WorldWideScience

Sample records for biotechnology culture collection

  1. International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Baker, K. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a premier culture collection of tropical marine microorganisms able to generate hydrogen from water or organic substances. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms will serve as the biological reservoir or {open_quotes}library{close_quotes} for other DOE Hydrogen Program contractors, the biohydrogen research community and industry. This project consists of several tasks: (a) transfer of the Mitsui-Miami strains to Hawaii`s International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC) housed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI); (b) maintain and distribute Mitsui-Miami strains; (c) characterize key strains by traditional and advanced biotechnological techniques; (d) expand Hawaii`s IMBCC; and (e) establish and operate an information resource (database). The project was initiated only late in the summer of 1995 but progress has been made on all tasks. Of the 161 cyanobacterial strains imported, 147 survived storage and importation and 145 are viable. with most exhibiting growth. Of the 406 strains of other photosynthetic bacteria imported, 392 survived storage and importation and 353 are viable, with many exhibiting growth. This project is linked to cooperative efforts being supported by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through its Marine Biotechnology Institute (MBI) and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).

  2. Turning Russian specialized microbial culture collections into resource centers for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S

    2013-11-01

    Specialized nonmedical microbial culture collections contain unique bioresources that could be useful for biotechnology companies. Cooperation between collections and companies has suffered from shortcomings in infrastructure and legislation, hindering access to holdings. These challenges may be overcome by the transformation of collections into national bioresource centers and integration into international microbial resource networks.

  3. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  4. Insect Cell Culture and Biotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert R.Granados; Guoxun Li; G.W.Blissard

    2007-01-01

    The continued development of new cell culture technology is essential for the future growth and application of insect cell and baculovirus biotechnology. The use of cell lines for academic research and for commercial applications is currently dominated by two cell lines; the Spodoptera frugiperda line, SF21 (and its clonal isolate, SF9), and the Trichoplusia ni line, BTI 5B1-4, commercially known as High Five cells. The long perceived prediction that the immense potential application of the baculovirus-insect cell system, as a tool in cell and molecular biology, agriculture, and animal health, has been achieved. The versatility and recent applications of this popular expression system has been demonstrated by both academia and industry and it is clear that this cell-based system has been widely accepted for biotechnological applications. Numerous small to midsize startup biotechnology companies in North America and the Europe are currently using the baculovirus-insect cell technology to produce custom recombinant proteins for research and commercial applications. The recent breakthroughs using the baculovirus-insect cell-based system for the development of several commercial products that will impact animal and human health will further enhance interest in this technology by pharma. Clearly, future progress in novel cell and engineering advances will lead to fundamental scientific discoveries and serve to enhance the utility and applications of this baculovirus-insect cell system.

  5. Culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development.

  6. Biotechnology education as social and cultural production/reproduction of the biotechnology community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-03-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study demonstrates how students begin to acquire `the right way' of approaching the controversial issue of producing and consuming genetically modified organisms. In my response I discuss the ethnographic account of this particular educational practice in terms of social and cultural production/reproduction of a biotechnology community and how the participants (students and teaching professors) deal with the dialectic of individual and collective transformation. In the perspective of the biotechnology community, the work done by the teaching professor becomes a way of ensuring the future of the biotechnology community in terms of what values and objectives are held highly in the community of practice.

  7. Microalgal Culture Collection Transfers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Milford Microalgal culture Collection holds over 200 live cultures representing 13 classes of of algae. The cultures are maintained in three different growing...

  8. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article sets out to explain in simple terms the main concepts of Biotechnology beginning with traditional biotechnology to modern biotechnology. It outlines fundamentals of Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Genetic Engineering. The article offers a discussion of the benefits, disadvantages and the general public and policy concerns regarding genetically modified organisms

  9. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy-Mills, K.; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A. R.; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L.; McCluskey, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is "to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind." Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections.

  10. Biotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rival Alain

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, a range of biotechnological approaches, from somatic embryogenesis to biomolecular research, play an increasingly important role in breeding strategies for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. Clonal micropropagation. Methods of cloning by in vitro culture led to the development of a micropropagation technique for oil palm based on somatic embryogenesis which was tested at the pilot stage on elite genotypes, thus enabling the production of high oil yielding clones. This phase allowed the identification of limiting factors associated with scaling-up, with respect in particular to the scale of mass production required to meet the needs of planters and to the problem of ensuring genetic fidelity in the regenerated plant material. These two concerns led researchers to look further into the underlying physiological and/or molecular mechanisms involved in somatic embryogenesis and the somaclonal variation events induced by the in vitro cloning procedure. Structural and functional genomics. Marker-assisted breeding in oil palm is a long-term multi-stage project including: molecular analysis of genetic diversity in both E. guineensis and E. oleifera germplasms; large scale development of PCR-based microsatellite markers; and parallel development of three genome mapping and QTL detection projects studying key agronomic characters. Post-genomics. In order to tackle the problem of the mantled flowering abnormality, which is induced during the micropropagation process, studies of gene expression have been carried out in tissue cultures as a means of establishing an early clonal conformity testing procedure. It is important to assess what kind of methodology is the most appropriate for clonal conformity testing by comparing RNA, protein and DNA (PCR based approaches. Parallel studies on genomic DNA methylation changes induced by tissue culture suggest that the latter may play an important role in the determination of the mantled abnormality.

  11. Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vranken, Nancy S., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The field of biotechnology, and specifically recombinant DNA technology, is transforming the way that many feel about the nature and purposes of biology. This newsletter annual supplement contains several articles addressing the topic of biotechnology and the importance that the topic should be given in science classes. James D. Watson's article,…

  12. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming to develop and manufacture products of pharmaceutical interest. This program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological system of macromolecules.

  13. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming to develop and manufacture products of pharmaceutical interest. This program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological system of macromolecules

  14. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming to develop and manufacture products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological system of macromolecules. The Animal Laboratory Division of IPEN is responsible for the breeding and production of small laboratory animal.

  15. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming to develop and manufacture products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological system of macromolecules. The Animal Laboratory Division of IPEN is responsible for the breeding and production of small laboratory animal.

  16. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of 131I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens for

  17. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of {sup 131}I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens

  18. Biotechnology Education as Social and Cultural Production/Reproduction of the Biotechnology Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study…

  19. Acceptance of biotechnology and social-cultural implications in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Quaye, Wilhemina; Yawson, Ivy; Yawson, Robert M.; Williams, Irene E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite major scientific progress in the application of biotechnology in agriculture, public attitudes towards biotechnology in general and genetically modified food (GM food) products in particular remain mixed in Africa. Examining responses on acceptance of GM food through a stakeholder survey in Ghana, it was established that half of the 100 people sample interviewed were not in favor of GM foods. To this group acceptance of GM foods would make farmers loose focus on the traditional ways o...

  20. PLANT TISSUE CULTURE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY: RECENT ADVANCES IN TRANSFORMATION THROUGH SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sidorov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic transformation has become an important biotechnology tool for the improvement of many crops. A solid foundation for the fast development and implementation of biotechnology in agriculture was provided by achievements in plant tissue culture. On the 30th anniversary of plant transformation, I report the advancements, recent challenges and shifts in methodology of transformation. The main focus of this paper will be on conventional and novel approaches for genetic improvements of soybean, cotton and corn. I will also highlight results on the transformation of these crops that have considerably been improved by modern biotechnology.

  1. Culture of marine sponges with potential applications in Aquaculture and Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M F Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the sponges were collected from the sea bottom in the surrounding areas of Peniche (central western coast of Portugal, by scuba diving. They were sealed in plastic zip bags during transportation to the surface and laboratory, to avoid air contact, which they are not able to endure. They were maintained in a closed water circulation system, transplanted into artificial substrates of plastic and fed every two days, with a mixed solution of microalgae Nanochloropsis salina culture and faeces of gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata. As this species is susceptible to the light, half of the tanks of the culture system were protected with a black cloth and the other half were submitted to an acclimation process to this factor, in order for them to be used in aquariophilia. The sponges dimension and weight were assessed. The establishment of an efficient culture strategy will allow to use sponges as ornamental organism, as well as a diet for other interesting commercial species (also potentially as probiotics, or even as source of extracts for different biotechnology fields.

  2. Chain Elongation with Reactor Microbiomes: Open-Culture Biotechnology To Produce Biochemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angenent, L.T.; Richter, H.; Buckel, W.; Spirito, C.M.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Plugge, C.M.; Strik, D.; Grootscholten, T.I.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chain elongation into medium-chain carboxylates, such as n-caproate and n-caprylate, with ethanol as an electron donor and with open cultures of microbial consortia (i.e., reactor microbiomes) under anaerobic conditions is being developed as a biotechnological production platform. The goal is to use

  3. Culture collections over the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2003-06-01

    Culture collections have the crucial role of providing the authenticated biological material upon which high quality research is based. Importantly, they serve as repositories for strains as part of patent deposits, providers of safe and confidential services to store key organisms for research and industry, and sources of organisms cited in scientific papers that can be used in the confirmation of results and for further study. The demands upon culture collections change as new technologies and uses of organisms are discovered. Many are becoming Biological Resource Centres, as defined by the OECD Biological Resource Centre (BRC) Initiative, in that they operate according to international quality criteria, carry out essential research, enhance the value and applications of strains and provide a vital information resource. In a changing international scientific environment, many collections are under threat of extinction because of inadequate funding, changing government support strategies and the cost of new technologies. We are also suffering a decline in the number of biosystematists, who are needed to form a sound base for molecular technologies and to aid in identifying, and characterizing microbial diversity. In this environment, collections must work together to make the best use of new technologies and to contribute to the description of the 1.4 million fungi yet to be discovered. At the current rate, this will take 700 years. New technologies and novel ways of funding this task must be engaged and, above all, scientists must collaborate. Common policies are necessary to address the regulatory demands on collections, to control access to dangerous organisms, and, in particular, to enforce the Convention on Biological Diversity. Countries that hold the majority of biodiversity require support in building the facilities required to explore their hidden resource. The World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) and, in Europe, the European Culture Collection

  4. Collection Assessment in Response to Changing Curricula: An Analysis of the Biotechnology Resources at the University of Colorado at Boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    Increasing demand for biotechnology and biomedical resources prompted the Engineering Library at the University of Colorado at Boulder (UCB) to complete a collection assessment of the journals, books, and other resources provided by the University Libraries. This paper presents a variety of methods for evaluating library collections and describes…

  5. Leading Collective Capacity in Culturally Diverse Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Allan; Riordan, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the ways leaders may nurture collective relationships within culturally diverse staff bodies. We organise our discussion around five key, interrelated issues. These are how leaders position themselves within the school's cultural milieu; how they structure work for collective capacity; understanding collective work; giving expression to…

  6. Microalgae Culture Collection: 1984-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The Microalgae Culture Collection at the Solar Energy Research Institute has been established for the maintenance and distribution of strains that have been characterized for biomass fuel applications.

  7. Microalgae culture collection, 1986-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, W.; Johansen, J.; Chelf, P.; Nagle, N.; Roessler, P.; Lemke, P.

    1986-12-01

    The SERI Microalgae Culture Collection provides a repository for strains identified or developed for mass culture biomass production and makes these strains readily available to the research community. The strains in the collection have been selected for their potential in biomass fuel applications, and many produce significant quantities of cellular storage lipids. All of the newly added strains have been recently isolated by SERI and its subcontractors in organized screening programs. Many have been tested in outdoor mass culture systems, and several have demonstrated excellent performance as biomass producers. The strains added to the collection this year have been isolated from inland saline waters and marine waters. We believe that the strains in this collection can provide a source of extremely useful organisms, both for laboratory experimentation and for mass culture research. Most of the strains are currently nonaxenic. Again this year, cultures will be shipped free of charge to interested researchers. An important function of the culture collection catalog, in addition to listing the available strains, is to provide culture and performance data for each of the organisms. By collecting a summary of the requirements and characteristics of these organisms, we hope to allow requestors of cultures to begin productive research with a minimum of preliminary work on culture techniques.

