in the future. Our survey emphasized that educational efforts made by government officials, the media and scientists can facilitate the acceptance of GM technology in China. Further educational efforts will be critical for influencing consumer attitudes and decisions of government agencies in the future. More effective educational efforts by government agencies and public media concerning the scientific facts and safety of GM foods would enhance the acceptance of GM crops in China.

  8. Botryosphaeriales fungi produce extracellular enzymes with biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Ana Cristina; Saraiva, Márcia; Correia, António; Alves, Artur

    2014-05-01

    Phytopathogenic fungi are known for producing an arsenal of extracellular enzymes whose involvement in the infection mechanism has been suggested. However, these enzymes are largely unknown and their biotechnological potential also remains poorly understood. In this study, the production and thermostability of extracellular enzymes produced by phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae was investigated. Hydrolytic and oxidative activities were detected and quantified at different temperatures. Most strains (70%; 37/53) were able to produce simultaneously cellulases, laccases, xylanases, pectinases, pectin lyases, amylases, lipases, and proteases. Surprisingly for mesophilic filamentous fungi, several enzymes proved to be thermostable: cellulases from Neofusicoccum mediterraneum CAA 001 and from Dothiorella prunicola CBS 124723, lipases from Diplodia pinea (CAA 015 and CBS 109726), and proteases from Melanops tulasnei CBS 116806 were more active at 70 °C than at any of the other temperatures tested. In addition, lipases produced by Diplodia pinea were found to be significantly more active than any other known lipase from Botryosphaeriales. The thermal activity profile and the wide array of activities secreted by these fungi make them optimal producers of biotechnologically relevant enzymes that may be applied in the food and the health industries (proteases), the pulp-and-paper and biofuel industries (cellulases), or even in the detergent industry (lipases, proteases, amylases, and cellulases). PMID:24802941

  9. Biomass conversion. The interface of biotechnology, chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskar, Chinnappan [Myongji Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology; Baskar, Shikha [Uttarakhand Technical Univ. (India). THDC Inst. of Hydropower Engineering and Technology, Tehri; Dhillon, Ranjit S. (eds.) [Punjab Aricultural Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-11-01

    Gives state-of-the-art of biomass conversion plus future development. Connects the applications into the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science. Written by international experts. The consumption of petroleum has surged during the 20th century, at least partially because of the rise of the automobile industry. Today, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas provide more than three quarters of the world's energy. Unfortunately, the growing demand for fossil fuel resources comes at a time of diminishing reserves of these nonrenewable resources. The worldwide reserves of oil are sufficient to supply energy and chemicals for only about another 40 years, causing widening concerns about rising oil prices. The use of biomass to produce energy is only one form of renewable energy that can be utilized to reduce the impact of energy production and use on the global environment. Biomass can be converted into three main products such as energy, biofuels and fine chemicals using a number of different processes. Today, it is a great challenge for researchers to find new environmentally benign methodology for biomass conversion, which are industrially profitable as well. This book focuses on the conversion of biomass to biofuels, bioenergy and fine chemicals with the interface of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry and materials science. An international scientific authorship summarizes the state-of-the-art of the current research and gives an outlook on future developments.

  10. Evolution, Metabolism and Biotechnological Usage of Methylotrophic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylotrophs – aerobic chemoheterotrophic microorganisms submitted by cocci and bacilli mobile forms, are inhabitants of reservoirs and soils of various type, where there are going on various processes of decomposition of organic substances with formation of the one-carbon С1-compounds and some С2-, and С3-compounds, capable to be assimilated by methylotrophs. These microorganisms assimilating carbon on ribuloso-5-monophospate and serine pathways, are allocated from soil ground, the sewage containing decomposing vegetative remainss, from ruminant paunch and other sources. Methylotrophic bacteria recently draw the increasing attention of biotechnology as feasible sources of natural biologically active compounds – fodder fibers and irreplaceable amino acids, carotenoid pigments, lipids and policarbohydrates. For preparation of these compounds are used genetically marked strains of methylotrophic bacteria, obtained via genetic engineering approaches and selection. Recently developed gene-engineering methods of manipulation with the methylotrophic genom allow create on the basis of microbic DNA of methylotrophs expression vectors of eukaryotic proteins for medical and veterinary purposes, as human insulins. In this review article there are submitted data including the results of the authors’ own research on evolution of methylotrophic bacteria, the metabolism and their biotechnological usage

  11. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucht, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM) crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths—also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops—of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer’s attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion—including calls for labeling of GM food—in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers’ concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers’ attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values. PMID:26264020

  12. Biotechnology and health Biotecnología y salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardozo C.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology plays an important role in the Health Sciences. The production of immunoreagents and biological drugs, gene therapy, the food industry and the environmental protection have been using the molecular biology and genetic engineering knowledge to improve the quality of life. This review summarizes the contribution and impact of the Biotechnology to the advance of the Biomedical Sciences. The work is framed within the idea that the healthdisease process changes according to specific social and environmental conditions.La biotecnología ha adquirido una especial relevancia en el campo de la salud con el advenimiento de procesos como la inmunización, marcadores de riesgo de ciertas patologías, la terapia génica, la obtención de biofármacos, la protección y recuperación del medio ambiente o la producción de alimentos en los cuales se utilizan las metodologías propias de la biología molecular y la ingeniería genética, propiciando el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida. Se reseña la contribución y el impacto que ha tenido la biotecnología en el desarrollo y modernización de las ciencias de la salud dentro del concepto moderno e integral de proceso salud enfermedad como un estado continuamente cambiante inmerso en condiciones socioambientales particulares.

