WorldWideScience

Sample records for biotechnology human analogs

  1. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  2. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming to develop and manufacture products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological system of macromolecules. The Animal Laboratory Division of IPEN is responsible for the breeding and production of small laboratory animal.

  3. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewanika, Mbikusita Mwananyanda

    2005-01-01

    The article sets out to explain in simple terms the main concepts of Biotechnology beginning with traditional biotechnology to modern biotechnology. It outlines fundamentals of Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Genetic Engineering. The article offers a discussion of the benefits, disadvantages and the general public and policy concerns regarding genetically modified organisms

  4. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of {sup 131}I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens

  5. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of 131 I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens for

  6. Evolution of Human Rights in the Age of Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hron, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…

  7. Ethical principles for the use of human cellular biotechnologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolpe, Paul Root; Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Borenstein, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in bioengineering promise the possibility of new diagnostic and treatment strategies, novel industrial processes, and innovative approaches to thorny problems in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and biomanufacturing. As modern genetics has matured and developed technolog......-producing countries of the world, offers a set of ethical principles to contribute to the ethical conversation about human cellular biotechnological research moving forward....

  8. Biotechnological Patents Applications of the Deuterium Oxide in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Mariano, Reysla M; Bila, Wendell C; Trindade, Maria Jaciara F; Lamounier, Joel A; Galdino, Alexsandro S

    2017-01-01

    Deuterium oxide is a molecule that has been used for decades in several studies related to human health. Currently, studies on D2O have mobilized a "Race for Patenting" worldwide. Several patents have been registered from biomedical and technological studies of D2O showing the potential of this stable isotope in industry and health care ecosystems. Most of the patents related to the applications of the deuterium oxide in human health have been summarized in this review. The following patents databases were consulted: European Patent Office (Espacenet), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the United States Latin America Patents (LATIPAT), Patent scope -Search International and National Patent Collections (WIPO), Google Patents and Free Patents Online. With this review, the information was collected on recent publications including 22 patents related to deuterium oxide and its applications in different areas. This review showed that deuterium oxide is a promising component in different areas, including biotechnology, chemistry and medicine. In addition, the knowledge of this compound was covered, reinforcing its importance in the field of biotechnology and human health. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Human reproductive cloning and biotechnology: Rational, ethical and public concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.S. (Elbie van den Berg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates a lack of clear international guidelines on the permissibility of embryonic stem cell research and human reproductive cloning. These studies suggest that this is the result of severe criticism from uninformed publics, whose arguments are based on misconceptions influenced by popular literature and science fiction films. However, the current research argues that public cloning attitudes that are based on real social and ethical concerns should be deployed to direct social and legal policy-making on human reproductive cloning. Addressing public concerns about human reproductive cloning is essential in exploring sound avenues for sensible biotechnology and policy-making. The research, on which this article reported, intended to give a critical evaluation of some major arguments for and against human reproductive cloning in order to establish whether or not these arguments hold up well under rational interrogation. Notwithstanding the author’s critical attitude to uninformed opinions, false assumptions and unsound conclusions about the complex issue of human reproductive cloning, the author argued from the perspective that every life phenomenon is inextricably intertwined with everything else, and part of larger complex webs of interactions. Such a perspective recognised that the well-being of other human beings, including future human clones, is not only an existential, social and moral imperative but also epistemological. Against the backdrop of this perspective, critical questions arose that justified the creation of human clones in the face of possible defects and abnormalities in cloned children, as well as the possible harm to societies.

  10. Discovering Hidden Analogies in an Online Humanities Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing upon an efficacious method for discovering previously unknown causes of medical syndromes and searching in the Humanities Index, an illuminating new humanities analogy between the epistemological ideas of Robert Frost and the ancient Greek philosopher Carneades was found by constructing a search statement in which proper names were coupled…

  11. Biotechnology for development: Human and animal health perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilma, Tilahun

    2001-01-01

    In much of the world, resources for human life are meager at best. While the developed parts of the world enjoy a standard of living higher than at any time in history, the benefits of technology and industrialization have not been available to developing countries. The extreme lack of resources leads to very slow progress despite intense interest and hard work; thus the technological gap between developing and developed nations continues to widen, as discoveries and advances accelerate in the more favored countries while technological accomplishments of developing nations are soon outmoded. It is apparent that developing nations will not be able to overcome this disadvantage if the situation is not addressed soon. Developing nations should not be condemned permanently to such status. It is essential for world political and economic stability to develop orderly plans to help struggling nations advance to technological production levels rather than exist as marginal consumers. It is essential that all projects in such countries have distinct, stated goals for conversion of the developing nation to a developed nation, and that such goals be the overriding consideration in the direction of the project. Cognizant of the significance of the recommendations and with a real desire for prompt implementation, we have established an 'International Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Tropical Disease Agents (ILMB)' whose main agenda is the transfer of biotechnology to developing countries. In this spirit, we have entered into partnership with a number of international organizations including the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), a number of United Nations Agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Organization for African Unity (OAU), and a number of countries from the developing nations in Africa and Asia. We are working with these partners toward: establishment of laboratories of molecular biology in developing countries

  12. The Evolution of Human Rights in the Age of Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Paul; Hron, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Examines some of the main issues and developments within biotechnology that legislators must address. Suggests how these can be utilized in the social studies classroom. Includes three articles by Hilary Glazer and Hannah Letterman, Elizabeth M. Yang, and Ami S. Jaeger. (CMK)

  13. [The beginning of human life: ethical and legal perspectives in the context of biotechnological progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretto, Vicente de Paulo; Lauxen, Elis Cristina Uhry

    2017-07-13

    Questions concerning the beginning of human life have pervaded society since antiquity. In the post-modern world, scientific and technological advances have fueled discussions on the issue, such that debates previously concentrated on abortion now also focus on biotechnological interventions. The article addresses the latter, reflecting on the extent to which human dignity can be considered a (hermeneutic) reference in establishing ethical and legal parameters for biotechnological advances in the definition of the beginning of human life. The study's method was critical hermeneutic ethics, with ethics at the center of the process of understanding and interpretation, observing the contours of facticity. No consensus was found on the beginning of human life, so it is essential to engage in dialogue with the new reality resulting from biotechnological advances in the process of defining ethical and legal principles for protecting the embryo and human nature, with human dignity as the reference.

  14. Evolution of Biotechnology and Information Technology and Its Impact on Human Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The development of post-industrial society initiates profound economic, technological and cultural change in the way of life of all mankind. The revolutionary breakthroughs in the field of new technologies such as biotechnology and information technology are reflected in all spheres of human activity, directly affecting the human security. The article analyzes the consequences of widespread usage biotechnology and information technology in the foreign policy practice on the basis of the human security theory. The detailed description of the main directions of the use of biometric technology in the foreign policy and consular practices is provided, the challenges and threats to information security associated with biometrics are analyzed, arising from widespread biotechnology are the main challenges and threats to as well as human security threats arising at the present stage of development and application of these technologies. Human security threats associated with the use of biotechnology are placed in the broader context of global trends in scientific and technological development. The recommendations are formulated in the field of foreign policy and international cooperation, which would neutralize new threats to international and personal safety arising at the present stage of development of biotechnology. The authors conclude that in order to ensure ethical regulation of new technologies that address issues of human security, it is necessary to organize multi-stakeholder partnerships at national and international level with the participation of states, representatives of civil society, business and the research community.

  15. Human Health Countermeasures - Partial-Gravity Analogs Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael; Clement, Gilles; Norsk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The experimental conditions that were deemed the most interesting by the HHC Element lead scientists are those permitting studies of the long-term effects of exposure to (a) chronic rotation when supine or in head down tilt (ground-based); and (b) long-radius centrifugation (space based). It is interesting to note that chronic ground based slow rotation room studies have not been performed since the 1960's, when the USA and USSR were investigating the potential use of AG for long-duration space missions. On the other hand, the other partial gravity analogs, i.e., parabolic flight, HUT, suspension, and short-radius centrifugation, have been regularly used in the last three decades (see review in Clément et al. 2015). Based on the workshop evaluations and the scores by the HHC scientific disciplines indicated in tables 3 and 4, simulation of partial G between 0 and 1 should be prioritized as follows: Priority 1. Chronic space-based partial-G analogs: a. Chronic space-based long-radius centrifugation. The ideal scenario would be chronic long-radius centrifugation of cells, animals and humans in a translational research approach - ideally beyond low earth orbit under deep space environmental effects and at various rotations - to obtain different G-effects. In this scenario, all physiological systems could be evaluated and the relationship between physiological response and G level established. This would be the most integrative way of defining, for the first time ever, G-thresholds for each physiological system. b. Chronic space-based centrifugation of animals. Chronic centrifugation of rodents at various G levels in space would allow for determination of AG thresholds of protection for each physiological system. In this case, all physiological systems will be of interest. Intermittent centrifugation will be of secondary interest. c. Chronic space-based centrifugation of cell cultures (RWV). Bioreactor studies of cells and cell cultures of various tissues at various G

  16. Engineering Substantially Prolonged Human Lifespans: Biotechnological Enhancement and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has recently become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion in 2001 of the Human Genome Project and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research it has opened. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology. We had better investigate the ethical aspects of considerable human lifespan extension now, before this extension has become genuinely practicable, or before large sums of money have been spent on i...

  17. Engineering Substantially Prolonged Human Lifespans: Biotechnological Enhancement and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has recently become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion in 2001 of the Human Genome Project and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research it has opened. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology.

  18. Suboptimal choice by pigeons: an analog of human gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R

    2014-03-01

    Human gambling often involves the choice of a low probability but high valued outcome over a high probability (certain) low valued outcome (not gambling) that is economically more optimal. We have developed an analog of gambling in which pigeons prefer a suboptimal alternative that infrequently provides a signal for a high probability (or high magnitude) of reinforcement over an optimal alternative that always provides a signal for a lower probability (or lower magnitude) of reinforcement. We have identified two mechanisms that may be responsible for this suboptimal behavior. First, the effect of nonreinforcement results in considerably less inhibition of choice than ideally it should. Second, the frequency of the occurrence of the signal for a high probability or high magnitude of reinforcement is less important than ideally it should. Also analogous to human gambling is the finding that pigeons that are normally food restricted choose suboptimally, whereas those that are minimally food restricted choose optimally. In addition, pigeons that are singly housed choose suboptimally, whereas those that are exposed to a more enriched environment choose less suboptimally. We believe that these findings have implications for the understanding and treatment of problem gambling behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Simplified Model of Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health into a Mass Balance Team Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Allen H. J.; Dimiduk, Kathryn; Daniel, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We present a simplified human alcohol metabolism model for a mass balance team project. Students explore aspects of engineering in biotechnology: designing/modeling biological systems, testing the design/model, evaluating new conditions, and exploring cutting-edge "lab-on-a-chip" research. This project highlights chemical engineering's impact on…

  20. [Penal and non-penal legislative policy in relation to human biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2007-01-01

    The Spanish legislator has introduced a set of legislative novelties in the field of human biotechnology or is about to do so. This will be done either through the reform of some laws or through the approval of new laws, that is, without previous regulatory references available. The greater part of these novelties turn on research with cells or cell lines of human origin, specifically those from human embryos and through the use of diverse techniques, such as reproductive cloning and non-reproductive ('therapeutic') cloning.

  1. Generating opportunity : human resources needs in the bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Canada has a plentiful resource base and a long history of innovation in bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology. Success of the industry depends on having the required human resources capacity such as the right number of skilled, job-ready professionals to support companies as they develop and commercialize new solutions. This document presented the results of a human resources survey conducted by BioTalent regarding the national and global bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors. It addressed a variety of issues, such as the increasing demand for bioenergy; the near-term perspective; growth factors; and the role of public policy. A subsector snapshot of human resources was also presented, with particular reference to the principal areas of need; types of roles required in the bio-economy; human resources capacity and company size; regional variances; skills gaps; reliance on outsourcing; knowledge, learning and connectedness; recruitment, retention and turnover; and the road ahead. Conclusions and recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that once the economy recovers, demand for bioenergy, biofuels and industrial products and services is expected to increase. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  2. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Džunková

    Full Text Available Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  3. [Yeasts from the CTG clade (Candida clade): Biology, impact in human health, and biotechnological applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defosse, T A; Le Govic, Y; Courdavault, V; Clastre, M; Vandeputte, P; Chabasse, D; Bouchara, J-P; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, N; Papon, N

    2018-03-12

    Among the subdivision of Saccharomycotina (ascomycetes budding yeasts), the CTG clade (formerly the Candida clade) includes species that display a particular genetic code. In these yeasts, the CTG codon is predominantly translated as a serine instead of a leucine residue. It is now well-known that some CTG clade species have a major impact on human and its activities. Some of them are recognized as opportunistic agents of fungal infections termed candidiasis. In addition, another series of species belonging to the CTG clade draws the attention of some research groups because they exhibit a strong potential in various areas of biotechnology such as biological control, bioremediation, but also in the production of valuable biocompounds (biofuel, vitamins, sweeteners, industrial enzymes). Here we provide an overview of recent advances concerning the biology, clinical relevance, and currently tested biotechnological applications of species of the CTG clade. Future directions for scientific research on these particular yeasts are also discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemoselective PEGylation of Cysteine Analogs of Human Basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    crystal structure of FGF2 (PDB code: 1BFG, chain A, 1.6 oA) with high score and lower e- value and maximum sequence identity served as a template. For each cysteine analog, 10,000 molecules were generated and structure quality was validated by PSVS (http:// psvs-1_4- dev.nesg.org/ ). The best structural model was.

  5. Different types of biotechnological wound coverages created with the application of alive human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papuga A. Ye.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the development and the implementation of the new biotechnological wound coverings (skin equivalents designed for temporal or permanent replacement of damaged or destroyed areas of human skin remains extremely actual relevant in clinical practice. Skin equivalents or equivalents of individual skin layers which include alive cells of different types take a special place among the artificial wound coverings. They mostly contain two basic types of cells – fibroblasts and keratinocytes (together or separately. Such bioconstructions are usually served as temporary coverings, which supply the damaged skin by biologically active substances and stimulate the regeneration of the patient's own tissues. In this review we consider as commercially available wound coverings and those which are still studied in the laboratories. Until now ideal substitutes of natural skin have not yet created, so the efforts of many researchers are focusing on the solution of this problem.

  6. The Reasoned Arguments of a Group of Future Biotechnology Technicians on a Controversial Socio-Scientific Issue: Human Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneaux, Laurence; Chouchane, Habib

    2011-01-01

    We tried to determine the reasoning behind the stances taken by a group of 19-21-year-old students on the controversial issue of the feasibility and acceptability of human gene therapy. The students were in training at a biotechnology institute. We organised classroom debates, punctuated by phases of epistemological "disturbances". We…

  7. Analogs of human genetic skin disease in domesticated animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Finch, MD

    2017-09-01

    The genetic skin diseases we will review are pigmentary mosaicism, piebaldism, albinism, Griscelli syndrome, ectodermal dysplasias, Waardenburg syndrome, and mucinosis in both humans and domesticated animals.

  8. Nutraceuticals, nutritional therapy, phytonutrients, and phytotherapy for improvement of human health: a perspective on plant biotechnology application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Plants are one of the most important resources of human foods and medicines. Rapidly increasing knowledge on nutrition, medicine, and plant biotechnology has dramatically changed the concepts about food, health and agriculture, and brought in a revolution on them. Nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have emerged as new concepts and healing systems have quickly and widely spread in recent years. Strong recommendations for consumption of nutraceuticals, natural plant foods, and the use of nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have become progressively popular to improve health, and to prevent and treat diseases. With these trends, improving the dietary nutritional values of fruits, vegetables and other crops or even bioactive components in folk herbals has become targets of the blooming plant biotechnology industry. This review attempts to display and remark on these aspects. It summarizes the progress made on nutraceuticals, nutritional therapy, phytonutrients, phytotherapy, and their related epidemiological investigations and clinical studies. It also covers markets of these health-promoting products and disease-preventing or healing systems, as well as regulations behind them that direct the development of biotechnology study and application. Finally, related patents are listed and briefly analyzed, regarding of plant biotechnological research and progress on transgenic crops to improve nutritional value, phytotherapy efficiency, or to produce pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites or high-valued protein medicines such as vaccines and antibodies.

  9. Chemoselective PEGylation of cysteine analogs of human basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To improve the stability and bioactivity of human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF) by site-specific pegylation. Methods: Four new mutants of hbFGF were designed with substituted Asp68, Lys77, Glu78 and Arg81 with cysteine with the aid of bioinformatics technique, and then cloned into pET21a plasmid, ...

  10. When animals misbehave: analogs of human biases and suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R

    2015-03-01

    Humans tend to value rewards more if they have had to work hard to obtain them (justification of effort). Similarly they tend to persist in a task even when they would be better off beginning a new one (sunk cost). Humans also often give greater value to objects of good quality than the same objects together with objects of lesser quality (the less is more effect). Commercial gambling (lotteries and slot machines) is another example of suboptimal choice by humans because on average the rewards are less than the investment. In another example of a systematic bias, when humans try to estimate the probability of the occurrence of a low probability event, they often give too much weight to the results of a test, in spite of the fact that the known probability of a false alarm reduces the predictive value of the test (base rate neglect). In each of these examples, we have found that pigeons show a similar tendency to choose suboptimally. When one can show comparable findings of suboptimal choice in animals it suggests that whereas culture may reinforce certain suboptimal behavior, the behavior is likely to result from the overgeneralization of basic behavioral processes or predisposed heuristics that may have been appropriate in natural environments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemoselective PEGylation of Cysteine Analogs of Human Basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To improve the stability and bioactivity of human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF) by site-specific pegylation. Methods: Four new mutants of hbFGF were designed with substituted Asp68, Lys77, Glu78 and Arg81 with cysteine with the aid of bioinformatics technique, and then cloned into pET21a plasmid, ...

  12. Analogs of human genetic skin disease in domesticated animals ?

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, Justin; Abrams, Stephanie; Finch, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Genetic skin diseases encompass a vast, complex, and ever expanding field. Recognition of the features of these diseases is important to ascertain a correct diagnosis, initiate treatment, consider genetic counseling, and refer patients to specialists when the disease may impact other areas. Because genodermatoses may present with a vast array of features, it can be bewildering to memorize them. This manuscript will explain and depict some genetic skin diseases that occur in both humans and do...

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of NAD analogs as human pyridine nucleotide adenylyltransferase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Palmarisa; Petrelli, R; Cappellacci, L; Pasqualini, M; Vita, P; Sorci, L; Mazzola, F; Raffaelli, N; Magni, Giulio

    2005-01-01

    NAD analogs modified at the ribose adenylyl moiety, named N-2'-MeAD and Na-2'-MeAD, were synthesized as ligands of pyridine nucleotide (NMN/NaMN) adenylyltransferase (NMNAT). Both dinucleotides resulted selective inhibitors against human NMNAT-3 isoenzyme.

  14. Scientific analogs and the development of human mission architectures for the Moon, deep space and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Abercromby, A.; Beaton, K.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Chappell, S.; Cockell, C. S.; Cohen, B. A.; Cohen, T.; Deans, M.; Deliz, I.; Downs, M.; Elphic, R. C.; Hamilton, J. C.; Heldmann, J.; Hillenius, S.; Hoffman, J.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Lees, D. S.; Marquez, J.; Miller, M.; Milovsoroff, C.; Payler, S.; Sehlke, A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Analogs are destinations on Earth that allow researchers to approximate operational and/or physical conditions on other planetary bodies and within deep space. Over the past decade, our team has been conducting geobiological field science studies under simulated deep space and Mars mission conditions. Each of these missions integrate scientific and operational research with the goal to identify concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities that will enable and enhance scientific return during human and human-robotic missions to the Moon, into deep space and on Mars. Working under these simulated mission conditions presents a number of unique challenges that are not encountered during typical scientific field expeditions. However, there are significant benefits to this working model from the perspective of the human space flight and scientific operations research community. Specifically, by applying human (and human-robotic) mission architectures to real field science endeavors, we create a unique operational litmus test for those ConOps and capabilities that have otherwise been vetted under circumstances that did not necessarily demand scientific data return meeting the rigors of peer-review standards. The presentation will give an overview of our team's recent analog research, with a focus on the scientific operations research. The intent is to encourage collaborative dialog with a broader set of analog research community members with an eye towards future scientific field endeavors that will have a significant impact on how we design human and human-robotic missions to the Moon, into deep space and to Mars.

  15. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a book of abstracts of oral communications and posters that were presented during the International Symposium on Biotechnology that was held in Sfax, Tunisia from May 4th to 8th, 2008. The following themes were covered : - Biotechnology for animal and human health and biopharmaceuticals; - Microbial and environmental biotechnology; - Agricultural, Food and marine biotechnology

  16. Azaspirene analogs inhibit the growth of human uterine carcinosarcoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Makoto; Yano, Kyoko; Choijamts, Batsuren; Sakai, Shinnosuke; Hirasawa, Shun; Wakamori, Shinnosuke; Aizawa, Mamoru; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Tachibana, Katsuro; Kanomata, Nobuhiro

    2015-05-01

    Uterine carcinosarcoma is a highly aggressive gynecological neoplasm that responds poorly to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies have shown high angiogenic activities of this tumor, hence anti-angiogenic approaches are expected to provide new treatment strategies for this tumor. In previous work, azaspirene was isolated from Neosartorya sp. fungi, and in vitro anti-angiogenic activities were shown. In the present study, the anti-angiogenic effects of azaspirene analogs, synthetic molecules with a shorter ethyl group replacing a hexadienyl side-chain of the natural compound, were assessed in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) co-cultured with FU-MMT-3 human uterine carcinosarcoma cells. The anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects of these analogs were also evaluated in vivo using FU-MMT-3 xenografted tumors in nude mice. The azaspirene analogs inhibited the tube formation of HUVECs induced by FU-MMT-3 cells in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo compared to the untreated group (control). A significant reduction of the microvessel density in tumors was observed, in comparison to the control. No apparent toxicity, including body loss, was observed in any mice treated in this study. These azaspirene analogs may be effective against uterine carcinosarcoma, possibly acting via potent anti-angiogenic effects. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Demonstration in human plasma of a lectin activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Thiel, S; Isager, H

    1987-01-01

    Evidence of the existence in human plasma of an activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin is presented. The human plasma component was characterized antigenically and functionally. Human plasma was shown to agglutinate complement-coated erythrocytes in the presence of Ca2+, and this conglu......Evidence of the existence in human plasma of an activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin is presented. The human plasma component was characterized antigenically and functionally. Human plasma was shown to agglutinate complement-coated erythrocytes in the presence of Ca2......+, and this conglutination was inhibited by EDTA. The molecule also binds to complement-reacted solid phase IgG and to zymosan in the presence of Ca2+. The binding to complement is not inhibited by N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, but is inhibited by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, as previously shown for bovine conglutinin. Antibodies...... raised against bovine conglutinin cross-react with the human protein. The plasma concentration of the conglutinin-like protein showed a high inter-individual variation between apparently healthy donors. Unlike bovine conglutinin, the human conglutinin activity could not be demonstrated in serum but only...

  18. In Vivo Testing of Renilla Luciferase Substrate Analogs in an Orthotopic Murine Model of Human Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Otto-Duessel

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In vivo bioluminescent imaging using cells expressing Renilla luciferase is becoming increasingly common. Hindrances to the more widespread use of Renilla luciferase are the high autoluminescence of its natural substrate, coelenterazine, in plasma; the relatively high absorbance by tissue of the light emitted by the enzyme–substrate reaction; rapid clearance of the substrate; and significant cost. These factors, save for the cost, which has its own limiting effect on use, can combine to reduce the sensitivity of in vivo assays utilizing this reporter system, and methods of increasing light output or decreasing autoluminescence could be of great benefit. A number of analogs of coelenterazine are being investigated that may accomplish one or both of these goals. In this study, we report on the testing of two new substrate analogs, EnduRen™ and ViviRen™, manufactured by Promega Corporation, in an orthotopic murine model of human glioblastoma expressing Renilla luciferase. We have tested these analogs in this cell line, both in vitro and in vivo, and find that the substrate ViviRen results in significantly greater light output than the natural substrate or the other analog EnduRen. This new substrate could be valuable for studies where greater sensitivity is important.

  19. Demonstration in human plasma of a lectin activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Thiel, S; Isager, H

    1987-01-01

    Evidence of the existence in human plasma of an activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin is presented. The human plasma component was characterized antigenically and functionally. Human plasma was shown to agglutinate complement-coated erythrocytes in the presence of Ca2+, and this conglu...... in plasma. The activity was more stable in plasma containing metal-ion chelators like EDTA and citrate than in heparin or hirudin plasma....... raised against bovine conglutinin cross-react with the human protein. The plasma concentration of the conglutinin-like protein showed a high inter-individual variation between apparently healthy donors. Unlike bovine conglutinin, the human conglutinin activity could not be demonstrated in serum but only...

  20. Human-in-the-Loop Operations over Time Delay: NASA Analog Missions Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Steven N.; Reagan, Marcum L.; Janoiko, Barbara; Johnson, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Teams at NASA have conducted studies of time-delayed communications as it effects human exploration. In October 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Analog Missions project conducted a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) with the primary stakeholders to share information and experiences of studying time delay, to build a coherent picture of how studies are covering the problem domain, and to determine possible forward plans (including how to best communicate study results and lessons learned, how to inform future studies and mission plans, and how to drive potential development efforts). This initial meeting s participants included personnel from multiple NASA centers (HQ, JSC, KSC, ARC, and JPL), academia, and ESA. It included all of the known studies, analog missions, and tests of time delayed communications dating back to the Apollo missions including NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO), Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS/RATS), International Space Station Test-bed for Analog Research (ISTAR), Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP), Mars 520, JPL Mars Orbiters/Rovers, Advanced Mission Operations (AMO), Devon Island analog missions, and Apollo experiences. Additionally, the meeting attempted to capture all of the various functional perspectives via presentations by disciplines including mission operations (flight director and mission planning), communications, crew, Capcom, Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA), Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), Medical/Surgeon, Science, Education and Public Outreach (EPO), and data management. The paper summarizes the descriptions and results from each of the activities discussed at the TIM and includes several recommendations captured in the meeting for dealing with time delay in human exploration along with recommendations for future development and studies to address this issue.

  1. BIOTECHNOLOGY : AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology as a science includes various aspects of the management and manipulation of biological systems. Recent advances in immunology, molecular biology, cell culture and other associated areas provide an opportunity for scientists to move biology out of the laboratory and into the realms of society. This has many implications which mankind on a whole may not be prepared to cope with at this time. This new capability has been referred to as "Biotechnology". Biotechnology has also been defined as "the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering in order to achieve the capacities of microbes and culture cells". Genetic engineering which includes gene splicing and recombinant DNA-cloning is an example of a recent offshoot of biotechnology. Because of the advent of biotechnology, one can now think of the prospect of engineering tomorrows vaccines. In the past, vaccine development has been laborious and in many instances an unrewarding task. After years of effort only a handful of safe, effective vaccines have emerged. In the biotechnology arena, new methodologies and strategies for immunizing humans and domestic animals against infectious diseases are providing new hope for discovering successful vaccines. While most of the effort in the past has focused on viral vaccine development, attention is now being directed towards vaccines for protection against parasitic diseases. Currently, considerable effort is being made to develop vaccines for malaria, coccidiosis (in fowl, cholera, malaria, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis among others.

  2. Binding of mazindol and analogs to the human serotonin and dopamine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinsen, Kasper; Koldsø, Heidi; Thorup, Katrine Almind Vinberg; Schjøth-Eskesen, Christina; Møller, Pernille Thornild; Wiborg, Ove; Jensen, Henrik Helligsø; Sinning, Steffen; Schiøtt, Birgit

    2014-02-01

    Mazindol has been explored as a possible agent in cocaine addiction pharmacotherapy. The tetracyclic compound inhibits both the dopamine transporter and the serotonin transporter, and simple chemical modifications considerably alter target selectivity. Mazindol, therefore, is an attractive scaffold for both understanding the molecular determinants of serotonin/dopamine transporter selectivity and for the development of novel drug abuse treatments. Using molecular modeling and pharmacologic profiling of rationally chosen serotonin and dopamine transporter mutants with respect to a series of mazindol analogs has allowed us to determine the orientation of mazindol within the central binding site. We find that mazindol binds in the central substrate binding site, and that the transporter selectivity can be modulated through mutations of a few residues in the binding pocket. Mazindol is most likely to bind as the R-enantiomer. Tyrosines 95 and 175 in the human serotonin transporter and the corresponding phenylalanines 75 and 155 in the human dopamine transporter are the primary determinants of mazindol selectivity. Manipulating the interaction of substituents on the 7-position with the human serotonin transporter Tyr175 versus dopamine transporter Phe155 is found to be a strong tool in tuning the selectivity of mazindol analogs and may be used in future drug design of cocaine abuse pharmacotherapies.

  3. The emergence of commercial genomics: analysis of the rise of a biotechnology subsector during the Human Genome Project, 1990 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechers, Ilse R; Perin, Noah C; Cook-Deegan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Development of the commercial genomics sector within the biotechnology industry relied heavily on the scientific commons, public funding, and technology transfer between academic and industrial research. This study tracks financial and intellectual property data on genomics firms from 1990 through 2004, thus following these firms as they emerged in the era of the Human Genome Project and through the 2000 to 2001 market bubble. A database was created based on an early survey of genomics firms, which was expanded using three web-based biotechnology services, scientific journals, and biotechnology trade and technical publications. Financial data for publicly traded firms was collected through the use of four databases specializing in firm financials. Patent searches were conducted using firm names in the US Patent and Trademark Office website search engine and the DNA Patent Database. A biotechnology subsector of genomics firms emerged in parallel to the publicly funded Human Genome Project. Trends among top firms show that hiring, capital improvement, and research and development expenditures continued to grow after a 2000 to 2001 bubble. The majority of firms are small businesses with great diversity in type of research and development, products, and services provided. Over half the public firms holding patents have the majority of their intellectual property portfolio in DNA-based patents. These data allow estimates of investment, research and development expenditures, and jobs that paralleled the rise of genomics as a sector within biotechnology between 1990 and 2004.

  4. The emergence of commercial genomics: analysis of the rise of a biotechnology subsector during the Human Genome Project, 1990 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Development of the commercial genomics sector within the biotechnology industry relied heavily on the scientific commons, public funding, and technology transfer between academic and industrial research. This study tracks financial and intellectual property data on genomics firms from 1990 through 2004, thus following these firms as they emerged in the era of the Human Genome Project and through the 2000 to 2001 market bubble. Methods A database was created based on an early survey of genomics firms, which was expanded using three web-based biotechnology services, scientific journals, and biotechnology trade and technical publications. Financial data for publicly traded firms was collected through the use of four databases specializing in firm financials. Patent searches were conducted using firm names in the US Patent and Trademark Office website search engine and the DNA Patent Database. Results A biotechnology subsector of genomics firms emerged in parallel to the publicly funded Human Genome Project. Trends among top firms show that hiring, capital improvement, and research and development expenditures continued to grow after a 2000 to 2001 bubble. The majority of firms are small businesses with great diversity in type of research and development, products, and services provided. Over half the public firms holding patents have the majority of their intellectual property portfolio in DNA-based patents. Conclusions These data allow estimates of investment, research and development expenditures, and jobs that paralleled the rise of genomics as a sector within biotechnology between 1990 and 2004. PMID:24050173

  5. Reprint of "Suboptimal choice by pigeons: an analog of human gambling behavior".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R

    2014-05-01

    Human gambling often involves the choice of a low probability but high valued outcome over a high probability (certain) low valued outcome (not gambling) that is economically more optimal. We have developed an analog of gambling in which pigeons prefer a suboptimal alternative that infrequently provides a signal for a high probability (or high magnitude) of reinforcement over an optimal alternative that always provides a signal for a lower probability (or lower magnitude) of reinforcement. We have identified two mechanisms that may be responsible for this suboptimal behavior. First, the effect of nonreinforcement results in considerably less inhibition of choice than ideally it should. Second, the frequency of the occurrence of the signal for a high probability or high magnitude of reinforcement is less important than ideally it should. Also analogous to human gambling is the finding that pigeons that are normally food restricted choose suboptimally, whereas those that are minimally food restricted choose optimally. In addition, pigeons that are singly housed choose suboptimally, whereas those that are exposed to a more enriched environment choose less suboptimally. We believe that these findings have implications for the understanding and treatment of problem gambling behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fumarate analogs act as allosteric inhibitors of the human mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malic enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ju-Yi; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Yang, Pai-Chun; Lin, Chi-Li; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Human mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malic enzyme (m-NAD(P)-ME) is allosterically activated by the four-carbon trans dicarboxylic acid, fumarate. Previous studies have suggested that the dicarboxylic acid in a trans conformation around the carbon-carbon double bond is required for the allosteric activation of the enzyme. In this paper, the allosteric effects of fumarate analogs on m-NAD(P)-ME are investigated. Two fumarate-insensitive mutants, m-NAD(P)-ME_R67A/R91A and m-NAD(P)-ME_K57S/E59N/K73E/D102S, as well as c-NADP-ME, were used as the negative controls. Among these analogs, mesaconate, trans-aconitate, monomethyl fumarate and monoethyl fumarate were allosteric activators of the enzyme, while oxaloacetate, diethyl oxalacetate, and dimethyl fumarate were found to be allosteric inhibitors of human m-NAD(P)-ME. The IC50 value for diethyl oxalacetate was approximately 2.5 mM. This paper suggests that the allosteric inhibitors may impede the conformational change from open form to closed form and therefore inhibit m-NAD(P)-ME enzyme activity.

  7. Fumarate analogs act as allosteric inhibitors of the human mitochondrial NAD(P+-dependent malic enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yi Hsieh

    Full Text Available Human mitochondrial NAD(P+-dependent malic enzyme (m-NAD(P-ME is allosterically activated by the four-carbon trans dicarboxylic acid, fumarate. Previous studies have suggested that the dicarboxylic acid in a trans conformation around the carbon-carbon double bond is required for the allosteric activation of the enzyme. In this paper, the allosteric effects of fumarate analogs on m-NAD(P-ME are investigated. Two fumarate-insensitive mutants, m-NAD(P-ME_R67A/R91A and m-NAD(P-ME_K57S/E59N/K73E/D102S, as well as c-NADP-ME, were used as the negative controls. Among these analogs, mesaconate, trans-aconitate, monomethyl fumarate and monoethyl fumarate were allosteric activators of the enzyme, while oxaloacetate, diethyl oxalacetate, and dimethyl fumarate were found to be allosteric inhibitors of human m-NAD(P-ME. The IC50 value for diethyl oxalacetate was approximately 2.5 mM. This paper suggests that the allosteric inhibitors may impede the conformational change from open form to closed form and therefore inhibit m-NAD(P-ME enzyme activity.

  8. A biotechnological approach for the development of new antifungal compounds to protect the environment and the human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the Po Valley aflatoxins play a relevant role: the local food economy is heavily based on cereal cultivations for animal feed and human nutrition. Aims of this project are the identification of new compounds that inhibit Aspergillus proliferation, the development of new inhibitors of aflatoxins production, and the set-up a practical screening procedure to identify the most effective and safe compounds. Design and Methods. New compounds will be synthetized with natural origin molecules as ligands and endogenous metal ions to increase their bioavailability for the fungi as metal complexes. A biotechnological high-throughput screening will be set up to identify efficiently the most powerful substances. The newly synthesized compounds with effective antifungal activities, will be evaluated with battery of tests with different end-points to assess the toxic potential risk for environmental and human health. Expected impact of the study for public health. The fundamental step in the project will be the synthesis of new compounds and the study of their capability to inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis. A new, simple, inexpensive and high-throughput method to screen the anti-fungine and anti-mycotoxin activity of the new synthesised compounds will be applied. The evaluation of possible risks for humans due to toxic and genotoxic activities of the molecules will be made with a new approach using different types of cells (bacteria, plants and human cells.

  9. Biotechnology bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette, L.A.; McCready, R.G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography consists of articles and scientific papers on biotechnology in areas in which BIOMINET is currently involved. The reports are categorized in four areas: 1) acid mine drainage (coals and metals) and bioadsorption of metals; 2) solution mining; 3) metabolism and physiology of Thiobacillus and other microorganisms; and 4) bacterial leaching of metals.

  10. Development of biotechnology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, T K; Bisaria, V S

    2000-01-01

    India has embarked upon a very ambitious program in biotechnology with a view to harnessing its available human and unlimited biodiversity resources. It has mainly been a government sponsored effort with very little private industry participation in investment. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) established under the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1986 was the major instrument of action to bring together most talents, material resources, and budgetary provisions. It began sponsoring research in molecular biology, agricultural and medical sciences, plant and animal tissue culture, biofertilizers and biopesticides, environment, human genetics, microbial technology, and bioprocess engineering, etc. The establishment of a number of world class bioscience research institutes and provision of large research grants to some existing universities helped in developing specialized centres of biotechnology. Besides DBT, the Department of Science & Technology (DST), also under the Ministry of S&T, sponsors research at universities working in the basic areas of life sciences. Ministry of Education's most pioneering effort was instrumental in the creation of Biochemical Engineering Research Centre at IIT Delhi with substantial assistance from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland to make available state-of-the-art infrastructure for education, training, and research in biochemical engineering and biotechnology in 1974. This initiative catalysed biotechnology training and research at many institutions a few years later. With a brief introduction, the major thrust areas of biotechnology development in India have been reviewed in this India Paper which include education and training, agricultural biotechnology, biofertilizers and biopesticides, tissue culture for tree and woody species, medicinal and aromatic plants, biodiversity conservation and environment, vaccine development, animal, aquaculture, seri and food biotechnology, microbial

  11. Potential anticancer activity of curcumin analogs containing sulfone on human cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qiuyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three curcumin analogs(S1-S3 containing sulfone were investigated for their effects on human prostate cancer PC-3, colon cancer HT-29, lung cancer H1299 and pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells. The three compounds were approximately 16-to 96-fold more active than curcumin in these cell lines as determined by the MTT assay. The effects of these compounds on cell growth were further studied in prostate cancer PC-3 cells in both two dimensional (2D and three dimensional (3D cultures. S1-S3strongly inhibited the growth and induced cell death in PC-3 cells, and the effects of these compounds were associated with suppression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB transcriptional activity. Moreover, treatment of PC-3 cells with all three compounds caused a decrease in the level of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (p-STAT3 (Tyr705,but not p-STAT3(Ser727. Only S1and S2decreased the presence of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt in PC-3 cells. These curcumin analogs warrant further in vivo studies for anticancer activities in suitable animal models.