  8. An Information System for European culture collections: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaregola, Serge; Vasilenko, Alexander; Romano, Paolo; Robert, Vincent; Ozerskaya, Svetlana; Kopf, Anna; Glöckner, Frank O; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Culture collections contain indispensable information about the microorganisms preserved in their repositories, such as taxonomical descriptions, origins, physiological and biochemical characteristics, bibliographic references, etc. However, information currently accessible in databases rarely adheres to common standard protocols. The resultant heterogeneity between culture collections, in terms of both content and format, notably hampers microorganism-based research and development (R&D). The optimized exploitation of these resources thus requires standardized, and simplified, access to the associated information. To this end, and in the interest of supporting R&D in the fields of agriculture, health and biotechnology, a pan-European distributed research infrastructure, MIRRI, including over 40 public culture collections and research institutes from 19 European countries, was established. A prime objective of MIRRI is to unite and provide universal access to the fragmented, and untapped, resources, information and expertise available in European public collections of microorganisms; a key component of which is to develop a dynamic Information System. For the first time, both culture collection curators as well as their users have been consulted and their feedback, concerning the needs and requirements for collection databases and data accessibility, utilised. Users primarily noted that databases were not interoperable, thus rendering a global search of multiple databases impossible. Unreliable or out-of-date and, in particular, non-homogenous, taxonomic information was also considered to be a major obstacle to searching microbial data efficiently. Moreover, complex searches are rarely possible in online databases thus limiting the extent of search queries. Curators also consider that overall harmonization-including Standard Operating Procedures, data structure, and software tools-is necessary to facilitate their work and to make high-quality data easily accessible

  9. An Information System for European culture collections: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaregola, Serge; Vasilenko, Alexander; Romano, Paolo; Robert, Vincent; Ozerskaya, Svetlana; Kopf, Anna; Glöckner, Frank O; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Culture collections contain indispensable information about the microorganisms preserved in their repositories, such as taxonomical descriptions, origins, physiological and biochemical characteristics, bibliographic references, etc. However, information currently accessible in databases rarely adheres to common standard protocols. The resultant heterogeneity between culture collections, in terms of both content and format, notably hampers microorganism-based research and development (R&D). The optimized exploitation of these resources thus requires standardized, and simplified, access to the associated information. To this end, and in the interest of supporting R&D in the fields of agriculture, health and biotechnology, a pan-European distributed research infrastructure, MIRRI, including over 40 public culture collections and research institutes from 19 European countries, was established. A prime objective of MIRRI is to unite and provide universal access to the fragmented, and untapped, resources, information and expertise available in European public collections of microorganisms; a key component of which is to develop a dynamic Information System. For the first time, both culture collection curators as well as their users have been consulted and their feedback, concerning the needs and requirements for collection databases and data accessibility, utilised. Users primarily noted that databases were not interoperable, thus rendering a global search of multiple databases impossible. Unreliable or out-of-date and, in particular, non-homogenous, taxonomic information was also considered to be a major obstacle to searching microbial data efficiently. Moreover, complex searches are rarely possible in online databases thus limiting the extent of search queries. Curators also consider that overall harmonization-including Standard Operating Procedures, data structure, and software tools-is necessary to facilitate their work and to make high-quality data easily accessible

  10. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for requalification of a Candida clinical isolates culture collection

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Lima-Neto; Cledir Santos; Nelson Lima; Paula Sampaio; Célia Pais; Rejane P. Neves

    2014-01-01

    Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classica...

  11. Microalgae Culture Collection, 1985-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The SERI Microalgae Culture Collection was established in support of the US Department of Energy's Biofuels Program to provide a repository for strains identified or developed for mass culture biomass production and to make these strains readily available to the research community. The strains in the collection have been selected for their potential in biomass fuel applications, and many produce significant quantities of cellular storage lipids. The Culture Collection Catalog lists 20 strains of ten species. Many have been tested in outdoor mass culture systems, and several have demonstrated excellent performance as biomass producers, with yields of up to 40 grams of organic matter per square meter per day. The majority of strains added to the collection this year have been isolated from inland saline waters, although marine species are included as well. We believe that the strains in this collection can provide a source of extremely useful organisms, both for laboratory experimentation and for mass culture research. 98 refs., 31 figs., 52 tabs.

  12. Comparing Perceptions of Biotechnology in Fresh versus Processed Foods: A Cross-Cultural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeyoung; House, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on investigating how respondents’ perceptions of biotechnology used in food production differs depending on the level of product transformation (i.e. fresh versus processed food). Using cluster analysis, respondents were clustered into two groups, genetically engineered (GE) tolerant and GE sensitive, based on changes in their perceptions about fresh apples and apple juice produced with and without biotechnology. Comparisons of respondents from six countries were performed ...

  13. The DOE Subsurface Microbial Culture Collection (SMCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkwill, David L.

    2006-05-23

    The primary activities associated with maintenance of the Subsurface Microbial Culture Collection (SMCC) were designed to ensure that the collection served as a valuable resource to DOE-funded and other scientists, especially DOE-funded scientists associated with the NABIR Program. These activities were carried out throughout the period covered by this report and in-cluded: (1) assistance in the selection of cultures for research, (2) distribution of cultures and/or data on request, (3) incorporation of newly isolated microbial strains, (4) preservation of newly isolated strains, (5) partial characterization of newly isolated strains, (6) development and main-tenance of representative subsets of cultures, (6) screening of SMCC strains for specific charac-teristics, (7) phylogenetic characterization of SMCC strains, (8) development and maintenance of a SMCC website, (9) maintenance of the SMCC databases, (10) archiving of SMCC records, and (11) quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities. We describe in the Final Technical Report our accomplishments related to these activities during the period covered by this report.

  14. The Two Cultures of Science:Implications for University-Industry Relationships in the U.S. Agriculture Biotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William B. Lacy; Leland L. Glenna; Dina Biscotti; Rick Welsh; Kate Clancy

    2014-01-01

    Partnerships between U.S. universities and industries have existed for several decades and in recent years have become generally more varied, wider in scope, more aggressive and experimental and higher in public visibility. In addition, in the last few decades, public and private interests have advocated for government policies and laws to globally promote the commercialization of university science. This paper examines the persistence or convergence of the two cultures of science and the implications of this commercialization for university-industry relationships in agriculture biotechnology. The perceptions and values of over 200 U.S. university and industry scientists, managers and administrators who participate in or oversee research collaborations in agricultural biotechnology were analyzed. The ifndings revealed that the participants in these research relationships continue to perceive very distinct cultures of science and identify a wide range of concerns and disadvantages of these partnerships. Several actions were discussed to ensure that the two cultures serve complementary roles and that they maximize the public beneifts from these increasing collaborations.

  15. Biotechnological characteristics of callusogenesis in maize immature embryo culture under the influence of abscisic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Abraimova

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of abscisic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine on the induction of callus tissue in maize immature embryo culture was studied. For the majority of investigated genotypes abscisic acid stimulated, but 6-benzylaminopurine inhibited the formation of morphogenic calli in induction medium. It was noted that genotype appeared to be an important factor that determined the character of the influence of phytohormonal composition of the medium on the induction of the specific types of calli. Using of 0.04-0.10 mg/l abscisic acid is recommended for biotechnological production of morphogenic callus tissue in dependence of donor plant genotype.

  16. SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: SOME LESSONS FROM THE PILOT TISSUE-CULTURE (TC) BANANA PRODUCTION PROMOTION PROJECT IN KENYA, 1997-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Mbogoh, Stephen G.; Wambugu, Florence M.; Wakhusama, Sam

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a socio-economic impact study of the introduction and adoption of tissue-culture (tc) technology in banana production in Kenya. It attempts to demonstrate that a prudent introduction and promotion of a new biotechnological innovation in farming can make a positive contribution to the socio-economic status of resource poor farmers in a developing country, such as Kenya. Adoption of tc technology in banana production in Kenya is considered a good example of biotechnolog...

  17. Biotechnology 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    This book deals with Bio-vision 2016 on the meaning and important contents Next, it reveals vision of biotechnology, current condition of biotechnology in the main countries such as the U.S, Japan, Eu and China, promoting nation biotechnology with promotion policy, support policy for biotechnology such as agriculture and forestry and information and communication, competitiveness of biotechnology, research development by fields and related industries and regulation and system on biotechnology.

  18. Culture of marine sponges with potential applications in Aquaculture and Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Susana M F Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The marine environment represents more than two thirds of our planet, however, it is still underexplored. Even still, marine habitats are a promising source of commercially significant biotechnological products. In fact, marine organisms have been recognized as having an important role on the discovery of new bioactive molecules. Among these, sponges exhibit a great diversity of secondary metabolites, which they produce and accumulate. The intention in this study was to establish the princ...

  19. Inhibition of spontaneous induction of lambdoid prophages in Escherichia coli cultures: simple procedures with possible biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrobel Borys

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections of bacterial cultures by bacteriophages are serious problems in biotechnological laboratories. Apart from such infections, prophage induction in the host cells may also be dangerous. Escherichia coli is a commonly used host in biotechnological production, and many laboratory strains of this bacterium harbour lambdoid prophages. These prophages may be induced under certain conditions leading to phage lytic development. This is fatal for further cultivations as relatively low, though still significant, numbers of phages may be overlooked. Thus, subsequent cultures of non-lysogenic strains may be infected and destroyed by such phage. Results Here we report that slow growth of bacteria decreases deleterious effects of spontaneous lambdoid prophage induction. Moreover, replacement of glucose with glycerol in a medium stimulates lysogenic development of the phage after infection of E. coli cells. A plasmid was constructed overexpressing the phage 434 cI gene, coding for the repressor of phage promoters which are necessary for lytic development. Overproduction of the cI repressor abolished spontaneous induction of the λimm434 prophage. Conclusions Simple procedures that alleviate problems with spontaneous induction of lambdoid prophage and subsequent infection of E. coli strains by these phages are described. Low bacterial growth rate, replacement of glucose with glycerol in a medium and overproduction of the cI repressor minimise the risk of prophage induction during cultivation of lysogenic bacteria and subsequent infection of other bacterial strains.

  20. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for requalification of a Candida clinical isolates culture collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Lima-Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classical phenotypic and molecular approaches to identify Candida clinical isolates preserved from 1 up to 52 years in a Brazilian culture collection and assess its value for the identification of yeasts preserved in this type of collections. Forty Candida spp. clinical isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical analyses. Identifications were also performed by the new proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS. Results demonstrated 15% discordance when compared with morphological and biochemical analyses. Discordant isolates were analysed by ITS sequencing, which confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS identifications and these strains were renamed in the culture collection catalogue. In conclusion, proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS represents a rapid and reliable method for identifying clinical Candida species preserved in culture collections and may present clear benefits when compared with the performance of existing daily routine methods applied at health centres and hospitals.

  1. Biotechnological applications of microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Loy Chu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are important biologicalresources that have a wide range of biotechnologicalapplications. Due to their high nutritional value,microalgae such as Spirulina and Chlorella are beingmass cultured for health food. A variety of high-valueproducts including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA,pigments such as carotenoids and phycobiliproteins, andbioactive compounds are useful as nutraceuticals andpharmaceuticals, as well as for industrial applications. Interms of environmental biotechnology, microalgae areuseful for bioremediation of agro-industrial wastewater,and as a biological tool for assessment and monitoring ofenvironmental toxicants such as heavy metals, pesticidesand pharmaceuticals. In recent years, microalgae haveattracted much interest due to their potential use asfeedstock for biodiesel production. In Malaysia, therehas been active research on microalgal biotechnologyfor the past 30 years, tapping into the potential of ourrich microalgal resources for high-value products andapplications in wastewater treatment and assessmentof environmental toxicants. A culture collection ofmicroalgae has been established, and this serves asan important resource for microalgal biotechnologyresearch. Microalgal biotechnology should continue tobe regarded as a priority area of research in this country.