  13. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  14. Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey; Soccol; Nigam; Brand; Mohan; Roussos

    2000-10-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as coffee pulp and coffee husk. Coffee pulp or husk is a fibrous mucilagenous material (sub-product) obtained during the processing of coffee cherries by wet or dry process, respectively. Coffee pulp/husk contains some amount of caffeine and tannins, which makes it toxic in nature, resulting the disposal problem. However, it is rich in organic nature, which makes it an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added products. Several solutions and alternative uses of the coffee pulp and husk have been attempted. These include as fertilizers, livestock feed, compost, etc. However, these applications utilize only a fraction of available quantity and are not technically very efficient. Attempts have been made to detoxify it for improved application as feed, and to produce several products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavour and aroma compounds, and mushrooms, etc. from coffee pulp/husk. Solid state fermentation has been mostly employed for bioconversion processes. Factorial design experiments offer useful information for the process optimization. This paper reviews the developments on processes and products developed for the value-addition of coffee pulp/husk through the biotechnological means. PMID:10959086

  15. Quality Control of Biotechnological Inputs DetectingMycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Netto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR as a tool of quality control of bovine sera and cellular cultures used in the biotechnological industry. A total of 46 samples of bovine sera derived from two slaughterhouses and 33 samples of BHK21 cells derived from two biotechnological industries were evaluated using the primers GPO-3 (sense and MGSO (antisense. The PCR technique sensibility analysis showed that 280 bp were amplified for the quantities of 50 ng to 0.006 ng of Micoplasma DNA. The primers specificity was confirmed in the test using Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilisand Candida albicans; except by the positive control, none of the samples showed amplification. The presence of Mycoplasma in bovine sera and in the cultures of BHK21 cells showed that 56.5 and 15.2%, respectively, were contaminated. Thus, it was possible to conclude that PCR was a fast and confident technique to detect mycoplasma and that it could be used to control the quality of immunobiological products and inputs, such as sera and cultures of BHK21 cells.

  16. Perspectives of engineering lactic acid bacteria for biotechnological polyol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2010-04-01

    Polyols are sugar alcohols largely used as sweeteners and they are claimed to have several health-promoting effects (low-caloric, low-glycemic, low-insulinemic, anticariogenic, and prebiotic). While at present chemical synthesis is the only strategy able to assure the polyol market demand, the biotechnological production of polyols has been implemented in yeasts, fungi, and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of microorganisms particularly suited for polyol production as they display a fermentative metabolism associated with an important redox modulation and a limited biosynthetic capacity. In addition, LAB participate in food fermentation processes, where in situ production of polyols during fermentation may be useful in the development of novel functional foods. Here, we review the polyol production by LAB, focusing on metabolic engineering strategies aimed to redirect sugar fermentation pathways towards the synthesis of biotechnologically important sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol. Furthermore, possible approaches are presented for engineering new fermentation routes in LAB for production of arabitol, ribitol, and erythritol. PMID:20180114

  17. Marine Extremophiles: A Source of Hydrolases for Biotechnological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Zamith Leal Dalmaso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications.

  18. Attitudes in China about Crops and Foods Developed by Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their attitudes. Data were collected using interview surveys of consumer households, farmer households and scientists. A discrete choice approach was used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Two separate probit models were developed to examine the effect of various factors on the choices of the respondents. Bt cotton farmers had a very positive attitude because Bt cotton provided them with significant economic benefits. Chinese consumers from developed regions had a higher acceptance and willingness to pay for GM foods than consumers in other regions. The positive attitude toward GM foods by the scientific community will help to promote biotechnology in China in the future. Our survey emphasized that educational efforts made by government officials, the media and scientists can facilitate the acceptance of GM technology in China. Further educational efforts will be critical for influencing consumer attitudes and decisions of government agencies in the future. More effective educational efforts by government agencies and public media concerning the scientific facts and safety of GM foods would enhance the acceptance of GM crops in China. PMID:26418161

  19. AN ERA OF CONFUSION: THE LAND GRANT RESEARCH AGENDA AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Weatherspoon, Dave D.; Oehmke, James F.; Raper, Kellie Curry

    2000-01-01

    The Land Grant College and University (LGCU) research system is in a state of confusion. Public research privatization, industry concentration, and balancing money and the Land Grant mission are issues LGCUs currently face. The ag-biotechnology revolution complicates these issues. This paper provides four mission related policy recommendations for the LGCU system. Keywords: Biotechnology, Land Grant Mission, Research

  20. Seventeenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Session titles include Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing; Applied Biological Research; Bioprocessing Research; Special Topics Discussion Groups; Process Economics and Commercialization; and Environmental Biotechnology.

  1. Location, Location, Location: Positioning Biotechnology Education for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Bev

    2007-01-01

    The first section of this article examines a range of definitions of biotechnology. This analysis demonstrates that teachers' choices will determine their view of biotechnology, as positioned along a traditional-modern, axis, and provides examples of the tensions that these differing positions create. A further section argues that in order for…

  2. 78 FR 12074 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Actions Under the NIH Guidelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... containing an HA from the Goose/Guangdong/1/96 lineage should become an HHS Select Agent (77 FR 63783... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA... recommendations of the RAC, the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) concluded that more specific...

  3. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure University Students' Biotechnology Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ozel, Murat; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The impact of biotechnologies on peoples' everyday lives continuously increases. Measuring young peoples' attitudes toward biotechnologies is therefore very important and its results are useful not only for science curriculum developers and policy makers, but also for producers and distributors of genetically modified products. Despite of…

  4. 76 FR 3150 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...). On July 20, 2010 the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) published a proposed action (75 FR... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA... contact OBA by e- mail at oba@od.nih.gov , telephone, 301-496-9838 or mail to the Office of...

  5. Online Mentoring for Biotechnology Graduate Students: An Industry-Academia Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rana; Gogos, Arhonda

    2013-01-01

    The Professional Science Master's Biotechnology program at the University of Maryland University College developed and implemented a novel online mentoring program to increase synergy with the biotechnology industry. In this program, Master's students are paired with mentors from the

  6. 76 FR 27653 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 69687). No public comments were received regarding the proposal to certify K... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA.... lactis certified host-vector 1 system. In addition, the Office of Biotechnology Activities is...

  7. 75 FR 20560 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... the Federal Register on January 13, 2010 (75 FR 1749-1751, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0072), APHIS... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated... developed by Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., designated as transformation event MIR162, which has...