  12. Avian Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) generate new individuals through differentiation, maturation and fertilization. This means that the manipulation of PGCs is directly linked to the manipulation of individuals, making PGCs attractive target cells in the animal biotechnology field. A unique biological property of avian PGCs is that they circulate temporarily in the vasculature during early development, and this allows us to access and manipulate avian germ lines. Following the development of a technique for transplantation, PGCs have become central to avian biotechnology, in contrast to the use of embryo manipulation and subsequent transfer to foster mothers, as in mammalian biotechnology. Today, avian PGC transplantation combined with recent advanced manipulation techniques, including cell purification, cryopreservation, depletion, and long-term culture in vitro, have enabled the establishment of genetically modified poultry lines and ex-situ conservation of poultry genetic resources. This chapter introduces the principles, history, and procedures of producing avian germline chimeras by transplantation of PGCs, and the current status of avian germline modification as well as germplasm cryopreservation. Other fundamental avian reproductive technologies are described, including artificial insemination and embryo culture, and perspectives of industrial applications in agriculture and pharmacy are considered, including poultry productivity improvement, egg modification, disease resistance impairment and poultry gene "pharming" as well as gene banking.

  13. Hold your horses: A comparison of human laryngomalacia with analogous equine airway pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Rachael J; Butterell, Matthew J; Constable, James D; Daniel, Matija

    2018-02-01

    Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of stridor in infants. Dynamic airway collapse is also a well-recognised entity in horses and an important cause of surgical veterinary intervention. We compare the aetiology, clinical features and management of human laryngomalacia with equine dynamic airway collapse. A structured review of the PubMed, the Ovid Medline and the Cochrane Collaboration databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews). There are numerous equine conditions that cause dynamic airway collapse defined specifically by the anatomical structures involved. Axial Deviation of the Aryepiglottic Folds (ADAF) is the condition most clinically analogous to laryngomalacia in humans, and is likewise most prevalent in the immature equine airway. Both conditions are managed either conservatively, or if symptoms require it, with surgical intervention. The operative procedures performed for ADAF and laryngomalacia are technically comparable. Dynamic collapse of the equine larynx, especially ADAF, is clinically similar to human laryngomalacia, and both are treated in a similar fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spring 2008 Industry Study: Biotechnology Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anttonen, John; Darnauer, Trish; Douglas, Tim; Ferrari, John; Zimdahl, Jennifer; Hall, Ian M; King, William; Klotzsche, Carl; Miller, Doug; Packard, Doug; Renegar, Mike; Rimback, Ed; Rogers, Gordon; Schnedar, Chris; Sekulovski, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Defined broadly as the manipulation of genetic material in living organisms or the derivatives thereof, biotechnology represents a veritable gold mine of possibilities for improving the human condition...

  15. Shared Selective Pressures on Fungal and Human Metabolic Pathways Lead to Divergent yet Analogous Genetic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidem, Haley R; McGary, Kriston L; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-06-01

    Reduced metabolic efficiency, toxic intermediate accumulation, and deficits of molecular building blocks, which all stem from disruptions of flux through metabolic pathways, reduce organismal fitness. Although these represent shared selection pressures across organisms, the genetic signatures of the responses to them may differ. In fungi, a frequently observed signature is the physical linkage of genes from the same metabolic pathway. In contrast, human metabolic genes are rarely tightly linked; rather, they tend to show tissue-specific coexpression. We hypothesized that the physical linkage of fungal metabolic genes and the tissue-specific coexpression of human metabolic genes are divergent yet analogous responses to the range of selective pressures imposed by disruptions of flux. To test this, we examined the degree to which the human homologs of physically linked metabolic genes in fungi (fungal linked homologs or FLOs) are coexpressed across six human tissues. We found that FLOs are significantly more correlated in their expression profiles across human tissues than other metabolic genes. We obtained similar results in analyses of the same six tissues from chimps, gorillas, orangutans, and macaques. We suggest that when selective pressures remain stable across large evolutionary distances, evidence of selection in a given evolutionary lineage can become a highly reliable predictor of the signature of selection in another, even though the specific adaptive response in each lineage is markedly different. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Reproductive physiology of a humanized GnRH receptor mouse model: application in evaluation of human-specific analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, Javier A; Kohout, Trudy; Pineda, Rafael; Maki, Richard A; Scott Struthers, R; Millar, Robert P

    2013-07-01

    The human GnRH receptor (GNRHR1) has a specific set of properties with physiological and pharmacological influences not appropriately modeled in laboratory animals or cell-based systems. To address this deficiency, we have generated human GNRHR1 knock-in mice and described their reproductive phenotype. Measurement of pituitary GNRHR1 transcripts from homozygous human GNRHR1 knock-in (ki/ki) mice revealed a severe reduction (7- to 8-fold) compared with the mouse Gnrhr1 in wild-type mice. ¹²⁵I-GnRH binding assays on pituitary membrane fractions corroborated reduced human GNRHR1 protein expression in ki/ki mice, as occurs with transfection of human GNRHR1 in cell lines. Female homozygous knock-in mice displayed normal pubertal onset, indicating that a large reduction in GNRHR1 expression is sufficient for this process. However, ki/ki females exhibited periods of prolonged estrous and/or metestrous and reduced fertility. No impairment was found in reproductive maturity or adult fertility in male ki/ki mice. Interestingly, the serum LH response to GnRH challenge was reduced in both knock-in males and females, indicating a reduced GNRHR1 signaling capacity. Small molecules targeting human GPCRs usually have poor activities at homologous rodent receptors, thus limiting their use in preclinical development. Therefore, we tested a human-specific GnRH1 antagonist, NBI-42902, in our mouse model and demonstrated abrogation of a GnRH1-induced serum LH rise in ki/ki mice and an absence of effect in littermates expressing the wild-type murine receptor. This novel model provides the opportunity to study the human receptor in vivo and for screening the activity of human-specific GnRH analogs.

  17. Microbial succession in an inflated lunar/Mars analog habitat during a 30-day human occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Teresa; Blachowicz, Adriana; Probst, Alexander J; Vaishampayan, Parag; Checinska, Aleksandra; Swarmer, Tiffany; de Leon, Pablo; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-06-02

    For potential future human missions to the Moon or Mars and sustained presence in the International Space Station, a safe enclosed habitat environment for astronauts is required. Potential microbial contamination of closed habitats presents a risk for crewmembers due to reduced human immune response during long-term confinement. To make future habitat designs safer for crewmembers, lessons learned from characterizing analogous habitats is very critical. One of the key issues is that how human presence influences the accumulation of microorganisms in the closed habitat. Molecular technologies, along with traditional microbiological methods, were utilized to catalog microbial succession during a 30-day human occupation of a simulated inflatable lunar/Mars habitat. Surface samples were collected at different time points to capture the complete spectrum of viable and potential opportunistic pathogenic bacterial population. Traditional cultivation, propidium monoazide (PMA)-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays were employed to estimate the cultivable, viable, and metabolically active microbial population, respectively. Next-generation sequencing was used to elucidate the microbial dynamics and community profiles at different locations of the habitat during varying time points. Statistical analyses confirm that occupation time has a strong influence on bacterial community profiles. The Day 0 samples (before human occupation) have a very different microbial diversity compared to the later three time points. Members of Proteobacteria (esp. Oxalobacteraceae and Caulobacteraceae) and Firmicutes (esp. Bacillaceae) were most abundant before human occupation (Day 0), while other members of Firmicutes (Clostridiales) and Actinobacteria (esp. Corynebacteriaceae) were abundant during the 30-day occupation. Treatment of samples with PMA (a DNA-intercalating dye for selective detection of viable microbial population) had a

  18. State responses to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  19. Biotechnological Innovations in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh M. Bhosale

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is gaining commendable importance to meet the required protein source for ever increasing human population. The aquaculture industry is currently facing problems on developing economically viable production systems by reducing the impact on environment. Sustainable and enhanced fish production from aquaculture may be better achieved through application of recent biotechnological innovations. Utilisation of transgenic technology has led to production of fishes with faster growth rate with disease resistance. The full advantage of this technology could not be achieved due to concern of acceptance for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. The biotechnological intervention in developing plant based feed ingredient in place of fish meal which contain high phosphorus is of prime area of attention for fish feed industry. The replacement of fish meal will also reduce fish feed cost to a greater extent. Year round fish seed production of carps through various biotechnological interventions is also need of the hour. This paper discusses technical, environmental and managerial considerations regarding the use of these biotechnological tools in aquaculture along with the advantages of research application and its commercialization.

  20. Working memory coding of analog stimulus properties in the human prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Bernhard; Gloel, Matthias; Schmidt, Timo T; Blankenburg, Felix

    2014-08-01

    Building on evidence for working memory (WM) coding of vibrotactile frequency information in monkey prefrontal cortex, recent electroencephalography studies found frequency processing in human WM to be reflected by quantitative modulations of prefrontal upper beta activity (20-30 Hz) as a function of the to-be-maintained stimulus attribute. This kind of stimulus-dependent activity has been observed across different sensory modalities, suggesting a generalized role of prefrontal beta during abstract WM processing of quantitative magnitude information. However, until now the available empirical evidence for such quantitative WM representation remains critically limited to the retention of periodic stimulus frequencies. In the present experiment, we used retrospective cueing to examine the quantitative WM processing of stationary (intensity) and temporal (duration) attributes of a previously presented tactile stimulus. We found parametric modulations of prefrontal beta activity during cued WM processing of each type of quantitative information, in a very similar manner as had before been observed only for periodic frequency information. In particular, delayed prefrontal beta modulations systematically reflected the magnitude of the retrospectively selected stimulus attribute and were functionally linked to successful behavioral task performance. Together, these findings converge on a generalized role of stimulus-dependent prefrontal beta-band oscillations during abstract scaling of analog quantity information in human WM. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Antiproliferative Activity of Double Point Modified Analogs of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D2 Against Human Malignant Melanoma Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Justyna; Nadkarni, Sharmin; Brown, Geoffrey; Kutner, Andrzej; Żmijewski, Michał A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a lipid soluble steroid hormone with pleiotropic biological properties, including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As to these desirable anticancer actions, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamins D and analogs have been reported to inhibit the proliferation and to induce differentiation of a wide variety of cancer cell types, including human malignant melanoma. However, there is a need for novel and more efficacious vitamin D analogs, and how best to design such is still an open issue. A series of double point modified (DPM) analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25(OH)2D2) induced differentiation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) positive A375 and VDR negative SK-MEL 188b human malignant melanoma cell lines. Surprisingly, the dose of 1,25(OH)2D2 required to inhibit the proliferation of the A375 melanoma cell line by was several fold lower than that required in the case of 1,25(OH)2D3. To evaluate the impact of the modification in the side chain (additional 22-hydroxyl) and in the A-ring (5,6-trans modification), the regular side-chain of vitamin D2 or D3 was retained in the structure of our analogs. As expected, 5,6-trans modification was advantageous to enhancing the anti-proliferative activity of analogs, but not as a single point modification (SPM). Very unexpectedly, the additional 22-hydroxyl in the side-chain reduced significantly the anti-proliferative activity of both the natural and 5,6-trans series analogs. Finally, an induction of pigmentation in melanoma SK-MEL 188b cells was observed to sensitized cells to the effect of vitamin D analogs. PMID:26760999

  2. Antiproliferative Activity of Double Point Modified Analogs of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D2 Against Human Malignant Melanoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Piotrowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a lipid soluble steroid hormone with pleiotropic biological properties, including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As to these desirable anticancer actions, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamins D and analogs have been reported to inhibit the proliferation and to induce differentiation of a wide variety of cancer cell types, including human malignant melanoma. However, there is a need for novel and more efficacious vitamin D analogs, and how best to design such is still an open issue. A series of double point modified (DPM analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25(OH2D2 induced differentiation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR positive A375 and VDR negative SK-MEL 188b human malignant melanoma cell lines. Surprisingly, the dose of 1,25(OH2D2 required to inhibit the proliferation of the A375 melanoma cell line by was several fold lower than that required in the case of 1,25(OH2D3. To evaluate the impact of the modification in the side chain (additional 22-hydroxyl and in the A-ring (5,6-trans modification, the regular side-chain of vitamin D2 or D3 was retained in the structure of our analogs. As expected, 5,6-trans modification was advantageous to enhancing the anti-proliferative activity of analogs, but not as a single point modification (SPM. Very unexpectedly, the additional 22-hydroxyl in the side-chain reduced significantly the anti-proliferative activity of both the natural and 5,6-trans series analogs. Finally, an induction of pigmentation in melanoma SK-MEL 188b cells was observed to sensitized cells to the effect of vitamin D analogs.

  3. Plant prebiotics and human health: Biotechnology to breed prebiotic-rich nutritious food crops

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi,Sangam; Sahrawat,Kanwar; Puppala,Naveen; Ortiz,Rodomiro

    2014-01-01

    Microbiota in the gut play essential roles in human health. Prebiotics are non-digestible complex carbohydrates 19 that are fermented in the colon, yielding energy and short chain fatty acids, and selectively promote the growth of 20 Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillae in the gastro-intestinal tract. Fructans and inulin are the best-characterized plant prebiotics. Many vegetable, root and tuber crops as well as some fruit crops are the best-known sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, while the pre...

  4. Plant prebiotics and human health: Biotechnology to breed prebiotic-rich nutritious food crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangam Dwivedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbiota in the gut play essential roles in human health. Prebiotics are non-digestible complex carbohydrates that are fermented in the colon, yielding energy and short chain fatty acids, and selectively promote the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillae in the gastro-intestinal tract. Fructans and inulin are the best-characterized plant prebiotics. Many vegetable, root and tuber crops as well as some fruit crops are the best-known sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, while the prebiotic-rich grain crops include barley, chickpea, lentil, lupin, and wheat. Some prebiotic-rich crop germplasm have been reported in barley, chickpea, lentil, wheat, yacon, and Jerusalem artichoke. A few major quantitative trait loci and gene-based markers associated with high fructan are known in wheat. More targeted search in genebanks using reduced subsets (representing diversity in germplasm is needed to identify accessions with prebiotic carbohydrates. Transgenic maize, potato and sugarcane with high fructan, with no adverse effects on plant development, have been bred, which suggests that it is feasible to introduce fructan biosynthesis pathways in crops to produce health-imparting prebiotics. Developing prebiotic-rich and super nutritious crops will alleviate the widespread malnutrition and promote human health. A paradigm shift in breeding program is needed to achieve this goal and to ensure that newly-bred crop cultivars are nutritious, safe and health promoting.

  5. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be foreseen, not only with respect of R&D, but also in general technological development represents scope of priority in the USA and in European Union (EU as well. It is accepted that the results achieved in biotechnology oversize scientific domain and find their entrance into economics, legislation, quality of life and even of politics. Corresponding with the definition of biotechnology as "the integration of natural sciences and engineering in the application of microorganisms, cells, their components and molecular analogues in production (General assembly of the European federation for Biotechnology, 1989 European Commission (1999 adopted the biotechnological taxonomy, i.e. fields and sub-fields of biotechnology. R&D activities in this domain are oriented to eight fields and branched through them. Fields of biotechnology (EC, 1999 are: 1 Plant biotechnology (agricultural cultivars, trees, bushes etc; 2 Animal biotechnology; 3 Biotechnology in environment protection; 4 Industrial biotechnology (food, feed, paper, textile, pharmaceutical and chemical productions; 5 Industrial biotechnology (production of cells and research of cells - producers of food and of other commodities; 6 Development of humane and veterinarian diagnostics (therapeutical systems 7 Development of the basic biotechnology, and 8 Nontechnical domains of biotechnology. In concordance with some judgments, in the World exist about 4000 biotechnological companies. World market of biotechnological

  6. Human presence impacts fungal diversity of inflated lunar/Mars analog habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachowicz, A; Mayer, T; Bashir, M; Pieber, T R; De León, P; Venkateswaran, K

    2017-07-11

    An inflatable lunar/Mars analog habitat (ILMAH), simulated closed system isolated by HEPA filtration, mimics International Space Station (ISS) conditions and future human habitation on other planets except for the exchange of air between outdoor and indoor environments. The ILMAH was primarily commissioned to measure physiological, psychological, and immunological characteristics of human inhabiting in isolation, but it was also available for other studies such as examining its microbiological aspects. Characterizing and understanding possible changes and succession of fungal species is of high importance since fungi are not only hazardous to inhabitants but also deteriorate the habitats. Observing the mycobiome changes in the presence of human will enable developing appropriate countermeasures with reference to crew health in a future closed habitat. Succession of fungi was characterized utilizing both traditional and state-of-the-art molecular techniques during the 30-day human occupation of the ILMAH. Surface samples were collected at various time points and locations to observe both the total and viable fungal populations of common environmental and opportunistic pathogenic species. To estimate the cultivable fungal population, potato dextrose agar plate counts method was utilized. The internal transcribed spacer region-based iTag Illumina sequencing was employed to measure the community structure and fluctuation of the mycobiome over time in various locations. Treatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA; a DNA intercalating dye for selective detection of viable microbial populations) had a significant effect on the microbial diversity compared to non-PMA-treated samples. Statistical analysis confirmed that viable fungal community structure changed (increase in diversity and decrease in fungal burden) over the occupation time. Samples collected at day 20 showed distinct fungal profiles from samples collected at any other time point (before or after

  7. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-01

    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  9. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Inhibition of human Na(v)1.5 sodium channels by strychnine and its analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chunhua; Sun, Lirong; Zhang, Meng; Li, Shuji; Wang, Xuemin; Gao, Tianming; Zhu, Xinhong

    2011-08-15

    Strychnine and brucine from the seeds of the plant Strychnos nux vomica have been shown to have interesting pharmacological effects on several neurotransmitter receptors. In this study, we have characterized the pharmacological properties of strychnine and its analogs on human Na(v)1.5 channels to assess their potential therapeutic advantage in certain arrhythmias. Among the eight alkaloids, only strychnine and icajine exhibited inhibition potency on the Na(v)1.5 channel with the half-maximum inhibition (IC(50)) values of 83.1μM and 104.6μM, respectively. Structure-function analysis indicated that the increased bulky methoxy groups on the phenyl ring or the negatively charged oxygen atom may account for this lack of inhibition on the Na(v)1.5 channel. Strychnine and icajine may bind to the channel by cation-π interactions. The substitution with a large side chain on the phenyl ring or the increased molecular volume may alter the optimized position for the compound close to the binding sites of the channel. Strychnine and icajine bind to the Na(v)1.5 channel with a new mechanism that is different from TTX and local anesthetics. They bind to the outer vestibule of the channel pore with fast association and dissociation rates at resting state. Strychnine and icajine had little effect on steady-state fast inactivation but markedly shifted the slow inactivation of Na(v)1.5 currents toward more hyperpolarized potentials. The property of icajine influencing slow-inactivated state of Na(v)1.5 channel would be potential therapeutic advantages in certain arrhythmias. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioactive Ti metal analogous to human cancellous bone: Fabrication by selective laser melting and chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Deepak K; Fukuda, A; Matsushita, T; Takemoto, M; Fujibayashi, S; Sasaki, K; Nishida, N; Nakamura, T; Kokubo, T

    2011-03-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a useful technique for preparing three-dimensional porous bodies with complicated internal structures directly from titanium (Ti) powders without any intermediate processing steps, with the products being expected to be useful as a bone substitute. In this study the necessary SLM processing conditions to obtain a dense product, such as the laser power, scanning speed, and hatching pattern, were investigated using a Ti powder of less than 45 μm particle size. The results show that a fully dense plate thinner than 1.8 mm was obtained when the laser power to scanning speed ratio was greater than 0.5 and the hatch spacing was less than the laser diameter, with a 30 μm thick powder layer. Porous Ti metals with structures analogous to human cancellous bone were fabricated and the compressive strength measured. The compressive strength was in the range 35-120 MPa when the porosity was in the range 75-55%. Porous Ti metals fabricated by SLM were heat-treated at 1300 °C for 1h in an argon gas atmosphere to smooth the surface. Such prepared specimens were subjected to NaOH, HCl, and heat treatment to provide bioactivity. Field emission scanning electron micrographs showed that fine networks of titanium oxide were formed over the whole surface of the porous body. These treated porous bodies formed bone-like apatite on their surfaces in a simulated body fluid within 3 days. In vivo studies showed that new bone penetrated into the pores and directly bonded to the walls within 12 weeks after implantation into the femur of Japanese white rabbits. The percentage bone affinity indices of the chemical- and heat-treated porous bodies were significantly higher than that of untreated implants. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolism of 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid by the human platelet. Formation of novel thromboxane analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazy, M

    1991-12-15

    Radiolabeled cis-(+-)-5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (5(6)-EpETrE) was incubated with a suspension of isolated human platelets in order to study its metabolic fate. The epoxide slowly disappeared from the suspension and was completely metabolized within 30 min. After extraction and analysis by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, seven metabolites were found. Addition of either indomethacin (0.01 mM, cyclooxygenase inhibitor) or BW755C (0.1 mM, cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitor) to the incubations blocked the formation of four and six metabolites, respectively, 1,2-Epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane (inhibitor of microsomal epoxide hydrolase) failed to inhibit the formation of 5,6-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (5,6-DiHETrE), a hydrolysis product of the precursor 5(6)-EpETrE. The metabolites were characterized by UV spectroscopy, negative ion chemical ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and, in one instance, coelution with synthetic standard. Three primary platelet metabolites were structurally determined to be 5,6-epoxy-12-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, 5,6-epoxy-12-hydroxyheptadecadienoic acid, and a unique bicyclic metabolite, 5-hydroxy-6,9-epoxy-thromboxane B1, which originated from intramolecular hydrolysis of 5,6-epoxythromboxane-B1. This thromboxane analog was partially separated into stereoisomers and coeluted with the racemic synthetic standard in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Three other metabolites were characterized as 5,6,12-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, 5,6,12-trihydroxyheptadecadienoic acid, and 5,6-dihydroxythromboxane-B1, and resulted from the hydrolysis of the corresponding epoxides rather than from the metabolism of 5,6-DiHETrE. The latter was not metabolized by platelet cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase. The biosynthesis of two cyclooxygenase metabolites indicated the formation of unstable 5,6-epoxythromboxane-A1 as an intermediate

  13. STATE OF THE ART BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOSAFETY IN KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    considering national priorities for application of biotechnology for more than a decade ... while safeguarding human health and environmental integrity. .... NACBAA, 1991. National Advisory Committee on Biotechnology Advances and Their. Applications. Ministry of Research, Technical. Training & Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.

  14. [Magician nature and human magician: on a fundamental analogy of alchemy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    This contribution discusses Paracelsism-influenced early-modern alchemy. There are notably two forms of analogy, each hierarchically arranged: a vertically ordered analogy ("as above, thus below") in which Nature is situated as mediator between God and man, and a horizontally ordered analogy ("as without, thus within") in which Nature's magic is regarded as a model for man, particularly expressed in the metaphor of "Vulcan" (smith) and doctor (e.g., Nature as inner healer). In alchemy the conventional "healing power of Nature" is pin-pointed: The doctor (as alchemist, magician) must unravel Nature's secrets and emulate her magic to perfect her work -particularly medicine production. Diagrams and historical depictions illustrate this.

  15. Functional characterization of a synthetic abscisic acid analog with anti-inflammatory activity on human granulocytes and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozio, Alessia; Millo, Enrico; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Bellotti, Marta; Salis, Annalisa; Fresia, Chiara; Sturla, Laura; Magnone, Mirko; Galatini, Andrea; Damonte, Gianluca; De Flora, Antonio; Bruzzone, Santina; Bagnasco, Luca; Zocchi, Elena

    2011-12-02

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), in addition to regulating several important physiological functions in plants, is also produced and released by human granulocytes and monocytes where it stimulates cell activities involved in the innate immune response. Here we describe the properties of an ABA synthetic analog that competes with the hormone for binding to human granulocyte membranes and to purified recombinant LANCL2 (the human ABA receptor) and inhibits several ABA-triggered inflammatory functions of granulocytes and monocytes in vitro: chemotaxis, phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production and release of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) by human granulocytes, release of PGE(2) and of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by human monocytes. This observation provides a proof of principle that ABA antagonists may represent a new class of anti-inflammatory agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial Diversity of Biotechnology Centres in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorocki Sławomir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is considered one of the key advanced technology sectors of the future. Its development is conditional on basic research in technologically advanced research institutes and appropriately qualified human resources. The optimum environment stimulating the development of biotechnology is that of production centres having joint industrial and R&D operations.

  17. Biotechnology and species development in aquaculture | Ayoola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of biotechnology in various aspects of human endeavour have obviously created a great impact but not without some risks. Not withstanding, there is still the need for its adoption as more of the already adopted biotechnologies are being improved upon with lesser demerits. Aquaculture is not also left out in the ...

  18. Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential benefits of biotechnology are extraordinary and traverse sectors like agriculture, environment, health, industry, bio-informatics, and human resource development. In agriculture, biotechnology research has helped to improve the understanding of diseases, to improve the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, ...

  19. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  20. Vitamin D Analogs Potentiate the Antitumor Effect of Imatinib Mesylate in a Human A549 Lung Tumor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Ewa; Filip-Psurska, Beata; Świtalska, Marta; Kutner, Andrzej; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In previous papers, we presented data on studies on the anticancer activity of the vitamin D3 analogs, named PRI-2191 and PRI-2205, in different cancer models. In this study, we showed the improved antiproliferative activity of a combination of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, GV) and cytostatic agents in in vitro studies, when used with a third compound, namely PRI-2191, in an A549 human lung cancer model. Furthermore, we analyzed the influence of both PRI-2191, as well as PRI-2205 on the anticancer activity of GV in mice bearing A549 tumors. The route of PRI-2191 analog administration showed a significant impact on the outcome of GV treatment: subcutaneous injection was more efficient and less toxic than oral gavage. Moreover, both vitamin D compounds increased the anticancer activity of GV; however, they might also potentiate some adverse effects. We also evaluated in tumor tissue the expression of VEGF, PDGF-BB, vitamin D receptor, CYP27B1, CYP24, p53 and Bcl-2, as well as PDGF receptors: α and β. We observed the upregulation of p53 expression and the downregulation of Bcl-2, as well as VEGF in A549 tumors as a result of the tested treatment. However, vitamin D analogs did not significantly influence the expression of these proteins. PMID:26580599

  1. 75 FR 10293 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... meeting, please contact Ms. Laurie Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology...: March 1, 2010. Amy P. Patterson, Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of...

  2. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blessed with extremely rich biodiversity, Malaysia is all geared up to explore new high technology to utilize the advantage it possesses whilst to protect its environment. Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities for industrial growth, health and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to address the evolution of biotechnology institutions and the stumbling blocks in developing the Malaysian biotechnology industry. This paper identifies three main impediments in the current Malaysian biotechnology, namely lack of skilled human capital; weak industrial base; and lack of commercialization effort. Besides, a set of strategies are discussed with aim to further improve and strengthen the Malaysian biotechnology industry. In general, the arguments are presented by mapping out the symbiotic relationship between data from elite interviews, archival data and observations.

  3. Is biotechnology the new alchemy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Georgiana

    2009-03-01

    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from advances in the field of biotechnology are interestingly similar to those that arose in reaction to the practice and prevalence of alchemy from its inception in Europe in the mid-twelfth century until at least the early modern period. I argue that a proper conception of the ethical issues and a sensible interpretation of the power and the promise of the science of biotechnology are most likely if we understand such attitudes to nature, and to the ethical issues surrounding technological and scientific developments, in terms of an historical and cultural continuum. That is, we should regard biotechnology as merely the latest in a string of technological and scientific developments rather than, as is often alleged, as something entirely new, requiring its own special ethical response. Finally, I suggest that examining the parallels between the ethical issues generated by alchemy and by biotechnology show us that such issues are best situated and discussed within a framework of virtue ethics, as it allows us to think seriously about the relationship between art and nature and the proper role of humans in relation to their technology.

  4. Fmoc Solid-Phase Synthesis of Human a-Calcitonin Gene- Related Peptide and Two Carboxyfluorescein-labeled Analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, L. Sabbah; Abdolalizadeh, Bahareh; Sheykhzade, Majid

    Human-alpha-Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (h-alpha-CGRP) is a naturally occurring 37 amino acid vasodilatory neuropeptide amide, ACDTATCVTHRLAGLLSRSGGVVKNNFVPTNVGSKAF, with a disulfide bond between residues 2 and 7. The peptide is found in primary afferent sensory nerves and is widely distributed...... for biological activity and onset of signal transduction. Fluorescent h-alpha-CGRP analogs are useful for investigating the mechanism of action behind (re)uptake of h-alpha-CGRP into the sensory nerve terminals and monitoring trafficking of CGRP receptors. As part of an ongoing study on the mechanism of action......–17. Following purification by preparative HPLC, concentration-response curves were made with fluorescent CGRP analogues on isolated human subcutaneous arteries. CGRP (fluolysine35) and CGRP (wildtype) showed similar potency (pIC50 = 9.40) while CGRP (fluolysine24) showed approximately 5-fold less potency (pIC50...

  5. Effects of analogs of indole-3-carbinol cyclic trimerization product in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Schaldach, Charlene M; Janosik, Tomasz; Bergman, Jan; Bjeldanes, Leonard F

    2005-04-15

    5,6,11,12,17,18-Hexahydrocyclonona[1,2-b:4,5-b*:7,8-b**]triindole (CTr) is a major digestive product of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) from Brassica vegetables and exhibits strong estrogenic activities. CTr increases proliferation of estrogen-dependent breast tumor cells, binds with strong affinity for the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), and activates expression of estrogen (E(2))-dependent genes. To begin to examine the structural features that determine the biological activity of CTr, we prepared and studied the effects of two analogs, 9,18-dihydro-12H-[1,2,5]trithionino[3,4-b:6,7-b*:9,8-b**]triindole (S(3)CTr) and 5,6,11,12,17,18-hexahydro-5,11,17-trimethylcyclonona[1,2-b:4,5-b*:7,8-b**]triindole (Me(3)CTr). N-Methylation of CTr completely ablated the estrogenic activities of CTr. In the dose range in which CTr was clearly estrogenic, Me(3)CTr exhibited no detectable effect on cell growth, ERalpha binding to E(2), or ERalpha-responsive gene expression. S(3)CTr showed mixed ERalpha agonist activities. It bound to the ERalpha and activated receptor binding with DNA, weakly activated expression of transfected E(2)-responsive reporter gene constructs, and strongly inhibited the E(2)-induced activation of these reporter constructs. S(3)CTr activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated pathways, consistent with the moderately strong binding affinity of S(3)CTr for the AhR. Comparisons of the conformational characteristics among CTr and its two analogs indicated that the estrogenic effects of CTr are highly sensitive to apparently minor structural modifications, and further supported the hypothesis for a central role of hydrogen bonding around the nitrogen atom in CTr binding to the ligand binding site of ERalpha.

  6. An Overview on Indian Patents on Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Anusaya; Chandra Santra, Subhas; Samal, Alok Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The application of biotechnology is a potential tool for mitigating the present and future fooding and clothing demands in developing countries like India. The commercialization of biotechnological products might benefiting the poor`s in developing countries are unlikely to be developed. Biotechnology has the potential to provide a wide range of products and the existing production skills in the industrial, pharmaceuticals and the agricultural sector. Ownership of the intellectual property rights is the key factors in determining the success of any technological invention, which was introduced in the market. It provides the means for technological progress to continue of the industry of the country. The new plans, animal varieties, new methods of treatments, new crops producing food articles as such are the inventions of biotechnology. Biotechnology is the result of the application of human intelligence and knowledge to the biological processes. Most of the tools of biotechnology have been developed, by companies, governments, research in- stitutes and universities in developed nations. These human intellectual efforts deserve protection. India is a developing country with advance biotechnology based segments of pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is not likely to have a significant impact on incentives for innovation creation in the biotechnology sectors. In the recent years, the world has seen the biotechnology sector as one of greatest investment area through the Patent Law and will giving huge profit in future. The Research and Development in the field of biotechnology should be encouraged for explor- ing new tools and improve the biological systems for interest of the common people. Priority should be given to generation, evaluation, protection and effective commercial utilization of tangible products of intellectual property in agriculture and pharmaceuticals. To support the future growth and

  7. A novel synthetic analog of militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lim, Mi-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yu Ran [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi-Ho [Mushroom Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 404-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae-Ho [R and D Center, Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Yongin 446-905 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byeong Hwa [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Youl [Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Won O. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Park, Haeil [College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sunga, E-mail: sachoi@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Woong, E-mail: tawkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC{sub 50} of 5 μM were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. - Highlights: • We report a novel synthesized derivative, militarin analog-1 (MA-1). • MA-1-induced cancer cell death was triggered by

  8. A novel synthetic analog of militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lim, Mi-Hee; Lee, Yu Ran; Sung, Gi-Ho; Lee, Tae-Ho; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Cho, Jae Youl; Song, Won O.; Park, Haeil; Choi, Sunga; Kim, Tae Woong

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC 50 of 5 μM were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G 0 /G 1 -DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. - Highlights: • We report a novel synthesized derivative, militarin analog-1 (MA-1). • MA-1-induced cancer cell death was triggered by the ROS

  9. A sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    to exemplify what is the relevance of a sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology. In particular, I introduce the notion of digital-analogical consensus as a semiotic pattern for the creation of complex logical products that constitute specific signs. The chapter ends with some examples of conspicuous semiotic......, translation, transformation and transmission of information. The idea is also to investigate how this debate may influence the “integrative agenda” in biology, especially at a time in which biotechnology is considered to be the industrial use of “biological information”. I introduce concepts....... Finally I make a connection between a sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology and sustainability, with a glimpse into the future....

  10. Characterization of a lectin in human plasma analogous to bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, S; Baatrup, G; Friis-Christiansen, P

    1987-01-01

    sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under non-reducing conditions these fractions were shown to contain proteins of about 300,000. When human conglutinin-like protein, partially purified by affinity chromatography, was analysed unreduced by SDS-PAGE followed by western blotting......,000 band when incubated with western blots of partially purified human conglutinin....

  11. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come. Copyright © 2013

  12. 2001 Industry Studies: Biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... The applications of biotechnology, such as medicine, agribusiness, forensics, informatics and the defense sector, offer many benefits, but also bring some risk, requiring public policy decisions...

  13. Evaluation of Human vs. Teleoperated Robotic Performance in Field Geology Tasks at a Mars Analog Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B.; Briggs, G.

    2003-01-01

    Exploration mission designers and planners have costing models used to assess the affordability of given missions - but very little data exists on the relative science return produced by different ways of exploring a given region. Doing cost-benefit analyses for future missions requires a way to compare the relative field science productivity of spacesuited humans vs. virtual presence/teleoperation from a nearby habitat or orbital station, vs. traditional terrestrial-controlled rover operations. The goal of this study was to define science-return metrics for comparing human and robotic fieldwork, and then obtain quantifiable science-return performance comparisons between teleoperated rovers and spacesuited humans. Test runs with a simulated 2015-class rover and with spacesuited geologists were conducted at Haughton Crater in the Canadian Arctic in July 2002. Early results imply that humans will be 1-2 orders of magnitude more productive per unit time in exploration than future terrestrially-controlled robots.

  14. UK: disputing boundaries of biotechnology regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Les Levidow; Susan Carr

    1996-01-01

    UK biotechnology regulation has developed ‘precautionary controls’ for GMO releases. Stringent legislation was drafted and eventually implemented by the Department of Environment (DoE). In parallel, the DoE established a broadly-based advisory committee, which included ecologists and an implicit public-interest representation. The committee was assigned the task to advise on the release of all “novel organisms” — a term which implies an analogy between GMOs and non-indigenous organisms. Copyr...