  2. Electromagnetic Biostimulation of Living Cultures for Biotechnology, Biofuel and Bioenergy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav C. Das

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The surge of interest in bioenergy has been marked with increasing efforts in research and development to identify new sources of biomass and to incorporate cutting-edge biotechnology to improve efficiency and increase yields. It is evident that various microorganisms will play an integral role in the development of this newly emerging industry, such as yeast for ethanol and Escherichia coli for fine chemical fermentation. However, it appears that microalgae have become the most promising prospect for biomass production due to their ability to grow fast, produce large quantities of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins, thrive in poor quality waters, sequester and recycle carbon dioxide from industrial flue gases and remove pollutants from industrial, agricultural and municipal wastewaters. In an attempt to better understand and manipulate microorganisms for optimum production capacity, many researchers have investigated alternative methods for stimulating their growth and metabolic behavior. One such novel approach is the use of electromagnetic fields for the stimulation of growth and metabolic cascades and controlling biochemical pathways. An effort has been made in this review to consolidate the information on the current status of biostimulation research to enhance microbial growth and metabolism using electromagnetic fields. It summarizes information on the biostimulatory effects on growth and other biological processes to obtain insight regarding factors and dosages that lead to the stimulation and also what kind of processes have been reportedly affected. Diverse mechanistic theories and explanations for biological effects of electromagnetic fields on intra and extracellular environment have been discussed. The foundations of biophysical interactions such as bioelectromagnetic and biophotonic communication and organization within living systems are expounded with special consideration for spatiotemporal aspects of electromagnetic topology

  3. Addendum to Microalgae Culture Collection 1986-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, J. R.; Lemke, P.; Nagle, N. J.; Chelf, P.; Roessler, P. G.; Galloway, R.; Toon, S.

    1987-12-01

    The SERI Microalgae Culture Collection was established in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Program to provide a repository for strains identified or developed for mass culture biomass production.

  4. Biotechnology 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    This book first reveals prospect on biotechnology with low-carbon green growth Next, it consists of four chapters, which deal with vision of biotechnology, trend of biotechnology in main countries like the U.S, Eu, Japan and China, current condition for biotechnology with support and promoting policy such as health and medical treatment and maritime and fisheries, major product on investment, human power, paper and pattern, research development such as genomic, system biology, bio new medicine, agriculture, stock breeding and food, biological resources and legal system related biotechnology.

  5. Proteomic-based biotyping reveals hidden diversity within a microalgae culture collection: An example using Dunaliella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Kaveh; Hack, Ethan; Nelson, Andrew; Brain, Chelsea M.; Lyne, Fern M.; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Day, John G.; Caldwell, Gary S.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and defendable taxonomic identification of microalgae strains is vital for culture collections, industry and academia; particularly when addressing issues of intellectual property. We demonstrate the remarkable effectiveness of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) biotyping to deliver rapid and accurate strain separation, even in situations where standard molecular tools prove ineffective. Highly distinctive MALDI spectra were obtained for thirty two biotechnologically interesting Dunaliella strains plus strains of Arthrospira, Chlorella, Isochrysis, Tetraselmis and a range of culturable co-occurring bacteria. Spectra were directly compared with genomic DNA sequences (internal transcribed spacer, ITS). Within individual Dunaliella isolates MALDI discriminated between strains with identical ITS sequences, thereby emphasising and enhancing knowledge of the diversity within microalgae culture collections. Further, MALDI spectra did not vary with culture age or growth stage during the course of the experiment; therefore MALDI presents stable and accurate strain-specific signature spectra. Bacterial contamination did not affect MALDI’s discriminating power. Biotyping by MALDI-TOF-MS will prove effective in situations wherein precise strain identification is vital, for example in cases involving intellectual property disputes and in monitoring and safeguarding biosecurity. MALDI should be accepted as a biotyping tool to complement and enhance standard molecular taxonomy for microalgae.

  6. BIOTECHNOLOGY : AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology as a science includes various aspects of the management and manipulation of biological systems. Recent advances in immunology, molecular biology, cell culture and other associated areas provide an opportunity for scientists to move biology out of the laboratory and into the realms of society. This has many implications which mankind on a whole may not be prepared to cope with at this time. This new capability has been referred to as "Biotechnology". Biotechnology has also been defined as "the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering in order to achieve the capacities of microbes and culture cells". Genetic engineering which includes gene splicing and recombinant DNA-cloning is an example of a recent offshoot of biotechnology. Because of the advent of biotechnology, one can now think of the prospect of engineering tomorrows vaccines. In the past, vaccine development has been laborious and in many instances an unrewarding task. After years of effort only a handful of safe, effective vaccines have emerged. In the biotechnology arena, new methodologies and strategies for immunizing humans and domestic animals against infectious diseases are providing new hope for discovering successful vaccines. While most of the effort in the past has focused on viral vaccine development, attention is now being directed towards vaccines for protection against parasitic diseases. Currently, considerable effort is being made to develop vaccines for malaria, coccidiosis (in fowl, cholera, malaria, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis among others.

  7. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad Deepa L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology

  8. Culture Collections and Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen capable of causing serious invasive illness in humans and other animals, and a leading cause of food recalls. The establishment and growth of a research collection of Listeria isolates has been critical in developing an evolutionary genetic framework, n...

  9. Identification of Antarctic culturable bacteria able to produce diverse enzymes of potential biotechnological interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Ferrés; Vanesa Amarelle; Francisco Noya; Elena Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that more than three quarters of the Earth’s biosphere is in perennially cold environments. Despite the extreme environmental conditions of desiccation and freezing, microbes can colonize these habitats through the adaptation of metabolic functions and the synthesis of structurally adapted enzymes. Enzymes within psychrophilic microbes exhibit high specific activity at low and moderate temperature, with low thermostability. In this study we used a classic microbiological approach to isolate Antarctic bacteria with cellulolytic, lipolytic, and ligninolytic activities. From 15 different environmental samples, we generated a collection of approximately 800 bacterial isolates that could grow on R2A or Marine medium at 4°C. This collection was then screened for the presence of the three types of activity at 4°C. We found that 47.7% of the isolates displayed lipolytic activity, 10.2% had cellulase/xylanase activity, and 7.7% showed guaiacol oxidase activity. Of these, 10% displayed two different types of activity, while 0.25% displayed all three types of activity. Our results indicate that cold environments represent outstanding resources for bioprospecting and the study of enzymatic adaptation.

  10. Yeast culture collections in the twenty-first century: new opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria L; Glantschnig, Ewald; Roberts, Ian N; Yurkov, Andrey; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-07-01

    The twenty-first century has brought new opportunities and challenges to yeast culture collections, whether they are long-standing or recently established. Basic functions such as archiving, characterizing and distributing yeasts continue, but with expanded responsibilities and emerging opportunities. In addition to a number of well-known, large public repositories, there are dozens of smaller public collections that differ in the range of species and strains preserved, field of emphasis and services offered. Several collections have converted their catalogues to comprehensive databases and synchronize them continuously through public services, making it easier for users worldwide to locate a suitable source for specific yeast strains and the data associated with these yeasts. In-house research such as yeast taxonomy continues to be important at culture collections. Because yeast culture collections preserve a broad diversity of species and strains within a species, they are able to make discoveries in many other areas as well, such as biotechnology, functional, comparative and evolution genomics, bioprocesses and novel products. Due to the implementation of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Nagoya Protocol (NP), there are new requirements for both depositors and users to ensure that yeasts were collected following proper procedures and to guarantee that the country of origin will be considered if benefits arise from a yeast's utilization. Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are extremely relevant to the current access and benefit-sharing (ABS) mechanisms; most research and development involving genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge will be subject to this topic. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27144478

  11. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits. PMID:26070432

  12. Biodiversity of Trichoderma spp.in TUB culture collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Szakacs G

    2004-01-01

    @@ Culture collection of the Technical University of Budapest (TUB) comprises approx. 2800microorganisms with special emphasis on lignocellulose degrading fungi and actinomycetes. For isolation and screening programs, 460 soils are stored at + 5 ℃.

  13. Seaweed Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Pereira, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic marine algae, typically known as macroalgae or seaweeds, form an important living resource of the oceans, as primary producers. People have collected seaweeds for food, both for humans and animals for millennia. They also have been a source of nutrient rich fertilizers, as well as a source of gelling agents known as phycocolloids. More recently macroalgae are playing significant roles in medicine and biotechnology. Although Biotechnology and in particular marine biotechnology may ...

  14. Local Collective Identity Enculturation with a Global Media Consumption Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chul-Byung

    2002-01-01

    Argues that shift from modern nation-state collective identity to postmodern globally constructed collective identify is influenced by a global electronic media and television consumption culture. Illustrates shift on three levels: socioeconomic, socialization, and the production of symbolic goods. (Contains 76 references.) (PKP)

  15. Personalization in crowd-driven annotation for cultural heritage collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, C.; Oosterman, J.; Aroyo, L.; Houben, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Many cultural heritage institutions are confronted with a big challenge when it comes to adapting the process of registration, annotation and digitization of their collections to meet the new technological demands for providing their collections online with Web and mobile technologies. With limited

  16. European biotechnology. April 1978-July 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for April 1978-July 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning agricultural and pharmaceutical biotechnical research and development being conducted by Western European nations. Topics include: the future of biotechnology, recent developments, genetic analysis and manipulation (biomolecular engineering), and the biological production of pesticides and medicinals. This bibliography will be especially useful to R D professionals and advanced biochemistry students entering the biomedical or agricultural fields. (Contains 134 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  17. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE LABORATORY SELECTED AND ACTIVE DRIED SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE YEAST CULTURE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE BRANDY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayraktar V.N.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Samples from different industrial grape cultivars were collected during the vintage season from the vineyard of the winery (the «Shabo» winery Company, located in the Odesa region, Ukraine. The following industrial cultivars of grapes were selected for the research: Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon, Riesling Rhenish, Aligote, Rkatsiteli, Bastardo, Traminer, Telti Kuruk, Grinosh. The grape cultivars were cultivated on the sandy soils in the district located between the Black Sea and the Dnestrovsky estuary. Grape must derived from different grape cultivars was placed into sterile glass flasks to half of the 450ml flask volume. Each flask was carefully closed with a rubber stopper with an injection needle in it. During the fermentation process, it was necessary to remove carbon dioxide, which was present as a result of active anaerobic fermentation processes in the grape must. At the end of grape must fermentation, pure yeast cultures were isolated using traditional microbiological methods by consistent inoculation of a sample into a Petri dish with a few modifications of nutrient selective agar for yeast isolation and cultivation. Primary yeast isolation was carried out using Inhibitory Mold Agar medium (Becton Dickinson Company, USA. The yeast culture morphological properties were analyzed after the primary yeast culture isolation. Yeasts were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using universal yeast primers. After yeast culture identification, the next step in yeast cultivation was carried out on Wort Agar medium (Becton Dickinson Company, USA. Each isolated, and identified yeast culture was deposited in the Genebank of Japan, MAFF culture Collection, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan and (NCYC - Yeast Culture Collection (National Collection of Yeast Cultures, Institute of Food Research, Norwich, United Kingdom. Each yeast culture was tested for technological characteristics such as growth resistance to high temperature (+42

  18. Antibacterial activity of marine culturable bacteria collected from a global sampling of ocean surface waters and surface swabs of marine organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to isolate marine culturable bacteria with antibacterial activity and hence a potential biotechnological use. Seawater samples (244) and 309 swab samples from biotic or abiotic surfaces were collected on a global Danish marine research expedition (Galathea 3)....... predominantly isolated in warmer waters from swabs of live or inert surfaces. Ruegeria strains were isolated from all ocean areas except for Arctic and Antarctic waters and inhibitory activity caused by production of tropodithietic acid....

  19. An Overview of NASA Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    Biotechnology research at NASA has comprised three separate areas; cell science and tissue culture, separations methods, and macromolecular crystal growth. This presentation will primarily focus on the macromolecular crystal growth.

