WorldWideScience

Sample records for biotechnology industry organization

  1. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  2. 2001 Industry Studies: Biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... The applications of biotechnology, such as medicine, agribusiness, forensics, informatics and the defense sector, offer many benefits, but also bring some risk, requiring public policy decisions...

  3. Spring 2008 Industry Study: Biotechnology Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anttonen, John; Darnauer, Trish; Douglas, Tim; Ferrari, John; Zimdahl, Jennifer; Hall, Ian M; King, William; Klotzsche, Carl; Miller, Doug; Packard, Doug; Renegar, Mike; Rimback, Ed; Rogers, Gordon; Schnedar, Chris; Sekulovski, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Defined broadly as the manipulation of genetic material in living organisms or the derivatives thereof, biotechnology represents a veritable gold mine of possibilities for improving the human condition...

  4. The impact of industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2006-01-01

    In this review, the impact of industrial (or "white") biotechnology can have on our society and economy is discussed. An overview is given of industrial biotechnology and its applications in a number of product categories ranging from food ingredients, vitamins, bio-colorants, solvents, plastics and biofuels. The use of fossil resources is compared with renewable resources as the preferred feedstock for industrial biotechnology. A brief discussion is also given of the expected changes in society and technology, ranging from the shift in the supply of resources, the growing need for efficiency and sustainability of the production systems, changing consumer perception and behaviour and changing agricultural systems and practices. Many of these changes are expected to speed up the transition from a fossil-based to a bio-based economy and society.

  5. Industrial use of Biotechnology in Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    But, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the past the biological research was restricted within the boundary of laboratories and the subsequent results were often employed merely to strengthen the research knowledge and information. In life sciences, the traditional methods took years in proving the biological facts. At the leg of last century, the practical application of biotechnology provided a powerful tool to mankind that has led to a revolutionary change in modern agriculture. In the present era, the economy of agro-based countries all over the world is dependent on the adaptation of the pattern of crop-production and their improvement through modern biotechnological means. Biotechnology is in fact the name of a combination of techniques involved to make the full use of living organisms, either in total or in part, for the benefit of plants, animals or human beings. Progressive and dynamic investors, associated with researches/scientists, should be encouraged to step forward for the mobilization of emerging trend of biotechnological industry in agriculture. Researcher/Scientists of biological programmes in Pakistan should be encouraged at Government level to come forward in contributing their tremendous role to boost Agr- industry in the country. (author)

  6. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be foreseen, not only with respect of R&D, but also in general technological development represents scope of priority in the USA and in European Union (EU as well. It is accepted that the results achieved in biotechnology oversize scientific domain and find their entrance into economics, legislation, quality of life and even of politics. Corresponding with the definition of biotechnology as "the integration of natural sciences and engineering in the application of microorganisms, cells, their components and molecular analogues in production (General assembly of the European federation for Biotechnology, 1989 European Commission (1999 adopted the biotechnological taxonomy, i.e. fields and sub-fields of biotechnology. R&D activities in this domain are oriented to eight fields and branched through them. Fields of biotechnology (EC, 1999 are: 1 Plant biotechnology (agricultural cultivars, trees, bushes etc; 2 Animal biotechnology; 3 Biotechnology in environment protection; 4 Industrial biotechnology (food, feed, paper, textile, pharmaceutical and chemical productions; 5 Industrial biotechnology (production of cells and research of cells - producers of food and of other commodities; 6 Development of humane and veterinarian diagnostics (therapeutical systems 7 Development of the basic biotechnology, and 8 Nontechnical domains of biotechnology. In concordance with some judgments, in the World exist about 4000 biotechnological companies. World market of biotechnological

  7. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Popov Stevan

    2007-01-01

    According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms) in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be fore...

  8. Business Development Capability: Insights from the Biotechnology Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzi, Valeria; Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    2014-01-01

    Business development tasks and processes serves to improve firms’ innovation efforts. Such business development activities are found and refined in the biotechnology industry, but have received remarkable little attention in the academic literature. The aim of this paper is to explore the organization of business development on the basis of existing empirical literature and three case studies from the biotechnology industry. We adopt the dynamic capabilities perspective to create a theoretica...

  9. Biotechnology, Industry Study, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    www.cdc.gov/niosh/nas/RDRP/ch6.2.htm. 12 In 2007, the US share of world production was 42.6% for corn, 32.0% for soybeans , 9.3% for wheat, and 1.5...for rice. Of global exports, the US accounted for 64.5% for corn, 39.4% for soybeans , 32.1% for wheat, and 9.7% for rice. Jim Monke, CRS Report...papers.cfm?abstract_id=1321054 28 Monsanto Company, "Conversations About Plant Biotechnology," April 25, 2009, http://www.monsanto.com/biotech- gmo /asp

  10. Future societal issues in industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurbiers, Daan; Osseweijer, Patricia; Kinderlerer, Julian

    2007-09-01

    Three international stakeholder meetings were organized by The Netherlands-based "Kluyver Center for Genomics of Industrial Fermentation" with the objective to identify the future societal issues in the field of industrial biotechnology and to develop a coordinated strategy for public dialogue. The meetings resulted in five unanimous recommendations: (i) that science, industry and the European Commission in conjunction with other stakeholders create a comprehensive roadmap towards a bio-based economy; (ii) that the European Commission initiate a series of round-table meetings to further articulate the views, interests and responsibilities of the relevant stakeholders and to define policy; (iii) that the development of new innovative communication activities is stimulated to increase public engagement and to discuss the ways that we do or do not want technologies to shape our common future; (iv) that further social studies are undertaken on public attitudes and behaviors to the bio-based economy and that novel methods are developed to assess public views of future technological developments; and (v) that the concept of sustainability is further operationalized and taken as a core value driving research and development and policy making.

  11. Establishing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, Mark A; Nguyen, Ginnie TDT; Rico, Juan; Lambert, Devinn; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae constitute a diverse group of eukaryotic unicellular organisms that are of interest for pure and applied research. Owing to their natural synthesis of value-added natural products microalgae are emerging as a source of sustainable chemical compounds, proteins and metabolites, including but not limited to those that could replace compounds currently made from fossil fuels. For the model microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this has prompted a period of rapid development so that this organism is poised for exploitation as an industrial biotechnology platform. The question now is how best to achieve this? Highly advanced industrial biotechnology systems using bacteria and yeasts were established in a classical metabolic engineering manner over several decades. However, the advent of advanced molecular tools and the rise of synthetic biology provide an opportunity to expedite the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform, avoiding the process of incremental improvement. In this review we describe the current status of genetic manipulation of C. reinhardtii for metabolic engineering. We then introduce several concepts that underpin synthetic biology, and show how generic parts are identified and used in a standard manner to achieve predictable outputs. Based on this we suggest that the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform can be achieved more efficiently through adoption of a synthetic biology approach. Significance Statement Chlamydomonas reinhardtii offers potential as a host for the production of high value compounds for industrial biotechnology. Synthetic biology provides a mechanism to generate generic, well characterised tools for application in the rational genetic manipulation of organisms: if synthetic biology principles were adopted for manipulation of C. reinhardtii, development of this microalga as an industrial biotechnology platform would be expedited. PMID:25641561

  12. Trends in industrial and environmental biotechnology research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... trends in industrial and environmental biotechnology research in Tanzania for the past 20 years. Researches on production of bio-energy, enzymes and organic acids are reviewed. Furthermore, researches related to wastewater treatment systems including water stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands are covered.

  13. Industrial Biotechnology: Discovery to Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotani, Gopal K.; Dodge, Timothy C.; Gaertner, Alfred L.; Arbige, Michael V.

    Fermentation products have penetrated almost every sector of our daily lives. They are used in ethical and generic drugs, clinical and home diagnostics, defense products, nutritional supplements, personal care products, food and animal feed ingredients, cleaning and textile processing, and in industrial applications such as fuel ethanol production. Even before knowing about the existence of microorganisms, for thousands of years ancient people routinely used them for making cheese, soy sauces, yogurt, and bread. Although humans have used fermentation as the method of choice for manufacturing for a long time, it is only now being recognized for its potential towards sustainable industrial development.

  14. Biotechnology: Health care, agriculture, industry, environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikyta, B.; Pavlasova, E.; Stejskalova, E.

    1986-01-01

    New developments in different branches of biotechnology are discussed. The production of peptide hormones, new interferons and other lymphokines by the microbial and cell cultures, and new enzyme inhibitors of microbial origin are the most important for health care and pharmacy. The main direction in research in the agriculture represents the development of the new, very effective methods of nitrogen fixation and the production of animal growth hormones by gene manipulated microorganisms. One of the most important field of application of biotechnology is the chemical industry, c.f. microbial production of polymers and biotransformation of compounds previously produced by chemical methods (acrylamide, adipic acid, naphthalene conversion, etc.). Several novel methods of degradation of the cellulosic materials are mentioned and exploitation of biotechnology in environmental protection is also discussed.

  15. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewanika, Mbikusita Mwananyanda

    2005-01-01

    The article sets out to explain in simple terms the main concepts of Biotechnology beginning with traditional biotechnology to modern biotechnology. It outlines fundamentals of Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Genetic Engineering. The article offers a discussion of the benefits, disadvantages and the general public and policy concerns regarding genetically modified organisms

  16. Establishing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, Mark A; Nguyen, Ginnie T D T; Rico, Juan; Lambert, Devinn; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae constitute a diverse group of eukaryotic unicellular organisms that are of interest for pure and applied research. Owing to their natural synthesis of value-added natural products microalgae are emerging as a source of sustainable chemical compounds, proteins and metabolites, including but not limited to those that could replace compounds currently made from fossil fuels. For the model microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this has prompted a period of rapid development so that this organism is poised for exploitation as an industrial biotechnology platform. The question now is how best to achieve this? Highly advanced industrial biotechnology systems using bacteria and yeasts were established in a classical metabolic engineering manner over several decades. However, the advent of advanced molecular tools and the rise of synthetic biology provide an opportunity to expedite the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform, avoiding the process of incremental improvement. In this review we describe the current status of genetic manipulation of C. reinhardtii for metabolic engineering. We then introduce several concepts that underpin synthetic biology, and show how generic parts are identified and used in a standard manner to achieve predictable outputs. Based on this we suggest that the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform can be achieved more efficiently through adoption of a synthetic biology approach. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. New challenges and opportunities for industrial biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology has not developed as fast as expected due to some challenges including the emergences of alternative energy sources, especially shale gas, natural gas hydrate (or gas hydrate) and sand oil et al. The weaknesses of microbial or enzymatic processes compared with the chemical processing also make industrial biotech products less competitive with the chemical ones. However, many opportunities are still there if industrial biotech processes can be as similar as the chemical ones. Taking advantages of the molecular biology and synthetic biology methods as well as changing process patterns, we can develop bioprocesses as competitive as chemical ones, these including the minimized cells, open and continuous fermentation processes et al. PMID:22905695

  18. Halophiles, coming stars for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jin; Chen, Jin-Chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-11-15

    Industrial biotechnology aims to produce chemicals, materials and biofuels to ease the challenges of shortage on petroleum. However, due to the disadvantages of bioprocesses including energy consuming sterilization, high fresh water consumption, discontinuous fermentation to avoid microbial contamination, highly expensive stainless steel fermentation facilities and competing substrates for human consumption, industrial biotechnology is less competitive compared with chemical processes. Recently, halophiles have shown promises to overcome these shortcomings. Due to their unique halophilic properties, some halophiles are able to grow in high pH and high NaCl containing medium under higher temperature, allowing fermentation processes to run contamination free under unsterile conditions and continuous way. At the same time, genetic manipulation methods have been developed for halophiles. So far, halophiles have been used to produce bioplastics polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), ectoines, enzymes, and bio-surfactants. Increasing effects have been made to develop halophiles into a low cost platform for bioprocessing with advantages of low energy, less fresh water consumption, low fixed capital investment, and continuous production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonclinical statistics for pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a reference text for regulatory, industry and academic statisticians and also a handy manual for entry level Statisticians. Additionally it aims to stimulate academic interest in the field of Nonclinical Statistics and promote this as an important discipline in its own right. This text brings together for the first time in a single volume a comprehensive survey of methods important to the nonclinical science areas within the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Specifically the Discovery and Translational sciences, the Safety/Toxiology sciences, and the Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls sciences. Drug discovery and development is a long and costly process. Most decisions in the drug development process are made with incomplete information. The data is rife with uncertainties and hence risky by nature. This is therefore the purview of Statistics. As such, this book aims to introduce readers to important statistical thinking and its application in these nonclinical areas. The cha...

  20. Industrial College of the Armed Forces Industry Studies 2002: Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    leavening agent. Yeast also produces alcohol during the production of wine and beer . Bacteria produce lactic acid for making yogurt and acetic acid...The following technologies are commonly included as parts of the biotechnology "industry":3 Fermentation : Early humans realized that the by-products...for making vinegar. New fermentation processes are being used to produce a wide variety of products including antibiotics, hormones, and enzymes

  1. Insect-derived enzymes: a treasure for industrial biotechnology and food biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Nicole; Zorn, Holger; Rühl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Insects are the most diverse group of organisms on earth, colonizing almost every ecological niche of the planet. To survive in various and sometimes extreme habitats, insects have established diverse biological and chemical systems. Core components of these systems are enzymes that enable the insects to feed on diverse nutrient sources. The enzymes are produced by either the insects themselves (homologous) or by symbiotic organisms located in the insects' bodies or in their nests (heterologous). The use of these insect-associated enzymes for applications in the fields of food biotechnology and industrial (white) biotechnology is gaining more and more interest. Prominent examples of insect-derived enzymes include peptidases, amylases, lipases, and β-D-glucosidases. Highly potent peptidases for the degradation of gluten, a storage protein that can cause intestinal disorders, may be received from grain pests. Several insects, such as bark and ambrosia beetles and termites, are able to feed on wood. In the field of white biotechnology, their cellulolytic enzyme systems of mainly endo-1,4-β-D-glucanases and β-D-glucosidases can be employed for saccharification of the most prominent polymer on earth-cellulose.

  2. From applied microbiology to biotechnology: science, medicine and industrial renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2010-09-20

    In the late 1970s politicians and civil servants were acutely aware of the chronic decline of the manufacturing sector as a source of employment in Britain. At a time of fear of mass unemployment, sources of new work were urgently sought. Biotechnology had been promoted by visionaries since the early twentieth century. With oil prices soaring, its potential to produce substitutes for petroleum derivatives seemed newly attractive. At the beginning of 1976, John Bu'Lock at Manchester brought the attention of the new President of the Royal Society, Lord Todd, to the developments in enzyme and fermentation technologies. Both the Society and government began to take biotechnology seriously. In 1979 the Society organized a groundbreaking meeting, 'New horizons in industrial microbiology'. In parallel, John Ashworth, the chief scientist of the government think-tank the Central Policy Review Staff, prompted by American developments in genetic engineering, its commercial exploitation and regional development, led thinking among government officials. The Spinks enquiry into biotechnology was consequently formed in 1979 as a collaborative enterprise of the Advisory Council for Applied Research and Development, the Advisory Board for the Research Councils and the Royal Society. The recommendations for far-reaching collaboration between research councils, government and industry were not fully implemented. However, even the limited implementation led to new models of science that would be significant in the emergence of a reconstruction of science.

  3. Environmental biotechnologies for the fossil fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. W.; Donald, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Five recent technologies that have been proven to be viable means to mitigate the environmental impact of the fossil fuel industry were described as evidence of the industry's concern about environmental pollution. The technologies were: bioventing, bioslurping, biofiltration, phytoremediation and the use of genetically engineered organisms. Special attention was paid to genetic modification strategies with reference to improved degradation rates and the regulations in Canada affecting genetically engineered organisms and their use. Case histories were cited to illustrate application of the various processes. 34 refs

  4. A systems engineering perspective on process integration in industrial biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Grievink, Johan; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Biotechnology has many applications in health care, agriculture, industry and the environment. By using renewable raw materials, biotechnology contributes to lowering greenhouse gas emissions and moving away from a petro-based towards a circular sustainable economy. However, major developments are

  5. Potential of industrial biotechnology with cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Kruse, O.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae are promising organisms for sustainable production of bulk products such as food, feed, materials, chemicals and fuels. In this review we will summarize the potential and current biotechnological developments. Cyanobacteria are promising host organisms

  6. Alkaliphilic bacteria: applications in industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarethy, Indira P; Saxena, Yashi; Kapoor, Aditi; Sharma, Manisha; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Gupta, Vandana; Gupta, Sanjay

    2011-07-01

    Alkaliphiles are interesting groups of extremophilic organisms that thrive at pH of 9.0 and above. Many of their products, in particular enzymes, have found widespread applications in industry, primarily in the detergent and laundry industries. While the enzymes have been a runaway success from the industrial point of view, many more products have been reported from alkaliphiles such as antibiotics and carotenoids. Less known are their potential for degradation of xenobiotics. They also play a key role in biogeocycling of important inorganic compounds. This review provides an insight into the huge diversity of alkaliphilic bacteria, the varied products obtained from them, and the need for further investigations on these interesting bacteria.

  7. Crossing boundaries: the importance of cellular membranes in industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezierska, Sylwia; Van Bogaert, Inge N A

    2017-05-01

    How small molecules cross cellular membranes is an often overlooked issue in an industrial microbiology and biotechnology context. This is to a large extent governed by the technical difficulties to study these transport systems or by the lack of knowledge on suitable efflux pumps. This review emphasizes the importance of microbial cellular membranes in industrial biotechnology by highlighting successful strategies of membrane engineering towards more resistant and hence better performing microorganisms, as well as transporter and other engineering strategies for increased efflux of primary and secondary metabolites. Furthermore, the benefits and limitations of eukaryotic subcellular compartmentalization are discussed, as well as the biotechnological potential of membrane vesicles.

  8. Towards a Typology of Business Models in the Biotechnology Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Segers, Jean Pierre

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify a selection of key business models - “typology” - applied in the biotechnology industry. The focus is on the differences between traditional/closed or stand-alone business models opposed to open or networked business models. A number of illustrative case studies and good practices are presented to show that new biotechnology firms are gradually adopting a “best of both worlds” strategy, with both closed business models and open, networked models as ...

  9. Past, Present, and Future Industrial Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Ji, Xiaojun; Kan, Suli; Qiao, Hongqun; Jiang, Min; Lu, Dingqiang; Wang, Jun; Huang, He; Jia, Honghua; Ouyuang, Pingkai; Ying, Hanjie

    Fossil resources, i.e. concentrated carbon from biomass, have been irrecoverably exhausted through modern industrial civilization in the last two hundred years. Serious consequences including crises in resources, environment and energy, as well as the pressing need for direct and indirect exploitation of solar energy, pose challenges to the science and technology community of today. Bioenergy, bulk chemicals, and biomaterials could be produced from renewable biomass in a biorefinery via biocatalysis. These sustainable industries will match the global mass cycle, creating a new form of civilization with new industries and agriculture driven by solar energy. Industrial biotechnology is the dynamo of a bioeconomy, leading to a new protocol for production of energy, bulk chemicals, and materials. This new mode of innovation will place the industry at center stage supported by universities and research institutes. Creativity in industrial biotechnology will be promoted and China will successfully follow the road to green modernization. China's rapid economic development and its traditional capacity in fermentation will place it in an advantageous position in the industrial biotechnology revolution. The development and current status of industrial biotechnology in China are summarized herein.

  10. Past, present, and future industrial biotechnology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Ji, Xiaojun; Kan, Suli; Qiao, Hongqun; Jiang, Min; Lu, Dingqiang; Wang, Jun; Huang, He; Jia, Honghua; Ouyuang, Pingkai; Ying, Hanjie

    2010-01-01

    Fossil resources, i.e. concentrated carbon from biomass, have been irrecoverably exhausted through modern industrial civilization in the last two hundred years. Serious consequences including crises in resources, environment and energy, as well as the pressing need for direct and indirect exploitation of solar energy, pose challenges to the science and technology community of today. Bioenergy, bulk chemicals, and biomaterials could be produced from renewable biomass in a biorefinery via biocatalysis. These sustainable industries will match the global mass cycle, creating a new form of civilization with new industries and agriculture driven by solar energy. Industrial biotechnology is the dynamo of a bioeconomy, leading to a new protocol for production of energy, bulk chemicals, and materials. This new mode of innovation will place the industry at center stage supported by universities and research institutes. Creativity in industrial biotechnology will be promoted and China will successfully follow the road to green modernization. China's rapid economic development and its traditional capacity in fermentation will place it in an advantageous position in the industrial biotechnology revolution. The development and current status of industrial biotechnology in China are summarized herein.

  11. Biotechnology and the food industry: some potentials for Ghana | Klu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology has played a major role in the traditional food and agriculture industry particularly in the areas of food fermentation, biological control of pests, and conventional animal vaccine production. The need to augment food production to meet the increasing population in Ghana requires that modern techniques be ...

  12. Potential of industrial biotechnology with cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Kruse, O.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae are promising organisms for sustainable production of bulk products such as food, feed, materials, chemicals and fuels. In this review we will summarize the potential and current biotechnological developments.Cyanobacteria are promising host organisms for

  13. A European Competence Framework for Industrial Pharmacy Practice in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The PHAR-IN (“Competences for industrial pharmacy practice in biotechnology” looked at whether there is a difference in how industrial employees and academics rank competences for practice in the biotechnological industry. A small expert panel consisting of the authors of this paper produced a biotechnology competence framework by drawing up an initial list of competences then ranking them in importance using a three-stage Delphi process. The framework was next evaluated and validated by a large expert panel of academics (n = 37 and industrial employees (n = 154. Results show that priorities for industrial employees and academics were similar. The competences for biotechnology practice that received the highest scores were mainly in: “Research and Development”, ‘“Upstream” and “Downstream” Processing’, “Product development and formulation”, “Aseptic processing”, “Analytical methodology”, “Product stability”, and “Regulation”. The main area of disagreement was in the category “Ethics and drug safety” where academics ranked competences higher than did industrial employees.

  14. “The Farmer’s Dilemma”—an Interrupted Case Study for Learning Bacterial Genetics in the Context of the Impact of Microbes on the Organic Food Industry and Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stewart

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Case studies are well established pedagogical tools for engaging students in learning and offer the opportunity to use real world examples to give context to student learning. Finding a case study story that meets learning outcomes and resonates with students is a challenge. Our solution was an end-of-semester, capstone project for the honors students in our general microbiology course. “The Farmer’s Dilemma,” an interrupted case study with associated questions, was developed from a story line proposed by the students. The case and associated teaching notes indicate how we actively engage students in learning bacterial genetics via a story about the impact of microbes on the organic food industry and biotechnology.

  15. Cyanobacteria as Chassis for Industrial Biotechnology: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj, Lamya; Lui, Yuen Tin; Abed, Raeid M.M.; Gomaa, Mohamed A.; Purton, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria hold significant potential as industrial biotechnology (IB) platforms for the production of a wide variety of bio-products ranging from biofuels such as hydrogen, alcohols and isoprenoids, to high-value bioactive and recombinant proteins. Underpinning this technology, are the recent advances in cyanobacterial “omics” research, the development of improved genetic engineering tools for key species, and the emerging field of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. These approaches enabled the development of elaborate metabolic engineering programs aimed at creating designer strains tailored for different IB applications. In this review, we provide an overview of the current status of the fields of cyanobacterial omics and genetic engineering with specific focus on the current molecular tools and technologies that have been developed in the past five years. The paper concludes by giving insights on future commercial applications of cyanobacteria and highlights the challenges that need to be addressed in order to make cyanobacterial industrial biotechnology more feasible in the near future. PMID:27916886

  16. Non clinical research at CENTIS supporting biotechnological and pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Drugs production is a highly demanding industry because the rigor of legislations and guidelines. Standards are applied to manufacturing facilities and also to research and development stage. Our national biotechnological industry is developing and producing important medications for diseases like cancer, some of them in the national and international market. Isotopes Centre is an institution supporting such development by means of a work platform to carry out researches in the field of pharmacokinetic and biodistribution in experimental models. Accumulated experience allows us to contribute to research and development of different kind of molecules as pharmaceuticals, specially the biotechnological ones. We are evolving in direction to new technologies and methodologies more suitable to current standards. Radiolabeling is still a convenient choice considering present and new imaging technologies to investigate distribution and kinetic in living subjects. With the techniques we have and the ones to incorporate in a near future, new and more demanding investigations will be affordable. (author)

  17. [Occupational risk and prevention in the biotechnology industry: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, M; Colombi, A; Imbriani, M

    2006-01-01

    The biotechnology industry has expanded greatly in the last 20-30 years and has led to a number of applications in different sectors of work, i.e., medical and pharmaceutical, agricultural, chemical, energetic and others. Nowadays hundreds of thousands of workers worldwide are employed in biotechnology plants. Health and safety issues related to such working activities are considered as relevant to workers as well as to the general public. In particular, when compared to traditional biotechnology, modern methods of processing microrganisms have given rise to public concern that they might generate hazards to human beings and to the environment. After summarizing the most important products and fields of application, the paper sets out to detail potential adverse effects for the health of biotechnology workers; in addition, an analysis of the literature highlights the various concepts of primary and secondary prevention. Along with occupational risk factors common to other working activities (i.e. the well-known physical and chemical hazards), the peculiarity of handling microrganisms and/or different biologic systems may induce infections, immunological alterations or non-infective and non-immunologic toxic reactions in the workers involved The need is emphasized for an accurate risk assessment, careful control by means of the current monitoring strategies and implementation of the confinement measures, taking into account the criteria set by Italian legislation for occupational biological risk. Lastly, attention is focussed on examinations for the medical surveillance of workers at risk.

  18. The biotechnology innovation machine: a source of intelligent biopharmaceuticals for the pharma industry--mapping biotechnology's success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, R P; Kaitin, K I

    2014-05-01

    The marriage of biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry (pharma) is predicated on an evolution in technology and product innovation. It has come as a result of advances in both the science and the business practices of the biotechnology sector in the past 30 years. Biotechnology products can be thought of as "intelligent pharmaceuticals," in that they often provide novel mechanisms of action, new approaches to disease control, higher clinical success rates, improved patient care, extended patent protection, and a significant likelihood of reimbursement. Although the first biotechnology product, insulin, was approved just 32 years ago in 1982, today there are more than 200 biotechnology products commercially available. Research has expanded to include more than 900 biotechnology products in clinical trials. Pharma is substantially engaged in both the clinical development of these products and their commercialization.

  19. Connecting Learners: The Role of Biotechnology Programme in Preparing Students for the Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Saruan, Nadiah; Sagran, Avinash; Fadzil, Kamal Solhaimi; Razali, Zuliana; Ow Phui San, Rebecca; Somasundram, Chandran

    2015-01-01

    The recent growth of biotechnology requires a wide range of expertise within the industry. Education is the primary platform for students to gain information and knowledge on biotechnology. In Malaysia where biotechnology is relatively new, education programs and courses must be tailored to meet the demands of the industry. A combination of…

  20. Synthetic biology: regulating industry uses of new biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Brent; Singh, Rina; Winters, Paul

    2011-09-02

    In our view, synthetic biology is an extension of the continuum of genetic science that has been used safely for more than 40 years by the biotechnology industry in the development of commercial products. Examples of synthetic biology use by biotechnology companies illustrate the potential to substantially reduce research and development time and to increase speed to market. Improvements in the speed and cost of DNA synthesis are enabling scientists to design modified bacterial chromosomes that can be used in the production of renewable chemicals, biofuels, bioproducts, renewable specialty chemicals, pharmaceutical intermediates, fine chemicals, food ingredients, and health care products. Regulatory options should support innovation and commercial development of new products while protecting the public from potential harms.

  1. Biotechnological industries in Russia and in the world: typology and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudriavtceva Olga Vladimirovna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes analysis of typologies of biotechnological industries which are used by Russian business and by scientists, who study biotechnological markets. In the next part we show the dynamic of the biotechnology industries classifications used in the international practice and the literature from 2003 to the present time. In conclusion, we propose the new typology of biotechnologies developing in Russia. It is built on the principle of input-output model. The aim of this typology is to reflect the relationship between different biotechnological industries.

  2. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of {sup 131}I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens

  3. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of 131 I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens for

  4. Citric acid: emerging applications of key biotechnology industrial product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriminna, Rosaria; Meneguzzo, Francesco; Delisi, Riccardo; Pagliaro, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Owing to new biotechnological production units mostly located in China, global supply of citric acid in the course of the last two decades rose from less than 0.5 to more than 2 million tonnes becoming the single largest chemical obtained via biomass fermentation and the most widely employed organic acid. Critically reviewing selected research achievements and production trends, we identify the reasons for which this polycarboxylic acid will become a key chemical in the emerging bioeconomy.Graphical abstractPalermo's Fabbrica Chimica Italiana Goldenberg today. In 1930 it was Europe's largest citric acid plant (photo courtesy of Aldo Ferrande).

  5. Oligosaccharide biotechnology: an approach of prebiotic revolution on the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Mario Cezar Rodrigues; Neri-Numa, Iramaia Angélica; da Silva, Juliana Bueno; Paulino, Bruno Nicolau; Pessoa, Marina Gabriel; Pastore, Gláucia Maria

    2018-01-01

    Oligosaccharides are polymers with two to ten monosaccharide residues which have sweetener functions and sensory characteristics, in addition to exerting physiological effects on human health. The ones called nondigestible exhibit a prebiotic behavior being fermented by colonic microflora or stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria, playing roles in the immune system, protecting against cancer, and preventing cardiovascular and metabolic issues. The global prebiotics market is expected to grow around 12.7% in the next 8 years, so manufacturers are developing new alternatives to obtain sustainable and efficient processes for application on a large scale. Most studied examples of biotechnological processes involve the development of new strategies for fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, xylooligosaccharide, and mannanooligosaccharide synthesis. Among these, the use of whole cells in fermentation, synthesis of microbial enzymes (β-fructofuranosidases, β-galactosidases, xylanases, and β-mannanases), and enzymatic process development (permeabilization, immobilization, gene expression) can be highlighted, especially if the production costs are reduced by the use of agro-industrial residues or by-products such as molasses, milk whey, cotton stalks, corncobs, wheat straw, poplar wood, sugarcane bagasse, and copra meal. This review comprises recent studies to demonstrate the potential for biotechnological production of oligosaccharides, and also aspects that need more investigation for future applications in a large scale.

  6. Extracellular Metabolites from Industrial Microalgae and Their Biotechnological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial microalgae, as a big family of promising producers of renewable biomass feedstock, have been commercially exploited for functional food, living feed and feed additives, high-value chemicals in nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and chemical reagents. Recently, microalgae have also been considered as a group that might play an important role in biofuel development and environmental protection. Almost all current products of industrial microalgae are derived from their biomass; however, large amounts of spent cell-free media are available from mass cultivation that is mostly unexploited. In this contribution we discuss that these media, which may contain a remarkable diversity of bioactive substances are worthy to be recovered for further use. Obviously, the extracellular metabolites from industrial microalgae have long been neglected in the development of production methods for valuable metabolites. With the advances in the last ten years, more and more structures and properties from extracellular metabolites have been identified, and the potential utilization over wide fields is attracting attention. Some of these extracellular metabolites can be potentially used as drugs, antioxidants, growth regulators or metal chelators. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the known extracellular metabolites from industrial microalgae which might be of commercial interest. The attention mainly focuses on the reports of extracellular bioactive metabolites and their potential application in biotechnology.

  7. Extracellular Metabolites from Industrial Microalgae and Their Biotechnological Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Pohnert, Georg; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-20

    Industrial microalgae, as a big family of promising producers of renewable biomass feedstock, have been commercially exploited for functional food, living feed and feed additives, high-value chemicals in nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and chemical reagents. Recently, microalgae have also been considered as a group that might play an important role in biofuel development and environmental protection. Almost all current products of industrial microalgae are derived from their biomass; however, large amounts of spent cell-free media are available from mass cultivation that is mostly unexploited. In this contribution we discuss that these media, which may contain a remarkable diversity of bioactive substances are worthy to be recovered for further use. Obviously, the extracellular metabolites from industrial microalgae have long been neglected in the development of production methods for valuable metabolites. With the advances in the last ten years, more and more structures and properties from extracellular metabolites have been identified, and the potential utilization over wide fields is attracting attention. Some of these extracellular metabolites can be potentially used as drugs, antioxidants, growth regulators or metal chelators. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the known extracellular metabolites from industrial microalgae which might be of commercial interest. The attention mainly focuses on the reports of extracellular bioactive metabolites and their potential application in biotechnology.

  8. Extracellular Metabolites from Industrial Microalgae and Their Biotechnological Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Pohnert, Georg; Wei, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Industrial microalgae, as a big family of promising producers of renewable biomass feedstock, have been commercially exploited for functional food, living feed and feed additives, high-value chemicals in nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and chemical reagents. Recently, microalgae have also been considered as a group that might play an important role in biofuel development and environmental protection. Almost all current products of industrial microalgae are derived from their biomass; however, large amounts of spent cell-free media are available from mass cultivation that is mostly unexploited. In this contribution we discuss that these media, which may contain a remarkable diversity of bioactive substances are worthy to be recovered for further use. Obviously, the extracellular metabolites from industrial microalgae have long been neglected in the development of production methods for valuable metabolites. With the advances in the last ten years, more and more structures and properties from extracellular metabolites have been identified, and the potential utilization over wide fields is attracting attention. Some of these extracellular metabolites can be potentially used as drugs, antioxidants, growth regulators or metal chelators. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the known extracellular metabolites from industrial microalgae which might be of commercial interest. The attention mainly focuses on the reports of extracellular bioactive metabolites and their potential application in biotechnology. PMID:27775594

  9. Plant synthetic biology: a new platform for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, Elena; Edwards, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Thirty years after the production of the first generation of genetically modified plants we are now set to move into a new era of recombinant crop technology through the application of synthetic biology to engineer new and complex input and output traits. The use of synthetic biology technologies will represent more than incremental additions of transgenes, but rather the directed design of completely new metabolic pathways, physiological traits, and developmental control strategies. The need to enhance our ability to improve crops through new engineering capability is now increasingly pressing as we turn to plants not just for food, but as a source of renewable feedstocks for industry. These accelerating and diversifying demands for new output traits coincide with a need to reduce inputs and improve agricultural sustainability. Faced with such challenges, existing technologies will need to be supplemented with new and far-more-directed approaches to turn valuable resources more efficiently into usable agricultural products. While these objectives are challenging enough, the use of synthetic biology in crop improvement will face public acceptance issues as a legacy of genetically modified technologies in many countries. Here we review some of the potential benefits of adopting synthetic biology approaches in improving plant input and output traits for their use as industrial chemical feedstocks, as linked to the rapidly developing biorefining industry. Several promising technologies and biotechnological targets are identified along with some of the key regulatory and societal challenges in the safe and acceptable introduction of such technology.

  10. A future perspective on the role of industrial biotechnology for chemicals production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John; Breuer, Michael; Mink, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The development of recombinant DNA technology, the need for renewable raw materials and a green, sustainable profile for future chemical processes have been major drivers in the implementation of industrial biotechnology. The use of industrial biotechnology for the production of chemicals is well...

  11. Strategic Partnerships and Open Innovation in the Biotechnology Industry in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Segers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Strategic partnerships in the biotechnology industry allow new technology-based firms to gain a foothold in this high-cost, high-risk industry. In this article, we examine the impact of strategic partnerships and open innovation on the success of new biotechnology firms in Belgium by developing multiple case studies of firms in regional biotechnology clusters. We find that, despite their small size and relative immaturity, new biotechnology firms are able to adopt innovative business models by providing R&D and services to larger firms and openly cooperating with them through open innovation.

  12. Potential of industrial biotechnology with cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijffels, René H; Kruse, Olaf; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2013-06-01

    Both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae are promising organisms for sustainable production of bulk products such as food, feed, materials, chemicals and fuels. In this review we will summarize the potential and current biotechnological developments. Cyanobacteria are promising host organisms for the production of small molecules that can be secreted such as ethanol, butanol, fatty acids and other organic acids. Eukaryotic microalgae are interesting for products for which cellular storage is important such as proteins, lipids, starch and alkanes. For the development of new and promising lines of production, strains of both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae have to be improved. Transformation systems have been much better developed in cyanobacteria. However, several products would be preferably produced with eukaryotic microalgae. In the case of cyanobacteria a synthetic-systems biology approach has a great potential to exploit cyanobacteria as cell factories. For eukaryotic microalgae transformation systems need to be further developed. A promising strategy is transformation of heterologous (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) genes in established eukaryotic hosts such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Experimental outdoor pilots under containment for the production of genetically modified cyanobacteria and microalgae are in progress. For full scale production risks of release of genetically modified organisms need to be assessed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    Common bunt of wheat is a major seed borne disease of wheat worldwide. It is of particular importance to organic farming, where systemic fungicides cannot be applied. The knowledge about location and mechanisms of common bunt resistance in wheat is limited, and only three race specific genes have...

  14. Workshop proceedings: challenges and opportunities in evaluating protein allergenicity across biotechnology industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Nicola J; Ghantous, Hanan N; Ladics, Gregory S; House, Robert V; Gendel, Steven M; Hastings, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    A workshop entitled "Challenges and Opportunities in Evaluating Protein Allergenicity across Biotechnology Industries" was held at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology (SOT) in San Francisco, California. The workshop was sponsored by the Biotechnology Specialty Section of SOT and was designed to present the science-based approaches used in biotechnology industries to evaluate and regulate protein allergenicity. A panel of experts from industry and government highlighted the allergenicity testing requirements and research in the agricultural, pharmaceutical/biopharma, and vaccine biotechnology industries and addressed challenges and opportunities for advancing the science of protein allergenicity. The main learning from the workshop was that immunoglobulin E-mediated allergenicity of biotechnology-derived products is difficult to assess without human data. The approaches currently being used to evaluate potential for allergenicity across biotechnology industries are very different and range from bioinformatics, in vitro serology, in vivo animal testing, in vitro and in vivo functional assays, and "biosimilar" assessments (ie, biotherapeutic equivalents to innovator products). The challenge remains with regard to the different or lack of regulatory requirements for allergenicity testing across industries, but the novel approaches being used with bioinformatics and biosimilars may lead to opportunities in the future to collaborate across biotechnology industries.

  15. Dynamic Externalities, Universities and Social Capital Formation in the EU Biotechnology Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Malgorzata RUNIEWICZ-WARDYN

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of dynamic externalities, university-industry linkages and role of social networking in the biotechnology industry in the European Union (EU). Universities act as platforms for local knowledge spillovers and university-industry cluster development in the biotechnology field. The R&D activities at universities contribute to successful business innovations. However, the relationship between the universities and the local innovation capabilities is much more compl...

  16. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming to develop and manufacture products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological system of macromolecules. The Animal Laboratory Division of IPEN is responsible for the breeding and production of small laboratory animal.