  15. Biotechnology essay competition: biotechnology and sustainable food practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Judy; Schoeb, Helena; Lee, Gina

    2013-06-01

    Biotechnology Journal announces our second biotechnology essay competition with the theme "biotechnology and sustainable food practices", open to all undergraduate students. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. What meaning means for same and different: Analogical reasoning in humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Beran, Michael J; Thompson, Roger K R; Kleider, Heather M; Washburn, David A

    2008-05-01

    Thus far, language- and token-trained apes (e.g., D. Premack, 1976; R. K. R. Thompson, D. L. Oden, & S. T. Boysen, 1997) have provided the best evidence that nonhuman animals can solve, complete, and construct analogies, thus implicating symbolic representation as the mechanism enabling the phenomenon. In this study, the authors examined the role of stimulus meaning in the analogical reasoning abilities of three different primate species. Humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed the same relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks with both meaningful and nonmeaningful stimuli. This discrimination of relations-between-relations serves as the basis for analogical reasoning. Meaningfulness facilitated the acquisition of analogical matching for human participants, whereas individual differences among the chimpanzees suggest that meaning can either enable or hinder their ability to complete analogies. Rhesus monkeys did not succeed in the RMTS task regardless of stimulus meaning, suggesting that their ability to reason analogically, if present at all, may be dependent on a dimension other than the representational value of stimuli. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. NEEMO 18-20: Analog Testing for Mitigation of Communication Latency During Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Beaton, Kara H.; Miller, Matthew J.; Graff, Trevor G.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Halcon, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) is an underwater spaceflight analog that allows a true mission-like operational environment and uses buoyancy effects and added weight to simulate different gravity levels. Three missions were undertaken from 2014-2015, NEEMO's 18-20. All missions were performed at the Aquarius undersea research habitat. During each mission, the effects of communication latencies on operations concepts, timelines, and tasks were studied. METHODS: Twelve subjects (4 per mission) were weighed out to simulate near-zero or partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA) and evaluated different operations concepts for integration and management of a simulated Earth-based science team (ST) to provide input and direction during exploration activities. Exploration traverses were preplanned based on precursor data. Subjects completed science-related tasks including pre-sampling surveys, geologic-based sampling, and marine-based sampling as a portion of their tasks on saturation dives up to 4 hours in duration that were designed to simulate extravehicular activity (EVA) on Mars or the moons of Mars. One-way communication latencies, 5 and 10 minutes between space and mission control, were simulated throughout the missions. Objective data included task completion times, total EVA times, crew idle time, translation time, ST assimilation time (defined as time available for ST to discuss data/imagery after data acquisition). Subjective data included acceptability, simulation quality, capability assessment ratings, and comments. RESULTS: Precursor data can be used effectively to plan and execute exploration traverse EVAs (plans included detailed location of science sites, high-fidelity imagery of the sites, and directions to landmarks of interest within a site). Operations concepts that allow for pre-sampling surveys enable efficient traverse execution and meaningful Mission Control Center (MCC) interaction across communication latencies and can be

  18. Analog Testing of Operations Concepts for Mitigation of Communication Latency During Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Miller, Matthew J.; Halcon, Christopher; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) is an underwater spaceflight analog that allows a true mission-like operational environment and uses buoyancy effects and added weight to simulate different gravity levels. Three missions were undertaken from 2014-2015, NEEMO's 18-20. All missions were performed at the Aquarius undersea research habitat. During each mission, the effects of varying operations concepts and tasks type and complexity on representative communication latencies associated with Mars missions were studied. METHODS: 12 subjects (4 per mission) were weighed out to simulate near-zero or partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA) and evaluated different operations concepts for integration and management of a simulated Earth-based science backroom team (SBT) to provide input and direction during exploration activities. Exploration traverses were planned in advance based on precursor data collected. Subjects completed science-related tasks including presampling surveys, geologic-based sampling, and marine-based sampling as a portion of their tasks on saturation dives up to 4 hours in duration that were to simulate extravehicular activity (EVA) on Mars or the moons of Mars. One-way communication latencies, 5 and 10 minutes between space and mission control, were simulated throughout the missions. Objective data included task completion times, total EVA times, crew idle time, translation time, SBT assimilation time (defined as time available for SBT to discuss data/imagery after it has been collected, in addition to the time taken to watch imagery streaming over latency). Subjective data included acceptability, simulation quality, capability assessment ratings, and comments. RESULTS: Precursor data can be used effectively to plan and execute exploration traverse EVAs (plans included detailed location of science sites, high-fidelity imagery of the sites, and directions to landmarks of interest within a site). Operations concepts that

  19. Characterization of a lectin in human plasma analogous to bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, S; Baatrup, G; Friis-Christiansen, P

    1987-01-01

    sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under non-reducing conditions these fractions were shown to contain proteins of about 300,000. When human conglutinin-like protein, partially purified by affinity chromatography, was analysed unreduced by SDS-PAGE followed by western blotting...

  20. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology is a publisher of multidisciplinary peer-reviews original research works and critical reviews on interdisciplinary studies in Biotechnology, Agriculture, Food and Environment interface; and is published twice a year. It serves scientists in the field of Agriculture, Food science and Technology; ...

  1. Biotechnology in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamer, Dean H; Kung, Shain-dow

    1989-01-01

    ... and Shain-dow Kung Center for Agricultural Biotechnology Maryland Biotechnology Institute Department of Botany University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China National Academy of Sciences National Academy Press Washington, DC 1989 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from bo...

  2. Molecularly imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction of ephedrine and analogs from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasáková, Martina; Thiébaut, Didier; Jandera, Pavel; Pichon, Valérie

    2009-04-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized and evaluated to selectively extract ephedrine from human plasma. The MIP synthesis was performed in chloroform with methacrylic acid as a functional monomer and the target alkaloid as a template molecule. The resulting MIP was applied to the selective extraction of ephedrine from a pure aqueous medium. A recovery about 74% was obtained using the MIP with only 7% on the nonimprinted polymer (NIP). A very straightforward selective SPE procedure was then successfully applied to the direct extraction of ephedrine from spiked human plasma with a high extraction recovery (68%) on the MIP with no recovery on the NIP. Moreover, the MIP was used for the selective extraction of catecholamine neurotransmitters, i.e. adrenaline and noradrenaline.

  3. Histopathological Analogies in Chronic Pulmonary Lesions between Cattle and Humans: Basis for an Alternative Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ramírez-Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the natural cases of pneumonia in feedlot cattle are characterized by a longer clinical course due to chronic lung lesions. Microscopically, these lesions include interstitial fibroplasia, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and epithelial metaplasia of the airways. Herein, the aim was to review, under a medical perspective, the pathologic mechanisms operating in these chronic pneumonic lesions in calves. Based on the similarities of these changes to those reported in bronchiolitis obliterans/organising pneumonia (BO/OP and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in human beings, calves are proposed as an alternative animal model.

  4. Protective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Glutathione in a Human Epidermal Model Exposed to a Mustard Gas Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paromov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard or mustard gas (HD and its monofunctional analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, or “half-mustard gas,” are alkylating agents that induce DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. HD/CEES are rapidly absorbed in the skin causing extensive injury. We hypothesize that antioxidant liposomes that deliver both water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants protect skin cells from immediate CEES-induced damage via attenuating oxidative stress. Liposomes containing water-soluble antioxidants and/or lipid-soluble antioxidants were evaluated using in vitro model systems. Initially, we found that liposomes containing encapsulated glutathione (GSH-liposomes increased cell viability and attenuated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in HaCaT cells exposed to CEES. Next, GSH-liposomes were tested in a human epidermal model, EpiDerm. In the EpiDerm, GSH-liposomes administered simultaneously or 1 hour after CEES exposure (2.5 mM increased cell viability, inhibited CEES-induced loss of ATP and attenuated changes in cellular morphology, but did not reduce caspase-3 activity. These findings paralleled the previously described in vivo protective effect of antioxidant liposomes in the rat lung and established the effectiveness of GSH-liposomes in a human epidermal model. This study provides a rationale for use of antioxidant liposomes against HD toxicity in the skin considering further verification in animal models exposed to HD.

  5. Temporal Evolution of Design Principles in Engineering Systems: Analogies with Human Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb, Kalyanmoy; Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2012-01-01

    portray certain common design principles. In this paper, we consider a 14-variable bi-objective design optimization of a MEMS device and identify a number of such common design principles through a recently proposed automated innovization procedure. Although these design principles are found to exist...... among near-Paretooptimal solutions, the main crux of this paper lies in a demonstration of temporal evolution of these principles during the course of optimization. The results reveal that certain important design principles start to evolve early on, whereas some detailed design principles get...... constructed later during optimization. Interestingly, there exists a simile between evolution of design principles with that of human evolution. Such information about the hierarchy of key design principles should enable designers to have a deeper understanding of their problems....

  6. Modern Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  7. Elevated Levels of DNA Strand Breaks Induced by a Base Analog in the Human Cell Line with the P32T ITPA Variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisertreiger, Irina S.-R.; Menezes, Miriam R.; Randazzo, James; Pavlov, Youri I.

    2010-01-01

    Base analogs are powerful antimetabolites and dangerous mutagens generated endogenously by oxidative stress, inflammation, and aberrant nucleotide biosynthesis. Human inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) hydrolyzes triphosphates of noncanonical purine bases (i.e., ITP, dITP, XTP, dXTP, or their mimic: 6-hydroxyaminopurine (HAP) deoxynucleoside triphosphate) and thus regulates nucleotide pools and protects cells from DNA damage. We demonstrate that the model purine base analog HAP induces DNA breaks in human cells and leads to elevation of levels of ITPA. A human polymorphic allele of the ITPA, 94C->A encodes for the enzyme with a P32T amino-acid change and leads to accumulation of nonhydrolyzed ITP. The polymorphism has been associated with adverse reaction to purine base-analog drugs. The level of both spontaneous and HAP-induced DNA breaks is elevated in the cell line with the ITPA P32T variant. The results suggested that human ITPA plays a pivotal role in the protection of DNA from noncanonical purine base analogs. PMID:20936128

  8. Elevated Levels of DNA Strand Breaks Induced by a Base Analog in the Human Cell Line with the P32T ITPA Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina S.-R. Waisertreiger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Base analogs are powerful antimetabolites and dangerous mutagens generated endogenously by oxidative stress, inflammation, and aberrant nucleotide biosynthesis. Human inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA hydrolyzes triphosphates of noncanonical purine bases (i.e., ITP, dITP, XTP, dXTP, or their mimic: 6-hydroxyaminopurine (HAP deoxynucleoside triphosphate and thus regulates nucleotide pools and protects cells from DNA damage. We demonstrate that the model purine base analog HAP induces DNA breaks in human cells and leads to elevation of levels of ITPA. A human polymorphic allele of the ITPA, 94C->A encodes for the enzyme with a P32T amino-acid change and leads to accumulation of nonhydrolyzed ITP. The polymorphism has been associated with adverse reaction to purine base-analog drugs. The level of both spontaneous and HAP-induced DNA breaks is elevated in the cell line with the ITPA P32T variant. The results suggested that human ITPA plays a pivotal role in the protection of DNA from noncanonical purine base analogs.

  9. Human-Animal Trust as an Analog for Human-Robot Trust: A Review of Current Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Business Research 2008, 61, 444−454. 16 Kerepesi, A.; Kubinvi, E.; Jonsson, G. K.; Magnusson, M. S.; Miklosi, A. Behavioral Comparison of Human...Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 2009b, 30, 92–102. Miller, C. A. Trust in Adaptive Automation: The Role of Etiquette in Tuning Trust via

  10. The role of plant biotechnology methods in sustainable agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Trajkova, Fidanka

    2016-01-01

    Plant biotechnology is set of different scientific approaches and methods that are utilized to improve and modify plants for human and environmental benefit. Plant biotechnology can be used to meet the increasing need for food by improving yields, improving the nutritional quality of crops and recuing the impact on the environment. Plant biotechnology can assist to creation of varieties resistant to frost, droughts and floods, pests and disease, and other abiotic and biotic stresses. Similarl...

  11. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  12. Drawing Analogies in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2014-01-01

    Reconsidering the origin, process, and outcomes of analogy-making suggests practices for environmental educators who strive to disengage humans from the isolating illusions of dichotomizing frameworks. We can view analogies as outcomes of developmental processes within which human subjectivity is but an element, threading our sense of self back…

  13. [Biotechnological aspects in "loco" larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inestrosa, N C; Labarca, R; Perelman, A; Campos, E O; Araneda, R; González, M; Brandan, E; Sánchez, J P; González-Plaza, R

    1990-10-01

    The biology of planktotrophic larvae of Concholepas concholepas is the main bottleneck towards developing biotechnologies to rear this muricid. Data concerning planktonic larvae development, diets and environmental signals triggering larval settlement and recruitment is scarce. We have begun the study of the molecular and cell biology of embryos, larvae and recruits having as a final goal, the development of appropriate biotechnologies to rear this gastropod. First, an inverse ratio between BuChE and AChE enzyme activities was established. This ratio may be a precise developmental marker for this species. Second, for the first time a phosphoinositide related regulatory pathway is reported in a muricid, opening a new approach to the biotechnological management of larvae. Third, the relation between sulfate in sea water and larval motility was studied. Concentrations below 125 microM sulfate decreases larval motility. The sulfate is incorporated in proteoglycans which participate in different developmental phenomena. Lastly, a genomic Concholepas concholepas DNA sequence, similar to that of a human growth hormone probe was detected. This is very interesting since growth factors are key molecules during development, growth and are involved in food conversion rates in fish and also, in a variety of marine invertebrates.

  14. Multispectroscopic Investigation of the Interaction Between two Ruthenium(II) Arene Complexes of Curcumin Analogs and Human Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Peng, Shushu; Zhu, Fawei; Lei, Xiaolin; Xiao, Qi; Su, Wei; Liu, Yi; Huang, Chusheng; Zhang, Lixia

    2016-02-01

    The interaction between two ruthenium(II) arene complexes of curcumin analogs and human serum albumin (HSA) was systematically investigated by multispectroscopic techniques. The fluorescence spectral results indicated that two complexes quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through static quenching mode. The quenching constants and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters at different temperatures were calculated. The binding interactions of two complexes with HSA resulted in the complex formation of complex-HSA, and the van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bond interactions played major roles in the complex stabilization. The distances between HSA and two complexes were obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer theory. The site competitive replacement experiments illustrated that two complexes mainly bounded with HSA on site I. The results of synchronous fluorescence spectra, three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, FT-IR spectra, and circular dichroism spectra indicated that the secondary structure of HSA was changed at the present of two complexes. The results of mass spectrometry further validated the binding interaction and the binding number between two complexes and HSA.

  15. Analog earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository

  16. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  17. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  18. New World Vistas: Air and Space Power for the 21st Century, Human Systems and Biotechnology Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Intelligence gathering and reconnaissance - Small units (e.g., robotic birds/ bees ) - Miniature UAV target detectors/hunters/and trackers - Larger...reconnaissance - Small units (e.g., Robotic birds/ bees ) - Miniature UAV target detectors/hunters/trackers - Larger Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3 UAVs for...stimulants like caffeine or amphetamines • Members of this class of drugs are now in testing in humans for safety and efficacy Applications • Primary

  19. Pan-pathway based interaction profiling of FDA-approved nucleoside and nucleobase analogs with enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Egeblad

    Full Text Available To identify interactions a nucleoside analog library (NAL consisting of 45 FDA-approved nucleoside analogs was screened against 23 enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism using a thermal shift assay. The method was validated with deoxycytidine kinase; eight interactions known from the literature were detected and five additional interactions were revealed after the addition of ATP, the second substrate. The NAL screening gave relatively few significant hits, supporting a low rate of "off target effects." However, unexpected ligands were identified for two catabolic enzymes guanine deaminase (GDA and uridine phosphorylase 1 (UPP1. An acyclic guanosine prodrug analog, valaciclovir, was shown to stabilize GDA to the same degree as the natural substrate, guanine, with a ΔT(agg around 7°C. Aciclovir, penciclovir, ganciclovir, thioguanine and mercaptopurine were also identified as ligands for GDA. The crystal structure of GDA with valaciclovir bound in the active site was determined, revealing the binding of the long unbranched chain of valaciclovir in the active site of the enzyme. Several ligands were identified for UPP1: vidarabine, an antiviral nucleoside analog, as well as trifluridine, idoxuridine, floxuridine, zidovudine, telbivudine, fluorouracil and thioguanine caused concentration-dependent stabilization of UPP1. A kinetic study of UPP1 with vidarabine revealed that vidarabine was a mixed-type competitive inhibitor with the natural substrate uridine. The unexpected ligands identified for UPP1 and GDA imply further metabolic consequences for these nucleoside analogs, which could also serve as a starting point for future drug design.

  20. Pan-pathway based interaction profiling of FDA-approved nucleoside and nucleobase analogs with enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeblad, Louise; Welin, Martin; Flodin, Susanne; Gräslund, Susanne; Wang, Liya; Balzarini, Jan; Eriksson, Staffan; Nordlund, Pär

    2012-01-01

    To identify interactions a nucleoside analog library (NAL) consisting of 45 FDA-approved nucleoside analogs was screened against 23 enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism using a thermal shift assay. The method was validated with deoxycytidine kinase; eight interactions known from the literature were detected and five additional interactions were revealed after the addition of ATP, the second substrate. The NAL screening gave relatively few significant hits, supporting a low rate of "off target effects." However, unexpected ligands were identified for two catabolic enzymes guanine deaminase (GDA) and uridine phosphorylase 1 (UPP1). An acyclic guanosine prodrug analog, valaciclovir, was shown to stabilize GDA to the same degree as the natural substrate, guanine, with a ΔT(agg) around 7°C. Aciclovir, penciclovir, ganciclovir, thioguanine and mercaptopurine were also identified as ligands for GDA. The crystal structure of GDA with valaciclovir bound in the active site was determined, revealing the binding of the long unbranched chain of valaciclovir in the active site of the enzyme. Several ligands were identified for UPP1: vidarabine, an antiviral nucleoside analog, as well as trifluridine, idoxuridine, floxuridine, zidovudine, telbivudine, fluorouracil and thioguanine caused concentration-dependent stabilization of UPP1. A kinetic study of UPP1 with vidarabine revealed that vidarabine was a mixed-type competitive inhibitor with the natural substrate uridine. The unexpected ligands identified for UPP1 and GDA imply further metabolic consequences for these nucleoside analogs, which could also serve as a starting point for future drug design.

  1. 77 FR 16846 - National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity Meeting; Office of Biotechnology Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity Meeting; Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of.... Contact Person: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705...

  2. 75 FR 31795 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Amended Notice of Meeting ACTION: Notice of cancellation of... information. Dated: May 26, 2010. Jacqueline Corrigan-Curay, Acting Director, Office of Biotechnology...

  3. Commercialization of animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B

    2003-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  4. Inhibition of the UCI-107 human ovarian carcinoma cell line by a targeted cytotoxic analog of somatostatin, AN-238.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonowski, A; Schally, A V; Koppan, M; Nagy, A; Arencibia, J M; Csernus, B; Halmos, G

    2001-09-01

    Cytotoxic analogs of somatostatin (SST), such as AN-238, which consists of 2-pyrrolinodoxorubicin (AN-201) linked to the SST carrier RC-121, can be targeted to tumors that express SST receptors. Because SST receptors are present in ovarian carcinoma cells, the authors evaluated the effect of AN-238 on the UCI-107 ovarian carcinoma cell line. An analysis of microsatellite alleles in cocultured SST receptor positive and receptor negative cells was used for the demonstration of in vitro targeting. The toxicity and antitumor effects of AN-238 in nude mice bearing UCI-107 human ovarian tumors were investigated with or without pharmacologic inhibition of serum carboxylesterases (CE). The expression of SST receptor subtypes was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, and the binding affinity of AN-238 to SST receptors was determined by radioligand assays. The proliferation of SST receptor positive UCI-107 cells in vitro was inhibited preferentially by AN-238. AN-238 showed high-affinity binding to UCI-107 tumor membranes at a 50% inhibition concentration of 3.39 nM +/- 0.74 nM. In vivo, the volume and weights of UCI-107 tumors treated with AN-238 were decreased by more than 60% (P < 0.05) compared with controls. Cytotoxic radical AN-201 or the unconjugated mixture of AN-201 with carrier RC-121 had no significant effects on tumors and were toxic. In mice with inhibited serum CE activity, AN-201 at 400 nmol/kg was lethal, whereas AN-238 at a total dose of 800 nmol/kg caused only 22% mortality and reduced tumor weight by 69% and volume by 70% (P < 0.05 vs. control). Targeted chemotherapy with the SST conjugate AN-238 inhibits SST receptor positive experimental ovarian tumors. AN-238 may provide a new treatment modality for patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.

  5. Curcumin analog EF24 induces apoptosis via ROS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guodong; Feng, Chen; Vinothkumar, Rajamanickam; Chen, Weiqian; Dai, Xuanxuan; Chen, Xi; Ye, Qingqing; Qiu, Chenyu; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yi; Liang, Guang; Xie, Yubo; Wu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy with high mortality rates worldwide. Improved therapeutic strategies with minimal adverse side effects are urgently needed. In this study, the anti-tumor effects of EF24, a novel analog of the natural compound curcumin, were evaluated in colorectal cancer cells. The anti-tumor activity of EF24 on human colon cancer lines (HCT-116, SW-620, and HT-29) was determined by measures of cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function. The contribution of ROS in the EF24-induced anti-tumor activity was evaluated by measures of H 2 O 2 and pretreatment with an ROS scavenger, NAC. The findings indicated that EF24 treatment dose-dependently inhibited cell viability and caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in all the tested colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EF24 treatment induced apoptosis effectively via enhancing intracellular accumulation of ROS in both HCT-116 and SW-620 cells, but with moderate effects in HT-29 cells. We found that EF24 treatment decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in the colon cancer cells, leading to the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Also, EF24 induced activation of caspases 9 and 3, causing decreased Bcl-2 protein expression and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Pretreatment with NAC, a ROS scavenger, abrogated the EF24-induced cell death, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting an upstream ROS generation which was responsible for the anticancer effects of EF24. Our findings support an anticancer mechanism by which EF24 enhanced ROS accumulation in colon cancer cells, thereby resulting in mitochondrial membrane collapse and activated intrinsic apoptotic signaling. Thus, EF24 could be a potential candidate for therapeutic application of colon cancer.

  6. Agricultural Communications Students' Awareness and Perceptions of Biotechnology Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.; Dunsford, Deborah W.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural communications students (n=330) from 11 universities were most aware of biotechnology effects on food, less aware of effects on health and the environment. They were somewhat accepting of genetic modifications for plants, not humans. Sources of biotechnology knowledge were science classes, labs, and university professors' beliefs.…

  7. Cyber Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    strategic thinking about cy- berwar reflects an awareness that this duality applies to the virtual domain as well. The history of air campaigns over the...life sciences he iden- tifies analogies in the realms of biodiversity and herd immunity . And then he flips the (seemingly unusable) notion of economic...suggests that diver- sity of cyber systems makes the defense as weak as its weakest component. 30. Herd Immunity If a sufficient proportion of the

  8. Biotechnological production of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-08-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important aromatic flavor compounds used in foods, beverages, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals and is produced on a scale of more than 10 thousand tons per year by the industry through chemical synthesis. Alternative biotechnology-based approaches for the production are based on bioconversion of lignin, phenolic stilbenes, isoeugenol, eugenol, ferulic acid, or aromatic amino acids, and on de novo biosynthesis, applying fungi, bacteria, plant cells, or genetically engineered microorganisms. Here, the different biosynthesis routes involved in biotechnological vanillin production are discussed.

  9. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  10. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer

    2010-01-01

    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  11. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  12. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology Through Self Study ... Author Affiliations. Narayan S Punekar1. Molecular Enzymology Group, Biotechnology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  13. Biotechnology, genetic conservation and sustainable use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    technologies. The use of biotechnological tools and “bioprospecting” will open new vistas in medicine, agriculture, silviculture, horticulture, environment and other important issues. This paper reviews ... E-mail: rankangani@yahoo.com. human needs ..... (iii) Particle mediated gene transfer, using gene gun. REFERENCES.

  14. The dynamic and ubiquitous nature of biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... plant breeding, and tissue culture and the medical sciences in the area of gene therapy, production of bioactive products for the quick diagnosis and treatment of diseases, this paper discusses the use of biotechnology in other areas of human endeavours like computer science, physics, mathematics,.

  15. Biotechnology from Microbiology Perspective | Mendie | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology has scaled many hurdles of advancement into a science that now covers all realms of human endeavours. It has been elevated into a pedestal of solving many of man's intractable problems of survival in this planet. Researches in biotech has now been intensified in medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, ...

  16. National Center for Biotechnology Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to NCBI Sign Out NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information Search database All Databases Assembly Biocollections BioProject ... Search Welcome to NCBI The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access ...

  17. MPACT OF GENETIC BIOTECHNOLOGIES ON BIOSECURITY AND FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICA-BADEA DELIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity is a relatively new area global, being promoted by the significant results, particularly in the last 20 years, fundamental and applied research. Biotechnology is a collection of techniques that can be used in the agro-food, medical and industrial. The paper examines the potential impact of transgenic biotechnology, vulnerabilities, implications, benefits and risks, quality of life and health. Introduction into the environment, cross-border trade and use of GMOs resulting from modern biotechnology can untoward effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, food security and safety. It is openly acknowledged that modern biotechnology has great potential to promote human welfare, in particular, to overcome the critical needs in food, agriculture and human health. Establish appropriate safety measures when using genetically modified organisms (biosecurity policy, regulatory regime, scientific and technical measures is a highly sensitive process, aiming both to maximize the benefits of modern biotechnology and to minimize potential risk

  18. 76 FR 27653 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Biotechnology Activities is updating Appendix D of the NIH Guidelines to include additional lines of... obtained from the Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health, 6705 Rockledge Drive...

  19. 75 FR 42114 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Action Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... the breeding of a transgenic rodent and a non-transgenic rodent). The NIH Office of Biotechnology... Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, MSC...

  20. 75 FR 69687 - Office of Biotechnology Activities Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... to the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA). The data to be considered for certifying a new... same e-mail address or by fax at 301-496-9839 or sent by U.S. mail to the Office of Biotechnology...

  1. 78 FR 12074 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Actions Under the NIH Guidelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... recommendations of the RAC, the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) concluded that more specific guidance... address or by fax at 301-496-9839 or by mail to the Office of Biotechnology Activities, National...

  2. Biotechnological advances in Lilium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; Tuyl, van Jaap M.

    2016-01-01

    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to

  3. TSCA Biotechnology Notifications Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notifications Table lists only those submissions received under the Biotechnology Regulation, beginning in 1998. From the Table, you can link to a brief summary of select submission and, in many cases, to a fact sheet on the decision reached by OPPT.

  4. Biotechnology of trees: Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.D. Nelson; W.A. Powell; S.A. Merkle; J.E. Carlson; F.V. Hebard; N Islam-Faridi; M.E. Staton; L. Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been practiced on chestnuts (Castanea spp.) for many decades, including vegetative propagation, controlled crossing followed by testing and selection, genetic and cytogenetic mapping, genetic modifi cation, and gene and genome sequencing. Vegetative propagation methods have ranged from grafting and rooting to somatic embryogenesis, often in...

  5. Biotechnology in weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  6. African Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB), a new broad-based journal, was founded on two key tenets: To publish the most exciting research in all areas of applied biochemistry, industrial microbiology, molecular biology, genomics and proteomics, food and agricultural technologies, and metabolic engineering. Secondly ...

  7. Biotechnology: interferon patent contested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, C; Beardsley, T

    Biogen, a biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Mass., and Geneva, Switzerland, has been notified by the European Patent Office that it will receive a product patent for its alpha interferon synthesized by recombinant DNA technology. Genentech, a San Francisco company which claims priority for producing mature interferon, is planning a vigorous appeal of the decision.

  8. Biotechnology and Innovation Systems

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    His main research activities are connected to science and technology policies and national and local systems of innovation in less developed countries. ...... of the Brazilian productive structure in energy-related areas – bio-fuels, oil, and so on – biotechnology research has started to target energy-related activities. However ...

  9. Protective effect of curcumin and its analog on γ-radiation induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in cultured human lymphocytes and isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Venugopal P.

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in an imbalance of the pro-oxidant and antioxidant status in the cells, which is suggested to culminate in cell death. The present work was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of curcumin and its analog on γ-radiation induced toxicity in cultured human lymphocytes and rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of rats by collagenase perfusion. The cellular changes were estimated using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH). The DNA damage was analyzed by comet assay, cytokinesis blocked micro nucleus assay, dicentric aberrations and translocation frequency. Cell cycle distribution and measurement of the percentage of apoptotic cells were performed by flow cytometry analysis. To investigate whether the dietary agents like curcumin and its analog have a role on cell cycle regulation, we analyzed the changes in cell cycle profiles by using fluorescence activated cell sorter. The increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with the increase dose (1, 2 and 4 Gy) of γ-radiation in cultured lymphocytes and hepatocytes. TBARS were increased significantly, whereas the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in γ-irradiated hepatocytes and lymphocytes. On pretreatment with curcumin and its analog (1, 5 and 10 μg/ml) showed a significant decrease in the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. The antioxidant enzymes were increased significantly along with the levels of GSH. The maximum protection of hepatocytes and lymphocytes was observed at 10 μg/ml curcumin and 5 μg/ml curcumin analog pretreatment. Thus, pretreatment with curcumin and its analog helps in protecting the normal hepatocytes and lymphocytes against γ-radiation induced cellular

  10. Prospects of a mathematical theory of human behavior in complex man-machine systems tasks. [time sharing computer analogy of automobile driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing automobile driving in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy. The range of applicability of existing mathematical models is considered with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in actual complex tasks. Other mathematical tools so far not often applied to man machine systems are also discussed. The mathematical descriptions at least briefly considered here include utility, estimation, control, queueing, and fuzzy set theory as well as artificial intelligence techniques. Some thoughts are given as to how these methods might be integrated and how further work might be pursued.

  11. Analysis of the local dynamics of human insulin and a rapid-acting insulin analog by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Shiori; Ahn, Joomi; Hashii, Noritaka; Hirose, Kenji; Kawasaki, Nana

    2013-06-01

    Human insulin and insulin lispro (lispro), a rapid-acting insulin analog, have identical primary structures, except for the transposition of a pair of amino acids. This mutation results in alterations in their higher order structures, with lispro dissociating more easily than human insulin. In our previous study performed using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX/MS), differences were observed in the rates and levels of deuteration among insulin analog products, which were found to be related to their self-association stability. In this study, we carried out peptide mapping of deuterated human insulin and lispro to determine the regions responsible for these deuteration differences and to elucidate the type of structural changes that affect their HDX reactivity. We identified A3-6 and B22-24 as the 2 regions that showed distinct differences in the number of deuterium atoms incorporated between human insulin and lispro. These regions contain residues that are thought to participate in hexamerization and dimerization, respectively. We also determined that over time, the differences in deuteration levels decreased in A3-6, whereas they increased in B22-24, suggesting a difference in the dynamics between these 2 regions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mass spectrometry in structural biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang Jiang; Liu, Lei; Chaudhry, Muhammad Tausif; Wang, Lei; Chen, Ying Guang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, He; Chen, Jian

    Environmental biotechnology has emerged as an important measure to tackle the environmental pollution as China experiences great economic success. Over the past decade, much emphasis has been paid to the following fields in environmental biotechnology: microbial degradation of toxic and organic chemicals, bio-treatment of wastewater, waste recycling. The Chinese researchers have done a lot of work to understand the natural degradation processes for organic and toxic compounds and finally to clean these compounds from polluted environments. For the treatment of wastewater, many new processes were proposed and optimized to meet the more strict effluent standards in China. Finally, more and more attention has been paid to the reuse of discharged wastes. In this chapter we review the development in the above fields.

  13. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...... for the production of non-native 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP).3HP can be chemically dehydrated into acrylic acid and thus can serve as a biosustainable building block for acrylate-based products (diapers, acrylic paints, acrylic polymers, etc.)...

  14. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  15. BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOPRODUCTS "HEALING-1"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Artiukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article presents data on the development of technology and qualitative research, bio-products «Healing-1». One of the promising directions in food biotechnology is the development of new integrated starter-based consortia of microorganisms, which have higher activity compared with cultures prepared using pure cultures. So it was interesting studies on the development of new biotechnology and bio-based microbial consortium of lactic acid bacteria. Based on the analysis of biotechnological properties of native cultures created a new consortium of microorganisms containing lactic acid streptococci and bacilli, allowing the maximum extent possible to implement the physiological, biochemical and technological potential of microorganisms. Scientifically substantiated and experimentally developed a new biotechnology production of bioproducts «Healing-1», obtained on the basis of microbial consortium with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Experimentally investigated quality parameters of organic food «Healing-1» using a new microbial consortium as freshly prepared and during storage. Found that antagonistic activity of microflora bio «Healing-1» with respect to pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, as well as its resistance to substances in the gastrointestinal tract of man is more pronounced compared to bioproducts obtained using a separate starter, members of the microbial consortium. It should be noted a more pronounced synthesis of exopolysaccharides in bioproduct «Healing-1», which leads to increased viscosity of the system and improves the consistency of bio. New bioproducts have good organoleptic characteristics and contain a high number of viable cells of lactic acid bacteria. High stability and survival of lactic acid bacteria during storage. In the study of attacked proteins bioproducts digestive proteinases «in vitro» found that the fermentation of milk microbial consortium increases the digestibility

  16. Practicing environmental biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E.Rittmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental biotechnology involves ″managing microbial communities to provide services to society″.Its success comes from partnering with prokaryotic microorganisms,whose wideranging metabolic capabilities can be harnessed to destroy pollutants and to generate renewable materials.Partnering with microorganisms requires that we understand them well,and important advances in molecular microbial ecology,analytical chemistry,and mathematical modeling are making it possible to look inside the black box of microbial communities.Also crucial is translating the understanding to biotechnological processes that ″work for the microorganisms so that they work for us″.Successful translation demands novel reactor designs,application of advanced materials,and partnering with practitioners and users.The Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology,founded in at Arizona State University in 2005,brings together the science and engineering tools in an interdisciplinary environment.The Center emphasizes teamwork and collaborations with research and practice partners around the world.Three new technologies illustrate how the Center applies these principles to ″work for the microorganisms″:the H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR for reducing many oxidized contaminants in water,the microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs for converting organic wastes into renewable products,and Intimately Coupled PhotoBioCatalysis (ICPBC to detoxify very difficult to biodegrade organic pollutants.

  17. Biotechnology in soybean breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather will help provide new discoveries and contribute to improved nutritional value and yield enhancement through greater resistance to disease, herbicides and abiotic factors. In soybeans, biotechnology has and will continue to play a valuable role in public and private soybean breeding programs. Based on the availability and combination of conventional and molecular technologies, a substantial increase in the rate of genetic gain for economically important soybean traits can be predicted in the next decade. In this paper, a short review of technologies for molecular markers analysis in soybean is given as well as achievements in the area of genetic transformation in soybean.

  18. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  19. Analogy, explanation, and proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, John E.; Licato, John; Bringsjord, Selmer

    2014-01-01

    People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic) whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof). What do the cognitive operations underlying the inference that the milk is sour have in common with the proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This seemingly small difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning to understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence. PMID:25414655

  20. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.

  1. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y

    2011-09-01

    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen

    2014-08-01

    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  3. Biotechnology: reality or dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of molecular biology and molecular genetics, especially of the recombinant DNA technology enabled improvement of experimental methods that provide manipulation within a cell-free system, such as cell and tissue cultures. Such methods resulted in the development of different new technologies with specific properties in relation to the conventional definitions. According to PERSLEY and lantin (2000 the following components are essential for the contemporary biotechnology: (i genomics - a molecular characterization of all genes and gene products of an organism (ii bioinformatics - the assembly of data from genomic analysis into accessible forms; (iii transformation - the introduction of genes controlling a trait of interest into a genome of a desired organism (micro organisms, plants, animal systems. By the application of cotemporary biotechnology new methods in the field of diagnostic are developed such as rapid and more accurate identification of the presence and absence of genes in the genome of the organism of interest (identification of pathogens prenatal diagnostics, molecular markers assisted breeding for plants, etc. The traits of an organism are determined by its genetic material, i.e. by a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. watson and crick (1953 were the first scientists to describe the structure of DNA as a double-stranded helix. Higher organisms contain a set of linear DNA molecules - chromosomes and a full set of chromosomes of an organism is a genome. Each genome is divided into a series of functional units, i.e. genes. The traits of an organism depend on genes, but their expression depends not only on genes but also on many other factors, including whether a gene, controlling the trait, expresses, specific cells in which it expresses and specially the mode by which the gene and its product interact with the environment. A special aspect within the application of biotechnology occurs as an interaction of a

  4. Biotechnology and bioforensics new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This Brief covers broad areas of Applied Biology specifically into the domains of Biotechnology/Biomedicine and Forensic Science. Chapters included here would also explain the role of bioinformatics in protein and gene characterization, modeling of the protein structure, survey related to the chromosomal effect on Human Disorders like Diabetes and Cardiac Problems. This Brief is full of Innovative Literature like Use of Microbes in Electricity Production, Brain connection to Type 2 Diabetes etc. Interesting issues in Forensic biology and the aspects of Bioforensics like STR profiling of exhumed bones makes this brief truly useful and informative for Researchers. It also includes the advancements and new ideologies in understanding crop improvements & crop quality. This Brief witnesses Innovative Research related to the Bio and Agri software development too which are capable of accelerating Insilico biological data analysis.

  5. Activity of nicotinic acid substituted nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) analogs in a human cell line: difference in specificity between human and sea urchin NAADP receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ramadan A; Zhelay, Tetyana; Trabbic, Christopher J; Walseth, Timothy F; Slama, James T; Giovannucci, David R; Wall, Katherine A

    2014-02-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is the most potent Ca2+ mobilizing second messenger that has been identified. We have previously shown that NAADP analogs substituted at the 5-position of nicotinic acid were recognized by the sea urchin receptor at low concentration, whereas the 4- substituted analogs were not as potent. However, to date the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these analogs has not been addressed in mammalian systems. Thus, we asked whether these structurally modified analogs behave similarly in an NAADP-responsive mammalian cell line (SKBR3) using microinjection and single cell fluorescent imaging methods. Novel "caged" 4- and 5-substituted NAADP analogs that were activated inside the cell by flash photolysis resulted in Ca2+ mobilizing activity in SKBR3 cells in a concentration dependent manner, but with reduced effectiveness compared to unmodified NAADP. The SAR in mammalian SKBR3 cells was quite different from that of sea urchin and may suggest that there are differences between NAADP receptors in different species or tissues. Importantly, these data indicate that modifications at the 4- and 5-position of the nicotinic acid ring may lead to the development of functional photoaffinity labels that could be used for receptor localization and isolation in mammalian systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How Japanese students reason about agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Fumi; Macer, Darryl

    2004-10-01

    Many have claimed that education of the ethical issues raised by biotechnology is essential in universities, but there is little knowledge of its effectiveness. The focus of this paper is to investigate how university students assess the information given in class to make their own value judgments and decisions relating to issues of agricultural biotechnology, especially over genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Analysis of homework reports related with agricultural biotechnology after identification of key concepts and ideas in each student report is presented. The ideas were sorted into different categories. The ideas were compared with those in the reading materials using the same categories. These categories included: concern about affects on humans, affects on the environment, developing countries and starvation, trust in industry, responsibility of scientists, risk perception, media influence, need for (international) organizations or third parties, and information dissemination. What was consistent through the different years was that more than half of the students took a "neutral" position. A report was scored as "neutral" when the report included both the positive and negative side of an issue, or when the student could not make a definite decision about the use of GMOs and GM food. While it may be more difficult to defend a strong ''for" or "against" position, some students used logical arguments successfully in doing so. Sample comments are presented to depict how Japanese students see agricultural technology, and how they value its application, with comparisons to the general social attitudes towards biotechnology.