  20. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  1. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology. PMID:25058832

  2. Molecular characterization of some lignicolous species from fungal culture collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Nevena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture collections of microorganisms, including fungi, are strain deposits recognised as Biological Resource Centers (BRCs with a great importance in science, industry and education. Their objective is to preserve the purity, viability and genomic integrity of every single strain as a member of such collection. Since improvement of molecular methods nowadays brought many novel approaches in manipulation with strains of microorganisms, they can also be useful for characterization of existing stored strains. ITS1 region in nuclear DNA is preferred barcoding marker for taxon identification, which can be explained by its great inter-species variability. This paper presents results from analysing ITS1 region sequences (17 obtained from fungal DNA of culture collection of autochthonous, lignicolous genera Piptoporus, Pleurotus, Ganoderma and Schizophyllum cultured on malt agar plates for 14 days at 25°C. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool was used for comparison with online databases, while alignment of sequences was made with MEGA 5.10 software. Morphological determination of species or genus was confirmed for 13 cultures, while the others were disproved. The resulting alignment indicated small intra-species variability of ITS1 region and pointed to it as an ideal marker for verification of fungal culture collections' authenticity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43002 and by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development, Vojvodina, Serbia APV 114-4513592/2013-03: Molecular and phenotypic diversity of taxa of economical and epidemiological importance, and endangered and endemic species in Europe

  3. User Satisfaction Determinants for Digital Culture Heritage Online CollectionsUser Satisfaction Determinants for Digital Culture Heritage Online Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaihasriah Zahidi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the possible determinants that influence user satisfaction in the context of digital cultural heritage (DCH online collections. The data was collected in 3 stages. For the first stage, literature studies were conducted in understanding the general overview about user satisfaction in various web-domains. Next, think-aloud protocol was conducted with a group of general user with nil background of cultural heritage. Two existing digital culture heritage online collections were used as the vehicle to get the findings. Lastly, existing studies on Herzberg Two-Factor Theory in webenvironment context was adapted and adopted in identifying the possible hygiene and motivator factors which influence the user satisfaction in this context of study

  4. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods.

  5. Crop Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of crop biotechnology on outcomes of agricultural practices and economics is readily evidenced by the escalating acreage of genetically engineered crops, all occurring in a relatively short time span. Until the mid 1990s, virtually no acreage was planted with commercial genetically mo...

  6. 75 FR 11988 - Notice of Request for Approval To Collect New Information: Collection of Safety Culture Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ...: Collection of Safety Culture Data AGENCY: Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), Research and Innovative..., information about changes to the safety culture of the affected workplaces will be used as one of several data... for the following BTS information collection activity: Title: Collection of Safety Culture Data....

  7. ITEM - agro-food microbial culture collection: The importance of toxigenic fungi in the fight against mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanelli Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal culture collections are important to biologists, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others involved in health and natural sciences. The improvement of techniques and methods for fungal isolation and preservation has contributed to maintain large microbial collections, which represent a rich source of biological sciences research, especially taxonomic, pathological and biodiversity studies as well as industrial applications. The collection centers are responsible for repository reference strains and for the maintenance of these microorganisms. The ITEM Microbial Culture Collection of ISPA (Institute of Sciences and of Food Production includes more than 10,000 strains belonging to various agro-food microorganisms with phytopathological and toxicological significance. These microorganisms are mainly fungal pathogens belonging to toxigenic genera of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, and Penicillium. This collection is a remarkable resource in the fight against mycotoxins: the increasing number of toxigenic fungi included in this collection ensures an original genetic source for biotechnological applications in several fields of research, contributing to knowledge improvement about fungal biology and strategies development for reducing mycotoxin contamination.

  8. Digital Extension of Music Memory Music as a Collective Cultural Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrije Buzarovski

    2014-01-01

    Artistic works represent a very important part of collective cultural memory. Every artistic work, by definition, can confirm its existence only through the presence in collective cultural memory. The migration from author’s individual memory to common collective cultural memory forms the cultural heritage. This equally applies to tangible and intangible cultural artifacts. Being part of collective cultural memory, music reflects the spatial (geographic) and temporal (historic) dimensions of ...

  9. Plant biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Fernández, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has seen an intense debate of the potential contribution of Plant Biotechnology to meeting present and future world demands of food and biomass. The discussion started in 1997 when the first genetically modified (GM) crops were approved by the EPA for commercial production. The debate has been later stimulated by the increasing awareness of the potential effects of global climate change on agricultural production, as the current crops may be poorly adapted...

  10. Abstracts Book of 9. All-Polish Conference of In Vitro Cultures and Plant Biotechnology 'Modifications of Plant Genome'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conference presented posters discussing following problems: plant transformation, plant cell as a bioreactor, perspectives for transgenic plants, methods of analysis of plant genome, selection in in vitro cultures, mutagenesis and somaclonal variations, haploidisation, gamet culture and in vitro fertilization, interspecific hybridization, somatic hybridization and culture of hybrid embryos, organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis, cryopreservation and in vitro storage of plant germplasm, micropropagation

  11. Microbial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, A L

    2000-01-01

    For thousands of years, microorganisms have been used to supply products such as bread, beer and wine. A second phase of traditional microbial biotechnology began during World War I and resulted in the development of the acetone-butanol and glycerol fermentations, followed by processes yielding, for example, citric acid, vitamins and antibiotics. In the early 1970s, traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield more than 40 biopharmaceutical products, such as erythropoietin, human growth hormone and interferons. Today, microbiology is a major participant in global industry, especially in the pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries. PMID:10631778

  12. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of ne...

  13. Cultural impacts on public perceptions of agricultural biotechnology: A comparison of South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Richard Harrison

    According to Millar (1996), the gulf between science and society is growing. Technologies are tools cultures develop to solve society's problems. The rapid dispersion of science and technology across cultural borders through trade, technology transfer and exchange, increasingly requires people in different cultures to make choices about accepting or rejecting artifacts of science and technology such as genetically modified (GM) foods, which originate primarily from the United States. These issues challenge policy makers and scientists to account for the affects of different cultural perspectives on controversial scientific issues. Given the controversy across cultures over acceptance or rejection of genetically modified (GM) foods, GM foods are an excellent example with which to begin to reveal how culture impacts public perceptions of the risk and benefits of science and technology in different societies. This research will: (1) Define public awareness and understanding of science, specifically GM foods; (2) Examine culture's impact on knowledge, including different cultural approaches to research; and (3) Compare recent findings of a bi-national public opinion survey on GM comparing in South Korea and the United States. The proposed research outlines two research questions: (1) How and in what ways do South Koreans and Americans differ in their opinions about GMOs? This question is important for gathering current points of contrast about how the two cultures may differ; and (2) What role does culture play on opinion formation about GM foods? Through grounded theory, the researcher will investigate how cultural differences help explain opinion on public perceptions of GM foods. Is it possible to identify common cultural factors that impact public perceptions of GM foods between South Koreans and Americans? The study will utilize both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Higher education is a major producer of new science and technology. The study is

  14. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-01

    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy.

  15. Early stationary phase culture supernatant accelerates growth of sputum cultures collected after initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolwijck, E; Friedrich, S O; Karinja, M N; van Ingen, J; Warren, R M; Diacon, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the effect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture supernatant added to sputum cultures collected during the first 8 weeks of anti-tuberculosis treatment. With ongoing treatment duration, time to culture positivity decreased significantly in supernatant-enriched cultures, possibly due to stimulation of dormant or slowly metabolizing M. tuberculosis cells.

  16. Aplicação de técnicas de biotecnologia à cultura e melhoramento do maracujazeiro Application of biotechnological processes to passion fruit culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Macedo de Lima

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia da cultura de protoplastos, células e tecidos de plantas in vitro constitui-se em uma das áreas de maior êxito na biotecnologia. No gênero Passiflora, poucas espécies têm sido utilizadas com fins biotecnológicos nos estudos de cultura de tecido. Do pouco já realizado, obteve-se sucesso na regeneração de brotos, por via indireta, a partir de calos, ou por via direta, a partir dos explantes cotiledonares, hipocotiledonares ou foliares. A regeneração in vitro é facilmente induzida em entrenós e segmentos de gavinha, com a adição de citocinina ao meio de cultivo. Recentes avanços na regeneração de protoplastos de outras frutíferas permitiram a aplicação da hibridização somática no maracujá. O uso da engenharia genética, aproveitando-se a habilidade de regeneração das plantas de P. edulis f. flavicarpa, torna-se relevante na tentativa de reduzir a devastação imposta por certas doenças e pragas, e também na adição de outras características de importância agronômica.The technology of cells, protoplast and tissue culture of plants is one of the most successful biotechnological areas. In the genus Passiflora, a few species have been used with biotechnological ends on the studies concerning tissue cultures. Regeneration of shoots can be indirect, from callus, or direct, by cotiledonary, hipocotiledonary and leaf explants. It is easy to induce in vitro regeneration of internodes and axillary tendrils if cytokinin is added to the culture medium. Early advances in the regeneration of other fruit tree protoplasts have allowed the use of the somatic hybridization process in the passion fruit. Since P. edulis f. flavicarpa has a natural regeneration ability, the application of genetic engineering techniques becomes necessary in order to reduce the infestation by some diseases or insects, and to add relevant agricultural properties to this species.

  17. Biotechnology: reality or dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of molecular biology and molecular genetics, especially of the recombinant DNA technology enabled improvement of experimental methods that provide manipulation within a cell-free system, such as cell and tissue cultures. Such methods resulted in the development of different new technologies with specific properties in relation to the conventional definitions. According to PERSLEY and lantin (2000 the following components are essential for the contemporary biotechnology: (i genomics - a molecular characterization of all genes and gene products of an organism (ii bioinformatics - the assembly of data from genomic analysis into accessible forms; (iii transformation - the introduction of genes controlling a trait of interest into a genome of a desired organism (micro organisms, plants, animal systems. By the application of cotemporary biotechnology new methods in the field of diagnostic are developed such as rapid and more accurate identification of the presence and absence of genes in the genome of the organism of interest (identification of pathogens prenatal diagnostics, molecular markers assisted breeding for plants, etc. The traits of an organism are determined by its genetic material, i.e. by a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. watson and crick (1953 were the first scientists to describe the structure of DNA as a double-stranded helix. Higher organisms contain a set of linear DNA molecules - chromosomes and a full set of chromosomes of an organism is a genome. Each genome is divided into a series of functional units, i.e. genes. The traits of an organism depend on genes, but their expression depends not only on genes but also on many other factors, including whether a gene, controlling the trait, expresses, specific cells in which it expresses and specially the mode by which the gene and its product interact with the environment. A special aspect within the application of biotechnology occurs as an interaction of a

  18. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  19. Characterization of the Bacterial Community Associated with Larvae and Adults of Anoplophora chinensis Collected in Italy by Culture and Culture-Independent Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Rizzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wood-boring beetle Anoplophora chinensis Forster, native to China, has recently spread to North America and Europe causing serious damage to ornamental and forest trees. The gut microbial community associated with these xylophagous beetles is of interest for potential biotechnological applications in lignocellulose degradation and development of pest-control measures. In this study the gut bacterial community of larvae and adults of A. chinensis, collected from different host trees in North Italy, was investigated by both culture and culture-independent methods. Larvae and adults harboured a moderately diverse bacterial community, dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The gammaproteobacterial family Enterobacteriaceae (genera Gibbsiella, Enterobacter, Raoultella, and Klebsiella was the best represented. The abundance of such bacteria in the insect gut is likely due to the various metabolic abilities of Enterobacteriaceae, including fermentation of carbohydrates derived from lignocellulose degradation and contribution to nitrogen intake by nitrogen-fixing activity. In addition, bacteria previously shown to have some lignocellulose-degrading activity were detected at a relatively low level in the gut. These bacteria possibly act synergistically with endogenous and fungal enzymes in lignocellulose breakdown. The detection of actinobacterial symbionts could be explained by a possible role in the detoxification of secondary plant metabolites and/or protection against pathogens.

  20. Digital Extension of Music Memory Music as a Collective Cultural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrije Buzarovski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Artistic works represent a very important part of collective cultural memory. Every artistic work, by definition, can confirm its existence only through the presence in collective cultural memory. The migration from author’s individual memory to common collective cultural memory forms the cultural heritage. This equally applies to tangible and intangible cultural artifacts. Being part of collective cultural memory, music reflects the spatial (geographic and temporal (historic dimensions of this memory. Until the appearance of written signs (scores music was preserved only through collective cultural memory. Scores have facilitated further distribution of music artifacts. The appearance of different means for audio, and later audio/video recordings have greatly improved the distribution of music. The transition from analog to digital recording and carriers has been a revolutionary step which substantially extended the chances for the survival of music artifacts in collective memory.