  8. 75 FR 31795 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 28811) is withdrawn. The discussion that was to be held at the June 16-17, 2010 meeting of... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA...-Curay, Acting Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. BILLING...

  9. An Exploration of Attitudes towards Modern Biotechnology: A Study among Dutch Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Tanja; Severiens, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Modern biotechnology will have a large impact on society and requires informed decision-making and critical attitudes toward biotechnology among the public. This study aims to explore these attitudes in secondary education. For this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed according to the general tripartite theory of attitudes. A total of 574…

  10. 76 FR 62816 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... experts from NIH, CDC, and academia. These proposed changes were published in the Federal Register (76 FR... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA... Biotechnology Activities (OBA) is updating Appendix B of the NIH Guidelines to specify the risk group...

  11. Promotion of Biotechnology amongst Students by University Departments in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshoff, N.; Treptow, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    University departments (including schools and centres) with a direct or indirect link to biotechnology were identified. Representatives at these entities were surveyed to establish what measures South African universities are undertaking to promote biotechnology amongst students. Of the 168 departments identified, 55 submitted usable…

  12. Students' Biotechnology Literacy: The Pillars of STEM Education in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Nurnadiah Mohamed; Suryawati, Evi; Osman, Kamisah

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been widely applied in various products throughout the 21st century. Malaysia selected the biotechnology sector as one of the key strategic technologies that would enable Malaysia to transform into a fully developed nation by the year 2020. However, to date, there has been very little research on the level of biotechnology…

  13. 76 FR 60448 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Lepidopteran-Resistant Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... in 7 CFR part 340. In a notice \\1\\ published in the Federal Register on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27301... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated... Biotechnology, Inc., designated as event COT67B, which has been genetically engineered to express a protein...

  14. Teaching about Designer Babies and Genetically Modified Foods: Encouraging the Teaching of Biotechnology in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Glenda; Schibecci, Renato

    2006-01-01

    Biotechnology is a cutting edge science/technology which impacts the community in many ways. For this and other reasons, it is important we encourage teachers to include biotechnology in the science curriculum. First, however, we need to know what hinders and encourages teachers. We surveyed the views of 88 high school science teachers. The …

  15. Educational Awareness of Biotechnology Issues among Undergraduate Students at the United Arab Emirates University

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuQamar, Synan; Alshannag, Qasim; Sartawi, Abdelaziz; Iratni, Rabah

    2015-01-01

    Due to its valuable benefits and potential risks, there is a progressing debate among opponents and proponents of biotechnology in recent decades. Previous studies have shown that lack of knowledge about biotechnology remains the concern about genetically modified organisms/food (GMO/GMF). This study assessed levels of educational awareness…

  16. Towards sustainable biotechnology innovation in Africa : The roles of stakeholders in local contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Caspar

    2015-01-01

    Aim To contribute to sustainable crop-biotechnology innovation in African contexts by operationalizing guiding concepts from Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies. Objectives To explore the roles of different stakeholders in crop-biotechnology innovation processes in Africa; To explore how l

  17. DISCUSSION SUMMARY: APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE SYSTEMATICS AND MONITORING OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a general discussion of the application of biotechnology to the systematics and monitoring of microbial agents used in biotechnology. resent conventional methods such as microscropy, selective media, marker utilization, etc. were described. wo newer methods, rRNA sequenci...

  18. The waves of Biotechnological Innovation in Medicine: Interfirm Cooperation Effects and a Venture Capital Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fernald, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Improving medicine and health is the ultimate purpose of biotechnological innovation, where basic science is used to develop new innovative diagnostics and therapeutics to significantly improve the lives of patients worldwide. Concurrently, for three stakeholder groups, the primary goal is to generate profitable business from biotechnological innovation. These stakeholders are ‘entrepreneurial’ biotech companies, venture capitalists and established pharmaceutical firm...

  19. Educational awareness of biotechnology issues among undergraduate students at the United Arab Emirates University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuQamar, Synan; Alshannag, Qasim; Sartawi, Abdelaziz; Iratni, Rabah

    2015-01-01

    Due to its valuable benefits and potential risks, there is a progressing debate among opponents and proponents of biotechnology in recent decades. Previous studies have shown that lack of knowledge about biotechnology remains the concern about genetically modified organisms/food (GMO/GMF). This study assessed levels of educational awareness perceptions and attitudes of United Arab Emirates University (UAEU) students towards biotechnology. An electronic survey including literacy, environmental, social, and economic domains associated with biotechnology was administered to obtain data from undergraduate students in different colleges of the university. Responses from students (n = 1,104) were gathered and statistically analyzed. Results indicated that educational awareness in biotechnology literacy and environmental domains were significantly different according to the enrolled college and the academic achievement of the student. In general, a poor overall performance of our students' understanding was concluded. Aware groups most likely accepted accurate biotechnology information delivered by reliable sources from internet or lectures; they grasped their knowledge from surrounding people as a secondary source. Since UAEU students have several concept misunderstandings of biotechnology and its ethics, our results suggest that awareness plays a crucial role in forming a "clear-cut" opinion about this technology. Because education can shape public attitudes toward biotechnology, priorities on university curricula and teaching strategies should be extensively given, and therefore, improve in respect to this topic. Ultimately, this promotes the students' perception in understanding the new technology. PMID:25787822

  20. A Study of Prospective Turkish Science Teachers' Knowledge at the Popular Biotechnological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcin, Emine Selcen; Turkmen, Lutfullah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge level of popular biotechnological issues of prospective Turkish science teachers. A questionnaire was administered during 2005-2006 academic year to 194 students in the Department of Science Education of a university in Turkey. The questionnaire covered six biotechnological issues such as…

  1. Long-term Outlook and Implications of the Marine Biotechnology Market in Korea and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckhee Jang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine biotechnology industry is very significant as compared to other industries as one of the driving forces for economic growth in the next generation in Korea. However, the marine biotechnology market has been considered as a component of the biotechnology industry market which made difficult for creating separate research areas in relation to the scope of the relevant industry market as well as making it difficult to establish its own R&D policy strategies. Accordingly, this study was executed to estimate the future long-term market value of the marine biotechnology within the limit of industrial field and to verify the importance of national R&D investment in marine biotechnology on the basis of estimations within the industrial perspective. To this end, we classified the marine biotechnology industry into the four sub-sectors and estimated the domestic and global industrial market in 2010 and 2024. According to the results, the domestic and global market of the marine biotechnology industry will see a remarkable growth by 2024. In particular, the bio-energy, pharmaceutical and functional foods industry markets will achieve astonishing advances. On the basis of the analysis results, Korea has to establish more progressive and aggressive R&D investment strategies to strengthen national competitiveness through the marine biotechnology industry.