  7. Industrial use of Biotechnology in Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    But, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the past the biological research was restricted within the boundary of laboratories and the subsequent results were often employed merely to strengthen the research knowledge and information. In life sciences, the traditional methods took years in proving the biological facts. At the leg of last century, the practical application of biotechnology provided a powerful tool to mankind that has led to a revolutionary change in modern agriculture. In the present era, the economy of agro-based countries all over the world is dependent on the adaptation of the pattern of crop-production and their improvement through modern biotechnological means. Biotechnology is in fact the name of a combination of techniques involved to make the full use of living organisms, either in total or in part, for the benefit of plants, animals or human beings. Progressive and dynamic investors, associated with researches/scientists, should be encouraged to step forward for the mobilization of emerging trend of biotechnological industry in agriculture. Researcher/Scientists of biological programmes in Pakistan should be encouraged at Government level to come forward in contributing their tremendous role to boost Agr- industry in the country. (author)

  8. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  9. Yeast biotechnology: teaching the old dog new tricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are regarded as the first microorganisms used by humans to process food and alcoholic beverages. The technology developed out of these ancient processes has been the basis for modern industrial biotechnology. Yeast biotechnology has gained great interest again in the last decades. Joining the potentials of genomics, metabolic engineering, systems and synthetic biology enables the production of numerous valuable products of primary and secondary metabolism, technical enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins. An overview of emerging and established substrates and products of yeast biotechnology is provided and discussed in the light of the recent literature. PMID:24602262

  10. Religious voices in biotechnology: the case of gene patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M J

    1999-01-01

    On 18 May 1995, nearly 200 religious leaders joined with leading biotechnology critic Jeremy Rifkin in a press conference named the "Joint Appeal against Human and Animal Patenting," a move that many within the biotechnology industry could only interpret as seeking to inhibit biotechnological advance. What moral and religious concerns motivated this challenge to patenting? How could the biotechnology industry understand and respectfully attend to these concerns? What values were at play in the debates that followed the joint appeal? What lessons for future dialogue can be learned from attempts at conversation between the opposing positions? This essay is a report from a Hastings Center research project that accepted the task of addressing these questions. Specifically, the project focused on the patenting of human genetic material, a subset of the issues raised by the joint appeal.

  11. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology Through Self Study and Open Learning Graduates. Narayan S Punekar. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 77-78 ...

  12. Properties of Subsurface Soil Cores from Four Geologic Provinces Surrounding Mars Desert Research Station, Utah: Characterizing Analog Martian Soil in a Human Exploration Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Direito, S.; Foing, B.

    2011-01-01

    The DOMEX program is a NASA-MMAMA funded project featuring simulations of human crews on Mars focused on science activities that involve collecting samples from the subsurface using both manual and robotic equipment methods and analyzing them in the field and post mission. A crew simulating a human mission to Mars performed activities focused on subsurface science for 2 weeks in November 2009 at Mars Desert Research Station near Hanksville, Utah --an important chemical and morphological Mars analog site. Activities performed included 1) survey of the area to identify geologic provinces, 2) obtaining soil and rock samples from each province and characterizing their mineralogy, chemistry, and biology; 3) site selection and reconnaissance for a future drilling mission; 4) deployment and testing of Mars Underground Mole, a percussive robotic soil sampling device; and 5) recording and analyzing how crew time was used to accomplish these tasks. This paper summarizes results from analysis of soil cores

  13. Curcumin Analog DK1 Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro through Mitochondria-Dependent Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazirul Mubin Aziz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is one of the primary malignant bone tumors that confer low survival rates for patients even with intensive regime treatments. Therefore, discovery of novel anti-osteosarcoma drugs derived from natural products that are not harmful to the normal cells remains crucial. Curcumin is one of the natural substances that have been extensively studied due to its anti-cancer properties and is pharmacologically safe considering its ubiquitous consumption for centuries. However, curcumin suffers from a poor circulating bioavailability, which has led to the development of a chemically synthesized curcuminoid analog, namely (Z-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (DK1. In this study, the cytotoxic effects of the curcumin analog DK1 was investigated in both U-2OS and MG-63 osteosarcoma cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and cell death was microscopically examined via acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI double staining. Flow cytometer analysis including Annexin V/Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, cell cycle analysis and JC-1 were adapted to determine the mode of cell death. Subsequently in order to determine the mechanism of cell death, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and proteome profiling was carried out to measure the expression of several apoptotic-related genes and proteins. Results indicated that DK1 induced U-2 OS and MG-63 morphological changes and substantially reduced cell numbers through induction of apoptosis. Several apoptotic genes and proteins were steadily expressed after treatment with DK1; including caspase 3, caspase 9, and BAX, which indicated that apoptosis occurred through a mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, DK1 could be considered as a potential candidate for an anti-osteosarcoma drug in the near future, contingent upon its ability to induce apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell lines.

  14. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  15. Forest biotechnology and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopriva, S.; Rennenberg, H. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Baumphysiologie

    2000-02-01

    Forest biotechnology is a relatively young area of applied plant molecular biology that presently concentrates on (i) manipulation of lignin content and composition, (ii) pathogen-, pesticide-, and stress resistance, and (iii) improvement of growth. Transgenic trees have a great potential also in other areas of applied and environmental research, e.g. in the production of phytochemicals and in phytoremediation of polluted soils. To implement the use of biotechnology for these and other purposes improvement of the acceptance in public of genetic engineering general, and the application of transgenic technologies to trees species in particular, is essential. (orig.) [German] Bei der forstlichen Biotechnologie handelt es sich um ein vergleichsweise junges Gebiet der angewandten pflanzlichen Molekularbiologie, das sich derzeit auf folgende Fragestellungen konzentriert: (a) Manipulation des Ligningehalts und der Lignin-Zusammensetzung; (b) Verbesserung der Resistenz gegenueber Pathogenen, Pestiziden und verschiedenen Formen von Stress; (c) Verbesserung des Wachstums. Transgene Baeume haben darueber hinaus ein grosses Potential fuer andere Gebiete der angewandten Forschung und der Umweltforschung, so z.B. fuer die Produktion pflanzlicher Naturstoffe und die Phytosanierung belasteter Boeden. Um die Verwendung biotechnologischer Verfahren fuer diese und andere Zwecke zu implementieren, ist es dringend erforderlich, die Akzeptanz von 'genetic engineering' im allgemeinen und den Einsatz von Technologien zur Herstellung transgener Baeume im besonderen in der Oeffentlichkeit zu verbessern. (orig.)

  16. Significant human beta-cell turnover is limited to the first three decades of life as determined by in vivo thymidine analog incorporation and radiocarbon dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, S; Kushner, J A; Buchholz, B A; Meeker, A K; Stein, G M; Hsieh, M; Kirby, M; Pechhold, S; Liu, E H; Harlan, D M; Tisdale, J F

    2010-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus results from an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. The turnover rate of adult human β-cells remains unknown. We employed two techniques to examine adult human islet β-cell turnover and longevity in vivo. Subjects enrolled in National Institutes of Health clinical trials received thymidine analogs [iododeoxyuridine (IdU) or bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)] 8 d to 4 yr prior to death. Archival autopsy samples from 10 patients (aged 17-74 yr) were employed to assess β-cell turnover by scoring nuclear analog labeling within insulin-staining cells. Human adult β-cell longevity was determined by estimating the cells' genomic DNA integration of atmospheric (14)C. DNA was purified from pancreatic islets isolated from cadaveric donors; whole islet prep DNA was obtained from a 15-yr-old donor, and purified β-cell DNA was obtained from two donors (ages 48 and 80 yr). (14)C levels were then determined using accelerator mass spectrometry. Cellular "birth date" was determined by comparing the subject's DNA (14)C content relative to a well-established (14)C atmospheric prevalence curve. In the two subjects less than 20 yr of age, 1-2% of the β-cell nuclei costained for BrdU/IdU. No β-cell nuclei costained in the eight patients more than 30 yr old. Consistent with the BrdU/IdU turnover data, β-cell DNA (14)C content indicated that the "birth date" of cells occurred within the subject's first 30 yr of life. Under typical circumstances, human β-cells and their cellular precursors are established by young adulthood.

  17. Limits Legal Ethics of Biotechnology in XXI Century

    OpenAIRE

    Morgato, Melissa Cabrini; Machado, Edinilson Donisete

    2016-01-01

    The present paper discusses the ethical and legal consequences of developments in biotechnological science, with a focus on the field of genetic engineering. We classify situations originating from developments in biotechnological science depending on their ethical and legal justification, based on Habermas’ reflections in his work “The future of human nature”, and differentiate between negative eugenics, representing ethically and legally justified situations, given their therapeutic potenti...

  18. Biotechnology, genetic conservation and sustainable use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agriculture, silviculture, horticulture, environment and other important issues. This paper reviews some biotechnological tools that could be harnessed in promoting conservation and sustainable use of bioresources. Key words: Bioresources, genetic conservation, biotechnology. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2 (12) ...

  19. Fostering biotechnology entrepreneurship in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred

    the growing science base, biotechnology companies can successfully be located and thrive in these countries. The rewards which can flow from the successful exploitation of research should encourage investment in biotechnological activities. Key words: Entrepreneur, biotechnology, investment. INTRODUCTION.

  20. Department of Biotechnology | Women in Science | Initiatives ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Biotechnology. Department of Biotechnology Awards; National Woman Bioscientist Awards; Biotech Product & Process Development & Commercialization Awards; Awardees of National Bioscience Awards for Career Development. Department of Biotechnology Awardees. Year: 2012 Innovative Young ...

  1. An update on the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: focus on insulin detemir, a long-acting human insulin analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Raslova

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Katarina RaslovaMetabolic Center Ltd and Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovak RepublicAbstract: Basal insulin analogs are used to minimize unpredictable processes of NPH insulin. Modification of the human insulin molecule results in a slower distribution to peripheral target tissues, a longer duration of action with stable concentrations and thus a lower rate of hypoglycemia. Insulin detemir is a basal insulin analog that provides effective therapeutic options for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. For glycemic control, no significant differences were found in HbA1c levels compared with NPH and insulin glargine. It is comparable with insulin glargine in significantly reducing rates of all types of hypoglycemia. Clinical studies have demonstrated that detemir is responsible for significantly lower within-subject variability and no or less weight gain than NPH insulin and glargine. Recent pharmacodynamic studies have shown that detemir can be used once daily in many patients with diabetes. Together with patient-friendly injection devices and dose adjustments, it provides a treatment option with the potential to lower the key barriers of adherence to insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes. Recent guidelines for treatment of type 2 diabetes suggest starting intensive therapy of hyperglycemia at an early stage of diabetes and recommend therapeutic options that provide the possibility of reaching HbA1c goals individually, with a low risk of hypoglycemia or other adverse effects of treatment. The properties of insulin detemir match these requirements.Keywords: insulin analog, insulin detemir, diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, within-subject variability

  2. Environmental biotechnology: concepts and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winter, Josef; Jördening, Hans-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    ... for the - development of new and environmentally improved production technologies with less purified substrates and generation of fewer by-products - bioproducts as non-toxic matters, mostly recyclable. Some impressive studies on industrial applications of biotechnology are published in two OECD reports, which summarized, that biotechnology has the potential o...

  3. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  4. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  5. Preface: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology with emphasis on bio-based products and agricultural biotechnology. Recent energy and food crises point out the importance of bio-based products from ren...

  6. Biotechnology Outlines for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolella, Mary Jane

    1991-01-01

    Presents a course outline for the study of biotechnology at the high school or college level. The outline includes definitions, a history, and the vocabulary of biotechnology. Presents a science experiment to analyze the effects of restriction enzymes on DNA. (MDH)

  7. Analog Tools in Digital History Classrooms: An Activity-Theory Case Study of Learning Opportunities in Digital Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Kalani

    2017-01-01

    Digital humanities is often presented as classroom savior, a narrative that competes against the idea that technology virtually guarantees student distraction. However, these arguments are often based on advocacy and anecdote, so we lack systematic research that explores the effect of digital-humanities tools and techniques such as text mining,…

  8. Analogy, Explanation, and Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHummel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  9. Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Effects of gamma-rays and glucose analogs on the energy metabolism of a cell line derived from human cerebral glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwarakanath, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of gamma-rays and glucose analogs, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), 5-thio-D-glucose (5-TG) and 3-O-methyl glucose (3-O-MG) on cellular energy metabolism have been studied in a cell line, derived from a human cerebral glioma, by analysing intermediates of glycolysis and some important nucleotides (ATP, NAD etc.) using the technique of isotachophoresis. Gamma-irradiation induced a transient decrease in the nucleotide levels accompanied by an accumulation of sugar phosphates, the nucleotide levels recovering in a few hours post-irradiation. 2-DG inhibited glycolysis and reduced the nucleotide levels of irradiated as well as unirradiated cells in a concentration-dependent manner both in presence and absence of respiration, whereas 5-TG and 3-O M G did not show significant effects in the presence of respiration. Reduced energy status observed with 2-DG under respiratory proficient conditions was completely reversed in 2 hr following its removal, whereas such a recovery was not observed in the absence of respiration. These results have important implications in the energy-linked modifications of tumor radiation response using glucose analogs. (author). 36 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  12. 75 FR 2549 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director, National..., Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2010-730 Filed 1-14-10; 8:45...

  13. 75 FR 15713 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy..., Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2010-6970 Filed 3-29...

  14. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Vascular Branching in the Human Retina with a Ground-Based Microgravity Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vu, Amanda C.; Zanello, Susana B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Taibbi, Giovanni; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2016-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment were discovered recently in astronauts following spaceflight, especially after long-duration missions.1 We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within the retinal vasculature that precede visual and other ocular impairments. We therefore are analyzing retinal vessels in healthy subjects with NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software2 before and after head-down tilt (HDT), a ground-based microgravity analog For our preliminary study of masked images, two groups of venous trees with and without small veins (G=7) were clearly identified by VESGEN analysis. Upon completing all images and unmasking the subject status of pre- and post- HDT, we will determine whether differences in the presence or absence of small veins are important correlates, and perhaps reliable predictors, of other ocular and physiological adaptations to prolonged HDT and microgravity. Greater peripapillary retinal thickening was measured following 70-day HDT bed rest than 14-day HDT bed rest, suggesting that time of HDT may increase the amount of optic disc swelling.3 Spectralis OCT detected retinal nerve fiber layer thickening post HDT, without clinical signs of optic disc edema. Such changes may have resulted from HDT-induced cephalad fluid shifts. Clinical methods for examining adaptive microvascular remodeling in the retina to microgravity space flight are currently not established.

  15. Biotechnological advances in Lilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; van Tuyl, Jaap M

    2016-09-01

    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability. Different DNA molecular markers have been developed for rapid indirect selection, genetic diversity evaluation, mutation detection and construction of Lilium linkage map. Some disease resistance-QTLs are already mapped on the Lilium linkage map. This review presents latest information on in vitro propagation, genetic engineering and molecular advances made in lily.

  16. Dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), a saturated structural analog of capsaicin, induces autophagy in human cancer cells in a catalase-regulated manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seon Hee; Kim, Young Soon; Lim, Sung Chul; Hou, Yi Feng; Chang, In Youb; You, Ho Jin

    2008-11-01

    Although capsaicin, a pungent component of red pepper, is known to induce apoptosis in several types of cancer cells, the mechanisms underlying capsaicin-induced cytotoxicity are unclear. Here, we showed that dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), an analog of capsaicin, is a potential inducer of autophagy. DHC was more cytotoxic than capsaicin in HCT116, MCF-7 and WI38 cell lines. Capsaicin and DHC did not affect the sub-G(1) apoptotic peak, but induced G(0)/G(1) arrest in HCT116 and MCF-7 cells. DHC caused the artificial autophagosome marker GFP-LC3 to redistribute and upregulated expression of autophagy-related proteins. Blocking of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3MA) as well as siRNA Atg5 induced a high level of caspase-3 activation. Although pretreatment with zVAD completely inhibited caspase-3 activation by 3MA, it did not prevent cell death. DHC-induced autophagy was enhanced by zVAD pretreatment, as shown by increased accumulation of LC3-II protein. DHC attenuated basal ROS levels through catalase induction; this effect was enhanced by antioxidants, which increased both LC3-II expression and caspase-3 activation. The catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT) abrogated DHC-induced expression of LC3-II, overexpression of the catalase gene increased expression of LC3-II protein, and knockdown decreased it. Additionally, DHC-induced autophagy was independent of p53 status. Collectively, DHC activates autophagy in a p53-independent manner and that may contribute to cytotoxicity of DHC.

  17. In vitro analog of human bone marrow from 3D scaffolds with biomimetic inverted colloidal crystal geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Joan E; Cortiella, Joaquin; Lee, Jungwoo; Niles, Jean A; Cuddihy, Meghan; Wang, Shaopeng; Bielitzki, Joseph; Cantu, Andrea; Mlcak, Ron; Valdivia, Esther; Yancy, Ryan; McClure, Matthew L; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2009-02-01

    In vitro replicas of bone marrow can potentially provide a continuous source of blood cells for transplantation and serve as a laboratory model to examine human immune system dysfunctions and drug toxicology. Here we report the development of an in vitro artificial bone marrow based on a 3D scaffold with inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) geometry mimicking the structural topology of actual bone marrow matrix. To facilitate adhesion of cells, scaffolds were coated with a layer of transparent nanocomposite. After seeding with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), ICC scaffolds were capable of supporting expansion of CD34+ HSCs with B-lymphocyte differentiation. Three-dimensional organization was shown to be critical for production of B cells and antigen-specific antibodies. Functionality of bone marrow constructs was confirmed by implantation of matrices containing human CD34+ cells onto the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with subsequent generation of human immune cells.

  18. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  19. FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY - SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the integral application of biological and engineering sciences for the technological use of living organisms, biologically active acellular structures and molecular analogues for the production of goods and services.The role of biotechnology is very important in the food industry; this is a biotechnology because agro-food raw materials are biological products and therefore their conservation until consumption, fresh or industrialization involves the control of the enzymatic activity of the vegetal and animal tissues or of the microflora contamination.

  20. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  1. Effects of abaloparatide, a human parathyroid hormone-related peptide analog, on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Benjamin Z; O'Dea, Louis St L; Zanchetta, José R; Kumar, Prasana; Banks, Kathleen; McKay, Kathleen; Lyttle, C Richard; Hattersley, Gary

    2015-02-01

    Abaloparatide is a novel synthetic peptide analog of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) that is currently being developed as a potential anabolic agent in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study sought to assess the effects of abaloparatide on bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Multi-center, multi-national, double-blind placebo controlled trial in which postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive 24 weeks of treatment with daily sc injections of placebo, abaloparatide, 20, 40, or 80 μg, or teriparatide, 20 μg. A 24-week extension was also performed in a subset of subjects. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (n = 222). BMD by dual-x-ray absorptiometry and biochemical markers of bone turnover. At 24 weeks, lumbar spine BMD increased by 2.9, 5.2, and 6.7% in the abaloparatide, 20-, 40-, and 80-μg groups, respectively, and 5.5% in the teriparatide group. The increases in the 40- and 80-μg abaloparatide groups and the teriparatide group were significantly greater than placebo (1.6%). Femoral neck BMD increased by 2.7, 2.2, and 3.1% in abaloparatide, 20-, 40-, and 80-μg groups, respectively, and 1.1% in the teriparatide group. The increase in femoral neck BMD with abaloparatide, 80 μg was significantly greater than placebo (0.8%). Total hip BMD increased by 1.4, 2.0, and 2.6% in the abaloparatide, 20-, 40-, and 80-μg groups, respectively. The total hip increases in the 40- and 80-μg abaloparatide groups were greater than both placebo (0.4%) and teriparatide (0.5%). Compared with placebo, 24 weeks of daily sc abaloparatide increases BMD of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, the abaloparatide-induced BMD increases at the total hip are greater than with the marketed dose of teriparatide. These results support the further investigation of abaloparatide as an anabolic therapy in postmenopausal

  2. A REVIEW OF HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN ISSUES OBSERVED DURING ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL AND DIGITAL-TO-DIGITAL MIGRATIONS IN U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.

    2017-05-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is developing a scientific basis through targeted research and development (R&D) to support the U.S. nuclear power plant (NPP) fleet in extending their existing licensing period and ensuring their long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security. Over the last several years, human factors engineering (HFE) professionals at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have supported the LWRS Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway across several U.S. commercial NPPs in analog-to-digital migrations (i.e., turbine control systems) and digital-to-digital migrations (i.e., Safety Parameter Display System). These efforts have included in-depth human factors evaluation of proposed human-system interface (HSI) design concepts against established U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) design guidelines from NUREG-0700, Rev 2 to inform subsequent HSI design prior to transitioning into Verification and Validation. This paper discusses some of the overarching design issues observed from these past HFE evaluations. In addition, this work presents some observed challenges such as common tradeoffs utilities are likely to face when introducing new HSI technologies into NPP hybrid control rooms. The primary purpose of this work is to distill these observed design issues into general HSI design guidance that industry can use in early stages of HSI design.

  3. Bryostatin and its synthetic analog, picolog rescue dermal fibroblasts from prolonged stress and contribute to survival and rejuvenation of human skin equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tapan K; Wender, Paul A; Alkon, Daniel L

    2018-02-01

    Skin health is associated with the day-to-day activity of fibroblasts. The primary function of fibroblasts is to synthesize structural proteins, such as collagen, extracellular matrix proteins, and other proteins that support the structural integrity of the skin and are associated with younger, firmer, and more elastic skin that is better able to resist and recover from injury. At sub-nanomolar concentrations (0.03-0.3 nM), bryostatin-1 and its synthetic analog, picolog (0.1-10 nM) sustained the survival and activation of human dermal fibroblasts cultured under the stressful condition of prolonged serum deprivation. Bryostatin-1 treatment stabilized human skin equivalents (HSEs), a bioengineered combination of primary human skin cells (keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts) on an extracellular matrix composed of mainly collagen. Fibroblasts activated by bryostatin-1 protected the structural integrity of HSEs. Bryostatin-1 and picolog prolonged activation of Erk in fibroblasts to promote cell survival. Chronic stress promotes the progression of apoptosis. Dermal fibroblasts constitutively express all components of Fas associated apoptosis, including caspase-8, an initiator enzyme of apoptosis. Prolong bryostatin-1 treatment reduced apoptosis by decreasing caspase-8 and protected dermal fibroblasts. Our data suggest that bryostatin-1 and picolog could be useful in anti-aging skincare, and could have applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Public attitude towards modern biotechnology | Amin | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the literature related to the main idea of the study, rooting from the definition of biotechnology, global status of commercialized biotechnology products, and global and local public attitudes towards modern biotechnology and past models for attitude towards modern biotechnology. The first section of the ...

  5. Immunoassays in monitoring biotechnological drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygax, D; Botta, L; Ehrat, M; Graf, P; Lefèvre, G; Oroszlan, P; Pfister, C

    1996-08-01

    For the evaluation and interpretation of pharmacokinetic data reliable quantitative determinations are a requirement that can only be met by well-characterized and fully validated analytical methods. To cope with these requirements a method is being established that is based on an integrated and automated fiber-optic biospecific interaction analysis system (FOBIA) for immunoassays. Performance characteristics of this system used in monitoring of recombinant hirudin (CGP 39 393) are presented. Recombinant hirudin is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of human thrombin. Owing to its size and charge, recombinant hirudin is mainly eliminated by glomerular filtration. But only a fraction of the hirudin dose seems to be reabsorbed at the proximal tubule by luminal endocytosis and hydrolyzed by lysosomal enzymes, leaving approximately 50% of the dose to be extracted in the urine. Thus, renal clearance of recombinant hirudin in the absence of renal insufficiency appears to depend primarily on the glomerular filtration rate. During a 3-month i.v. tolerability study in dogs, some of the dogs developed antibodies against recombinant hirudin. The hirudin-antibody complex accumulated in plasma and apparent hirudin plasma concentrations were therefore much higher than expected from single-dose kinetics. Hirudin captured by antibodies showed an extended half-life and the hirudin-antibody complex is still pharmacologically active, as demonstrated by the observed increase in thrombin time. In conclusion, only appropriate analytical methods allow adequate monitoring and pharmacokinetic characterization of biotechnology drugs in biological materials.

  6. Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    1995-12-31

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Biodiversity, biotechnologies and the philosophy of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleni, Lodovico

    2004-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that in front of the development of biotechnology and of the capacity of techniques of altering the living, there is still a very old philosophy of biology. A rapid historical view is given where the rise and diffusion of the reductionistic paradigm is presented and the connections between this paradigm and biotechnologies are traced. Curiously biotechnologies are still based on the philosophy of F. Bacon. Then the necessity of a new paradigm in biology based on the recent discoveries of complexity is underlined. It is reminded that the main discovery of science of the XX century is that we are living in a small planet of limited resources and frail equilibriums. This discovery asks for a different view of the scientific progress, more linked to the conservation of the Biosphere than to its alteration. Stability is the task for the future interactions of human-kind with nature. For this reason the relationships between stability and diversity are summarised. Finally, as the species is the main step of Biodiversity, a brief discussion of the problems posed by the altering of species barriers is presented.

  8. BIOÉTICA Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA: LO HUMANO ENTRE DOS PARADIGMAS BIOÉTICA E BIOTECNOLOGIA: O HUMANO ENTRE DOIS PARADIGMAS BIOETHICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY: THE HUMAN BETWEEN TWO PARADIGMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Roland Schramm

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo intenta analizar algunos aspectos interaccionales entre biotecnología y bioética, así como esclarecer el rol paradigmático de estas disciplinas en la visión antropológica del hombre contemporáneo y de futuras generaciones humanas. Sugerimos que la biotecnología, sobre todo a través de la intervención genética, cuestiona ciertas constantes antropológicas y debe ser acompañada por una reflexión bioética dotada de perspectivas esclarecedoras y propositivas, que incluyan la regulación social de los proyectos biotecnológicos, la ponderación de beneficios y riesgos en sus aspectos de sustentabilidad social y ética, la propuesta de mecanismos decisionales vinculantes, el control prudente de las propias actividades regulatorias y la promoción de la equidad en el acceso a los bienes generados por la biotecnocienciaEste trabalho procura analisar alguns aspectos de interação entre biotecnologia e bioética, assim como esclarecer o elenco paradigmático destas disciplinas na visão antropológica do homem contemporâneo e de futuras gerações. Entendemos que a biotecnologia, sobretudo através da intervenção genética, questiona certas constantes antropológicas e deve ser acompanhada de reflexão bioética dotada de perspectivas esclarecedoras e propositivas que incluam a regulação social dos projetos biotecnológicos, a ponderação de riscos e benefícios nos aspectos de sustentabilidade social e ética, a proposta de mecanismos decisionais vinculantes, o controle prudente das próprias atividades reguladoras e a promoção da equidade no acesso aos benefícios gerados pela biotecnociênciaThis paper intends to analyse some of the interactions that occur between biotechnology and bioethics, considering that both disciplines have a truly paradigmatic character that influences the anthropologic views of modern man and future human generations. We suggest that biotechnology, especially in the form of genetic

  9. Environmental biotechnology for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, W

    2002-03-14

    In the post-industrial society, waste management is integrated in the concepts of responsibility, reliability and continuity. Therefore industry and public office are obliged to implement the concepts of structured environmental management systems more and more strictly. The endpoints are dependent on the type of wastes and on the priorities set by society. They will with time evolve towards more restriction of all kinds of emissions. This will require increasing inputs of labour, information technology and energy into waste treatment and overall waste management. Particularly for aqueous and gaseous wastes that are not contained, continuously improving treatment with maximum re-use and minimum dissipation in the ecosphere will be the trend of the future. Moreover, the public in general and the individual citizen in particular will request to have (bio)assays to monitor regularly and autonomously the quality of his environment. Such advanced waste management requires considerable energy input. It thus may come in conflict with current concerns about CO2-emissions and the Kyoto agreements. Innovative approaches to combine waste management and the International Climate Change Partnership (ICCP) directives, for instance by implementing biological carbon sequestration, are therefore warranted. Biotechnology has a major role to play particularly in terms of advanced treatment down to ng/l-levels and in terms of validating the quality of the environment by means of powerful and intelligent bio-monitoring devices.

  10. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  11. The Integrated Impact of Diet on Human Immune Response, the Gut Microbiota, and Nutritional Status During Adaptation to a Spaceflight Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, G. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Young, M.; Kloeris, V.; Crucian, B.; Smith, S. M.; Lorenzi, H.

    2018-01-01

    Spaceflight impacts human physiology, including well documented immune system dysregulation. Diet, immune function, and the microbiome are interlinked, but diet is the only one of these factors that we have the ability to easily, and significantly, alter on Earth or during flight. As we understand dietary impacts on physiology more thoroughly, we may then improve the spaceflight diet to improve crew health and potentially reduce spaceflight-associated physiological alterations. It is expected that increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables and bioactive compounds (e.g., omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids) and therefore enhancing overall nutritional intake from the nominal shelf-stable, fully-processed space food system could serve as a countermeasure to improve human immunological profiles, the taxonomic profile of the gut microbiota, and nutritional status, especially where currently dysregulated during spaceflight. This interdisciplinary study will determine the effect of the current shelf-stable spaceflight diet compared to an "enhanced" shelf-stable spaceflight diet (25% more foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids, and more fruits, and vegetables in general). The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) 2017 missions, consisting of four 45-day missions with closed chamber confinement and realistic mission simulation in a high-fidelity mock space vehicle, will serve as a platform to replicate mission stressors and the effects on crew biochemistry, immunology, and the gut microbiome. Bio sampling of crewmembers is scheduled for selected intervals pre- and in-mission. Data collection also includes dietary intake recording. Outcome measures will include immune markers (e.g., peripheral leukocyte distribution, inflammatory cytokine profiles, T cell function), the taxonomic and metatranscriptomic profile of the gut microbiome, and nutritional status biomarkers and metabolites. Statistical evaluations will determine physiological

  12. A Deconvolution Protocol for ChIP-Seq Reveals Analogous Enhancer Structures on the Mouse and Human Ribosomal RNA Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Clement Mars

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and Massively Parallel Sequencing, or ChIP-Seq, has greatly advanced our genome-wide understanding of chromatin and enhancer structures. However, its resolution at any given genetic locus is limited by several factors. In applying ChIP-Seq to the study of the ribosomal RNA genes, we found that a major limitation to resolution was imposed by the underlying variability in sequence coverage that very often dominates the protein–DNA interaction profiles. Here, we describe a simple numerical deconvolution approach that, in large part, corrects for this variability, and significantly improves both the resolution and quantitation of protein–DNA interaction maps deduced from ChIP-Seq data. This approach has allowed us to determine the in vivo organization of the RNA polymerase I preinitiation complexes that form at the promoters and enhancers of the mouse (Mus musculus and human (Homo sapiens ribosomal RNA genes, and to reveal a phased binding of the HMG-box factor UBF across the rDNA. The data identify and map a “Spacer Promoter” and associated stalled polymerase in the intergenic spacer of the human ribosomal RNA genes, and reveal a very similar enhancer structure to that found in rodents and lower vertebrates.

  13. A Deconvolution Protocol for ChIP-Seq Reveals Analogous Enhancer Structures on the Mouse and Human Ribosomal RNA Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Jean-Clement; Sabourin-Felix, Marianne; Tremblay, Michel G; Moss, Tom

    2018-01-04

    The combination of Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and Massively Parallel Sequencing, or ChIP-Seq, has greatly advanced our genome-wide understanding of chromatin and enhancer structures. However, its resolution at any given genetic locus is limited by several factors. In applying ChIP-Seq to the study of the ribosomal RNA genes, we found that a major limitation to resolution was imposed by the underlying variability in sequence coverage that very often dominates the protein-DNA interaction profiles. Here, we describe a simple numerical deconvolution approach that, in large part, corrects for this variability, and significantly improves both the resolution and quantitation of protein-DNA interaction maps deduced from ChIP-Seq data. This approach has allowed us to determine the in vivo organization of the RNA polymerase I preinitiation complexes that form at the promoters and enhancers of the mouse ( Mus musculus ) and human ( Homo sapiens ) ribosomal RNA genes, and to reveal a phased binding of the HMG-box factor UBF across the rDNA. The data identify and map a "Spacer Promoter" and associated stalled polymerase in the intergenic spacer of the human ribosomal RNA genes, and reveal a very similar enhancer structure to that found in rodents and lower vertebrates. Copyright © 2018 Mars et al.

  14. Paper Analogies Enhance Biology Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to use paper analogies as models to illustrate various concepts in biology, human anatomy, and physiology classes. Models include biochemical paper models, protein papergrams, a paper model of early brain development, and a 3-D paper model of a eukaryotic cell. (AIM)

  15. Adult Human Pancreatic Islet Beta-Cells Display Limited Turnover and Long Lifespan as Determined by In-Vivo Thymidine Analog Incorporation and Radiocarbon Dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, S; Kushner, J A; Buchholz, B A; Meeker, A K; Stein, G M; Hsieh, M; Kirby, M; Pechhold, S; Liu, E H; Harlan, D M; Tisdale, J F

    2010-03-15

    Diabetes mellitus results from an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells. The adult human beta-cell's turnover rate remains unknown. We employed novel techniques to examine adult human islet beta-cell turnover and longevity in vivo. Subjects enrolled in NIH clinical trials received thymidine analogues [iododeoxyuridine (IdU) or bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)] 8-days to 4-years prior to death. Archival autopsy samples from ten patients (aged 17-74 years) were employed to assess beta-cell turnover by scoring nuclear analog labeling within insulin staining cells. Human adult beta-cell longevity was determined by estimating the cells genomic DNA integration of atmospheric carbon-14 ({sup 14}C). DNA was purified from pancreatic islets isolated from cadaveric donors; whole islet prep DNA was obtained from a 15 year old donor, and purified beta-cell DNA was obtained from two donors (age 48 and 80 years). {sup 14}C levels were then determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Cellular 'birth date' was determined by comparing the subject's DNA {sup 14}C content relative to a well-established {sup 14}C atmospheric prevalence curve. In the two subjects less than age 20 years, 1-2% of the beta-cell nuclei co-stained for BrdU/IdU. No beta-cell nuclei co-stained in the eight patients more than 30 years old. Consistent with the BrdU/IdU turnover data, beta-cell DNA {sup 14}C content indicated the cells 'birth date' occurred within the subject's first 30 years of life. Under typical circumstances, adult human beta-cells and their cellular precursors are established by young adulthood.

  16. Adult Human Pancreatic Islet Beta-Cells Display Limited Turnover and Long Lifespan as Determined by In-Vivo Thymidine Analog Incorporation and Radiocarbon Dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, S.; Kushner, J.A.; Buchholz, B.A.; Meeker, A.K.; Stein, G.M.; Hsieh, M.; Kirby, M.; Pechhold, S.; Liu, E.H.; Harlan, D.M.; Tisdale, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus results from an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells. The adult human beta-cell's turnover rate remains unknown. We employed novel techniques to examine adult human islet beta-cell turnover and longevity in vivo. Subjects enrolled in NIH clinical trials received thymidine analogues [iododeoxyuridine (IdU) or bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)] 8-days to 4-years prior to death. Archival autopsy samples from ten patients (aged 17-74 years) were employed to assess beta-cell turnover by scoring nuclear analog labeling within insulin staining cells. Human adult beta-cell longevity was determined by estimating the cells genomic DNA integration of atmospheric carbon-14 ( 14 C). DNA was purified from pancreatic islets isolated from cadaveric donors; whole islet prep DNA was obtained from a 15 year old donor, and purified beta-cell DNA was obtained from two donors (age 48 and 80 years). 14 C levels were then determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Cellular 'birth date' was determined by comparing the subject's DNA 14 C content relative to a well-established 14 C atmospheric prevalence curve. In the two subjects less than age 20 years, 1-2% of the beta-cell nuclei co-stained for BrdU/IdU. No beta-cell nuclei co-stained in the eight patients more than 30 years old. Consistent with the BrdU/IdU turnover data, beta-cell DNA 14 C content indicated the cells 'birth date' occurred within the subject's first 30 years of life. Under typical circumstances, adult human beta-cells and their cellular precursors are established by young adulthood.