  1. 海洋微藻的大容量培养与生物 活性物质开发技术%A Review on Biotechnology in Mass Culture of Microalgae and the Development of the Bioactive Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    论述海洋微藻的用途,开发利用现状,大 容量培养和生物活性物质提取的生物技术,并指出了开发利用的广阔前景。%The usage, status of the development of microalgae and the biotechnology in mass culture and the extraction of bioactive molecules contained in microalgae are reviewed in this paper.

  2. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE LABORATORY SELECTED AND ACTIVE DRIED SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE YEAST CULTURE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE BRANDY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Samples from different industrial grape cultivars were collected during the vintage season from the vineyard of the winery (the «Shabo» winery Company, located in the Odesa region, Ukraine). The following industrial cultivars of grapes were selected for the research: Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon, Riesling Rhenish, Aligote, Rkatsiteli, Bastardo, Traminer, Telti Kuruk, Grinosh. The grape cultivars were cultivated on the sandy soils in the district located between the Black ...

  3. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  4. 78 FR 56649 - Information Collection; Volunteer Application and Agreement for Natural and Cultural Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Application and Agreement for Natural and Cultural Resources Agencies. This Information Collection Request... for Natural and Cultural Resources Agencies. OMB Number: 0596-0080. Expiration Date of Approval... information is needed by participating natural resources agencies to manage agency volunteer...

  5. Biotechnology in India : Current scene (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagaratnam

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Realising the immense potential of biotechnology in the fields of agricultural production and health care, especially in developing countries, India has been devoting special attention over the past two decades to biotechnology and its applications. Necessary infrastructure has been built-up, the human resources and technical expertise built-up, and fruitful interactions between academic institutions and industries supported. The Department of Biotechnology, Govt of India has been playing a major role in this endeavour. Special efforts are being made to ensure practical applications of laboratory research. Salient achievements in the areas of agriculture (including tissue culture, transgenics, sericulture, animal, marine and microbial biotechnology, biofertilisers, bio-control agents, bio-prospecting, conservation of biodiversity and environment and health care (including genetic counselling, DNA fingerprinting, preservation and propagation of human cell lines, medicinal biotechnology with special reference to indigenous medicinal plants, and immunodiagnostics for human beings and animals are reviewed.

  6. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  7. THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiakova I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent № 2431651 for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50

  8. Biotechnological advances in Lilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; van Tuyl, Jaap M

    2016-09-01

    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability. Different DNA molecular markers have been developed for rapid indirect selection, genetic diversity evaluation, mutation detection and construction of Lilium linkage map. Some disease resistance-QTLs are already mapped on the Lilium linkage map. This review presents latest information on in vitro propagation, genetic engineering and molecular advances made in lily. PMID:27318470

  9. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  10. Collective Oriented Culture and Its Negative Impact upon Oral English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春艳; 约翰·史密斯

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most distinguished features of Chinese Culture, collective oriented cul-ture is the deep structure of Chinese cultural psychology which has shaped Chinese character and inlfuenced their behavior. As a result of it, Chinese students suffer this negative effect from collective orientated culture when acquiring English, especially in oral English acquisition. TEFL teachers should be aware of cultural psychology and try their best to minimize its negative effect instead of neglecting or even en-larging it during oral English teaching.

  11. Semantic annotation and search of cultural-heritage collections: The MultimediaN E-Culture demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiber, G.; Amin, A.K.; Aroyo, L.; Assem, M. van; Boer, V. de; Hardman, L.; Hildebrand, M.; Ossenbruggen, J.R. van; Omelayenko, B.; Tordai, A.; Wielemaker, J.; Wielinga, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we describe a Semantic Web application for semantic annotation and search in large virtual collections of cultural-heritage objects, indexed with multiple vocabularies. During the annotation phase we harvest, enrich and align collection metadata and vocabularies. The semantic-search

  12. The DOE subsurface microbial culture collection at Florida State University. Final technical report, January 16, 1996--February 15, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkwill, D.L.

    1998-05-25

    This report describes the research that supports the Subsurface Science Program by maintaining a culture collection of microorganisms isolated from deep terrestrial subsurface environments (the Subsurface Microbial Culture Collection, or SMCC). The general distribution of cultures and data was identified as an important function of the SMCC. The accomplishments related to this function of the culture collection are described.

  13. Biotechnology: Beauty or Beast?

    OpenAIRE

    Ui Ghallachoir, Kate

    1993-01-01

    In recent years scientific advances have transformed that group of technologies referred to as biotechnology into a set of increasingly powerful tools for many industries. Biotechnology is identified by many as an important factor determining the future sucess of industries as diverse as healthcare and agriculture. In Ireland biotechnology use and development is a recognised area of strategic priority. The research presented here investigates factors suggested as affecting the rate and diffus...

  14. The Role of Displaced Book Collections in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genieva, Ekaterina

    2003-01-01

    Considers whether rare books taken during times of war as trophies by the enemy should be restored to their original owners. Highlights include problems associated with restitution; legal and political considerations; individual books versus special collections; and the German book trade and libraries and their relations to the Soviet Union after…

  15. Staphylococci with markers of antibiotic resistance collected from blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Focarelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood culture is still the gold standard for the detection of the causative agent of sepsis. Especially in intensive care patients and those with vascular catheters, the most common organisms isolated are coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS and Staphylococcus aureus, both characterized by multidrug resistance. Purposes of our work are the study of the incidence of markers of resistance in staphylococci and evaluation of potential changes over the years. Materials and methods: In the period January 2008-June 2011 5239 blood cultures were analyzed.They were mainly obtained from the departments of Intensive Care, Cardiology, Hematology, General Medicine, Emergency Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Oncology, Pulmonology and Pediatric Hematoncology. The vials containing the blood were incubated in the BACTEC 9120 automated tool of Becton Dickinson and susceptibility testing performed with the Phoenix instrument of the same company. Results:Within a total of 5239 blood cultures, 3967 (75.7% were negative and 1272 (24.3% positive. Fungi were isolated in 6.2% (79 of the positive ones, Gram-negative bacteria in 24.6% (313 and Gram-positive bacteria in 69.2% (880. Within the latter, 187 (21.2% were not staphylococcal isolates, 693 (78.8% were stafiloccocci mainly represented by S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus and S. saprophyticus. Of the 693 staphylococcal isolates, 436 (62.9% were b lactamase producers, and between them 336 (77.1% were methicillin resistant, while only 3 of 436 (0.69% were S. aureus resistant to vancomycin as well.The incidence of markers of resistance was very high, especially in patients in intensive care and cardiac surgery, who are usually subjected to combined antibiotic therapy. In the three years studied there were no statistically significant differences in the resistance of staphylococci. Conclusions: The data show an alarming high number of multi-resistant staphylococci, which is often a

  16. The culture of combination: solidarities and collective action before tolpuddle

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the repression of the national waves of food rioting during the subsistence crises of the 1790s, workers in the English countryside lost the will and ability to collectively mobilise. Or so the historical orthodoxy goes. Such a conceptualisation necessarily positions the Bread or Blood riots of 1816, the Swing rising of 1830, and, in particular, the agrarian trade unionism practised at Tolpuddle in 1834 as exceptional events. This paper offers a departure by placing Tolpuddle into its ...

  17. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

  18. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-01

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of th...

  19. Applicability of Baumrind's Parent Typology to Collective Cultures: Analysis of Cultural Explanations of Parent Socialization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews studies that have examined whether Baumrind's parenting styles are related to child outcomes similarly in cultures where independence is said to be emphasized versus cultures where interdependence is said to be emphasized. I present evidence showing that Baumrind's parenting styles have similar function in both collectivist…

  20. Digital Forensics and Born-Digital Content in Cultural Heritage Collections. CLIR Publication No. 149

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, Matthew G.; Ovenden, Richard; Redwine, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is twofold: first, to introduce the field of digital forensics to professionals in the cultural heritage sector; and second, to explore some particular points of convergence between the interests of those charged with collecting and maintaining born-digital cultural heritage materials and those charged with collecting…

  1. 76 FR 16029 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... the Sports Envoys Program between the years of 2005 and 2009. Methodology: Evaluation data will be... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Envoys Survey, OMB Control...

  2. Collective Pedagogical Teacher Culture and Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Neena; Bottia, Martha Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have not adequately assessed how organizational cultures in schools differentially influence students' mathematics achievement by race and socioeconomic status (SES). We focus on what we term "collective pedagogical teacher culture", highlighting the role of professional communities and teacher collaboration in influencing…

  3. Semantic annotation and search of cultural-heritage collections: The MultimediaN E-Culture demonstrator

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, G; Amin, Alia; Aroyo, L.; Assem, van, M.; Boer; Hardman, Hazel Lynda; Hildebrand, Michiel; Ossenbruggen, van, Jacco; Omelayenko, B.; Tordai, A; Wielemaker, J.; Wielinga, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we describe a Semantic Web application for semantic annotation and search in large virtual collections of cultural-heritage objects, indexed with multiple vocabularies. During the annotation phase we harvest, enrich and align collection metadata and vocabularies. The semantic-search facilities support keyword-based queries of the graph (currently 20 M triples), resulting in semantically grouped result clusters, all representing potential semantic matches of the original query....

  4. Agriculture biotechnology report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report provides the basis for an overall agriculture biotechnology strategy for Saskatchewan, encompassing all aspects of the biotechnology sector and supporting institutions. It presents results of a survey of over 70 industry and public sector leaders in agriculture biotechnology in order to assist Saskatchewan Agriculture & Food in defining its role and involvement in the agriculture biotechnology industry. Issues examined include: Goals for the agriculture biotechnology industry; research and development; technology transfer and commercialisation; infrastructure and services; human resources; legislation and policy; funding; future core areas of research and development; and the role of government in developing the industry. The report concludes with lists of recommendations. The supplement lists the survey questions and responses.

  5. Equality bias impairs collective decision-making across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Ali; Bang, Dan; Olsen, Karsten; Zhao, Yuanyuan Aimee; Shi, Zhenhao; Broberg, Kristina; Safavi, Shervin; Han, Shihui; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid; Frith, Chris D; Roepstorff, Andreas; Rees, Geraint; Bahrami, Bahador

    2015-03-24

    We tend to think that everyone deserves an equal say in a debate. This seemingly innocuous assumption can be damaging when we make decisions together as part of a group. To make optimal decisions, group members should weight their differing opinions according to how competent they are relative to one another; whenever they differ in competence, an equal weighting is suboptimal. Here, we asked how people deal with individual differences in competence in the context of a collective perceptual decision-making task. We developed a metric for estimating how participants weight their partner's opinion relative to their own and compared this weighting to an optimal benchmark. Replicated across three countries (Denmark, Iran, and China), we show that participants assigned nearly equal weights to each other's opinions regardless of true differences in their competence-even when informed by explicit feedback about their competence gap or under monetary incentives to maximize collective accuracy. This equality bias, whereby people behave as if they are as good or as bad as their partner, is particularly costly for a group when a competence gap separates its members.

  6. Equality bias impairs collective decision-making across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Ali; Bang, Dan; Olsen, Karsten; Zhao, Yuanyuan Aimee; Shi, Zhenhao; Broberg, Kristina; Safavi, Shervin; Han, Shihui; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid; Frith, Chris D; Roepstorff, Andreas; Rees, Geraint; Bahrami, Bahador

    2015-03-24

    We tend to think that everyone deserves an equal say in a debate. This seemingly innocuous assumption can be damaging when we make decisions together as part of a group. To make optimal decisions, group members should weight their differing opinions according to how competent they are relative to one another; whenever they differ in competence, an equal weighting is suboptimal. Here, we asked how people deal with individual differences in competence in the context of a collective perceptual decision-making task. We developed a metric for estimating how participants weight their partner's opinion relative to their own and compared this weighting to an optimal benchmark. Replicated across three countries (Denmark, Iran, and China), we show that participants assigned nearly equal weights to each other's opinions regardless of true differences in their competence-even when informed by explicit feedback about their competence gap or under monetary incentives to maximize collective accuracy. This equality bias, whereby people behave as if they are as good or as bad as their partner, is particularly costly for a group when a competence gap separates its members. PMID:25775532

  7. 76 FR 71616 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Steins Collect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Steins Collect: Matisse, Picasso, and the Parisian Avant-Garde'' Exhibition ACTION: Notice, correction. SUMMARY: On April 1, 2011... made by the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``The Steins Collect: Matisse,...