  17. Biotechnological Production of Organic Acids from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Dietz, Donna; van Duuren, Jozef Bernhard Johann Henri; Wittmann, Christoph; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Venus, Joachim

    2017-03-07

    Biotechnological processes are promising alternatives to petrochemical routes for overcoming the challenges of resource depletion in the future in a sustainable way. The strategies of white biotechnology allow the utilization of inexpensive and renewable resources for the production of a broad range of bio-based compounds. Renewable resources, such as agricultural residues or residues from food production, are produced in large amounts have been shown to be promising carbon and/or nitrogen sources. This chapter focuses on the biotechnological production of lactic acid, acrylic acid, succinic acid, muconic acid, and lactobionic acid from renewable residues, these products being used as monomers for bio-based material and/or as food supplements. These five acids have high economic values and the potential to overcome the "valley of death" between laboratory/pilot scale and commercial/industrial scale. This chapter also provides an overview of the production strategies, including microbial strain development, used to convert renewable resources into value-added products.

  18. Connecting learners: The role of biotechnology programme in preparing students for the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Saruan, Nadiah; Sagran, Avinash; Fadzil, Kamal Solhaimi; Razali, Zuliana; Ow Phui San, Rebecca; Somasundram, Chandran

    2015-01-01

    The recent growth of biotechnology requires a wide range of expertise within the industry. Education is the primary platform for students to gain information and knowledge on biotechnology. In Malaysia where biotechnology is relatively new, education programs and courses must be tailored to meet the demands of the industry. A combination of theoretical knowledge as well as practical and industrial training is essential to ensure graduates are prepared for their career in the fields of biotechnology. Results from this study show that university students lack literacy on biotechnology information and access to facilities provided by the universities. This may be a significant contributing factor to the lack of knowledge and information amongst graduates. Furthermore comparative analysis on the biotechnology program in Malaysian universities with that of other countries show the need to restructure the program by offering more specialized courses as well as soft skills and business subjects. This is to meet the demands of the related professionals as well as the various branches that exist in the biotechnology industry. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. The roots--a short history of industrial microbiology and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Klaus; Collins, John

    2013-05-01

    Early biotechnology (BT) had its roots in fascinating discoveries, such as yeast as living matter being responsible for the fermentation of beer and wine. Serious controversies arose between vitalists and chemists, resulting in the reversal of theories and paradigms, but prompting continuing research and progress. Pasteur's work led to the establishment of the science of microbiology by developing pure monoculture in sterile medium, and together with the work of Robert Koch to the recognition that a single pathogenic organism is the causative agent for a particular disease. Pasteur also achieved innovations for industrial processes of high economic relevance, including beer, wine and alcohol. Several decades later Buchner, disproved the hypothesis that processes in living cells required a metaphysical 'vis vitalis' in addition to pure chemical laws. Enzymes were shown to be the chemical basis of bioconversions. Studies on the formation of products in microbial fermentations, resulted in the manufacture of citric acid, and chemical components required for explosives particularly in war time, acetone and butanol, and further products through fermentation. The requirements for penicillin during the Second World War lead to the industrial manufacture of penicillin, and to the era of antibiotics with further antibiotics, like streptomycin, becoming available. This was followed by a new class of high value-added products, mainly secondary metabolites, e.g. steroids obtained by biotransformation. By the mid-twentieth century, biotechnology was becoming an accepted specialty with courses being established in the life sciences departments of several universities. Starting in the 1970s and 1980s, BT gained the attention of governmental agencies in Germany, the UK, Japan, the USA, and others as a field of innovative potential and economic growth, leading to expansion of the field. Basic research in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology dramatically widened the field of life

  20. Bacterial Leaching-Biotechnology in the Mining Industry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Preston Devasia1 K A Natarajan2. Senior Lecturer Department of Biotechnology College of Engineering Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632 014 Tamil Nadu, India. Chairman and Professor Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  1. Biotechnology and industrial ecology: new challenges for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the strategies proposed to mitigate climate change is to lower dependency on fossil fuels by substituting renewable biomass. This strategy has several co-benefits for human health and the environment because it supports investments in agricultural biotechnology while reducing the adverse health impacts of ...

  2. Membrane transporter engineering in industrial biotechnology and whole cell biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Douglas B; Swainston, Neil; Pir, Pınar; Oliver, Stephen G

    2015-04-01

    Because they mainly do not involve chemical changes, membrane transporters have been a Cinderella subject in the biotechnology of small molecule production, but this is a serious oversight. Influx transporters contribute significantly to the flux towards product, and efflux transporters ensure the accumulation of product in the much greater extracellular space of fermentors. Programmes for improving biotechnological processes might therefore give greater consideration to transporters than may have been commonplace. Strategies for identifying important transporters include expression profiling, genome-wide knockout studies, stress-based selection, and the use of inhibitors. In addition, modern methods of directed evolution and synthetic biology, especially those effecting changes in energy coupling, offer huge opportunities for increasing the flux towards extracellular product formation by transporter engineering. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Biotechnology and the bioeconomy-Towards inclusive and sustainable industrial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokko, Yvonne; Heijde, Marc; Schebesta, Karl; Scholtès, Philippe; Van Montagu, Marc; Giacca, Mauro

    2018-01-25

    To transform developing and least developing countries into industrialised ones, biotechnology could be deployed along the value chain, to provide support to the development of the bio-based industries in such a way to ensure sustainability of the sector and to reduce negative environmental impacts that might otherwise occur. In agribusiness development, for instance, interventions could start from inputs and agricultural mechanization, modern processing technologies, packaging of perishable products, the promotion of food safety in the processing and regulatory environment; and interventions to improve competitiveness and productivity. Worth over USD 300 billion in revenue, the role of the biotechnology goes beyond industrial growth, since it provides opportunities for progress towards many of the UN sustainable development goals (SDGs). This paper reviews the status of industrial biotechnology as it relates to inclusive and sustainable industrial development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Yarrowia lipolytica and Its Multiple Applications in the Biotechnological Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. G. Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yarrowia lipolytica is a nonpathogenic dimorphic aerobic yeast that stands out due to its ability to grow in hydrophobic environments. This property allowed this yeast to develop an ability to metabolize triglycerides and fatty acids as carbon sources. This feature enables using this species in the bioremediation of environments contaminated with oil spill. In addition, Y. lipolytica has been calling the interest of researchers due to its huge biotechnological potential, associated with the production of several types of metabolites, such as bio-surfactants, γ-decalactone, citric acid, and intracellular lipids and lipase. The production of a metabolite rather than another is influenced by the growing conditions to which Y. lipolytica is subjected. The choice of carbon and nitrogen sources to be used, as well as their concentrations in the growth medium, and the careful determination of fermentation parameters, pH, temperature, and agitation (oxygenation, are essential for efficient metabolites production. This review discusses the biotechnological potential of Y. lipolytica and the best growing conditions for production of some metabolites of biotechnological interest.

  5. Clusters in Industrial Biotechnology and Bioeconomy: The Roles of the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jim; Winickoff, David E

    2017-08-01

    Government policies across the world seek to create clusters of companies and other stakeholders that specialise in a particular technology to build an 'industrial ecosystem'. This article looks at some examples of clusters created specifically with industrial biotechnology in mind and examines measures for policymakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of high-quality marketing applications: strategies for biotechnology companies working with contract research organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Sandra J; Preston, Christopher; Foote, MaryAnn

    2003-01-01

    Many biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies use clinical research organizations (CROs) to assist in the writing and preparation of clinical documents intended for submission to health authorities. Start-up companies often require the expertise of a CRO to prepare their first regulatory documents. Larger or more experienced companies often require CRO staff to assist at times of multiple simultaneous submissions. The timely production of high-quality new drug marketing applications requires close collaborations between the drug company and the CRO. The views of both CRO and industry in ensuring best practices are discussed.

  7. Genomic analysis reveals the biotechnological and industrial potential of levan producing halophilic extremophile, Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Elif; Ozer, Tugba; Arikan, Muzaffer; Emrence, Zeliha; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Ustek, Duran; Arga, Kazim Yalcin

    2015-01-01

    Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6T is a gram negative, aerobic, and moderately halophilic bacterium, and is known to produce high levels of levan with many potential uses in foods, feeds, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its outstanding properties. Here, the whole-genome analysis was performed to gain more insight about the biological mechanisms, and the whole-genome organization of the bacterium. Industrially crucial genes, including the levansucrase, were detected and the genome-scale metabolic model of H. smyrnensis AAD6T was reconstructed. The bacterium was found to have many potential applications in biotechnology not only being a levan producer, but also because of its capacity to produce Pel exopolysaccharide, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and osmoprotectants. The genomic information presented here will not only provide additional information to enhance our understanding of the genetic and metabolic network of halophilic bacteria, but also accelerate the research on systematical design of engineering strategies for biotechnology applications.

  8. Dynamic Externalities, Universities and Social Capital Formation in the EU Biotechnology Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata RUNIEWICZ-WARDYN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the role of dynamic externalities, university-industry linkages and role of social networking in the biotechnology industry in the European Union (EU. Universities act as platforms for local knowledge spillovers and university-industry cluster development in the biotechnology field. The R&D activities at universities contribute to successful business innovations. However, the relationship between the universities and the local innovation capabilities is much more complex and therefore requires more in-depth analysis. The following study derives from the knowledge of the new economic geography, endogenous growth theory, biotechnology, as well as theories of social capital and social networks. The quantitative research elaborates contemporary literature and databases to find channels of interdependence between local university-based knowledge flows, social capital, and biotechnology cluster performance. The results of the study show that the biotechnology industry relies very much on university-business R&D partnerships and research mobility (e.g. pharmaceutical firms that performed basic research in close cooperation with academia produced more patents. In addition, social networking and informal contacts seem to be a more important for the diffusion of knowledge, especially at the beginning of R&D process, as they allow for building credibility between potential partners.

  9. Cluster sustainability in peripheral regions: A case study on Israel's and Finland's biotechnology industries

    OpenAIRE

    Breznitz, Shiri M.; Tahvanainen, Antti-Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Even with globalization, industrial clusters are maintaining their importance in todays economy. With the decomposition of production we find that clusters are becoming focused on specific industries and stages of production. This paper analyzes two peripheral western countries, Finland and Israel, which saw success in their ICT clusters and wanted to duplicate this success building on their knowledge in the life science industry to create biotechnology clusters. This paper focuses on two inn...

  10. Risk cognition as a new communication tool for high-tech industries. Comparative analysis between nuclear industry and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.; Wieland, P.

    2000-01-01

    Concerns of political decision makers, the media, and members of the public with regard to high-tech industries focus upon two main issues: safety and socio-economic impact. In this regard the nuclear industry and biotechnology, commonly associated as 'high risk and low trust situation', face the problems of the assessment of potentially dangerous or negative socio-economic consequences of very improbable risks and the communication with the various audiences. It is common for the national authorities in this case to conduct the process of quantified risk analysis (QRA). Unfortunately, hitherto the communication of the results obtained by QRA to the different non-scientific/non-technical target groups listed above is generally dissatisfactory, resulting in the frequent rejection of nuclear- and biotechnology. The main reason is that it has generally not been recognized that QRA is but the final step in the cognition of risk from both real as well as perceived hazards, preceded by risk estimation (RES) and risk evaluation (REV). RES is largely the scientific identification of hazards leading formally to the assessment of mechanisms of harmful consequences, and latterly to the assessment of the probability of its occurrence. Contrary to that, REV deals with the subjective judgment of the significance of assessed individual and societal risks. As such, REV involves individual cognitions of hazards and risks, such as perceptions, knowledge and understanding. In this paper the role of risk cognition in communicating issues associated with high-tech industrial activities, such as nuclear industry and biotechnology, is discussed. Common factors influencing risk perception are dealt with in a comparative manner in order to draw practically applicable lessons from it. This comparative analysis revealed the following results: (1)QRA-derived risk estimation measures used to quantify the risk from potential hazard associated with high-tech industries per se are not suitable

  11. Reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions: role of biotechnology, organic systems, and consumer behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    All agricultural systems have environmental and societal costs and benefits that should be objectively quantified before recommending specific management practices. Agricultural biotechnology, which takes advantage of genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), along with organic cropping systems, econ...

  12. Public policies influencing innovation in the agrochemical, biotechnology and seed industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Tait, J.

    2002-01-01

    The development and marketing of new products by the agrochemical, biotechnology and seed industries is strongly regulated by government policies. Relevant policies include those on science, technology and innovation, the environment and public health, and farm support. This survey of policies

  13. Dialogue as a tool for societal valorization of environmental and industrial biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metze, T.A.P.; Schuitmaker, Tjerk Jan; Bitsch, Lise; Betten, W.; de Cock Buning, T.; Broerse, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this project we explored and experimented with how a meaningful dialogue can be operationalized most effectively in the terms of enhancing societal valorisation of environmental and industrial biotechnology. We did so in the context of the Dutch research consortium BE-Basic. The project is

  14. 'Bioexit': navigating the policy and regulatory pathways for the biotechnology industry in a post-Brexit landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Annaloro, John

    2018-03-01

    The withdrawal of the UK from the European Union (EU) is a complicated event. Although implications vary by industry, the biotechnology sector is especially vulnerable to the consequences of Brexit. Accordingly, here we evaluate potential repercussions under four post-Brexit political pathways: European Economic Area (EEA) affiliation (Norwegian Model); negotiated bilateral access (Swiss Model); limited participation in EU Customs Union (Turkish Model); or independence under the World Trade Organization (WTO) designation. We conclude that all four pathways fail to protect the mutually beneficial UK-EU biotechnology relationship and that alternative pathways need to be explored. Accordingly, we outline a suite of policy mechanisms aimed at ensuring continued EU-UK regulatory synergy, with the central aim of ensuring access to biomedical innovations and ensuring patient safety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of biotechnological tools for modulating an industrial microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senne de Oliveira Lino, Felipe; Cardinale, Stefano; Molin, Søren

    Industrial scale bioprocesses are poised to suffer from continuous contaminations. It reduces process efficiency and increases the demand for raw materials. In order to advance towards a biobased economy we need to address these bottlenecks. In this project we plan to understand the microbial...... consortia that resides in a well stablished industrial bioprocess – sugarcane ethanol fermentation – and devise solutions to rationally modulate it....

  16. Microbiology and Industrial Biotechnology of Food-Grade Proteases: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagarsamy Sumantha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in industrial biotechnology have resulted in the exploitation of new and undiscovered microorganisms and the devising of improved methods for enzyme production, which have led to increased yields of the enzyme, thus making a viable industrial process feasible. This review tracks the developments in the field of acidic and neutral protease production with regard to the producers, methods of production and their improvement, the product and its applications.

  17. Impact of biotechnology on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are nine key issues that can influence the productivity and sustainability of the sugarcane industry. These include land, soil fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and information technology. To all sugarcane farmers, it r...

  18. Biotechnology and industrial ecology: new challenges for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    concentration of carbon dioxide, resulting in the current trend of global warming. The dependency of the agricultural industry on chemicals to sustain productivity in marginal landscapes has led to a global-scale contamination of the environment with toxic pesticides and with nutrient fertilizers that are changing the course of ...

  19. The translations and the organizing of scientific practices in R&D biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Bezerra de Souza Matos

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering the scientific practices related to Research & Development in biotechnology and, based on the assumptions of Actor Network Theory (ANT, this study aimed to describe the main translations that influenced the composition of an actor-networks, reflecting on the organizing practices in a scientific laboratory Research & Development of Northeast Biotechnology Network (Brazil. The methodological procedures were based on the historical approach of biotechnology under study from an ethnographic posture. The composition of the corpus was organized in the form of reports, observing the historical passages. The history of biotechnology has been reported between the plots of design, patenting and commercialization practices, highlighting the creation of heterogeneous actors’ networks. Finally, he emphasized the influence of laboratory scientist's leadership in the way of organizing of scientific practices.

  20. Risk assessment for federal regulatory decisions on organisms produced through biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, John H.; Medley, Terry L.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses: 1. Purposes and history of risk assessment: application to biotechnology; 2. Framework in the United States for decisions on organisms produced through biotechnology; 3. Choosing from among potential approaches to assessment: a). exposure assessment does not equate to risk assessment: what are the hazards?; b). Setting risk assessment priorities; c). 'Quantitative' environmental and 'quantitative' ecological risk assessments; d). Ecological risk assessments based on biological and ecological principles. 4. The bases for good regulatory decisions

  1. Biotechnology Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    substances. Scientists are also reporting the development of a nanoemulsion composed of detergents , vegetable oil and water to inactivate the Ebola... Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) biodefense and radiation/nuclear medical countermeasure initiatives. It also awarded contracts using the SRF

  2. Sulfolobus – A Potential Key Organism in Future Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Quehenberger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extremophilic organisms represent a potentially valuable resource for the development of novel bioprocesses. They can act as a source for stable enzymes and unique biomaterials. Extremophiles are capable of carrying out microbial processes and biotransformations under extremely hostile conditions. Extreme thermoacidophilic members of the well-characterized genus Sulfolobus are outstanding in their ability to thrive at both high temperatures and low pH. This review gives an overview of the biological system Sulfolobus including its central carbon metabolism and the development of tools for its genetic manipulation. We highlight findings of commercial relevance and focus on potential industrial applications. Finally, the current state of bioreactor cultivations is summarized and we discuss the use of Sulfolobus species in biorefinery applications.

  3. [Innovation in pharmaceutical and health biotechnology industries: challenges for a virtuous agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Marco; Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira; Maldonado, José

    2012-12-01

    Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries comprise a major production subsystem of the health industrial complex in Brazil. It stands out for both its economic importance and its prominent role in developing new technologies in strategic areas. Strengthening the local production of generic drugs in the last decade has significantly increased the number of Brazilian companies in the local pharmaceutical market and has been an important turning point for this industry's growth. However, there remain major structural bottlenecks both in terms of production and continuous innovation. These bottlenecks reveal the high vulnerability of the Brazilian National Health System and point to the need of public policies that promote strengthening the production base and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry and that at the same time meet health-related social demands in health in Brazil.

  4. Generating opportunity : human resources needs in the bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Canada has a plentiful resource base and a long history of innovation in bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology. Success of the industry depends on having the required human resources capacity such as the right number of skilled, job-ready professionals to support companies as they develop and commercialize new solutions. This document presented the results of a human resources survey conducted by BioTalent regarding the national and global bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors. It addressed a variety of issues, such as the increasing demand for bioenergy; the near-term perspective; growth factors; and the role of public policy. A subsector snapshot of human resources was also presented, with particular reference to the principal areas of need; types of roles required in the bio-economy; human resources capacity and company size; regional variances; skills gaps; reliance on outsourcing; knowledge, learning and connectedness; recruitment, retention and turnover; and the road ahead. Conclusions and recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that once the economy recovers, demand for bioenergy, biofuels and industrial products and services is expected to increase. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Contemporaneous Peer Effects, Career Age and the Industry Involvement of Academics in Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschhoff, Birgit; Grimpe, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    at situations in which both types of social influence are incongruent and the academic is faced with “dissonance”. Based on survey data of 355 German academics in the field of biotechnology and publication data from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we find that the scientist's involvement...... that a scientist's involvement increases with the industry orientation of the scientist's co-authors (“personal peer effect”), irrespective of the scientist's age. In case both types of social influence are incongruent, younger scientists will revert to localized norms while more experienced scientists will orient...

  6. Classification of lipolytic enzymes and their biotechnological applications in the pulping industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramnath, L

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available .-S. , Sanchez-Montero, J.-M., Valmaseda, M., Elson, S.W., and Sinisterra, J.-V. 2001. Screening and catalytic activity in or- ganic synthesis of novel fungal and yeast lipases. J. Mol. Catal. B: Enzym. 14: 111–123. doi:10.1016/S1381-1177(00)00244-7. Carrasco....-F. 2004. GDSL family of serine esterases/lipases. Prog. Lipid Res. 43: 534–552. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2004.09.002. PMID:15522763. Andualema, B., and Gessesse, A. 2012. Microbial lipases and their industrial applications: review. Biotechnology, 11: 100– 118...

  7. The Rhetorical Helix of the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries: Strategies of Transformation through Definition, Description and Ingratiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretton, Linda Burak

    2009-01-01

    The current pharmaceutical industry, whose origins date from the early 20th century, and the biotechnology industry, which emerged in the 1980s both have foundations built on the modern scientific method and share a mission to develop new drugs for humans and animals. At the same time, they are also made distinct by size (small biotechs versus…

  8. FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY - SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the integral application of biological and engineering sciences for the technological use of living organisms, biologically active acellular structures and molecular analogues for the production of goods and services.The role of biotechnology is very important in the food industry; this is a biotechnology because agro-food raw materials are biological products and therefore their conservation until consumption, fresh or industrialization involves the control of the enzymatic activity of the vegetal and animal tissues or of the microflora contamination.

  9. Consumer acceptance of the use of biotechnology in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    There was considerable enthusiasm among scientists and producers about the potential of biotechnology, especially of genetically-modified organisms (GMO), in the production of foods. At the same time, the majority of consumers was sceptical, there were detailed public discussions and the retail...... trade also reacted cautiously. Against this background, a study was conducted which was intended to provide the answer to four questions. How negative are consumer attitudes to the use of genetic engineering in the production of food? In principle it was known that they are extremely negative. How much...

  10. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels

    2011-02-15

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. (orig.)

  11. Biocatalysis in organic chemistry and biotechnology: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetz, Manfred T

    2013-08-28

    Enzymes as catalysts in synthetic organic chemistry gained importance in the latter half of the 20th century, but nevertheless suffered from two major limitations. First, many enzymes were not accessible in large enough quantities for practical applications. The advent of recombinant DNA technology changed this dramatically in the late 1970s. Second, many enzymes showed a narrow substrate scope, often poor stereo- and/or regioselectivity and/or insufficient stability under operating conditions. With the development of directed evolution beginning in the 1990s and continuing to the present day, all of these problems can be addressed and generally solved. The present Perspective focuses on these and other developments which have popularized enzymes as part of the toolkit of synthetic organic chemists and biotechnologists. Included is a discussion of the scope and limitation of cascade reactions using enzyme mixtures in vitro and of metabolic engineering of pathways in cells as factories for the production of simple compounds such as biofuels and complex natural products. Future trends and problems are also highlighted, as is the discussion concerning biocatalysis versus nonbiological catalysis in synthetic organic chemistry. This Perspective does not constitute a comprehensive review, and therefore the author apologizes to those researchers whose work is not specifically treated here.

  12. Organization of the News Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the two canonical theories of the firm - transaction costs economics and theknowledge-based view of the firm - predictions on `make-or-buy' are tested on the newsindustry. The news industry provides an interesting case on which to test the two theories sinceit is characterized...... are that that newspapers are organized differentlythan is predicted from the knowledge-based view of the firm and transaction cost economics.The newspapers do no specialize in core competencies measured in terms of topics covered. Onthe contrary, a precondition for outsourcing is well-developed competencies in house...

  13. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Laura M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present, and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i) the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalyzing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii) the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii) the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Coughlan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalysing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The

  16. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...... for the production of non-native 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP).3HP can be chemically dehydrated into acrylic acid and thus can serve as a biosustainable building block for acrylate-based products (diapers, acrylic paints, acrylic polymers, etc.)...

  17. Impact of the national biotechnology strategy on the South African biopharma industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msomi, N

    2008-11-17

    Full Text Available The national biotechnology strategy was published in 2001. The process followed for drafting the strategy is as follows: involvement of experts; wider consultation with stakeholders and adoption and publication. The mandate for the BRICs...

  18. Kent and Riegel's Handbook of industrial chemistry and biotechnology. 11th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, James A. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    This handbook provides extensive information on plastics, rubber, adhesives, textile fibers, pharmaceutical chemistry, synthetic organic chemicals, soaps and detergents, as well as various other major classes of industrial chemistry. There is detailed coverage of coal utilization technology, dyes and dye intermediates, chlor-alkali and heavy chemicals, paints and pigments, chemical explosives, propellants, petroleum and petrochemicals, natural gas, industrial gases, synthetic nitrogen products, fats and oils, sulfur and sulfuric acid, phosphorous and phosphates, wood products, and sweeteners. The chapter on coal is entitled: coal technology for power, liquid fuels and chemicals. 100 ills.

  19. Bioremediation Approaches in a Laboratory Activity for the Industrial Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology (IBAM Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Raiger Iustman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology is an optional 128h-course for Chemistry and Biology students at the Faculty of Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This course is usually attended by 25 students, working in teams of two. The curriculum, with 8 lab exercises, includes an oil bioremediation practice covering an insight of bioremediation processes: the influence of pollutants on autochthonous microbiota, biodegrader isolation and biosurfactant production for bioavailability understanding. The experimental steps are: (A evaluation of microbial tolerance to pollutants by constructing pristine soil microcosms contaminated with diesel or xylene and (B isolation of degraders and biosurfactant production analysis. To check microbial tolerance, microcosms are incubated during one week at 25-28ºC. Samples are collected at 0, 4 and every 48 h for CFU/g soil testing. An initial decrease of total CFU/g related to toxicity is noticed. At the end of the experiment, a recovery of the CFU number is observed, evidencing enrichment in biodegraders. Some colonies from the CFU counting plates are streaked in M9-agar with diesel as sole carbon source. After a week, isolates are inoculated on M9-Broth supplemented with diesel to induce biosurfactant production. Surface tension and Emulsification Index are measured in culture supernatants to visualize tensioactive effect of bacterial products. Besides the improvement in the good microbiological practices, the students show enthusiasm in different aspects, depending on their own interests. While biology students explore and learn new concepts on solubility, emulsions and bioavailability, chemistry students show curiosity in bacterial behavior and manipulation of microorganisms for environmental benefits.

  20. Biotechnological Innovations in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh M. Bhosale

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is gaining commendable importance to meet the required protein source for ever increasing human population. The aquaculture industry is currently facing problems on developing economically viable production systems by reducing the impact on environment. Sustainable and enhanced fish production from aquaculture may be better achieved through application of recent biotechnological innovations. Utilisation of transgenic technology has led to production of fishes with faster growth rate with disease resistance. The full advantage of this technology could not be achieved due to concern of acceptance for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. The biotechnological intervention in developing plant based feed ingredient in place of fish meal which contain high phosphorus is of prime area of attention for fish feed industry. The replacement of fish meal will also reduce fish feed cost to a greater extent. Year round fish seed production of carps through various biotechnological interventions is also need of the hour. This paper discusses technical, environmental and managerial considerations regarding the use of these biotechnological tools in aquaculture along with the advantages of research application and its commercialization.

  1. Beyond knowledge transfer: The social construction of autonomous academic science in university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscotti, Dina Louise

    Autonomy is a social product. Although some might view autonomy as the absence of social interference in individual action, it is in fact produced through social institutions. It enables social actors to act; it is the justification for the allocation of enormous public resources into institutions classified as "public" or "nonprofit;" it can lead to innovation; and, significantly, it is key to the public acceptance of new technologies. In this dissertation, I analyze the social construction of autonomy for academic science in U.S. university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations. University-industry relationships (UIRs) are a site of concern about the influence of commercial interests on academic science. Agricultural biotechnology is a contentious technology that has prompted questions about the ecological and public health implications of genetically-modified plants and animals. It has also spurred awareness of the industrialization of agriculture and accelerating corporate control of the global food system. Through analysis of in-depth interviews with over 200 scientists and administrators from nine U.S. research universities and thirty agricultural biotechnology companies, I find that both the academy and industry have a vested interest in the social construction of the academy as an autonomous space from which claims to objective, disinterested scientific knowledge can be made. These claims influence government regulation, as well as grower and public acceptance of agricultural biotechnology products. I argue that the social production of autonomy for academic science can be observed in narratives and practices related to: (1) the framing of when, how and why academic scientists collaborate with industry, (2) the meanings ascribed to and the uses deemed appropriate for industry monies in academic research, and (3) the dissemination of research results into the public domain through publications and patents. These narratives and practices

  2. Life Cycle Risks for Human Health: A Comparison of Petroleum Versus Bio-Based Production of Five Bulk Organic Chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roes, A.L.; Patel, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the development and application of a generic approach to the comparative assessment of risks related to the production of organic chemicals by petrochemical processes versus white biotechnology. White biotechnology, also referred to as industrial biotechnology, typically uses

  3. Enrichment and Strengthening of Indian Biotechnology Industry along with Academic Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalini

    2014-01-01

    For many years, humankind has been incorporating biosciences in different places--from agriculture to food and medicine. Today, the nomenclature of biology has been recoined as Biotechnology, a technological science with a perfect blend of sophisticated techniques, manuals and application of fast delivery equipment and vehicles. It encompasses…

  4. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  5. The spatial industrial organization of innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, P.J.M. de

    2010-01-01

    This study offers insight in spatial dimensions of innovation. It combines insights gained from economic geography (territorial innovation models and the geography of innovation), industrial organization (transaction cost economics and the competence-based approach) and international business

  6. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of algal biomass for industrial biotechnology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pořízka, P.; Procházka, D.; Pilát, Zdeněk; Krajčarová, L.; Kaiser, J.; Malina, R.; Novotný, J.; Zemánek, Pavel; Ježek, Jan; Šerý, Mojmír; Bernatová, Silvie; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Hrubanová, Kamila; Novotný, K.; Trtílek, M.; Samek, Ota

    74-75, AUG-SEP (2012), s. 169-176 ISSN 0584-8547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/1687; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : LIBS * double-pulse * water-jet * algal biomass * biotechnology Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.141, year: 2012

  7. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry.

  8. Nano-biotechnology breakthrough and food-packing industry- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy EA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanobiotechnology has been renowned as extremely essential scientific and industrialized advancements that have the actual ability to renovate virtually each feature of lifetimes and economy. Chemical and physical methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles are the common approaches, but their use is limited because they are costly and harmful to the environment. In this method, the biological systems such as bacteria, fungi, plants were used to transform the organic metal into metal nanoparticles via the reactive capacity of proteins and metabolites present in these organisms. The biogenic synthesis using biological routes especially fungal pathways is, therefore, the best choice. The use of fungi in the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been reported in several promising studies, since fungi contain enzymes and proteins as reducing agents and can be invariably used for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles from their salts. Generally, microbial nanobiotechnology can adapt of packaging stuff, rising barrier characteristics, refining mechanical and heat-resistance, evolving functioning antimicrobial exteriors, and generates nano-biodegradable packaging stuffs. Improving intelligent packaging to elevate the nutritional goods validity timing via nanobiotechnology became the ambition of many corporations. This review will focus on tremendous benefits of nanobiotechnology in nutrition trade concerning Foodstuff Wrapping systems and materials. Such packaging (wrapping structures would be able to fix minor holes/tears, react to ecological conditions as temperature and/or moisture changes and attentive the client if the food is spoiled. Nanobiotechnology has utilized in inventive improvement of biosensors for recognition of pathogens and chemical pollutants. Elaboration of food analytical approaches for the uncovering of tiny aggregates of a chemical and/or any microbial pollutant during food processing is an extra prospective practice of

  9. Latin-American Co-operation in Biotechnology Programme: Industrial penicillin amidase for 6 amino penicillanic acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Montoya C.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates technological and economic transference related to the Production of Penicillin Amidase for use in 6 Amine Penicillanic acid (6-APA Production Project, wich is a part of the United Nations1 Regional Biotechnology Programme for Latin America and the Caribbean. This paper analyses the evolution of international cooperation by looking at the project's development. The methodology used includes analysis of: the project's development; participant and budgetary goals; results; copyright; project conditions; and sale of biocatalyst and 6-APA. All technical objectives were achieved; international co-operation, as well as co-operation between Industry and University were successful. Technological transference to the pilot plant was effective; many students involved in the project were simultaneously taking M.Sc. and Ph.D's courses. Nevertheless, neither the technology necessary for the biocatalyst's manufacture nor the biocatalyst itself were used. Analysis of the project has provided some orientation concerning those internal and external problems which arose during the development and sale of biotechnology in our countries and has tried to propose some alternatives for taking advantage of international co-operation.

  10. Biotechnological production of caffeic acid derivatives from cell and organ cultures of Echinacea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Kim, Yun-Soo; Park, So-Young; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Caffeic acid derivatives (CADs) are a group of bioactive compounds which are produced in Echinacea species especially Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea pallida. Echinacea is a popular herbal medicine used in the treatment of common cold and it is also a prominent dietary supplement used throughout the world. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid), caftaric acid (2-O-caffeoyltartaric acid), cichoric acid (2, 3-O-dicaffeoyltartaric acid), cynarin, and echinacoside are some of the important CADs which have varied pharmacological activities. The concentrations of these bioactive compounds are species specific and also they vary considerably with the cultivated Echinacea species due to geographical location, stage of development, time of harvest, and growth conditions. Due to these reasons, plant cell and organ cultures have become attractive alternative for the production of biomass and caffeic acid derivatives. Adventitious and hairy roots have been induced in E. pupurea and E. angustifolia, and suspension cultures have been established from flask to bioreactor scale for the production of biomass and CADs. Tremendous progress has been made in this area; various bioprocess methods and strategies have been developed for constant high-quality productivity of biomass and secondary products. This review is aimed to discuss biotechnological methods and approaches employed for the sustainable production of CADs.

  11. Biotechnology for agro-industrial residues utilisation: utilisation of agro-residues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nigam, Poonam Singh; Pandey, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    ... wastes whose disposal presents a continuing problem for the farmer. The agro-industrial residues consist of many and varied wastes from agriculture and food industry, which in total account for over 250 million tonnes of waste per year in the UK alone. The prospects and application of biotechnical principles facilitates these prob...

  12. Avian Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) generate new individuals through differentiation, maturation and fertilization. This means that the manipulation of PGCs is directly linked to the manipulation of individuals, making PGCs attractive target cells in the animal biotechnology field. A unique biological property of avian PGCs is that they circulate temporarily in the vasculature during early development, and this allows us to access and manipulate avian germ lines. Following the development of a technique for transplantation, PGCs have become central to avian biotechnology, in contrast to the use of embryo manipulation and subsequent transfer to foster mothers, as in mammalian biotechnology. Today, avian PGC transplantation combined with recent advanced manipulation techniques, including cell purification, cryopreservation, depletion, and long-term culture in vitro, have enabled the establishment of genetically modified poultry lines and ex-situ conservation of poultry genetic resources. This chapter introduces the principles, history, and procedures of producing avian germline chimeras by transplantation of PGCs, and the current status of avian germline modification as well as germplasm cryopreservation. Other fundamental avian reproductive technologies are described, including artificial insemination and embryo culture, and perspectives of industrial applications in agriculture and pharmacy are considered, including poultry productivity improvement, egg modification, disease resistance impairment and poultry gene "pharming" as well as gene banking.

  13. Organizing the un-organized? Evidence from Indian diamond industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaveti, Indu

    2014-01-01

    The Indian diamond industry is composed of tens of thousands of firms engaged in cutting and polishing of diamonds and resides in the so-called un-organized sector. However, together, these firms produce 11 out of 12 diamonds set in jewelery worldwide. In absence of formal systems of governance, how

  14. Preparing Science-Trained Professionals for the Biotechnology Industry: A Ten-Year Perspective on a Professional Science Master’s Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Hamilton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnology industry has a need for business-savvy scientists; however, this is not the way scientists are traditionally trained at universities and colleges. To address this need, universities have developed Professional Science Master’s (PSM degree programs that offer advanced training in a technical field along with professional skills development through team-based projects and internships. Nearly ten years ago, the Department of Microbiology at NCSU started a PSM program in Microbial Biotechnology (MMB. This article provides an overview of the MMB program, and shares some of the lessons that we have learned.

  15. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue.

  16. Biotechnological Potential of Agro-Industrial Wastes as a Carbon Source to Thermostable Polygalacturonase Production in Aspergillus niveus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Maller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agro-industrial wastes are mainly composed of complex polysaccharides that might serve as nutrients for microbial growth and production of enzymes. The aim of this work was to study polygalacturonase (PG production by Aspergillus niveus cultured on liquid or solid media supplemented with agro-industrial wastes. Submerged fermentation (SbmF was tested using Czapeck media supplemented with 28 different carbon sources. Among these, orange peel was the best PG inducer. On the other hand, for solid state fermentation (SSF, lemon peel was the best inducer. By comparing SbmF with SSF, both supplemented with lemon peel, it was observed that PG levels were 4.4-fold higher under SSF. Maximum PG activity was observed at 55∘C and pH 4.0. The enzyme was stable at 60∘C for 90 min and at pH 3.0–5.0. The properties of this enzyme, produced on inexpensive fermentation substrates, were interesting and suggested several biotechnological applications.

  17. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 28, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-11-16

    Enzymes have enormous potential for reducing energy requirements and environmental problems in the chemicals and pharmaceutical industries. The explosion of tools that has come out of molecular biology during the last 20 years has made it possible to evolve enzymes for features never required in nature. Scientists can speed up the rate and channel the direction of evolution by controlling mutagenesis and the accompanying selection pressures. Darwinian evolution carried out in the test tube offers a unique opportunity for biotechnology: the ability to tailor enzymes for optimal performance in a wide range of applications. Thus it is possible, for example, to evolve enzymes that carry out reactions on nonnatural substrates or even to carry out reactions for which there is no counterpart in nature. Due to the vast size of the potential sequence space, however, explorations by directed evolution must be guided by sound principles and workable strategies. During the course of this group, this laboratory has continued to make significant progress in the evolution of industrial enzymes as well as in developing general methods for in vitro evolution.

  18. Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial waste in the synthesis of pectin lyase from Aspergillus brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pili, Jonaina; Danielli, Angélica; Nyari, Nádia Ld; Zeni, Jamile; Cansian, Rogério L; Backes, Geciane T; Valduga, Eunice

    2018-03-01

    This study aims at investigating pectin lyase bioproduction in submerged fermentation with synthetic medium and agro-industrial residues, using the filamentous fungus Aspergillus brasiliensis. The maximum pectin lyase activity in a synthetic medium (42 g/l pectin, 40 g/l yeast extract, and 0.02 g/l iron sulfate) was 31 U/ml, and 46 U/ml in the agro-industrial medium (160 g/l orange peel, 150 g/l corn steep liquor, and 300 g/l parboiled rice water), obtained over 60 and 124 h of bioproduction, 180 r/min, 30 ℃, pH initial 5.5, and 5·10 6 spores/ml, respectively. Partial characterization of pectin lyase crude enzyme extract obtained from the synthetic medium and the one made of agro-industrial residues showed optimum conditions at pH of 5.5 and 4.5 and temperatures of 37 and 55 ℃, respectively. The E d obtained was 3.13 and 9.15 kJ/mol, and the half-life time (t 1/2 ) was 5.71 and 80 h at 55 ℃ for pectin lyase produced in synthetic and agro-industrial medium, respectively.