  2. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure University Students' Biotechnology Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Özel, Murat; Uşak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-06-01

    The impact of biotechnologies on peoples' everyday lives continuously increases. Measuring young peoples' attitudes toward biotechnologies is therefore very important and its results are useful not only for science curriculum developers and policy makers, but also for producers and distributors of genetically modified products. Despite of substantial number of instruments which focused on measuring student attitudes toward biotechnology, a majority of them were not rigorously validated. This study deals with the development and validation of an attitude questionnaire toward biotechnology. Detailed information on development and validation process of the instrument is provided. Data gathered from 326 university students provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the new instrument which consists of 28 attitude items on a five point likert type scale. It is believed that the instrument will serve as a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers in science education to assess students' biotechnology attitudes.

  3. 75 FR 58410 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science... of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, (301)...

  4. 76 FR 28793 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science... Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland...

  5. 75 FR 2549 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science... concerning this meeting, contact Ms. Laurie Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology...: January 11, 2010. Kelly R. Fennington, Special Assistant to the Director, Office of...

  6. 77 FR 66624 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science... 20892. Contact Person: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities,...

  7. 76 FR 77240 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science..., NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland...

  8. REFORMING DRUG APPROVAL IN THE UNITED STATES: MEASURES NECESSARY TO ALLEVIATE THE CASH CRUNCH FACED BY SMALL BIOTECHNOLOGY COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    McWilliams, Douglas E.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, the infant biotechnology industry, led by small biotechnology companies, has produced numerous breakthrough drugs which have saved lives, reduced suffering and cut the cost of health care. Given that the biopharmaceutical industry has only been in existence for a little over 20 years, biotechnology holds enormous potential for the advancement of medical treatments. Unfortunately, even with biotechnology, as with the more traditional methods of drug development, the gover...

  9. Risk, regulation and biotechnology: the case of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2014-07-01

    The global regulation of products of biotechnology is increasingly divided. Regulatory decisions for genetically modified (GM) crops in North America are predictable and efficient, with numerous countries in Latin and South America, Australia and Asia following this lead. While it might have been possible to argue that Europe's regulations were at one time based on real concerns about minimizing risks and ensuring health and safety, it is increasingly apparent that the entire European Union (EU) regulatory system for GM crops and foods is now driven by political agendas. Countries within the EU are at odds with each other as some have commercial production of GM crops, while others refuse to even develop regulations that could provide for the commercial release of GM crops. This divide in regulatory decision-making is affecting international grain trade, creating challenges for feeding an increasing global population. PMID:25437235

  10. At the cutting-edge of grape and wine biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, Anthony R; Schmidt, Simon A; Pretorius, Isak S

    2013-04-01

    Wine is arguably the oldest biotechnological endeavor, with humans having been involved in wine production for at least 7000 years. Despite the artisan nature of its production, work by pioneering scientists such as Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier and Louis Pasteur placed wine research in a prominent position for the application of cutting-edge biological and chemical sciences, a position it still holds to this day. Technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and systems biology are now revolutionizing winemaking by combining the ability to engineer phenotypes rationally, with a precise understanding of the genetic makeup and key phenotypic drivers of the key organisms that contribute to this age-old industry. PMID:23218459

  11. New Cooperation Modes: An Opportunity for Polish Biotechnological Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Puslecki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews new cooperation forms between companies, referring to the latest data from the asap (the Association of Strategic Alliance Professionals. Potential cooperation between companies, universities and research institutes in the field of biotechnology in Poland based on a model of open innovation alliances are presented. Biopharmaceutical companies are looking for new and innovative paths of development. They try to implement new strategies to transfer their research processes to a higher level. To achieve this, biopharmaceutical companies often use open innovation model as an additional tool for developing new products. Thanks to the cooperation with universities in the framework of open innovation alliances, they can significantly reduce the risk, the cost of research, and most of all, through joint work with academic researchers on identifying disease mechanisms and on development of new drugs, they are able to create improved and appropriate medical therapy for patients.

  12. Application of cerium(IV)/EDTA complex for future biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new artificial system for site-selective hydrolysis of single-stranded DNAs was prepared. By using two oligonucleotide additives that bear a monophosphate group at the termini, gap structures were formed at predetermined positions in substrate DNA. The phosphodiester linkages in the gap were efficiently and selectively hydrolyzed by Ce(IV)/EDTA complex (EDTA, ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate) at pH 7.0 and 37 deg. C. Furthermore, the fragments formed by the site-selective scission were connected with various oligonucleotides by using T4 DNA ligase, producing desired recombinant DNAs. A new tool for manipulation of single-stranded DNA in biotechnology has been successfully obtained

  13. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY ON ENVIRONMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Jošt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of modern biotechnology in agricultural production processes has generated new ethical, economic, social and environmental dilemmas confronting scientists all over the world. While current knowledge is insufficient for assessing the promised benefits and possible risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs, the principle of “substantial equivalence” in comparing GM and conventional food is profoundly flawed and scientifically insupportable. The current generation of GMOs provide small benefits except corporate profit and marginally improved grower returns. The TRIPS agreement has allowed worldwide patenting of genes and microorganisms, as well as genetically engineered organisms. Granting patents on life encourages biopiracy and the theft of genetic resources belonging to the local community. At the same time, the patented products are sold at relatively high prices to developing countries – the same countries from which the product originated.