  8. Challenges in Content-Based Image Indexing of Cultural Heritage Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, David; Gosselin, Philippe-Henri; Gaspard, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    International audience —Cultural heritage collections are being digitized and made available through online tools. Due to the large volume of documents being digitized, not enough manpower is available to provide useful annotations. Is this paper, we discuss the use of automatic tools to both automatically index the documents (i.e., provide labels) and search through the collections. We detail the challenges specific to these collections as well as research directions that have to be follo...

  9. [The collection of fungi cultures of "Pedro Kourí" Institute of Tropical Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Andreu, Carlos Manuel; Martínez Machín, Gerardo; Perurena Lancha, Mayda R; Illnait Zaragozí, María Teresa; Valdés Hernández, Ileana

    2005-01-01

    A review was made on the collection of fungi cultures of "Pedro Kourí" Institute of Tropical Medicine" that was created in 1980 to give an answer to the increasing needs of the newly established laboratory of Mycology of that institution at that time. The collections of microbial cultures are more important every day as a way for the ex situ conservation of the microbial biodiversity. They are in charge of collecting, saving, identifying and preserving those strains of interest for biomedical research, teaching, industry, agriculture, etc. At present, the collection of the institute has a total of 262 strains from 81 species of fungi, actinomycetes and algae, all of them of interest for Medical Mycology. The main methods for the maintenance of the cultures have been the conservation in distilled water and freeze-drying, in additions to the periodical mincing in agar media, refrigeration and freezing. The service of reference and control of quality, the identification of strains, teaching, the taxonomic studies, and the safeguard, among others, are some of the main functions developed by this collection. Nowadays, the collections of fungus cultures must face the challenges represented by the emerging pathogenic fungi, as well as the incorporation of molecular techniques confirming the quality of the strain preservation methods. These collections should play an important strategic role in the preservation of the biodiversity, taking into account legal and biosafety aspects, too. PMID:17969277

  10. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  11. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg;

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...

  12. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Valori, Luca; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2011-01-01

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are well understood, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that inter-opinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultramet...

  13. Biotechnological applications of extremophiles, extremozymes and extremolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura

    2015-08-14

    In the last decade, attention to extreme environments has increased because of interests to isolate previously unknown extremophilic microorganisms in pure culture and to profile their metabolites. Microorganisms that live in extreme environments produce extremozymes and extremolytes that have the potential to be valuable resources for the development of a bio-based economy through their application to white, red, and grey biotechnologies. Here, we provide an overview of extremophile ecology, and we review the most recent applications of microbial extremophiles and the extremozymes and extremolytes they produce to biotechnology.

  14. Producing health, producing safety. Developing a collective safety culture in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis aims at a better understanding of safety management in radiotherapy and at proposing improvements for patient safety through the development of a collective safety culture. A first part presents the current context in France and abroad, addresses the transposition of other safety methods to the medical domain, and discusses the peculiarities of radiotherapy in terms of risks and the existing quality-assurance approaches. The second part presents the theoretical framework by commenting the intellectual evolution with respect to system safety and the emergence of the concept of safety culture, and by presenting the labour collective aspects and their relationship with system safety. The author then comments the variety of safety cultures among the different professions present in radiotherapy, highlights the importance of the collective dimension in correcting discrepancies at the end of the treatment process, and highlights how physicians take their colleagues work into account. Recommendations are made to improve patient safety in radiotherapy

  15. A note on the laboratory culture of benthic foraminifera collected from nearshore region off Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Khare, N.; Koli, N.Y.

    of benthic foraminifera was carried out in two phases. In phase 1 we used living organisms collected from the field as parent to be cultured under laboratory conditions using filtered sea water as media. This attempt was made to obtain the offsprings... responded to culture. (2) Food has conducive effect (3) The formation of initial chambers took less time as compared to latter chambers. Fig. 1 shows the growth of successive chambers. However, some of the parents reproduced at varying intervals...

  16. Evaluation of cultural heritage digital collections: the DiLEO perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Papatheodorou, Christos; Tsakonas, Giannis

    2011-01-01

    Cultural heritage collections are essential knowledge infrastructures that reflect the different cultures and civilizations revealed in certain temporal and spatial frames. They provide a solid representation of the historical background of human communities, the development of their linguistic idioms, the blooming or withering of their artistic expression, while in cases of international aggregations, like the European Union, they constitute important instruments for the social and ethnic co...

  17. Blood culture collection through peripheral intravenous catheters increases the risk of specimen contamination among adult emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Wesley H; Speroff, Theodore; McNaughton, Candace D; Wright, Patty W; Miller, Geraldine; Johnson, James G; Daniels, Titus L; Talbot, Thomas R

    2012-05-01

    Five hundred five blood cultures collected through a peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) in an emergency department were matched to cultures obtained by dedicated venipuncture from the same patient within 10 minutes. The relative risk of contamination for cultures collected through PIVs compared with dedicated venipuncture was 1.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.11).

  18. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Max

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.

  19. Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

    By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

  20. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y

    2011-09-01

    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology.

  1. Blood collection procedures influence contamination rates in blood culture: a prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Ying; LIU Xiao-qing; XU Ying-chun; XU Shan; YU Min-hong; ZHANG Wei; DENG Guo-hua

    2011-01-01

    Background Blood culture contamination is a significant adverse event.The aim of this project was to evaluate the efficacy of a strict blood collection procedure in reducing the blood culture contamination rate.Methods A prospectively controlled study was performed in two different medical areas in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) for 16 months (from May 2006 to September 2007).In test group,a strict blood collection procedure was carried out by trained nurses with the veinpuncture sites were scrupulously disinfected with 2.5% tincture of iodine plus 70% alcohol.In control group,commonly used procedure in PUMCH was performed with 0.45% chlorhexidine acetate plus 0.2% iodine.Blood culture positive results for 4 target organisms (Coagulase-negative staphylococci,Propionibacterium acnes,Corynebacterium species and Bacillus species) were further assessed by physicians from infectious department to determine whether a sample was true positive (pathogen) or false positive (contamination).Results Total 9321 blood culture collections were analyzed.The blood culture contamination rate in test group was significantly lower than that in control group (5/3177 (0.16%) vs.77/6144 (1.25%); x2=13.382,P <0.001).The most common contaminant was Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (76.83%).The average cultural time during which contaminated samples became positive was longer than that for true pathogen samples (42.0 hours vs.13.9 hours,P=0.041).Conclusion Using a strict blood collection procedure can significantly reduce blood culture contamination rate.

  2. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  3. Biotechnology Facility: An ISS Microgravity Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will support several facilities dedicated to scientific research. One such facility, the Biotechnology Facility (BTF), is sponsored by the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Division (MSAD) and developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The BTF is scheduled for delivery to the ISS via Space Shuttle in April 2005. The purpose of the BTF is to provide: (1) the support structure and integration capabilities for the individual modules in which biotechnology experiments will be performed, (2) the capability for human-tended, repetitive, long-duration biotechnology experiments, and (3) opportunities to perform repetitive experiments in a short period by allowing continuous access to microgravity. The MSAD has identified cell culture and tissue engineering, protein crystal growth, and fundamentals of biotechnology as areas that contain promising opportunities for significant advancements through low-gravity experiments. The focus of this coordinated ground- and space-based research program is the use of the low-gravity environment of space to conduct fundamental investigations leading to major advances in the understanding of basic and applied biotechnology. Results from planned investigations can be used in applications ranging from rational drug design and testing, cancer diagnosis and treatments and tissue engineering leading to replacement tissues.

  4. Teachers' Collective Efficacy, Job Satisfaction, and Job Stress in Cross-Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Usher, Ellen L.; Bong, Mimi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how teachers' collective efficacy (TCE), job stress, and the cultural dimension of collectivism are associated with job satisfaction for 500 teachers from Canada, Korea (South Korea or Republic of Korea), and the United States. Multigroup path analysis revealed that TCE predicted job satisfaction across settings. Job stress was…

  5. Biotechnological production of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-08-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important aromatic flavor compounds used in foods, beverages, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals and is produced on a scale of more than 10 thousand tons per year by the industry through chemical synthesis. Alternative biotechnology-based approaches for the production are based on bioconversion of lignin, phenolic stilbenes, isoeugenol, eugenol, ferulic acid, or aromatic amino acids, and on de novo biosynthesis, applying fungi, bacteria, plant cells, or genetically engineered microorganisms. Here, the different biosynthesis routes involved in biotechnological vanillin production are discussed. PMID:11548997

  6. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, K K; Kavya, K M; Jerome, A; Sharma, R K

    2016-04-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species.

  7. Silicon nano-biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yao

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews the latest advances in the development of silicon nano-biotechnology for biological and biomedical applications, which include biosensing, bioimaging, and cancer therapy. In this book, newly developed silicon nano-biotechnology and its biomedical applications are systematically introduced. For instance, fluorescent silicon nanoparticles, serving as novel high-performance biological nanoprobes, are superbly suited to real-time and long-term bioimaging. Silicon nanowire-based sensing platform is especially capable of sensitive, specific, and multiplexed detection of various bio

  8. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer

    2010-01-01

    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  9. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  10. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental sa...

  11. National Center for Biotechnology Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to NCBI Sign Out NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information Search database All Databases Assembly BioProject BioSample ... Search Welcome to NCBI The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access ...

  12. Projector Center. What Is Biotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzer, Bill; Case, Christine L.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a menu designed to illustrate some classical examples of fermentation. This may be used to discuss biotechnology from a technological perspective. Other examples of biotechnology used in the foods industry are described. (CW)

  13. Opportunities for Biotechnology and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental sa...

  14. Plant Biotechnology: Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Lakshmana Rao

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of procedures in cell biology to regenerate plants from single cells in any desired quantity provides the prerequisite for the practical use of plant tissue culture and genetic engineering in crop improvement. Such regenerating cell cultures are used for selection of mutants and for DNA transformation experiments. DNA transfer by means of engineered Ti and Ri plasmids has become an established technique for the rapidly growing list of dicotyledonous plants. Considerable success has also been achieved in making gene transfer techniques independent of cell culture methods. These techniques have given the opportunity to create, characterise and select plant cultivars which cannot be obtained by traditional breeding methods. The exploitation of plant cell cultures for production of pharmaceuticals, natural products of commercial importance and mass propagation of high-value crops by automation, have developed into an important industry with considerable potential for future. This paper discusses the recent advances and applications of plant biotechnology in agriculture and industry and the challenges the still exist.

  15. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  16. Biotechnology in weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  17. Biotechnology and derived products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...

  18. The Challenge in Teaching Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, F.; Aubusson, P.

    2004-01-01

    Agriculture, industry and medicine are being altered by new biotechnologies. Biotechnology education is important because today's students and citizens will make decisions about the development and application of these new molecular biologies. This article reports an investigation of the teaching of biotechnology in an Australian state, New South…

  19. From production to consumption: cultural diversity in the collective uses of technology among low income groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Barros

    2015-12-01

    as a central aspect of the observed cultural dynamics. With this intention, results about an ongoing ethnographic study were analyzed making a  counterpoint between consumption practices in Brazil and in South Africa. These practices related to television and mobile phones suggest the need to relativize the pattern of consumption for an individual consumer in order to better understand collective uses of these technologies in countries with great cultural diversity comparing those with developed countries, where such consumer goods, as well as a major part of academic theories, are produced.