  19. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  20. Empowering biotechnology in southern Africa: establishment of a robust transformation platform for the production of transgenic industry-preferred cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, C C; Rossin, C B; Gruissem, W; Vanderschuren, H; Rey, M E C

    2013-01-25

    Knowledge and technology transfer to African laboratories and farmers is an important objective for achieving food security and sustainable crop production on the sub-Saharan African continent. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a vital source of calories for more than a billion people in developing countries, and its potential industrial use for starch and bioethanol in the tropics is increasingly being recognized. However, cassava production remains constrained by the susceptibility of the crop to several biotic and abiotic stresses. For more than a decade, biotechnology has been considered an attractive tool to improve cassava as it substantially circumvents the limitations of traditional breeding, which is particularly time-consuming and tedious because of the high heterozygosity of the crop. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite some success achieved in genetic modification of the model cassava cultivar Tropical Manihot Series (TMS), TMS 60444, in some European and U.S. laboratories, the lack of a reproducible and robust protocol has not allowed the establishment of a routine transformation system in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we optimized a robust and efficient protocol developed at ETH Zurich to successfully establish transformation of a commercially cultivated South African landrace, T200, and compared this with the benchmark model cultivar TMS 60444. Results from our study demonstrated high transformation rates for both T200 (23 transgenic lines from 100 friable embryogenic callus (FEC) clusters) compared with TMS 60444 (32 transgenic lines from 100 FEC clusters). The success in transforming landraces or farmer-preferred cultivars has been limited, and the high transformation rate of an industry-preferred landrace in this study is encouraging for a feasible transformation program for cassava

  1. Building human and industrial capacity in European biotechnology: the Yeast Genome Sequencing Project (1989–1996)

    OpenAIRE

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2018-01-01

    During the years 1989-1996 the European Commission took a leading role in sequencing the yeast genome. The project was completed in April 1996 and celebrated as the success of a European research strategy based on a distributed model of scientific collaboration. Almost one hundred laboratories and private companies dispersed all over Europe took part in the sequencing work sponsored by the European Commission and an industrial platform was created to facilitate the exploitation of the genomic...

  2. Towards the industrialization of new biosurfactants: Biotechnological opportunities for the lactone esterase gene from Starmerella bombicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Sophie L K W; Ciesielska, Katarzyna; De Maeseneire, Sofie L; Moens, Helena; Everaert, Bernd; Verweire, Stijn; Denon, Quenten; Vanlerberghe, Brecht; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Van der Meeren, Paul; Devreese, Bart; Soetaert, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Although sophorolipids (SLs) produced by S. bombicola are a real showcase for the industrialization of microbial biosurfactants, some important drawbacks are associated with this efficient biological process, e.g., the simultaneous production of acidic and lactonic SLs. Depending on the application, there is a requirement for the naturally produced mixture to be manipulated to give defined ratios of the components. Recently, the enzyme responsible for the lactonization of SLs was discovered. The discovery of the gene encoding this lactone esterase (sble) enabled the development of promising S. bombicola strains producing either solely lactonic (using a sble overexpression strain described in this paper: oe sble) or solely acidic SLs (using a sble deletion strain, which was recently described, but not characterized yet: Δsble). The new S. bombicola strains were used to investigate the production processes (fermentation and purification) of either lactonic or acidic SLs. The strains maintain the high inherent productivities of the wild-type or even perform slightly better and thus represent a realistic industrial opportunity. 100% acidic SLs with a mixed acetylation pattern were obtained for the Δsble strain, while the inherent capacity to selectively produce lactonic SLs was significantly increased (+42%) for the oe sble strain (99% lactonic SLs). Moreover, the regulatory effect of citrate on lactone SL formation for the wild-type was absent in this new strain, which indicates that it is more robust and better suited for the industrial production of lactonic SLs. Basic parameters were determined for the purified SLs, which confirm that the two new strains produce molecules with distinctive properties of which the application potential can now easily be investigated independently. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Knowledge management for nuclear industry operating organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    research facilities to reduce operating costs and a decline in support to the universities to reduce overheads. The above factors have led to a reduction in technical innovation and a potential loss of technical competences that have drawn the attention of many concerned parties to the need for effective strategies and policies for nuclear knowledge management. The Director General of the IAEA, Mohamed ElBaradei, in his statement to the forty-seventh regular session of the IAEA General Conference 2003, said: 'Whether or not nuclear power witnesses an expansion in the coming decades, it is essential that we preserve nuclear scientific and technical competence for the safe operation of existing facilities and applications. Effective management of nuclear knowledge should include succession planning for the nuclear work force, the maintenance of the 'nuclear safety case' for operational reactors, and retention of the nuclear knowledge accumulated over the past six decades'. This report is intended for senior and middle level managers of nuclear industry operating organizations and provides practical information that can be used to improve knowledge management (KM) in such organizations. The information provided in this report is based upon actual experiences of Member State operating organizations as well as other related industries. The Nuclear Power Industry's Ageing Workforce: Transfer of Knowledge to the Next Generation, IAEA-TECDOC-1399, highlighted some of the knowledge management issues in Member States resulting from the large number of retiring NPP personnel who had been involved with the commissioning and initial operation of NPPs. This report complements that publication by broadening the scope of KM strategic issues, methods and techniques for nuclear industry operating organizations

  4. Qualification of an Agilent Technologies 7890A gas chromatograph used in the biotechnology industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Gonzalez, Alberto; Tambara Hernandez, Yanet; Alvarez Gil, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The drug manufacture is governed by strict international standards that guarantee reproducibility and consistency of results. The qualification of the instruments used in the productive processes, as well as in the characterization of products and their quality control are prerequisites to the validation of any analytical technique using them. One of the instrumental techniques used in the biotechnical industry is Gas Chromatography. A standard of pure caffeine was used for analysis in addition to a HP-5 30 m x 0,32 mm d.i. and 0,33 μm thick film column was used in a Gas Chromatograph coupled with a Flame Ionization Detector. For the testing of the different modules involved in the analysis (injector, column, oven and detector), an experimental design was made to estimate several parameters

  5. Methanol-based industrial biotechnology: current status and future perspectives of methylotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Jens; Schilling, Martin; Holtmann, Dirk; Sell, Dieter; Filho, Murillo Villela; Marx, Achim; Vorholt, Julia A

    2009-02-01

    Methanol is one of the building blocks in the chemical industry and can be synthesized either from petrochemical or renewable resources, such as biogas. Bioprocess technology with methylotrophic bacteria is well established, as illustrated by large-scale single-cell protein production in the past. During recent years, the first genomes of methylotrophs have been sequenced and significant progress in elucidating their metabolism has been made. In addition, the tool set for genetic engineering of methylotrophic bacteria has expanded greatly and strategies to produce fine and bulk chemicals with methylotrophs have been described. This review highlights the potential of these bacteria for the development of economically competitive bioprocesses based on methanol as an alternative carbon source, bringing together biological, technical and economic considerations.

  6. Bioprocess systems engineering: transferring traditional process engineering principles to industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Michalis; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control and optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

  7. Bioprocess systems engineering: transferring traditional process engineering principles to industrial biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Koutinas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control & optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

  8. BIOPROCESS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING: TRANSFERRING TRADITIONAL PROCESS ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES TO INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Koutinas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control and optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

  9. Bioprocess systems engineering: transferring traditional process engineering principles to industrial biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Michalis; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control and optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. PMID:24688682

  10. MPACT OF GENETIC BIOTECHNOLOGIES ON BIOSECURITY AND FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICA-BADEA DELIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity is a relatively new area global, being promoted by the significant results, particularly in the last 20 years, fundamental and applied research. Biotechnology is a collection of techniques that can be used in the agro-food, medical and industrial. The paper examines the potential impact of transgenic biotechnology, vulnerabilities, implications, benefits and risks, quality of life and health. Introduction into the environment, cross-border trade and use of GMOs resulting from modern biotechnology can untoward effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, food security and safety. It is openly acknowledged that modern biotechnology has great potential to promote human welfare, in particular, to overcome the critical needs in food, agriculture and human health. Establish appropriate safety measures when using genetically modified organisms (biosecurity policy, regulatory regime, scientific and technical measures is a highly sensitive process, aiming both to maximize the benefits of modern biotechnology and to minimize potential risk

  11. Modern Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  12. Emerging Genetic Counselor Roles within the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries: as Industry Interest Grows in Rare Genetic Disorders, How are Genetic Counselors Joining the Discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tessa; Brewster, Stephanie Jo; Towne, Meghan; Campion, MaryAnn W

    2016-08-01

    Traditionally, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry (BPI) has focused drug development at the mass-market level targeting common medical issues. However, a recent trend is the development of therapies for orphan or rare disorders, including many genetic disorders. Developing treatments for genetic disorders requires an understanding of the needs of the community and translating genomic information to clinical and non-clinical audiences. The core skills of genetic counselors (GCs) include a deep knowledge of genetics and ability to communicate complex information to a broad audience, making GCs a choice fit for this shift in drug development. To date there is limited data defining the roles GCs hold within this industry. This exploratory study aimed to define the roles and motivation of GCs working in BPI, assess job satisfaction, and identify translatable skills and current gaps in GC training programs. The authors surveyed 26 GCs working in BPI in the United States; 79 % work for companies focused on rare disorders. GC positions in BPI are growing, with 57 % of respondents being the first GC in their role. GCs in BPI continue to utilize core genetic counseling competencies, though 72 % felt their training did not fully prepare them for BPI. These data suggest opportunities for exposure to BPI in GC training to better prepare future generations of GCs for these career opportunities. GC satisfaction was high in BPI, notably in areas traditionally reported as less satisfying on the National Society for Genetic Counselors Professional Status Survey: salary and advancement opportunities. BPI's growing interest in rare disorders represents a career opportunity for GCs, addressing both historic areas of dissatisfaction for GCs and BPI's genomic communication needs.

  13. Collusion in the Dutch construction industry: an industrial organization perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doree, Andries G.

    2004-01-01

    Several investigations by parliament, cabinet, justice and antitrust authorities have shown a widespread use of cartels and structural bid rigging within the Dutch construction industry. The reputation of the Dutch construction industry has been dented with both the general public and clients. As a

  14. Challenges of climate change: omics-based biology of saffron plants and organic agricultural biotechnology for sustainable saffron production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Amjad M

    2014-01-01

    Kashmir Valley is a major saffron (Crocus sativus Kashmirianus) growing area of the world, second only to Iran in terms of production. In Kashmir, saffron is grown on uplands (termed in the local language as "Karewas"), which are lacustrine deposits located at an altitude of 1585 to 1677 m above mean sea level (amsl), under temperate climatic conditions. Kashmir, despite being one of the oldest historical saffron-producing areas, faces a rapid decline of saffron industry. Among many other factors responsible for decline of saffron industry the preponderance of erratic rainfalls and drought-like situation have become major challenges imposed by climate change. Saffron has a limited coverage area as it is grown as a 'niche crop' and is a recognized "geographical indication," growing under a narrow microclimatic condition. As such it has become a victim of climate change effects, which has the potential of jeopardizing the livelihood of thousands of farmers and traders associated with it. The paper discusses the potential and actual impact of climate change process on saffron cultivation in Kashmir; and the biotechnological measures to address these issues.

  15. The Organization of the Mycenaean Textile Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech

    Analysis of thewritten documentation for the organiztion of the Mycenaean textile industri at Pylos, Knossos, Mycenae and Thebes......Analysis of thewritten documentation for the organiztion of the Mycenaean textile industri at Pylos, Knossos, Mycenae and Thebes...

  16. Certification, agricultural waste, organic production, herbal medicine and biotechnology in the conception of farmers of the State of Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Lucas Ribeiro Freitas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The organic production system aims not at the intensive exploitation of resources, but the correct management of waste, the use of alternative treatments of animal diseases, and the utilization of some biotechnologies to assist in production. This is an exploratory study to evaluate the way farmers perceive the certification of their farms, the organic agricultural production, waste control, and the use of herbal medicine and biotechnologies in their properties. Fifteen farmers from the Dom Fernando Gomes dos Santos (GI settlement, in Itaberaí, participated in the study, besides 15 farmers (GII who are not participants in agrarian reform programs from different municipalities in the state of Goiás. Information was collected using questionnaires that addressed issues related to certification of farms, production of waste, organic agricultural production, herbal medicine, and biotechnology. Most farmers of GI and GII were unfamiliar with farm certification. Most GII farmers knew about agricultural waste, but few GI farmers knew its meaning. Most farmers of the two groups were familiar with the term organic agricultural production. More GII farmers were familiar with herbal medicines than GI. In both groups the term biotechnology was unknown to most people. It was concluded that this lack of knowledge by the majority of farmers about most topics presented shows the need to plan and execute actions to assist in the dissemination of information among farmers, settlers or not, using practical and functional strategies.

  17. Biotechnological potential of marine natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The number of marine natural products (MNPs) that have been applied to biotechnological industry is very limited, although nearly 20000 new compounds were discovered from marine organisms since the birth of MNPs in the early 1970s. However, it is apparent that they have a significant potential as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, research tools, and others. This article focuses on selective antitumor metabolites isolated from marine sponges and tunicates, and their modes of action, ...

  18. Environmental biotechnology: concepts and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winter, Josef; Jördening, Hans-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    ... for the - development of new and environmentally improved production technologies with less purified substrates and generation of fewer by-products - bioproducts as non-toxic matters, mostly recyclable. Some impressive studies on industrial applications of biotechnology are published in two OECD reports, which summarized, that biotechnology has the potential o...

  19. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y

    2011-09-01

    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systems Bio Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies which describes the measures taken by Systems Bio-Industries company to adapt its central heating plants, turbines, engines and dryers to the new French 2910 by-law about thermal efficiency and environmental impact of heating plants. The project of development of a cogeneration system in the Angouleme site is briefly described. (J.S.)

  1. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  2. Organization, structure, and performance in the US nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Several propositions are advanced concerning the effects of industry organization and structure on the economic performance of the American commercial nuclear power industry. Both the electric utility industry and the nuclear power plant supply industry are relatively high degree of horizontal disaggregation. The latter is also characterized by an absence of vertical integration. The impact of each of these factors on construction and operating performance is discussed. Evidence is presented suggesting that the combination of horizontal and vertical disaggregation in the industry has had a significant adverse effect on economic performance. The relationship between industrial structure and regulatory behavior is also discussed. 43 references, 4 figures, 9 tables

  3. Chemicals manufacture via biotechnology - the prospects for western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.; Kristiansen, B.

    1985-09-02

    The trend of European chemical and biotechnological companies to move away from low value, high volume bulk chemicals towards the manufacture of high value, low volume, fine and speciality chemicals will continue into the 21st century. The manufacture of fine chemicals (principally antibiotics, biopesticides, enzymes and organic acids) and commodity chemicals (principally butanol and industrial ethanol) necessitates 1.5Mt and 2-3 Mt of carbohydrate feedstocks for their production. Thus it is vital that the Common Agricultural Policy does not interfere with the progress of the biotechnology industry by maintaining carbohydrate feedstock prices at their present high levels.

  4. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad Deepa L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology

  5. African Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB), a new broad-based journal, was founded on two key tenets: To publish the most exciting research in all areas of applied biochemistry, industrial microbiology, molecular biology, genomics and proteomics, food and agricultural technologies, and metabolic engineering. Secondly ...

  6. Academia-industry symbiosis in organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaudel, Quentin; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S

    2015-03-17

    Collaboration between academia and industry is a growing phenomenon within the chemistry community. These sectors have long held strong ties since academia traditionally trains the future scientists of the corporate world, but the recent drastic decrease of public funding is motivating the academic world to seek more private grants. This concept of industrial "sponsoring" is not new, and in the past, some companies granted substantial amounts of money per annum to various academic institutions in exchange for prime access to all their scientific discoveries and inventions. However, academic and industrial interests were not always aligned, and therefore the investment has become increasingly difficult to justify from industry's point of view. With fluctuating macroeconomic factors, this type of unrestricted grant has become more rare and has been largely replaced by smaller and more focused partnerships. In our view, forging a partnership with industry can be a golden opportunity for both parties and can represent a true symbiosis. This type of project-specific collaboration is engendered by industry's desire to access very specific academic expertise that is required for the development of new technologies at the forefront of science. Since financial pressures do not allow companies to spend the time to acquire this expertise and even less to explore fundamental research, partnering with an academic laboratory whose research is related to the problem gives them a viable alternative. From an academic standpoint, it represents the perfect occasion to apply "pure science" research concepts to solve problems that benefit humanity. Moreover, it offers a unique opportunity for students to face challenges from the "real world" at an early stage of their career. Although not every problem in industry can be solved by research developments in academia, we argue that there is significant scientific overlap between these two seemingly disparate groups, thereby presenting an

  7. Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Kujala, Jouni

    2005-01-01

    Kujala J, Kristensen NH, (2005): Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry. Article in "Organic farming for a new millennium - status and future challenges". Published by Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists (NJF). Swedish University...

  8. Development of biotechnology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, T K; Bisaria, V S

    2000-01-01

    India has embarked upon a very ambitious program in biotechnology with a view to harnessing its available human and unlimited biodiversity resources. It has mainly been a government sponsored effort with very little private industry participation in investment. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) established under the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1986 was the major instrument of action to bring together most talents, material resources, and budgetary provisions. It began sponsoring research in molecular biology, agricultural and medical sciences, plant and animal tissue culture, biofertilizers and biopesticides, environment, human genetics, microbial technology, and bioprocess engineering, etc. The establishment of a number of world class bioscience research institutes and provision of large research grants to some existing universities helped in developing specialized centres of biotechnology. Besides DBT, the Department of Science & Technology (DST), also under the Ministry of S&T, sponsors research at universities working in the basic areas of life sciences. Ministry of Education's most pioneering effort was instrumental in the creation of Biochemical Engineering Research Centre at IIT Delhi with substantial assistance from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland to make available state-of-the-art infrastructure for education, training, and research in biochemical engineering and biotechnology in 1974. This initiative catalysed biotechnology training and research at many institutions a few years later. With a brief introduction, the major thrust areas of biotechnology development in India have been reviewed in this India Paper which include education and training, agricultural biotechnology, biofertilizers and biopesticides, tissue culture for tree and woody species, medicinal and aromatic plants, biodiversity conservation and environment, vaccine development, animal, aquaculture, seri and food biotechnology, microbial

  9. Academia–Industry Symbiosis in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Collaboration between academia and industry is a growing phenomenon within the chemistry community. These sectors have long held strong ties since academia traditionally trains the future scientists of the corporate world, but the recent drastic decrease of public funding is motivating the academic world to seek more private grants. This concept of industrial “sponsoring” is not new, and in the past, some companies granted substantial amounts of money per annum to various academic institutions in exchange for prime access to all their scientific discoveries and inventions. However, academic and industrial interests were not always aligned, and therefore the investment has become increasingly difficult to justify from industry’s point of view. With fluctuating macroeconomic factors, this type of unrestricted grant has become more rare and has been largely replaced by smaller and more focused partnerships. In our view, forging a partnership with industry can be a golden opportunity for both parties and can represent a true symbiosis. This type of project-specific collaboration is engendered by industry’s desire to access very specific academic expertise that is required for the development of new technologies at the forefront of science. Since financial pressures do not allow companies to spend the time to acquire this expertise and even less to explore fundamental research, partnering with an academic laboratory whose research is related to the problem gives them a viable alternative. From an academic standpoint, it represents the perfect occasion to apply “pure science” research concepts to solve problems that benefit humanity. Moreover, it offers a unique opportunity for students to face challenges from the “real world” at an early stage of their career. Although not every problem in industry can be solved by research developments in academia, we argue that there is significant scientific overlap between these two seemingly disparate

  10. Biotechnological production of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-08-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important aromatic flavor compounds used in foods, beverages, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals and is produced on a scale of more than 10 thousand tons per year by the industry through chemical synthesis. Alternative biotechnology-based approaches for the production are based on bioconversion of lignin, phenolic stilbenes, isoeugenol, eugenol, ferulic acid, or aromatic amino acids, and on de novo biosynthesis, applying fungi, bacteria, plant cells, or genetically engineered microorganisms. Here, the different biosynthesis routes involved in biotechnological vanillin production are discussed.

  11. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  12. How Japanese students reason about agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Fumi; Macer, Darryl

    2004-10-01

    Many have claimed that education of the ethical issues raised by biotechnology is essential in universities, but there is little knowledge of its effectiveness. The focus of this paper is to investigate how university students assess the information given in class to make their own value judgments and decisions relating to issues of agricultural biotechnology, especially over genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Analysis of homework reports related with agricultural biotechnology after identification of key concepts and ideas in each student report is presented. The ideas were sorted into different categories. The ideas were compared with those in the reading materials using the same categories. These categories included: concern about affects on humans, affects on the environment, developing countries and starvation, trust in industry, responsibility of scientists, risk perception, media influence, need for (international) organizations or third parties, and information dissemination. What was consistent through the different years was that more than half of the students took a "neutral" position. A report was scored as "neutral" when the report included both the positive and negative side of an issue, or when the student could not make a definite decision about the use of GMOs and GM food. While it may be more difficult to defend a strong ''for" or "against" position, some students used logical arguments successfully in doing so. Sample comments are presented to depict how Japanese students see agricultural technology, and how they value its application, with comparisons to the general social attitudes towards biotechnology.

  13. Lack of transparency on environmental risks of genetically modified micro-organisms in industrial biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, W.L.M.; Dommelen, van A.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2009-01-01

    For the sustainable development of technological innovations the involvement of non-specialist stakeholders is crucial, which requires transparency of the knowledge base of the risks and benefits concerned. This paper evaluates the basic assumptions of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and

  14. La structure sociale de l’industrie des Biotechnologies en France: une étude des relations inter-organisationnelles au niveau inter-individuel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piña-Stranger, Alvaro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Various authors have shown the importance of collaborative relationships for inter-organizational performance, the mode of governance or the trajectory of biotechnology companies. Most of these works analyze the exclusive contractual agreements between companies and their main relationships among individuals. We show that this purely economic approach presents a major limitation: the nature of contractual relationships does not explore in detail how players cooperate. We propose to extend the study of these inter-organizational social relations, seen through the resource exchange in inter-individual. An empirical study on the leaders of the biotechnology industry in the area of human health in France has allowed us to map their relationships and resources they exchange them. Our results confirm the existence of a system of exchange dense and multiple. It presents a hierarchical distribution of various types of resources, where the centre is different from the periphery relations denser, more numerous and more reciprocal. However, comparative analysis of different networks reveals that the relationships of the board are highly centralized, while those of friendship following a more even distribution. We suggest that this phenomenon is part of a compensation mechanism to less central actors to maintain inter-organizational relationships. Finally, two standards of the cooperation process, revealed by the relational behaviour of actors, have been discovered. We suggest that they reflect in part the difficult process of adjustment that must cross a science project out of the realm of academic research and develop in a private structure: the biotech company.

  15. Do ICTs Affect Workforce Productivity in Egyptian Industrial Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elsaadani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the influence of Information Communication Technologies-ICTs’ dimensions (Information Technology (IT, Management Information System (MIS, Office automation (OA, Intranet and Internet on workforce productivity for a group of industrial organizations in Alexandria - Egypt. The population of the study included managers and staff members working in different areas related to ICTs in selected industrial organizations at various managerial levels. A descriptive-statistical combined research study was conducted. Simple random sampling was used for the selection of the participating industrial organization. A questionnaire was used as the data collection method. Expert comments were used to check the validity of study instrument, and the reliability of questions was calculated as 79% using Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. Single variable t-test, Friedman and variance analysis tests were used for the analysis. Study findings revealed that the specified dimensions of ICTs positively affect workforce productivity of industrial organizations in Alexandria - Egypt.

  16. Innovation, Learning Organizations and Industrial Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Peter Nielsen, Peter

    and indirect participation much more frequently than the rest. As more sectors become exposed to the need to engage in incremental product and service innovation the economic potential of diffusing good practices in terms of organization and participation is growing and needs to be reflected in firm strategies...... and public policies aiming at promoting innovation and knowledge creation....

  17. Commercialization of animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B

    2003-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  18. Size Of Industrial Organization: Impact On Workers Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Dayo Akintayo; S.S. Babalola

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of size of organization on workers behaviour (labour turnover, absenteeism, and job satisfaction and strike prone activity behaviour) in industrial organizations in South-Western Nigeria. This was for the purpose of determining the appropriate management strategies that could foster commitment, cooperation and compliance among industrial workers in Nigeria. The study adopted ex-post facto research design. A total of 320 respondents were drawn from the sele...

  19. Biotechnological production of value-added compounds by ustilaginomycetous yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Bruno N; Pessôa, Marina G; Molina, Gustavo; Kaupert Neto, Antônio A; Oliveira, Juliana V C; Mano, Mario C R; Pastore, Glaucia M

    2017-11-01

    The use of yeasts in bioprocesses can be considered one of the most relevant strategies in industrial biotechnology, and their potential is recognized due to the ability of these microorganisms for production of diverse value-added compounds. Yeasts from Ustilaginaceae family have been highlighted in the last years as a promising source of industrial interesting compounds, including enzymes, sugars, lipids, organic acids, and biosurfactants. These compounds may exhibit various applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food, medical, and environmental fields, increasing the scientific attention in the study of ustilaginomycetous for biotechnological purposes. In this mini-review, we provide a comprehensive overview about the biotechnological use of yeasts from Ustilaginaceae family to produce value-added compounds, focusing in recent trends, characteristics of processes currently developed, new opportunities, and potential applications.

  20. Engineering organisms for industrial fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A

    2010-01-01

    Volatile fuel costs, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security concerns are driving efforts to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Petroleum comes from sunlight, CO(2) and water converted via a biological intermediate into fuel over a several million year timescale. It stands to reason that using biology to short-circuit this time cycle offers an attractive alternative--but only with relevant products at or below market prices. The state of the art of biological engineering over the past five years has progressed to allow for market needs to drive innovation rather than trying to adapt existing approaches to the market. This report describes two innovations using synthetic biology to dis-intermediate fuel production. LS9 is developing a means to convert biological intermediates such as cellulosic hydrolysates into drop-in hydrocarbon product replacements such as diesel. Joule Unlimited is pioneering approaches to eliminate feedstock dependency by efficiently capturing sunlight, CO(2) and water to produce fuels and chemicals. The innovations behind these companies are built with the market in mind, focused on low cost biosynthesis of existing products of the petroleum industry. Through successful deployment of technologies such as those behind LS9 and Joule Unlimited, alternative sources of petroleum products will mitigate many of the issues faced with our petroleum-based economy. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  1. [The past 30 years of Chinese Journal of Biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ning

    2015-06-01

    This review addresses the association of "Chinese Journal of Biotechnology" and the development of biotechnology in China in the past 30 years. Topics include relevant awards and industrialization, development of the biotechnology discipline, and well know scientists in biotechnology, as well as perspectives on the journal.

  2. Latent organizations in the film industry: contracts, rewards and resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, J.J.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to study the extent to which the project-based organization (PBO) and the latent organization determine the actual behavior of actors in a project-based industry and how this is mediated by the types of contracts and rewarding practices these organizational forms

  3. Volatile organic monitor for industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Stuart, A.D.; Loyola, V.M.

    1993-07-01

    1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have created the need for instruments capable of monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in public air space in an unattended and low cost manner. The purpose of the study was to develop and demonstrate the capability to do long term automatic and unattended ambient air monitoring using an inexpensive portable analytic system at a commercial manufacturing plant site. A gas chromatograph system personal computer hardware, meteorology tower ampersand instruments, and custom designed hardware and software were developed. Comparison with an EPA approved method was performed. The system was sited at an aircraft engines manufacturing site and operated in a completely unattended mode for 60 days. Two VOCs were monitored every 30 minutes during the 24hr day. Large variation in the concentration from 800ppb to the limits of detection of about 10ppb were observed. Work to increase the capabilities of the system is ongoing

  4. Learning Organizations in High Reliability Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, D.; Wächter, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Humans make mistakes. Sometimes we learn from them. In a high reliability organization we have to learn before an error leads to an incident (or even accident). Therefore the “human factor” is most important as most of the time the human is the last line of defense. The “human factor” is more than communication or leadership skills. At the end, it is the personal attitude. This attitude has to be safety minded. And this attitude has to be self-reflected continuously. Moreover, feedback from others is urgently needed to improve one’s personal skills daily and learn from our own experience as well as from others. (author

  5. Proteomics meets blue biotechnology: a wealth of novelties and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Erica M; Durighello, Emie; Pible, Olivier; Nogales, Balbina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Bosch, Rafael; Christie-Oleza, Joseph A; Armengaud, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Blue biotechnology, in which aquatic environments provide the inspiration for various products such as food additives, aquaculture, biosensors, green chemistry, bioenergy, and pharmaceuticals, holds enormous promise. Large-scale efforts to sequence aquatic genomes and metagenomes, as well as campaigns to isolate new organisms and culture-based screenings, are helping to push the boundaries of known organisms. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can complement 16S gene sequencing in the effort to discover new organisms of potential relevance to blue biotechnology by facilitating the rapid screening of microbial isolates and by providing in depth profiles of the proteomes and metaproteomes of marine organisms, both model cultivable isolates and, more recently, exotic non-cultivable species and communities. Proteomics has already contributed to blue biotechnology by identifying aquatic proteins with potential applications to food fermentation, the textile industry, and biomedical drug development. In this review, we discuss historical developments in blue biotechnology, the current limitations to the known marine biosphere, and the ways in which mass spectrometry can expand that knowledge. We further speculate about directions that research in blue biotechnology will take given current and near-future technological advancements in mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The flexible feedstock concept in Industrial Biotechnology: Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast strains for access to alternative carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F; Brito, Luciana Fernandes; Gil Lopez, Marina; Hennig, Guido; Pfeifenschneider, Johannes; Sgobba, Elvira; Veldmann, Kareen H

    2016-09-20

    Most biotechnological processes are based on glucose that is either present in molasses or generated from starch by enzymatic hydrolysis. At the very high, million-ton scale production volumes, for instance for fermentative production of the biofuel ethanol or of commodity chemicals such as organic acids and amino acids, competing uses of carbon sources e.g. in human and animal nutrition have to be taken into account. Thus, the biotechnological production hosts E. coli, C. glutamicum, pseudomonads, bacilli and Baker's yeast used in these large scale processes have been engineered for efficient utilization of alternative carbon sources. This flexible feedstock concept is central to the use of non-glucose second and third generation feedstocks in the emerging bioeconomy. The metabolic engineering efforts to broaden the substrate scope of E. coli, C. glutamicum, pseudomonads, B. subtilis and yeasts to include non-native carbon sources will be reviewed. Strategies to enable simultaneous consumption of mixtures of native and non-native carbon sources present in biomass hydrolysates will be summarized and a perspective on how to further increase feedstock flexibility for the realization of biorefinery processes will be given. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Essays on regulation, institutions, and industrial organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergara, Mario Esteban

    Essay I develops a comparative institutional analysis of network access price regulation and "light-handed" regulation. While the former is a specific-agency-based arrangement with higher political influence, the latter is a court-based system. Consequently, the main trade-off between both frameworks reflects the merits of having efficient political and judicial institutions. Price regulation is superior when distributional concerns are irrelevant and information asymmetries are lower. Poorly functioning political systems and high welfare costs of raising funds make price regulation less attractive. Light regulation is more attractive when potential rents are smaller, the monopolist is more risk averse, the judicial system is more efficient, and the threat of government intervention is more credible. The possibility of private transfers makes price regulation more advantageous. Higher information asymmetries among firms makes light-handed regulation more attractive. The main results are consistent with a plausible interpretation of the drastic deregulatory process in New Zealand. Essay II studies the preliminary effects of the deregulation of direct access in the New Zealand's electricity market. A slight improvement in quality standards and an overall efficiency increase took place after two years of deregulation. Retailers were able to successfully enter in large demand, dense areas, with a large proportion of industrial and commercial users, where incumbents were not distributing electricity efficiently. Pricing policies appears to be influenced by market forces (associated to economic and demographic characteristics) as expected in a light regulatory framework. Essay III focuses on the possibility of endogenous sunk costs and the introduction of new products. Firms that exert some monopoly power in one market and introduce a new good whose demand is determined by a broader set of consumers might be forced to change their competing strategies. If the new product

  8. Biotechnology bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette, L.A.; McCready, R.G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography consists of articles and scientific papers on biotechnology in areas in which BIOMINET is currently involved. The reports are categorized in four areas: 1) acid mine drainage (coals and metals) and bioadsorption of metals; 2) solution mining; 3) metabolism and physiology of Thiobacillus and other microorganisms; and 4) bacterial leaching of metals.

  9. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn

    1997-01-01

    Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing...... can be replaced with monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils (VOFA). The paper describes the selection of other industrial cleaning or degreasing processes where VOC could be replaced by VOFA. Manual degreasing and cleaning processes in metal industry, maintenance and repair of vehicles......, and industrial coating processes are likely candidates for substitution of VOC with VOFA. Requirements to the resulting surfaces may, however, hinder the replacement. This is especially important when the surface has to be coated in a subsequent step....

  10. Organizing the Canadian nuclear industry to meet the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lortie, Pierre.

    1983-06-01

    The CANDU reactor is struggling for a share of the dwindling reactor market against formidable and well-established competition. The Canadian nuclear industry has historically depended upon two crown corporations, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. and Ontario Hydro, which have taken the lead in designing and engineering the reactor. Crown corporations are not notably successful in marketing, however, and the time has come for the industry to organize itself in preparation for an aggressive export drive

  11. An Industrial-Organization Approach to Money and Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gunji, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of conventional interest rate policy, quantitative easing and the reserve accounts’ interest rate on the money stock in an industrial-organization model of the banking industry with money creation. Our main findings are as follows. First, under a plausible setting of the parameters, the model with money creation supports the liquidity puzzle, in which tight monetary policy increases the money stock. Second, quantitative monetary easing has a similar effect. ...

  12. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...... industry, and vehicle repair and maintenance. There are, however, other elements that influence the possibility to substitute. The requirements to the resulting surface, depending on the following treatment of the surface. The character of the soilings to be removed. The possible presence of other...

  13. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  14. Climate change: Bio-technologies are facing a huge challenge. Why is climate changing? Control and measurement of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Soils at the heart of climate change. Between pollution and climate change, the survival of soil organisms. Modelling microbial degradation in soils to analyse greenhouse gas releases. A threat against plant health. The opinion of the seed industry. Truly living clouds. Language, the other stake of the struggle against climate changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas y Melia, David; Delmotte, Marc; Chenu, Claire; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Mougin, Christian; Lamy, Isabelle; Caquet, Thierry; Garnier, Patricia; Sache, Ivan; Pagesse, Pierre; Amato, Pierre; Desprez, Basile; Vernet, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    As the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 decided to react to limit the irrecoverable global warming, this publication, through several articles, outlines that this issue has not progressed at all after 23 years on a political point of view, and has even regressed with respect to initially defined objectives, but has progressed in terms of understanding of climate change under the influence of our production modes, notably in the agriculture sector. Thus, the articles discuss or recall the origin and process of climate change, how greenhouse gas emissions are controlled and measured, how soil are impacted or play a role in climate change as the survival of soil organisms is at stake under the pressure of pollution and climate change, how climate change can be a threat for plants, how the seed industry perceives these issues, how micro-organisms present in the air and clouds are now a topic in atmosphere sciences. The last article discusses the importance of intelligibility of scientific publications on these issues

  15. Biotechnology: reality or dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of molecular biology and molecular genetics, especially of the recombinant DNA technology enabled improvement of experimental methods that provide manipulation within a cell-free system, such as cell and tissue cultures. Such methods resulted in the development of different new technologies with specific properties in relation to the conventional definitions. According to PERSLEY and lantin (2000 the following components are essential for the contemporary biotechnology: (i genomics - a molecular characterization of all genes and gene products of an organism (ii bioinformatics - the assembly of data from genomic analysis into accessible forms; (iii transformation - the introduction of genes controlling a trait of interest into a genome of a desired organism (micro organisms, plants, animal systems. By the application of cotemporary biotechnology new methods in the field of diagnostic are developed such as rapid and more accurate identification of the presence and absence of genes in the genome of the organism of interest (identification of pathogens prenatal diagnostics, molecular markers assisted breeding for plants, etc. The traits of an organism are determined by its genetic material, i.e. by a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. watson and crick (1953 were the first scientists to describe the structure of DNA as a double-stranded helix. Higher organisms contain a set of linear DNA molecules - chromosomes and a full set of chromosomes of an organism is a genome. Each genome is divided into a series of functional units, i.e. genes. The traits of an organism depend on genes, but their expression depends not only on genes but also on many other factors, including whether a gene, controlling the trait, expresses, specific cells in which it expresses and specially the mode by which the gene and its product interact with the environment. A special aspect within the application of biotechnology occurs as an interaction of a

  16. Trade Union Participation in Organized Leather Industry in Kolkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper attempts to evaluate the significance of different factors determining the trade union participation in organized leather industry in Kolkata. The research has been conducted based on three sample leather units engaged in three different commercial functions and these units have been selected based on types of ...

  17. Essays on empirical industrial organization : Entry and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Machado, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation contains three essays on empirical industrial organization devoted to studying firms' strategic interaction in different settings. The first essay develops an entry model to address an important matter in the area of urban economics: the development of cities. In particular, it

  18. The rise (and decline?) of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1970s, biotechnology has been a key innovator in drug development. An analysis of FDA-approved therapeutics demonstrates pharmaceutical companies outpace biotechs in terms of new approvals but biotechnology companies are now responsible for earlier-stage activities (patents, INDs or clinical development). The number of biotechnology organizations that contributed to an FDA approval began declining in the 2000s and is at a level not seen since the 1980s. Whereas early biotechnology companies had a decade from first approval until acquisition, the average acquisition of a biotechnology company now occurs months before their first FDA approval. The number of hybrid organizations that arise when pharmaceutical companies acquire biotechnology is likewise declining, raising questions about the sustainability of biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Essays on measurement and evaluation of demand side management programs in the electricity industry, and impacts of firm strategy on stock price in the biotechnology industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandres Motola, Miguel A.