  17. Siderophilic Cyanobacteria for the Development of Extraterrestrial Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; McKay, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    In-situ production of consumables (mainly oxygen) using local resources (In-Situ Resource Utilization-ISRU) will significantly facilitate current plans for human exploration and settlement of the solar system, starting with the Moon. With few exceptions, nearly all technologies developed to date have employed an approach based on inorganic chemistry. None of these technologies include concepts for integrating the ISRU system with a bioregenerative life support system and a food production system. Therefore, a new concept based on the cultivation of cyanobacteria (CB) in semi-closed biogeoreactor, linking ISRU, a biological life support system, and food production, has been proposed. The key feature of the biogeoreactor is to use lithotrophic CB to extract many needed elements such as Fe directly from the dissolved regolith and direct them to any technological loop at an extraterrestrial outpost. Our studies showed that siderophilic (Fe-loving) CB are capable to corrode lunar regolith stimulants because they secrete chelating agents and can tolerate [Fe] up to 1 mM. However, lunar and Martian environments are very hostile (very high UV and gamma-radiation, extreme temperatures, deficit of water). Thus, the selection of CB species with high potential for extraterrestrial biotechnologies that may be utilized in 15 years must be sponsored by NASA as soon as possible. The study of the genomes of candidate CB species and the metagenomes of the terrestrial environments which they inhabit is critical to make this decision. Here we provide preliminary results about peculiarities of the genomes of siderophilic CB revealed by analyzing the genome of siderophilic cyanobacterium JSC-1 and the metagenome of iron depositing hot spring (IDHS) Chocolate Pots (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA). It has been found that IDHS are richer with ferrous iron than the majority of hot springs around the world. Fe2+ is known to increase the magnitude of oxidative stress in prokaryotes

  18. Comparative in vitro and in vivo evaluation of two 64Cu-labeled bombesin analogs in a mouse model of human prostate adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.-S.; Zhang Xianzhong; Xiong Zhengming; Chen Xiaoyuan

    2006-01-01

    Bombesin (BBN), an analog of human gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), binds to the GRP receptor (GRPR) with high affinity and specificity. Overexpression of GRPR has been discovered in mostly androgen-independent human prostate tissues and, thus, provides a potential target for prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using 64 Cu-1,4,7,10-tetraazadodecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-[Lys 3 ]BBN to detect GRPR-positive prostate cancer. In this study, we compared the receptor affinity, metabolic stability, tumor-targeting efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of a truncated BBN analog 64 Cu-DOTA-Aca-BBN(7-14) with 64 Cu-DOTA-[Lys 3 ]BBN. Binding of each DOTA conjugate to GRPR on PC-3 and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells was evaluated with competitive binding assay using 125 I-[Tyr 4 ]BBN as radioligand. In vivo pharmacokinetics was determined on male nude mice subcutaneously implanted with PC-3 cells. Dynamic microPET imaging was performed to evaluate the systemic distribution of the tracers. Metabolic stability of the tracers in blood, urine, tumor, liver and kidney was studied using high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that 125 I-[Tyr 4 ]BBN has a K d of 14.8±0.4 nM against PC-3 cells, and the receptor concentration on PC-3 cell surface is approximately 2.7±0.1x10 6 receptors per cell. The 50% inhibitory concentration value for DOTA-Aca-BBN(7-14) is 18.4±0.2 nM, and that for DOTA-[Lys 3 ]BBN is 2.2±0.5 nM. DOTA-[Lys 3 ]BBN shows a better tumor contrast and absolute tumor activity accumulation compared to DOTA-Aca-BBN(7-14). Studies on metabolic stability for both tracers on organ homogenates showed that 64 Cu-DOTA-[Lys 3 ]BBN is relatively stable. This study demonstrated that both tracers are suitable for targeted PET imaging to detect the expression of GRPR in prostate cancer, while 64 Cu-DOTA-[Lys 3 ]BBN may have a better potential for clinical

  19. Analogy: Justification for Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacksteder, William

    1979-01-01

    Presents and defends the thesis that it is analogy which provides justification for any logic, and for any argument to the extent that it depends on logic for justification. Analogy acquires inept support from logic, but logic acquires adroit support from analogy. (JMF)

  20. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  1. Structural determinants of the catalytic inhibition of human topoisomerase IIα by salicylate analogs and salicylate-based drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Jason T; Kurz, Ebba U

    2014-06-15

    We previously identified salicylate as a novel catalytic inhibitor of human DNA topoisomerase II (topo II; EC 5.99.1.3) that preferentially targets the alpha isoform by interfering with topo II-mediated DNA cleavage. Many pharmaceuticals and compounds found in foods are salicylate-based. We have now investigated whether these are also catalytic inhibitors of topo II and the structural determinants modulating these effects. We have determined that a number of hydroxylated benzoic acids attenuate doxorubicin-induced DNA damage signaling mediated by the ATM protein kinase and inhibit topo II decatenation activity in vitro with varying potencies. Based on the chemical structures of these and other derivatives, we identified unique properties influencing topo II inhibition, including the importance of substitutions at the 2'- and 5'-positions. We extended our findings to a number of salicylate-based pharmaceuticals including sulfasalazine and diflunisal and found that both were effective at attenuating doxorubicin-induced DNA damage signaling, topo II DNA decatenation and they blocked stabilization of doxorubicin-induced topo II cleavable complexes in cells. In a manner similar to salicylate, we determined that these agents inhibit topo II-mediated DNA cleavage. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in topo II-mediated ATP-hydrolysis. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel function for the broader class of salicylate-related compounds and highlight the need for additional studies into whether they may impact the efficacy of chemotherapy regimens that include topo II poisons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prokaryotic Selectivity, Anti-endotoxic Activity and Protease Stability of Diastereomeric and Enantiomeric Analogs of Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Yong Hai; Lee, Bongju; Shin, Song Yub

    2012-01-01

    LL-37 is the only antimicrobial peptide (AMP) of the human cathelicidin family. In addition to potent antimicrobial activity, LL-37 is known to have the potential to inhibit lipolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic effects. To provide the stability to proteolytic digestion and increase prokaryotic selectivity and/or anti-endotoxic activity of two Lys/Trp-substituted 19-meric anti-microbial peptides (a4-W1 and a4-W2) designed from IG-19 (residues 13-31 of LL-37), we synthesized the diastereomeric peptides (a4-W1-D and a4-W2-D) with D-amino acid substitution at positions 3, 7, 10, 13 and 17 of a4-W1 and a4-W2, respectively and the enantiomeric peptides (a4-W1-E and a4-W2-E) composed D-amino acids. The diastereomeric peptides exhibited the best prokaryotic selectivity and effective protease stability, but no or less anti-endotoxic activity. In contrast, the enantiomeric peptides had not only prokaryotic selectivity and anti-endotoxic activity but also protease stability. Our results suggest that the hydrophobicity and α-helicity of the peptide is important for anti-endotoxic activity. In particular, the enantiomeric peptides showed potent anti-endotoxic and LPS-neutralizing activities comparable to that of LL-37. Taken together, both a4-W1-E and a4-W2-E holds promise as a template for the development of peptide antibiotics for the treatment of endotoxic shock and sepsis

  3. Prokaryotic Selectivity, Anti-endotoxic Activity and Protease Stability of Diastereomeric and Enantiomeric Analogs of Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Yong Hai; Lee, Bongju; Shin, Song Yub [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    LL-37 is the only antimicrobial peptide (AMP) of the human cathelicidin family. In addition to potent antimicrobial activity, LL-37 is known to have the potential to inhibit lipolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic effects. To provide the stability to proteolytic digestion and increase prokaryotic selectivity and/or anti-endotoxic activity of two Lys/Trp-substituted 19-meric anti-microbial peptides (a4-W1 and a4-W2) designed from IG-19 (residues 13-31 of LL-37), we synthesized the diastereomeric peptides (a4-W1-D and a4-W2-D) with D-amino acid substitution at positions 3, 7, 10, 13 and 17 of a4-W1 and a4-W2, respectively and the enantiomeric peptides (a4-W1-E and a4-W2-E) composed D-amino acids. The diastereomeric peptides exhibited the best prokaryotic selectivity and effective protease stability, but no or less anti-endotoxic activity. In contrast, the enantiomeric peptides had not only prokaryotic selectivity and anti-endotoxic activity but also protease stability. Our results suggest that the hydrophobicity and α-helicity of the peptide is important for anti-endotoxic activity. In particular, the enantiomeric peptides showed potent anti-endotoxic and LPS-neutralizing activities comparable to that of LL-37. Taken together, both a4-W1-E and a4-W2-E holds promise as a template for the development of peptide antibiotics for the treatment of endotoxic shock and sepsis.

  4. Curcumin analog WZ35 induced cell death via ROS-dependent ER stress and G2/M cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiuhua; Chen, Minxiao; Zou, Peng; Kanchana, Karvannan; Weng, Qiaoyou; Chen, Wenbo; Zhong, Peng; Ji, Jiansong; Zhou, Huiping; He, Langchong; Liang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy among men. The Discovery of new agents for the treatment of prostate cancer is urgently needed. Compound WZ35, a novel analog of the natural product curcumin, exhibited good anti-prostate cancer activity, with an IC 50 of 2.2 μM in PC-3 cells. However, the underlying mechanism of WZ35 against prostate cancer cells is still unclear. Human prostate cancer PC-3 cells and DU145 cells were treated with WZ35 for further proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and mechanism analyses. NAC and CHOP siRNA were used to validate the role of ROS and ER stress, respectively, in the anti-cancer actions of WZ35. Our results show that WZ35 exhibited much higher cell growth inhibition than curcumin by inducing ER stress-dependent cell apoptosis in human prostate cells. The reduction of CHOP expression by siRNA partially abrogated WZ35-induced cell apoptosis. WZ35 also dose-dependently induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, we found that WZ35 treatment for 30 min significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in PC-3 cells. Co-treatment with the ROS scavenger NAC completely abrogated the induction of WZ35 on cell apoptosis, ER stress activation, and cell cycle arrest, indicating an upstream role of ROS generation in mediating the anti-cancer effect of WZ35. Taken together, this work presents the novel anticancer candidate WZ35 for the treatment of prostate cancer, and importantly, reveals that increased ROS generation might be an effective strategy in human prostate cancer treatment. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1851-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  5. Producing and Recognizing Analogical Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

  6. Strategic management of biotechnology agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, S L

    1993-07-01

    The use of biologic response modifiers to demonstrate a value-driven approach to strategic management by pharmacists is described. To participate in decisions on the use of technology in their institutions, pharmacists must practice strategic management. This process includes environmental scanning, analysis of clinical and pharmacoeconomic data, and development of clinical management approaches. It is ideal for analyzing biologic response modifiers such as filgrastim and sargramostim. Emphasis must be placed on maximizing the fit among the products, the institution, and the health care environment. Pharmacists will find plentiful opportunities for clinical management with biotechnology agents. Practitioners who specialize in determining the total cost of care by using pharmacoeconomic methods are needed, as are practitioners trained to monitor the complicated biotechnology agents. Also, the institution needs to forecast accurately the impact of emerging biotechnology agents. If pharmacists can develop and control clinical, pharmacoeconomic, and reimbursement information databases for biotechnology agents, the pharmacy profession will be in a strong position to meet the challenges of biotechnology and realize the inherent opportunities.

  7. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  8. An emergent approach to analogical inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul H.; Flusberg, Stephen J.; Glick, Jeremy J.; Sternberg, Daniel A.

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, a growing number of researchers have proposed that analogy is a core component of human cognition. According to the dominant theoretical viewpoint, analogical reasoning requires a specific suite of cognitive machinery, including explicitly coded symbolic representations and a mapping or binding mechanism that operates over these representations. Here we offer an alternative approach: we find that analogical inference can emerge naturally and spontaneously from a relatively simple, error-driven learning mechanism without the need to posit any additional analogy-specific machinery. The results also parallel findings from the developmental literature on analogy, demonstrating a shift from an initial reliance on surface feature similarity to the use of relational similarity later in training. Variants of the model allow us to consider and rule out alternative accounts of its performance. We conclude by discussing how these findings can potentially refine our understanding of the processes that are required to perform analogical inference.

  9. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  10. The impact of industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2006-01-01

    In this review, the impact of industrial (or "white") biotechnology can have on our society and economy is discussed. An overview is given of industrial biotechnology and its applications in a number of product categories ranging from food ingredients, vitamins, bio-colorants, solvents, plastics and biofuels. The use of fossil resources is compared with renewable resources as the preferred feedstock for industrial biotechnology. A brief discussion is also given of the expected changes in society and technology, ranging from the shift in the supply of resources, the growing need for efficiency and sustainability of the production systems, changing consumer perception and behaviour and changing agricultural systems and practices. Many of these changes are expected to speed up the transition from a fossil-based to a bio-based economy and society.

  11. Of biotechnology and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2004-01-01

    Lessons learned from the arena of other genetic 'resources' (such as plants and animals) together with the past decade of experience in human genetic research requires a rethinking of policy approaches. Whether at the level of whole populations, the family or the individual, the determination of rights and responsibilities is necessarily situated in the context of relationships. From an appreciation of these relationships emerge ethical principles that reflect the complexity of both the human person and new technologies. The elaboration of principles such as individuality, mutuality, reciprocity, solidarity, equity, citizenry and universality foster the possibility that traditional human rights and bioethic principles can be interpreted in a new way so as to promote and protect human well-being.

  12. Sitaxsentan (ICOS-Texas Biotechnology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Wong, J R

    2001-04-01

    ICOS-Texas Biotechnology is developing the endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist, sitaxsentan, for the potential treatment of pulmonary hypertension, congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and subarachnoid hemorrhage [205713], [302200]. The compound is in phase IIa trials as an iv formulation for CHF and has completed phase I safety trials as an oral formulation [272071]. Phase II/III trials for pulmonary hypertension are planned for the first quarter of 2001 [3945711]. In June 2000, ICOS and Texas Biotechnology established a joint venture to develop and commercialize endothelin antagonists [370007]. US-05591761 was issued to Texas in January 1997, covering TBC-11251 and several related isomers [2309301.

  13. Patenting Biotechnological Inventions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raspor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The patent system has been able to provide the protection for the achievements of different technologies and in that way it has supported further development and growth of the industry where those achievements were implemented. Modern technologies like information technology and biotechnology with genetic engineering that appeared in the 70s have overgrown the frames of the existing patent system because of their exponential development during the last thirty years. Industry that invests a huge amount of money in these technologies, especially in the field of biotechnology, where the results are very uncertain, has started to claim changes in the patent system.

  14. States of uncertainty: governing the empire of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Ian

    2006-04-01

    The biotechnological revolution presents states and governments with a set of challenges that they have difficulty meeting. Part of the problem is associated with common perceptions of the speed, volume and the radical uncertainty of the new developments. Globalisation is also implicated, especially in relation to the development of the knowledge economy and the role of multinational actors. This in turn contributes to the apparent decline in the confidence of the public that national governments will be effective in addressing mounting concern about the dangers inherent in new techniques and products. Under these circumstances, 'normal' governance begins to look more like 'failure' governance. This article asks whether the effects of the biotechnological revolution on governance can adequately be explained by the critique of imperialism proposed by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, and whether the state is in danger of becoming implicated in sponsorship of modernist schemes to improve the human condition of the kind analysed by James E Scott. Biotechnology does appear to have imperial qualities, while there are strong reasons for states to see biotechnology as a feasible and desirable set of developments. For some critics of biotechnology, like Francis Fukuyama, this is a lethal combination, and the powers of the state should be used to stop biotechnological development. Others, by contrast and more pragmatically, propose a check on what the state will support by the application of precautionary principles. The article concludes that the association between the biotechnology empire and the state, combined with the inescapable duty of the state to be the risk manager of last resort, alerts us to the complexities of uncertainty at the same time as it renders a merely restrictive precautionary approach impracticable.

  15. Pharma Success in Product Development—Does Biotechnology Change the Paradigm in Product Development and Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Ronald P

    2016-01-01

    The biotechnology segment of the overall biopharma industry has existed for only about 40–45 years, as a driver of new product development. This driving force was initiated with the FDA approval of recombinant human insulin in 1982, originating from the Genentech company. The pharma industry in the early years of 1970s and 1980s engaged with biotechnology companies only to a small extent with their in-licensing of a few recombinant molecules, led by Roche, Eli Lilly, and Johnson and Johnson. However, subsequently and dramatically over the last 25 years, biotechnology has become a primary driver of product and technology innovation and has become a cornerstone in new product development by all biopharma companies. This review demonstrates these evolutionary changes regarding approved products, product pipelines, novelty of the products, FDA approval rates, product sales, financial R&D investments in biotechnology, partnerships, mergers and acquisitions, and patent issues. We now have about 300 biotechnology products approved in USA covering 16 medical disciplines and about 250 indications, with the engagement of 25 pharma companies, along with their biotechnology company innovators and partners. The biotechnology pipeline involves over 1000 molecules in clinical trials, including over 300 molecules associated with the top 10 pharma companies. Product approval rates by the FDA for biotechnology products are over double the rate for drugs. Yes, the R&D paradigm has changed with biotechnology now as one of the major focuses for new product development with novel molecules by the whole biopharma industry.

  16. Harmonizing the agricultural biotechnology debate for the benefit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology issues specific to the African public must include crop and animal productivity, food security, alleviation of poverty and gender equity, and must exclude political considerations. Food and its availability are basic human rights issues—for people without food, everything else is insignificant. Although we should ...

  17. Recognizing biotechnology as a tool for sustainable development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    issues that have been raised in the public domain with little distinction being made between biotechnology as a tool and genetically modified (GM) crops and foods as products, leading to the intense controversy about the perceived risks to human health and environment. This highlights the importance of having biosafety ...

  18. Biotechnology and industrial ecology: new challenges for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the strategies proposed to mitigate climate change is to lower dependency on fossil fuels by substituting renewable biomass. This strategy has several co-benefits for human health and the environment because it supports investments in agricultural biotechnology while reducing the adverse health impacts of ...

  19. The dynamic and ubiquitous nature of biotechnology | Soetan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the area of animal, plant breeding, and tissue culture and the medical sciences in the area of gene therapy, production of bioactive products for the quick diagnosis and treatment of diseases, this paper discusses the use of biotechnology in other areas of human endeavours like computer science, physics, mathematics, ...

  20. Ethical perception of modern biotechnology | Amin | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, they also stressed that humans do not have the absolute right to modify living things (mean score 3.55) and they perceived modern biotechnology as moderately risky (mean score 4.59), whilst they had moderate confidence in regulation (mean score 4.09) and stressed the high need for proper labelling of modern ...

  1. Biotechnology developments in Uganda and associated challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... biotechnology programmes and strengthening interactions among the actors both locally and internationally; integrating biotechnology into institutional programmes and regulatory instruments; putting in place technology management policies and developing capacities for their implementation; encouraging private sector ...

  2. Applied thermodynamics: A new frontier for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific career of one of the most outstanding scientists in molecular thermodynamics, Professor John M. Prausnitz at Berkeley, reflects the change in the agenda of molecular thermodynamics, from hydrocarbon chemistry to biotechnology. To make thermodynamics a frontier for biotechnology...

  3. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  4. [Importance of reproductive biotechnology in cattle in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenzycki, C; Stinshoff, H

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive biotechnology has manifold applications and includes a great innovation potential in livestock. Due to the global changes the new findings and techniques can aid to meet the future challenges. The use of biotechnology in animal production can guarantee enough high quality food for the whole population. Genetic resources of animals can be preserved via sperm and embryo banking. Early diagnosis of hereditary defects, generation of offspring with predetermined sex and the avoidance of animal transports for breeding employing shipment of frozen embryos will improve animal welfare. A special application is the use of animal models for human assisted reproductive technologies. Therefore, not only in Germany research related to the methodologies in reproductive biotechnology and their improvement need to be supported.

  5. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  6. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  7. The Future of Plant Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant biotechnology has been wildly successful and has literally transformed plant agriculture. There are still undulating concerns about safety and sustainability that critics demand to be addressed. In that light, there are some biotechnoloogies that are being developed that might not only improve...

  8. Acinetobacter: environmental and biotechnological applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among microbial communities involved in different ecosystems such as soil, freshwater, wastewater and solid wastes, several strains belonging to the genus of Acinetobacter have been attracting growing interest from medical, environmental and a biotechnological point of view. Bacteria of this genus are known to be ...

  9. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menéndez, E.; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2015), s. 163-182 ISSN 2306-5354 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Biotechnological applications * Bacterial cellulases * Cellulose degradation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  10. Biological Constraints in Algal Biotechnology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torzillo, G.; Pushparaj, B.; Masojídek, Jiří; Vonshak, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2003), s. 338-348 ISSN 0006-3592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 123100001 Keywords : outdoor cultures * photobioreactors * oxygen stress Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.173, year: 2003

  11. Re-Framing Biotechnology Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Alison

    Biotechnology is about to spill the banks of federal regulation. New genetic engineering techniques like CRISPR-Cas9 promise revolutionary breakthroughs in medicine, agriculture, and public health—but those techniques would not be regulated under the terms of the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology. This revolutionary moment in biotechnology offers an opportunity to correct the flaws in the framework, which was hastily patched together at the advent of the technology. The framework has never captured all relevant technologies, has never satisfied the public that risk is being effectively managed, and has never been accessible to small companies and publicly-funded labs that increasingly are positioned to make radical, life-saving innovations. This Article offers a proposal for new legislation that would reshape biotechnology regulation to better meet these goals. Key reforms include tying regulation to risk rather than technology category; consolidating agency review; capturing distinct regulatory expertise through inter-agency consultations; creating a clearinghouse to help guide applicants and disseminate information; setting up more comprehensive monitoring of environmental effects; and providing federal leadership to fill key data gaps and address socio-economic impacts.

  12. Ethical perception of modern biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... ensure food security and to boost the country's economy. (Latifah et al., 2007). Successful development and commercialisation of modern biotechnology products in. *Corresponding author. E-mail: nilam@ukm.my, Tel: + 603-. 89216907. Fax: +603-89252976. Abbreviations: GMOs, Genetically modified ...

  13. Seminar on Nano-biotechnology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 12. Seminar on Nano-biotechnology. Information and Announcements Volume 13 Issue 12 December 2008 pp 1191-1191. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/12/1191-1191 ...

  14. Biotechnological sulphide removal with oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for biotechnological sulphide removal from wastewater, in which it is attempted to convert sulphide into elemental sulphur by colourless sulphur bacteria. The toxicity, corrosive properties, unpleasant odor and high oxygen demand of sulphide

  15. Immunoassays in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunoassays have broad applications for a wide variety of important biological compounds and environmental contaminants. Immunoassays can detect the presence of an antigen in the human body, a pollutant in the environment, or a critical antibody in a patient’s serum to develop a...

  16. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  17. From analog to digital

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J

    2008-01-01

    Analog-to-digital conversion and its reverse, digital-to-analog conversion, are ubiquitous in all modern electronics, from instrumentation and telecommunication equipment to computers and entertainment. We shall explore the consequences of converting signals between the analog and digital domains and give an overview of the internal architecture and operation of a number of converter types. The importance of analog input and clock signal integrity will be explained and methods to prevent or mitigate the effects of interference will be shown. Examples will be drawn from several manufacturers' datasheets.

  18. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impairments and compensation in mouth and limb use in free feeding after unilateral dopamine depletions in a rat analog of human Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whishaw, I Q; Coles, B L; Pellis, S M; Miklyaeva, E I

    1997-03-01

    Rats depleted unilaterally of dopamine (DA) with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) have contralateral sensorimotor deficits. These include pronounced impairments in using the contralateral limbs (bad limbs) for skilled movements in tests of reaching and bar pressing. There has been no systematic examination of the changes that take place in movements of spontaneous food handling. This was the purpose of the present study. Rats were filmed as they picked up and ate pieces of angel hair pasta (Capelli d'Angelo), a food item that challenges the rats to use delicate and bilaterally coordinated limb and paw movements. Control rats picked up the food with their incisors, transferred it to their paws, and manipulated it using a variety of bilaterally coordinated limb and paw movements. The DA-depleted rats were impaired in both their mouth and paw movements. They seemed unable to use their teeth to grasp the food and so used their tongue. They did not use the bad side of their mouth to chew and relied upon the good side of their mouth. The bad paw was impaired in grasping the food, grasped only with a whole paw grip, did not make manipulatory movements, and did not open to release the food or open to regain support once the food was eaten. Although the rats improved over a 30-day recovery period, much of the improvement was due to compensatory adjustments. That unilateral DA-depletion results in profound contralateral impairments of the mouth and limb with improvements due mainly to compensatory adjustments confirms a role for dopaminergic systems in motor control. Additionally, the behavioral tests described here could provide important adjuncts for assessing therapies in this animal analog of human Parkinson's disease.

  20. Analogies in Medicine: Valuable for Learning, Reasoning, Remembering and Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Gil Patrus; Andrade-Filho, Jose de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Analogies are important tools in human reasoning and learning, for resolving problems and providing arguments, and are extensively used in medicine. Analogy and similarity involve a structural alignment or mapping between domains. This cognitive mechanism can be used to make inferences and learn new abstractions. Through analogies, we try to…

  1. The costly benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Andrew

    2010-11-30

    Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the benefits which accrue to providers of agricultural biotechnology, technology providers actually benefit from this opposition. If these barriers to biotechnology were removed, subsistence farmers still would not represent a lucrative market for improved seed. The sum of all interests involved ensures that subsistence farmers are systematically denied access to agricultural biotechnology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. “One-shot” analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated and methoxylated analogs in human breast milk and serum using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butryn, Deena M.; Gross, Michael S.; Chi, Lai-Har; Schecter, Arnold; Olson, James R.; Aga, Diana S.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated (OH-BDE) and methoxylated (MeO-BDE) analogs in humans is an area of high interest to scientists and the public due to their neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects. Consequently, there is a rise in the investigation of the occurrence of these three classes of compounds together in environmental matrices and in humans in order to understand their bioaccumulation patterns. Analysis of PBDEs, OH-BDEs, and MeO-BDEs using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be accomplished simultaneously, but detection limits for PBDEs and MeO-BDEs in LC-MS is insufficient for trace level quantification. Therefore, fractionation steps of the phenolic (OH-BDEs) and neutral (PBDEs and MeO-BDEs) compounds during sample preparation are typically performed so that different analytical techniques can be used to achieve the needed sensitivities. However, this approach involves multiple injections, ultimately increasing analysis time. In this study, an analytical method was developed for a “one-shot” analysis of 12 PBDEs, 12 OH-BDEs, and 13 MeO-BDEs using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). This overall method includes simultaneous extraction of all analytes via pressurized liquid extraction followed by lipid removal steps to reduce matrix interferences. The OH-BDEs were derivatized using N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (TBDMS-MTFA), producing OH-TBDMS derivatives that can be analyzed together with PBDEs and MeO-BDEs by GC-MS/MS in “one shot” within a 25-min run time. The overall recoveries were generally higher than 65%, and the limits of detection ranged from 2 to 14 pg in both breast milk and serum matrices. The applicability of the method was successfully validated on four paired human breast milk and serum samples. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs, OH-BDEs, and MeO-BDEs in breast milk were 59, 2.2, and 0.57 ng g −1 lipid

  3. “One-shot” analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated and methoxylated analogs in human breast milk and serum using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butryn, Deena M.; Gross, Michael S. [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Chi, Lai-Har [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Schecter, Arnold [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville College of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Olson, James R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Aga, Diana S., E-mail: dianaaga@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    The presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated (OH-BDE) and methoxylated (MeO-BDE) analogs in humans is an area of high interest to scientists and the public due to their neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects. Consequently, there is a rise in the investigation of the occurrence of these three classes of compounds together in environmental matrices and in humans in order to understand their bioaccumulation patterns. Analysis of PBDEs, OH-BDEs, and MeO-BDEs using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be accomplished simultaneously, but detection limits for PBDEs and MeO-BDEs in LC-MS is insufficient for trace level quantification. Therefore, fractionation steps of the phenolic (OH-BDEs) and neutral (PBDEs and MeO-BDEs) compounds during sample preparation are typically performed so that different analytical techniques can be used to achieve the needed sensitivities. However, this approach involves multiple injections, ultimately increasing analysis time. In this study, an analytical method was developed for a “one-shot” analysis of 12 PBDEs, 12 OH-BDEs, and 13 MeO-BDEs using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). This overall method includes simultaneous extraction of all analytes via pressurized liquid extraction followed by lipid removal steps to reduce matrix interferences. The OH-BDEs were derivatized using N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (TBDMS-MTFA), producing OH-TBDMS derivatives that can be analyzed together with PBDEs and MeO-BDEs by GC-MS/MS in “one shot” within a 25-min run time. The overall recoveries were generally higher than 65%, and the limits of detection ranged from 2 to 14 pg in both breast milk and serum matrices. The applicability of the method was successfully validated on four paired human breast milk and serum samples. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs, OH-BDEs, and MeO-BDEs in breast milk were 59, 2.2, and 0.57 ng g{sup −1} lipid

  4. Halophiles, coming stars for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jin; Chen, Jin-Chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-11-15

    Industrial biotechnology aims to produce chemicals, materials and biofuels to ease the challenges of shortage on petroleum. However, due to the disadvantages of bioprocesses including energy consuming sterilization, high fresh water consumption, discontinuous fermentation to avoid microbial contamination, highly expensive stainless steel fermentation facilities and competing substrates for human consumption, industrial biotechnology is less competitive compared with chemical processes. Recently, halophiles have shown promises to overcome these shortcomings. Due to their unique halophilic properties, some halophiles are able to grow in high pH and high NaCl containing medium under higher temperature, allowing fermentation processes to run contamination free under unsterile conditions and continuous way. At the same time, genetic manipulation methods have been developed for halophiles. So far, halophiles have been used to produce bioplastics polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), ectoines, enzymes, and bio-surfactants. Increasing effects have been made to develop halophiles into a low cost platform for bioprocessing with advantages of low energy, less fresh water consumption, low fixed capital investment, and continuous production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective Active Ingredients Obtained through Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zappelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The history of cosmetics develops in parallel to the history of man, associated with fishing, hunting, and superstition in the beginning, and later with medicine and pharmacy. Over the ages, together with human progress, cosmetics have changed continuously and nowadays the cosmetic market is global and highly competitive, where terms such as quality, efficacy and safety are essential. Consumers’ demands are extremely sophisticated, and thus scientific research and product development have become vital to meet them. Moreover, consumers are aware about environmental and sustainability issues, and thus not harming the environment represents a key consideration when developing a new cosmetic ingredient. The latest tendencies of cosmetics are based on advanced research into how to interfere with skin cell aging: research includes the use of biotechnology-derived ingredients and the analysis of their effects on the biology of the cells, in terms of gene regulation, protein expression and enzymatic activity measures. In this review, we will provide some examples of cosmetic active ingredients developed through biotechnological systems, whose activity on the skin has been scientifically proved through in vitro and clinical studies.

  6. The application of biotechnology in animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal food has to incorporate multiple objectives, ie. it should provide good animal health, good production and reproductive performance, reduce pollution of the environment as well as have the impact on food of animal origin, by supplying it, in addition to basic nutrients, with certain useful substances that can act preventively on the occurrence of various diseases in humans in modern living conditions. This complex task implies the application of scientific knowledge concerning biotechnology in the field of animal feed production, and also includes the use of specific nutrients that are the result of the latest developments in specific disciplines such as molecular biology and genetic engineering. As a result of researches in these areas there were created some varieties of cereals and legumes with improved nutritional properties. On the other hand, obtaining a safe food of animal origin product imposes the use of substances of natural origin (such as probiotics, prebiotics, phytobiotics, enzymes, chelating forms .., which provide better digestibility and more complete utilization of certain nutrients from the feedstuff. In this way, the quantity of undigested substances are significantly reduced as well as soil and the atmosphere pollution. The use of specific additives in animal nutrition resulting from biotechnological research is most frequent when a problem concerning certain level of production or animal health has to be overcome. This implies a group of non-nutritional ingredients which are aimed to regulate the digestive tract microflora, pH, weight gain, as well as to modify metabolic processes etc.

  7. Analog pulse processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  8. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  9. Challenges in Using Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same…

  10. Students' Pre- and Post-Teaching Analogical Reasoning when They Draw Their Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosaria

    2012-01-01

    Analogies are parts of human thought. From them, we can acquire new knowledge or change that which already exists in our cognitive structure. In this sense, understanding the analogical reasoning process becomes an essential condition to understand how we learn. Despite the importance of such an understanding, there is no general agreement in…

  11. The rise (and decline?) of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1970s, biotechnology has been a key innovator in drug development. An analysis of FDA-approved therapeutics demonstrates pharmaceutical companies outpace biotechs in terms of new approvals but biotechnology companies are now responsible for earlier-stage activities (patents, INDs or clinical development). The number of biotechnology organizations that contributed to an FDA approval began declining in the 2000s and is at a level not seen since the 1980s. Whereas early biotechnology companies had a decade from first approval until acquisition, the average acquisition of a biotechnology company now occurs months before their first FDA approval. The number of hybrid organizations that arise when pharmaceutical companies acquire biotechnology is likewise declining, raising questions about the sustainability of biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optical analogy. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The authors report the study of conditions under which light attenuation (reflection, diffusion, absorption) and the attenuation of some radiations (notably thermal neutrons) can be described with analogical calculations. The analogy between light physical properties and neutron properties is not searched for, but the analogy between their attenuation characteristics. After having discussed this possible analogy, they propose a mathematical formulation of neutron and optical phenomena which could theoretically justify the optical analogy. The second part reports a more practical study of optics problems such as the study of simple optics materials and illumination measurements, or more precisely the study of angular distributions of optical reflections, a determination of such angular distributions, and an experimental determination of the albedo

  13. Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications grant was funded by NASA's Kennedy Space Center in FY 2002 to provide dedicated biotechnology and agricultural research focused on the regeneration of space flight environments with direct parallels in Earth-based applications for solving problems in the environment, advances in agricultural science, and other human support issues amenable to targeted biotechnology solutions. This grant had three project areas, each with multiple tasks. They are: 1) Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education, 2) Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications, and 3) Commercial Applications. The Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE) Center emphasized the fundamental biology of organisms involved in space flight applications, including those involved in advanced life support environments because of their critical role in the long-term exploration of space. The SABRE Center supports research at the University of Florida and at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications component focused on developing and applying sensor technologies to space environments and agricultural systems. The research activities in nanosensors were coordinated with the SABRE portions of this grant and with the research sponsored by the NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center located in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Initial sensor efforts have focused on air and water quality monitoring essential to humans for living and working permanently in space, an important goal identified in NASA's strategic plan. The closed environment of a spacecraft or planetary base accentuates cause and effect relationships and environmental impacts. The limited available air and water resources emphasize the need for reuse, recycling, and system monitoring. It is essential to

  14. Expert analogy use in a naturalistic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, Donald R.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of analogy is an important component of human cognition. The type of analogy we produce and communicate depends heavily on a number of factors, such as the setting, the level of domain expertise present, and the speaker's goal or intent. In this observational study, we recorded economics experts during scientific discussion and examined the categorical distance and structural depth of the analogies they produced. We also sought to characterize the purpose of the analogies that were generated. Our results supported previous conclusions about the infrequency of superficial similarity in subject-generated analogs, but also showed that distance and depth characteristics were more evenly balanced than in previous observational studies. This finding was likely due to the nature of the goals of the participants, as well as the broader nature of their expertise. An analysis of analogical purpose indicated that the generation of concrete source examples of more general target concepts was most prevalent. We also noted frequent instances of analogies intended to form visual images of source concepts. Other common purposes for analogies were the addition of colorful speech, inclusion (i.e., subsumption) of a target into a source concept, or differentiation between source and target concepts. We found no association between depth and either of the other two characteristics, but our findings suggest a relationship between purpose and distance; i.e., that visual imagery typically entailed an outside-domain source whereas exemplification was most frequently accomplished using within-domain analogies. Overall, we observed a rich and diverse set of spontaneously produced analogical comparisons. The high degree of expertise within the observed group along with the richly comparative nature of the economics discipline likely contributed to this analogical abundance. PMID:25505437

  15. Expert Analogy Use in a Naturalistic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Kretz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of analogy is an important component of human cognition. The type of analogy we produce and communicate depends heavily on a number of factors, such as the setting, the level of domain expertise present, and the speaker’s goal or intent. In this observational study, we recorded economics experts during scientific discussion and examined the categorical distance and structural depth of the analogies they produced. We also sought to characterize the purpose of the analogies that were generated. Our results supported previous conclusions about the infrequency of superficial similarity in subject-generated analogs, but also showed that distance and depth characteristics were more evenly balanced than in previous observational studies. This finding was likely due to the nature of the goals of the participants, as well as the broader nature of their expertise. An analysis of analogical purpose indicated that the generation of concrete source examples of more general target concepts was most prevalent. We also noted frequent instances of analogies intended to form visual images of source concepts. Other common purposes for analogies were the addition of colorful speech, inclusion (i.e., subsumption of a target into a source concept, or differentiation between source and target concepts. We found no association between depth and either of the other two characteristics, but our findings suggest a relationship between purpose and distance; i.e., that visual imagery typically entailed an outside-domain source whereas exemplification was most frequently accomplished using within-domain analogies. Overall, we observed a rich and diverse set of spontaneously produced analogical comparisons. The high degree of expertise within the observed group along with the richly comparative nature of the economics discipline likely contributed to this analogical abundance.

  16. Students' Pre- and Post-Teaching Analogical Reasoning When They Draw their Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga Mozzer, Nilmara; Justi, Rosária

    2012-02-01

    Analogies are parts of human thought. From them, we can acquire new knowledge or change that which already exists in our cognitive structure. In this sense, understanding the analogical reasoning process becomes an essential condition to understand how we learn. Despite the importance of such an understanding, there is no general agreement in cognitive science literature about this issue. In this study, we investigated students' analogical reasoning as a creative process where an environment was set up to foster the students' generating and explaining their own analogies. Data were gathered from pre- and post-teaching interviews, in which the 13-14-year-old students were asked to make comparisons that could explain how atoms are bound. Such data supported the discussion about how students reasoned analogically. Our results made it evident that the task aims and the students' salient knowledge exerted a great influence on the drawing of analogies.

  17. Agriculture and bio-technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Hikoyuki

    1987-09-01

    The Japanese agriculture is going to be influenced by bio-technology. New style of production will be introduced through the entrance of other type of enterprises causing considerable change in agricultural fields. Bio-technology is a technology which utmost utilizes the functions of the living organism. Its practical target is to manifestate a new function by deliberately endowing it to an organism. Major technique is gene manipulation, tissue culture and utilization of microorganism and cells as well as the utilization of the biomass resources and a production means in the vegetable plant using nutricious solution. This report especially describes the following matters. Recombinant DNA (Super mouse, etc). Cell fusion (Monoclonal antigen, etc). Nucleus transplantation. Chromosome manipulation (Creation of tripoloid, etc). tissue culture (Growing of virus-free seedling, etc). Production of useful substances. Biomass (Forestry, Ocean, Livestock). (2 figs, 3 tabs, 12 refs)

  18. New challenges in microalgae biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Federico; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; León, Rosa; Guerrero, Miguel G; Serrano, Aurelio

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Interface of nuclear and biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Diaz-Balart, F.