  20. [Biotechnology and animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmettre, P

    1993-06-01

    The development of the first vaccines for use in animals, by Louis Pasteur at the end of the 19th Century, was an initial step in applying biotechnology to animal health. However, it is only much more recently that decisive progress has been made in finding applications for biotechnology, in both detecting and preventing infectious and parasitic diseases. This progress has shown the way to developing a range of procedures, the application of which will benefit the health of domestic and wild animals, enhance the well-being of companion animals, develop the performance of sporting animals and improve the productivity of farm animals, while also serving to protect human health. Such progress results from the increasingly rapid application of knowledge gained in the material and life sciences, all of which contribute to the multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology. Similarly, reagents and diagnostic techniques have been made more specific, sensitive, reproducible, rapid and robust by updating them through recent discoveries in immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology (monoclonal antibodies, nucleic probes, deoxyribonucleic acid amplification and many more). The development of new vaccines which combine efficacy, duration of protection, innocuity, stability, multivalence and ease of use (subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, synthetic vaccines and anti-idiotype vaccines) has resulted from recent progress in immunology, immunochemistry, molecular biology and biochemistry. Finally, the availability of new anti-infective, anti-parasitic agents and immunomodulatory therapeutic agents (capable of stimulating the specific and non-specific defence mechanisms of the body) demonstrates that biotechnology is continuing to find new applications in the field of animal health. New diagnostic techniques, vaccines and therapeutic substances are the most immediate applications of knowledge which may, in the future, extend to the development of transgenic animals of revised

  1. MPACT OF GENETIC BIOTECHNOLOGIES ON BIOSECURITY AND FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICA-BADEA DELIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity is a relatively new area global, being promoted by the significant results, particularly in the last 20 years, fundamental and applied research. Biotechnology is a collection of techniques that can be used in the agro-food, medical and industrial. The paper examines the potential impact of transgenic biotechnology, vulnerabilities, implications, benefits and risks, quality of life and health. Introduction into the environment, cross-border trade and use of GMOs resulting from modern biotechnology can untoward effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, food security and safety. It is openly acknowledged that modern biotechnology has great potential to promote human welfare, in particular, to overcome the critical needs in food, agriculture and human health. Establish appropriate safety measures when using genetically modified organisms (biosecurity policy, regulatory regime, scientific and technical measures is a highly sensitive process, aiming both to maximize the benefits of modern biotechnology and to minimize potential risk

  2. Lichens as natural sources of biotechnologically relevant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Marcelino T; Parrot, Delphine; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The search for microorganisms from novel sources and in particular microbial symbioses represents a promising approach in biotechnology. In this context, lichens have increasingly become a subject of research in microbial biotechnology, particularly after the recognition that a diverse community of bacteria other than cyanobacteria is an additional partner to the traditionally recognized algae-fungus mutualism. Here, we review recent studies using culture-dependent as well as culture-independent approaches showing that lichens can harbor diverse bacterial families known for the production of compounds of biotechnological interest and that several microorganisms isolated from lichens, in particular Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria, can produce a number of bioactive compounds, many of them with biotechnological potential.

  3. Characterization of bacteriophages infecting clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stored in a culture collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.S. Zanetti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stored in our culture collection did not grow or grew poorly and showed lysis on the culture plates when removed from the collection and inoculated on MacConkey agar. One hypothesis was that bacteriophages had infected and killed those clinical isolates. To check the best storage conditions to maintain viable P. aeruginosa for a longer time, clinical isolates were stored at various temperatures and were grown monthly. We investigated the presence of phage in 10 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa stored in our culture collection. Four strains of P. aeruginosa were infected by phages that were characterized by electron microscopy and isolated to assess their ability to infect. The best condition to maintain the viability of the strains during storage was in water at room temperature. Three Siphoviridae and two Myoviridae phages were visualized and characterized by morphology. We confirmed the presence of bacteriophages infecting clinical isolates, and their ability to infect and lyse alternative hosts. Strain PAO1, however, did not show lysis to any phage. Mucoid and multidrug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa showed lysis to 50% of the phages tested.

  4. Multiplex amplicon sequencing for microbe identification in community-based culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanhi, Jaderson Silveira Leite; de Souza, Rafael Soares Correa; de Araújo, Laura Migliorini; Okura, Vagner Katsumi; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Imperial, Juan; Arruda, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Microbiome analysis using metagenomic sequencing has revealed a vast microbial diversity associated with plants. Identifying the molecular functions associated with microbiome-plant interaction is a significant challenge concerning the development of microbiome-derived technologies applied to agriculture. An alternative to accelerate the discovery of the microbiome benefits to plants is to construct microbial culture collections concomitant with accessing microbial community structure and abundance. However, traditional methods of isolation, cultivation, and identification of microbes are time-consuming and expensive. Here we describe a method for identification of microbes in culture collections constructed by picking colonies from primary platings that may contain single or multiple microorganisms, which we named community-based culture collections (CBC). A multiplexing 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing based on two-step PCR amplifications with tagged primers for plates, rows, and columns allowed the identification of the microbial composition regardless if the well contains single or multiple microorganisms. The multiplexing system enables pooling amplicons into a single tube. The sequencing performed on the PacBio platform led to recovery near-full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences allowing accurate identification of microorganism composition in each plate well. Cross-referencing with plant microbiome structure and abundance allowed the estimation of diversity and abundance representation of microorganism in the CBC. PMID:27404280

  5. Elemental analysis in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Stephan; Dernovics, Mihaly; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2015-02-01

    This article focuses on analytical strategies integrating atomic spectroscopy in biotechnology. The rationale behind developing such methods is inherently linked to unique features of the key technique in elemental analysis, which is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: (1) the high sensitivity and selectivity of state of the art instrumentation, (2) the possibility of accurate absolute quantification even in complex matrices, (3) the capability of combining elemental detectors with chromatographic separation methods and the versatility of the latter approach, (4) the complementarity of inorganic and organic mass spectrometry, (5) the multi-element capability and finally (6) the capability of isotopic analysis. The article highlights the most recent bio-analytical developments exploiting these methodological advantages and shows the potential in biotechnological applications.

  6. Practicing environmental biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Rittmann, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    Environmental biotechnology involves ″managing microbial communities to provide services to society″.Its success comes from partnering with prokaryotic microorganisms,whose wide ranging metabolic capabilities can be harnessed to destroy pollutants and to generate renewable materials.Partnering with microorganisms requires that we understand them well,and important advances in molecular microbial ecology,analytical chemistry,and mathematical modeling are making it possible to look inside the b...

  7. Microfluidics in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov Dimitri; Barry Richard

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Microfluidics enables biotechnological processes to proceed on a scale (microns) at which physical processes such as osmotic movement, electrophoretic-motility and surface interactions become enhanced. At the microscale sample volumes and assay times are reduced, and procedural costs are lowered. The versatility of microfluidic devices allows interfacing with current methods and technologies. Microfluidics has been applied to DNA analysis methods and shown to accelerate DNA microarra...

  8. Advances in Alstroemeria Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshino, Yoichiro

    2008-01-01

    The genus Alstroemeria belongs to the family Alstroemeriaceae and comprises many ornamental species. This genus, including more than 60 species, is indigenous to South America. Thus far, numerous cultivars, which are used as cut flowers and potted plants worldwide, have been produced by interspecific hybridization and mutation breeding. Recently, biotechnological approaches are being applied in order to improve Alstroemeria strains. Interspecific hybrid plants have been produced by ovule cult...

  9. Practicing environmental biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E.Rittmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental biotechnology involves ″managing microbial communities to provide services to society″.Its success comes from partnering with prokaryotic microorganisms,whose wide ranging metabolic capabilities can be harnessed to destroy pollutants and to generate renewable materials.Partnering with microorganisms requires that we understand them well,and important advances in molecular microbial ecology,analytical chemistry,and mathematical modeling are making it possible to look inside the black box of microbial communities.Also crucial is translating the understanding to biotechnological processes that ″work for the microorganisms so that they work for us″.Successful translation demands novel reactor designs,application of advanced materials,and partnering with practitioners and users.The Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology,founded in at Arizona State University in 2005,brings together the science and engineering tools in an inter disciplinary environment.The Center emphasizes teamwork and collaborations with research and practice partners around the world.Three new technologies illustrate how the Center applies these principles to ″work for the microorganisms″:the H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR for reducing many oxidized contaminants in water,the microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs for converting organic wastes into renewable products,and Intimately Coupled PhotoBioCatalysis (ICPBC to detoxify very difficult to biodegrade organic pollutants.

  10. Connecting Local Cultural Heritage Collections with ICT: the Case of ZBORZBIRK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Ledinek Lozej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: The article discusses the digitisation and inventory of 34 local cultural heritage collections in the border region between the Alps and the Karst, and the establishment of a network of owners, guardians of collections and professionals from the field of museology, ethnology, digital humanities and informatics.Methodology/approach: In the framework of the project “ZBORZBIRK – Cultural heritage between the Alps and the Karst” 34 collections of cultural heritage of different type and contents, until then inaccessible to the general public and experts, were catalogued, contextualised and presented to the general and expert public in different media and on the project website.Results: A unified repository with metadata on objects (units was established containing also digital photographs and scans of images and textual objects (digital objects. There are 4583 units and 5190 digital objects in the repository. It is designed for researchers, experts and students from the fields of ethnology, cultural anthropology, history, linguistics as well for the general public, and above all to achieve greater recognisability of the region.Research limitation: The research and the results were limited by the material itself, i.e. the collections included into the project, as well as by different aspirations of collectors and various levels of specialised skills of registrars and recorders who documented and digitised the units and entered the data in the metadata database. The project addresses a wide scope of potential users thus the implementation of different solutions gave rise to the conflict of interests among target groups. The question was whether it should serve as a virtual museum or as a research archival repository. More attention was focused on archival and research standards than on presentation technologies.Originality/practical implications: The project ZBORZBIRK is one of the first projects in the Italian and Slovenian

  11. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen

    2014-08-01

    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  12. Web-based experiments for the study of collective social dynamics in cultural markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, Matthew J; Watts, Duncan J

    2009-07-01

    Social scientists are often interested in understanding how the dynamics of social systems are driven by the behavior of individuals that make up those systems. However, this process is hindered by the difficulty of experimentally studying how individual behavioral tendencies lead to collective social dynamics in large groups of people interacting over time. In this study, we investigate the role of social influence, a process well studied at the individual level, on the puzzling nature of success for cultural products such as books, movies, and music. Using a "multiple-worlds" experimental design, we are able to isolate the causal effect of an individual-level mechanism on collective social outcomes. We employ this design in a Web-based experiment in which 2,930 participants listened to, rated, and downloaded 48 songs by up-and-coming bands. Surprisingly, despite relatively large differences in the demographics, behavior, and preferences of participants, the experimental results at both the individual and collective levels were similar to those found in Salganik, Dodds, and Watts (2006). Further, by comparing results from two distinct pools of participants, we are able to gain new insights into the role of individual behavior on collective outcomes. We conclude with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of Web-based experiments to address questions of collective social dynamics. PMID:25164996

  13. IMPACT OF GENETIC BIOTECHNOLOGIES ON BIOSECURITY AND FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    NICA-BADEA DELIA

    2014-01-01

    Biosecurity is a relatively new area global, being promoted by the significant results, particularly in the last 20 years, fundamental and applied research. Biotechnology is a collection of techniques that can be used in the agro-food, medical and industrial. The paper examines the potential impact of transgenic biotechnology, vulnerabilities, implications, benefits and risks, quality of life and health. Introduction into the environment, crossborder trade and use of GMOs resulting from moder...

  14. MPACT OF GENETIC BIOTECHNOLOGIES ON BIOSECURITY AND FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    NICA-BADEA DELIA

    2014-01-01

    Biosecurity is a relatively new area global, being promoted by the significant results, particularly in the last 20 years, fundamental and applied research. Biotechnology is a collection of techniques that can be used in the agro-food, medical and industrial. The paper examines the potential impact of transgenic biotechnology, vulnerabilities, implications, benefits and risks, quality of life and health. Introduction into the environment, cross-border trade and use of GMOs resulti...