    Essay one estimates changes in small business customer energy consumption (kWh) patterns resulting from a seasonally differentiated pricing structure. Econometric analysis leverages cross-sectional time series data across the entire population of affected customers, from 2007 through the present. Observations include: monthly energy usage (kWh), relevant customer segmentations, local daily temperature, energy price, and region-specific economic conditions, among other variables. The study identifies the determinants of responsiveness to seasonal price differentiation. In addition, estimated energy consumption changes occurring during the 2010 summer season are reported for the average customer and in aggregate grouped by relevant customer segments, climate zone, and total customer base. Essay two develops an econometric modeling methodology to evaluate load impacts for short duration demand response events. The study analyzes time series data from a season of direct load control program tests aimed at integrating demand response into the wholesale electricity market. I have combined "fuzzy logic" with binary variables to create "fuzzy indicator variables" that allow for measurement of short duration events while using industry standard model specifications. Typically, binary variables for every hour are applied in load impact analysis of programs dispatched in hourly intervals. As programs evolve towards integration with the wholesale market, event durations become irregular and often occur for periods of only a few minutes. This methodology is innovative in that it conserves the degrees of freedom in the model while allowing for analysis of high frequency data using fixed effects. Essay three examines the effects of strategies, intangibles, and FDA news on the stocks of young biopharmaceutical firms. An event study methodology is used to explore those effects. This study investigates 20,839 announcements from 1990 to 2005. Announcements on drug development

  20. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blessed with extremely rich biodiversity, Malaysia is all geared up to explore new high technology to utilize the advantage it possesses whilst to protect its environment. Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities for industrial growth, health and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to address the evolution of biotechnology institutions and the stumbling blocks in developing the Malaysian biotechnology industry. This paper identifies three main impediments in the current Malaysian biotechnology, namely lack of skilled human capital; weak industrial base; and lack of commercialization effort. Besides, a set of strategies are discussed with aim to further improve and strengthen the Malaysian biotechnology industry. In general, the arguments are presented by mapping out the symbiotic relationship between data from elite interviews, archival data and observations.

  1. Biotechnology for site restoration: scope of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitchaeva, O.

    1996-09-18

    The potential of modern biotechnology for solving problems related with the nuclear industry, especially site restoration, are investigated. The advantages of biotechnology, the current applications in Russia, main points of international collaboration, and political considerations are discussed.

  2. Environmental Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang Jiang; Liu, Lei; Chaudhry, Muhammad Tausif; Wang, Lei; Chen, Ying Guang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, He; Chen, Jian

    Environmental biotechnology has emerged as an important measure to tackle the environmental pollution as China experiences great economic success. Over the past decade, much emphasis has been paid to the following fields in environmental biotechnology: microbial degradation of toxic and organic chemicals, bio-treatment of wastewater, waste recycling. The Chinese researchers have done a lot of work to understand the natural degradation processes for organic and toxic compounds and finally to clean these compounds from polluted environments. For the treatment of wastewater, many new processes were proposed and optimized to meet the more strict effluent standards in China. Finally, more and more attention has been paid to the reuse of discharged wastes. In this chapter we review the development in the above fields.

  3. Editorial: Latest methods and advances in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    The latest "Biotech Methods and Advances" special issue of Biotechnology Journal continues the BTJ tradition of featuring the latest breakthroughs in biotechnology. The special issue is edited by our Editors-in-Chief, Prof. Sang Yup Lee and Prof. Alois Jungbauer and covers a wide array of topics in biotechnology, including the perennial favorite workhorses of the biotech industry, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Patenting Biotechnological Inventions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raspor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The patent system has been able to provide the protection for the achievements of different technologies and in that way it has supported further development and growth of the industry where those achievements were implemented. Modern technologies like information technology and biotechnology with genetic engineering that appeared in the 70s have overgrown the frames of the existing patent system because of their exponential development during the last thirty years. Industry that invests a huge amount of money in these technologies, especially in the field of biotechnology, where the results are very uncertain, has started to claim changes in the patent system.

  5. Biodegradation of organic contaminants from the dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Prócel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the environmental aspects of high impact in dairy industries is the discharge of wastewaters, because of contaminating organic matter as well as the substantial generation of effluents. In the present study, a biofiltration of effluents from a dairy industry in San Miguel de Nono (Ecuador with a pollution load of 10.000 mg/L in terms of chemical oxygen demand and turbidity of 799 NTU was implemented. The system with a capacity of 55 L per batch consisted of three biofilters in series and activated zeolite assisted clarification. Organic degradation reached 98,9%; turbidity removal was 95,2%, 94,4% of nitrogen and 89,1% of phosphorus. The presence of milk fat did not decrease the efficiency of the biofiltration but increased the removal of suspended matter and pH neutralisation in the clarification. The optimal operating time was 6 hours under aerobic conditions.

  6. The industrial organization of the repository. Pitfall or logical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frostenson, Magnus

    2010-11-01

    From a systems perspective the organization of the Swedish final repository project for nuclear waste is studied. Different aspects of organization are identified in the report, covering dimensions of geographical, operative, structural, responsibility and contextual organization. Following SKB's site selection for the applications for the final repository for spent nuclear system and the closing of the surplus value agreement, issues concerning operative, structural and contextual organization tend to become particularly pressing, which is reflected in three research questions: - How will the final repository project be organized operatively and structurally over time? - Why is the final repository project organized in this way by SKB? - What kind of contextual organization takes place in the final repository project and what are the consequences of these activities? How the different industrial units of the final repository project should be run and within which structure, for example concerning ownership and integration of units, is established in the report. SKB's reasons for choosing this kind of organization are also highlighted. Apart from legal and safety-related demands that must be met together with the demands of the owners, SKB's strategic preference for insourcing conditions organizational choices. The traditional task centred operative and structural organization of SKB is also reflected in the organizational choices for the present and future units of the final depository system. Contextual organization implies deepened actor relationships between SKB's owners and SKB on the one side and the municipalities Oesthammar and Oskarshamn on the other. Through active organizing, the final repository arena 'narrows down' and the final repository issue turns into an in many respects local issue. There is a clear tendency that the roles of SKB are multiplied in order to handle the demands that central stakeholders - in particular the municipalities - place on

  7. How could haloalkaliphilic microorganisms contribute to biotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baisuo; Yan, Yanchun; Chen, Shulin

    2014-11-01

    Haloalkaliphiles are microorganisms requiring Na(+) concentrations of at least 0.5 mol·L(-1) and an alkaline pH of 9 for optimal growth. Their unique features enable them to make significant contributions to a wide array of biotechnological applications. Organic compatible solutes produced by haloalkaliphiles, such as ectoine and glycine betaine, are correlated with osmoadaptation and may serve as stabilizers of intracellular proteins, salt antagonists, osmoprotectants, and dermatological moisturizers. Haloalkaliphiles are an important source of secondary metabolites like rhodopsin, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and exopolysaccharides that play essential roles in biogeocycling organic compounds. These microorganisms also can secrete unique exoenzymes, including proteases, amylases, and cellulases, that are highly active and stable in extreme haloalkaline conditions and can be used for the production of laundry detergent. Furthermore, the unique metabolic pathways of haloalkaliphiles can be applied in the biodegradation and (or) biotransformation of a broad range of toxic industrial pollutants and heavy metals, in wastewater treatment, and in the biofuel industry.

  8. Organization and management activities in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.C.; Whitesel, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of organization and management development activities in the commercial nuclear power industry is to foster high levels of power plant performance and safety through improved human performance. The NRC has been working to develop assessment tools to assay the effects of organizational factors on plant safety. The utility industry has been working on initiatives targeting individual accountability, the improvement of plant performance and the elimination of the items identified through the NRC assessment process. Organization and management activities do not focus on industry organizational charts, but on the personnel processes and dimensions (factors) that affect safety and economic performance. As individual terms these activities are often combined and referred to as organizational factors. As an area of study, organizational factors has become more prominent as the industry emphasis has switched in recent years from hardware issues related to safety and economics, to personnel-related issues. Beyond the obvious safety objectives affected by improved human performance, plant performance improvements, in areas such as capacity factors, can be achieved through improved human performance. For example, it is estimated that as many as half of the unplanned reactor scrams are caused by personnel errors. The integrated effect of these scram-initiating errors is conservatively estimated to be 100 lost capacity days per year. The financial impact of these events is estimated to be $100M per year

  9. Biotechnology international conference. Biotech research proves a draw in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A S

    2000-06-30

    TORONTO, CANADADespite protests from Greenpeace members, some of whom dressed up as "corn fakes" to show their opposition to genetically modified organisms, more than 500 industrial and academic researchers, lawyers, and business people from about 25 countries gathered here from 5 to 8 June for the third biennial Agricultural Biotechnology International Conference. Highlights of the meeting included reports of progress toward making plants that resist nematode pests or stresses such as salt, frost, and drought.

  10. Nutrition by design: a review of biotechnology in functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reynolds

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical institutions in industrial and developing countries are increasingly turning to functional foods as intervention in chronic disease. Advances in genetic engineering have provided methods of purposefully designing functional foods and bioactive compound-producing organisms. This literature review examines the recent history of biotechnological applications in functional food, the state of bioagricultural engineering for high-value compound production, and the challenges that developers face in promulgatingfunctional foods from biotechnological sources. Based on the literature reviewed, it is predicted that adding biotechnologically-produced compounds will be more successful in producing novel functional foods. Conclusion: Current functional food application is frequently hampered by a dearth of foods suitable to the purpose. The concurrent advent of biotechnology means that producers and clinicians are not constrained by limited and precarious natural development. Biotechnology has already produced altered dietary staples that can safely induce real health benefits, but the social approval of genetically modified foodstuffs is inconsistent at best. Modifying microalgae to produce micro and macronutrients, for harvest and incorporation into functional food products, provides the ideal specificity and reliability for bioactive compound use. However, its application in biomedical science is impeded by technical difficulty. It remains to be seen if microorganism engineering willbe able to meet the needs of its many stakeholders, including the functional food community. Nonetheless,the prospect of a flourishing functional food market, and the healthier population it will bring about, certainly makes it worth a try.

  11. Spatial Diversity of Biotechnology Centres in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorocki Sławomir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is considered one of the key advanced technology sectors of the future. Its development is conditional on basic research in technologically advanced research institutes and appropriately qualified human resources. The optimum environment stimulating the development of biotechnology is that of production centres having joint industrial and R&D operations.

  12. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology…

  13. Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential benefits of biotechnology are extraordinary and traverse sectors like agriculture, environment, health, industry, bio-informatics, and human resource development. In agriculture, biotechnology research has helped to improve the understanding of diseases, to improve the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, ...

  14. Practicing environmental biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E.Rittmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental biotechnology involves ″managing microbial communities to provide services to society″.Its success comes from partnering with prokaryotic microorganisms,whose wideranging metabolic capabilities can be harnessed to destroy pollutants and to generate renewable materials.Partnering with microorganisms requires that we understand them well,and important advances in molecular microbial ecology,analytical chemistry,and mathematical modeling are making it possible to look inside the black box of microbial communities.Also crucial is translating the understanding to biotechnological processes that ″work for the microorganisms so that they work for us″.Successful translation demands novel reactor designs,application of advanced materials,and partnering with practitioners and users.The Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology,founded in at Arizona State University in 2005,brings together the science and engineering tools in an interdisciplinary environment.The Center emphasizes teamwork and collaborations with research and practice partners around the world.Three new technologies illustrate how the Center applies these principles to ″work for the microorganisms″:the H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR for reducing many oxidized contaminants in water,the microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs for converting organic wastes into renewable products,and Intimately Coupled PhotoBioCatalysis (ICPBC to detoxify very difficult to biodegrade organic pollutants.

  15. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-01

    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOPRODUCTS "HEALING-1"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Artiukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article presents data on the development of technology and qualitative research, bio-products «Healing-1». One of the promising directions in food biotechnology is the development of new integrated starter-based consortia of microorganisms, which have higher activity compared with cultures prepared using pure cultures. So it was interesting studies on the development of new biotechnology and bio-based microbial consortium of lactic acid bacteria. Based on the analysis of biotechnological properties of native cultures created a new consortium of microorganisms containing lactic acid streptococci and bacilli, allowing the maximum extent possible to implement the physiological, biochemical and technological potential of microorganisms. Scientifically substantiated and experimentally developed a new biotechnology production of bioproducts «Healing-1», obtained on the basis of microbial consortium with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Experimentally investigated quality parameters of organic food «Healing-1» using a new microbial consortium as freshly prepared and during storage. Found that antagonistic activity of microflora bio «Healing-1» with respect to pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, as well as its resistance to substances in the gastrointestinal tract of man is more pronounced compared to bioproducts obtained using a separate starter, members of the microbial consortium. It should be noted a more pronounced synthesis of exopolysaccharides in bioproduct «Healing-1», which leads to increased viscosity of the system and improves the consistency of bio. New bioproducts have good organoleptic characteristics and contain a high number of viable cells of lactic acid bacteria. High stability and survival of lactic acid bacteria during storage. In the study of attacked proteins bioproducts digestive proteinases «in vitro» found that the fermentation of milk microbial consortium increases the digestibility

  18. Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications grant was funded by NASA's Kennedy Space Center in FY 2002 to provide dedicated biotechnology and agricultural research focused on the regeneration of space flight environments with direct parallels in Earth-based applications for solving problems in the environment, advances in agricultural science, and other human support issues amenable to targeted biotechnology solutions. This grant had three project areas, each with multiple tasks. They are: 1) Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education, 2) Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications, and 3) Commercial Applications. The Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE) Center emphasized the fundamental biology of organisms involved in space flight applications, including those involved in advanced life support environments because of their critical role in the long-term exploration of space. The SABRE Center supports research at the University of Florida and at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications component focused on developing and applying sensor technologies to space environments and agricultural systems. The research activities in nanosensors were coordinated with the SABRE portions of this grant and with the research sponsored by the NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center located in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Initial sensor efforts have focused on air and water quality monitoring essential to humans for living and working permanently in space, an important goal identified in NASA's strategic plan. The closed environment of a spacecraft or planetary base accentuates cause and effect relationships and environmental impacts. The limited available air and water resources emphasize the need for reuse, recycling, and system monitoring. It is essential to

  19. Accreditation of qualification testing organizations: the industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roby, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the industry viewpoint on the program for the Accreditation of Qualification Testing Organizations, which has been proposed for rulemaking by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The IEEE has agreed to establish the program content, and would administer its requirements in accordance with an agreement between the NRC and IEEE of September 30th, 1981. Presented in this paper is the industry perspective, developed and prepared through the AIF, identifying the serious concerns which the accreditation program has raised. Discussed are the disadvantages of the program and those present benefits which would be lost if the program was adopted. The value of greater emphasis on current regulation to improve the qualification process is presented and the paper details areas where the NRC proposals do not provide adequate justification for the accreditation program

  20. Biotechnology in soybean breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather will help provide new discoveries and contribute to improved nutritional value and yield enhancement through greater resistance to disease, herbicides and abiotic factors. In soybeans, biotechnology has and will continue to play a valuable role in public and private soybean breeding programs. Based on the availability and combination of conventional and molecular technologies, a substantial increase in the rate of genetic gain for economically important soybean traits can be predicted in the next decade. In this paper, a short review of technologies for molecular markers analysis in soybean is given as well as achievements in the area of genetic transformation in soybean.

  1. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael E

    2015-01-07

    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit.

  2. Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    1995-12-31

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Historicism and Industry Emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, David; Moeen, Mahka; Wadhwani, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Management and organization scholars have increasingly turned to historical sources to examine the emergence and evolution of industries over time. This scholarship has typically used historical evidence as observations for testing theoretically relevant processes of industry emergence....... In this chapter, an alternative approach is explored that focuses on reconstructing causes and processes that time and theory have erased. The emergence of three industries—plant biotechnology, savings banking, and the automobile—shows how time, along with prevailing functional models of industry evolution, leads...... excluded phenomena and explanations, reconstructing uncertainty and alternative paths of industry emergence, and studying the processes of information elision and exclusion in the formation of industry knowledge....

  4. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  5. Risk management of knowledge loss in nuclear industry organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry and nuclear regulatory authorities will be one of the most critical challenges in the near future. As many nuclear experts around the world are retiring, they are taking with them a substantial amount of knowledge and corporate memory. The loss of such employees who hold knowledge critical to either operations or safety poses a clear internal threat to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities. This publication is intended for senior and middle level managers of nuclear industry operating organizations and provides practical information on knowledge loss risk management. The information provided in this it is based upon the actual experiences of Member State operating organizations and is intended to increase awareness of the need to: develop a strategic approach and action plans to address the potential loss of critical knowledge and skills; provide processes and in conducting risk assessments to determine the potential for loss of critical knowledge caused by the loss of experienced workers; and enable nuclear organizations to utilize this knowledge to improve the skill and competence of new and existing workers In 2004, the IAEA published a report entitled The Nuclear Power Industry's Ageing Workforce: Transfer of Knowledge to the Next Generation (IAEA-TECDOC-1399). That report highlighted some of the knowledge management issues in Member States resulting from the large number of retiring nuclear power plant personnel who had been involved with the commissioning and initial operation of nuclear power plants. This publication complements that report by providing a practical methodology on knowledge loss risk management as one element of an overall strategic approach to workforce management which includes work force planning, recruitment, training, leadership development and knowledge retention

  6. Prioritizing substitution of organic solvents in industrial cleaning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Pia Brunn; Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A method for prioritizing the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) used in industrial cleaning processes is developed. The result is a matrix, which, if all information can be obtained, gives a comprehensive description of the effects, exposure and emission of VOC, as well...... as the prospects for performing the substitution with a vegetable ester. It can be a tool for companies to decide which cleaning process has the highest demand for substitution, if there is a choice between several processes, but it may also be a tool to convince companies to use non-volatile, low-toxic cleaning...

  7. Modern industrial microbiology and biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okafor, Nduka

    2007-01-01

    ... and cells, site-directed mutation and metabolic engineering. Simultaneously, microbiology has addressed itself to some current problems such as the fight against cancer by the production of anti-tumor antibiotics; it has changed the traditional practice in a number of areas: for example the deep sea has now joined the soil as the medium for the search for ...

  8. White biotechnology: ready to partner and invest in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    It needs three factors to build an industry: market demand, product vision and capital. White biotechnology already produces high volume products such as feed additive amino acids and specialty products like enzymes for enantioselective biocatalysis. It serves large and diverse markets in the nutrition, wellness, pharmaceutical, agricultural and chemical industry. The total volume adds up to $ 50 billion worldwide. In spite of its proven track record, white biotechnology so far did not attract as much capital as red and even green biotechnology. However, the latest finance indicators confirm the continuously growing attractiveness of investment opportunities in white biotechnology. This article discusses white biotechnology's position and potential in the finance market and success factors.

  9. Validity of Students Worksheet Based Problem-Based Learning for 9th Grade Junior High School in living organism Inheritance and Food Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefriadi, J.; Ahda, Y.; Sumarmin, R.

    2018-04-01

    Based on preliminary research of students worksheet used by teachers has several disadvantages such as students worksheet arranged directly drove learners conduct an investigation without preceded by directing learners to a problem or provide stimulation, student's worksheet not provide a concrete imageand presentation activities on the students worksheet not refer to any one learning models curicullum recommended. To address problems Reviews these students then developed a worksheet based on problem-based learning. This is a research development that using Ploom models. The phases are preliminary research, development and assessment. The instruments used in data collection that includes pieces of observation/interviews, instrument self-evaluation, instruments validity. The results of the validation expert on student worksheets get a valid result the average value 80,1%. Validity of students worksheet based problem-based learning for 9th grade junior high school in living organism inheritance and food biotechnology get valid category.

  10. Carotenoids from Marine Organisms: Biological Functions and Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galasso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As is the case for terrestrial organisms, carotenoids represent the most common group of pigments in marine environments. They are generally biosynthesized by all autotrophic marine organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, algae and fungi. Some heterotrophic organisms also contain carotenoids probably accumulated from food or partly modified through metabolic reactions. These natural pigments are divided into two chemical classes: carotenes (such as lycopene and α- and β-carotene that are composed of hydrogen and carbon; xanthophylls (such as astaxanthin, fucoxanthin and lutein, which are constituted by hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Carotenoids, as antioxidant compounds, assume a key role in the protection of cells. In fact, quenching of singlet oxygen, light capture and photosynthesis protection are the most relevant biological functions of carotenoids. The present review aims at describing (i the biological functions of carotenoids and their benefits for human health, (ii the most common carotenoids from marine organisms and (iii carotenoids having large success in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industries, highlighting the scientific progress in marine species cultivation for natural pigments production.

  11. Innovator Organizations in New Drug Development: Assessing the Sustainability of the Biopharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S; Moore, Ryan

    2016-06-23

    The way new medicines are discovered and brought to market has fundamentally changed over the last 30 years. Our previous analysis showed that biotechnology companies had contributed significantly to the US Food and Drug Administration approval of new molecular entities up to the mid-1980s, when the trends started to decline. Although intriguing, the focus on biotechnology necessarily precluded the wider question of how the biopharmaceutical industry has been delivering on its goals to develop new drugs. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of all biopharmaceutical innovators and uncover unexpected findings. The present biopharmaceutical industry grew steadily from 1800 to 1950 and then stagnated for two decades, before a burst of growth attributable to the biotechnology revolution took place; but consolidation has reduced the number of active and independent innovators to a level not experienced since 1945. The trajectories and trends we observe raise fundamental questions about biopharmaceutical innovators and the sustainability of the drug-development enterprise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Overview on Indian Patents on Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Anusaya; Chandra Santra, Subhas; Samal, Alok Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The application of biotechnology is a potential tool for mitigating the present and future fooding and clothing demands in developing countries like India. The commercialization of biotechnological products might benefiting the poor`s in developing countries are unlikely to be developed. Biotechnology has the potential to provide a wide range of products and the existing production skills in the industrial, pharmaceuticals and the agricultural sector. Ownership of the intellectual property rights is the key factors in determining the success of any technological invention, which was introduced in the market. It provides the means for technological progress to continue of the industry of the country. The new plans, animal varieties, new methods of treatments, new crops producing food articles as such are the inventions of biotechnology. Biotechnology is the result of the application of human intelligence and knowledge to the biological processes. Most of the tools of biotechnology have been developed, by companies, governments, research in- stitutes and universities in developed nations. These human intellectual efforts deserve protection. India is a developing country with advance biotechnology based segments of pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is not likely to have a significant impact on incentives for innovation creation in the biotechnology sectors. In the recent years, the world has seen the biotechnology sector as one of greatest investment area through the Patent Law and will giving huge profit in future. The Research and Development in the field of biotechnology should be encouraged for explor- ing new tools and improve the biological systems for interest of the common people. Priority should be given to generation, evaluation, protection and effective commercial utilization of tangible products of intellectual property in agriculture and pharmaceuticals. To support the future growth and

  13. Agro-industrial residues in biotechnological production of xylitol/ Resíduos agroindustriais para produção biotecnológica de xilitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celia de Oliveira Hauly

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic residues, such as sugarcane bagasse, rice and oat straw and forest cuttings, are abundant and inexpensive sources of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose with potential application in several conversion processes. Xylose, the predominant sugar in the hemicellulose fraction can be converted to xylitol. Xylitol is a polyol with some interesting properties that can make it an important product for the food and pharmaceutical industry. It is a compound with sweetness similar to that sucrose, is non-cariogenic, tolerated by diabetics and recommended for obese people. This polyol is currently produced by chemical catalysis of the xylose from lignocellulosic residues. However, this process needs expensive purification steps to obtain pure xylitol. Alternatively, it can be produced by biotechnological methods, using microorganisms, specially yeasts. These processes consist of hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation from agro-industrial residues, wich could compete with the traditional chemical method. The present work aims the accomplishment of a review about xylitol detaching the structural aspects, ways of attainment and applications; main hemicellulosic substrates used in its production; acid hydrolysis and treatment of the hemicellulosic hydrolysate for use as substrate to produce xylitol by microbial way.Resíduos lignocelulósicos tais como bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, palha de arroz, casca de aveia e resíduos florestais representam fontes abundantes e não dispendiosas de carboidratos (celulose e hemicelulose com potencial aplicação em processos de conversão química ou microbiana em produtos de interesse comercial. Xilose, o açúcar predominante na fração hemicelulósica pode ser convertido em xilitol. O xilitol é um poliol com propriedades físico-química importantes para as indústrias alimentícia e farmacêutica. É um composto com doçura semelhante à da sacarose, anticariogênico, tolerado por diabéticos e

  14. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  15. Spring 2008 Industry Study: Biotechnology Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    production from the bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis (BT). This toxin is currently used as a conventional insecticide in agriculture and is safe...Renewable Energy Legislation in the 110th CongressCongressional Research Service,[2008]), http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RL33831. pdf . 4...2008 (Washington, DC: Renewable Fuels Association,[2008]), 5, http://www.ethanolrfa.org/objects/ pdf /outlook/RFA_Outlook_2008. pdf . 7 Plunkett’s

  16. Institutionalization of Organized Industrial Estates in Turkey, Problems Encountered and Proposed Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan DAĞLAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the aim of the study is to determine the institutionalization degree of organized industrial estates and to identify the faced problems and to develop solutions for these problems. By using survey method, information about problems and institutionalization status of organized industrial estates were obtained from managers of the active organized industrial estates. The problems of organized industrial estates are related to the management structure, qualified staff, energy, transportation, regulation and public improvements. Formalization, professionalism, accountability, transparency and social responsibility have been identified as the factors about the institutionalization of organized industrial estates in Turkey according to factor analysis. It could be argued that organized industrial estates in Turkey have an institutional structure and they have institutionalized. However, it could be said that organized industrial estates which operate in 80 cities of Turkey and more than one are in some cities are not at the same level of institutionalization.

  17. A review on sustainable yeast biotechnological processes and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Srivastava, R. K.

    2018-01-01

    Yeast is very well known eukaryotic organism for its remarkable biodiversity and extensive industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most widely used microorganisms in biotechnology with successful applications in the biochemical production. Biological conversion with the fo......Yeast is very well known eukaryotic organism for its remarkable biodiversity and extensive industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most widely used microorganisms in biotechnology with successful applications in the biochemical production. Biological conversion...... with the focus on the different utilization of renewable feedstocks into fuels and chemicals has been intensively investigated due to increasing concerns on sustainability issues worldwide. Compared with its counterparts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the baker's yeast, is more industrially relevant due to known...... in the modern biotech industry to produce a wide variety of products such as ethanol, organic acids, amino acids, enzymes, and therapeutic proteins. This study explores how different sustainable solutions used to overcome various environmental effects on yeast. This work targets a broad matrix of current...

  18. Recent Major Advances of Biotechnology and Sustainable Aquaculture in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-08-01

    Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world's aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the application of modern biotechnology. Sound knowledge related to the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms has laid a solid foundation and provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry. Marine biotechnology, which is enabling solutions for ocean productivity and sustainability, has been promoted since the last decades of the 20th Century in China. In this article, priority areas of research, mainly genetic breeding, omics studies, novel production systems, biosecurity, bioprocesses and biorefinery, as well as the major progress of marine biotechnology R&D in China are reviewed. Current innovative achievements in China are not enough and the level and frequency of academic advancements must be improved. International cooperation and assistance remain crucial for the success of marine biotechnology.

  19. Recent Major Advances of Biotechnology and Sustainable Aquaculture in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world’s aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the application of modern biotechnology. Sound knowledge related to the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms has laid a solid foundation and provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry. Marine biotechnology, which is enabling solutions for ocean productivity and sustainability, has been promoted since the last decades of the 20th Century in China. Objective: In this article, priority areas of research, mainly genetic breeding, omics studies, novel production systems, biosecurity, bioprocesses and biorefinery, as well as the major progress of marine biotechnology R&D in China are reviewed. Conclusion: Current innovative achievements in China are not enough and the level and frequency of academic advancements must be improved. International cooperation and assistance remain crucial for the success of marine biotechnology. PMID:28553577

  20. Biotechnology and the developing world. Finding ways to bridge the agricultural technology gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platais, K W; Collinson, M P

    1992-03-01

    Biotechnology is a controversial subject that involves a range of scientific principles from basic tissue culture to genetic manipulation. Proponents include private sector capitalists, public sector researchers, and developing nation governments. Opponents include environmental organizations and social organizations involved in protecting the rights of developing nations. Biotechnology is being presented as the next step after the Green Revolution and the only way that the people of the developing world will be able to feed themselves in the next half century. Research by industrialized nations world wide total an estimated $11 billion with 66% being contributed by the private sector. Biotechnology represents somewhat of a dilemma. Since the majority of the work is being done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater than that of public welfare or safety. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is one public sector group that is concerned about this problem. The countries of the developing world fall into 2 categories in relation to use of biotechnology: (1) those that have the potential to adapt imported biotechnologies to local conditions; (2) those that have little or no applied research capacity to effectively use biotechnologies. Currently only Brazil, China, India, and Thailand belong in the 1st category, all other developing countries fall into the 2nd. CGIAR believes it can help in 2 ways: (1) it can provide a bridge for needed information and germplasm between developed and developing countries; (2) it can help to ensure that the agricultural needs of developing countries are not lost. In 1990 CGIAR's plant and animal biotechnology research totaled $14.5 million which was less than 5% of the total CGIAR budget. Networking and institutions building are areas that CGIAR focuses on in an attempt to increase its affect

  1. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come. Copyright © 2013

  2. Government intervention in green industries: lessons from the wind turbine and the organic food industries in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    . While the electricity market share of wind energy reached 20% in 2007, organic food consumption lags behind with a food market share of approximately 8.5% in 2007. This paper compares the packages of policy instruments applied in the two industrial sectors and assesses whether differences in instrument......Government intervention in green infant industries may be justified as a strategy to increase the provision of public goods. How should government policies be designed to promote such industries? One way to analyse this question is to compare government intervention in green infant industries...... in which it has been successful with green infant industries in which it has been less successful. The Danish government has intervened intensively in the wind turbine industry and organic farming sector mainly for environmental reasons since 1992 and 1987 respectively, but with very different impacts...

  3. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Key words: Biotechnology, innovation system, research institutions, universities and agricultural development programme. INTRODUCTION ... technology is the application of indigenous and / or scientific knowledge to the .... professionals, public attitude to genetic engineering organisms and products, and ...

  4. A Survey of Industrial Organic Chemists: Understanding the Chemical Industry's Needs of Current Bachelor-Level Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Justin D.; Kleist, Elyse M.; Stoy, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted of companies from the chemical industry with an emphasis on the organic division. The data include results from 377 respondents from more than 100 different companies. More than half of all undergraduates gain fulltime work in the chemical industry or government after graduating with a bachelor's degree in chemistry.…

  5. Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sandeep K; Mishra, Swati S; Kayitesi, Eugenie; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-04-01

    Wastes generated from fruits and vegetables are organic in nature and contribute a major share in soil and water pollution. Also, green house gas emission caused by fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) is a matter of serious environmental concern. This review addresses the developments over the last one decade on microbial processing technologies for production of enzymes and organic acids from FVWs. The advances in genetic engineering for improvement of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of the value added bio-products as well as the concept of zero-waste economy have been briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimal integration of organic Rankine cycles with industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipólito-Valencia, Brígido J.; Rubio-Castro, Eusiel; Ponce-Ortega, José M.; Serna-González, Medardo; Nápoles-Rivera, Fabricio; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An optimization approach for heat integration is proposed. • A new general superstructure for heat integration is proposed. • Heat process streams are simultaneously integrated with an organic Rankine cycle. • Better results can be obtained respect to other previously reported methodologies. - Abstract: This paper presents a procedure for simultaneously handling the problem of optimal integration of regenerative organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) with overall processes. ORCs may allow the recovery of an important fraction of the low-temperature process excess heat (i.e., waste heat from industrial processes) in the form of mechanical energy. An integrated stagewise superstructure is proposed for representing the interconnections and interactions between the HEN and ORC for fixed data of process streams. Based on the integrated superstructure, the optimization problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem to simultaneously account for the capital and operating costs including the revenue from the sale of the shaft power produced by the integrated system. The application of this method is illustrated with three example problems. Results show that the proposed procedure provides significantly better results than an earlier developed method for discovering optimal integrated systems using a sequential approach, due to the fact that it accounts simultaneously for the tradeoffs between the capital and operating costs as well as the sale of the produced energy. Also, the proposed method is an improvement over the previously reported methods for solving the synthesis problem of heat exchanger networks without the option of integration with an ORC (i.e., stand-alone heat exchanger networks)

  7. Development of Biofertilizer from Sugar Industry Organic Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Hussain, A.; Abbas, G.; Ali, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted for development of biofertilizer from soil rhizospheric microorganisms in organic waste as carrier material and its application in agriculture development. The bacteria were isolated from rice rhizosphere from NIBGE field experiments. Some of the isolates of sunflower were collected from BIRCEN culture collection. The morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied. The bacteria were also characterized for their biochemical characteristics regarding nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization and indole acetic acid (IAA) production. These isolates were used for Biofertilizer production. Press mud from sugar industry was used as a carrier material to carry these inoculums. The carrier material was ground to a fine powder of 100 mesh size and weighted quantity of mud was packed in polythene bags. Then appropriate amount of approximately 5% the inoculum was injected to the packed polythene bags through injectors. The inoculated polythene bags were mixed by mixer and were sealed through electric sealer. The prepared polythene bags of biofertilizer were stored at cool and dry place away from sunlight, as these inoculum polythene bags may be damaged at higher temperature. (author)

  8. Restriction Enzymes in Microbiology, Biotechnology and Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey G. Wilson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the nineteen-seventies, a collection of simple enzymes termed Type II restriction endonucleases, made by microbes to ward off viral infections, have transformed molecular biology, spawned the multi-billion dollar Biotechnology industry, and yielded fundamental insights into the biochemistry of life, health and disease. In this article we describe how these enzymes were discovered, and we review their properties, organizations and genetics. We summarize current ideas about the mechanism underlying their remarkable ability to recognize and bind to specific base pair sequences in DNA, and we discuss why these ideas might not be correct. We conclude by proposing an alternative explanation for sequence-recognition that resolves certain inconsistencies and provides, in our view, a more satisfactory account of the mechanism.

  9. Membrane engineering in biotechnology: quo vamus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Gilbert M; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine

    2007-06-01

    Membranes are essential to a range of applications, including the production of potable water, energy generation, tissue repair, pharmaceutical production, food packaging, and the separations needed for the manufacture of chemicals, electronics and a range of other products. Therefore, they are considered to be "dominant technologies" by governments and industry in several prominent countries--for example, USA, Japan and China. When combined with catalysts, membranes are at the basis of life, and membrane-based biomimetism is a key tool to obtain better quality products and environmentally friendly developments for our societies. Biology has a main part in this global landscape because it simultaneously provides the "model" (with natural biological membranes) and represents a considerable field of applications for new artificial membranes (biotreatments, bioconversions and artificial organs). In this article, our objective is to open up this enthralling area and to give our views about the future of membranes in biotechnology.

  10. Progress and biotechnological prospects in fish transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Lacerda, Samyra M S N; Tonelli, Flávia C P; Costa, Guilherme M J; de França, Luiz Renato; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2017-11-01

    The history of transgenesis is marked by milestones such as the development of cellular transdifferentiation, recombinant DNA, genetic modification of target cells, and finally, the generation of simpler genetically modified organisms (e.g. bacteria and mice). The first transgenic fish was developed in 1984, and since then, continuing technological advancements to improve gene transfer have led to more rapid, accurate, and efficient generation of transgenic animals. Among the established methods are microinjection, electroporation, lipofection, viral vectors, and gene targeting. Here, we review the history of animal transgenesis, with an emphasis on fish, in conjunction with major developments in genetic engineering over the past few decades. Importantly, spermatogonial stem cell modification and transplantation are two common techniques capable of revolutionizing the generation of transgenic fish. Furthermore, we discuss recent progress and future biotechnological prospects of fish transgenesis, which has strong applications for the aquaculture industry. Indeed, some transgenic fish are already available in the current market, validating continued efforts to improve economically important species with biotechnological advancements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Microbial lipases: Production, properties and biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josana Maria Messias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipases belong to the group of hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol lipids to free fatty acids and glycerol. They have significant potential biotechnological applications in catalyzing organic synthesis reactions in non-aqueous solvents using simplified procedures resulting in conversions of high yields. Lipase production has conventionally been performed by submerged fermentation; however, solid-state fermentation processes have been prominent when residues are used as substrates because they serve as low-cost nutrient sources. Microbial lipases can be used as additives in foods to modify and enhance organoleptic properties, as well as in detergents to hydrolyse fats in the treatment of oily effluents, and also have value for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, and oil chemical industries. More recently, they are used in transesterification reactions to convert plant seed oils into biodiesel. The objective of this work was to review the published literature on the production, properties and applications of microbial lipases, and its biotechnological role in producing biodiesel.

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: Public Opinion, Brigade Contract, Cost Accounting, Industrial Trade, Agricultural Machine, Paperwork, Story Writer, Management Style, Monograph, Deficit Economics, Production, Theory, Turnover...

  13. Environmental biotechnology for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, W

    2002-03-14

    In the post-industrial society, waste management is integrated in the concepts of responsibility, reliability and continuity. Therefore industry and public office are obliged to implement the concepts of structured environmental management systems more and more strictly. The endpoints are dependent on the type of wastes and on the priorities set by society. They will with time evolve towards more restriction of all kinds of emissions. This will require increasing inputs of labour, information technology and energy into waste treatment and overall waste management. Particularly for aqueous and gaseous wastes that are not contained, continuously improving treatment with maximum re-use and minimum dissipation in the ecosphere will be the trend of the future. Moreover, the public in general and the individual citizen in particular will request to have (bio)assays to monitor regularly and autonomously the quality of his environment. Such advanced waste management requires considerable energy input. It thus may come in conflict with current concerns about CO2-emissions and the Kyoto agreements. Innovative approaches to combine waste management and the International Climate Change Partnership (ICCP) directives, for instance by implementing biological carbon sequestration, are therefore warranted. Biotechnology has a major role to play particularly in terms of advanced treatment down to ng/l-levels and in terms of validating the quality of the environment by means of powerful and intelligent bio-monitoring devices.

  14. Trade Union Participation in Organized Leather Industry in Kolkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    India, 2011). The leather and leather products industry is one of India's oldest manufacturing industries that catered to the international market right from the middle of the ... extent by export orientation from colonial times. The sector is .... manufacturing units, the work is based on almost putting out system and during.

  15. Trade Union Participation in Organized Leather Industry in Kolkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    traditional leatherworking castes (belonging to the lower castes in the caste ... clusters across India. Labour scenario in Kolkata leather industry: West Bengal's leather industry employs over 200,000 people (Department of labour, Government ... manufacturing units, the work is based on almost putting out system and during.

  16. Consumer perceptions of the application of biotechnology in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Background: There has been considerable enthusiasm among scientists and industry about the possibilities of biotechnology and especially genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food production. At the same time, there has been considerable scepticism by consumers, much public debate, and a cautious...... approach from retailers. On this background, a study was designed to answer four questions: 1. How negative are consumer attitudes to GMO applications in food? 2. How much do these attitudes affect product evaluation and purchase behaviour? 3. How deeply rooted are these attitudes? 4. Can the attitudes...