    2005-01-01

    Addressing nuclear and biotechnologies in the International Year of Physics should begin by highlighting the important role that this science has played in the development of both branches of science and technologies. The first as a direct consequence of the Theory of Relativity, the further was considerably influenced by Schroedinger's remarks that there must be a code of some kind that allowed molecules in cells to carry information, making a connection between genes and proteins. Both, like any highly technical endeavor, have also in common that the use of technologies demands a vast accumulation of knowledge, i.e. volumes of scientific research, engineering analysis, strict regulatory controls and a huge amount of information combined with a complex assortment of people with the required educational background, expertise and skills to master it. This presentation briefly explores the ways in which nuclear technology has been used in the last decades of the 20th century in the field of biomedicine applications, which includes the use of radiation to obtain accurate images as well as in diagnosis and therapy. The paper looks at the present prospects of some nuclear methods and instrumentation in the so-called Red biotechnology and its genetically engineered therapeutic agents and diagnostic tests as well as some related perspectives in the field of bioinformatics. As an example of biotechnology being successfully applied to health problems in developing countries the presentation gives an outlook of relevant Cuban achievements in this field. (author)

  20. Semaglutide, a once-weekly human GLP-1 analog, does not reduce the bioavailability of the combined oral contraceptive, ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitza, Christoph; Nosek, Leszek; Jensen, Lene; Hartvig, Helle; Jensen, Christine B; Flint, Anne

    2015-05-01

    The effect of semaglutide, a once-weekly human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog in development for type 2 diabetes (T2D), on the bioavailability of a combined oral contraceptive was investigated. Postmenopausal women with T2D (n = 43) on diet/exercise ± metformin received ethinylestradiol (0.03 mg)/levonorgestrel (0.15 mg) once daily for 8 days before (semaglutide-free) and during (steady-state 1.0 mg) semaglutide treatment (subcutaneous once weekly; dose escalation: 0.25 mg 4 weeks; 0.5 mg 4 weeks; 1.0 mg 5 weeks). Bioequivalence of oral contraceptives was established if 90%CI for the ratio of pharmacokinetic parameters during semaglutide steady-state and semaglutide-free periods was within prespecified limits (0.80-1.25). The bioequivalence criterion was met for ethinylestradiol area under the curve (AUC0-24 h ) for semaglutide steady-state/semaglutide-free; 1.11 (1.06-1.15). AUC0-24 h was 20% higher for levonorgestrel at semaglutide steady-state vs. semaglutide-free (1.20 [1.15-1.26]). Cmax was within bioequivalence criterion for both contraceptives. Reductions (mean ± SD) in HbA1c (-1.1 ± 0.6%) and weight (-4.3 ± 3.1 kg) were observed. Semaglutide pharmacokinetics were compatible with once-weekly dosing; the semaglutide dose and dose-escalation regimen were well tolerated. Adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal, were mild to moderate in severity. Asymptomatic increases in mean amylase and lipase were observed. Three subjects had elevated alanine aminotransferase levels ≥3x the upper limit of normal during semaglutide/oral contraceptive coadministration, which were reported as adverse events, but resolved during follow-up. Semaglutide did not reduce the bioavailability of ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  2. From cell biology to biotechnology in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli, A

    2000-09-01

    In this article I discuss the main results of our research in space biology from the simple early investigations with human lymphocytes in the early eighties until the projects in tissue engineering of the next decade on the international space station ISS. The discovery that T lymphocyte activation is nearly totally depressed in vitro in 0 g conditions showed that mammalian single cells are sensitive to the gravitational environment. Such finding had important implications in basic research, medicine and biotechnology. Low gravity can be used as a tool to investigate complicated and still obscure biological process from a new perspective not available to earth-bound laboratories. Low gravity may also favor certain bioprocesses involving the growth of tissues and thus lead to commercial and medical applications. However, shortage of crew time and of other resources, lack of sophisticated instrumentation, safety constraints pose serious limits to biological endeavors in space laboratories.

  3. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  4. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  5. FGF growth factor analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  6. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  7. Biotechnology information service of the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetzsch, E.

    1990-05-01

    The paper gives a survey of the biotechnology information in the GDR and describes the establishment of the Biotechnology Information Service of the GDR (BioInfo GDR). BioInfo GDR is a referral database and is to provide information on information sources available in the GDR, and on institutions working in the various fields of biotechnology in the GDR. In addition, some general problems of the building and use of databases are discussed. (author). 8 refs

  8. Cancer Biotechnology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology advances continue to underscore the need to educate NCI fellows in new methodologies. The Cancer Biotechnology course will be held on the NCI-Frederick campus on January 29, 2016 (Bldg. 549, Main Auditorium) and the course will be repeated on the Bethesda campus on February 9, 2016 (Natcher Balcony C). The latest advances in DNA, protein and image analysis will be presented. Clinical and postdoctoral fellows who want to learn about new biotechnology advances are encouraged to attend this course.

  9. Editorial: Latest methods and advances in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    The latest "Biotech Methods and Advances" special issue of Biotechnology Journal continues the BTJ tradition of featuring the latest breakthroughs in biotechnology. The special issue is edited by our Editors-in-Chief, Prof. Sang Yup Lee and Prof. Alois Jungbauer and covers a wide array of topics in biotechnology, including the perennial favorite workhorses of the biotech industry, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Popov Stevan

    2007-01-01

    According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms) in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be fore...

  11. [Occupational risk and prevention in the biotechnology industry: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, M; Colombi, A; Imbriani, M

    2006-01-01

    The biotechnology industry has expanded greatly in the last 20-30 years and has led to a number of applications in different sectors of work, i.e., medical and pharmaceutical, agricultural, chemical, energetic and others. Nowadays hundreds of thousands of workers worldwide are employed in biotechnology plants. Health and safety issues related to such working activities are considered as relevant to workers as well as to the general public. In particular, when compared to traditional biotechnology, modern methods of processing microrganisms have given rise to public concern that they might generate hazards to human beings and to the environment. After summarizing the most important products and fields of application, the paper sets out to detail potential adverse effects for the health of biotechnology workers; in addition, an analysis of the literature highlights the various concepts of primary and secondary prevention. Along with occupational risk factors common to other working activities (i.e. the well-known physical and chemical hazards), the peculiarity of handling microrganisms and/or different biologic systems may induce infections, immunological alterations or non-infective and non-immunologic toxic reactions in the workers involved The need is emphasized for an accurate risk assessment, careful control by means of the current monitoring strategies and implementation of the confinement measures, taking into account the criteria set by Italian legislation for occupational biological risk. Lastly, attention is focussed on examinations for the medical surveillance of workers at risk.

  12. Biotechnological uses of archaeal extremozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, J

    2001-07-01

    Archaea have developed a variety of molecular strategies to survive the often harsh environments in which they exist. Although the rules that allow archaeal enzymes to fulfill their catalytic functions under extremes of salinity, temperature or pressure are not completely understood, the stability of these extremophilic enzymes, or extremozymes, in the face of adverse conditions has led to their use in a variety of biotechnological applications in which such tolerances are advantageous. In the following, examples of commercially important archaeal extremozymes are presented, potentially useful archaeal extremozyme sources are identified and solutions to obstacles currently hindering wider use of archaeal extremozymes are discussed.

  13. Biotechnology, Industry Study, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    www.cdc.gov/niosh/nas/RDRP/ch6.2.htm. 12 In 2007, the US share of world production was 42.6% for corn, 32.0% for soybeans , 9.3% for wheat, and 1.5...for rice. Of global exports, the US accounted for 64.5% for corn, 39.4% for soybeans , 32.1% for wheat, and 9.7% for rice. Jim Monke, CRS Report...papers.cfm?abstract_id=1321054 28 Monsanto Company, "Conversations About Plant Biotechnology," April 25, 2009, http://www.monsanto.com/biotech- gmo /asp

  14. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-10-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  15. 77 FR 66624 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of..., Maryland 20892. Contact Person: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities...

  16. 76 FR 77240 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of..., NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750...

  17. Detecting peptidic drugs, drug candidates and analogs in sports doping: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2014-12-01

    With the growing availability of mature systems and strategies in biotechnology and the continuously expanding knowledge of cellular processes and involved biomolecules, human sports drug testing has become a considerably complex field in the arena of analytical chemistry. Proving the exogenous origin of peptidic drugs and respective analogs at lowest concentration levels in biological specimens (commonly blood, serum and urine) of rather limited volume is required to pursue an action against cheating athletes. Therefore, approaches employing chromatographic-mass spectrometric, electrophoretic, immunological and combined test methods have been required and developed. These allow detecting the misuse of peptidic compounds of lower (such as growth hormone-releasing peptides, ARA-290, TB-500, AOD-9604, CJC-1295, desmopressin, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormones, synacthen, etc.), intermediate (e.g., insulins, IGF-1 and analogs, 'full-length' mechano growth factor, growth hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, erythropoietin, etc.) and higher (e.g., stamulumab) molecular mass with desired specificity and sensitivity. A gap between the technically possible detection and the day-to-day analytical practice, however, still needs to be closed.

  18. Students' Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in Agriculture Biotechnology but Not in Medical Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and…

  19. Biologically Fit: Using Biotechnology to Create a Better Soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    the belief that enhancing humans will degrade or cause more harm to society and that “ posthumans ” may pose a threat to normal citizens.22 Contrarily...entrust their futures in the laws of 22 Nick Bostrom, “In Defense of Posthuman Dignity,” Bioethics...concern about ‘man playing God,’ or about the Brave New World, or a ‘ posthuman future.’28 Kass views innovation in biotechnology as a potential risk to

  20. Industrial College of the Armed Forces Industry Studies 2002: Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    leavening agent. Yeast also produces alcohol during the production of wine and beer . Bacteria produce lactic acid for making yogurt and acetic acid...The following technologies are commonly included as parts of the biotechnology "industry":3 Fermentation : Early humans realized that the by-products...for making vinegar. New fermentation processes are being used to produce a wide variety of products including antibiotics, hormones, and enzymes

  1. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  2. Biotechnology for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, A.; Maule, J.; Toporski, J.; Parro-Garcia, V.; Briones, C.; Schweitzer, M.; McKay, D.

    With the advent of a new era of astrobiology missions in the exploration of the solar system and the search for evidence of life elsewhere, we present a new approach to this goal, the integration of biotechnology. We have reviewed the current list of biotechnology techniques, which are applicable to miniaturization, automatization and integration into a combined flight platform. Amongst the techniques reviewed are- The uses of antibodies- Fluorescent detection strategies- Protein and DNA chip technology- Surface plasmon resonance and its relation to other techniques- Micro electronic machining (MEMS where applicable to biologicalsystems)- nanotechnology (e.g. molecular motors)- Lab-on-a-chip technology (including PCR)- Mass spectrometry (i.e. MALDI-TOF)- Fluid handling and extraction technologies- Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)- Raman Spectroscopy We have begun to integrate this knowledge into a single flight instrument approach for the sole purpose of combining several mutually confirming tests for life, organic and/or microbial contamination, as well as prebiotic and abiotic organic chemicals. We will present several innovative designs for new instrumentation including pro- engineering design drawings of a protein chip reader for space flight and fluid handling strategies. We will also review the use of suitable extraction methodologies for use on different solar system bodies.

  3. Is judgement of biotechnological ethical aspects related to high school students' knowledge?

    OpenAIRE

    Črne-Hladnik, Helena; Hladnik, Aleš; Javornik, Branka; Košmelj, Katarina; Peklaj, Cirila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Quantitative and qualitative studies of various aspects of the perception of biotechnology were conducted among 469 Slovenian high school students of average age 17 years. Our research aimed to explore relationships among students' pre-knowledge of molecular- and human genetics, and their attitudes to four specific biotechnological applications. These applications ? Bt corn, genetically modified salmon, somatic- and germ line gene therapy ? were investigated from the viewp...

  4. UK biotechnology companies lead the way for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    A number of new well-structured biotechnology companies have been launched in Britain over the last few years, e.g. Imperial Biotechnology, IQ(Bio) and Celltech, while Wellcome and Searle (U.K.) are established firms, keeping up with the new technology. Imperial Biotechnology, with its accent on development rather than research and making products not in anyone else's catalogue, has produced a whole range of enzymes, biopolymers, antibiotics, and human proteins under contract. Its long term objective is to develop its own bioproducts. IQ(Bio) is poised to enter the diagnostic big league with its enzyme-linked immunoassay (Aelia) technology and intends to pursue opportunities where there is a strict regulatory climate prohibiting the growth of radioimmunoassays, e.g. France and Japan. It plans to produce kits that a doctor can use simply and give results in less than 30 minutes. Celltech has a culture products division which supplies large quantities of monoclonal antibodies, it has a diagnostics and health care research section, a speciality chemicals area and an industrial microbiology sector. Wellcome Biotechnology has an interferon programme which includes a broad range of chemical trials in the anticancer and antiviral areas. The company could supply the entire world market for interferon using cell culture and produces a very large range of conventional vaccines. Searle uses biotechnology as just another means of producing new drugs as they have a large drug development machine in place. A considerable amount of process development work has focused on Searle's artificial sweetener, aspartame, and they are looking at all the technical approaches to aspartame production.

  5. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  6. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  7. Workshop proceedings: challenges and opportunities in evaluating protein allergenicity across biotechnology industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Nicola J; Ghantous, Hanan N; Ladics, Gregory S; House, Robert V; Gendel, Steven M; Hastings, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    A workshop entitled "Challenges and Opportunities in Evaluating Protein Allergenicity across Biotechnology Industries" was held at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology (SOT) in San Francisco, California. The workshop was sponsored by the Biotechnology Specialty Section of SOT and was designed to present the science-based approaches used in biotechnology industries to evaluate and regulate protein allergenicity. A panel of experts from industry and government highlighted the allergenicity testing requirements and research in the agricultural, pharmaceutical/biopharma, and vaccine biotechnology industries and addressed challenges and opportunities for advancing the science of protein allergenicity. The main learning from the workshop was that immunoglobulin E-mediated allergenicity of biotechnology-derived products is difficult to assess without human data. The approaches currently being used to evaluate potential for allergenicity across biotechnology industries are very different and range from bioinformatics, in vitro serology, in vivo animal testing, in vitro and in vivo functional assays, and "biosimilar" assessments (ie, biotherapeutic equivalents to innovator products). The challenge remains with regard to the different or lack of regulatory requirements for allergenicity testing across industries, but the novel approaches being used with bioinformatics and biosimilars may lead to opportunities in the future to collaborate across biotechnology industries.

  8. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology…

  9. South-South Collaboration in Health Biotechnology

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To map entrepreneurial collaboration we conducted a brief survey on collaborations of health biotechnology/pharmaceutical firms in developing nations. The survey was sent to firms in five developing countries that have been identified as having relatively strong health biotechnology sectors, Brazil, China, Cuba, India and ...

  10. Biotechnology - The role of perceptions of consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Heerden

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Biotechnology is aimed at creating improved products. Without the acceptance of biotechnology enhancements by consumers, the development of new products will be hampered. Consumers in different countries perceive genetic engineering differently. In this article the views of foreign and local consumers are investigated.

  11. Biotechnology issues in four Malaysian mainstream newspapers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology has been identified as the new engine of growth for the transformation of Malaysia into a developed nation by 2020. The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of National Policy on biotechnology on media reporting in four Malaysian newspapers. Towards this end, a content analysis of four Malaysian ...

  12. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology innovation system of South-Eastern Nigeria. ... Results of the study revealed that some of the institutions have been involved in biotechnology research for the past two decades but have only significantly invested on bio-processing (58.8%) and cell and ...

  13. Some limitations of the biotechnological revolution | Onyia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to challenge and possibly change the notion that biotechnology alone is the magic wand that brings solution to all of agriculture's pitfalls, by clarifying misconceptions concerning these underlying assumptions. The article reviews some of the highlights of modern plant biotechnology and ...

  14. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology (JTMB) formerly Journal of Tropical Microbiology gives preeminence to the central role of modern biotechnology and microorganisms as tools and targets in current research, which is largely multidisciplinary. JTMB covers a broad range of topics, such as disease ...

  15. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... farmers on the potentials of biotechnology for food security is expedient. Key words: Biotechnology, innovation system, ... security, increases in agricultural productivity is required. Furthermore, Bunders et al. (1996) had earlier ..... This may be as a result of “publish or perish” syndrome in the universities.

  16. Agricultural biotechnology research and development in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country that can have enormous benefit from the applications of biotechnology for increasing its agricultural productivity. The country is at initial stages of research and development in agricultural biotechnology with scattered efforts underway in various public institutions. Research efforts and ...

  17. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Lopes, Mariana R; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Long, Tanya M; Calvey, Christopher H; Aerts, Andrea L; Barry, Kerrie W; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P; Hanson, Sara J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lipzen, Anna M; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Ohm, Robin A; Otillar, Robert P; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos A; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A; Slot, Jason C; Stielow, J Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the

  18. Biotechnology in Aquaculture: Prospects and Challenges | Edun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased public demands for fish and dwindling natural marine habitats have encouraged scientists to study ways that biotechnology can increase the production of fish and shellfish. Biotechnology allows scientists to identify and combine traits in fish and shellfish to increase productivity and improve quality. This article ...

  19. Biotechnology Education and the Internet. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas

    The world of modern biotechnology is based on recent developments in molecular biology, especially those in genetic engineering. Since this is a relatively new and rapidly advancing field of study, there are few traditional sources of information and activities. This digest highlights biotechnology resources including those that can be found on…

  20. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael E

    2015-01-07

    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit.

  1. Biotechnological Applications Derived from Microorganisms of the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Azua-Bustos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atacama Desert in Chile is well known for being the driest and oldest desert on Earth. For these same reasons, it is also considered a good analog model of the planet Mars. Only a few decades ago, it was thought that this was a sterile place, but in the past years fascinating adaptations have been reported in the members of the three domains of life: low water availability, high UV radiation, high salinity, and other environmental stresses. However, the biotechnological applications derived from the basic understanding and characterization of these species, with the notable exception of copper bioleaching, are still in its infancy, thus offering an immense potential for future development.

  2. Quantum Analog Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  3. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  4. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  5. Reasoning through Instructional Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapon, Shulamit; diSessa, Andrea A.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to account for students' assessments of the plausibility and applicability of analogical explanations, and individual differences in these assessments, by analyzing properties of students' underlying knowledge systems. We developed a model of explanation and change in explanation focusing on knowledge elements that provide a…

  6. The Paradox of Analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I will show that there is a type of analogical reasoning that instantiates a pattern of reasoning in confirmation theory that is considered at best paradoxical and at worst fatal to the entire syntactical approach to confirmation and explanation. However, I hope to elaborate conditions under which this is a sound (although not necessarily strong method of reasoning.

  7. [Efficacy of initial antiretroviral therapy based on lopinavir/ritonavir plus 2 nucleoside/nucleotide analogs in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Laura; Gatell, José M

    2014-11-01

    Triple combination regimens consisting of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus 2 nucleoside/nucleotide analogs continue to be a valid option in initial antiretroviral therapy. Other protease inhibitors boosted with ritonavir (and in future with cobicistat) have been introduced, as well as other non-nucleoside analogs (rilpivirin) and 3 integrase inhibitors. None of the new regimens have shown superiority over LPV/r or comparisons are lacking. Therefore, regimens including LPV/r continue to be recommended as initial first-line or alternative strategies in most treatment guidelines. Dual combinations with LPV/r (plus raltegravir or lamivudine) are described in another article and can provide a similar response rate to triple combinations, better tolerance, and an improved cost-efficacy ratio, both for initial therapy and in simplification strategies. In contrast, LPV/r or darunavir/r monotherapy does not seem an acceptable option in treatment-naïve patients and is becoming increasingly less acceptable in simplification strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. New technologies in agricultural biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Szekacs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technologies that emerged during the last decade as new tools occasionally represent fundamentally new means of genome modification, which, in addition to the scientific novelty, faces legislators with new challenge by giving a new meaning to both the biochemical/molecular biological and legal meaning to genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Emerging plant genetic technologies are categorized as zinc finger nuclease (ZFN technology; oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis; cisgenesis and intragenesis; RNA-dependent DNA methylation by RNA interference; grafting on GM rootstock; reverse breeding; agro-infiltration; and synthetic genomics. Although all these methods apply biotechnology processes to create new plant varieties, it debated whether all result in GMOs according to the current legal definition. Official risk assessment of these technologies is a task of outstanding weight of the authority.

  9. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biotechnology and bioeconomy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhao, Qinghua; Hu, Yihong; Wang, Hongguang

    2006-11-01

    From the review of the achievements and advantages in the development of biotechnology (BT) and bioindustry in China, it is clear that the bioeconomy would provide a tremendous opportunity for China to develop sustainably or even surpass a few developed countries. A long-term vision has been made to guide the research and development and industrialization of BT in China. This review detailed the strategies, targets, priorities, and key technologies in each stage. Furthermore, the reviewers expatiated on the establishment of the favorable policies, the foundation of the professional groups, the establishment of the advanced laboratories or centers, the investment mechanisms, the development and evaluation of biosafety, the encouragement and support for the international collaborations and exchanges, and the establishment of the general organizational structure.

  11. DNA polymerases and biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Joos; Marx, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    A multitude of biotechnological techniques used in basic research as well as in clinical diagnostics on an everyday basis depend on DNA polymerases and their intrinsic capability to replicate DNA strands with astoundingly high fidelity. Applications with fundamental importance to modern molecular biology, including the polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, would not be feasible without the advances made in characterizing these enzymes over the course of the last 60 years. Nonetheless, the still growing application scope of DNA polymerases necessitates the identification of novel enzymes with tailor-made properties. In the recent past, DNA polymerases optimized for diverse PCR and sequencing applications as well as enzymes that accept a variety of unnatural substrates for the synthesis and reverse transcription of modified nucleic acids have been developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  13. Limits Legal Ethics of Biotechnology in XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Cabrini Morgato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the ethical and legal consequences of developments in biotechnological science, with a focus on the field of genetic engineering. We classify situations originating from developments in biotechnological science depending on their ethical and legal justification, based on Habermas’ reflections in his work “The future of human nature”, and differentiate between negative eugenics, representing ethically and legally justified situations, given their therapeutic potential of bringing benefits to human beings; and positive eugenics, describing situations, which are not justified by Ethics and Law, since they represent risks for the ethical self-understanding of the human species and are also incompatible with the imperative nature of human life protection, which is struc- tured by the Ibero-American constitutional states. We conclude that all moral judgments must follow the principle of human dignity as a major guideline, because the prevention of harmful practices against human beings requires, apart from legal and ethical rules, the responsibility to exclusively employ technologies for therapeutic purposes and to impede that the consumer society and its by-products completely artificialize the human nature.

  14. Recent patents in plant biotechnology: impact on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural biotechnology offers a robust series of tools by which to address global concerns such as food security, crop protection, and fuel/energy requirements. A number of advances made recently in plant molecular biology also have resulted in applications which largely focus on improving global human health. This review describes some of the recent innovations in plant biotechnology that have come to the forefront over the past year. Included are novel techniques by which plants can be improved as platforms for biopharmaceutical protein production, a growing field also referred to as 'molecular pharming'. The metabolic engineering of plants to produce compounds which have additional nutritional benefits is also outlined. The review concludes with a discussion of the future impact that these innovations may have both on global health and on the development of our future intellectual property landscape.

  15. Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rai MK (2010 Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Biodiversitas 11: 157-166. The use of medicinal plants is as old as human civilization. The biotechnological tools play a crucial role in conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The rapid depletion of plant genetic diversity has made essential to develop new in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Advances in biotechnology offer new methods for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The present review is focused on biotechnological tools like in vitro culture, micropropagation, mycorrhization, genetic transformation and development of DNA banks. These are imperative and important alternatives for the conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants.

  16. Low-Latency Science Exploration of Planetary Bodies: How ISS Might Be Used as Part of a Low-Latency Analog Campaign for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Valinia, Azita; Bleacher, Jacob; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Garvin, Jim; Petro, Noah

    2014-01-01

    We suggest that the International Space Station be used to examine the application and validation of low-latency telepresence for surface exploration from space as an alternative, precursor, or potentially as an adjunct to astronaut "boots on the ground." To this end, controlled experiments that build upon and complement ground-based analog field studies will be critical for assessing the effects of different latencies (0 to 500 milliseconds), task complexity, and alternate forms of feedback to the operator. These experiments serve as an example of a pathfinder for NASA's roadmap of missions to Mars with low-latency telerobotic exploration as a precursor to astronaut's landing on the surface to conduct geological tasks.

  17. The antiarrhythmic peptide analog rotigaptide (ZP123) stimulates gap junction intercellular communication in human osteoblasts and prevents decrease in femoral trabecular bone strength in ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Henriksen, Zanne

    2005-01-01

    Gap junctions play an important role in bone development and function, but the lack of pharmacological tools has hampered the gap junction research. The antiarrhythmic peptides stimulate gap junction communication between cardiomyocytes, but effects in noncardiac tissue are unknown. The purpose...... of this study was to examine whether antiarrhythmic peptides, which are small peptides increasing gap junctional conductivity, show specific binding to osteoblasts and investigate the effect of the stable analog rotigaptide (ZP123) on gap junctional intercellular communication in vitro and on bone mass...... weight) or by continuous ip infusion (158 nmol per kilogram body weight per day). During metabolic stress, a high affinity-binding site (KD=0.1 nM) with low density (15 fmol/mg protein) for [125I]di-I-AAP10 was demonstrated. During physiological conditions, specific binding sites for [125I]AAP10 could...

  18. Metaphor, Simile, Analogy and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Fox argues that the poetic function of language fulfils the human need to symbolise. Metaphor, simile and analogy provide examples of the ways in which symbolic language can be used creatively. The neural representations of these processes therefore provide a means to determine the neurological basis of creative language. Neuro-imaging has…

  19. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  20. Antarctic analogs for Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A. E.; Andersen, D. T.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is a new world for Astrobiology. The Cassini discovery of the icy plume emanating from the South Polar region indicates an active world, where detection of water, organics, sodium, and nano-particle silica in the plume strongly suggests that the source is a subsurface salty ocean reservoir. Recent gravity data from Cassini confirms the presence of a regional sea extending north to 50°S. An ocean habitat under a thick ice cover is perhaps a recurring theme in the Outer Solar System, but what makes Enceladus unique is that the plume jetting out into space is carrying samples of this ocean. Therefore, through the study of Enceladus' plumes we can gain new insights not only of a possible habitable world in the Solar Systems, but also about the formation and evolution of other icy-satellites. Cassini has been able to fly through this plume - effectively sampling the ocean. It is time to plan for future missions that do more detailed analyses, possibly return samples back to Earth and search for evidence of life. To help prepare for such missions, the need for earth-based analog environments is essential for logistical, methodological (life detection) and theoretical development. We have undertaken studies of two terrestrial environments that are close analogs to Enceladus' ocean: Lake Vida and Lake Untersee - two ice-sealed Antarctic lakes that represent physical, chemical and possibly biological analogs for Enceladus. By studying the diverse biology and physical and chemical constraints to life in these two unique lakes we will begin to understand the potential habitability of Enceladus and other icy moons, including possible sources of nutrients and energy, which together with liquid water are the key ingredients for life. Analog research such as this will also enable us to develop and test new strategies to search for evidence of life on Enceladus.

  1. Are Scientific Analogies Metaphors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    and healer Paracelsus , writing within a century of Kepler and Galileo: what, then, is the short and easy way whereby Sol (gold) and Luna (silver) can be...planets again receive a body and life and live as before. Take this body from the life and the earth. Keep it. It is Sol and Luna. 30 Aim ( Paracelsus ...Rutherford analogy, even as known at the time. Instead of using a mutually constraining system of base relationships Paracelsus applies new relations: e.g

  2. 76 FR 14895 - Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... public attitudes; public health/ epidemiology; ethics, including bioethics; human medicine; biotechnology... (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Dated: March 10...

  3. Component Processes in Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes alternative theoretical positions regarding (a) the component information processes used in analogical reasoning and (b) strategies for combining these processes. Also presents results from three experiments on analogical reasoning. (Author/RK)

  4. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  5. [The past 30 years of Chinese Journal of Biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ning

    2015-06-01

    This review addresses the association of "Chinese Journal of Biotechnology" and the development of biotechnology in China in the past 30 years. Topics include relevant awards and industrialization, development of the biotechnology discipline, and well know scientists in biotechnology, as well as perspectives on the journal.

  6. Biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmacogenomics and pharmaceutical compounding, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2015-01-01

    The world of pharmaceuticals is changing rapidly as biotechnology continues to grow and nanotechnology appears on the horizon. Biotechnology is gaining in importance in extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding, and nanotechnology and pharmacogenomics could drastically change the practice of pharmacy. This article discusses biotechnology and the factors to consider when compounding biotechnology drugs.

  7. Inductive, Analogical, and Communicative Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Smaling

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of inductive generalization - statistical generalization, variation-based generalization and theory-carried generalization - are insufficient concerning case-to-case generalization, which is a form of analogical generalization. The quality of case-to-case generalization needs to be reinforced by setting up explicit analogical argumentation. To evaluate analogical argumentation six criteria are discussed. Good analogical reasoning is an indispensable support to forms of communicative generalization - receptive and responsive (participative generalization — as well as exemplary generalization.

  8. Biotechnology Education: A Multiple Instructional Strategies Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Trey; Wells, John; White, Karissa

    2002-01-01

    Provides a rationale for inclusion of biotechnology in technology education. Describes an instructional strategy that uses behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist learning theories in two activities involving photobioreactors and bovine somatotropin (growth hormone). (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  9. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  10. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Key words: Biotechnology, innovation system, research institutions, universities and agricultural development programme. INTRODUCTION ... technology is the application of indigenous and / or scientific knowledge to the .... professionals, public attitude to genetic engineering organisms and products, and ...

  12. Agricultural biotechnology and its contribution to the global knowledge economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerni, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    The theory of neoclassical welfare economics largely shaped international and national agricultural policies during the Cold War period. It treated technology as an exogenous factor that could boost agricultural productivity but not necessarily sustainable agriculture. New growth theory, the economic theory of the new knowledge economy, treats technological change as endogenous and argues that intangible assets such as human capital and knowledge are the drivers of sustainable economic development. In this context, the combined use of agricultural biotechnology and information technology has a great potential, not just to boost economic growth but also to empower people in developing countries and improve the sustainable management of natural resources. This article outlines the major ideas behind new growth theory and explains why agricultural economists and agricultural policy-makers still tend to stick to old welfare economics. Finally, the article uses the case of the Cassava Biotechnology Network (CBN) to illustrate an example of how new growth theory can be applied in the fight against poverty. CBN is a successful interdisciplinary crop research network that makes use of the new knowledge economy to produce new goods that empower the poor and improve the productivity and nutritional quality of cassava. It shows that the potential benefits of agricultural biotechnology go far beyond the already known productivity increases and pesticide use reductions of existing GM crops.

  13. Analogical Reasoning and Computer Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Catherine A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of correlations between analogical reasoning and Logo programming mastery among female high school students related the results of pretests of analogical reasoning to posttests of programming mastery. A significant correlation was found between analogical reasoning and the ability to write subprocedures for use in several different…

  14. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  15. New biotechnologies in Serbian forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galović Vladislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the results achieved in the laboratory for molecular studies of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad, in the field of biotechnology, mainly in molecular genetics, genomics and functional genomics. Researches are designed to serve as a breeding tool. The aim was to clarify the processes of classical genetics by applying modern methods and enable a qualitative and rapid progress in understanding the processes that occur at the level of genes in the genome of forest plant species and thus help the processes of conservation of valuable taxa at the time of global climate change. The results are presented within various research fields and by type of forest trees that were given priority by importance in forest ecosystems. Studies have in most cases been of applicative character with the aim of solving the major problems in forestry, but also of fundamental nature when they were necessary to elucidate the response of forest species to the induced stress, which is an inevitable component of the time characterized by tolerance and adaptation as keywords. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike SRbije, br. III 43002: Biosenzing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirano istraživanje i integrisano upravljanje ekosistemima i br. III 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje i IPA - OXIT

  16. Biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Soledad Darqui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of commercial transgenic varieties of orange petunias sold in Europe and the United States although they had never reached the approved status, and the consequent recommendation to destroy them, was the trigger to discuss about biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants. Inside the restricted world of 26 vegetal transgenic species, according to the ISAAA’s reports (http://www.isaaa.org, there are three ornamental species: carnation, rose and the Beijing University developed petunia; all of them with the same trait, a change in their colour. On the other hand, in 2014, the whole-genome sequence of carnation appeared which was the first and until now the only one among ornamental species. In this context, we review the publications from the last five years in petunia, rose, chrysanthemum and carnation. In these papers there are detailed descriptions of modification of the cascade of genes and transcription factors involved in stress situations, in different developmental stages and their regulation through different plant hormones. This knowledge will allow breeding for better and new varieties with changes in their abiotic or biotic stress tolerance, altered growth or yield and modified product quality as colour or fragrance.

  17. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Menendez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellulases have numerous applications in several industries, including biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, pulp and paper, textile, laundry, and agriculture.Cellulose-degrading bacteria are widely spread in nature, being isolated from quite different environments. Cellulose degradation is the result of a synergic process between an endoglucanase, an exoglucanase and a,β-glucosidase. Bacterial endoglucanases degrade ß-1,4-glucan linkages of cellulose amorphous zones, meanwhile exoglucanases cleave the remaining oligosaccharide chains, originating cellobiose, which is hydrolyzed by ß-glucanases. Bacterial cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 are comprised in fourteen Glycosil Hydrolase families. Several advantages, such as higher growth rates and genetic versatility, emphasize the suitability and advantages of bacterial cellulases over other sources for this group of enzymes. This review summarizes the main known cellulolytic bacteria and the best strategies to optimize their cellulase production, focusing on endoglucanases, as well as it reviews the main biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases in several industries, medicine and agriculture.

  18. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL POULTRY MICROFLORA

    OpenAIRE

    Garda S. A.; S. G. Danilenko; G. S. Litvinov

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics based on normal microflora of the birds using perspective strains become increasingly popular for treatment and prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis in poultry. The purpose of the work is the biotechnological data analysis of the composition and functions of the microflora of different birds’ biotopes. One of biotechnological methods for the study of bacterial flora in the birds is a method of in vivo bacteriological control — analysis of group samples of fresh droppings. To study bir...

  19. Outer Limits of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Loike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.

  20. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I. M.; Nawar, Ali I.; Rohila, Jai S.

    2013-01-01

    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improve...

  1. Human Factor Investigation of Waste Processing System During the HI-SEAS 4 Month Mars Analog Mission in Support of NASA's Logistic Reduction and Repurposing Project: Trash to Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne; Hintze, Paul; Miles, John D.

    2014-01-01

    NASAs Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is tasked with reducing total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. Trash to Gas (TtG) is a sub task to LRR with efforts focused on development of a technology that converts wastes generated during long duration space missions into high-value products such as methane, water for life support, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. The reuse of discarded materials is a critical component to reducing overall mission mass. The 120 day Hawaii Space Exploration and Analog Simulation provides a unique opportunity to answer questions regarding crew interface and system analysis for designing and developing future flight-like versions of a TtG system. This paper will discuss the human factors that would affect the design of a TtG or other waste processing systems. An overview of the habitat, utility usage, and waste storage and generation is given. Crew time spent preparing trash for TtG processing was recorded. Gas concentrations were measured near the waste storage locations and at other locations in the habitat. In parallel with the analog mission, experimental processing of waste materials in a TtG reactor was performed in order to evaluate performance with realistic waste materials.

  2. Human Factor Investigation of Waste Processing System During the HI-SEAS 4-month Mars Analog Mission in Support of NASA's Logistic Reduction and Repurposing Project: Trash to Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne; Hintze, Paul E.; Miles, John D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is tasked with reducing total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. Trash to Gas (TtG) is a sub task to LRR with efforts focused on development of a technology that converts wastes generated during long duration space missions into high-value products such as methane, water for life support, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. The reuse of discarded materials is a critical component to reducing overall mission mass. The 120 day Hawaii Space Exploration and Analog Simulation provides a unique opportunity to answer questions regarding crew interface and system analysis for designing and developing future flight-like versions of a TtG system. This paper will discuss the human factors that would affect the design of a TtG or other waste processing systems. An overview of the habitat, utility usage, and waste storage and generation is given. Crew time spent preparing trash for TtG processing was recorded. Gas concentrations were measured near the waste storage locations and at other locations in the habitat. In parallel with the analog mission, experimental processing of waste materials in a TtG reactor was performed in order to evaluate performance with realistic waste materials.

  3. Possible application of brewer’s spent grain in biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Jelena D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain is the major by-product in beer production. It is produced in large quantities (20 kg per 100 liters of produced beer throughout the year at a low cost or no cost, and due to its high protein and carbohydrates content it can be used as a raw material in biotechnology. Biotechnological processes based on renewable agro-industrial by-products have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products and economical (cheap raw materials and reduction of storage costs advantages. The use of brewer’s spent grain is still limited, being basically used as animal feed. Researchers are trying to improve the application of brewer’s spent grain by finding alternative uses apart from the current general use as an animal feed. Its possible applications are in human nutrition, as a raw material in biotechnology, energy production, charcoal production, paper manufacture, as a brick component, and adsorbent. In biotechnology brewer’s spent grain could be used as a substrate for cultivation of microorganisms and enzyme production, additive of yeast carrier in beer fermentation, raw material in production of lactic acid, bioethanol, biogas, phenolic acids, xylitol, and pullulan. Some possible applications for brewer’s spent grain are described in this article including pre-treatment conditions (different procedures for polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and cellulose hydrolysis, working microorganisms, fermentation parameters and obtained yields. The chemical composition of brewer’s spent grain varies according to barley variety, harvesting time, malting and mashing conditions, and a quality and type of unmalted raw material used in beer production. Brewer’s spent grain is lignocellulosic material rich in protein and fibre, which account for approximately 20 and 70% of its composition, respectively.

  4. Biotechnology risks and benefits: Science instructor perspectives and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant Ean

    Developing scientifically literate students who understand the socially contextualized nature of science and technology is a national focus of science education reform. Understanding teachers' views on this topic is of equal importance. This document focuses on the topic of risks and benefits posed by science and technology as an important topic for which the socially contextualized nature of science and technology readily emerges. Following introduction of a theoretical model and a review of the literature, two research studies are described that examined teachers' perceptions of the risks posed by biotechnology and the role of risk topics in an undergraduate science course. The first research study examines four groups of science educators; pre-service science teachers, in-service science teachers, science graduate teaching assistants, and science professors (n = 91). The participants completed a survey and card sort task to determine their perceptions of the risks of biotechnology. The results show that teacher perceptions were shaped by the risk severity, regulation processes, public acceptance, fear, reciprocal benefits, and whether the applications would impact humans or the environment. Factors determining risk perception included personal worldviews, trust in communicating institutions, and personal experiences with biotechnology. The different types of science teachers were compared and contrasted in light of these factors and the implications of instructor perceptions on science pedagogy are discussed. The second research manuscript describes a case study in which six biology graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) were observed teaching as lesson on the potential risks and benefits of biotechnology. The data sources included classroom observations and semi-structured interviews. Qualitative analysis reveals that GTAs framed the instruction of risk in one of three ways: analytical, focus on perspectives and biases, and promotion of individual reflection

  5. The role of biotechnology in art preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, José Luis; Santana, María A; Galindo-Castro, Iván; Gonzalez, Alvaro

    2005-12-01

    Biotechnology has played a key role in medicine, agriculture and industry for over 30 years and has advanced our understanding of the biological sciences. Furthermore, the tools of biotechnology have a great and largely untapped potential for the preservation and restoration of our cultural heritage. It is possible that these tools are not often applied in this context because of the inherent separation of the worlds of art and science; however, it is encouraging to see that during the past six years important biotechnological applications to artwork preservation have emerged and advances in biotechnology predict further innovation. In this article we describe and reflect upon a unique example of a group of scientists and art restoration technicians working together to study and treat of a piece of colonial art, and review some of the new applications in biotechnology for the preservation of mankind's cultural heritage. We predict an expansion in this field and the further development of biotechnological techniques, which will open up new opportunities to both biologists and artwork preservers.