  14. Exploration of extremophiles for high temperature biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander; Schäfers, Christian; Blank, Saskia; Schröder, Carola; Antranikian, Garabed

    2015-06-01

    Industrial processes often take place under harsh conditions that are hostile to microorganisms and their biocatalysts. Microorganisms surviving at temperatures above 60°C represent a chest of biotechnological treasures for high-temperature bioprocesses by producing a large portfolio of biocatalysts (thermozymes). Due to the unique requirements to cultivate thermophilic (60-80°C) and hyperthermophilic (80-110°C) Bacteria and Archaea, less than 5% are cultivable in the laboratory. Therefore, other approaches including sequence-based screenings and metagenomics have been successful in providing novel thermozymes. In particular, polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (amylolytic enzymes, hemicellulases, cellulases, pectinases and chitinases), lipolytic enzymes and proteases from thermophiles have attracted interest due to their potential for versatile applications in pharmaceutical, chemical, food, textile, paper, leather and feed industries as well as in biorefineries. PMID:26066287

  15. Biotechnological production of natural zero-calorie sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Ryan N; De Mey, Marjan; Anderson, Jeff; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

    2014-04-01

    The increasing public awareness of adverse health impacts from excessive sugar consumption has created increasing interest in plant-derived, natural low-calorie or zero-calorie sweeteners. Two plant species which contain natural sweeteners, Stevia rebaudiana and Siraitia grosvenorii, have been extensively profiled to identify molecules with high intensity sweetening properties. However, sweetening ability does not necessarily make a product viable for commercial applications. Some criteria for product success are proposed to identify which targets are likely to be accepted by consumers. Limitations of plant-based production are discussed, and a case is put forward for the necessity of biotechnological production methods such as plant cell culture or microbial fermentation to meet needs for commercial-scale production of natural sweeteners. PMID:24503452

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction by reversed micelles in biotechnological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilikian B. V.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In biotechnology there is a need for new purification and concentration processes for biologically active compounds such as proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, or cells that combine a high selectivity and biocompatibility with an easy scale-up. A liquid-liquid extraction with a reversed micellar phase might serve these purposes owing to its capacity to solubilize specific biomolecules from dilute aqueous solutions such as fermentation and cell culture media. Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant molecules containing an inner core of water molecules, dispersed in a continuous organic solvent medium. These reversed micelles are capable of selectively solubilizing polar compounds in an apolar solvent. This review gives an overview of liquid-liquid extraction by reversed micelles for a better understanding of this process.

  17. Current Technological Improvements in Enzymes toward Their Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, Mehak; Nain, Lata; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes from extremophiles are creating interest among researchers due to their unique properties and the enormous power of catalysis at extreme conditions. Since community demands are getting more intensified, therefore, researchers are applying various approaches viz. metagenomics to increase the database of extremophilic species. Furthermore, the innovations are being made in the naturally occurring enzymes utilizing various tools of recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering, which allows redesigning of the enzymes for its better fitment into the process. In this review, we discuss the biochemical constraints of psychrophiles during survival at the lower temperature. We summarize the current knowledge about the sources of such enzymes and their in vitro modification through mutagenesis to explore their biotechnological potential. Finally, we recap the microbial cell surface display to enhance the efficiency of the process in cost effective way. PMID:27379087

  18. Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadin Pade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants.

  19. APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMATERIALS: NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOFILMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.; Berry, T.; Narayan, R.

    2010-11-29

    Biotechnology is the application of biological techniques to develop new tools and products for medicine and industry. Due to various properties including chemical stability, biocompatibility, and specific activity, e.g. antimicrobial properties, many new and novel materials are being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. Many of these materials are less than 100 nanometers in size. Nanotechnology is the engineering discipline encompassing designing, producing, testing, and using structures and devices less than 100 nanometers. One of the challenges associated with biomaterials is microbial contamination that can lead to infections. In recent work we have examined the functionalization of nanoporous biomaterials and antimicrobial activities of nanocrystalline diamond materials. In vitro testing has revealed little antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria and associated biofilm formation that enhances recalcitrance to antimicrobial agents including disinfectants and antibiotics. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies further demonstrated properties and characteristics of the material with regard to biofilm formation.

  20. Progress and recent trends in biotechnological methods for leather processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Rao, Jonnalagadda R; Nair, Balachandran U; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2004-04-01

    Global environmental regulations are changing the leather-processing industry. Pre-tanning and tanning processes contribute 80-90% of the total pollution in the industry and generate noxious gases, such as hydrogen sulfide, as well as solid wastes, such as lime and chrome sludge. The use of enzyme-based products is currently being explored for many areas of leather making. Furthermore, enzymes are gaining increasing importance in the de-hairing process, eliminating the need for sodium sulfide. This review discusses emerging novel biotechnological methods used in leather processing. One significant achievement is the development of a bioprocess-based de-hairing and fiber-opening methodology to reduce toxic waste. PMID:15038923

  1. Current Technological Improvements in Enzymes towards their biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehak eBaweja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes from extremophiles are creating interest among researchers due to their unique properties and the enormous power of catalysis at extreme conditions. Since community demands are getting more intensified, therefore, researchers are applying various approaches viz. metagenomics to increase the database of extremophilic species. Furthermore, the innovations are being made in the naturally occurring enzymes utilizing various tools of recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering, which allows redesigning of the enzymes for its better fitment into the process. In this review, we discuss the biochemical constraints of psychrophiles during survival at the lower temperature. We summarize the current knowledge about the sources of such enzymes and their in vitro modification through mutagenesis to explore their biotechnological potential. Finally, we recap the microbial cell surface display to enhance the efficiency of the process in cost effective way.