  17. New challenges in microalgae biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Federico; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; León, Rosa; Guerrero, Miguel G; Serrano, Aurelio

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Agriculture and bio-technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Hikoyuki

    1987-09-01

    The Japanese agriculture is going to be influenced by bio-technology. New style of production will be introduced through the entrance of other type of enterprises causing considerable change in agricultural fields. Bio-technology is a technology which utmost utilizes the functions of the living organism. Its practical target is to manifestate a new function by deliberately endowing it to an organism. Major technique is gene manipulation, tissue culture and utilization of microorganism and cells as well as the utilization of the biomass resources and a production means in the vegetable plant using nutricious solution. This report especially describes the following matters. Recombinant DNA (Super mouse, etc). Cell fusion (Monoclonal antigen, etc). Nucleus transplantation. Chromosome manipulation (Creation of tripoloid, etc). tissue culture (Growing of virus-free seedling, etc). Production of useful substances. Biomass (Forestry, Ocean, Livestock). (2 figs, 3 tabs, 12 refs)

  19. Chronological development avenues in biotechnology across the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Y Mali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is expected to be a great technological revolution followed by information technology. It is an application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of material by biological agents to provide better goods and services to mankind. Commercially its techniques are applied long back in 6 th century in the art of brewing, wine making and baking. It has progressed there after crossing different land marks. Modern biotechnology has developed significantly in the late 19 th century with groundbreaking discoveries applicable in medicine, food, agriculture, chemistry, environmental protection and many more industries. It is widely used in the development of high-yielding, disease-resistant, better quality varieties by applying tissue culture and recombinant DNA techniques. It has wide application in animal breeding using techniques such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Specific enzymes used in laundry, fuel and leather industries for better quality, economically feasible and environmental friendly production. Biotechnology in healthcare system uses body′s own tools and weapons to fight against diseases, manufacturing of targeted therapeutic proteins, gene therapy and so on. Novel approaches such as proteomics and structural biology are contributing to understanding the chemistry of life and diseases. Malfunctioning gene replaced with correctly functioning gene by using gene therapy. Tissue engineering has opened up the use of in vitro developed tissue or organ in repairing wounded tissue and system biology which is a computer-based approach to understand cell functions. Although every new discovery related to biology and its implications is significant and has taken the technology ahead. This includes applications, commercialization, controversies, media exposure and so on. Hence, we have enlisted some of the chronological development avenues in biotechnology across the world.

  20. 29 CFR 401.10 - Labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commerce. 401.10 Section 401.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce. A labor organization shall be deemed to be engaged in an industry affecting commerce if it: (a) Is the certified representative of employees under the...

  1. Biotechnology essay competition: biotechnology and sustainable food practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Judy; Schoeb, Helena; Lee, Gina

    2013-06-01

    Biotechnology Journal announces our second biotechnology essay competition with the theme "biotechnology and sustainable food practices", open to all undergraduate students. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Franchise as a Way to Organize Travel Industry in Abkhazia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daut V. Adzhba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution states the franchise system importance amid the financial crisis, which can be regarded as one of the ways to overcome crisis situations and develop tourism industry in Abkhazia.

  3. Effective risk management in modern industrial organizations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It employed Weber's Bureaucratic Model as a theoretical framework to explain a widespread specification of tasks, anonymity of rules, circumscribed statuses in organizations, wherein most aspects of modern life are organized. By the nature of bureaucratic organizations, employees are unequivocally exposed to risks at ...

  4. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology is a publisher of multidisciplinary peer-reviews original research works and critical reviews on interdisciplinary studies in Biotechnology, Agriculture, Food and Environment interface; and is published twice a year. It serves scientists in the field of Agriculture, Food science and Technology; ...

  6. Biotechnology in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamer, Dean H; Kung, Shain-dow

    1989-01-01

    ... and Shain-dow Kung Center for Agricultural Biotechnology Maryland Biotechnology Institute Department of Botany University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China National Academy of Sciences National Academy Press Washington, DC 1989 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from bo...

  7. Biotechnology. Part 1: Historical aspects. Part 2: Microbiological engineering. Part 3: Enzymatic engineering. Part 4: Genetical engineering. Part 5: Quality control in biological industry. Part 6: Bio technologies in France and in the world; Biotechnologie. Partie 1: Historique. Partie 2: Le genie microbiologique. Partie 3: Le genie enzymatique. Partie 4: Le genie genetique. Partie 5: Controle qualite en bio-industrie. Partie 6: Les biotechnologies en France et dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquet, J. [Lycee de Lille, 59 (France); Arnaud, A.; Galzy, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomie de Montpellier, 34 (France); Guiraud, J.P. [Montpellier-2 Universite, 34 (France). Institut Superieur Ingenieurs de Montpellier; Leveau, J.Y.; Bouix, M.; Berset, C.; Goursaud, J.; Cuvelier, G.F. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Agricoles et Alimentaires, 91 - Massy (France); Engasser, J.M. [Institut Polytechnique de Lorraine, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Cerisier, Y. [CNCM Institut Pasteur, 75 - Paris (France); Richard, H. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Agricoles et Alimentaires, 91 - Massy (France). Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles; Scriban, R. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Alimentaires, 59 - Douai (France); Teoule, E. [Paris-6 Universite, 75 (France). Laboratoire Station de Genetique et d`Amelioration des Plantes; Martal, J. [INRA, 78 - Jouy-en-Josas (France); Mawas, C. [INSERM, Cancerologie et Therapeutique experimentales, 13 - Marseille (France); Pourquie, J. [Institut National Agronomique, 75 - Paris (France); Vandecasteele, J.P. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Iwema, A. [Agence de l`eau Rhone-Mediterranee-Corse, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France); Lebeault, J.M. [Compiegne Universite, Centre de Recherche de Royalieu, 60 (France); Steenbrugge, H. [Gaz de France, 59 - Lille (France); Pierrard, S. [Veterinaire Inspecteur, 70 - Vesoul (France); Normand-Plessier, F. [Elf Sanofi, 94 - Gentilly (France); Raugel, P.J. [Economiste International, 94 - Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Guerrini, M.; Jupin, C. [Institut National de la Propriete Industrielle, 75 - Paris (France); Thomas, D. [Compiegne Universite Technologique, 60 (France)]|[Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes URA,CNRS, 60 - Compiegne (France); Nettancourt, D. de [Commission des Communautes Europeenes, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1993-12-31

    The fourth edition of the book ``biotechnology`` has just been published. It keeps the general frame of the previous editions while adding the analysis of new areas such as the animal world, the environment, the question of patentability, the standards and regulations, the stake of research and formation in the CEE, the importance of the scientific research for the reciprocal understanding of bio technologies and environmental problems, the respect of the biological variety.. Among the treated subjects, those particularly interesting for the ETDE database are the waste waters and industrial wastes and the natural gas. Didactic guide particularly well documented by a valuable bibliography, this work is an indispensable tool for teacher-searcher, students and engineers. (O.M.) 1113 refs.

  8. Evolution of Biotechnology and Information Technology and Its Impact on Human Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The development of post-industrial society initiates profound economic, technological and cultural change in the way of life of all mankind. The revolutionary breakthroughs in the field of new technologies such as biotechnology and information technology are reflected in all spheres of human activity, directly affecting the human security. The article analyzes the consequences of widespread usage biotechnology and information technology in the foreign policy practice on the basis of the human security theory. The detailed description of the main directions of the use of biometric technology in the foreign policy and consular practices is provided, the challenges and threats to information security associated with biometrics are analyzed, arising from widespread biotechnology are the main challenges and threats to as well as human security threats arising at the present stage of development and application of these technologies. Human security threats associated with the use of biotechnology are placed in the broader context of global trends in scientific and technological development. The recommendations are formulated in the field of foreign policy and international cooperation, which would neutralize new threats to international and personal safety arising at the present stage of development of biotechnology. The authors conclude that in order to ensure ethical regulation of new technologies that address issues of human security, it is necessary to organize multi-stakeholder partnerships at national and international level with the participation of states, representatives of civil society, business and the research community.

  9. Recent biotechnology developments and trends in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmakova, Alina; Kirpichnikov, Michael; Popov, Vladimir

    2018-01-25

    This paper addresses recent government initiatives in biotechnology and various federal and regional initiatives. It presents an overview of the most visible industrial biotechnology projects under implementation and highlights changes in legislation affecting development of the bioeconomy in the Russian Federation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effect of industrial dust on some test organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuck, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of industrial dust on the growth of Lepidium sativum Cress and on spore germination and germ-tube development of Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum was studied. Lepidium sativum was strongly inhibited and in most cases the fungi were stimulated. The effect was related to the species of trees and the district, where the dust-samples were collected.

  11. Industrial organization. The government draws a new french nuclear landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents and explains the new nuclear industry. In order to rationalize Cogema and Framatome are going to be grouped in an holding called Topco with a nuclear pole and an electronic and new technologies pole. Framatome will be split in two parts and its connector technology subsidiary will be introduced on Change. (A.L.B.)

  12. STATISTICAL APPROACH TO ESTIMATION OF LOGISTICAL RISKS OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Polikarpova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers the methodology of statistical research of the risks of logistical systems to improve the stability and efficiency of Russian industrial enterprises. Realization of this methodology is shown by the example of estimation of the risks of late shipment of goods of OAO Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works, JSC.

  13. Perspectives on biotechnological applications of archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiraldi, Chiara; Giuliano, Mariateresa; De Rosa, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Many archaea colonize extreme environments. They include hyperthermophiles, sulfur-metabolizing thermophiles, extreme halophiles and methanogens. Because extremophilic microorganisms have unusual properties, they are a potentially valuable resource in the development of novel biotechnological processes. Despite extensive research, however, there are few existing industrial applications of either archaeal biomass or archaeal enzymes. This review summarizes current knowledge about the biotechnological uses of archaea and archaeal enzymes with special attention to potential applications that are the subject of current experimental evaluation. Topics covered include cultivation methods, recent achievements in genomics, which are of key importance for the development of new biotechnological tools, and the application of wild-type biomasses, engineered microorganisms, enzymes and specific metabolites in particular bioprocesses of industrial interest. PMID:15803645

  14. Industry-wide survey of organics in PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, W.A.; Richards, J.E.; Hobart, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Interest in organic impurities found in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR's) has stemmed from several sources. The most serious concern is that organic acids will increase cation conductivity, a parameter that is used to control power plant chemistry. This effect can complicate secondary water monitoring and control. Organics may foul or exhaust makeup demineralizers and condensate polishers, and thus result in increased operating costs or the in leakage of potentially corrosive agents into the steam generators. Some organics, however, such as mopholine and cyclohexylamine may reduce corrosion through oxygen scavenging or surface filming reactions, and may have a positive influence on the pH in areas of local corrosion. At the time this survey began, little information was available on the types or levels of organic impurities that are typically found in PWR's. this survey is intended to provide baseline data for future corrosion testing and to provide fundamental information that will be helpful in refining PWR chemistry guidelines and operating practices

  15. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  17. The role of biotechnology in art preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, José Luis; Santana, María A; Galindo-Castro, Iván; Gonzalez, Alvaro

    2005-12-01

    Biotechnology has played a key role in medicine, agriculture and industry for over 30 years and has advanced our understanding of the biological sciences. Furthermore, the tools of biotechnology have a great and largely untapped potential for the preservation and restoration of our cultural heritage. It is possible that these tools are not often applied in this context because of the inherent separation of the worlds of art and science; however, it is encouraging to see that during the past six years important biotechnological applications to artwork preservation have emerged and advances in biotechnology predict further innovation. In this article we describe and reflect upon a unique example of a group of scientists and art restoration technicians working together to study and treat of a piece of colonial art, and review some of the new applications in biotechnology for the preservation of mankind's cultural heritage. We predict an expansion in this field and the further development of biotechnological techniques, which will open up new opportunities to both biologists and artwork preservers.

  18. SYSTEM MODELLING OF ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DESIGN ORGANIZATION IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Kh. Bakhitova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of effectivization of design organization in oil and gas industry is being investigated in terms of system modeling. A method of forming production functions of design organization is considered and used for substantiation of cost, expenses, budget of design organization, as well as the mechanism of transparent interaction, cooperation, coordination and control of field development.

  19. On Study of Teaching Reform of Organic Chemistry Course in Applied Chemical Industry Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshen

    2017-11-01

    with the implementation of new curriculum reform, the education sees great changes in teaching methods. Teaching reform is profound in organic chemistry course in applied chemical industry technology. However, many problems which have never been noticed before occur when reform programs are implemented which harm students’ ability for learning and enthusiasm in side face. This paper proposes reform measures like combining theory and practice, improving professional quality, supplementing professional needs and integrating teaching into life after analyzing organic chemistry course teaching in applied chemical industry technology currently, hoping to play a role of reference for organic chemistry course teaching reform in applied chemical industry technology.

  20. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  1. Evaluating safety-critical organizations - emphasis on the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, Teemu; Oedewald, Pia

    2009-04-01

    An organizational evaluation plays a key role in the monitoring, as well as controlling and steering, of the organizational safety culture. If left unattended, organizations have a tendency to gradually drift into a condition where they have trouble identifying their vulnerabilities and mechanisms or practices that create or maintain these vulnerabilities. The aim of an organizational evaluation should be to promote increased understanding of the sociotechnical system and its changing vulnerabilities. Evaluation contributes to organizational development and management. Evaluations are used in various situations, but when the aim is to learn about possible new vulnerabilities, identify organizational reasons for problems, or prepare for future challenges, the organization is most open to genuine surprises and new findings. It is recommended that organizational evaluations should be conducted when - there are changes in the organizational structures - new tools are implemented - when the people report increased workplace stress or a decreased working climate - when incidents and near-misses increase - when work starts to become routine - when weak signals (such as employees voicing safety concerns or other worries, the organization 'feels' different, organizational climate has changed) are perceived. In organizations that already have a high safety level, safety managers work for their successors. This means that they seldom see the results of their successful efforts to improve safety. This is due to the fact that it takes time for the improvement to become noticeable in terms of increased measurable safety levels. The most challenging issue in an organizational evaluation is the definition of criteria for safety. We have adopted a system safety perspective and we state that an organization has a high potential for safety when - safety is genuinely valued and the members of the organization are motivated to put effort on achieving high levels of safety - it is

  2. Evaluating safety-critical organizations - emphasis on the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, Teemu; Oedewald, Pia (VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2009-04-15

    An organizational evaluation plays a key role in the monitoring, as well as controlling and steering, of the organizational safety culture. If left unattended, organizations have a tendency to gradually drift into a condition where they have trouble identifying their vulnerabilities and mechanisms or practices that create or maintain these vulnerabilities. The aim of an organizational evaluation should be to promote increased understanding of the sociotechnical system and its changing vulnerabilities. Evaluation contributes to organizational development and management. Evaluations are used in various situations, but when the aim is to learn about possible new vulnerabilities, identify organizational reasons for problems, or prepare for future challenges, the organization is most open to genuine surprises and new findings. It is recommended that organizational evaluations should be conducted when - there are changes in the organizational structures - new tools are implemented - when the people report increased workplace stress or a decreased working climate - when incidents and near-misses increase - when work starts to become routine - when weak signals (such as employees voicing safety concerns or other worries, the organization 'feels' different, organizational climate has changed) are perceived. In organizations that already have a high safety level, safety managers work for their successors. This means that they seldom see the results of their successful efforts to improve safety. This is due to the fact that it takes time for the improvement to become noticeable in terms of increased measurable safety levels. The most challenging issue in an organizational evaluation is the definition of criteria for safety. We have adopted a system safety perspective and we state that an organization has a high potential for safety when - safety is genuinely valued and the members of the organization are motivated to put effort on achieving high levels of safety

  3. Linking Biotechnology and Agricultural Biodiversity Resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Modern economic activities are heavily dependent on using diversity of biological resources. Africa has a wealth of ... security and provide the genetic material needed for industry, agriculture and biotechnology. In agriculture .... benefit assessment in different fields is of fundamental importance in moulding any policy. Even.

  4. Biotechnology Education in India: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kirti; Mehra, Kavita; Govil, Suman; Singh, Nitu

    2013-01-01

    Among the developing countries, India is one of those that recognises the importance of biotechnology. The trajectory of different policies being formulated over time is proof that the government is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency. However, to cater to the ever-growing biotech industry, skilled manpower is required. This article…

  5. African Journal of Biotechnology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB), a new broad-based journal, was founded on two key tenets: To publish the most exciting research in all areas of applied biochemistry, industrial microbiology, molecular biology, genomics and proteomics, food and agricultural technologies, and metabolic engineering. Secondly ...

  6. New bioproduction systems: from molecular circuits to novel reactor concepts in cell-free biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    : The last decades witnessed a strong growth in several areas of biotechnology, especially in fields related to health, as well as in industrial biotechnology. Advances in molecular engineering now enable biotechnologists to design more efficient pathways in order to convert a larger spectrum of renewable resources into industrially used biofuels and chemicals as well as into new pharmaceuticals and therapeutic proteins. In addition material sciences advanced significantly making it more and more possible to integrate biology and engineering. One of the key questions currently is how to develop new ways of engineering biological systems to cope with the complexity and limitations given by the cell. The options to integrate biology with classical engineering advanced cell free technologies in the recent years significantly. Cell free protein production using cellular extracts is now a well-established universal technology for production of proteins derived from many organisms even at the milligram scale. Among other applications it has the potential to supply the demand for a multitude of enzymes and enzyme variants facilitating in vitro metabolic engineering. This review will briefly address the recent achievements and limitations of cell free conversions. Especially, the requirements for reactor systems in cell free biotechnology, a currently underdeveloped field, are reviewed and some perspectives are given on how material sciences and biotechnology might be able to advance these new developments in the future.

  7. A perspective on the economic valorization of gene manipulated biotechnology: Past and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Knockaert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct fields of gene manipulated biotechnology have so far been economically exploited: medical biotechnology, plant biotechnology and industrial biotechnology. This article analyzes the economic evolution and its drivers in the three fields over the past decades, highlighting strong divergences. Product and market characteristics, affecting firms’ financing options, are shown to be important enablers or inhibitors. Subsequently, the lack of commercialization in a fourth type of gene manipulated biotechnology, namely environmental biotechnology, is explained by the existence of strong barriers. Given the latter’s great promises for environmental sustainability, we argue for a need to push the commercial valorization of environmental biotechnology. Our research has strong implications for (technology management research in biotechnology, pointing to a need to control for and/or distinguish between different biotechnology fields.

  8. A perspective on the economic valorization of gene manipulated biotechnology: Past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knockaert, Mirjam; Manigart, Sophie; Cattoir, Sofie; Verstraete, Willy

    2015-06-01

    Three distinct fields of gene manipulated biotechnology have so far been economically exploited: medical biotechnology, plant biotechnology and industrial biotechnology. This article analyzes the economic evolution and its drivers in the three fields over the past decades, highlighting strong divergences. Product and market characteristics, affecting firms' financing options, are shown to be important enablers or inhibitors. Subsequently, the lack of commercialization in a fourth type of gene manipulated biotechnology, namely environmental biotechnology, is explained by the existence of strong barriers. Given the latter's great promises for environmental sustainability, we argue for a need to push the commercial valorization of environmental biotechnology. Our research has strong implications for (technology) management research in biotechnology, pointing to a need to control for and/or distinguish between different biotechnology fields.

  9. Raising cane : linkages, organizations and negotiations in Malang's sugar industry, East Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartveld, A.J.

    1996-01-01


    The linkages between the Javanese sugar industry and the village communities have drawn the attention of both historians and social scientists. The formal organization of these linkages has changed drastically since Indonesia's independence; from plantation into outgrowers production

  10. Organic materials for the nuclear industry. Guide book for prevention and safe use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    For a safe use of organic materials (plastics, resins, rubbers) in the nuclear industry, this book reviews selection of evaluation of materials by studying their behaviour concerning ionizing radiations, fire resistance and aging [fr

  11. Effects of a polymeric organic coagulant for industrial mineral oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The molecules of the organic polymers are held together by recapping covalent bonds; their ionisation functional group is categorised based on the electric charge they carry, viz., positively charged or cationic polymers and negatively charged or anionic polymers. In addition, the charged or ionic polymers are usually called ...

  12. 75 FR 59771 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving the Proposed Rule.... I. Introduction On July 27, 2010, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k... pertinent distribution-related information from its members in a timely fashion to facilitate its Regulation...

  13. 78 FR 29190 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... be identified as late for reporting and dissemination purposes and would not be considered ``last...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving the Proposed Rule..., 2013, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...

  14. 75 FR 21686 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... to pay arbitration awards to remain in the securities industry presents regulatory risks and is...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``SEC'' or...

  15. 76 FR 37384 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and... Recording and Reporting Requirements June 21, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange..., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  16. 75 FR 51124 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and... To Submit a Contrary Exercise Advice and the Time for a Final Exercise Decision in the Event of a..., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  17. 75 FR 17806 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... commenter raised the following issues related to the proposed 30-second reporting requirement.\\22\\ First...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 2... Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  18. 78 FR 72946 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 1... August 23, 2013, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities... unable to obtain such information, it has to resort to restricting all new issue allocations to such...

  19. 77 FR 47470 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt FINRA Rule 2231 (Customer Account Statements) in the Consolidated FINRA Rulebook August 2, 2012. On April 22, 2009, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k/a...

  20. 76 FR 21932 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Granting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... correct a statement therein, as follows: I. Introduction On February 4, 2011, the Financial Industry... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Promissory Note Proceedings; Correction April 13, 2011. Need...

  1. 76 FR 50796 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Increase the Position Limit for Options on the Standard and Poor's... Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  2. Should an entrepreneur be an accountant? Tokat organized industrial site case study

    OpenAIRE

    Coskun Arslan, Mihriban; Aldemir, Seda; Dag, Mehmet Resat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the basic accountancy knowledge of entrepreneurs in Tokat Organized Industrial Site (OIS) and it is also aimed at determining the tax treatment knowledge level of entrepreneurs. In line with this purpose, a questionnaire was implemented to the operating firms in Tokat Organized Industrial Site ( OIS ). In consequence of the questionnaire and analysis, with regard to the implementations of entrepreneur-accountancy knowledge relevancy; while there were no...

  3. Liquid phase oxidation via heterogeneous catalysis organic synthesis and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clerici, Mario G

    2013-01-01

    Sets the stage for environmentally friendly industrial organic syntheses From basic principles to new and emerging industrial applications, this book offers comprehensive coverage of heterogeneous liquid-phase selective oxidation catalysis. It fully examines the synthesis, characterization, and application of catalytic materials for environmentally friendly organic syntheses. Readers will find coverage of all the important classes of catalysts, with an emphasis on their stability and reusability. Liquid Phase Oxidation via Heterogeneous Catalysis features contributions from an internation

  4. Effect of Organic Solvents on Microalgae Growth, Metabolism and Industrial Bioproduct Extraction: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Miazek, Krystian; Kratky, Lukas; Sulc, Radek; Jirout, Tomas; Aguedo, Mario; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-01-01

    In this review, the effect of organic solvents on microalgae cultures from molecular to industrial scale is presented. Traditional organic solvents and solvents of new generation-ionic liquids (ILs), are considered. Alterations in microalgal cell metabolism and synthesis of target products (pigments, proteins, lipids), as a result of exposure to organic solvents, are summarized. Applications of organic solvents as a carbon source for microalgal growth and production of target molecules are di...

  5. Efficiency, Innovation and Organization in the Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Eliona

    This PhD thesis deals with two main issues: (i) the innovation and labeling regime in an imperfect competitive market and (ii) the emergence and efficiency of organizational forms for innovative products in the agri-food industry. The main contributions of the thesis are firstly the investigation...... for an innovative product with potential environmental impact. An applied theoretical approach is implemented in the first two papers of this thesis in order to explore the economic effects of the introduction of an environmentally friendly genetically modified (GM) product, and the economic effects of the labeling...... regime associated with GM products. The empirical analyses, used in the last two papers, deal with the way transaction attributes of an innovative product lead to choice of organizational form, and the efficiency associated with different organizational forms in agriculture. The Danish potato sector...

  6. Towards the future french organization of the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the new directive on the internal gas market of 1998, the government proposed a discussion by the presentation of this white book, providing information and questions. This book proposes seven main chapters: the gas industry activity and the directive on the internal gas market; the gas actors, the key numbers and the juridical context in France; define and strengthen the natural gas public utility; useful actions for each gas facilities (transport, distribution, storage and retailers); the realization of progresses for the consumer; the operating of an efficiency control; actions to develop the gas operators in the world. The text of the 98/30/CE directive is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. BIOTECHNOLOGY : AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology as a science includes various aspects of the management and manipulation of biological systems. Recent advances in immunology, molecular biology, cell culture and other associated areas provide an opportunity for scientists to move biology out of the laboratory and into the realms of society. This has many implications which mankind on a whole may not be prepared to cope with at this time. This new capability has been referred to as "Biotechnology". Biotechnology has also been defined as "the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering in order to achieve the capacities of microbes and culture cells". Genetic engineering which includes gene splicing and recombinant DNA-cloning is an example of a recent offshoot of biotechnology. Because of the advent of biotechnology, one can now think of the prospect of engineering tomorrows vaccines. In the past, vaccine development has been laborious and in many instances an unrewarding task. After years of effort only a handful of safe, effective vaccines have emerged. In the biotechnology arena, new methodologies and strategies for immunizing humans and domestic animals against infectious diseases are providing new hope for discovering successful vaccines. While most of the effort in the past has focused on viral vaccine development, attention is now being directed towards vaccines for protection against parasitic diseases. Currently, considerable effort is being made to develop vaccines for malaria, coccidiosis (in fowl, cholera, malaria, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis among others.

  8. Efficiency, Innovation and Organization in the Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Eliona

    ). The analysis indicates that the type of organization depends heavily on the level and orientation of asset specificity as well as on the downstream market. Various problems that occur due to transaction costs tied to the asset specificity are compared in different settings. Furthermore, we claim...... that the orientation of the asset specificity and the contract-based final market have resulted in the emergence of the NGC. Given that different types of products are characterized by different level/orientation asset specificity and different market structures, we stress that an organizational structure reflects...... the product specificity. Paper IV uses a non-parametric, traditional input oriented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to compare the performance of the investor owned firm (IOF) and cooperative types of organization at the farm level. The analysis accounts for a difference in the performance of the two groups...

  9. Volatile organic pollutants in iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, D.; Dorina, S.; Popescu, L.; Stoian, P.

    2009-01-01

    It is a well known fact that iron and steel units generate about 25% from total gaseous emissions, and a significant part of these are diffuse emissions, which appear during technological stages. so that, apart from other types of pollutants, appear volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contain a considerable number of diverse and complex substances that, even in small amounts, affect all environmental factors: air, water, soil. (Author)

  10. A perspective on the economic valorization of gene manipulated biotechnology: Past and future

    OpenAIRE

    Knockaert, Mirjam; Manigart, Sophie; Cattoir, Sofie; Verstraete, Willy

    2015-01-01

    Three distinct fields of gene manipulated biotechnology have so far been economically exploited: medical biotechnology, plant biotechnology and industrial biotechnology. This article analyzes the economic evolution and its drivers in the three fields over the past decades, highlighting strong divergences. Product and market characteristics, affecting firms’ financing options, are shown to be important enablers or inhibitors. Subsequently, the lack of commercialization in a fourth type of gene...

  11. Development of health biotechnology in developing countries: can private-sector players be the prime movers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Agenda 21: biotechnology at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylhardat, A R; Zilinskas, R A

    1992-04-01

    Preparation has yet to be completed for the 1992 Earth Summit, UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nonetheless, it has been planned as a forum in which recommendations will be made to governments and international organizations on how to alleviate environmental damage caused by human activities and how to prevent future damage without retarding development in the Third World. It will declare basic principles for national and individual conduct regarding environmental preservation and sustainable development; adopt international conventions to protect biodiversity and manage climatic change; lay out Agenda 21 activities as specified by UNCED; provide an agenda to help Third World governments manage environmental matters; and provide an agenda for improving the transfer of technology to developing countries. Where biotechnology is concerned, scientists and policy makers in developing countries have shown their interest. Limited resources and capabilities, however, constrain their abilities to engage in serious research and development. International organizations such as the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) may help UNCED and developing countries with biotechnology. Since 1986, UNIDO has held the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) as a special project. The ICGEB conducts research and development (R&D) on high priority topics in developing countries; trains scientific and technical personnel from member countries in advanced biotechnology techniques; helps member countries implement and operate ICGEB-affiliated R&D and training centers; and manages an information exchange for internationally affiliated centers. To maximize the potential of biotechnology to help Third World nations clear their environments of pollutants while safely exploiting natural resources, organizations should promote full use of available training resources; promote biosafety and the dissemination of

  13. Keystone conference on environmental biotechnology. Summary -- Results of conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This symposium brought together a unique mix of scientists, engineers and policy makers to discuss the latest applications of biotechnology to in situ bioremediation and ex situ biodegradation of pollutants and industrial wastes. Several new topics were prominent in the discussions. Chief among these were issues related to environmentally acceptable endpoints, command and control versus incentive driven regulations, bioavailability of pollutants to microbial action, delivery of biodegrading organisms to pollutant plumes, value added production, and genetic probes for monitoring the status of soil consortia. These new issues gave a new perspective to the more traditional topics of the molecular genetics of microorganisms, marine bioremediation, bioprocessing of industrial and agricultural wastes, and engineered bioremediation systems which were featured.

  14. Decree 831/976 Industry and Energy Ministry approve an organic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The ordinance 831 of 1976 approve the organic regulation of the Ministry of Industry and Energy and organization manuals and functions according to the principle and elaborated technical approaches and systematized by the National Office of the Civil Service. Among some of their made they are projecting the industrial politics and energetics of the country exercising supervision and control, as well as the development of the industry and diverse energy sources, to propitiate the use of the atomic energy in the Uruguay coordinating the activities that are carried out

  15. Addressing Cultural Aspects of Organizations in Industries at Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisquet, Elsa; Jeffroy, Francois; Levy, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    The Safety Culture concept is a key element of many approaches to improving safety in nuclear facilities. In particular, since the Chernobyl accident IAEA has considered this notion as the core of its strategy for dealing with Human and Organizational Factors aspects of safety. IRSN has developed a Human and Organizational Factors assessment approach based on theoretical concepts developed by Ergonomics and Organizational Sociology. This approach allowed IRSN to draw strong conclusions but it seems necessary to better integrate the cultural aspects, because they can have an impact on the safety management. Cultural dimensions play a role when assessing organizational measures designed to foster cooperation between different professions (maintenance and operation, operation and decommissioning, operation and research activities, etc.), between Project organization and daily organization, between companies (ordering institution and subcontractors). IRSN has therefore realized a study aimed at providing guidelines concerning the use of the concept of 'Safety Culture' in safety assessments of nuclear facilities. In the first section of this report, outcomes and limits of the concept are identified, which result in rereading the main research on culture, conducted in anthropology, sociology, management sciences and ergonomics. This research shows that taking into account cultural dimensions may reveal phenomena that other analytical frameworks of organizations are not able to identify. On this basis, four analysis plans are proposed to split up the overall 'culture' topic: organizational cultures, professional cultures, cultures and social relations, national cultures. In the fourth part of the document, such analysis plans are used to revisit safety assessments that were carried out in the past. In doing so, the relationship between cultural dimensions and safety is defined more precisely and the interest of taking them into account is confirmed

  16. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of

  17. [Trends of microalgal biotechnology: a view from bibliometrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Yinsong; Yan, Jinding; Song, Haigang; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-10-01

    Microalgae is a single-cell organism with the characteristics of high light energy utilization rate, fast growth rate, high-value bioactive components and high energy material content. Therefore, microalgae has broad application prospects in food, feed, bioenergy, carbon sequestration, wastewater treatment and other fields. In this article, the microalgae biotechnology development in recent years were fully consulted, through analysis from the literature and patent. The progress of microalgal biotechnology at home and abroad is compared and discussed. Furthermore, the project layout, important achievements and development bottlenecks of microalgae biotechnology in our country were also summarized. At last, future development directions of microalgae biotechnology were discussed.

  18. Plant biotechnology for food security and bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    This year is a special year for plant biotechnology. It was 30 years ago, on January 18 1983, one of the most important dates in the history of plant biotechnology, that three independent groups described Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation at the Miami Winter Symposium, leading to the production of normal, fertile transgenic plants (Bevan et al. in Nature 304:184-187, 1983; Fraley et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803-4807, 1983; Herrera-Estrella et al. in EMBO J 2:987-995, 1983; Vasil in Plant Cell Rep 27:1432-1440, 2008). Since then, plant biotechnology has rapidly advanced into a useful and valuable tool and has made a significant impact on crop production, development of a biotech industry and the bio-based economy worldwide.

  19. A sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    to exemplify what is the relevance of a sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology. In particular, I introduce the notion of digital-analogical consensus as a semiotic pattern for the creation of complex logical products that constitute specific signs. The chapter ends with some examples of conspicuous semiotic......, translation, transformation and transmission of information. The idea is also to investigate how this debate may influence the “integrative agenda” in biology, especially at a time in which biotechnology is considered to be the industrial use of “biological information”. I introduce concepts....... Finally I make a connection between a sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology and sustainability, with a glimpse into the future....

  20. 75 FR 53998 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... characteristics and risks of security futures. \\6\\ 15 U.S.C. 78o-3(b)(6). B. Self-Regulatory Organization's...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Security Futures Risk Disclosure Statement August 27, 2010...

  1. 76 FR 9838 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... resolve promissory note cases. \\8\\ 15 U.S.C. 78o-3(b)(6). B. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement on... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Promissory Note Proceedings February 15, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1...

  2. Effects of Lean Work Organization and Industrialization on Workflow and Productive Time in Housing Renovation Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijhoef, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents work aimed at improved organization and performance of production in housing renovation projects. The purpose is to explore and demonstrate the potential of lean work organization and industrialized product technology to improve workflow and productive time.
    The research

  3. Effects of Lean Work Organization and Industrialization on Workflow and Productive Time in Housing Renovation Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr Ruben Vrijhoef

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents work aimed at improved organization and performance of production in housing renovation projects. The purpose is to explore and demonstrate the potential of lean work organization and industrialized product technology to improve workflow and productive time. The research

  4. Review Article: Biotechnology in aquaculture | OGARA | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to optimize results in new breeding programmes, genetic engineering and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) offer new possibilities. Biotechnology allows ... Whatever the pros and cons of biotechnological development, institutions of developing nations must grow abreast with the rest of the world. Key words: ...

  5. Forest biotechnology advances to support global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Harfouche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world is shifting to an innovation economy and forest biotechnology can play a major role in the bio-economy by providing farmers, producers, and consumers with tools that can better advance this transition. First-generation or conventional biofuels are primarily produced from food crops and are therefore limited in their ability to meet challenges for petroleum-product substitution and climate change mitigation, and to overcome the food-versus-fuel dilemma. In the longer term, forest lignocellulosic biomass will provide a unique renewable resource for large-scale production of bioenergy, biofuels and bio-products. These second-generation or advanced biofuels and bio-products have also the potential to avoid many of the issues facing the first-generation biofuels, particularly the competition concerning land and water used for food production. To expand the range of natural biological resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can ameliorate the conversion process, lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of forest biomass feedstock and the product of interest. Therefore, linking forest biotechnology with industrial biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert woody lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-products. Major advances and applications of forest biotechnology that are being achieved to competitively position forest biomass feedstocks with corn and other food crops are outlined. Finally, recommendations for future work are discussed.

  6. Effect of Organic Solvents on Microalgae Growth, Metabolism and Industrial Bioproduct Extraction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazek, Krystian; Kratky, Lukas; Sulc, Radek; Jirout, Tomas; Aguedo, Mario; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-07-04

    In this review, the effect of organic solvents on microalgae cultures from molecular to industrial scale is presented. Traditional organic solvents and solvents of new generation-ionic liquids (ILs), are considered. Alterations in microalgal cell metabolism and synthesis of target products (pigments, proteins, lipids), as a result of exposure to organic solvents, are summarized. Applications of organic solvents as a carbon source for microalgal growth and production of target molecules are discussed. Possible implementation of various industrial effluents containing organic solvents into microalgal cultivation media, is evaluated. The effect of organic solvents on extraction of target compounds from microalgae is also considered. Techniques for lipid and carotenoid extraction from viable microalgal biomass (milking methods) and dead microalgal biomass (classical methods) are depicted. Moreover, the economic survey of lipid and carotenoid extraction from microalgae biomass, by means of different techniques and solvents, is conducted.

  7. Analysis of organic compounds in industrial and preindustrial ice samples from an Alpine glacier in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, R.; Schwikowski, M.; Saris, L.

    2013-12-01

    With a newly developed method based on Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-TOF 8000, Ionicon Inc., Austria) we measured organic compounds in ice samples. We analyzed 8 pre-industrial samples (1738-1747) and 10 post-industrial samples (winter 1975-1976) from the Fiescherhorn Glacier, Switzerland, and 5 firn samples from the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. Ice cubes made from deionized water (Millipore, 18.2 MΩ.cm @ 25 °C) were used as blank samples. We detected 450 and 138 organic ions that were enhanced in the post-industrial and preindustrial samples, and their total concentration summed up to 24×12 and 3.5×1.8 μgL-1, respectively. The most abundant species in the post-industrial samples were detected at m/z ratios above 200 Da and many of these ions contained nitrogen, while the pre-industrial samples contained lower molecular weight ions (typically below 100 Da) and only a few of them contained nitrogen atoms. If this case study can be extrapolated, our results suggest that human influence significantly enhanced the organic fraction of aerosols since the onset of industrialization (by a factor of ~7). The different chemical composition suggests that the additional organic mass must be due to new sources and chemical pathways. The presented method is a strong tool to constrain organics in the preindustrial atmosphere which may have been very different from conditions prevailing in the remote contemporary atmosphere.Four major ions detected in post-industrial samples (1975/1976) Four major ions detected in pre-industrial samples (1738-1747)

  8. Canadian biotechnology start-ups, 1991-1997: the role of incumbents' patents and strategic alliances in controlling competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, T; Baum, J A; Silverman, B S

    2000-12-01

    Fligstein (1996) contends that organizations act to exploit the institutional context in which they are embedded so as to stabilize the competition they face. Drawing on Fligstein's theoretical analysis, we conceptualize incumbent biotechnology firms' patent-ing and alliance-building activities as attempts to stabilize and control potential competition and analyze how these activities shape rates of founding in the Canadian biotechnology industry. We find that increases in the level and concentration of incumbents' patenting discourage founding, particularly in human application sectors of the industry where development and approval processes are more costly and time consuming. Incumbents' horizontal alliances depress start-ups; vertical alliances stimulate start-ups. Our findings highlight how technology appropriation and strategic alliances structure the competitive dynamics and evolution of high-technology, knowledge-intensive industries.