  6. Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troco K. Mihali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs. PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes, which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified in several cyanobacterial genera including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon Planktothrix and Lyngbya. STX and its analogs can be structurally classified into several classes such as non-sulfated, mono-sulfated, di-sulfated, decarbamoylated and the recently discovered hydrophobic analogs—each with varying levels of toxicity. Biotransformation of the PSTs into other PST analogs has been identified within marine invertebrates, humans and bacteria. An improved understanding of PST transformation into less toxic analogs and degradation, both chemically or enzymatically, will be important for the development of methods for the detoxification of contaminated water supplies and of shellfish destined for consumption. Some PSTs also have demonstrated pharmaceutical potential as a long-term anesthetic in the treatment of anal fissures and for chronic tension-type headache. The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids.

  7. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  8. Analog design centering and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Graeb, Helmut E

    2007-01-01

    Here is a compendium of fundamental problem formulations of analog design centering and sizing. It provides a differentiated knowledge about the many tasks of analog design centering and sizing. In particular, coverage formulates the worst-case problem. The book stands at the interface between process technology and design technology, detailing how the two are required to reach a solution. It presents a mathematically founded description based on numerical optimization and statistics. This volume will enable analog and mixed-signal designers to assess CAD solution methods that are presented to them as well as help developers of analog CAD tools to formulate and develop solution approaches for analog design centering and sizing.

  9. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  10. The human dopamine transporter forms a tetramer in the plasma membrane: cross-linking of a cysteine in the fourth transmembrane segment is sensitive to cocaine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Hanne; Sen, Namita; Javitch, Jonathan A

    2003-11-14

    Using cysteine cross-linking, we demonstrated previously that the dopamine transporter (DAT) is at least a homodimer, with the extracellular end of transmembrane segment (TM) 6 at a symmetrical dimer interface. We have now explored the possibility that DAT exists as a higher order oligomer in the plasma membrane. Cysteine cross-linking of wild type DAT resulted in bands on SDS-PAGE consistent with dimer, trimer, and tetramer, suggesting that DAT forms a tetramer in the plasma membrane. A cysteine-depleted DAT (CD-DAT) into which only Cys243 or Cys306 was reintroduced was cross-linked to dimer, suggesting that these endogenous cysteines in TM4 and TM6, respectively, were cross-linked at a symmetrical dimer interface. Reintroduction of both Cys243 and Cys306 into CD-DAT led to a pattern of cross-linking indistinguishable from that of wild type, with dimer, trimer, and tetramer bands. This indicated that the TM4 interface and the TM6 interface are distinct and further suggested that DAT may exist in the plasma membrane as a dimer of dimers, with two symmetrical homodimer interfaces. The cocaine analog MFZ 2-12 and other DAT inhibitors, including benztropine and mazindol, protected Cys243 against cross-linking. In contrast, two substrates of DAT, dopamine and tyramine, did not significantly impact cross-linking. We propose that the impairment of cross-linking produced by the inhibitors results from a conformational change at the TM4 interface, further demonstrating that these compounds are not neutral blockers but by themselves have effects on the structure of the transporter.

  11. Albert Einstein, Analogizer Extraordinaire

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Where does deep insight in physics come from? It is tempting to think that it comes from the purest and most precise of reasoning, following ironclad laws of thought that compel the clear mind completely rigidly. And yet the truth is quite otherwise. One finds, when one looks closely at any major discovery, that the greatest of physicists are, in some sense, the most crazily daring and irrational of all physicists. Albert Einstein exemplifies this thesis in spades. In this talk I will describe the key role, throughout Albert Einstein's fabulously creative life, played by wild guesses made by analogy lacking any basis whatsoever in pure reasoning. In particular, in this year of 2007, the centenary of 1907, I will describe how over the course of two years (1905 through 1907) of pondering, Einstein slowly came, via analogy, to understand the full, radical consequences of the equation that he had first discovered and published in 1905, arguably the most famous equation of all time: E = mc2.

  12. Students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-09-10

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p affect students' attitudes toward genetically engineered (GE) plants but not GE animals. Our current study also found that the students' attitude towards GE animals was influenced more by their limited knowledge than by their moral belief. On the basis of findings from this study, we suggest that more materials of emerging animal biotechnology should be included in high school curriculum and recommend that high school teachers and university faculty establish a collaborative framework in the near future. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):475-491, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Anti-Plasmodium activity of ceramide analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatt Shimon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids are key molecules regulating many essential functions in eukaryotic cells and ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. A sphingolipid metabolism occurs in the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and is associated with essential biological processes. It constitutes an attractive and potential target for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Methods The anti-Plasmodium activity of a series of ceramide analogs containing different linkages (amide, methylene or thiourea linkages between the fatty acid part of ceramide and the sphingoid core was investigated in culture and compared to the sphingolipid analog PPMP (d,1-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. This analog is known to inhibit the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and block parasite development by preventing the formation of the tubovesicular network that extends from the parasitophorous vacuole to the red cell membrane and delivers essential extracellular nutrients to the parasite. Results Analogs containing methylene linkage showed a considerably higher anti-Plasmodium activity (IC50 in the low nanomolar range than PPMP and their counterparts with a natural amide linkage (IC50 in the micromolar range. The methylene analogs blocked irreversibly P. falciparum development leading to parasite eradication in contrast to PPMP whose effect is cytostatic. A high sensitivity of action towards the parasite was observed when compared to their effect on the human MRC-5 cell growth. The toxicity towards parasites did not correlate with the inhibition by methylene analogs of the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and the tubovesicular network formation, indicating that this enzyme is not their primary target. Conclusions It has been shown that ceramide analogs were potent inhibitors of P. falciparum growth in culture. Interestingly, the nature of the linkage between the fatty acid part and the

  14. [Regions of human genome containing analogs of oncogenes and retrovirus genes. I. A family of c-mos genes and unusual structure of ORA-gp5 locus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabarovskiĭ, E R; Chumakov, I M; Prasolov, V S; Kiselev, L L

    1984-01-01

    The structural organization of a number of recombinant phages previously selected from the human gene library has been studied. On the basis of comparison of physical maps and hybridization to cloned probes it was deduced that different human loci with the homology to v-mos are represented in lambda recombinants. The physical map of the cloned region of the human genome designated as ORA-gp5 was constructed. The sequences of three different genetical elements v-mos-related oncogene, mammalian type C retrovirus and Alu type repeat are interspersed in this structure. The hypothesis concerning the probable origin of this locus has been proposed. The mosaical structure of ORA-gp5 could be the result of the integration of mammalian retrovirus in the vicinity to c-mos gene with subsequent recombination and transposition. The resulting potentially oncogenic structure was later inactivated by the integration of Alu-type repeats.

  15. The contribution of microbial biotechnology to sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmis, Kenneth; de Vos, Willem M; Ramos, Juan Luis; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Prieto, Auxiliadora; Danchin, Antoine; Verstraete, Willy; de Lorenzo, Victor; Lee, Sang Yup; Brüssow, Harald; Timmis, James Kenneth; Singh, Brajesh K

    2017-09-01

    The signature and almost unique characteristic of microbial technology is the exceptional diversity of applications it can address, and the exceptional range of human activities and needs to which it is and can be applied. Precisely because sustainability goals have very diverse and complex components and requirements, microbial technology has the ability to contribute substantively on many levels in many arenas to global efforts to achieve sustainability. Indeed, microbial technology could be viewed as a unifying element in our progress towards sustainability. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Analogical reasoning in children with specific language impairment: Evidence from a scene analogy task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemien, Magali; Jemel, Boutheina; Maillart, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a human ability that maps systems of relations. It develops along with relational knowledge, working memory and executive functions such as inhibition. It also maintains a mutual influence on language development. Some authors have taken a greater interest in the analogical reasoning ability of children with language disorders, specifically those with specific language impairment (SLI). These children apparently have weaker analogical reasoning abilities than their aged-matched peers without language disorders. Following cognitive theories of language acquisition, this deficit could be one of the causes of language disorders in SLI, especially those concerning productivity. To confirm this deficit and its link to language disorders, we use a scene analogy task to evaluate the analogical performance of SLI children and compare them to controls of the same age and linguistic abilities. Results show that children with SLI perform worse than age-matched peers, but similar to language-matched peers. They are more influenced by increased task difficulty. The association between language disorders and analogical reasoning in SLI can be confirmed. The hypothesis of limited processing capacity in SLI is also being considered.

  17. Technology under Moon and Mars Analog Missions Activities (MMAMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Analog Missions research addresses the need for integrated interdisciplinary field experiments as an integral part of preparation for planned human and robotic...

  18. Detecting analogical resemblance without retrieving the source analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M; Severin, Kaye; Miller, Samuel W

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether people can detect analogical resemblance to an earlier experimental episode without being able to recall the experimental source of the analogical resemblance. We used four-word analogies (e.g., robin-nest/beaver-dam), in a variation of the recognition-without-cued-recall method (Cleary, 2004). Participants studied word pairs (e.g., robin-nest) and were shown new word pairs at test, half of which analogically related to studied word pairs (e.g., beaver-dam) and half of which did not. For each test pair, participants first attempted to recall an analogically similar pair from the study list. Then, regardless of whether successful recall occurred, participants were prompted to rate the familiarity of the test pair, which was said to indicate the likelihood that a pair that was analogically similar to the test pair had been studied. Across three experiments, participants demonstrated an ability to detect analogical resemblance without recalling the source analogy. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential relevance to the study of analogical reasoning and insight, as well as to the study of familiarity and recognition memory.

  19. Les biotechnologies végétales appropriées dans le contexte du dialogue Nord-Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepoivre P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate plant biotechnology in the context of the dialogue between North and South. Appropriateness of any technology must take into consideration the ethical problems and the social, economical, scientific and ecological environment. For developing countries, plant biotechnologies definitely open interesting perspectives, but also raise potential problems, because their integration and valorisation require a progressive and adapted development. Biotechnologies depend on legal and physical infrastructures, as well as human skills for on-site control corresponding to the needs of the relevant populations and to the global environment.

  20. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  1. Forest biotechnology advances to support global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Harfouche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world is shifting to an innovation economy and forest biotechnology can play a major role in the bio-economy by providing farmers, producers, and consumers with tools that can better advance this transition. First-generation or conventional biofuels are primarily produced from food crops and are therefore limited in their ability to meet challenges for petroleum-product substitution and climate change mitigation, and to overcome the food-versus-fuel dilemma. In the longer term, forest lignocellulosic biomass will provide a unique renewable resource for large-scale production of bioenergy, biofuels and bio-products. These second-generation or advanced biofuels and bio-products have also the potential to avoid many of the issues facing the first-generation biofuels, particularly the competition concerning land and water used for food production. To expand the range of natural biological resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can ameliorate the conversion process, lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of forest biomass feedstock and the product of interest. Therefore, linking forest biotechnology with industrial biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert woody lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-products. Major advances and applications of forest biotechnology that are being achieved to competitively position forest biomass feedstocks with corn and other food crops are outlined. Finally, recommendations for future work are discussed.

  2. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

  3. Proteomics: A Biotechnology Tool for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa eEldakak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path towards crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.

  4. Fluorinated Analogs of Malachite Green: Synthesis and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Parvin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of fluorinated analogs of malachite green (MG have been synthesizedand their toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a human ovarian epithelial cell lineexamined. The toxicity profiles were found to be different for these two species. Twoanalogs, one with 2,4-difluoro substitution and the other with 2-fluoro substitution seem tobe the most promising analogs because they showed the lowest toxicity to the human cells.

  5. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  6. Disability, Development and the Biotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Hurst

    2006-01-01

    Rachel Hurst argues that disabled people should have the same rights as other humans, and questions moves to select and manipulate genetically in order to create ‘perfect’ beings. She underlines that disabled people contribute difference and genetic diversity, which are necessary for continued human development. Development (2006) 49, 101–106. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100320

  7. Quadruplexes of human telomere DNA analogs designed to contain G:A:G:A, G:G:A:A, and A:A:A:A tetrads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sagi, J.; Renčiuk, Daniel; Tomaško, Martin; Vorlíčková, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 10 (2010), s. 880-886 ISSN 0006-3525 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100040701; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500040903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : human telomere quadruplex * adenine for guanine substitution * CD spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.572, year: 2010

  8. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  9. Analog processor for electroluminescent detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkin, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Analog processor for spectrometric channel of soft X-ray radiation electroluminescent detector is described. Time internal spectrometric measurer (TIM) with 1 ns/chan quick action serves as signal analyzer. Analog processor restores signals direct component, integrates detector signals and generates control pulses on the TIM input, provides signal discrimination by amplitude and duration, counts number of input pulses per measuring cycle. Flowsheet of analog processor and its man characteristics are presented. Analog processor dead time constitutes 0.5-5 ms. Signal/noise relation is ≥ 500. Scale integral nonlinearity is < 2%

  10. Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

    By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

  11. Perspectives on biotechnological applications of archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiraldi, Chiara; Giuliano, Mariateresa; De Rosa, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Many archaea colonize extreme environments. They include hyperthermophiles, sulfur-metabolizing thermophiles, extreme halophiles and methanogens. Because extremophilic microorganisms have unusual properties, they are a potentially valuable resource in the development of novel biotechnological processes. Despite extensive research, however, there are few existing industrial applications of either archaeal biomass or archaeal enzymes. This review summarizes current knowledge about the biotechnological uses of archaea and archaeal enzymes with special attention to potential applications that are the subject of current experimental evaluation. Topics covered include cultivation methods, recent achievements in genomics, which are of key importance for the development of new biotechnological tools, and the application of wild-type biomasses, engineered microorganisms, enzymes and specific metabolites in particular bioprocesses of industrial interest. PMID:15803645

  12. Plant biotechnology for food security and bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    This year is a special year for plant biotechnology. It was 30 years ago, on January 18 1983, one of the most important dates in the history of plant biotechnology, that three independent groups described Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation at the Miami Winter Symposium, leading to the production of normal, fertile transgenic plants (Bevan et al. in Nature 304:184-187, 1983; Fraley et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803-4807, 1983; Herrera-Estrella et al. in EMBO J 2:987-995, 1983; Vasil in Plant Cell Rep 27:1432-1440, 2008). Since then, plant biotechnology has rapidly advanced into a useful and valuable tool and has made a significant impact on crop production, development of a biotech industry and the bio-based economy worldwide.

  13. Biotechnological uses of enzymes from psychrophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchioli, R.; Charlton, T.; Ertan, H.; Omar, S. Mohd; Siddiqui, K. S.; Williams, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The bulk of the Earth's biosphere is cold (e.g. 90% of the ocean's waters are ≤ 5°C), sustaining a broad diversity of microbial life. The permanently cold environments vary from the deep ocean to alpine reaches and to polar regions. Commensurate with the extent and diversity of the ecosystems that harbour psychrophilic life, the functional capacity of the microorganisms that inhabitat the cold biosphere are equally diverse. As a result, indigenous psychrophilic microorganisms provide an enormous natural resource of enzymes that function effectively in the cold, and these cold‐adapted enzymes have been targeted for their biotechnological potential. In this review we describe the main properties of enzymes from psychrophiles and describe some of their known biotechnological applications and ways to potentially improve their value for biotechnology. The review also covers the use of metagenomics for enzyme screening, the development of psychrophilic gene expression systems and the use of enzymes for cleaning. PMID:21733127

  14. Biotechnology: Health care, agriculture, industry, environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikyta, B.; Pavlasova, E.; Stejskalova, E.

    1986-01-01

    New developments in different branches of biotechnology are discussed. The production of peptide hormones, new interferons and other lymphokines by the microbial and cell cultures, and new enzyme inhibitors of microbial origin are the most important for health care and pharmacy. The main direction in research in the agriculture represents the development of the new, very effective methods of nitrogen fixation and the production of animal growth hormones by gene manipulated microorganisms. One of the most important field of application of biotechnology is the chemical industry, c.f. microbial production of polymers and biotransformation of compounds previously produced by chemical methods (acrylamide, adipic acid, naphthalene conversion, etc.). Several novel methods of degradation of the cellulosic materials are mentioned and exploitation of biotechnology in environmental protection is also discussed.

  15. The antiarrhythmic peptide analog rotigaptide (ZP123) stimulates gap junction intercellular communication in human osteoblasts and prevents decrease in femoral trabecular bone strength in ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Henriksen, Zanne

    2005-01-01

    and strength in vivo. Cell coupling and calcium signaling were assessed in vitro on human, primary, osteoblastic cells. In vivo effects of rotigaptide on bone strength and density were determined 4 wk after ovariectomy in rats treated with either vehicle, sc injection twice daily (300 nmol per kilogram body...... weight) or by continuous ip infusion (158 nmol per kilogram body weight per day). During metabolic stress, a high affinity-binding site (KD=0.1 nM) with low density (15 fmol/mg protein) for [125I]di-I-AAP10 was demonstrated. During physiological conditions, specific binding sites for [125I]AAP10 could...

  16. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  17. Children's Development of Analogical Reasoning: Insights from Scene Analogy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; Morrison, Robert G.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    We explored how relational complexity and featural distraction, as varied in scene analogy problems, affect children's analogical reasoning performance. Results with 3- and 4-year-olds, 6- and 7-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and 13- and 14-year-olds indicate that when children can identify the critical structural relations in a scene analogy…

  18. Microbial biotechnology addressing the plastic waste disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narancic, Tanja; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2017-09-01

    Oceans are a major source of biodiversity, they provide livelihood, and regulate the global ecosystem by absorbing heat and CO 2 . However, they are highly polluted with plastic waste. We are discussing here microbial biotechnology advances with the view to improve the start and the end of life of biodegradable polymers, which could contribute to the sustainable use of marine and coastal ecosystems (UN Sustainability development goal 14). © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Biotechnological applications of extremophiles, extremozymes and extremolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddadi, Noura; Cherif, Ameur; Daffonchio, Daniele; Neifar, Mohamed; Fava, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    In the last decade, attention to extreme environments has increased because of interests to isolate previously unknown extremophilic microorganisms in pure culture and to profile their metabolites. Microorganisms that live in extreme environments produce extremozymes and extremolytes that have the potential to be valuable resources for the development of a bio-based economy through their application to white, red, and grey biotechnologies. Here, we provide an overview of extremophile ecology, and we review the most recent applications of microbial extremophiles and the extremozymes and extremolytes they produce to biotechnology.

  20. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  1. Biotechnological applications of extremophiles, extremozymes and extremolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura

    2015-08-14

    In the last decade, attention to extreme environments has increased because of interests to isolate previously unknown extremophilic microorganisms in pure culture and to profile their metabolites. Microorganisms that live in extreme environments produce extremozymes and extremolytes that have the potential to be valuable resources for the development of a bio-based economy through their application to white, red, and grey biotechnologies. Here, we provide an overview of extremophile ecology, and we review the most recent applications of microbial extremophiles and the extremozymes and extremolytes they produce to biotechnology.

  2. Biosafety Assessment of Microbial Strains Used in Biotechnology According to Their Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Sheina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of biotechnological products are now widely used in different ways in agriculture, medicine, food manufacturing and other areas of our life. Industrialized societies now more than ever depend on the use of genetically engineered products, with many of them synthesized using recombinant strains of microorganisms. There is an opinion that microbial strains used in biotechnology are potentially harmful for human health and the environment. Similar to many other countries, we have enacted environmental legislation in an effort to balance the risks and benefits of using biotechnological strains. Although environmental monitoring rules focus mainly on safety assessments of chemicals, the biosafety assessment of microbial strains used in biotechnology is a very important issue as well. This article summarizes 15 years of research on the biotechnological strains of microbes widely used as producers of various biological substances for industrial purposes, and their environmental and biotechnological applications. In our survey, we tried to evaluate possible adverse effects (general toxicity and damage to the immune system, potential sensitizing effects, and damage to normal microbiota caused by these microbes. It was shown that microscopical fungi of genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Candida, and some gram-negative bacteria can affect the immune system and disrupt the normal balance of microbial flora of the intestinal tract in rats. The actinomycetes are less dangerous in that they cause fewer side effects. The investigation data obtained can be used to develop safety and hygienic standards for industrial microbes that will help decrease or minimize the occupational risk of infection or damage to the immune system when working with biotechnological strains of microbes.

  3. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of Cecropin A(1-8)-Magainin2(1-12) hybrid peptide analog p5 against Malassezia furfur infection in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sunhyo; Choi, Soon-Yong; Acharya, Samudra; Chun, Young-Jin; Gurley, Catherine; Park, Yoonkyung; Armstrong, Cheryl A; Song, Peter I; Kim, Beom-Joon

    2011-08-01

    The lipophilic fungus Malassezia furfur (M. furfur) is a commensal microbe associated with several chronic diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, folliculitis, and seborrheic dermatitis. Because M. furfur-related diseases are difficult to treat and require prolonged use of medications, the treatment for M. furfur-related skin diseases is supposed to gain control over M. furfur growth and the inflammation associated with it, as well as to prevent secondary infections. In this study, we investigated the antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects of cecropin A(1-8)-magainin 2(1-12) hybrid peptide analog P5 on M. furfur. The minimal inhibitory concentration of P5 against M. furfur was 0.39 μM, making it 3-4 times more potent than commonly used antifungal agents such as ketoconazole (1.5 μM) or itraconazole (1.14 μM). P5 efficiently inhibited the expression of IL-8 and Toll-like receptor 2 in M. furfur-infected human keratinocytes without eukaryotic cytotoxicity at its fungicidal concentration. Moreover, P5 significantly downregulated NF-κB activation and intracellular calcium fluctuation, which are closely related with enhanced responses of keratinocyte inflammation induced by M. furfur infection. Taken together, these observations suggest P5 may be a potential therapeutic agent for M. furfur-associated human skin diseases because of its distinct antifungal and anti-inflammatory action.

  4. An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-03-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

  5. Therapeutic Efficacy of a {sup 188}Re-Labeled {alpha}-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Peptide Analog in Murine and Human Melanoma-Bearing Mouse Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yubin; Owen, Nellie K.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic efficacy of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH in the B16/F1 murine melanoma and TXM13 human melanoma bearing mouse models. Method: (Arg11)CCMSH was synthesized and labeled with {sup 188}Re to form {sup 188}Re-(Agr{sup 11})CCMSH. B16/F1 melanoma tumor bearing mice were administrated with 200 Ci, 600 Ci and 2x400 Ci of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH via the tail vein, respectively. TXM13 melanoma tumor hearing mice were separately injected with 600 Ci, 2x400 Ci and 1000 Ci of 100Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH through the tail vein. Two groups of 10 mice bearing either B16/F1 or TXM13 tumors were injected with saline as untreated controls. Results: In contrast to the untreated control group, {sup 188}Re(Arg11)CCMSH yielded rapid and lasting therapeutic effects in the treatment groups with either B16/F1 or TXM13 tumors. The tumor growth rate was reduced and the survival rate was prolonged in the treatment groups. Treatment with 2x400 Ci of {sup 188}Re-Arg{sup 11}CCMSH significantly extended the mean life of B16/F1 tumor mice (p<0.05), while the mean life of TXm13 tumor mice was significantly prolonged after treatment with 600 Ci and 1000 Ci doses of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH (p<0.05 High-dose {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11}))CCMSH produced no observed normal-tissue toxicity. Conclusions: The therapy study results revealed that {sup 188}Re-Arg11 CCMSH yielded significant therapeutic effects in both B16/F1 murine melanoma and TXM13 human melanoma bearing mouse models. {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH appears to be a promising radiolabeled peptide for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

  6. 76 FR 5391 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB), February...

  7. Research gap analysis for application of biotechnology to sustaining US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Whetten; R. Kellison

    2010-01-01

    The expanding human population of the world is placing greater demand on forest resources, both natural forests and plantations. Both types of forests are being adversely affected in North America as well as in other parts of the world, due to the globalization of trade and to climate change and associated changes in pest and disease incidence. Biotechnology may help...

  8. Enhancement and desire: Japanese qualms about where biotechnology is taking us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, William R

    2008-01-01

    Japan's Buddhists view bodily enhancement neither negatively in terms of sin nor positively as repairing the world. They prefer prudence, however, due to the fact that human desires will be enflamed by proffered new biotechnologies and ironically increase psychosocial dissatisfaction. In spite of great pressures for bodily enhancements within in East Asian societies, bioethicists issue strong cautions.

  9. Expanding the biotechnology potential of lactobacilli through comparative genomics of 213 strains and associated genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Z.; Harris, H.M.B.; McCann, A.; Guo, C.; Argimón, S.; Zhang, W.; Yang, X.; Jeffery, I.B.; Cooney, J.C.; Kagawa, T.F.; Liu, W.; Song, Y.; Salvetti, E.; Wrobel, A.; Rasinkangas, P.; Parkhill, J.; Rea, M.C.; O'Sullivan, O.; Ritari, J.; Douillard, F.P.; Paul Ross, R.; Yang, R.; Briner, A.E.; Felis, G.E.; Vos, de W.M.; Barrangou, R.; Klaenhammer, T.R.; Caufield, P.W.; Cui, Y.; Zhang, H.; O'Toole, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli are a diverse group of species that occupy diverse nutrient-rich niches associated with humans, animals, plants and food. They are used widely in biotechnology and food preservation, and are being explored as therapeutics. Exploiting lactobacilli has been complicated by metabolic

  10. What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

  11. National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products sets forth a vision for ensuring that the federal regulatory system is prepared to efficiently assess the risks, if any, of the future products of biotechnology.

  12. White House Announcement on the Regulation of Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The White House posted a blog unveiling documents as part of the Administration’s continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of the EPA, FDA in evaluating new biotechnologies.

  13. Biotechnology Commercialization Strategies: Risk and Return in interfirm cooperation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernald, K.D.S.; Pennings, e; Claassen, E.

    2014-01-01

    The management and exploitation of biotechnological product innovation have proven to be more difficult than initially expected because the number of currently marketed biotechnological products is far from sufficient to counter deficits in pharmaceutical innovation. This study provides insight into

  14. Biotechnology Commercialization Strategies: Risk and Return in Interfirm Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernald, K.D.S.; Pennings, H.P.G.; Claassen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The management and exploitation of biotechnological product innovation have proven to be more difficult than initially expected because the number of currently marketed biotechnological products is far from sufficient to counter deficits in pharmaceutical innovation. This study provides insight into

  15. The present status and perspectives of Biotechnology in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for the rapid exploitation of biotechnology for the socioeconomic development of Cameroon, subject to the mobilization of the necessary venture capital. Keywords: Cameroon, Biotechnology, GMO, Biodiversity, Economic Development, Recombinant DNA JOURNAL OF THE CAMEROON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Vol.

  16. Biotechnology for site restoration: scope of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitchaeva, O.

    1996-09-18

    The potential of modern biotechnology for solving problems related with the nuclear industry, especially site restoration, are investigated. The advantages of biotechnology, the current applications in Russia, main points of international collaboration, and political considerations are discussed.

  17. Nuclear technology and biotechnology for enhancing agricultural production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Osman

    2005-04-01

    The presentation discussed the following subjects: sustainable development, agriculture in Malaysia, role of biotechnology, role of nuclear technology, improving crops through induced mutations with Malaysian experience in rice and roselle, fusion of nuclear and biotechnology challenges and opportunities

  18. Conjecturing via Reconceived Classical Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath

    2011-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is believed to be an efficient means of problem solving and construction of knowledge during the search for and the analysis of new mathematical objects. However, there is growing concern that despite everyday usage, learners are unable to transfer analogical reasoning to learning situations. This study aims at facilitating…

  19. Musik som analogi og metafor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    Indeholder underkapitlerne: 2.5.1 Musik som analogi 2.5.2 Musik som metafor 2.5.3 Musikkens psykologiske funktioner - en taxonomi og metaforisk lytning til fire baroksatser......Indeholder underkapitlerne: 2.5.1 Musik som analogi 2.5.2 Musik som metafor 2.5.3 Musikkens psykologiske funktioner - en taxonomi og metaforisk lytning til fire baroksatser...

  20. Agricultural Biotechnology: Opportunities and Challenges for the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Padolina, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Developing countries, still heavily dependent on agriculture, must now harness biotechnology to modernize agricultural production and diversify product outputs. The Philippines was one of the first Asian countries to establish a biotechnology research and development program. However, not much progress in harnessing the tools of biotechnology has been achieved, especially in the area of varietal improvement. Although there was an early realization of the importance of biotechnology in nationa...

  1. Aromatization of androstenedione and 16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione in human placental microsomes. Kinetic analysis of inhibition by the 19-oxygenated and 3-deoxy analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Watari, Yoko; Komatsu, Sachiko; Yamashita, Kouwa; Nagaoka, Masao

    2008-11-01

    Inhibition of aromatase activity in human placental microsomes with androstenedione (AD) (1a) and its 19-oxygenated derivatives 1b and 1c, their 16alpha-hydroxy compounds 2 and 3, and 3-deoxyandrost-4-ene compounds 5 and 6 was studied using [1beta-(3)H]AD as a substrate and compared to that with [1beta-(3)H]16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione (16-OHAD). AD series of steroids, compounds 1, inhibited competitively [1beta-(3)H]AD aromatization whereas other 16alpha-hydroxy steroids 2, 3, 5, and 6 inhibited AD aromatization in a non-competitive manner. On the other hand, all of 16-OHAD series, compounds 2, blocked the [1beta-(3)H]16-OHAD aromatization in a competitive manner whereas the AD series steroids 1 as well as the 3-deoxy-16alpha-hydroxy-17-one steroids 5 and 3-deoxy-16alpha,17beta-diol steroids 6 inhibited 16-OHAD aromatization non-competitively. 3-carbonyl and 16alpha-hydroxy functions of 16-OHAD play a critical role of selection of the 16-OHAD binding site. The results suggest that the AD derivatives 1 are kinetically aromatized at a different site from the 16-OHAD derivatives 2. Physical and/or chemical environments around the aromatase protein in the microsomal membrane may play a significant role in the expression of the substrate specificity, and the present results do not exclude the idea that the placental microsomes have a single binding site.

  2. NASA HRP Immunology Discipline - Use of Terrestrial Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the cost and operational constraints, as well as technical implementation limitations, it is desirous to perform relevant space physiology investigations first in terrestrial 'space analogs'. This is particularly true for initial investigations, which may then provide appropriate focus for subsequent flight investigations, or for mechanistic investigations that simply cannot be performed during spaceflight. Appropriate analog choice is extremely important. There are a wide variety of terrestrial space analogs, each relevant to a particular physiological discipline (or disciplines) and each with a particular fidelity (or lack thereof) to spaceflight, and each with unique operational constraints. The HRP Immunology Discipline is tasked with managing the HRP Risk concerning clinical risk for Astronaut crews related to spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation. Such dysregulation has been documented to occur during spaceflight, and found to persist for the duration of a 6-month ISS mission. Studies continue to characterize the onorbit phenomenon, but it generally consists of diminished immunocyte function, dysregulated cytokine profiles, and persistent herpesvirus reactivation. Causes are thought to synergistically include microgravity, psychological or physiological stress, radiation, and/or circadian misalignment. An appropriate terrestrial analog for immune dysregulation would replicate as many of these influences as possible. Such analogs may include clinostat or bioreactor cell culture (microgravity), hindlimb suspension (stress, fluid shifts, hypokinesis), or human deployment to remote or extreme environments (isolation, stress, circadian). Also, the laboratory setting may be used as an analog, or to augment analogs, such as sleep deprivation/misalignment or human centrifugation to replicate gravitational stress. As an appropriate example of a NASA Disciplines use of Terrestrial space analogs, this talk will discuss spaceflight associated immune

  3. The Body, Gender, and Biotechnology in Jeanette Winterson's The Stone Gods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Luna

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that Winterson's use of satire and the common tropes of science fiction in her 2007 novel The Stone Gods provides an effective and important critique of the gender discrepancies arising in the implementation of aesthetic medical biotechnologies under the logic of neoliberal consumerism. In particular, engaging with aspects of Winterson's fictional landscape in Part 1 of The Stone Gods, I will explore the themes of bodily normalization, the medicalization of youth and appearance, and the notion that biotechnologies such as cosmetic surgery can inculcate happiness through some sort of "psychological cure." Ultimately, I will argue that Winterson's aim in this novel is to raise important questions about where rising standards of enhancement and appearance, implemented through biotechnologies, will take us and, furthermore, to demonstrate that the problems of the human condition require more than the surface fixes offered by consumption, technological innovation, and narcissistic body projects.

  4. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods

    OpenAIRE

    KAKHRAMON SANOQULOVICH RAKHMONOV; ISABAEV ISMAIL BABADJANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  5. Linking Biotechnology and Agricultural Biodiversity Resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Modern economic activities are heavily dependent on using diversity of biological resources. Africa has a wealth of ... security and provide the genetic material needed for industry, agriculture and biotechnology. In agriculture .... benefit assessment in different fields is of fundamental importance in moulding any policy. Even.

  6. Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

  7. The Current Developments of Agricultural Biotechnologies Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Shkolyarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Population growth in the context of limited land resources makes the global scientific society research new ways to increase the agricultural yields. Over the past 20 years, biotechnology and GM crops have become widely spread and now are cultivated in 28 countries. The total area of crops has tripled, and it suggests the further vertical and horizontal integration in short term. In 2015, the US Department of Agriculture authorized the commercial use of GM farm animals. The development of agricultural biotechnology market is constrained by opponents of GM crops in more than 160 countries, which include Russia and the European Union, where the production of GM crops is banned due to economic, ethical, ideological and biological reasons. Currently, the EU is seeking to reduce the imports of GM crops and products; Russia's GM imports and exports are prohibited, and the deadline of designing a consolidated position on agricultural biotechnology has been moved to 2017. The author seeks to analyze the volume of production and international trade of agricultural products based on biotechnologies and to describe the main trends in the global market, which could be integrated into the food value chain in Russia. In the context of the worsening economic indicators, the article proposes the possibility of extending the use of GM crops in Russia non-food sector.

  8. Democratization of Science and Biotechnological Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mandela government that came into power in 1994 made the democratization of science and technology a priority in post-apartheid South Africa. Attendant ideas of Science Communication and Public Understanding of Biotechnology have hitherto become currency in South Africa's public sector drive towards the ...

  9. PUTTING PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY TO WORK FOR FOOD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant biotechnology is safely bringing valuable new benefits to farmers around the world, including those in developing countries where the needs for food, nutrition and overall development may be greatest. >From the current base of experience, it is reasonable to expect even greater benefits in the future, provided that ...

  10. Magnetic nano- and microparticles in biotechnology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2009), s. 497-505 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetic particles * smart material Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2009

  11. Linking Biotechnology and Agricultural Biodiversity Resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern economic activities are heavily dependent on using diversity of biological resources. Africa has a wealth of biodiversity resources which, with the appropriate application of biotechnological tools for conservation and use, can serve as sources of wealth creation. Proper harnessing of the linkages between ...

  12. Biotechnology System Facility: Risk Mitigation on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R., III; Galloway, Steve R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is working with its international partners to develop space vehicles and facilities that will give researchers the opportunity to conduct scientific investigations in space. As part of this activity, NASA's Biotechnology Cell Science Program (BCSP) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a world-class biotechnology laboratory facility for the International Space Station (ISS). This report describes the BCSP, including the role of the BTS. We identify the purpose and objectives of the BTS and a detailed description of BTS facility design and operational concept, BTS facility and experiment-specific hardware, and scientific investigations conducted in the facility. We identify the objectives, methods, and results of risk mitigation investigations of the effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on the BTS data acquisition and control system. These results may apply to many other space experiments that use commercial, terrestrial-based data acquisition technology. Another focal point is a description of the end-to-end process of integrating and operating biotechnology experiments on a variety of space vehicles. The identification of lessons learned that can be applied to future biotechnology experiments is an overall theme of the report. We include a brief summary of the science results, but this is not the focus of the report. The report provides some discussion on the successful 130-day tissue engineering experiment performed in BTS on Mir and describes a seminal gene array investigation that identified a set of unique genes that are activated in space.

  13. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  14. Biotechnology Education in India: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kirti; Mehra, Kavita; Govil, Suman; Singh, Nitu

    2013-01-01

    Among the developing countries, India is one of those that recognises the importance of biotechnology. The trajectory of different policies being formulated over time is proof that the government is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency. However, to cater to the ever-growing biotech industry, skilled manpower is required. This article…

  15. African Journal of Biotechnology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB), a new broad-based journal, was founded on two key tenets: To publish the most exciting research in all areas of applied biochemistry, industrial microbiology, molecular biology, genomics and proteomics, food and agricultural technologies, and metabolic engineering. Secondly ...

  16. Biotechnology and Consumer Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K

    Society is facing major challenges in climate change, health care and overall quality of life. Scientific advances to address these areas continue to grow, with overwhelming evidence that the application of highly tested forms of biotechnology is safe and effective. Despite scientific consensus in these areas, consumers appear reluctant to support their use. Research that helps to understand consumer decision-making and the public’s resistance to biotechnologies such as vaccines, fluoridated water programs and genetically engineered food, will provide great social value. This article is forward-thinking in that it suggests that important research in behavioral decision-making, specifically affect and ambiguity, can be used to help consumers make informed choices about major applications of biotechnology. This article highlights some of the most controversial examples: vaccinations, genetically engineered food, rbST treated dairy cows, fluoridated water, and embryonic stem cell research. In many of these areas, consumers perceive the risks as high, but the experts calculate the risks as low. Four major thematic approaches are proposed to create a roadmap for policymakers to consider for policy design and implementation in controversial areas of biotechnology. This article articulates future directions for studies that implement decision-making research to allow consumers to appropriately assign risk to their options and make informed decisions.

  17. Optimizing the acceleration of biotechnology innovation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science biotechnology has been attributed a superior platform in Malaysian government plan for wealth creation in the 9th Malaysian plan and policy of Malaysia's science and technology in 21st century; it has been accepted and categorized as a complicated emerging issue to illustrate high prominence combined with ...