  2. Potential role of biotechnology in the remediation of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of biotechnology to remediation of environmental pollution is discussed, with emphasis on microbial degradation of chlorinated compounds, microbial surfactants for clean-up of oil-related pollution, and biodegradation of the chemical warfare agents mustard gas or the defoliant Agent Orange. Strong genetic selection has led to the isolation of single microbial cultures or products that can allow enhanced degradation or removal of such hazardous compounds. The similarities in gene organization and homology seen between evolved chlorocatechol genes and parent catechol genes suggest that natural microorganisms evolve new degradative functions by recruiting genes that encode analogous functions for structurally similar compounds and introduce mutational or recombinational alterations to allow broadening or changes in the specificity of gene products to use chlorinated compounds as substrates. The use of the microbial surfactant BIO-EM in cleaning up oil spills is discussed. 37 refs., 5 figs

  3. The application of biotechnological methods in authenticity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popping, Bert

    2002-09-11

    By counterfeiting brand names in the food and drink industry as well as fraudulently labelling and selling low quality products as premium products, this sector of the industry has lost significant amounts of money and the consumer has been deceived. While it was difficult to establish certain types of fraud before the advent of modern biotechnology, DNA-based methods make an important contribution to protect high-quality brand names and protect the consumer. Several years ago, DNA technologies were considered as methods used in universities, primarily for research purpose, not so much for 'real-life' applications. However, this has changed and a number of laboratories have specialised in offering such services to the industry. This article will review DNA-based techniques commonly used for authenticity testing. PMID:12126809

  4. Silk-microfluidics for advanced biotechnological applications: A progressive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Gupta, Prerak; Mandal, Biman B

    2016-01-01

    Silk based biomaterials have not only carved a unique niche in the domain of regenerative medicine but new avenues are also being explored for lab-on-a-chip applications. It is pertinent to note that biospinning of silk represents nature's signature microfluidic-maneuver. Elucidation of non-Newtonian flow of silk in the glands of spiders and silkworms has inspired researchers to fabricate devices for continuous extrusion and concentration of silk. Microfluidic channel networks within porous silk scaffolds ensure optimal nutrient and oxygen supply apart from serving as precursors for vascularization in tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, unique topographical features and surface wettability of natural silk fibers have inspired development of a number of simple and cost-effective devices for applications like blood typing and chemical sensing. This review mirrors the recent progress and challenges in the domain of silk-microfluidics for prospective avant-garde applications in the realm of biotechnology. PMID:27165254

  5. Marine cyanobacteria as sources of new biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Vasconcelos

    2014-06-01

    Bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria may also have allelopathic activity with potential use to control algal blooms or as antifouling in the marine environment (Leão et al., 2012, Antunes et al., 2013. We have isolated and characterized for the first time allelopathic compounds named Portoamides that act synergistically to prevent the growth of some microalgae (Leão et al., 2010. Cyanobacteria extracts can also prevent the development of some invertebrates such as sea urchins and mussels (Martins et al., 2007 and so they can be candidates to develop antifouling agents that are environmentally friendly. The potential of cyanobacteria as source of new bioactive compounds is enormous, with the advantage of being applicable in many different areas of biotechnology, with many industrial applications.

  6. Recent advances in biotechnological production of 2-phenylethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Dongliang; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is an important aromatic alcohol with a rose-like fragrance. It has been widely applied in the cosmetic, perfume, and food industries and is mainly produced by chemical synthesis. An alternative method for the production of natural flavors and fragrances is the microbial transformation process, which is attracting increasing attention because it is an environmentally friendly process and the products are considered "natural". The production of 2-PE from L-phenylalanine by biotransformation is possible through the Ehrlich pathway and considerable progress has been made in the development of this process. The present report reviews recent advances in biotechnological production of 2-PE, with emphasis on the strategies used to increase production and the applications of in situ product removal techniques. Future research should focus on product scale-up and product recovery processes for the industrialization of microbial processes. PMID:21601630

  7. Toward biotechnological production of adipic acid and precursors from biorenewables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Tino; Spelberg, Markus; Bott, Michael

    2013-08-20

    Adipic acid is the most important commercial aliphatic dicarboxylic acid in the chemical industry and is primarily used for the production of nylon-6,6 polyamide. The current adipic acid market volume is about 2.6 million tons/y and the average annual demand growth rate forecast to stay at 3-3.5% worldwide. Hitherto, the industrial production of adipic acid is carried out by petroleum-based chemo-catalytic processes from non-renewable fossil fuels. However, in the past years, efforts were made to find alternative routes for adipic acid production from renewable carbon sources by biotechnological processes. Here we review the approaches and the progress made toward bio-based production of adipic acid. PMID:22824738

  8. Biotechnological Applications Derived from Microorganisms of the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Azua-Bustos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atacama Desert in Chile is well known for being the driest and oldest desert on Earth. For these same reasons, it is also considered a good analog model of the planet Mars. Only a few decades ago, it was thought that this was a sterile place, but in the past years fascinating adaptations have been reported in the members of the three domains of life: low water availability, high UV radiation, high salinity, and other environmental stresses. However, the biotechnological applications derived from the basic understanding and characterization of these species, with the notable exception of copper bioleaching, are still in its infancy, thus offering an immense potential for future development.

  9. Challenges facing European agriculture and possible biotechnological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricroch, Agnès; Harwood, Wendy; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Sági, László; Hundleby, Penelope; Badea, Elena Marcela; Rosca, Ioan; Cruz, Gabriela; Salema Fevereiro, Manuel Pedro; Marfà Riera, Victoria; Jansson, Stefan; Morandini, Piero; Bojinov, Bojin; Cetiner, Selim; Custers, René; Schrader, Uwe; Jacobsen, Hans-Joerg; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Boisron, Audrey; Kuntz, Marcel