  9. Design for values in agricultural biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, van den Henk

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology dates from the last two decades of the twentieth century. It involves the creation of plants and animals with new useful traits by inserting one or more genes taken from other species. New legal possibilities for patenting transgenic organisms and isolated genes have

  10. The Brave New World of Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Is it the science that will save the world from starvation, or will it mean the end of the world as it is known? While some people fear genetically altered "Frankenfoods" and DNA experiments with pathogenic microorganisms that could result in worldwide epidemics, others view biotechnology as using biological organisms to make products that benefit…

  11. Developing legal regulatory frameworks for modern biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at attempts that have been made to develop legal regulatory frameworks for modern biotechnology. The discussion is limited to the regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) technology by the two leading producers and exporters of GMOs in Africa: South Africa and Kenya. The international and ...

  12. Biotechnology for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, A.; Maule, J.; Toporski, J.; Parro-Garcia, V.; Briones, C.; Schweitzer, M.; McKay, D.

    With the advent of a new era of astrobiology missions in the exploration of the solar system and the search for evidence of life elsewhere, we present a new approach to this goal, the integration of biotechnology. We have reviewed the current list of biotechnology techniques, which are applicable to miniaturization, automatization and integration into a combined flight platform. Amongst the techniques reviewed are- The uses of antibodies- Fluorescent detection strategies- Protein and DNA chip technology- Surface plasmon resonance and its relation to other techniques- Micro electronic machining (MEMS where applicable to biologicalsystems)- nanotechnology (e.g. molecular motors)- Lab-on-a-chip technology (including PCR)- Mass spectrometry (i.e. MALDI-TOF)- Fluid handling and extraction technologies- Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)- Raman Spectroscopy We have begun to integrate this knowledge into a single flight instrument approach for the sole purpose of combining several mutually confirming tests for life, organic and/or microbial contamination, as well as prebiotic and abiotic organic chemicals. We will present several innovative designs for new instrumentation including pro- engineering design drawings of a protein chip reader for space flight and fluid handling strategies. We will also review the use of suitable extraction methodologies for use on different solar system bodies.

  13. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer

    2010-01-01

    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  14. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  15. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology Through Self Study ... Author Affiliations. Narayan S Punekar1. Molecular Enzymology Group, Biotechnology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  16. Exploring Fragility: Industrial Delocalization, Occupational and Environmental Risks, and Non-Governmental Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria

    2009-01-01

    What is the role of non-governmental organizations – NGOs – in the process of industrial delocalization and socio-spatial redistribution of occupational and environmental risks? In an attempt to contribute to this debate, this study approaches the issue in a very specific socio-historical context, marked by recent accelerated industrialization in a small town in Northeast Brazil. Based on semi-structured interviews with leaders of four local NGOs, the way they perceive and value the risks int...

  17. Information System Development: Can Traditional Project Management Tools Be Successful in Post-Industrial Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    of these practices and their effects. In this article a conceptual scheme is presented by drawing on soft system theory that is based on the concept of open systems, purposefulness and producer-products relationships. The analysis suggests that in post-industrial organizations the practices of planning, delegating......Literature on project management of information systems development suggests practices based on success stories in industrial organizations. Recent trends towards post-industrial organizational forms and loosely coupled networked organizations raise questions regarding the applicability...... and controlling are not effective in the traditional way but assume different meanings for different players. This conclusion is achieved through a study of emerging working practices enacted during a development project of an ad hoc information system. The article is concluded with guidelines for the management...

  18. THOSE ISSUES AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES IN THE ORGANIZATION ENTITIES MILK INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA-MIHAELA ZAHARIA (CRIVAC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the features of the entities in the dairy industry. At first, a brief description of the dairy industry in Romania, giving priority factors that contribute to the development of this market. As in any economic unit, organization of management accounting and cost calculation is particularly important activity managers are required to study all factors and exercise influence principles, their implications, and then, taking account of them to choose the most appropriate form of organization of management accounting and cost calculation. Were analyzed and described in the study, factors and principles that characterize the entities in the dairy industry and have an influence in the organization of management accounting, but also in determining costs.

  19. Biotechnological Processes in Microbial Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash C. B. Gopinath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales.

  20. National Center for Biotechnology Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to NCBI Sign Out NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information Search database All Databases Assembly Biocollections BioProject ... Search Welcome to NCBI The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access ...

  1. Organizing for change: new priorities for training organization in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammuto, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Traditional training organizations will require a new look in light of the efforts being applied since TMI. the emphasis to incorporate basic educational technology into power plant training and trends of past, present, and future program development, point out the need for change in training philosophy and manpower needs. The functional responsibilities within a typical training organization will be described with an emphasis on interrelationships of each group activity and the effect of the systems approach to training organization and administration

  2. Acid-resistant organic coatings for the chemical industry: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Victor Buhl; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    2017-01-01

    Industries that work with acidic chemicals in their processes need to make choices on how to properly contain the substances and avoid rapid corrosion of equipment. Certain organic coatings and linings can be used in such environments, either to protect vulnerable construction materials, or......, in combination with fiber reinforcement, to replace them. However, degradation mechanisms of organic coatings in acid service are not thoroughly understood and relevant quantitative investigations are scarce. This review describes the uses and limitations of acid-resistant coatings in the chemical industry...

  3. Biotechnological advances in Lilium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; Tuyl, van Jaap M.

    2016-01-01

    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to

  4. TSCA Biotechnology Notifications Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notifications Table lists only those submissions received under the Biotechnology Regulation, beginning in 1998. From the Table, you can link to a brief summary of select submission and, in many cases, to a fact sheet on the decision reached by OPPT.

  5. Biotechnology of trees: Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.D. Nelson; W.A. Powell; S.A. Merkle; J.E. Carlson; F.V. Hebard; N Islam-Faridi; M.E. Staton; L. Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been practiced on chestnuts (Castanea spp.) for many decades, including vegetative propagation, controlled crossing followed by testing and selection, genetic and cytogenetic mapping, genetic modifi cation, and gene and genome sequencing. Vegetative propagation methods have ranged from grafting and rooting to somatic embryogenesis, often in...

  6. State responses to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  7. Biotechnology in weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  8. Biotechnology: interferon patent contested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, C; Beardsley, T

    Biogen, a biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Mass., and Geneva, Switzerland, has been notified by the European Patent Office that it will receive a product patent for its alpha interferon synthesized by recombinant DNA technology. Genentech, a San Francisco company which claims priority for producing mature interferon, is planning a vigorous appeal of the decision.

  9. Biotechnology and Innovation Systems

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    His main research activities are connected to science and technology policies and national and local systems of innovation in less developed countries. ...... of the Brazilian productive structure in energy-related areas – bio-fuels, oil, and so on – biotechnology research has started to target energy-related activities. However ...

  10. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  11. Human performance improvement in organizations: Potential application for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This publication is primarily intended for managers and specialists in nuclear facility operating organizations working in the area of human performance improvement. It is intended to provide them with practical information they can use to improve human performance in their organizations. While some of the information provided in this publication is based upon the experience of nuclear facility operating organizations, most of it comes from human performance improvement initiatives in non-nuclear organizations and industries. The nuclear industry has a long tradition of sharing good management practices in order to foster continuous improvement. However, it is not always realized that many of the practices that are now well established initially came from non-nuclear industries and were subsequently adapted for application to nuclear power plant operating organizations. There is, therefore, good reason to periodically review non-nuclear industry practices for ideas that might have direct or indirect application to the nuclear industry in order to potentially gain benefits such as the following: new approaches to certain problem areas, insights into new or impending challenges, improvements in existing practices, benchmarking of opportunities, development of learning organizations and avoidance of collective blind spots. The preparation of this report was an activity of the project on Effective Training to Achieve Excellence in the Performance of NPP Personnel. The objective of this project is to enhance the capability of Member States to utilize proven practices developed and transferred by the IAEA for improving personnel performance. The expected outcome from this project is the increased use by organizations in Members States of proven engineering and management practices and methodologies developed and transferred by the IAEA to improve personnel performance

  12. Biotechnology and bioeconomy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhao, Qinghua; Hu, Yihong; Wang, Hongguang

    2006-11-01

    From the review of the achievements and advantages in the development of biotechnology (BT) and bioindustry in China, it is clear that the bioeconomy would provide a tremendous opportunity for China to develop sustainably or even surpass a few developed countries. A long-term vision has been made to guide the research and development and industrialization of BT in China. This review detailed the strategies, targets, priorities, and key technologies in each stage. Furthermore, the reviewers expatiated on the establishment of the favorable policies, the foundation of the professional groups, the establishment of the advanced laboratories or centers, the investment mechanisms, the development and evaluation of biosafety, the encouragement and support for the international collaborations and exchanges, and the establishment of the general organizational structure.

  13. Religious voices in biotechnology: the case of gene patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M J

    1999-01-01

    On 18 May 1995, nearly 200 religious leaders joined with leading biotechnology critic Jeremy Rifkin in a press conference named the "Joint Appeal against Human and Animal Patenting," a move that many within the biotechnology industry could only interpret as seeking to inhibit biotechnological advance. What moral and religious concerns motivated this challenge to patenting? How could the biotechnology industry understand and respectfully attend to these concerns? What values were at play in the debates that followed the joint appeal? What lessons for future dialogue can be learned from attempts at conversation between the opposing positions? This essay is a report from a Hastings Center research project that accepted the task of addressing these questions. Specifically, the project focused on the patenting of human genetic material, a subset of the issues raised by the joint appeal.

  14. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Microbial Physiology, Biochemistry of micro-organisms, Microbial Genetics, Molecular Biology, Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, and Microbial Systematics. Both full length and short papers reporting original research making a significant contribution to microbiology and Biotechnology will be considered for publication.

  15. Job Burnout and Job Satisfaction among Industry, Mine and Trade Organization Employees: A Questionnaire Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rahil Kazemi Talachi; Mohammad Bagher Gorji

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important challenges facing organizations is the increasing levels of job burnout among their employees. In the meantime, it poses the question as what the relationship between this factor and job satisfaction is. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between burnout and job satisfaction to provide an appropriate model. The population of this study consisted of all employees of Golestan Province industry, mine and trade organization, the number of whom is 1...

  16. Comparing the Governance of Novel Products and Processes of Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus

    The emergence of novel products and processes of biotechnology in medicine, industry and agriculture has been accompanied by promises of healthier, safer and more productive lives and societies. However, biotechnology has also served as cause and catalyst of social controversy about the physical...... to start to fill this gap and develop a conceptual framework for comparing and analysing new and emerging modes of governance affiliated with biotechnology in the light of more general approaches to governance. We aim for a framework that can facilitate comparative inquiries and learning across different...

  17. Yeast biotechnology: teaching the old dog new tricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are regarded as the first microorganisms used by humans to process food and alcoholic beverages. The technology developed out of these ancient processes has been the basis for modern industrial biotechnology. Yeast biotechnology has gained great interest again in the last decades. Joining the potentials of genomics, metabolic engineering, systems and synthetic biology enables the production of numerous valuable products of primary and secondary metabolism, technical enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins. An overview of emerging and established substrates and products of yeast biotechnology is provided and discussed in the light of the recent literature. PMID:24602262

  18. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  19. Investing In The Army Organic Industrial Base To Operate And Win In A Complex And Austere Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    background of the industrial base beginning with the period before the American Revolution and concluding with World War II when the American industrial ...Investing in the Army Organic Industrial Base to Operate and Win in a Complex and...05-2016 Monograph nJN 2015 - MAY 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Investing in the Army Organic Industrial Base to Operate and Win in a

  20. Biotechnological production of limonene in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules

    2016-01-01

    This mini review describes novel, biotechnology-based, ways of producing the monoterpene limonene. Limonene is applied in relatively highly priced products, such as fragrances, and also has applications with lower value but large production volume, such as biomaterials. Limonene is currently produced as a side product from the citrus juice industry, but the availability and quality are fluctuating and may be insufficient for novel bulk applications. Therefore, complementary microbial producti...

  1. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Menendez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellulases have numerous applications in several industries, including biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, pulp and paper, textile, laundry, and agriculture.Cellulose-degrading bacteria are widely spread in nature, being isolated from quite different environments. Cellulose degradation is the result of a synergic process between an endoglucanase, an exoglucanase and a,β-glucosidase. Bacterial endoglucanases degrade ß-1,4-glucan linkages of cellulose amorphous zones, meanwhile exoglucanases cleave the remaining oligosaccharide chains, originating cellobiose, which is hydrolyzed by ß-glucanases. Bacterial cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 are comprised in fourteen Glycosil Hydrolase families. Several advantages, such as higher growth rates and genetic versatility, emphasize the suitability and advantages of bacterial cellulases over other sources for this group of enzymes. This review summarizes the main known cellulolytic bacteria and the best strategies to optimize their cellulase production, focusing on endoglucanases, as well as it reviews the main biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases in several industries, medicine and agriculture.

  2. Introduction and session summaries for the proceedings of the twelfth symposium on biotechnology fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Wyman, C.E. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This Twelfth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals continues to provide an annual forum for researchers from industry, universities, and government laboratories to exchange information on recent developments in emerging bioprocessing technologies. As in the past, innovative processing concepts are stressed that are in the early stages of development. The meeting began with a session on Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing, followed by two sessions on Applied Biological Research. Next, topics in Bioengineering Research were presented, and a special session on Biotechnology, Bioengineering, and the Solution of Environmental Problems concluded the Twelfth Symposium. Both presentations and posters provided information exchange among meeting participants, and several discussion groups were organized to consider special topics of interest to the meeting participants. This paper presents a brief description of the discussions.

  3. Innovative technology to meet the demands of the white biotechnology revolution of chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John

    2007-01-01

    The rapid introduction of bio-production methods in areas where production methods based on fossil fuel raw materials have been dominant for half a century is documented in policy papers by large political organizations as well as in the media. The present review seeks to describe the means...... concepts of the chemical engineering education, but they will modify some of the traditional teaching methods and will bring attention to topics that for a long time were considered somewhat peripheral to the mainstream of chemical engineering education....... by which a technological revolution termed "white biotechnology" for production of commodity chemicals has proved its credibility. Obviously, the rapid advances in biology has been crucial for the development of industrial biotechnology towards a position where even its cheap products such as bio-fuels can...

  4. 75 FR 8771 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... to furnish, upon the written request of the other member, a statement of its financial condition as...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Adopt FINRA Rule 2261 (Disclosure of Financial Condition) in the Consolidated FINRA Rulebook...

  5. 75 FR 475 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... member, a statement of its financial condition as disclosed in its most recently prepared balance sheet...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt FINRA Rule 2261 (Disclosure of Financial Condition) in the Consolidated FINRA Rulebook...

  6. Classification of rabbit meat obtained with industrial and organic breeding by means of spectrocolorimetric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesatti, P.; D'Andrea, S.; Negretti, P.

    2007-09-01

    Rabbit meat is for its nutritional characteristics a food corresponding to new models of consumption. Quality improvement is possible integrating an extensive organic breeding with suitable rabbit genetic typologies. Aim of this work (financed by a Project of the Lazio Region, Italy) was the characterization of rabbit meat by a statistic model, able to distinguish rabbit meat obtained by organic breeding from that achieved industrially. This was pursued through the analysis of spectral data and colorimetric values. Two genetic typologies of rabbit, Leprino Viterbese and a commercial hybrid, were studied. The Leprino Viterbese has been breeded with two different systems, organic and industrial. The commercial hybrid has been bred only industrially because of its characteristics of high sensibility to diseases. The device used for opto-electronic analysis is a VIS-NIR image spectrometer (range: 400-970 nm). The instrument has a stabilized light, it works in accordance to standard CIE L*a*b* technique and it measures the spectral reflectance and the colorimetric coordinates values. The statistic data analysis has been performed by Partial Least Square technique (PLS). A part of measured data was used to create the statistic model and the remaining data were utilized in phase of test to verify the correct model classification. The results put in evidence a high percentage of correct classification (90%) of the model for the two rabbit meat classes, deriving from organic and industrial breeding. Moreover, concerning the different genetic typologies, the percentage of correct classification was 90%.

  7. Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature

  8. 78 FR 69732 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend FINRA Rule 8312 (FINRA BrokerCheck Disclosure) To Include Information About Members and Their Associated Persons of Any Registered National Securities Exchange That Uses the CRD System for...

  9. Overview of the anaerobic toxicity caused by organic forest industry wastewater pollutants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Field, J.A.; Kortekaas, S.; Lettinga, G.

    1994-01-01

    Numerous types of organic environmental pollutants are encountered in forest industry effluents which potentially could inhibit consortia of anaerobic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to collect anaerobic bioassay data from the literature to better estimate the impact of these pollutants on

  10. 76 FR 72736 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Granting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... two reporting formats simultaneously, but that if a firm has a system-related issue during the MPP... reporting of certain bonds with sinking funds, that ``FINRA is engaged in an ongoing review of issues raised...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed...

  11. 76 FR 63969 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 1 to Proposed Rule Change To Adopt FINRA Rule 2231 (Customer Account Statements) in the Consolidated... Account Statements) in the Consolidated FINRA Rulebook (``Notice''). The Notice contained incorrect...

  12. 77 FR 47853 - Request for Notification From Industry Organizations Interested in Participating in Selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... FDA-regulated products, (9) pediatric ethical issues including research involving children as subjects... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Request for Notification From Industry Organizations... pediatric diseases or conditions, (3) the ethics, design, and analysis of clinical trials related to...

  13. Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization, Volume I: Theory. An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Corchon, Luis; Marini, Marco A.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce here the first volume of Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization: Theory, by L. C. Corchón and M. A. Marini (eds.), Edward Elgar, Cheltenam, UK and Northampton, MA, by describing its main aim and its basic structure.

  14. Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization, Volume II: Applications. An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Corchon, Luis; Marini, Marco A.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce here the second volume of the Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization, by L. C. Corchón and M. A. Marini (ed.), Edward Elgar, Cheltenam, UK and Northampton, MA, describing its main aim and its basic structure.

  15. Essays in experimental industrial organization: How communication and information affect market outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez Martinez, F.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of three independent essays that use laboratory experiments to address a number of industrial organization questions. In particular, it studies the role of communication and information revelation in market interactions. Chapters 2 and 3 focus on the question of how

  16. Preferred provider organizations: antitrust aspects and implications for the hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batavia, A I

    1984-01-01

    The hospital industry is currently undergoing a substantial transformation as a result of changes in third party reimbursement mechanisms and a tendency toward a more competitive economic environment. Hospital administrators will have to demonstrate substantial flexibility in considering and implementing innovative institutional arrangements to ensure survival in this time of austerity. The Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) is a recent development in the health care industry involving the selective contracting for health care services. This Article examines the role of section 1 of the Sherman Antitrust Act in scrutinizing the PPO for anticompetitive effects, considering the divergent requisites for competition in the health care sector. The Article also proposes a modified Rule of Reason for application to the PPO and other innovative cost containment arrangements in the industry and considers the implications of such flexible application of conventional antitrust principles for the future of the hospital industry.

  17. Sharing Malaysian experience with the development of biotechnology-derived food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Umi K; Pillai, Vilasini; Hashim, Marzukhi; Daud, Hassan Mat

    2005-12-01

    Biotechnology-derived food crops are currently being developed in Malaysia mainly for disease resistance and improved post harvest quality. The modern biotechnology approach is adopted because of its potential to overcome constraints faced by conventional breeding techniques. Research on the development of biotechnology-derived papaya, pineapple, chili, passion fruit, and citrus is currently under way. Biotechnology-derived papaya developed for resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and improved postharvest qualities is at the field evaluation stage. Pineapple developed for resistance to fruit black heart disorder is also being evaluated for proof-of-concept. Other biotechnology-derived food crops are at early stages of gene cloning and transformation. Activities and products involving biotechnology-derived crops will be fully regulated in the near future under the Malaysian Biosafety Law. At present they are governed only by guidelines formulated by the Genetic Modification Advisory Committee (GMAC), Malaysia. Commercialization of biotechnology-derived crops involves steps that require GMAC approval for all field evaluations and food-safety assessments before the products are placed on the market. Public acceptance of the biotechnology product is another important factor for successful commercialization. Understanding of biotechnology is generally low among Malaysians, which may lead to low acceptance of biotechnology-derived products. Initiatives are being taken by local organizations to improve public awareness and acceptance of biotechnology. Future research on plant biotechnology will focus on the development of nutritionally enhanced biotechnology-derived food crops that can provide more benefits to consumers.

  18. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  19. Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

  20. Systematic and biotechnological aspects of halophilic and halotolerant actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Javad; Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Ventosa, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    More than 70 species of halotolerant and halophilic actinomycetes belonging to at least 24 genera have been validly described. Halophilic actinomycetes are a less explored source of actinomycetes for discovery of novel bioactive secondary metabolites. Degradation of aliphatic and aromatic organic compounds, detoxification of pollutants, production of new enzymes and other metabolites such as antibiotics, compatible solutes and polymers are other potential industrial applications of halophilic and halotolerant actinomycetes. Especially new bioactive secondary metabolites that are derived from only a small fraction of the investigated halophilic actinomycetes, mainly from marine habitats, have revealed the huge capacity of this physiological group in production of new bioactive chemical entities. Combined high metabolic capacities of actinomycetes and unique features related to extremophilic nature of the halophilic actinomycetes have conferred on them an influential role for future biotechnological applications.

  1. Marine-derived fungi: diversity of enzymes and biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonugli-Santos, Rafaella C; Dos Santos Vasconcelos, Maria R; Passarini, Michel R Z; Vieira, Gabriela A L; Lopes, Viviane C P; Mainardi, Pedro H; Dos Santos, Juliana A; de Azevedo Duarte, Lidia; Otero, Igor V R; da Silva Yoshida, Aline M; Feitosa, Valker A; Pessoa, Adalberto; Sette, Lara D

    2015-01-01

    The ocean is considered to be a great reservoir of biodiversity. Microbial communities in marine environments are ecologically relevant as intermediaries of energy, and play an important role in nutrient regeneration cycles as decomposers of dead and decaying organic matter. In this sense, marine-derived fungi can be considered as a source of enzymes of industrial and/or environmental interest. Fungal strains isolated from different substrates, such as invertebrates, decaying wood, seawater, sediments, and mangrove detritus, have been reported to be producers of hydrolytic and/or oxidative enzymes, with alginate lyase, amylase, cellulase, chitinase, glucosidase, inulinase, keratinase, ligninase, lipase, nuclease, phytase, protease, and xylanase being among the enzymes produced by fungi of marine origin. These enzymes present temperature and pH optima ranging from 35 to 70(∘)C, and 3.0 to 11.0, respectively. High-level production in bioreactors is mainly performed using submerged-state fermentation. Certain marine-derived fungal strains present enzymes with alkaline and cold-activity characteristics, and salinity is considered an important condition in screening and production processes. The adaptability of marine-derived fungi to oceanic conditions can be considered an attractive point in the field of fungal marine biotechnology. In this review, we focus on the advances in discovering enzymes from marine-derived fungi and their biotechnological relevance.

  2. Marine-derived fungi: diversity of enzymes and biotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonugli-Santos, Rafaella C.; dos Santos Vasconcelos, Maria R.; Passarini, Michel R. Z.; Vieira, Gabriela A. L.; Lopes, Viviane C. P.; Mainardi, Pedro H.; dos Santos, Juliana A.; de Azevedo Duarte, Lidia; Otero, Igor V. R.; da Silva Yoshida, Aline M.; Feitosa, Valker A.; Pessoa, Adalberto; Sette, Lara D.

    2015-01-01

    The ocean is considered to be a great reservoir of biodiversity. Microbial communities in marine environments are ecologically relevant as intermediaries of energy, and play an important role in nutrient regeneration cycles as decomposers of dead and decaying organic matter. In this sense, marine-derived fungi can be considered as a source of enzymes of industrial and/or environmental interest. Fungal strains isolated from different substrates, such as invertebrates, decaying wood, seawater, sediments, and mangrove detritus, have been reported to be producers of hydrolytic and/or oxidative enzymes, with alginate lyase, amylase, cellulase, chitinase, glucosidase, inulinase, keratinase, ligninase, lipase, nuclease, phytase, protease, and xylanase being among the enzymes produced by fungi of marine origin. These enzymes present temperature and pH optima ranging from 35 to 70∘C, and 3.0 to 11.0, respectively. High-level production in bioreactors is mainly performed using submerged-state fermentation. Certain marine-derived fungal strains present enzymes with alkaline and cold-activity characteristics, and salinity is considered an important condition in screening and production processes. The adaptability of marine-derived fungi to oceanic conditions can be considered an attractive point in the field of fungal marine biotechnology. In this review, we focus on the advances in discovering enzymes from marine-derived fungi and their biotechnological relevance. PMID:25914680

  3. Marine-derived fungi: diversity of enzymes and biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Costa Bonugli-Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ocean is considered to be a great reservoir of biodiversity. Microbial communities in marine environments are ecologically relevant as intermediaries of energy, and play an important role in nutrient regeneration cycles as decomposers of dead and decaying organic matter. In this sense, marine-derived fungi can be considered as a source of enzymes of industrial and/or environmental interest. Fungal strains isolated from different substrates, such as invertebrates, decaying wood, seawater, sediments and mangrove detritus, have been reported to be producers of hydrolytic and/or oxidative enzymes, with alginate lyase, amylase, cellulase, chitinase, glucosidase, inulinase, keratinase, ligninase, lipase, nuclease, phytase, protease and xylanase being among the enzymes produced by fungi of marine origin. These enzymes present temperature and pH optima ranging from 35 to 70 ºC, and 3.0 to 11.0, respectively. High-level production in bioreactors is mainly performed using submerged-state fermentation. Certain marine-derived fungal strains present enzymes with alkaline and cold-activity characteristics, and salinity is considered an important condition in screening and production processes. The adaptability of marine-derived fungi to oceanic conditions can be considered an attractive point in the field of fungal marine biotechnology. In this review, we focus on the advances in discovering enzymes from marine-derived fungi and their biotechnological relevance.

  4. Competitive Patterns in the Danish Organic Industry & its Usefulness in Predicting Development in other EU Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    2003-01-01

    The organic market in Denmark is not a niche market any longer as it was in the late 1980s. The development has followed the typical pattern for diffusion of innovations and by 2002 the market supply seemed to have surpassed the equilibrium supply by around 30% and a potential adjustment is ahead...... for organic development be expected in other countries? Will the supply in other EU markets also surpass market equilibrium? Are the Danish experiences with respect to policy choices and power-play of dominant players in processing and distribution industry of general relevance? Are the maturity gains...... observed in the Danish organic industry potential in other markets? Is increased international trade beneficial?...

  5. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: A survey of recent literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Samar, P.; Cox, H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can...... codigestion to identify applications of. codigestion at WWTPs. Because the solids content in municipal wastewater sludge is low, this survey only focuses on codigestion processes operated at relative low solids content (slurry mode). Semi-solid or solid codigestion processes were not included. Municipal...... wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes. industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey...

  6. Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kujala, Jouni; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2005-01-01

    Some of the determining factors for organic marketing initiatives (OMIs) success are supply policy, logistic and processing policy. Many OMIs are afraid of being dependent on one sales channel. Even though most of sales volume goes through supermarket sales, especially in Nordic countries and UK, many still want to develop their direct sales and regional sales.

  7. Cloning Protocol of Aloe vera as a Study-Case for “Tailor-Made” Biotechnology to Small Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LH. Campestrini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera has been used worldwide both for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of some of its metabolites. A study case is reported focusing on the development of a cloning protocol of A. vera to provide propagation material with superior quality to the private sector in southern Brazil, i.e., A. vera juice industry. Such biotechnological approach afforded ca. 4,300 plantlets from 20 explants, over a 6-month period, overcoming the drawback of the lack of propagation material. Typically, the results have led to the increase of the cultured area and juice production of that species coming true the goal of the partnership between the public and private sectors herein involved. The transference of the resulting technology was successfully performed to the company and a patent covering the biotechnological process has been recently requested to official organisms on behalf of the partners.

  8. Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-11-01

    The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment.

  9. New technologies in agricultural biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Szekacs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technologies that emerged during the last decade as new tools occasionally represent fundamentally new means of genome modification, which, in addition to the scientific novelty, faces legislators with new challenge by giving a new meaning to both the biochemical/molecular biological and legal meaning to genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Emerging plant genetic technologies are categorized as zinc finger nuclease (ZFN technology; oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis; cisgenesis and intragenesis; RNA-dependent DNA methylation by RNA interference; grafting on GM rootstock; reverse breeding; agro-infiltration; and synthetic genomics. Although all these methods apply biotechnology processes to create new plant varieties, it debated whether all result in GMOs according to the current legal definition. Official risk assessment of these technologies is a task of outstanding weight of the authority.

  10. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  11. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.

  12. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen

    2014-08-01

    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  13. Industrial applications of new sulphur biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.H.; Ruitenberg, R.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The emission of sulphur compounds into the environment is undesirable because of their acidifying characteristics. The processing of sulphidic ores, oil refining and sulphuric acid production are major sources of SO2 emissions. Hydrogen sulphide is emitted into the environment as dissolved sulphide

  14. Flow Injection Analysis in Industrial Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) is an analytical chemical continuous-flow (CF) method which in contrast to traditional CF-procedures does not rely on complete physical mixing (homogenisation) of the sample and the reagent(s) or on attaining chemical equilibria of the chemical reactions involved. Ex...

  15. A position paper for a central procurement organization for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper integrates the results of numerous nuclear utility industry meetings with commercial business practices. The Central Procurement Organization (CPO) is designed to achieve an immediate 30%--50% reduction in total procurement, engineering qualification, warehousing, and distribution cost. Three (3) areas define a CPO success criteria: (1) Lean, credible, and cost-effective issues discussed include facility cost, operational cost, staff expertise, product priorities, warehousing, and distribution, (2) Common technical, commercial, and quality requirement issues discussed include current industry practices and proposed future methodologies, and (3) Financial survivability issues which are the most critical since the CPO must exist during changing internal and external utility environments

  16. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  17. Some like it hot, some like it cold: Temperature dependent biotechnological applications and improvements in extremophilic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail

    2015-12-01

    The full biotechnological exploitation of enzymes is still hampered by their low activity, low stability and high cost. Temperature-dependent catalytic properties of enzymes are a key to efficient and cost-effective translation to commercial applications. Organisms adapted to temperature extremes are a rich source of enzymes with broad ranging thermal properties which, if isolated, characterized and their structure-function-stability relationship elucidated, could underpin a variety of technologies. Enzymes from thermally-adapted organisms such as psychrophiles (low-temperature) and thermophiles (high-temperature) are a vast natural resource that is already under scrutiny for their biotechnological potential. However, psychrophilic and thermophilic enzymes show an activity-stability trade-off that necessitates the use of various genetic and chemical modifications to further improve their properties to suit various industrial applications. This review describes in detail the properties and biotechnological applications of both cold-adapted and thermophilic enzymes. Furthermore, the review critically examines ways to improve their value for biotechnology, concluding by proposing an integrated approach involving thermally-adapted, genetically and magnetically modified enzymes to make biocatalysis more efficient and cost-effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biotechnological exploitation of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Doris; Zedler, Julie A Z; Rajakumar, Priscilla D; Martinez, Erick M Ramos; Riseley, Anthony; Włodarczyk, Artur; Purton, Saul; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Howe, Christopher J; Jensen, Poul Erik; Robinson, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae are a diverse group of single-cell photosynthetic organisms that include cyanobacteria and a wide range of eukaryotic algae. A number of microalgae contain high-value compounds such as oils, colorants, and polysaccharides, which are used by the food additive, oil, and cosmetic industries, among others. They offer the potential for rapid growth under photoautotrophic conditions, and they can grow in a wide range of habitats. More recently, the development of genetic tools means that a number of species can be transformed and hence used as cell factories for the production of high-value chemicals or recombinant proteins. In this article, we review exploitation use of microalgae with a special emphasis on genetic engineering approaches to develop cell factories, and the use of synthetic ecology approaches to maximize productivity. We discuss the success stories in these areas, the hurdles that need to be overcome, and the potential for expanding the industry in general. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Treatment of organic pollution in industrial saline wastewater: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Olivier; Moletta, René

    2006-12-01

    Many industrial sectors are likely to generate highly saline wastewater: these include the agro-food, petroleum and leather industries. The discharge of such wastewater containing at the same time high salinity and high organic content without prior treatment is known to adversely affect the aquatic life, water potability and agriculture. Thus, legislation is becoming more stringent and the treatment of saline wastewater, both for organic matter and salt removal, is nowadays compulsory in many countries. Saline effluents are conventionally treated through physico-chemical means, as biological treatment is strongly inhibited by salts (mainly NaCl). However, the costs of physico-chemical treatments being particularly high, alternative systems for the treatment of organic matter are nowadays increasingly the focus of research. Most of such systems involve anaerobic or aerobic biological treatment. Even though biological treatment of carbonaceous, nitrogenous and phosphorous pollution has proved to be feasible at high salt concentrations, the performance obtained depends on a proper adaptation of the biomass or the use of halophilic organisms. Another major limit is related to the turbidity problems inherent in saline effluents. For this reason, the major need for research in the future will be the combination of physico-chemical/biological treatment of saline industrial effluents, with regard to the global treatment chain, in order to meet the regulations.

  20. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: creating a global corporate network to undermine public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-17

    The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when threatened by the globalization of public health, sidestep competitive

  1. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Methods Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. Results The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. Conclusion The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when

  2. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    importantly exploiting cheap labour for industrial purposes from the native population. 13 . During the colonial era manufacturing in the continent was generally at the handicraft and small scale levels. In some colonies this was supplemented by some relatively complex industries producing mainly for export, but also ...

  3. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARNE GERMANO DE ALMEIDA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulphate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernise petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  4. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F; Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Santos, Valdemir A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  5. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Anushka M; Dunwell, Jim M

    2018-01-01

    Theobroma cacao-The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multibillion dollar chocolate industry and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other nonfood uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region. However, in many Asian countries, cocoa production is hampered due to many reasons including technological, political and socio-economic issues. This review provides an overview of the present status of global cocoa production and recent advances in biotechnological applications for cacao improvement, with special emphasis on genetics/genomics, in vitro embryogenesis and genetic transformation. In addition, in order to obtain an insight into the latest innovations in the commercial sector, a survey was conducted on granted patents relating to T. cacao biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Acid-resistant organic coatings for the chemical industry: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Victor Buhl; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    2017-01-01

    Industries that work with acidic chemicals in their processes need to make choices on how to properly contain the substances and avoid rapid corrosion of equipment. Certain organic coatings and linings can be used in such environments, either to protect vulnerable construction materials, or......, in combination with fiber reinforcement, to replace them. However, degradation mechanisms of organic coatings in acid service are not thoroughly understood and relevant quantitative investigations are scarce. This review describes the uses and limitations of acid-resistant coatings in the chemical industry......, with a comparison to alternative resistant materials based on metals or ceramics. In addition, coating degradation phenomena, caused by acid exposure, are mapped to the extent possible, and analysis methods for detecting coating degradation type and severity are listed and discussed. It is concluded that more...

  7. Health Advocacy Organizations and the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Analysis of Disclosure Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveis, Victoria H.; Friedman, Anne; Rothman, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Health advocacy organizations (HAOs) are influential stakeholders in health policy. Although their advocacy tends to closely correspond with the pharmaceutical industry's marketing aims, the financial relationships between HAOs and the pharmaceutical industry have rarely been analyzed. We used Eli Lilly and Company's grant registry to examine its grant-giving policies. We also examined HAO Web sites to determine their grant-disclosure patterns. Only 25% of HAOs that received Lilly grants acknowledged Lilly's contributions on their Web sites, and only 10% acknowledged Lilly as a grant event sponsor. No HAO disclosed the exact amount of a Lilly grant. As highly trusted organizations, HAOs should disclose all corporate grants, including the purpose and the amount. Absent this disclosure, legislators, regulators, and the public cannot evaluate possible conflicts of interest or biases in HAO advocacy. PMID:21233424

  8. Analysis of Strategic Management in Small and Medium Business Organizations in Graphic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Jolevski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphic industry as a field of work and a field of study offers ability for economic growth of every country or region. The increase in competition and the development of the market method of prediction, increase the need for business organizations to continuously observe their own position. Faced with a variable, turbulent and complex environment, the business organizations adopt strategic management, and modern managers, especially those in top management, have to possess knowledge and skills of the concepts and application of strategic management.In this paper the case method, as a method used in strategic management, will be applied as a general approach of strategic analysis in creating strategy map for businesses in graphic industry.

  9. An Analysis of Colombian Power Market Price Behavior from an Industrial Organization Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Duarte Venslauskas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the behavior of spot prices in the Colombian wholesale power market, using a series of models derived from industrial organization theory.  We first create a Cournot-based model that simulates the strategic behavior of the market-leader power generators, which we use to estimate two industrial organization variables, the Index of Residual Demand and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI.  We use these variables to create VAR models that estimate spot prices and power market impulse-response relationships.  The results from these models show that hydroelectric generators can use their water storage capability strategically to affect off-peak prices primarily, while the thermal generators can manage their capacity strategically to affect on-peak prices.  In addition, shocks to the Index of Residual Capacity and to the HHI cause spot price fluctuations, which can be interpreted as the generators´ strategic response to these shocks.

  10. Halogenated organic compounds in archived whale oil: A pre-industrial record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuten, Emma L. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: emma.teuten@plymouth.ac.uk; Reddy, Christopher M. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: creddy@whoi.edu

    2007-02-15

    To provide additional evidence that several halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) found in environmental samples are natural and not industrially produced, we analyzed an archived whale oil sample collected in 1921 from the last voyage of the whaling ship Charles W. Morgan. This sample, which pre-dates large-scale industrial manufacture of HOCs, contained two methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), five halogenated methyl bipyrroles (MBPs), one halogenated dimethyl bipyrrole (DMBP), and tentatively one dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl (diMeO-PBB). This result indicates, at least in part, a natural source of the latter compounds. - Nine halogenated organic compounds have been detected in archived whale oil from the early 1920s.