  18. Dendritic platforms for biomimicry and biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Kalpana; Mohan, Anand; Thakur, Sourav; Kumar, Pradeep

    2018-02-15

    Dendrimers, commonly referred to as polymeric trees, offer endless opportunities for biotechnological and biomedical applications. By controlling the type, length, and molecular weight of the core, branches and end groups, respectively, the chemical functionality and topology of dendrimeric archetypes can be customized which further can be applied to achieve required solubility, biodegradability, diagnosis and other applications. Given the physicochemical variability of the dendrimers and their hybrids, this review attempts to discuss a full spectrum of recent advances and strides made by these "perfectly designed structures". An extensive biotech/biomimicry application profiling of dendrimers is provided with focus on complex archetypical designs such as protein biomimicry (angiogenic inhibitors, regenerative hydroxyapatite and collagen) and biotechnology applications. In terms of biotechnological advances, dendrimers have provided distinctive advantages in the fields of biocatalysis, microbicides, artificial lights, mitochondrial function modulation, vaccines, tissue regeneration and repair, antigen carriers and even biosensors. In addition, this review provides overview of the extensive chemo-functionalization opportunities available with dendrimers which makes them a perfect candidate for forming drug conjugates, protein hybrids, bio mimics, lipidic derivatives, metal deposits and nanoconjugates thereby making them the most multifunctional platforms for diverse biotechnological applications.

  19. Modern trends in biochemistry and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    On the conference 'Modern trends in biochemistry and biotechnology' several lectures concerned influence of ionizing radiation on the animal cells. Changes in the cell division caused by radiation induced DNA damage were discussed. Application of single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) in assessment of DNA damages was the subject of dedicated session

  20. Lignocellulose biotechnology: issues of bioconversion and enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose biotechnology: issues of bioconversion and enzyme production. ... and secondly to highlight some of the modern approaches which potentially could be used to tackle one of the major impediments, namely high enzyme cost, to speed-up the extensive commercialisation of the lignocellulose bioprocessing.

  1. Biotechnology and species development in aquaculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... potential to improve the quality and quantity of fish reared in aquaculture, although, not without significant contro ... benefits both producers and consumers of aquacultural products. Areas of biotechnology in .... become easier with the development of artificial breeding techniques, such as the use of pituitary ...

  2. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Modern Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    May 2013. This Course is aimed at giving the participants a hands-on training on some modern biotechnological techniques including DNA/RNA isolation from various sources, molecular cloning, PCR and RT-PCR. A variety of teaching methods like lectures by eminent scientists, discussion and laboratory work focussing ...

  3. Biotechnological production of limonene in microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules

    2016-01-01

    This mini review describes novel, biotechnology-based, ways of producing the monoterpene limonene. Limonene is applied in relatively highly priced products, such as fragrances, and also has applications with lower value but large production volume, such as biomaterials. Limonene is currently

  4. Biotechnology issues in four Malaysian mainstream newspapers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... Data analysis found that tones in this study are more positive, (which is used by journalist to report issue concerning biotechnology) compared with negative tones. (Table 6). Analysis using the chi-square method revealed a chi-square value of 8.245 which was significant at the. 0.05 level (P = 0.004).

  5. Design for values in agricultural biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, van den Henk

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology dates from the last two decades of the twentieth century. It involves the creation of plants and animals with new useful traits by inserting one or more genes taken from other species. New legal possibilities for patenting transgenic organisms and isolated genes have

  6. The Brave New World of Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Is it the science that will save the world from starvation, or will it mean the end of the world as it is known? While some people fear genetically altered "Frankenfoods" and DNA experiments with pathogenic microorganisms that could result in worldwide epidemics, others view biotechnology as using biological organisms to make products that benefit…

  7. Personality and Impersonality in Biotechnology Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2006-01-01

    With the emergence of biotechnology, the field account has been replaced by something that we may refer to as a laboratory account - a kind of narrative that constitutes the Materials and Methods section of the IMRD model (introduction, methods, results and discussion). Research focusing on field...

  8. Developing legal regulatory frameworks for modern biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at attempts that have been made to develop legal regulatory frameworks for modern biotechnology. The discussion is limited to the regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) technology by the two leading producers and exporters of GMOs in Africa: South Africa and Kenya. The international and ...

  9. The biotechnology and bioeconomy landscape in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arujanan, Mahaletchumy; Singaram, Muthu

    2018-01-25

    Since 1990s Malaysia aspired to make biotechnology and bioeconomy as her engines of economic growth to utlise the abundance of natural resources and biodiversity. The public sector plays an integral role in developing the sector and various incentives are in place for the private sector to be actively involved and to forge collaboration with the public sector. The country launched its National Biotechnology Policy in 2005 and later launched its National Bioeconomy Programme in 2010 to become the first country in South East Asia and second in Asia after China to have such an initiative. Malaysia is also very proactive in its biosafety law and regulations and has most of the related legal instrument in place. A lot of success has been recorded since the inception of the National Biotechnology Policy in terms of job creation, contribution to GDP through biobusinesses and investment from foreign companies, but the sector is not spared from challenges too. Due to the nature of the discipline that is multidisciplinary and that requires huge amount of investment, expertise and political will, there are a lot of barriers before the country emerges as a bioeconomy player. This paper discusses the public policies, initiatives and funding mechanisms in place in Malaysia that drive its research, development and commercialisation in the area of biotechnology and bioeconomy. The authors also discuss the challenges faced in Malaysia in implementing the policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [The new Colombian criminal code and biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2002-01-01

    The author describes the process by which new offenses concerning biotechnology have been included in Colombia's Penal Code and discusses some of the more controversial aspects involved. She examines the various stages of the passage of the Bill through Parliament and the modifications undergone. She also provides well-argued criticism of the text, with appropriate reference to Constitutional provisions regarding the rights concerned.

  11. Assessing the Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnologies: Canadian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The workshop on which this volume is based represents one of the first formal activities of the "Canada–Latin America Initiative on Biotechnology, the Environment and Sustainable Development" (CamBioTec). The decision by IDRC to host this workshop reflects a recognition of the need for careful, rigorous analysis of the ...

  12. Regulation of Biotechnology in Cameroon W

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, enabled Cameroon to be among the pioneers in the African Region in enacting a national legislation on Biosafety. Law No. 2003/ O06 of 21*'. April 2003 regulating Safety in Modern Biotechnology in Cameroon, translates the Cartagena. Protocol into national realities.

  13. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Modern Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    knowledge to boost their confidence in handling modern instruments used in the discipline of life sciences and modern biotechnology. Skills gained during this Course will help them effectively fulfill their role as better researchers and teachers. The Course will consist of 2–3 lectures everyday followed by equal duration of ...

  14. Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Biotechnology innovations or bio-innovations can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. Innovations such as genetically engineered (GE) crops can increase food production and minimize (or totally obviate) the need for chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

  15. National strategy of safety of biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This document was drafted in the frame of the sustainable development, the social fairness, the citizen participation; in Bolivia the management of the biotechnology and the security of the same one are identified for the first time to the actors involved in constituting in a document for the sustainable management of the conservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity in Bolivia [es

  16. Awareness and knowledge on modern biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... modern biotechnology among the Malaysian public in the. Klang Valley region and to compare their awareness and knowledge level across several demographic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The research data was collected by means of a face to face survey of adult (age 18 years old and ...

  17. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biotechnology: Advances and Prospects for Sustainability, in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology is a multi-disciplinary branch of science whose applications are diverse and because science is dynamic, there is tremendous development in the use of biotechnology in the world. Advances of biotechnology are prominent in Nigeria, where government initiative, the private sector as well as that of NGOs are ...

  19. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  20. Analog fourier transform channelizer and OFDM receiver

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An OFDM receiver having an analog multiplier based I-Q channelizing filter, samples and holds consecutive analog I-Q samples of an I-Q baseband, the I-Q basebands having OFDM sub-channels. A lattice of analog I-Q multipliers and analog I-Q summers concurrently receives the held analog I-Q samples, performs analog I-Q multiplications and analog I-Q additions to concurrently generate a plurality of analog I-Q output signals, representing an N-point discrete Fourier transform of the held analog ...

  1. Potential biotechnological application of microalgae: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2017-02-01

    Microalgae are diverse microorganisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats with only a small fraction being cultivated for human use. Recently, interest in microalgal research has increased in the quest for alternative renewable fuels due to possible depletion of fossil fuels in the near future. However, costly downstream processing has hampered the commercialization of biofuels derived from microalgae. Several value added products of industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural relevance could be simultaneously derived from microalgae during bioenergy production. Despite these value-added products having the potential to offset the high cost of downstream processing of renewable fuels, their production has not been explored in-depth. This review presents a critical overview of the current state of biotechnological applications of microalgae for human benefit and highlights possible areas for further research and development.

  2. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  3. Biotechnologies for the management of genetic resources for food and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidder, Preetmoninder; Sonnino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the land area under agriculture has declined as also has the rate of growth in agricultural productivity while the demand for food continues to escalate. The world population now stands at 7 billion and is expected to reach 9 billion in 2045. A broad range of agricultural genetic diversity needs to be available and utilized in order to feed this growing population. Climate change is an added threat to biodiversity that will significantly impact genetic resources for food and agriculture (GRFA) and food production. There is no simple, all-encompassing solution to the challenges of increasing productivity while conserving genetic diversity. Sustainable management of GRFA requires a multipronged approach, and as outlined in the paper, biotechnologies can provide powerful tools for the management of GRFA. These tools vary in complexity from those that are relatively simple to those that are more sophisticated. Further, advances in biotechnologies are occurring at a rapid pace and provide novel opportunities for more effective and efficient management of GRFA. Biotechnology applications must be integrated with ongoing conventional breeding and development programs in order to succeed. Additionally, the generation, adaptation, and adoption of biotechnologies require a consistent level of financial and human resources and appropriate policies need to be in place. These issues were also recognized by Member States at the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies for Developing Countries (ABDC-10), which took place in March 2010 in Mexico. At the end of the conference, the Member States reached a number of key conclusions, agreeing, inter alia, that developing countries should significantly increase sustained investments in capacity building and the development and use of biotechnologies to maintain the natural resource base; that effective and enabling national biotechnology policies and science-based regulatory frameworks can

  4. Conceptions of elementary and high school teachers on biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Miranda

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The progress in the areas of molecular biology and biotechnology has been demonstrating the importance of the teaching-learning of those subjects to students and teachers of the elementary and high school as well as to the society in general.In this sense, the Scientific Dissemination Coordination of CBME has as objective contributes for the dissemination and learning of techniques and basic concepts in that area of the knowledge, in order to awake in the public the scientific interest and the critical sense related to these advances.  With the goal to offer elements for the elaboration of activities addressed to science teachers of elementary and high school, a survey of their conceptions on science and biotechnology was made. A questionnaire was applied to 30 teachers that participated in updating courses and training, being that 13 teachers belonged to the region of São Carlos city (SP, 8 belonged to the region of Campinas city (SP and 9 belonged to Fortaleza city (CE.  The questionnaire was applied to the teachers in the beginning of the courses and it was composed of different types of questions, which allowed capturing their personal reflections about science, their knowledge on basic concepts of cell and molecular biology, and their opinions about the applications of the biotechnology.  In the analysis of the question What you think about using the modern biotechnology in the production of foods to increase its protein content, in order to turn it larger or to change its taste?, 57% of the teachers agreed partially that this application is useful for the society, 52% agreed totally that the application is morally acceptable while 70% totally disagree as for the encouragement of this application.Some conflicts presented in the registered answers reflect, in certain way, the conflict shown by the academic and scientific communities, as for the ethical aspects of some applications such as transgenic foods, genetic

  5. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  6. Gemini analogs of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Gonzalo; Rivadulla, Marcos L; Pérez-García, Xenxo; Gandara, Zoila; Pérez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini analogs are the last significant contribution to the family of vitamin D derivatives in medicine, for the treatment of cancer. The first Gemini analog was characterized by two symmetric side chains at C-20. Following numerous modifications, the most active analog bears a C-23-triple bond, C-26, 27- hexafluoro substituents on one side chain and a terminal trideuteromethylhydroxy group on the other side chain. This progression was possible due to improvements in the synthetic methods for the preparation of these derivatives, which allowed for increasing molecular complexity and complete diastereoselective control at C-20 and the substituted sidechains.

  7. Analog Systems for Gravity Duals

    OpenAIRE

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2014-01-01

    We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore ...

  8. White biotechnology: ready to partner and invest in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    It needs three factors to build an industry: market demand, product vision and capital. White biotechnology already produces high volume products such as feed additive amino acids and specialty products like enzymes for enantioselective biocatalysis. It serves large and diverse markets in the nutrition, wellness, pharmaceutical, agricultural and chemical industry. The total volume adds up to $ 50 billion worldwide. In spite of its proven track record, white biotechnology so far did not attract as much capital as red and even green biotechnology. However, the latest finance indicators confirm the continuously growing attractiveness of investment opportunities in white biotechnology. This article discusses white biotechnology's position and potential in the finance market and success factors.

  9. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Industrial Biotechnology: Discovery to Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotani, Gopal K.; Dodge, Timothy C.; Gaertner, Alfred L.; Arbige, Michael V.

    Fermentation products have penetrated almost every sector of our daily lives. They are used in ethical and generic drugs, clinical and home diagnostics, defense products, nutritional supplements, personal care products, food and animal feed ingredients, cleaning and textile processing, and in industrial applications such as fuel ethanol production. Even before knowing about the existence of microorganisms, for thousands of years ancient people routinely used them for making cheese, soy sauces, yogurt, and bread. Although humans have used fermentation as the method of choice for manufacturing for a long time, it is only now being recognized for its potential towards sustainable industrial development.

  11. Microbial Biotechnology 2020; microbiology of fossil fuel resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2016-09-01

    This roadmap examines the future of microbiology research and technology in fossil fuel energy recovery. Globally, the human population will be reliant on fossil fuels for energy and chemical feedstocks for at least the medium term. Microbiology is already important in many areas relevant to both upstream and downstream activities in the oil industry. However, the discipline has struggled for recognition in a world dominated by geophysicists and engineers despite widely known but still poorly understood microbially mediated processes e.g. reservoir biodegradation, reservoir souring and control, microbial enhanced oil recovery. The role of microbiology is even less understood in developing industries such as shale gas recovery by fracking or carbon capture by geological storage. In the future, innovative biotechnologies may offer new routes to reduced emissions pathways especially when applied to the vast unconventional heavy oil resources formed, paradoxically, from microbial activities in the geological past. However, despite this potential, recent low oil prices may make industry funding hard to come by and recruitment of microbiologists by the oil and gas industry may not be a high priority. With regards to public funded research and the imperative for cheap secure energy for economic growth in a growing world population, there are signs of inherent conflicts between policies aimed at a low carbon future using renewable technologies and policies which encourage technologies which maximize recovery from our conventional and unconventional fossil fuel assets. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oligosaccharide biotechnology: an approach of prebiotic revolution on the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Mario Cezar Rodrigues; Neri-Numa, Iramaia Angélica; da Silva, Juliana Bueno; Paulino, Bruno Nicolau; Pessoa, Marina Gabriel; Pastore, Gláucia Maria

    2018-01-01

    Oligosaccharides are polymers with two to ten monosaccharide residues which have sweetener functions and sensory characteristics, in addition to exerting physiological effects on human health. The ones called nondigestible exhibit a prebiotic behavior being fermented by colonic microflora or stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria, playing roles in the immune system, protecting against cancer, and preventing cardiovascular and metabolic issues. The global prebiotics market is expected to grow around 12.7% in the next 8 years, so manufacturers are developing new alternatives to obtain sustainable and efficient processes for application on a large scale. Most studied examples of biotechnological processes involve the development of new strategies for fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, xylooligosaccharide, and mannanooligosaccharide synthesis. Among these, the use of whole cells in fermentation, synthesis of microbial enzymes (β-fructofuranosidases, β-galactosidases, xylanases, and β-mannanases), and enzymatic process development (permeabilization, immobilization, gene expression) can be highlighted, especially if the production costs are reduced by the use of agro-industrial residues or by-products such as molasses, milk whey, cotton stalks, corncobs, wheat straw, poplar wood, sugarcane bagasse, and copra meal. This review comprises recent studies to demonstrate the potential for biotechnological production of oligosaccharides, and also aspects that need more investigation for future applications in a large scale.

  14. Responsiveness to phytoestrogens in primary human osteoblasts is modulated differentially by a "less-calcemic" analog of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3): JK 1624F(2)-2 (JKF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somjen, Dalia; Katzburg, Sara; Kohen, Fortune; Gayer, Batya; Sharon, Orly; Hendel, David; Posner, Gary H; Kaye, Alvin M

    2006-02-01

    We have reported previously, that female-derived bone cells responded to 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) and raloxifene (Ral), and male-derived cells responded only to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) when the stimulation of creatine kinase specific activity (CK), which is a marker for hormone responsiveness, was measured. We also found that pre-treatment with the less-calcemic analog of Vitamin D, JK 1624 F(2)-2 (JKF), upregulated the response of CK to E(2) and Ral. In this study, we analyzed the response of human bone cells from pre- and post-menopausal females and males, to phytoestrogens. Bone cells derived from pre-menopausal women showed greater stimulation of CK than cells from post-menopausal women, after treatment with E(2) (30 nM), daidzein (D, 3000 nM), genistein (G, 3000 nM) and Ral (3000 nM); whereas the responses to biochainin A (BA 3000 nM), quecertin (Qu 3000 nM) or the carboxy derivative of G (cG 300 nM) were not age-dependent. Male-derived cells did not respond to phytoestrogens. When cells derived from female bones at both age groups were pre-treated with JKF, by daily addition of 1nM, for 3 days, there was an upregulation of the response to E(2), Ral, G and D but not to BA or Qu. Nuclear binding of (3)[H] E(2) was characteristic of the different phytoestrogens, with increase of the specific binding after pre-treatment with JKF. In contrast, the membranal binding of E(2)-Ov-Eu, which was specific for the estrogenic compounds except Ral, was inhibited by pre-treatment with JKF except for ICI 161480 (ICI). Male bone cells did not bind E(2)-Ov-Eu but bound T-BSA-Eu; this binding was abolished by pre-treatment with JKF. Pre-treatment with JKF increased mRNA for ERalpha and decreased mRNA for ERbeta in bone cells from both age groups of females and from males, all of which expressed both ERs, with a ratio of ERalpha to ERbeta of 121:1 in pre- and 78:1 in post-menopausal and 105:1 in male bone cells. This study raises the possibility of combined Vitamin D analog and

  15. Design and profiling of GS-9148, a novel nucleotide analog active against nucleoside-resistant variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and its orally bioavailable phosphonoamidate prodrug, GS-9131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihlar, Tomas; Ray, Adrian S; Boojamra, Constantine G; Zhang, Lijun; Hui, Hon; Laflamme, Genevieve; Vela, Jennifer E; Grant, Deborah; Chen, James; Myrick, Florence; White, Kirsten L; Gao, Ying; Lin, Kuei-Ying; Douglas, Janet L; Parkin, Neil T; Carey, Anne; Pakdaman, Rowchanak; Mackman, Richard L

    2008-02-01

    GS-9148 [(5-(6-amino-purin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2,5-dihydro-furan-2-yloxymethyl)phosphonic acid] is a novel ribose-modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NRTI) selected from a series of nucleoside phosphonate analogs for its favorable in vitro biological properties including (i) a low potential for mitochondrial toxicity, (ii) a minimal cytotoxicity in renal proximal tubule cells and other cell types, (iii) synergy in combination with other antiretrovirals, and (iv) a unique resistance profile against multiple NRTI-resistant HIV-1 strains. Notably, antiviral resistance analysis indicated that neither the K65R, L74V, or M184V RT mutation nor their combinations had any effect on the antiretroviral activity of GS-9148. Viruses carrying four or more thymidine analog mutations showed a substantially smaller change in GS-9148 activity relative to that observed with most marketed NRTIs. GS-9131, an ethylalaninyl phosphonoamidate prodrug designed to maximize the intracellular delivery of GS-9148, is a potent inhibitor of multiple subtypes of HIV-1 clinical isolates, with a mean 50% effective concentration of 37 nM. Inside cells, GS-9131 is readily hydrolyzed to GS-9148, which is further phosphorylated to its active diphosphate metabolite (A. S. Ray, J. E. Vela, C. G. Boojamra, L. Zhang, H. Hui, C. Callebaut, K. Stray, K.-Y. Lin, Y. Gao, R. L. Mackman, and T. Cihlar, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:648-654, 2008). GS-9148 diphosphate acts as a competitive inhibitor of RT with respect to dATP (K(i) = 0.8 muM) and exhibits low inhibitory potency against host polymerases including DNA polymerase gamma. Oral administration of GS-9131 to beagle dogs at a dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight resulted in high and persistent levels of GS-9148 diphosphate in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (with a maximum intracellular concentration of >9 microM and a half-life of >24 h). This favorable preclinical profile makes GS-9131 an

  16. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  17. Agricultural biotechnology: Status and prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drinić Goran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the DNA recombinant technology has provided the transfer of a single or several genes within or among species whereby organisms with new traits were developed. Such organisms have been called genetically modified organisms. The first genetically modified varieties of cultivated plants entered the market in 1996 and since then areas sown with such crops has been increasing, amounting to 60 M ha in 2002. During the stated period, genetically modified varieties and hybrids of cultivated plants were developed with a gene introduced for tolerance to herbicides, resistance to insects, prolonged maturity period and improved quality. However, heavy disputes have arisen all over the world relating the possible gain and potential risks from the growth and utilization of modified crops. First of all, there are ethical issues related directly to gene transfer from a species to a species, then effects of the introduced gene on the environment and human health, economical justification of cultivating genetically modified crops, consumers confidence in the legislation, labeling the products encompassing a genetic modification, effects on the global market and ever increasing food requirements. The effect of products derived from genetically modified plants on human health depends on a specific content of a product itself and can potentially be useful if a product contains an increased content of vitamins, with an allergen removed, or potentially harmful, if a new allergen or a toxin were introduced by genetic modifications. Each genetically modified product is subjected to a rigorous testing of its safety prior to its introduction into a food chain. It encompasses molecular, biochemical, toxicological, nutritional and allergenic tests. Many countries apply legislation that stipulates labeling of genetically modified products, whereby the fact that the commodity encompasses products of genetic modification is clearly pointed out. .

  18. Analogical proportions: another logical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Richard, Gilles

    This paper investigates the logical formalization of a restricted form of analogical reasoning based on analogical proportions, i.e. statements of the form a is to b as c is to d. Starting from a naive set theoretic interpretation, we highlight the existence of two noticeable companion proportions: one states that a is to b the converse of what c is to d (reverse analogy), while the other called paralogical proportion expresses that what a and b have in common, c and d have it also. We identify the characteristic postulates of the three types of proportions and examine their consequences from an abstract viewpoint. We further study the properties of the set theoretic interpretation and of the Boolean logic interpretation, and we provide another light on the understanding of the role of permutations in the modeling of the three types of proportions. Finally, we address the use of these proportions as a basis for inference in a propositional setting, and relate it to more general schemes of analogical reasoning. The differences between analogy, reverse-analogy, and paralogy is still emphasized in a three-valued setting, which is also briefly presented.

  19. [Application of molecular biotechnology in Pharmacognosy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jun-Wen; Yang, Ce; Huang, Man-Ting; Li, Hai-Yan

    2016-02-01

    Using the methods of informetrics analysis, articles retrieved from the database of CNKI were statistically analyzed on development course and knowledge system, so as to reflect the overall situation of pharmacognostical studies by molecular biotechnology. The result shows that the research on pharmacognosy by molecular biotechnology is an inter-disciplinary research area, the major research fields can be divided into 7 categories, including molecular identification of Chinese medicinal materials, molecular systematics and genetic diversity analysis of Chinese medicinal materials, biosynthesis and bioregulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants, molecular mechanism and genetic basis of Dao-di Herbs, and tissue culture and molecular breeding in medicinal plants. The research on pharmacognosy by molecular have achieved remarkable progress in recent 20 years, and have broad development prospects. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.

    1995-03-01

    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  1. Novel oscillatory flow reactors for biotechnological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica This thesis explores the biotechnological applications of two novel scale-down oscillatory flow reactors (OFRs). A micro-bioreactor (working mostly in batch) and a continuous meso-reactor systems were developed based on a 4.4 mm internal diameter tube with smooth periodic constrictions (SPC), both operating under oscillatory flow mixing (OFM). The first part is dedicated to the flow characterisation in the novel SPC geom...

  2. Forest biotechnology advances to support global bioeconomy

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine Harfouche; Sacha Khoury; Francesco Fabbrini; Giuseppe Scarascia Mugnozza

    2015-01-01

    The world is shifting to an innovation economy and forest biotechnology can play a major role in the bio-economy by providing farmers, producers, and consumers with tools that can better advance this transition. First-generation or conventional biofuels are primarily produced from food crops and are therefore limited in their ability to meet challenges for petroleum-product substitution and climate change mitigation, and to overcome the food-versus-fuel dilemma. In the longer term, forest lig...

  3. Biotechnological potential of marine natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The number of marine natural products (MNPs) that have been applied to biotechnological industry is very limited, although nearly 20000 new compounds were discovered from marine organisms since the birth of MNPs in the early 1970s. However, it is apparent that they have a significant potential as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, research tools, and others. This article focuses on selective antitumor metabolites isolated from marine sponges and tunicates, and their modes of action, ...

  4. Biotechnological production of limonene in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules

    2016-01-01

    This mini review describes novel, biotechnology-based, ways of producing the monoterpene limonene. Limonene is applied in relatively highly priced products, such as fragrances, and also has applications with lower value but large production volume, such as biomaterials. Limonene is currently produced as a side product from the citrus juice industry, but the availability and quality are fluctuating and may be insufficient for novel bulk applications. Therefore, complementary microbial producti...

  5. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  6. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  7. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Anushka M; Dunwell, Jim M

    2018-01-01

    Theobroma cacao-The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multibillion dollar chocolate industry and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other nonfood uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region. However, in many Asian countries, cocoa production is hampered due to many reasons including technological, political and socio-economic issues. This review provides an overview of the present status of global cocoa production and recent advances in biotechnological applications for cacao improvement, with special emphasis on genetics/genomics, in vitro embryogenesis and genetic transformation. In addition, in order to obtain an insight into the latest innovations in the commercial sector, a survey was conducted on granted patents relating to T. cacao biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. New biotechnological procedures in swine reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.

  9. Independent Biotechnology: The Innovation-Regulation Dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prosnitz, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Velsko, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-03

    The Center for Global Security Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory convened a workshop on August 19, 2016 to consider “Independent Biotechnology: The Innovation-­Regulation Dilemma”. The topic was motivated by the observation that non-­government funded biotechnology research and development activities have grown and diversified tremendously over the past decade. This sector encompasses a broad range of actors and activities: individuals with private laboratories, community “hackerspaces,” biotechnology incubators, and individual startups. Motivations and aspirations are diverse and include such things as personal curiosity, community education, the invention of new products or services, and even the realization of certain economic, political, or social goals. One driving force is the “democratization” of ever more powerful biological technologies, allowing individual citizens and groups access to capabilities that have traditionally only been available to researchers in universities, research institutes, national laboratories, and large commercial concerns. Another is the rise of alternative financing mechanisms such as “crowdsourcing,” which ostensibly provide greater freedom to innovate, and greater public visibility, but entail looser management oversight and transparency.

  10. Analog approach to mixed analog-digital circuit simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodzki, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Logic simulation of digital circuits is a well explored research area. Most up-to-date CAD tools for digital circuits simulation use an event driven, selective trace algorithm and Hardware Description Languages (HDL), e.g. the VHDL. This techniques enable simulation of mixed circuits, as well, where an analog part is connected to the digital one through D/A and A/D converters. The event-driven mixed simulation applies a unified, digital-circuits dedicated method to both digital and analog subsystems. In recent years HDL techniques have been also applied to mixed domains, as e.g. in the VHDL-AMS. This paper presents an approach dual to the event-driven one, where an analog part together with a digital one and with converters is treated as the analog subsystem and is simulated by means of circuit simulation techniques. In our problem an analog solver used yields some numerical problems caused by nonlinearities of digital elements. Efficient methods for overriding these difficulties have been proposed.

  11. Clinical utility of insulin and insulin analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D.; Altunbas, Hasan Ali; Balci, Mustafa Kemal; Griffith, Thomas S.; Sanlioglu, Salih

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease characterized by autoimmune, genetic and metabolic abnormalities. While insulin deficiency manifested as hyperglycemia is a common sequel of both Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes (T1DM and T2DM), it does not result from a single genetic defect—rather insulin deficiency results from the functional loss of pancreatic β cells due to multifactorial mechanisms. Since pancreatic β cells of patients with T1DM are destroyed by autoimmune reaction, these patients require daily insulin injections. Insulin resistance followed by β cell dysfunction and β cell loss is the characteristics of T2DM. Therefore, most patients with T2DM will require insulin treatment due to eventual loss of insulin secretion. Despite the evidence of early insulin treatment lowering macrovascular (coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease and stroke) and microvascular (diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy) complications of T2DM, controversy exists among physicians on how to initiate and intensify insulin therapy. The slow acting nature of regular human insulin makes its use ineffective in counteracting postprandial hyperglycemia. Instead, recombinant insulin analogs have been generated with a variable degree of specificity and action. Due to the metabolic variability among individuals, optimum blood glucose management is a formidable task to accomplish despite the presence of novel insulin analogs. In this article, we present a recent update on insulin analog structure and function with an overview of the evidence on the various insulin regimens clinically used to treat diabetes. PMID:23584214

  12. ISS Biotechnology Facility - Overview of Analytical Tools for Cellular Biotechnology Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, A. S.; Towe, B. C.; Anderson, M. M.; Gonda, S. R.; Pellis, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ISS Biotechnology Facility (BTF) platform provides scientists with a unique opportunity to carry out diverse experiments in a microgravity environment for an extended period of time. Although considerable progress has been made in preserving cells on the ISS for long periods of time for later return to Earth, future biotechnology experiments would desirably monitor, process, and analyze cells in a timely way on-orbit. One aspect of our work has been directed towards developing biochemical sensors for pH, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide for perfused bioreactor system developed at Johnson Space Center. Another aspect is the examination and identification of new and advanced commercial biotechnologies that may have applications to on-orbit experiments.

  13. Tiny but mighty: bacterial membrane vesicles in food biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Alexeeva, Svetlana; Defourny, Kyra Ay; Smid, Eddy J; Abee, Tjakko

    2018-02-01

    Membrane vesicle (MV) production is observed in all domains of life. Evidence of MV production accumulated in recent years among bacterial species involved in fermentation processes. These studies revealed MV composition, biological functions and properties, which made us recognize the potential of MVs in food applications as delivery vehicles of various compounds to other bacteria or the human host. Moreover, MV producing strains can deliver benefits as probiotics or starters in fermentation processes. Next to the natural production of MVs, we also highlight possible methods for artificial generation of bacterial MVs and cargo loading to enhance their applicability. We believe that a more in-depth understanding of bacterial MVs opens new avenues for their exploitation in biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Six priorities proposed for marine biotechnology in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Torger

    A survey initiated by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries in 2010 resulted in six priorities for the development of marine biotechnology in Denmark. Business opportunities were suggested and some elements for a successful strategy were proposed. The six priorities are the following......: - Increased exploitation of marine biomass. In addition to traditional fisheries, full utilisation of all catches and improved utilisation of by-products are suggested. Further, new species of fish and macro algae should be harvested. - New farming operations. Aquaculture should be applied in its widest sense...... and should be contained directly or indirectly in the human diet. - Discovery of new compounds, materials and biological activities. The large variation of marine organisms and the occurrence under extreme living conditions increase the chances for new commercial viable discoveries. - Extraction of valuable...

  15. Biotechnological approaches for L-ascorbic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Robert D; Viola, Roberto

    2002-07-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing pressure to develop alternatives to the Reichstein process, a largely chemical synthesis by which the vast majority of world vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, L-AA) is produced. The pressures include increasing environmental concerns and legislation, and the need to increase process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The development of efficient fermentation processes in the past ten years has also represented a catalyst for change. Here, we describe the development of biotechnological alternatives for the synthesis of Reichstein intermediates by industrial microorganisms. The recent elucidation of the plant biosynthetic pathway represents new opportunities not only for the direct synthesis of L-AA by fermentation but also for the production of human crop plants and animal fodder with enhanced nutritional value. We discuss the potential for these developments in the light of recent findings concerning L-AA biosynthesis in plants.

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Comparison of Gemcitabine and the Gemcitabine Analog 1-(2′-deoxy-2′-fluoroarabinofuranosyl) Cytosine (FAC) in Human Orthotopic and Genetically Modified Mouse Pancreatic Cancer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Kramer, Robin M; Romesser, Paul B; Desai, Pooja; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Lowery, Maeve A; Humm, John L

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Although gemcitabine is a mainstay of pancreatic cancer therapy, it is only moderately effective, and it would be desirable to measure drug uptake in patients. 1-(2′-deoxy-2′-fluoroarabinofuranosyl) cytosine (FAC), is an analog of gemcitabine, and when labeled with F-18, it may be a potential surrogate PET tracer for the drug. Procedures [18F]FAC was synthesized to a radiochemical purity of >96 %. The human tumor lines AsPC1, BxPC3, Capan-1, Panc1, and MiaPaca2 were grown orthotopically in nude mice. KPC mice that conditionally express oncogenic K-ras and p53 mutations in pancreatic tissue were also used. The intra-tumoral distributions of [14C]gemcitabine and [18F]FAC were mapped with autoradiography. The inter-tumor correlation between [14C]gemcitabine and [18F]FAC was established in the orthotopic tumors. Expression of the equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside transporters (ENT, CNT) in vitro was detected by western blotting. Drug uptake was characterized in vitro using [3H]gemcitabine and the effect of transporter inhibition on gemcitabine and FAC uptake was investigated. The relative affinity of cells for gemcitabine and FAC was tested in competition assays. The cell lines differed in sensitivity to transport inhibitors and in competition studies. There was a good in vivo correlation between the total uptake of [18F]FAC and [14C]gemcitabine, measured across all orthotopic tumors. Using the KPC and BxPC3 models, we found that [14C]gemcitabine and [18F]FAC were largely co-localized. Conclusions In the lines examined here, [18F]FAC uptake correlates well with gemcitabine in vivo, supporting the notion that [18F]FAC can serve as a PET radiotracer surrogate to determine the uptake and distribution of gemcitabine within pancreatic tumors. PMID:28349292

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Comparison of Gemcitabine and the Gemcitabine Analog 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroarabinofuranosyl) Cytosine (FAC) in Human Orthotopic and Genetically Modified Mouse Pancreatic Cancer Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Kramer, Robin M; Romesser, Paul B; Desai, Pooja; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Lowery, Maeve A; Humm, John L

    2017-12-01

    Although gemcitabine is a mainstay of pancreatic cancer therapy, it is only moderately effective, and it would be desirable to measure drug uptake in patients. 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroarabinofuranosyl) cytosine (FAC), is an analog of gemcitabine, and when labeled with F-18, it may be a potential surrogate PET tracer for the drug. [ 18 F]FAC was synthesized to a radiochemical purity of >96 %. The human tumor lines AsPC1, BxPC3, Capan-1, Panc1, and MiaPaca2 were grown orthotopically in nude mice. KPC mice that conditionally express oncogenic K-ras and p53 mutations in pancreatic tissue were also used. The intra-tumoral distributions of [ 14 C]gemcitabine and [ 18 F]FAC were mapped with autoradiography. The inter-tumor correlation between [ 14 C]gemcitabine and [ 18 F]FAC was established in the orthotopic tumors. Expression of the equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside transporters (ENT, CNT) in vitro was detected by western blotting. Drug uptake was characterized in vitro using [ 3 H]gemcitabine and the effect of transporter inhibition on gemcitabine and FAC uptake was investigated. The relative affinity of cells for gemcitabine and FAC was tested in competition assays. The cell lines differed in sensitivity to transport inhibitors and in competition studies. There was a good in vivo correlation between the total uptake of [ 18 F]FAC and [ 14 C]gemcitabine, measured across all orthotopic tumors. Using the KPC and BxPC3 models, we found that [ 14 C]gemcitabine and [ 18 F]FAC were largely co-localized. In the lines examined here, [ 18 F]FAC uptake correlates well with gemcitabine in vivo, supporting the notion that [ 18 F]FAC can serve as a PET radiotracer surrogate to determine the uptake and distribution of gemcitabine within pancreatic tumors.

  18. Fast multichannel analog storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.R.

    1982-11-01

    A Multichannel Analog Storage System based on a commercial 32-channel parallel in/serial out (PISO) analog shift register is described. The basic unit is a single width CAMAC module containing 512 analog cells and the associated logic for data storage and subsequent readout. At sampling rates of up to 30 MHz the signals are strobed directly into the PISO. At higher rates signals are strobed into a fast presampling stage and subsequently transferred in block form into an array of PISO's. Sampling rates of 300 MHz have been achieved with the present device and 1000 MHz are possible with improved signal drivers. The system is well suited for simultaneous handling of many signal channels with moderate numbers of samples in each channel. RMS noise over full scale signal has been measured as 1:3000 (approx. = 11 bit). However, nonlinearities in the response and differences in sensitivity of the analog cells require an elaborate calibration system in order to realize 11 bit accuracy for the analog information

  19. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  20. The role of biotechnology in combating climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerni, Philipp; Gagalac, Florabelle; Scholderer, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is a platform technology that may significantly contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Yet, biotechnology is hardly ever referred to as “clean technology”. This paper investigates why biotechnology tends to be ignored in this context. A global stakeholder survey...... on biotechnology and climate change was conducted with 55 representatives of 44 institutions. The results of a perception pattern analysis show that the majority of stakeholder representatives had a neutral or positive attitude towards the use of biotechnology and regarded its potential to address climate change...... problems as significant. The survey results further reveal a significant relationship between a representative’s institutional and disciplinary background and his or her attitude. The respective background appears to determine to a considerable extent whether biotechnology is framed as a risk...