    2016-10-01

    Agriculture faces many challenges to maximize yields while it is required to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner. In the present study, we analyze the major agricultural challenges identified by European farmers (primarily related to biotic stresses) in 13 countries, namely Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, UK and Turkey, for nine major crops (barley, beet, grapevine, maize, oilseed rape, olive, potato, sunflower and wheat). Most biotic stresses (BSs) are related to fungi or insects, but viral diseases, bacterial diseases and even parasitic plants have an important impact on yield and harvest quality. We examine how these challenges have been addressed by public and private research sectors, using either conventional breeding, marker-assisted selection, transgenesis, cisgenesis, RNAi technology or mutagenesis. Both national surveys and scientific literature analysis followed by text mining were employed to evaluate genetic engineering (GE) and non-GE approaches. This is the first report of text mining of the scientific literature on plant breeding and agricultural biotechnology research. For the nine major crops in Europe, 128 BS challenges were identified with 40% of these addressed neither in the scientific literature nor in recent European public research programs. We found evidence that the private sector was addressing only a few of these "neglected" challenges. Consequently, there are considerable gaps between farmer's needs and current breeding and biotechnology research. We also provide evidence that the current political situation in certain European countries is an impediment to GE research in order to address these agricultural challenges in the future. This study should also contribute to the decision-making process on future pertinent international consortia to fill the identified research gaps. PMID:26133365

  10. Can plant biotechnology help break the HIV-malaria link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvaka, E; Twyman, R M; Christou, P; Capell, T

    2014-01-01

    The population of sub-Saharan Africa is at risk from multiple, poverty-related endemic diseases. HIV and malaria are the most prevalent, but they disproportionately affect different groups of people, i.e. HIV predominantly affects sexually-active adults whereas malaria has a greater impact on children and pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is a significant geographical and epidemiological overlap which results in bidirectional and synergistic interactions with important consequences for public health. The immunosuppressive effects of HIV increase the risk of infection when individuals are exposed to malaria parasites and also the severity of malaria symptoms. Similarly, acute malaria can induce a temporary increase in the HIV viral load. HIV is associated with a wide range of opportunistic infections that can be misdiagnosed as malaria, resulting in the wasteful misuse of antimalarial drugs and a failure to address the genuine cause of the disease. There is also a cumulative risk of toxicity when antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs are given to the same patients. Synergistic approaches involving the control of malaria as a strategy to fight HIV/AIDS and vice versa are therefore needed in co-endemic areas. Plant biotechnology has emerged as a promising approach to tackle poverty-related diseases because plant-derived drugs and vaccines can be produced inexpensively in developing countries and may be distributed using agricultural infrastructure without the need for a cold chain. Here we explore some of the potential contributions of plant biotechnology and its integration into broader multidisciplinary public health programs to combat the two diseases in developing countries. PMID:24607600

  11. 76 FR 14895 - Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Agricultural Research Service Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st...: Notice of request for nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES:...

  12. 76 FR 38348 - Notice of Appointment of Committee Members to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary... Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture. SUMMARY: The Office of the Under... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (``AC21''). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  13. Connecting learners: The role of biotechnology programme in preparing students for the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Saruan, Nadiah; Sagran, Avinash; Fadzil, Kamal Solhaimi; Razali, Zuliana; Ow Phui San, Rebecca; Somasundram, Chandran

    2015-01-01

    The recent growth of biotechnology requires a wide range of expertise within the industry. Education is the primary platform for students to gain information and knowledge on biotechnology. In Malaysia where biotechnology is relatively new, education programs and courses must be tailored to meet the demands of the industry. A combination of theoretical knowledge as well as practical and industrial training is essential to ensure graduates are prepared for their career in the fields of biotechnology. Results from this study show that university students lack literacy on biotechnology information and access to facilities provided by the universities. This may be a significant contributing factor to the lack of knowledge and information amongst graduates. Furthermore comparative analysis on the biotechnology program in Malaysian universities with that of other countries show the need to restructure the program by offering more specialized courses as well as soft skills and business subjects. This is to meet the demands of the related professionals as well as the various branches that exist in the biotechnology industry. PMID:26525315

  14. PLANT TISSUE CULTURE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY: RECENT ADVANCES IN TRANSFORMATION THROUGH SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sidorov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic transformation has become an important biotechnology tool for the improvement of many crops. A solid foundation for the fast development and implementation of biotechnology in agriculture was provided by achievements in plant tissue culture. On the 30th anniversary of plant transformation, I report the advancements, recent challenges and shifts in methodology of transformation. The main focus of this paper will be on conventional and novel approaches for genetic improvements of soybean, cotton and corn. I will also highlight results on the transformation of these crops that have considerably been improved by modern biotechnology.

  15. Internationalizing to United States : the motives and market entry mode choices of Finnish biotechnology companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kaitazis, Nicoleta

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnology is one of the fastest growing fields Finland and it has predicted that in the future the field will play a significant role in Finland’s GDP. Even so, Finland’s home market is relatively small for Finnish biotechnology companies to grow and succeed. United States of America has the biggest market in the field of biotechnology as the majority of the companies as well the as a large portion of the end-consumers are located there. Hence, many Finnish companies have internationalize...

  16. Workshop on biotechnology in forest science. University of British Columbia, February 20-22, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, I.C.M. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    After an opening address, there are 9 papers presented in 4 sections: Section I: biotechnology research at the molecular level; three papers covering advances in gene cloning, gene expression in higher organisms and Ti-plasmids as possible cloning vectors; Section II: tissue culture and micropropagation; three papers and a discussion section; Section III: biotechnology at the tree level; three papers covering recent advances, genetic transformations and microbial delignification of lignocellulosic materials. Section IV: panel discussion in perspectives in biotechnology research in relation to forest trees.