  11. The industrial organization of the repository. Pitfall or logical?; Slutfoervarets industriella organisering. Fallgrop eller foeljdriktighet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frostenson, Magnus (Dept. of Business Studies, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    From a systems perspective the organization of the Swedish final repository project for nuclear waste is studied. Different aspects of organization are identified in the report, covering dimensions of geographical, operative, structural, responsibility and contextual organization. Following SKB's site selection for the applications for the final repository for spent nuclear system and the closing of the surplus value agreement, issues concerning operative, structural and contextual organization tend to become particularly pressing, which is reflected in three research questions: - How will the final repository project be organized operatively and structurally over time? - Why is the final repository project organized in this way by SKB? - What kind of contextual organization takes place in the final repository project and what are the consequences of these activities? How the different industrial units of the final repository project should be run and within which structure, for example concerning ownership and integration of units, is established in the report. SKB's reasons for choosing this kind of organization are also highlighted. Apart from legal and safety-related demands that must be met together with the demands of the owners, SKB's strategic preference for insourcing conditions organizational choices. The traditional task centred operative and structural organization of SKB is also reflected in the organizational choices for the present and future units of the final depository system. Contextual organization implies deepened actor relationships between SKB's owners and SKB on the one side and the municipalities Oesthammar and Oskarshamn on the other. Through active organizing, the final repository arena 'narrows down' and the final repository issue turns into an in many respects local issue. There is a clear tendency that the roles of SKB are multiplied in order to handle the demands that central stakeholders - in particular

  12. Exploring Fragility: Industrial Delocalization, Occupational and Environmental Risks, and Non-Governmental Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria

    2009-01-01

    What is the role of non-governmental organizations – NGOs – in the process of industrial delocalization and socio-spatial redistribution of occupational and environmental risks? In an attempt to contribute to this debate, this study approaches the issue in a very specific socio-historical context, marked by recent accelerated industrialization in a small town in Northeast Brazil. Based on semi-structured interviews with leaders of four local NGOs, the way they perceive and value the risks introduced into the area and relations between industrialization and local development are analyzed. Findings show a strong adherence to the industrial plan by workers’ trade unions, whilst other NGOs are highly critical with regard thereto, but undertake no social or political activity regarding the issues they identify. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of the modus operandi of ideology and its strategies for symbolic construction, enabling a comprehensive reinterpretation of how capital also benefits, in its mobility, from local society’s fragility in organizing and protecting quality of life and public health. PMID:19440428

  13. Exploring fragility: industrial delocalization, occupational and environmental risks, and non-governmental organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria

    2009-03-01

    What is the role of non-governmental organizations--NGOs--in the process of industrial delocalization and socio-spatial redistribution of occupational and environmental risks? In an attempt to contribute to this debate, this study approaches the issue in a very specific socio-historical context, marked by recent accelerated industrialization in a small town in Northeast Brazil. Based on semi-structured interviews with leaders of four local NGOs, the way they perceive and value the risks introduced into the area and relations between industrialization and local development are analyzed. Findings show a strong adherence to the industrial plan by workers' trade unions, whilst other NGOs are highly critical with regard thereto, but undertake no social or political activity regarding the issues they identify. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of the modus operandi of ideology and its strategies for symbolic construction, enabling a comprehensive reinterpretation of how capital also benefits, in its mobility, from local society's fragility in organizing and protecting quality of life and public health.

  14. Exploring Fragility: Industrial Delocalization, Occupational and Environmental Risks, and Non-Governmental Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria Rigotto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available What is the role of non-governmental organizations – NGOs – in the process of industrial delocalization and socio-spatial redistribution of occupational and environmental risks? In an attempt to contribute to this debate, this study approaches the issue in a very specific socio-historical context, marked by recent accelerated industrialization in a small town in Northeast Brazil. Based on semi-structured interviews with leaders of four local NGOs, the way they perceive and value the risks introduced into the area and relations between industrialization and local development are analyzed. Findings show a strong adherence to the industrial plan by workers’ trade unions, whilst other NGOs are highly critical with regard thereto, but undertake no social or political activity regarding the issues they identify. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of the modus operandi of ideology and its strategies for symbolic construction, enabling a comprehensive reinterpretation of how capital also benefits, in its mobility, from local society’s fragility in organizing and protecting quality of life and public health.

  15. Co-exposure with fullerene may strengthen health effects of organic industrial chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maili Lehto

    Full Text Available In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water.

  16. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for the handling of the organization?s mail

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Support contract for the handling of the Organization?s mail. Following a market survey carried out among 37 firms in nine Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2402/AS/Revised) was sent on 10 August 1999 to three firms and three consortia, in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received five tenders from firms and consortia in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium ISS GEBÄUDESERVICE (DE) - ISS SERVISYSTEM (CH), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of three years starting on 1st April 2000, for a total amount of 2 050 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 31 March 2001. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period.

  17. Treatment of organized industrial zone wastewater by MBR: First results for KOIZ

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Oktay; Uyanık, İbrahim; Rençber, Mehmet Mükerrem; Oğuz, Merve; Şahin, Uğur; Koyuncu, İsmail

    2018-01-01

    Organized industrial zones (OIZs) in Turkeysolve their wastewater problems by collecting and treating the wastewater usingsome traditional methods (mostly biological) to achieve discharge standards.However, new solutions for water reclamations are needed for the limited watersources, increasing pollution loads to the receiving environments and waterbasins. Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have recently become more preferable due totheir advantages over the conventional treatment methods by their d...

  18. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  19. Agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries and their possible contribution to food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, John; Sonnino, Andrea

    2011-12-20

    Latest FAO figures indicate that an estimated 925 million people are undernourished in 2010, representing almost 16% of the population in developing countries. Looking to the future, there are also major challenges ahead from the rapidly changing socio-economic environment (increasing world population and urbanisation, and dietary changes) and climate change. Promoting agriculture in developing countries is the key to achieving food security, and it is essential to act in four ways: to increase investment in agriculture, broaden access to food, improve governance of global trade, and increase productivity while conserving natural resources. To enable the fourth action, the suite of technological options for farmers should be as broad as possible, including agricultural biotechnologies. Agricultural biotechnologies represent a broad range of technologies used in food and agriculture for the genetic improvement of plant varieties and animal populations, characterisation and conservation of genetic resources, diagnosis of plant or animal diseases and other purposes. Discussions about agricultural biotechnology have been dominated by the continuing controversy surrounding genetic modification and its resulting products, genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The polarised debate has led to non-GMO biotechnologies being overshadowed, often hindering their development and application. Extensive documentation from the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries (ABDC-10), that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 1-4 March 2010, gave a very good overview of the many ways that different agricultural biotechnologies are being used to increase productivity and conserve natural resources in the crop, livestock, fishery, forestry and agro-industry sectors in developing countries. The conference brought together about 300 policy-makers, scientists and representatives of intergovernmental and international non

  20. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  1. Industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Blundel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Industrialization, the historical development that saw cheesemaking transformed from a largely craft-based or artisanal activity, often located on a dairy farm, to a production process that, for the most part, takes place in large ‘cheese factories’ or creameries [See ARTISANAL]. The principal features of modern industrialized cheesemaking, which set it apart from traditional approaches include: high production volumes; sourcing of milk from multiple dairy herds; pasteurization and re-balanci...

  2. UK: disputing boundaries of biotechnology regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Les Levidow; Susan Carr

    1996-01-01

    UK biotechnology regulation has developed ‘precautionary controls’ for GMO releases. Stringent legislation was drafted and eventually implemented by the Department of Environment (DoE). In parallel, the DoE established a broadly-based advisory committee, which included ecologists and an implicit public-interest representation. The committee was assigned the task to advise on the release of all “novel organisms” — a term which implies an analogy between GMOs and non-indigenous organisms. Copyr...

  3. The Developing Country Reactions to Biomedical Techniques and Plant Biotechnology: The Tunisian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebourski Fethi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we present the conditions offered to biotechnology development in Tunisia and we compare three main biotechnology applications which raise ethical and health problems: organ transplant, assisted reproductive techniques, and genetically modified organisms. We try to identify factors that have allowed success of the first two applications and failure of the latter. Conditions offered to biotechnology in other African countries are also discussed.

  4. Assessing the research and education needs of the organic dairy industry in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Brito, A F; Townson, L L; Townson, D H

    2013-01-01

    foundation for future research proposals and educational outreach programs, germane to stakeholder needs, which could benefit the organic dairy industry within the region and beyond. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent trends in lactic acid biotechnology: A brief review on production to purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyba Ghaffar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is one of the most important organic acid which is being extensively used around the globe in a range of industrial and biotechnological applications. From its very old history to date, many methods have been introduced to improve the optimization of lactic acid to get highest yields of the product of industrial interests. In serious consideration of the worldwide economic and lactic acid consumption issues there has been increasing research interest in the value of materials with natural origin, which are cheap, abundant and easily available all around the year. Recent trends showed that lactic acid production through fermentation is advantageous over chemical due to the environmental concerns of the modern world. The eco-friendly processing and fermentable capability of many of the agricultural and agro-industrial based raw materials or by-products respectively makes them attractive candidates in fermentation biotechnology to produce a value-added product with multiple applications. In fact, major advances have already been achieved in recent years in order to get pure lactic acid with optimal yield. The present review work is summarized on the multi-step processing technologies to produce lactic acid from different substances as a starting material potentially from various agro-industrial based biomasses. The information is also given on a purification through schematic representation of the product of quality interests.

  6. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology Through Self Study and Open Learning Graduates. Narayan S Punekar. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 77-78 ...

  7. Pharma Success in Product Development—Does Biotechnology Change the Paradigm in Product Development and Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Ronald P

    2016-01-01

    The biotechnology segment of the overall biopharma industry has existed for only about 40–45 years, as a driver of new product development. This driving force was initiated with the FDA approval of recombinant human insulin in 1982, originating from the Genentech company. The pharma industry in the early years of 1970s and 1980s engaged with biotechnology companies only to a small extent with their in-licensing of a few recombinant molecules, led by Roche, Eli Lilly, and Johnson and Johnson. However, subsequently and dramatically over the last 25 years, biotechnology has become a primary driver of product and technology innovation and has become a cornerstone in new product development by all biopharma companies. This review demonstrates these evolutionary changes regarding approved products, product pipelines, novelty of the products, FDA approval rates, product sales, financial R&D investments in biotechnology, partnerships, mergers and acquisitions, and patent issues. We now have about 300 biotechnology products approved in USA covering 16 medical disciplines and about 250 indications, with the engagement of 25 pharma companies, along with their biotechnology company innovators and partners. The biotechnology pipeline involves over 1000 molecules in clinical trials, including over 300 molecules associated with the top 10 pharma companies. Product approval rates by the FDA for biotechnology products are over double the rate for drugs. Yes, the R&D paradigm has changed with biotechnology now as one of the major focuses for new product development with novel molecules by the whole biopharma industry.

  8. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  9. Forest biotechnology and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopriva, S.; Rennenberg, H. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Baumphysiologie

    2000-02-01

    Forest biotechnology is a relatively young area of applied plant molecular biology that presently concentrates on (i) manipulation of lignin content and composition, (ii) pathogen-, pesticide-, and stress resistance, and (iii) improvement of growth. Transgenic trees have a great potential also in other areas of applied and environmental research, e.g. in the production of phytochemicals and in phytoremediation of polluted soils. To implement the use of biotechnology for these and other purposes improvement of the acceptance in public of genetic engineering general, and the application of transgenic technologies to trees species in particular, is essential. (orig.) [German] Bei der forstlichen Biotechnologie handelt es sich um ein vergleichsweise junges Gebiet der angewandten pflanzlichen Molekularbiologie, das sich derzeit auf folgende Fragestellungen konzentriert: (a) Manipulation des Ligningehalts und der Lignin-Zusammensetzung; (b) Verbesserung der Resistenz gegenueber Pathogenen, Pestiziden und verschiedenen Formen von Stress; (c) Verbesserung des Wachstums. Transgene Baeume haben darueber hinaus ein grosses Potential fuer andere Gebiete der angewandten Forschung und der Umweltforschung, so z.B. fuer die Produktion pflanzlicher Naturstoffe und die Phytosanierung belasteter Boeden. Um die Verwendung biotechnologischer Verfahren fuer diese und andere Zwecke zu implementieren, ist es dringend erforderlich, die Akzeptanz von 'genetic engineering' im allgemeinen und den Einsatz von Technologien zur Herstellung transgener Baeume im besonderen in der Oeffentlichkeit zu verbessern. (orig.)

  10. Beyond Borders 2014 - Overview of the Biotechnology Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Jürg

    2014-12-01

    The global biotechnology industry rebounded strongly in 2013. Public companies achieved double-digit revenue growth and there was a sharp rise in funds. Product successes have boosted revenues, drawn investors and motivated large companies to invest strongly in R&D. However, much of the industry's growth was driven by a relatively small group of commercial stage companies, increasing the urgency for the rest of the industry to achieve greater efficiency in their drug development efforts.

  11. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  12. Pollutant removal-oriented yeast biomass production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewater: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min; Zheng, Shaokui

    2014-01-01

    Microbial single-cell-protein (SCP) production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewaters is considered an attractive method for both wastewater purification and resource utilization. In the last two decades, pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes, i.e., yeast treatment processes, have attracted a great deal of attention from a variety of research groups worldwide. Different from conventional SCP production processes, yeast treatment processes are characterized by higher pollutant removal rates, lower production costs, highly adaptive yeast isolates from nature, no excess nutrient supplements, and are performed under non-sterile conditions. Furthermore, yeast treatment processes are similar to bacteria-dominated conventional activated sludge processes, which offer more choices for yeast SCP production and industrial wastewater treatment. This review discusses why highly adaptive yeast species isolated from nature are used in the yeast treatment process rather than commercial SCP producers. It also describes the application of yeast treatment processes for treating high-carboxyhydrate, oil-rich and high-salinity industrial wastewater, focusing primarily on high-strength biodegradable organic substances, which usually account for the major fraction of biochemical oxygen demand. Also discussed is the biodegradation of xenobiotics, such as color (including dye and pigment) and toxic substances (including phenols, chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.), present in industrial wastewater. Based on molecular information of yeast community structures and their regulation in yeast treatment systems, we also discuss how to maintain efficient yeast species in yeast biomass and how to control bacterial and mold proliferation in yeast treatment systems. - Highlights: • Pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes offer more choices. • Highly adaptive yeast isolates replace commercial SCP producers. • Yeasts degrade

  13. Primary sources of PM2.5 organic aerosol in an industrial Mediterranean city, Marseille

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haddad, I.; Marchand, N.; Wortham, H.; Piot, C.; Besombes, J.-L.; Cozic, J.; Chauvel, C.; Armengaud, A.; Robin, D.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.

    2011-03-01

    Marseille, the most important port of the Mediterranean Sea, represents a challenging case study for source apportionment exercises, combining an active photochemistry and multiple emission sources, including fugitive emissions from industrial sources and shipping. This paper presents a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) approach based on organic markers and metals to apportion the primary sources of organic aerosol in Marseille, with a special focus on industrial emissions. Overall, the CMB model accounts for the major primary anthropogenic sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning and the aggregate emissions from three industrial processes (heavy fuel oil combustion/shipping, coke production and steel manufacturing) as well as some primary biogenic emissions. This source apportionment exercise is well corroborated by 14C measurements. Primary OC estimated by the CMB accounts on average for 22% of total OC and is dominated by the vehicular emissions that contribute on average for 17% of OC mass concentration (vehicular PM contributes for 17% of PM2.5). Even though industrial emissions contribute only 2.3% of the total OC (7% of PM2.5), they are associated with ultrafine particles (Dphealth outcomes and should be regulated despite their small contributions to OC. Another important result is the fact that 78% of OC mass cannot be attributed to the major primary sources and, thus, remains un-apportioned. We have consequently critically investigated the uncertainties underlying our CMB apportionments. While we have provided some evidence for photochemical decay of hopanes, this decay does not appear to significantly alter the CMB estimates of the total primary OC. Sampling artifacts and unaccounted primary sources also appear to marginally influence the amount of un-apportioned OC. Therefore, this significant amount of un-apportioned OC is mostly attributed to secondary organic carbon that appears to be the major component of OC during the whole period of study.

  14. Biotechnological Applications of Marine Enzymes From Algae, Bacteria, Fungi, and Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parte, S; Sirisha, V L; D'Souza, J S

    Diversity is the hallmark of all life forms that inhabit the soil, air, water, and land. All these habitats pose their unique inherent challenges so as to breed the "fittest" creatures. Similarly, the biodiversity from the marine ecosystem has evolved unique properties due to challenging environment. These challenges include permafrost regions to hydrothermal vents, oceanic trenches to abyssal plains, fluctuating saline conditions, pH, temperature, light, atmospheric pressure, and the availability of nutrients. Oceans occupy 75% of the earth's surface and harbor most ancient and diverse forms of organisms (algae, bacteria, fungi, sponges, etc.), serving as an excellent source of natural bioactive molecules, novel therapeutic compounds, and enzymes. In this chapter, we introduce enzyme technology, its current state of the art, unique enzyme properties, and the biocatalytic potential of marine algal, bacterial, fungal, and sponge enzymes that have indeed boosted the Marine Biotechnology Industry. Researchers began exploring marine enzymes, and today they are preferred over the chemical catalysts for biotechnological applications and functions, encompassing various sectors, namely, domestic, industrial, commercial, and healthcare. Next, we summarize the plausible pros and cons: the challenges encountered in the process of discovery of the potent compounds and bioactive metabolites such as biocatalysts/enzymes of biomedical, therapeutic, biotechnological, and industrial significance. The field of Marine Enzyme Technology has recently assumed importance, and if it receives further boost, it could successfully substitute other chemical sources of enzymes useful for industrial and commercial purposes and may prove as a beneficial and ecofriendly option. With appropriate directions and encouragement, marine enzyme technology can sustain the rising demand for enzyme production while maintaining the ecological balance, provided any undesired exploitation of the marine

  15. Biotechnology, genetic conservation and sustainable use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agriculture, silviculture, horticulture, environment and other important issues. This paper reviews some biotechnological tools that could be harnessed in promoting conservation and sustainable use of bioresources. Key words: Bioresources, genetic conservation, biotechnology. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2 (12) ...

  16. Fostering biotechnology entrepreneurship in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred

    the growing science base, biotechnology companies can successfully be located and thrive in these countries. The rewards which can flow from the successful exploitation of research should encourage investment in biotechnological activities. Key words: Entrepreneur, biotechnology, investment. INTRODUCTION.

  17. Department of Biotechnology | Women in Science | Initiatives ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Biotechnology. Department of Biotechnology Awards; National Woman Bioscientist Awards; Biotech Product & Process Development & Commercialization Awards; Awardees of National Bioscience Awards for Career Development. Department of Biotechnology Awardees. Year: 2012 Innovative Young ...

  18. The Influence of Diversification Processes on Organization of Accounting of the Tourism Industry Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momont Tetiana V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at determining whether the diversification processes can influence organization of accounting of the tourism industry actors. Impact of the diversification strategy of enterprise’s activity on organization and methods of accounting has been researched. Means of diversification that are being implemented through accounting have been defined. The process of diversifying the activity of tourism enterprise has been graphically presented. There is a need for applying the Program for diversification of activity of tourism enterprise by the enterprises in the tourism sphere, structure of which has been proposed. The «Accounting organization» section of this document discloses the operational and strategic activities that are being undertaken in the area of accounting.

  19. Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Belz, B.; Mohamad, Y.; Velasco, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Industry plays a key role in the path towards eInclusion. While corporate social responsibility statements of leading companies confirm this, surveys show that there is still a long way to go. Among various reasons for the reluctant take-up of Design for All (DfA) by industry providing Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the lack of relevant knowledge and skills obviously plays a crucial role. Therefore, the DfA@eInclusion project has undertaken to develop curriculum guidelines an...

  20. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  1. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  2. Preface: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology with emphasis on bio-based products and agricultural biotechnology. Recent energy and food crises point out the importance of bio-based products from ren...

  3. Biotechnology Outlines for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolella, Mary Jane

    1991-01-01

    Presents a course outline for the study of biotechnology at the high school or college level. The outline includes definitions, a history, and the vocabulary of biotechnology. Presents a science experiment to analyze the effects of restriction enzymes on DNA. (MDH)

  4. Reduction of organic solvent emission by industrial use of electron-beam curable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haering, E.

    1982-01-01

    Most industrial finishing processes operate by the use of liquid organic coating materials drying by solvent evaporation and subsequent chemical crosslinking reactions, in many cases also releasing cleavage products. These organic emissions contribute to air pollution and therefore many countries have issued restrictions in order to protect the environment. Complementary to other modern methods for reducing this problem, radiation chemistry enables an approach by radical chain polymerization which can be induced by exposure to electron radiation. This procedure is known as electron-beam curing of coatings or the EBC process. It utilizes well-developed accelerator equipment with voltages of 150 to 400kV at a minimum energy consumption. There is no necessity to use irradiation facilities based on the decay of radioisotopes. Free radical polymerization requires unsaturated resins as pain binders and polymerizable liquid compounds (monomers) as reactive diluents. Their crosslinking yields a high molecular network, the coating, without any emission of organic solvents or cleavage products. Moreover, the radiochemical formation of the paint film occurs extremely rapidly. The technical application of EBC coatings began by coating automotive plastic parts; a little later the finishing of wood products gained more industrial use as a non-polluting and energy-saving coating technology. Application methods in coating plastic foils in combination with vacuum metallizing and the production of decorative laminating papers for furniture followed. In 1981 new EBC pilot lines were installed for curing top coats on PVC foil and also for the coating of prefinished steel wheels for automobiles. In comparison with conventional solvent-based methods the industrial EBC process results in a nearly complete reduction of organic solvent emission avoiding air pollution and saving valuable petrochemical raw materials. This paper reviews the development of EBC during the last decade. (author)

  5. Leadership, organization and health at work: a case study of a Swedish industrial company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Andrea; Jansson, Bjarne; Haglund, Bo J A; Axelsson, Runo

    2008-06-01

    The application of knowledge on organization and leadership is important for the promotion of health at workplace. The purpose of this article is to analyse the leadership and organization, including the organizational culture, of a Swedish industrial company in relation to the health of the employees. The leadership in this company has been oriented towards developing and actively promoting a culture and a structure of organization where the employees have a high degree of control over their work situation. According to the employees, this means extensive possibilities for personal development and responsibility, as well as good companionship, which makes them feel well at work. This is also supported by the low sickness rate of the company. The results indicate that the leadership and organization of this company may have been conducive to the health of the employees interviewed. However, the culture of personal responsibility and the structure of self-managed teams seemed to suit only those who were able to manage the demands of the company and adapt to that kind of organization. Therefore, the findings indicate that the specific context of the technology, the environment and the professional level of the employees need to be taken into consideration when analysing the relation between leadership, organization and health at work.

  6. Strategies to enable the adoption of animal biotechnology to sustainably improve global food safety and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizard, Mark; Hallerman, Eric; Fahrenkrug, Scott; Newell-McGloughlin, Martina; Gibson, John; de Loos, Frans; Wagner, Stefan; Laible, Götz; Han, Jae Yong; D'Occhio, Michael; Kelly, Lisa; Lowenthal, John; Gobius, Kari; Silva, Primal; Cooper, Caitlin; Doran, Tim

    2016-10-01

    The ability to generate transgenic animals has existed for over 30 years, and from those early days many predicted that the technology would have beneficial applications in agriculture. Numerous transgenic agricultural animals now exist, however to date only one product from a transgenic animal has been approved for the food chain, due in part to cumbersome regulations. Recently, new techniques such as precision breeding have emerged, which enables the introduction of desired traits without the use of transgenes. The rapidly growing human population, environmental degradation, and concerns related to zoonotic and pandemic diseases have increased pressure on the animal agriculture sector to provide a safe, secure and sustainable food supply. There is a clear need to adopt transgenic technologies as well as new methods such as gene editing and precision breeding to meet these challenges and the rising demand for animal products. To achieve this goal, cooperation, education, and communication between multiple stakeholders-including scientists, industry, farmers, governments, trade organizations, NGOs and the public-is necessary. This report is the culmination of concepts first discussed at an OECD sponsored conference and aims to identify the main barriers to the adoption of animal biotechnology, tactics for navigating those barriers, strategies to improve public perception and trust, as well as industry engagement, and actions for governments and trade organizations including the OECD to harmonize regulations and trade agreements. Specifically, the report focuses on animal biotechnologies that are intended to improve breeding and genetics and currently are not routinely used in commercial animal agriculture. We put forward recommendations on how scientists, regulators, and trade organizations can work together to ensure that the potential benefits of animal biotechnology can be realized to meet the future needs of agriculture to feed the world.

  7. Diagnosis Kerusakan Bantalan Gelinding Pada Sistem Industri Dengan Metode Self Organizing Map (SOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dega Surono Wibowo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is discussing about the usage of data mining which addressed to damage diagnosis of rolling bearings. Data input was obtained from signal frequency feature extraction which taken from calibration against rolling bearings. The diagnosis was extremely important to industrial machines since this diagnosis can help to discover damages that occurred so that total failure of cessation of the machines can be avoided and industrial machines treatment costs can be optimized. Method used in this research is Self Organizing Map (SOM, SOM method on this research was done by sequence: signal frequency data that have been through the process of acquisition and preprocessing, feature extraction, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, then come into the process of SOM so that accuracy of the diagnosis process can be discovered. The result of this research is a software that can diagnose rolling bearings damage on industrial system. From tests result, software that has been produced was able to diagnose rolling bearings damage. Accuracy result shown 87.5% success, this software can be developed further to help technicians in diagnosing rolling bearings damage. This research method can be developed further to detect other damages in industrial systems.   Keywords: Data mining; PCA; SOM; Diagnosis; Rolling bearings; Statistic feature extraction

  8. Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Organic matter quality and dynamics in tropical soils amended with sugar industry residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader Galba Busato

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter depletion caused by agricultural management systems have been identified as a critical problem in most tropical soils. The application of organic residues from agro-industrial activities can ameliorate this problem by increasing soil organic matter quality and quantity. Humic substances play an important role in soil conservation but the dynamics of their transformations is still poorly understood. This study evaluated the effect of compost application to two contrasting tropical soils (Inceptisol and Oxisol for two years. Soil samples were incubated with compost consisting of sugarcane filter cake, a residue from the sugar industry, at 0, 40, 80, and 120 Mg ha-1. Filter cake compost changed the humic matter dynamics in both content and quality, affecting the soil mineralogical composition. It was observed that carbon mineralization was faster in the illite-containing Inceptisol, whereas humic acids were preserved for a longer period in the Oxisol. In both soils, compost application increased fulvic acid contents, favoring the formation of small hydrophilic molecules. A decrease in fluorescence intensity according to the incubation time was observed in the humic acids extracted from amended soils, revealing important chemical changes in this otherwise stable C pool.

  11. Biotechnological advances in Lilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; van Tuyl, Jaap M

    2016-09-01

    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability. Different DNA molecular markers have been developed for rapid indirect selection, genetic diversity evaluation, mutation detection and construction of Lilium linkage map. Some disease resistance-QTLs are already mapped on the Lilium linkage map. This review presents latest information on in vitro propagation, genetic engineering and molecular advances made in lily.

  12. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-11-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.

  13. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  14. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: a survey of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Samar, Parviz; Cox, Huub H J; Ahring, Birgitte K; Iranpour, Reza

    2006-06-01

    Codigestion of organic wastes is a technology that is increasingly being applied for simultaneous treatment of several solid and liquid organic wastes. The main advantages of this technology are improved methane yield because of the supply of additional nutrients from the codigestates and more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can increase digester gas production and provide savings in the overall energy costs of plant operations. Methane recovery also helps to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The goal of this literature survey was to summarize the research conducted in the last four years on anaerobic codigestion to identify applications of codigestion at WWTPs. Because the solids content in municipal wastewater sludge is low, this survey only focuses on codigestion processes operated at relative low solids content (slurry mode). Semi-solid or solid codigestion processes were not included. Municipal wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes, industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey as codigestates. The literature provides many laboratory studies (batch assays and bench-scale digesters) that assess the digestibility of codigestates and evaluate the performance and monitoring of codigestion, inhibition of digestion by codigestates, the design of the process (e.g., single-stage or two-stage processes), and the operation temperature (e.g., mesophilic or thermophilic). Only a few reports on pilot- and full-scale studies were found. These evaluate general process

  15. The nature of expertise and human resource functions supporting expertise in nuclear industry organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintala, N.; Katri, S.; Eila, J.; Pahkin, K.; Anneli, L.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear industry worldwide faces the challenge of preserving the existing expertise, competence and knowledge despite of the ageing workforce and upcoming retirements. Challenges are also imposed by the reducing amount of new recruits and students entering the nuclear industry, which amounts to fewer young professionals that have the potential to become nuclear experts in the future. Although many other industries share similar challenges, the preservation of expertise in the nuclear industry is even more important due to the safety-critical nature of the nuclear operations and the special characteristics that high-reliability organizations such as nuclear power plants have. As a response to the risk of knowledge loss, nuclear organizations have engaged in knowledge capturing efforts. New information systems and organizational practices have been implemented to safeguard nuclear expertise. Recently, IAEA has proposed nuclear organizations to design and adopt people-centered programs that encompass themes such as workforce planning, recruitment, training, succession planning, leadership development and knowledge management. Thus, in order to address the current risks to nuclear expertise, attention should be focused on these different areas and corresponding human resources (HR) functions within the nuclear organizations. Our paper presents results from a project which examines the nature of expert work and human resources (HR) functions that support the development and preservation of expertise. The study adopts a qualitative cross-sectional case study design. Two organizational units from different nuclear industry organizations have been selected as cases. The research data will be gathered in April-May 2007 and preliminary results will be presented in the International Conference of Knowledge Management in Nuclear Facilities, in June 2007. The main data will comprise of thematic interviews to experts, their managers and HR representatives

  16. Mapping and quantification of organic agro-industrial residues in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and water ways, but, at the same time they constitute a large potential for production of bioenergy through anaerobic digestion as well as potential substrate for other biological fermentation processes. The utilization of these resources for production of valuable products would contribute significantly to: Improvement of the local energy supply, through production of bio-energy; Improvement of the economy of the East African agro-industry; Reduction of the environmental impact from the agro-industrial sector. Except for production of cane sugar, most agro-industrial residues are generated from cash crops, which are produced and processed in the developing countries and where the final products mainly are used for export. In the East-African Region the most important of these crops are: Sisal, coffee, Cashew nuts and Pineapple. In addition significant quantities of organic residues are generated from other food processing activities like breweries, consumption of bananas etc. The total potential methane production of the residues available for use in biomethanization systems in East Africa is 189.61 million m{sup 3} of methane per year. Converted to diesel oil equivalents and including the residues only feasible for combustion systems, the total bioenergy potential of agro-industrial residues in Eastern Africa is 279,176 TOE. If this potential was fully utilized for production of electricity, it would correspond to installed effects of 37,68 and 31 MW in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, respectively, equivalent to 10%, 11% and 18% of the currently installed effect is these countries. Residues from sisal and coffee processing constitute the main part of the bioenergy potential, on average approximately 75%, while the remaining 25% of the potential are formed by the

  17. Risk management of knowledge loss in nuclear industry organizations (Russian edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry and nuclear regulatory authorities will be one of the most critical challenges in the near future. As many nuclear experts around the world are retiring, they are taking with them a substantial amount of knowledge and corporate memory. The loss of such employees who hold knowledge critical to either operations or safety poses a clear internal threat to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities. This publication is intended for senior and middle level managers of nuclear industry operating organizations and provides practical information on knowledge loss risk management. The information provided in this it is based upon the actual experiences of Member State operating organizations and is intended to increase awareness of the need to: develop a strategic approach and action plans to address the potential loss of critical knowledge and skills; provide processes and in conducting risk assessments to determine the potential for loss of critical knowledge caused by the loss of experienced workers; and enable nuclear organizations to utilize this knowledge to improve the skill and competence of new and existing workers In 2004, the IAEA published a report entitled The Nuclear Power Industry's Ageing Workforce: Transfer of Knowledge to the Next Generation (IAEA-TECDOC-1399). That report highlighted some of the knowledge management issues in Member States resulting from the large number of retiring nuclear power plant personnel who had been involved with the commissioning and initial operation of nuclear power plants. This publication complements that report by providing a practical methodology on knowledge loss risk management as one element of an overall strategic approach to workforce management which includes work force planning, recruitment, training, leadership development and knowledge retention

  18. KNOWLEDGE HIDING AS AN OBSTACLE OF INNOVATION IN ORGANIZATIONS A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF SOFTWARE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOMAYEH LABAFI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Transmission and popularization of knowledge among personnel leads to a functional synergy in the innovation processes of organizations. It has been found that most research on organizations are related to knowledge sharing, while the knowledge hiding has seldom been investigated. Firms that operate in a software industry are among the knowledge-based organizations in which employees are required to possess specialized knowledge and skills to perform their tasks. The dissemination of knowledge and information can help organizations to be innovative and to improve their competitive advantage. Current study shows that information does not flow through the employees of sample organizations, and employees prefer to hide their organizational knowledge from their colleagues in order to maintain their own portfolios. Using thematic analysis, and interviews as data collection method, some thematic issues were extracted. These themes include, behavioral characteristics, complexity of knowledge, Power of requesting person, organizational incentives for knowledge sharing, Lack of clear responsibility for knowledge sharing, Sense of internal competition, level of trust to colleagues, effect of ubiquitous media, learning ability of the knowledge demandant, Level of personal contacts with colleagues, Deceiving colleagues, Violence, Negative feedback from organizational environment.

  19. Production of vanillin: a biotechnological opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugsch, Andreas; Pastores, Glaucia . E-daugsch@fea.unicamp.br

    2005-01-01

    Natural aroma compounds are of major interest to the food and fragrance industry. Vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) was isolated from the vanilla beans in 1816 and its world consumption has reached today about 12000 tons per year. But only approximately 50 tons per year are extracted from vanilla pods (Vanilla planifolia). The remainder is provided by synthetic vanillin. This review is about alternative processes to produce natural vanillin de novo or by biotransformation using biotechnological methods involving enzymes, microorganisms and plant cells. (author)

  20. ANALYZING THE CLASSIC METHODS OF ORGANIZING THE ADMINISTRATION ACCOUNTACY USED IN THE CARBONIFEROUS MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU-POPA Lucia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding production costs occupy a central slot, determined by their implications regarding the present and future evolution of a company. The value of information regarding the cost of production justifies its use both in decisions regarding the current activity and in the company’s future strategy. The efficient organization of economic activity in the carboniferous mining industry imposes a constant improvement of management methods, which also implies a reconsideration of administration accountancy methods and cost control, which have to become capable of offering information that can be compatible to the requirements for an efficient management of the production process, in a market economy.

  1. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the extension of wastewater treatment plants to nutrient removal and the development towards reuse of sludge m agriculture, new guidelines for regulating industrial discharges m Denmark were needed. The paper describes how a concept for regulating the discharge of specific organic substances...... for sludge intended for use in agriculture, and the quality criteria for the aquatic environment. Proposals for general guidelines have been calculated using a simple mass balance model combined with water quality criteria and the Danish limit values for use of sludge in agriculture....

  2. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  3. [Emission characteristics and hazard assessment analysis of volatile organic compounds from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Song, Shuang; Xu, Zhi-Rong; Xu, Ming-Zhu; Xu, Wei-Li

    2014-10-01

    In this study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry in Taizhou, Zhejiang province were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was in the range of 14.9-308.6 mg · m(-3). Evaluation models of ozone formation potentials (OFP) and health risk assessment were adopted to preliminarily assess the environmental impact and health risk of VOCs. The results showed that the values of OFP of VOCs were in the range of 3.1-315.1 mg · m(-3), based on the maximum incremental reactivity, the main principal contribution was toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetic ether etc. The non-carcinogenic risk and the carcinogen risk fell in the ranges of 9.48 x 10(-7)-4.98 x 10(-4) a(-1) and 3.17 x 10(-5)- 6.33 x 10(-3). The principal contribution of VOCs was benzene, formaldehyde and methylene chloride.

  4. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  5. A Methods-Based Biotechnology Course for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Debopam

    2009-01-01

    This new course in biotechnology for upper division undergraduates provides a comprehensive overview of the process of drug discovery that is relevant to biopharmaceutical industry. The laboratory exercises train students in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Oral presentations by the students delve into recent progress in drug discovery.…

  6. Forest and fibre genomics: biotechnology tools for applied tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A milestone for eucalypt research, the project will facilitate the development of new biotechnology tools that will accelerate the domestication, improvement and ... The application of DNA fingerprinting in eucalypt breeding programmes represented an early technology delivery to industry with practical, short-term benefi ts, ...

  7. Ethical principles for the use of human cellular biotechnologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolpe, Paul Root; Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Borenstein, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in bioengineering promise the possibility of new diagnostic and treatment strategies, novel industrial processes, and innovative approaches to thorny problems in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and biomanufacturing. As modern genetics has matured and developed technolog......-producing countries of the world, offers a set of ethical principles to contribute to the ethical conversation about human cellular biotechnological research moving forward....

  8. Great expectations: The state of biotechnology research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As biotechnology industries are knowledge-intensive, Research and Experimental Development (R and D) are key drivers of growth. Governments and businesses have an interest in creating an environment that stimulates R and D and the commercialisation thereof. Discourse relating to the best means to support ...

  9. Petroleum biotechnology: Technology trends for the future | Montiel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... challenges and needs of this worldwide important sector. We described throughout the paper the main factors that drive or restrain research and development (R&D) in biological processes applied to petroleum industry. Moreover, we identified several challenges and opportunities, where R&D in petroleum biotechnology

  10. Networks for learning and knowledge creation in biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliver, Amalya Lumerman

    2009-01-01

    ... structure of the industry parallels one of its most important innovations - recombinant DNA (rDNA). She shows how the concept of recombination may be used to explain a number of organizational features, including new biotechnology firms, the formation of universitybased spin-offs, scientific entrepreneurship, and trust and cont...

  11. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Alcohol industry use of social aspect public relations organizations against preventative health measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; de Groot, Florentine; McKenzie, Stephen; Droste, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    It has been proposed that alcohol industry 'social aspects/public relations' organizations (SAPROs) serve the agenda of lending credibility to industry claims of corporate responsibility while promoting ineffective industry-friendly interventions (such as school-based education or TV advertising campaigns) and creating doubt about interventions which have a strong evidence base (such as higher taxes on alcoholic beverages). This paper investigated whether submissions to Australia's National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) from alcohol industry bodies regarding the Australian SAPRO, Drinkwise, have used this organization to demonstrate corporate responsibility while promoting industry-friendly interventions. Submissions to the Australian National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) discussion paper Australia, the healthiest country by 2020 (n = 375) were examined to identify those with primary alcohol content. A thematic analysis of the resulting 33 submissions was conducted to determine which organization, institution or individual discussed Drinkwise. Australia. Nine of the 33 submissions discussed Drinkwise; all were submitted by the alcohol industry or its affiliates. Every industry submission referred to Drinkwise either as providing evidence of social responsibility or by suggesting the industry-friendly actions of Drinkwise as alternatives to those recommended by the NPHT report. Drinkwise has been used by the alcohol industry to create an impression of social responsibility while promoting interventions that maintain profits and campaigning against effective interventions such as higher taxes on alcohol. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Goncalves, Maraisa; Oliveira, Diana Q.L.; Guerreiro, Mario C.; Guilherme, Luiz R.G.; Dallago, Rogerio M.