  17. Care and the self: biotechnology, reproduction, and the good life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stuart J

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores a novel philosophy of ethical care in the face of burgeoning biomedical technologies. I respond to a serious challenge facing traditional bioethics with its roots in analytic philosophy. The hallmarks of these traditional approaches are reason and autonomy, founded on a belief in the liberal humanist subject. In recent years, however, there have been mounting challenges to this view of human subjectivity, emerging from poststructuralist critiques, such as Michel Foucault's, but increasingly also as a result of advances in biotechnology itself. In the face of these developments, I argue that the theoretical relevance and practical application of mainstream bioethics is increasingly under strain. Traditionalists will undoubtedly resist. Together, professional philosopher-bioethicists, public health policymakers, and the global commercial healthcare industry tend to respond conservatively by shoring up the liberal humanist subject as the foundation for medical ethics and consumer decision-making, appealing to the familiar tropes of reason, autonomy, and freedom.I argue for a different approach to bioethics, and work towards a new way to conceive of ethical relations in healthcare--one that does not presume a sovereign subject as the basis of dignity, personhood or democracy. Instead, I am critical of the narrow instantiations of reason, autonomy, and freedom, which, more recently, have been co-opted by a troubling neo-liberal politics of the self. Thus, I am critical of current trends in medical ethics, often running in tandem with corporate-governmental models of efficiency, accountability, and so-called evidence-based best practices. As an example of such market-driven conceptions of subjectivity, I discuss the paradigm of "self-care." Self-care shores up the traditional view of the self as a free agent. In this sense, self-care is looked upon favourably by mainstream bioethics in its focus on autonomy, while healthcare policy endorses this model

  18. Care and the self: biotechnology, reproduction, and the good life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Stuart J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper explores a novel philosophy of ethical care in the face of burgeoning biomedical technologies. I respond to a serious challenge facing traditional bioethics with its roots in analytic philosophy. The hallmarks of these traditional approaches are reason and autonomy, founded on a belief in the liberal humanist subject. In recent years, however, there have been mounting challenges to this view of human subjectivity, emerging from poststructuralist critiques, such as Michel Foucault's, but increasingly also as a result of advances in biotechnology itself. In the face of these developments, I argue that the theoretical relevance and practical application of mainstream bioethics is increasingly under strain. Traditionalists will undoubtedly resist. Together, professional philosopher-bioethicists, public health policymakers, and the global commercial healthcare industry tend to respond conservatively by shoring up the liberal humanist subject as the foundation for medical ethics and consumer decision-making, appealing to the familiar tropes of reason, autonomy, and freedom. I argue for a different approach to bioethics, and work towards a new way to conceive of ethical relations in healthcare – one that does not presume a sovereign subject as the basis of dignity, personhood or democracy. Instead, I am critical of the narrow instantiations of reason, autonomy, and freedom, which, more recently, have been co-opted by a troubling neo-liberal politics of the self. Thus, I am critical of current trends in medical ethics, often running in tandem with corporate-governmental models of efficiency, accountability, and so-called evidence-based best practices. As an example of such market-driven conceptions of subjectivity, I discuss the paradigm of "self-care." Self-care shores up the traditional view of the self as a free agent. In this sense, self-care is looked upon favourably by mainstream bioethics in its focus on autonomy, while

  19. Biotechnology for Sustainable Crop Production and Protection: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Manjunath

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, transgenic crops were grown on 134 million hectares in 25 countries, including India, in six continents by about 14million farmers, marking an 80-fold increase in the area since their first commercialization on 1.7 m ha in the USA and fiveother countries in 1996. The dominant transgenic traits were herbicide tolerance and insect resistance, deployed either alone orboth stacked in the same plant. A recent survey of the global impact of biotech crops estimated that in 2008 alone, the totalcrop production gain globally for the 4 principal biotech crops - maize, soybean, cotton and canola - was 29.6 million metrictons while the net economic benefit to the biotech farmers was US$ 9.2 billion. The cumulative benefits for the period 1996-2008 were yield gains of 167 million tons and economic returns of US$ 51.9 billion. In India, the area planted with Bt-cottonincreased significantly from year to year since its introduction in 2002 and reached 8.4 million hectares in 2009. The overallbenefits from Bt-cotton included an yield increase of up to 63% due to effective control of bollworms, pesticide reduction by50%, net profit to farmers up to Rs.10,000/hectare and turned India from an importer to a major exporter of cotton. Theseindicate that biotechnology has made significant contributions to higher productivity, lower costs of production and increasedeconomic benefits and that it has enormous potential for the future with new traits, events and crops. Over 60 countries,including India, are engaged in research on about 55 crop species to incorporate transgenes to bestow various traits such asresistance to pests, diseases or herbicides; tolerance to environmental stresses like drought, cold or salinity; enhanced cropyields, nutrition or shelf-life, etc. However, unreasonable opposition to biotechnology and undue delays in regulatoryapprovals are some of the major challenges that need to be addressed so as to make full use of this technology which

  20. Care and the self: biotechnology, reproduction, and the good life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stuart J

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores a novel philosophy of ethical care in the face of burgeoning biomedical technologies. I respond to a serious challenge facing traditional bioethics with its roots in analytic philosophy. The hallmarks of these traditional approaches are reason and autonomy, founded on a belief in the liberal humanist subject. In recent years, however, there have been mounting challenges to this view of human subjectivity, emerging from poststructuralist critiques, such as Michel Foucault's, but increasingly also as a result of advances in biotechnology itself. In the face of these developments, I argue that the theoretical relevance and practical application of mainstream bioethics is increasingly under strain. Traditionalists will undoubtedly resist. Together, professional philosopher-bioethicists, public health policymakers, and the global commercial healthcare industry tend to respond conservatively by shoring up the liberal humanist subject as the foundation for medical ethics and consumer decision-making, appealing to the familiar tropes of reason, autonomy, and freedom. I argue for a different approach to bioethics, and work towards a new way to conceive of ethical relations in healthcare – one that does not presume a sovereign subject as the basis of dignity, personhood or democracy. Instead, I am critical of the narrow instantiations of reason, autonomy, and freedom, which, more recently, have been co-opted by a troubling neo-liberal politics of the self. Thus, I am critical of current trends in medical ethics, often running in tandem with corporate-governmental models of efficiency, accountability, and so-called evidence-based best practices. As an example of such market-driven conceptions of subjectivity, I discuss the paradigm of "self-care." Self-care shores up the traditional view of the self as a free agent. In this sense, self-care is looked upon favourably by mainstream bioethics in its focus on autonomy, while healthcare policy endorses this