    2007-01-01

    The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80 mg g -1 ) and textile dye reactive red (163 mg g -1 ), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials

  13. Impact of fresh organic matter incorporation on PAH fate in a contaminated industrial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernot, Audrey; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Leglize, Pierre; Watteau, Françoise; Derrien, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of fresh organic matter (OM) incorporation in an industrial PAH-contaminated soil on its structure and contaminant concentrations (available and total) were monitored. A control soil and a soil amended with the equivalent of 10 years maize residue input were incubated in laboratory-controlled conditions over 15 months. The structure of the amended soil showed an aggregation process trend which is attributable to (i) the enhanced microbial activity resulting from fresh OM input itself and (ii) the fresh OM and its degradation products. Initially the added organic matter was evenly distributed among all granulodensimetric fractions, and then rapidly degraded in the sand fraction, while stabilizing and accumulating in the silts. PAH degradation remained slight, despite the enhanced microbial biomass activity, which was similar to kinetics of the turnover rate of OM in an uncontaminated soil. The silts stabilized the anthropogenic OM and associated PAH. The addition of fresh OM tended to contribute to this stabilization process. Thus, in a context of plant growth on this soil two opposing processes might occur: rhizodegradation of the available contaminant and enhanced stabilization of the less available fraction due to carbon input. - Highlights: • Fresh OM input in an industrial soil leads to aggregation. • TC and δ 13 C increase in fine silts. • Fine silts store both the natural and anthropogenic OM. • PAH concentration and availability are not impacted by an addition of OM

  14. Brettanomyces yeasts--From spoilage organisms to valuable contributors to industrial fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Daenen, Luk; Malcorps, Philippe; Derdelinckx, Guy; Verachtert, Hubert; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-08-03

    Ever since the introduction of controlled fermentation processes, alcoholic fermentations and Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter cultures proved to be a match made in heaven. The ability of S. cerevisiae to produce and withstand high ethanol concentrations, its pleasant flavour profile and the absence of health-threatening toxin production are only a few of the features that make it the ideal alcoholic fermentation organism. However, in certain conditions or for certain specific fermentation processes, the physiological boundaries of this species limit its applicability. Therefore, there is currently a strong interest in non-Saccharomyces (or non-conventional) yeasts with peculiar features able to replace or accompany S. cerevisiae in specific industrial fermentations. Brettanomyces (teleomorph: Dekkera), with Brettanomyces bruxellensis as the most commonly encountered representative, is such a yeast. Whilst currently mainly considered a spoilage organism responsible for off-flavour production in wine, cider or dairy products, an increasing number of authors report that in some cases, these yeasts can add beneficial (or at least interesting) aromas that increase the flavour complexity of fermented beverages, such as specialty beers. Moreover, its intriguing physiology, with its exceptional stress tolerance and peculiar carbon- and nitrogen metabolism, holds great potential for the production of bioethanol in continuous fermentors. This review summarizes the most notable metabolic features of Brettanomyces, briefly highlights recent insights in its genetic and genomic characteristics and discusses its applications in industrial fermentation processes, such as the production of beer, wine and bioethanol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A MULTI-OBJECTIVE APPROACH TO THE EVALUATION OF INNOVATIVE POTENTIAL OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat’yana Pavlovna Levchenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Speaking about innovation in the tourism industry and hotel business, in particular, it usually means events of a systemic nature, with quality novelty, aimed at achieving positive changes, stable functioning and dynamic development. Along with general economic factors that determine the uneven demand for services of hospitality, it is explained by the sharp increase in dependence of their tourism and recreational opportunities from innovative potential (IP, capability of adapting to challenging competitive environment. The article considers a multi-objective approach to the study of the innovative potential of the tourism industry organizations. Its essence lies in the fact that the choice of the structural elements from the point of view of their value and importance (in any combination cannot be established a priori, without sufficient objective analysis on some of the more important criteria for achieving the goals. A diagnostic analysis and evaluation of the innovation potential of several hotel organizations from the standpoint of a multi-purpose approach is performed.

  16. Recruitment and selection in violent extremist organizations: Exploring what industrial and organizational psychology might contribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Samuel T; Shortland, Neil D; Crayne, Matthew P; Ligon, Gina S

    2017-04-01

    For many terrorist organizations, also known as violent extremist organizations (VEOs), their ability to perpetuate violence is often contingent upon successful recruitment and selection of organizational members. Although academic work on terrorist recruitment and selection has improved in recent years, researchers have generally focused more heavily on aspects of radicalization rather than organization attraction and entry. Moreover, a number of terrorism scholars have lamented the lack of conceptual frameworks with which to interpret and extend findings linked to recruitment and selection, specifically. In light of these difficulties, we propose that considering literature bases outside of terrorism may be useful in extending lines of inquiry and offering alternative ways of thinking about how terrorist organizations operate. Specifically, we draw on Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Human Resource Management, and Organizational Behavior literature bases to offer alternative and extended modes of thought on terrorist recruitment and selection. In doing so, we believe both terrorism and more traditional organizational scholars can make substantive and novel contributions to future investigations of increasingly pressing issues surrounding violent extremism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Biotechnology education as social and cultural production/reproduction of the biotechnology community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-03-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study demonstrates how students begin to acquire `the right way' of approaching the controversial issue of producing and consuming genetically modified organisms. In my response I discuss the ethnographic account of this particular educational practice in terms of social and cultural production/reproduction of a biotechnology community and how the participants (students and teaching professors) deal with the dialectic of individual and collective transformation. In the perspective of the biotechnology community, the work done by the teaching professor becomes a way of ensuring the future of the biotechnology community in terms of what values and objectives are held highly in the community of practice.

  18. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  19. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  20. Public attitude towards modern biotechnology | Amin | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the literature related to the main idea of the study, rooting from the definition of biotechnology, global status of commercialized biotechnology products, and global and local public attitudes towards modern biotechnology and past models for attitude towards modern biotechnology. The first section of the ...

  1. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a book of abstracts of oral communications and posters that were presented during the International Symposium on Biotechnology that was held in Sfax, Tunisia from May 4th to 8th, 2008. The following themes were covered : - Biotechnology for animal and human health and biopharmaceuticals; - Microbial and environmental biotechnology; - Agricultural, Food and marine biotechnology

  2. Japanese technology assessment: Computer science, opto- and microelectronics mechatronics, biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandin, D.; Wieder, H.; Spicer, W.; Nevins, J.; Oxender, D.

    1986-01-01

    The series studies Japanese research and development in four high-technology areas - computer science, opto and microelectronics, mechatronics (a term created by the Japanese to describe the union of mechanical and electronic engineering to produce the next generation of machines, robots, and the like), and biotechnology. The evaluations were conducted by panels of U.S. scientists - chosen from academia, government, and industry - actively involved in research in areas of expertise. The studies were prepared for the purpose of aiding the U.S. response to Japan's technological challenge. The main focus of the assessments is on the current status and long-term direction and emphasis of Japanese research and development. Other aspects covered include evolution of the state of the art; identification of Japanese researchers, R and D organizations, and resources; and comparative U.S. efforts. The general time frame of the studies corresponds to future industrial applications and potential commercial impacts spanning approximately the next two decades.

  3. Harnessing hyperthermostable lactonase from Sulfolobus solfataricus for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémy, Benjamin; Plener, Laure; Poirier, Laetitia; Elias, Mikael; Daudé, David; Chabrière, Eric

    2016-11-23

    Extremozymes have gained considerable interest as they could meet industrial requirements. Among these, SsoPox is a hyperthermostable enzyme isolated from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. This enzyme is a lactonase catalyzing the hydrolysis of acyl-homoserine lactones; these molecules are involved in Gram-negative bacterial communication referred to as quorum sensing. SsoPox exhibits promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity for the degradation of organophosphorous chemicals including insecticides and chemical warfare agents. Owing to its bi-functional catalytic abilities as well as its intrinsic stability, SsoPox is appealing for many applications, having potential uses in the agriculture, defense, food and health industries. Here we investigate the biotechnological properties of the mutant SsoPox-W263I, a variant with increased lactonase and phosphotriesterase activities. We tested enzyme resistance against diverse process-like and operating conditions such as heat resistance, contact with organic solvents, sterilization, storage and immobilization. Bacterial secreted materials from both Gram-negative and positive bacteria were harmless on SsoPox-W263I activity and could reactivate heat-inactivated enzyme. SsoPox showed resistance to harsh conditions demonstrating that it is an extremely attractive enzyme for many applications. Finally, the potential of SsoPox-W263I to be active at subzero temperature is highlighted and discussed in regards to the common idea that hyperthermophile enzymes are nearly inactive at low temperatures.

  4. Taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological applications of thraustochytrids: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossier Marchan, Loris; Lee Chang, Kim J; Nichols, Peter D; Mitchell, Wilfrid J; Polglase, Jane L; Gutierrez, Tony

    Thraustochytrids were first discovered in 1934, and since the 1960's they have been increasingly studied for their beneficial and deleterious effects. This review aims to provide an enhanced understanding of these protists with a particular emphasis on their taxonomy, ecology and biotechnology applications. Over the years, thraustochytrid taxonomy has improved with the development of modern molecular techniques and new biochemical markers, resulting in the isolation and description of new strains. In the present work, the taxonomic history of thraustochytrids is reviewed, while providing an up-to-date classification of these organisms. It also describes the various biomarkers that may be taken into consideration to support taxonomic characterization of the thraustochytrids, together with a review of traditional and modern techniques for their isolation and molecular identification. The originality of this review lies in linking taxonomy and ecology of the thraustochytrids and their biotechnological applications as producers of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), carotenoids, exopolysaccharides and other compounds of interest. The paper provides a summary of these aspects while also highlighting some of the most important recent studies in this field, which include the diversity of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in thraustochytrids, some novel strategies for biomass production and recovery of compounds of interest. Furthermore, a detailed overview is provided of the direct and current applications of thraustochytrid-derived compounds in the food, fuel, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and aquaculture industries and of some of the commercial products available. This review is intended to be a source of information and references on the thraustochytrids for both experts and those who are new to this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS OF THE LABOUR ORGANIZATION IN WINE AND GRAPE INDUSTRY IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana IAŢIŞIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The labour organization development in Wine and Grape Industry in the Republic of Moldova is analyzed in the paper. The paper highlights the main problems of the manpower in the Wine and Grape Industry in the country using the statistical data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics and the specific system of indiactors and methodology. The main directions and prospects of labour organization development in this domain are outlined. Investment in human capital will contribute to strengthen the skills, knowledge in general to facilitate insertion in the viticulture production and wine industry.

  6. Chemical sensors and gas sensors for process control in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the possibilities for chemical measurement of the progress of biotechnological processes which are offered by devices already developed for other demanding applications. It considers the potential use of ultrasonic instrumentation originally developed for the nuclear industry, gas measurement methods from the fields of environmental monitoring and combustion control, nuclear instruments developed for the oil, mining and chemical industries, robotic systems and advanced control techniques. (author)

  7. The creative industries: conflict or collaboration? An analysis of the perspectives from which policymakers, art organizations and creative organizations in the creative industries are acting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijzink, Douwe; van den Hoogen, Quirijn; Gielen, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts the instruments and values formulated in the creative industries policies of three peripheral municipalities of between 150,000 and 220,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands (Groningen, Arnhem and Eindhoven) with the needs of the creative industries itself. The needs

  8. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted.

  9. Symposium on chemistry and biotechnology for national development. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garba, A.; Ogunmola, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the full proceedings of the symposium on chemistry and biotechnology for national development held at SHESTCO in 1995. It contains the full texts of a forward, opening and special remarks, welcome and keynote addresses and abstracts and texts of 21 technical papers. The subjects covered included information technology,chemistry and biotechnology in agriculture, health care and industrial development. Additionally, the abstracts in respect of 19 other papers are included. We wish to thank the Coordinator of SHESTCO for making available this proceedings

  10. The World Health Organization and the Pharmaceutical Industry. Common areas of interest and differing views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Caroline J

    2002-01-01

    No article published in the scientific press in the last 10 years reviews the various areas of interest common to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the pharmaceutical industry. Despite a vast amount of information in the public domain, the policies expound the views only of the bodies they represent rather than comparing differing views. An understanding of the factors which affect the interaction between these organisations as well as the organisational structures and the actual areas of intersecting interest, may help to find ways for the industry to assist the WHO in its endeavours in developing countries. Modern drug development is performed initially in and for western society, leaving the areas of infectious or tropical diseases with relatively less industry investment than cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Aspects of the development of an ethical drug, regardless of its therapeutic class (selection of drug name, intellectual property rights, drug safety, marketing and pricing, quality assurance and counterfeiting, generic use, emerging drug donations) are influenced to varying degrees by the triad of money, politics and medical need and the perspectives (each defensible) placed thereon by the WHO and industry. Instead of simply defending their positions combining the best of these strategies to optimise drug development for the needs of developing countries appears logical. Similarly, via its philanthropic initiatives, industry will have donated over $US1 billion in drug and research aid in the period 1995 to 2005. These charitable projects should yield useful information for planning and organising future aid efforts. Global warming, only recently given serious governmental consideration, is an area not yet addressed in drug development policy although along with geographical effects, it is likely to have an impact on the epidemiology of diseases e.g. malaria returning to the Mediterranean, worldwide. With changing disease patterns (and

  11. Biological risks and laboratory-acquired infections. A reality that cannot be ignored in health biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Coelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Advances and research in biotechnology have applications over a wide range of areas such as microbiology, medicine, the food industry, agriculture, genetically modified organisms and nanotechnology, among others. However, research with pathogenic agents such as virus, parasites, fungi, rickettsia, bacterial microorganisms or genetic modified organisms has generated concern because of their potential biological risk - not only for people, but also for the environment due to their unpredictable behavior. In addition, concern for biosafety is associated with the emergence of new diseases or re-emergence of diseases that were already under control. Biotechnology laboratories require biosafety measures designed to protect their staff, the population and the environment, which may be exposed to hazardous organisms and materials. Laboratory staff training and education is essential, not only to acquire a good understanding about the direct handling of hazardous biological agents but also knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenicity and human susceptibility to the biological materials used in research. Biological risk can be reduced and controlled by the correct application of internationally recognized procedures such as proper microbiological techniques, proper containment apparatus, adequate facilities, protective barriers and special training and education of laboratory workers. To avoid occupational infections, knowledge about standardized microbiological procedures and techniques and the use of containment devices, facilities and protective barriers is necessary. Training and education about the epidemiology, pathogenicity and biohazards of the microorganisms involved may prevent or decrease the risk. In this way, the scientific community may benefit from the lessons learned in the past to anticipate future problems.

  12. Reduction of organic trace compounds and fresh water consumption by recovery of advanced oxidation processes treated industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, S; Öller, H-J; Kersten, A; Klemenčič, A Krivograd

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O(3)) has been used successfully in advanced wastewater treatment in paper mills, other sectors and municipalities. To solve the water problems of regions lacking fresh water, wastewater treated by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can substitute fresh water in highly water-consuming industries. Results of this study have shown that paper strength properties are not impaired and whiteness is slightly impaired only when reusing paper mill wastewater. Furthermore, organic trace compounds are becoming an issue in the German paper industry. The results of this study have shown that AOPs are capable of improving wastewater quality by reducing organic load, colour and organic trace compounds.

  13. The challenge of ecophysiological biodiversity for biotechnological applications of marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Lucia; Chandrasekaran, Raghu; Corato, Federico; Brunet, Christophe

    2014-03-24

    In this review, we aim to explore the potential of microalgal biodiversity and ecology for biotechnological use. A deeper exploration of the biodiversity richness and ecophysiological properties of microalgae is crucial for enhancing their use for applicative purposes. After describing the actual biotechnological use of microalgae, we consider the multiple faces of taxonomical, morphological, functional and ecophysiological biodiversity of these organisms, and investigate how these properties could better serve the biotechnological field. Lastly, we propose new approaches to enhancing microalgal growth, photosynthesis, and synthesis of valuable products used in biotechnological fields, mainly focusing on culture conditions, especially light manipulations and genetic modifications.

  14. The Challenge of Ecophysiological Biodiversity for Biotechnological Applications of Marine Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Lucia; Chandrasekaran, Raghu; Corato, Federico; Brunet, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we aim to explore the potential of microalgal biodiversity and ecology for biotechnological use. A deeper exploration of the biodiversity richness and ecophysiological properties of microalgae is crucial for enhancing their use for applicative purposes. After describing the actual biotechnological use of microalgae, we consider the multiple faces of taxonomical, morphological, functional and ecophysiological biodiversity of these organisms, and investigate how these properties could better serve the biotechnological field. Lastly, we propose new approaches to enhancing microalgal growth, photosynthesis, and synthesis of valuable products used in biotechnological fields, mainly focusing on culture conditions, especially light manipulations and genetic modifications. PMID:24663117

  15. Ecology and biotechnological potential of the thermophilic fermentative Coprothermobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, M C; Braguglia, C M; Petruccioli, M; Rossetti, S

    2015-05-01

    Thermophilic bacteria have been isolated from several terrestrial, marine and industrial environments. Anaerobic digesters treating organic wastes are often an important source of these microorganisms, which catalyze a wide array of metabolic processes. Moreover, organic wastes are primarily composed of proteins, whose degradation is often incomplete. Coprothermobacter spp. are proteolytic anaerobic thermophilic microbes identified in several studies focused on the analysis of the microbial community structure in anaerobic thermophilic reactors. They are currently classified in the phylum Firmicutes; nevertheless, several authors showed that the Coprothermobacter group is most closely related to the phyla Dictyoglomi and Thermotoga. Since only a few proteolytic anaerobic thermophiles have been characterized so far, this microorganism has attracted the attention of researchers for its potential applications with high-temperature environments. In addition to proteolysis, Coprothermobacter spp. showed several metabolic abilities and may have a biotechnological application either as source of thermostable enzymes or as inoculum in anaerobic processes. Moreover, they can improve protein degradation by establishing a syntrophy with hydrogenotrophic archaea. To gain a better understanding of the phylogenesis, metabolic capabilities and adaptations of these microorganisms, it is of importance to better define the role in thermophilic environments and to disclose properties not yet investigated. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Waste valorization by biotechnological conversion into added value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Amore, Antonella; Faraco, Vincenza

    2013-07-01

    Fossil fuel reserves depletion, global warming, unrelenting population growth, and costly and problematic waste recycling call for renewable resources of energy and consumer products. As an alternative to the 100 % oil economy, production processes based on biomass can be developed. Huge amounts of lignocellulosic wastes are yearly produced all around the world. They include agricultural residues, food farming wastes, "green-grocer's wastes," tree pruning residues, and organic and paper fraction of urban solid wastes. The common ways currently adopted for disposal of these wastes present environmental and economic disadvantages. As an alternative, processes for adding value to wastes producing high added products should be developed, that is the upgrading concept: adding value to wastes by production of a product with desired reproducible properties, having economic and ecological advantages. A wide range of high added value products, such as enzymes, biofuels, organic acids, biopolymers, bioelectricity, and molecules for food and pharmaceutical industries, can be obtained by upgrading solid wastes. The most recent advancements of their production by biotechnological processes are overviewed in this manuscript.

  17. Cross-Border Labor Organizing in the Garment and Automobile Industries: The Phillips Van-Heusen and Ford Cuautitlan Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has created new opportunities for cross-border labor organizing. In this paper I examine two case studies of cross -border labor organizing. One case involves Phillips Van-Hernen (PVH workers in Guatemala City, and the other Ford automobile workers in Cuautitlan, Mexico. The PVH case illustrates the potential for cross-border labor organizing in the highly mobile garment industry. The PVH workers' union and their cross-border allies adopted a "strategic cross-border organizing model" that included consumer and trade pressure, an active international trade secretariat, and several other strategies, to achieve an amazing victory. However, the Ford Cuautitlan case demonstrates that corporatist state-labor relations and internal union conflicts have limited cross-border organizing in the automobile industry. These two case studies and their different outcomes have many important lessons for academics and activists interested in cross-border labor organizing.

  18. Possible Applications of Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies at Lunar Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Allen, Carl; Jones, J. A.; Bayless, D.; Brown, I.; Sarkisova, S.; Garrison, D.

    2007-01-01

    The most ambitious goal of the Vision of Space Exploration is to extend human presence across the solar system. Today, however, missions would have to bring all of the propellant, air, food, water, habitable volumes and shielding needed to sustain settlers beyond Earth. That is why resources for propellants, life support and construction of support systems and habitats must be found in space and utilized if humans hope to ever explore and colonize the solar system. The life support, fuel production and material processing systems currently proposed for spaceflight are essentially disconnected. Only traditional crop production has been proposed as a segment for bioregenerative life support systems, although the efficiency of higher plants for air regeneration is generally low. Thus, the investigation of air bioregeneration techniques based on the activity of photosynthetic organisms with higher rates of CO2 scrubbing and O2 release is very timely and important. Future systems for organic waste utilization in space may also benefit from the use of specific microorganisms. This janitorial job is efficiently carried out by microbes on Earth, which drive and connect different elemental cycles. It is likely that environmental control and life support systems based on bioregeneration will be capable of converting both organic and inorganic components of the waste at lunar settlements into edible biomass. The most challenging technologies for future lunar settlements are the extraction of elements (e.g. Fe, O, Si, etc) from local rocks for industrial feedstocks and the production of propellants. While such extraction can be accomplished by purely inorganic processes, the high energy requirements of such processes motivates the search for alternative technologies with lower energy requirements and appropriate efficiency. Well-developed terrestrial industrial biotechnologies for metals extraction and conversion could therefore be the prototypes for extraterrestrial

  19. Airborne volatile organic compounds in urban and industrial locations in four developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Duc Hoai; Walgraeve, Christophe; Amare, Abebech Nuguse; Barai, Krishna Rani; Parao, Amelia Estigoy; Demeestere, Kristof; van Langenhove, Herman

    2015-10-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent an important class of air pollutants, however their concentration levels in developing countries have scarcely been reported in literature. Therefore, concentration levels of 60 VOCs were determined at 27 urban and industrial locations in seven different cities in Ethiopia, Vietnam, the Philippines and Bangladesh between 2011 and 2014. Active sampling using Tenax TA as a sorbent was employed followed by TD-GC-MS analysis using internal standard calibration. It was found that TVOCs concentration levels in Dhaka, Bangladesh (arithmetic mean: 343 and 399 μg/m3 for urban and industrial campaign, respectively) were more than 10 times higher when compared to TVOCs levels observed in Mekelle, Ethiopia. ∑BTEX concentration at street sites ranges from 36 μg/m3 in Mekelle, to 100 and 250 μg/m3 in Hanoi, Vietnam and Dhaka, Bangladesh, respectively. The indoor to outdoor concentration ratios were found to be dependent on the country, type of environment, VOC compound and outdoor reference location. The highest Ozone Formation Potential (OFP, 2150 μg/m3), calculated from the same set of seven aromatic VOCs, was obtained at the street site in Dhaka. This OFP value is a factor three and four times higher than the OFP value observed at the street sites in Hanoi, and Manila, respectively. Finally, the Cumulative Cancer Risk (CCR) calculated for four carcinogenic VOCs ranged from 97 × 10-6 in urban Mekelle to 299 × 10-6 in urban Dhaka. This work provides for the first time comparisons of CCR in urban and industrial environments in the selected developing countries.

  20. Self-Organization and Self-Coordination in Welding Automation with Collaborating Teams of Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Starke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In welding automation, growing interest can be recognized in applying teams of industrial robots to perform manufacturing processes through collaboration. Although robot teamwork can increase profitability and cost-effectiveness in production, the programming of the robots is still a problem. It is extremely time consuming and requires special expertise in synchronizing the activities of the robots to avoid any collision. Therefore, a research project has been initiated to solve those problems. This paper will present strategies, concepts, and research results in applying robot operating system (ROS and ROS-based solutions to overcome existing technical deficits through the integration of self-organization capabilities, autonomous path planning, and self-coordination of the robots’ work. The new approach should contribute to improving the application of robot teamwork and collaboration in the manufacturing sector at a higher level of flexibility and reduced need for human intervention.

  1. Organic biowastes blend selection for composting industrial eggshell by-product: experimental and statistical mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Andrade, Sandra R; Martins, Rui C; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2012-01-01

    Composting is one of the technologies recommended for pre-treating industrial eggshells (ES) before its application in soils, for calcium recycling. However, due to the high inorganic content of ES, a mixture of biodegradable materials is required to assure a successful procedure. In this study, an adequate organic blend composition containing potato peel (PP), grass clippings (GC) and wheat straw (WS) was determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve a desired moisture content, carbon: nitrogen ratio and free air space for effective composting of ES. A blend of 56% PP, 37% GC and 7% WS was selected and tested in a self heating reactor, where 10% (w/w) of ES was incorporated. After 29 days of reactor operation, a dry matter reduction of 46% was achieved and thermophilic temperatures were maintained during 15 days, indicating that the blend selected by statistical approach was adequate for composting of ES.

  2. Behaviour of the radioactive noxious substances of nuclear industry in the organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, A.

    1977-01-01

    In the present publication, the behaviour of important radionuclides, occuring in nuclear industry, is described. An understanding of their behaviour, whose phenomena generally are well known, is a prerequisite for understanding the principles of radiation protection measures as well as a base for a discussion of the biological effects of radionuclides, which, however, are not described in this paper. The biological behaviour is characterized by the ways of resorption of the nuclides, their distribution and retention in the organs and their excretion pattern. An essential question is concerned with differences between animal species and with the extrapolation of animal data to man. The behaviour of some of the radionuclides in man is already well known; in the other cases, typical data from animal experiments will be given in order to characterize the biological behaviour. (orig.) [de

  3. Wealth and Secular Stagnation: The Role of Industrial Organization and Intellectual Property Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Mark Schwartz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in firm strategy and structure partially explain the sources and consequences of rising wealth inequality in America. Combining use of state-created monopolies around intellectual property rights (IPRs for profitability and firm-level strategies to transform their industrial organization by pushing physical capital and noncore labor outside the boundaries of the firm leads to rising levels of wealth and income inequality among firms as well as individuals. Income inequality among firms in turn reduces growth in productive investment and thus in aggregate demand. Slower growth reflexively deters firms from new investment, aggravating the shortfall in aggregate demand. Decreased protection for IPRs and increased protection for subcontracted workers would help increase aggregate demand and thus push growth back to its prior level, as well as reducing wealth and income inequality among individuals.

  4. Implementation of self-organizing neural networks for visuo-motor control of an industrial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, J A; Schulten, K I

    1993-01-01

    The implementation of two neural network algorithms for visuo-motor control of an industrial robot (Puma 562) is reported. The first algorithm uses a vector quantization technique, the ;neural-gas' network, together with an error correction scheme based on a Widrow-Hoff-type learning rule. The second algorithm employs an extended self-organizing feature map algorithm. Based on visual information provided by two cameras, the robot learns to position its end effector without an external teacher. Within only 3000 training steps, the robot-camera system is capable of reducing the positioning error of the robot's end effector to approximately 0.1% of the linear dimension of the work space. By employing adaptive feedback the robot succeeds in compensating not only slow calibration drifts, but also sudden changes in its geometry. Hardware aspects of the robot-camera system are discussed.

  5. Connected Curriculum for sharing science with alumni, industry partners and charitable organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Connected Curriculum (CC) is the institutional framework for research-based education at University College London. Undergraduate and graduate students across the research-intensive university are given the opportunities to produce inquiry-based work to connect with professors, fellow students from different faculties, alumni around the world, as well as industry partners and charitable organizations. Through the development of cross-faculty theme-based online networks, the CC encourages students and academics to share and communicate their science to a broad range of interested audience. In this presentation, I discuss how an institutional research-based education initiative can provide a powerful platform for engaging students and academics in communicating the importance and societal relevance of their scientific work to the wider world.

  6. Segmentation of Natural Gas Customers in Industrial Sector Using Self-Organizing Map (SOM) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbar Rus, A. M.; Pramudita, R.; Surjandari, I.

    2018-03-01

    The usage of the natural gas which is non-renewable energy, needs to be more efficient. Therefore, customer segmentation becomes necessary to set up a marketing strategy to be right on target or to determine an appropriate fee. This research was conducted at PT PGN using one of data mining method, i.e. Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The clustering process is based on the characteristic of its customers as a reference to create the customer segmentation of natural gas customers. The input variables of this research are variable of area, type of customer, the industrial sector, the average usage, standard deviation of the usage, and the total deviation. As a result, 37 cluster and 9 segment from 838 customer data are formed. These 9 segments then employed to illustrate the general characteristic of the natural gas customer of PT PGN.

  7. Biotechnology network promotes knowledge of transgenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Picado, Patricia; Valdez Melara, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Red de Ingenieria Genetica Aplicada al Mejoramiento de Cultivos Tropicales (Rigatrop) integrated by a group of scientists from the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Universidad Nacional (UNA) and of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (TEC) have organized two forums on the topic of transgenics. The first forum has shown successful experiences of development of transgenic crops in Latin America, as for example: the transgenic bean, project realized in Brazil and transgenic eggplant in Bangladesh. The second forum has been about transgenics and environment effected at the UCR, on the occasion of World Environment Day. Rigatrop members are working currently in two projects applying biotechnological tools to coffee [es

  8. Biotechnology software in the digital age: are you winning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheitz, Cornelia Johanna Franziska; Peck, Lawrence J; Groban, Eli S

    2018-01-16

    There is a digital revolution taking place and biotechnology companies are slow to adapt. Many pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and industrial bio-production companies believe that software must be developed and maintained in-house and that data are more secure on internal servers than on the cloud. In fact, most companies in this space continue to employ large IT and software teams and acquire computational infrastructure in the form of in-house servers. This is due to a fear of the cloud not sufficiently protecting in-house resources and the belief that their software is valuable IP. Over the next decade, the ability to quickly adapt to changing market conditions, with agile software teams, will quickly become a compelling competitive advantage. Biotechnology companies that do not adopt the new regime may lose on key business metrics such as return on invested capital, revenue, profitability, and eventually market share.

  9. Identification of External Critical Success Factors in Microbial Biotechnology Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza AZIMI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biotechnology is expected to change production methods, the products themselves and the structure of the industries in the new economies. Hopefully, countries in the Middle-East, Latin America, Asia and Africa have already recognized the importance of microbial biotechnology's promise. In this sense, the importance of externalities which might affect the success or failure of these companies becomes an issue of paramount importance. In the present study, we will try to identify the main external factors which could lead in the success of microbial biotechnology firms in Iran. To do so, the research follows a qualitative research design to answer this main question. Based on our findings, critical success factors are categorized in the following categories: General Environment (GE, Political Position (PP, Economic Position (EP, and Market Position (MP.

  10. Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by Electro-Fenton process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurt, Ugur; Apaydin, Omer; Gonullu, M. Talha

    2007-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have led the way in the treatment of aqueous waste and are rapidly becoming the chosen technology for many applications. In this paper, COD reduction potential of leather tanning industry wastewaters by Electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, as one of the AOPs, was experimentally evaluated. The wastewater sample was taken from an outlet of an equalization basin in a common treatment plant of an organized tannery industrial region in Istanbul, Turkey. Treatment of the wastewater was carried out by an electrochemical batch reactor equipped with two iron electrodes, which were connected parallel to each other. The oxidation process was studied for optimization of H 2 O 2 and the electricity consumptions were observed at different contact times under different pH conditions (3.0, 5.0 and 7.2). In each case, electricity consumption for decreased COD mass was estimated. In this process, COD was reduced by 60-70% within 10 min. By taking into consideration the local sewerage discharge limit, applicability of EF process for the tannery wastewaters was evaluated

  11. Energy efficiency potentials: Contrasting thermodynamic, technical and economic limits for organic Rankine cycles within UK industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Hammond, G.P.; Norman, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy savings have a thermodynamic, technical and economic limit. • The potential for organic Rankine cycles in UK industry was assessed. • 3.5 PJ/yr of electricity was generated by economically attractive opportunities. • The steel, chemical and cement subsectors comprised the majority of potential. • Drivers and barriers to realising the potentials were discussed. - Abstract: The laws of thermodynamics set a theoretical limit on the energy savings that can be realised in a given application. This thermodynamic potential cannot be reached in practice, and a technical potential for energy savings is defined by the performance of available technology. Only applications of the technology that are considered economic will usually be considered for installation. This economic potential will itself not be fully realised, with the actual savings that are achieved limited by further barriers. A database on surplus heat availability within UK industry was used to estimate the thermodynamic, technical, and economic potentials when converting this surplus heat to electricity using organic Rankine cycles (ORCs). Technical and economic information was based on that reported from existing installations and manufacturers. Installations economic over the target payback period totalled approximately 3.5 PJ/yr of electricity generation, primarily in the steel, chemicals and cement subsectors. However, this result is sensitive to the input parameters, particularly the future price of electricity and required payback period, which are uncertain. Therefore a range of possible scenarios were investigated. The results form a basis for discussion on how to close this “gap” between the identified potentials and the savings realised in practice.

  12. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed. PMID:26504249

  13. Educational Awareness of Biotechnology Issues among Undergraduate Students at the United Arab Emirates University

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuQamar, Synan; Alshannag, Qasim; Sartawi, Abdelaziz; Iratni, Rabah

    2015-01-01

    Due to its valuable benefits and potential risks, there is a progressing debate among opponents and proponents of biotechnology in recent decades. Previous studies have shown that lack of knowledge about biotechnology remains the concern about genetically modified organisms/food (GMO/GMF). This study assessed levels of educational awareness…

  14. Wine biotechnology in South Africa: towards a systems approach to wine science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John P; Divol, Benoit; Young, Philip R; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Ramburan, Viresh; du Toit, Maret; Bauer, Florian F; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-11-01

    The wine industry in South Africa is over three centuries old and over the last decade has reemerged as a significant competitor in world wine markets. The Institute for Wine Biotechnology (IWBT) was established in partnership with the Department of Viticulture and Oenology at Stellenbosch University to foster basic fundamental research in the wine sciences leading to applications in the broader wine and grapevine industries. This review focuses on the different research programmes of the Institute (grapevine, yeast and bacteria biotechnology programmes, and chemical-analytical research), commercialisation activities (SunBio) and new initiatives to integrate the various research disciplines. An important focus of future research is the Wine Science Research Niche Area programme, which connects the different research thrusts of the IWBT and of several research partners in viticulture, oenology, food science and chemistry. This 'Functional Wine-omics' programme uses a systems biology approach to wine-related organisms. The data generated within the programme will be integrated with other data sets from viticulture, oenology, analytical chemistry and the sensory sciences through chemometrics and other statistical tools. The aim of the programme is to model aspects of the wine making process, from the vineyard to the finished product.

  15. From Structure to Catalysis: Recent Developments in the Biotechnological Applications of Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane D. Anobom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial lipases are highly appreciated as biocatalysts due to their peculiar characteristics such as the ability to utilize a wide range of substrates, high activity and stability in organic solvents, and regio- and/or enantioselectivity. These enzymes are currently being applied in a variety of biotechnological processes, including detergent preparation, cosmetics and paper production, food processing, biodiesel and biopolymer synthesis, and the biocatalytic resolution of pharmaceutical derivatives, esters, and amino acids. However, in certain segments of industry, the use of lipases is still limited by their high cost. Thus, there is a great interest in obtaining low-cost, highly active, and stable lipases that can be applied in several different industrial branches. Currently, the design of specific enzymes for each type of process has been used as an important tool to address the limitations of natural enzymes. Nowadays, it is possible to “order” a “customized” enzyme that has ideal properties for the development of the desired bioprocess. This review aims to compile recent advances in the biotechnological application of lipases focusing on various methods of enzyme improvement, such as protein engineering (directed evolution and rational design, as well as the use of structural data for rational modification of lipases in order to create higher active and selective biocatalysts.

  16. Biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources by Neurospora crassa: an alternative to conventional yeast fermentations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris

    2013-02-01

    Microbial production of ethanol might be a potential route to replace oil and chemical feedstocks. Bioethanol is by far the most common biofuel in use worldwide. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising renewable resource for fuel bioethanol production. Bioconversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol consists of four major unit operations: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and product separation/distillation. Conventional bioethanol processes for lignocellulosics apply commercial fungal cellulase enzymes for biomass hydrolysis, followed by yeast fermentation of resulting glucose to ethanol. The fungus Neurospora crassa has been used extensively for genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies as a model organism. However, the strain's potential in biotechnological applications has not been widely investigated and discussed. The fungus N. crassa has the ability to synthesize and secrete all three enzyme types involved in cellulose hydrolysis as well as various enzymes for hemicellulose degradation. In addition, N. crassa has been reported to convert to ethanol hexose and pentose sugars, cellulose polymers, and agro-industrial residues. The combination of these characteristics makes N. crassa a promising alternative candidate for biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources. This review consists of an overview of the ethanol process from lignocellulosic biomass, followed by cellulases and hemicellulases production, ethanol fermentations of sugars and lignocellulosics, and industrial application potential of N. crassa.

  17. Oxizymes for biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gygli, G.A.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation reactions with oxygen and peroxides are difficult to control in the artificial environment of man-made chemistry. This makes oxizymes, i.e. oxidative enzymes that use oxygen or peroxide as co-substrates, very valuable targets for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Additionally,

  18. Use of adsorption process to remove organic mercury thimerosal from industrial process wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicu, Magdalena; Fu, Hongxiang; Suri, Rominder P S; Woods, Kevin

    2007-09-30

    Carbon adsorption process is tested for removal of high concentration of organic mercury (thimerosal) from industrial process wastewater, in batch and continuously flow through column systems. The organic mercury concentration in the process wastewater is about 1123 mg/L due to the thimerosal compound. Four commercially available adsorbents are tested for mercury removal and they are: Calgon F-400 granular activated carbon (GAC), CB II GAC, Mersorb GAC and an ion-exchange resin Amberlite GT73. The adsorption capacity of each adsorbent is described by the Freundlich isotherm model at pH 3.0, 9.5 and 11.0 in batch isotherm experiments. Acidic pH was favorable for thimerosal adsorption onto the GACs. Columns-in-series experiments are conducted with 30-180 min empty bed contact times (EBCTs). Mercury breakthrough of 30 mg/L occurred after about 47 h (96 Bed Volume Fed (BVF)) of operation, and 97 h (197 BVF) with 120 min EBCT and 180 min EBCT, respectively. Most of the mercury removal is attributed to the 1st adsorbent column. Increase in contact time by additional adsorbent columns did not lower the effluent mercury concentration below 30 mg/L. However, at a lower influent wastewater pH 3, the mercury effluent concentration decreased to less than 7 mg/L for up to 90 h of column operation (183 BVF).

  19. Effect of Exposure to a Mixture of Organic Solvents on Hearing Thresholds in Petrochemical Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Loukzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise.  In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise.   Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups.   Results: The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB. We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss.   Conclusion:  This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers’ hearing threshold in audiometry tests.

  20. Effect of exposure to a mixture of organic solvents on hearing thresholds in petrochemical industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukzadeh, Ziba; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Yazdi, Zohreh; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2014-10-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise. In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups. The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB). We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss. This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years) to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers' hearing threshold in audiometry tests.