  15. Characterization of qnrB-like genes in Citrobacter species of the American Type Culture Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Tomoo; Sabtcheva, Stefana; Mitsutake, Kotaro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2013-06-01

    Among five American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Citrobacter strains, qnrB60 in Citrobacter freundii ATCC 6879, an isolate from the preantibiotic era, and qnrB61 in Citrobacter braakii ATCC 51113(T), a type strain belonging to the C. freundii complex, were identified. Meanwhile, a truncated qnrB-like pseudogene was identified in C. freundii ATCC 8090(T) and ATCC 43864. No qnrB-like sequence was found in Citrobacter koseri ATCC 27028(T). These findings underscore the close relationship between this species and qnrB.

  16. Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and nuclear techniques in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and other nuclear techniques has contributed a great deal in our understanding of microbial plant and animal biochemistry and molecular biology. Electron microscopy has provided visual evidence for molecular events. Developments in cell tissue culture of both plants and animals and immunology have contributed to advances in what we now refer as biotechnology. This paper focuses on the applications in the high-tech end of biotechnology, limited to the use of recombinant-DNA techniques. Molecular identification of the genes, their cloning and horizontal transfer across the species of microbes, plants and animals and expression of the transferred genes is the major strength of modern biotechnology. The techniques described in this paper have played a significant role in the development of biotechnology. 6 refs

  17. Patho-biotechnology: using bad bugs to do good things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin

    2006-04-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have evolved sophisticated strategies to overcome host defences, to interact with the immune system and to interfere with essential host systems. We coin the term 'patho-biotechnology' to describe the exploitation of these valuable traits in biotechnology, medicine and food. This approach shows promise for the development of novel vaccine and drug delivery systems, as well as for the design of more technologically robust and effective probiotic cultures with improved biotechnological and clinical applications. The genetic tractability of Listeria monocytogenes, the availability of the complete genome sequence of this intracellular pathogen, its ability to cope with stress, and its ability to traverse the gastrointestinal tract and induce a strong cellular immune response make L. monocytogenes an ideal model organism for demonstrating the patho-biotechnology concept.

  18. Comparison of Some Chemical Contents of Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis P. Karst Collected from Nature and Cultured on Orange Stump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezahat Turfan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis P. Karst (Reishi mushroom is one of medicinal mushroom species. The chemical content of the mushrooms shows significant changes depending on the physical and chemical properties of their growing place. In this study; total soluble protein, total soluble carbohydrate (glucose, fructose and sucrose and some mineral elements (P, K, Mg, Mn, S, Fe, Zn, Ca and Na of Ganoderma lucidum collected from the nature and cultured on orange stump were investigated. According to the results; total protein, glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch content of the G. lucidum cultured on orange stump were found higher than G. lucidum collected from nature. Phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium and sulfur content were determined to be higher in mushroom samples cultured on orange stump. Calcium, magnesium, manganese and zinc values were found as higher in mushroom samples collected from nature. According to these results, G. lucidum cultured on orange stump had higher nutritional value than mushrooms collected from nature.

  19. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops. PMID:26798073

  20. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  1. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  2. Preface: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology with emphasis on bio-based products and agricultural biotechnology. Recent energy and food crises point out the importance of bio-based products from ren...

  3. On Teaching Biotechnology in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dan C.; Kemp, Michael C.; Hall, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    One study surveyed 187 Kentucky teachers (36% agriculture, 32% science, 32% technology education); they rated importance of content organizers, topics, transferable skills, and delivery methods for biotechnology. A second study received responses from 70 of 150 teachers; 45 thought science teachers or an integrated team should teach biotechnology;…

  4. The U.S. Culture Collection Network Lays the Foundation for Progress in Preservation of Valuable Microbial Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Kevin; Alvarez, Anne; Bennett, Rick; Bokati, Deepak; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Brown, Daniel; Bull, Carolee T; Coffey, Michael; Dreaden, Tyler; Duke, Clifford; Dye, Greg; Ehmke, Erin; Eversole, Kellye; Fenstermacher, Kristi; Geiser, David; Glaeser, Jessie A; Greene, Stephanie; Gribble, Lisa; Griffith, M Patrick; Hanser, Kathryn; Humber, Richard; Johnson, Barbara W; Kermode, Anthony; Krichevsky, Micah; Laudon, Matt; Leach, Jan; Leslie, John; May, Meghan; Melcher, Ulrich; Nobles, David; Fonseca, Natalia Risso; Robinson, Sara; Ryan, Matthew; Scott, James; Silflow, Carolyn; Vidaver, Anne; Webb, Kimberly M; Wertz, John E; Yentsch, Sara; Zehr, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Culture Collection Network was formed in 2012 by a group of culture collection scientists and stakeholders in order to continue the progress established previously through efforts of an ad hoc group. The network is supported by a Research Coordination Network grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and has the goals of promoting interaction among collections, encouraging the adoption of best practices, and protecting endangered or orphaned collections. After prior meetings to discuss best practices, shared data, and synergy with genome programs, the network held a meeting at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in Fort Collins, Colorado in October 2015 specifically to discuss collections that are vulnerable because of changes in funding programs, or are at risk of loss because of retirement or lack of funding. The meeting allowed collection curators who had already backed up their resources at the USDA NCGRP to visit the site, and brought collection owners, managers, and stakeholders together. Eight formal collections have established off-site backups with the USDA-ARS, ensuring that key material will be preserved for future research. All of the collections with backup at the NCGRP are public distributing collections including U.S. NSF-supported genetic stock centers, USDA-ARS collections, and university-supported collections. Facing the retirement of several pioneering researchers, the community discussed the value of preserving personal research collections and agreed that a mechanism to preserve these valuable collections was essential to any future national culture collection system. Additional input from curators of plant and animal collections emphasized that collections of every kind face similar challenges in developing long-range plans for sustainability. PMID:26976729

  5. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-11-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.

  6. Dynamic collection and analysis of volatile organic compounds from the headspace of cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranska, A; Smolinska, A; Boots, A W; Dallinga, J W; van Schooten, F J

    2015-12-01

    Exhaled breath has proven to be a valuable source of information about human bodies. Subtle differences between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) formed endogenously can be detected and become a base for a potential monitoring tool for health and disease. Until now, there has been a lack of biological and mechanistic knowledge of the processes involved in the production of relevant VOCs. Among the possible sources of health-related and disease-related VOCs are microorganisms found in the respiratory tract and in the gut. Other VOCs in the body are produced by cells that are influenced by the disease, for instance, due to metabolic disorders and/or inflammation. To gain insight into the in vivo production of VOCs by human cells and thus the exhaled breath composition, in vitro experiments involving relevant cells should be studied because they may provide valuable information on the production of VOCs by the affected cells. To this aim we developed and validated a system for dynamically (continuously) collecting headspace air in vitro using a Caco-2 cell line. The system allows the application of different cell lines as well as different experimental setups, including varying exposure times and treatment options while preserving cell viability. Significant correlation (p  ⩽  0.0001) between collection outputs within each studied group confirmed high reproducibility of the collection system. An example of such an application is presented here. We studied the influence of oxidative stress on the VOC composition of the headspace air of Caco-2 cells. By comparing the VOC composition of air flushed through empty culture flasks (n  =  35), flasks with culture medium (n  =  35), flasks with medium and cells (n  =  20), flasks with medium and an oxidative stressor (H2O2) (n  =  20), and flasks with medium, stressor, and cells (n  =  20), we were able to separate the effects from the stressor on the cells from all other

  7. Biotechnology for uranium extraction and environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is looking forward to augmenting mining and extraction of uranium mineral for its nuclear energy needs. Being a radio-active mineral, mining and processing of uranium ore deposits need be carried out in an environmentally acceptable fashion. In this respect, a biotechnological approach holds great promise since it is environment-friendly, cost-effective and energy-efficient. There are several types of microorganisms which inhabit uranium ore bodies and biogenesis plays an important role in the mineralisation and transport of uranium-bearing minerals under the earth's crust. Uranium occurrences in India are only meagre and it becomes essential to tap effectively all the available resources. Uraninite and pitchblende occurring along with sulfide mineralisation such as pyrite are ideal candidates for bioleaching. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans present ubiquitously in the ore deposits can be isolated, cultured and utilised to bring about efficient acidic dissolution of uranium. Many such commercial attempts to extract uranium from even lean ores using acidophilic autotrophic bacteria have been made in different parts of the world. Anaerobes such a Geobacter and Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) can be effectively used in uranium mining for environmental control. Radioactive uranium mined wastes and tailing dumps can be cleaned and protected using microorganisms. In this lecture use of biotechnology in uranium extraction and bioremediation is illustrated with practical examples. Applicability of environment-friendly biotechnology for mining and extraction of uranium from Indian deposits is outlined. Commercial potentials for bioremediation in uranium-containing wastes are emphasised. (author)

  8. Developing a collective future: creating a culture specific nurse caring practice model for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M R; Miller-Grolla, L

    1995-01-01

    Nurses continue to struggle with the knowledge that practice within a conceptual context is imperative, yet operationalizing theory-based practice has been fraught with challenges and frustrations. It is timely, given the current environment, for nurses to reflect personally and collectively on the processes and meanings of nursing. Caring theories have been examined with increasing frequency recently, as nurse leaders and theorists explore the profession using alternative frames of reference. The authors discuss the concepts central to development of a practice-based nurse caring model in a community hospital and review the process of nurse-caring model development. Concepts central to the development of the model include: individual;-collective experience as theory; cargiver-client congruence in perceptions of nurse caring; institutions as culture-specific environments. The ongoing process of theory development was initiated by data collection through focus group discussions on nurse-caring experiences and definitions. Twenty-four staff RNs and RNAs were interviewed by a trained facilitator. Audiotaped data were later transcribed and subjected to content analysis for initial theme and definition development. A parallel exercise was carried out with hospital patients using the same methodology. Subsequent analysis included validation of findings by both groups. Examinations of constructs as the theory development evolves will be expedited by both staff and in consultation with Dr. Madeleine Leininger and other external nurse-caring theorists. The Health Centre intends to operationalize and implement its nurse-caring model as an outcome of this long term project. Assumptions integral to the purpose of the project have been validated by staff response. Concepts and their relationships appear to achieve acceptance and be congruent with this nursing group's values and the way in which they practice. Observations to date indicate that collective development of a

  9. Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., one of the world’s most important ornamentals, is a very well-studied topic and shows numerous strides each year. This mini-review condenses the knowledge that has been published on chrysanthemum biotechnology, especially in vitro culture in the wider plant science literature. In 2013 and 2014, important strides were made in molecular breeding, particularly anti-viral strategies, including through transgenics, and our understanding of flower genetics and flowering regulation.

  10. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  11. Big is beautiful in biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, G.

    1984-01-01

    Venture capital has guaranteed the successful launch of biotechnology in the US since 1977. Established companies are then licensed to produce and distribute the latest inventions. By contrast in Japan established industrial companies are the leaders in biotechnology research, development and commercialization, building on existing technology and past experience and retraining staff. In the US electronics industry the acute shortage of electronic engineers combined with the high cost of capital and instability within venture capital companies to restrict the high level of innovation required looks likely to happen again in biotechnology.

  12. Consumer perceptions of the application of biotechnology in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Background: There has been considerable enthusiasm among scientists and industry about the possibilities of biotechnology and especially genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food production. At the same time, there has been considerable scepticism by consumers, much public debate, and a cautio...... produced using a GMO starter culture and a beer brewed using GMO yeast were used as examples....

  13. Mixed culture biotechnology for syngas conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, J.I.; Pereira, Filipa Maria Rodrigues; Sousa, D.Z.; Alves, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Bioconversion of recalcitrant biomass/waste into bulk chemicals or biofuels is not practicable. Gasification of these materials produces syngas (mainly composed of CO2, CO and H2) that can be converted to products of interest, both by thermochemical or microbial processes. Thus far, industrial microbial processes focus on syngas conversion to ethanol, but other products such as butanol, acetic acid, butyric acid, hydrogen and methane can be obtained as well. In this work, microbial syngas con...

  14. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a book of abstracts of oral communications and posters that were presented during the International Symposium on Biotechnology that was held in Sfax, Tunisia from May 4th to 8th, 2008. The following themes were covered : - Biotechnology for animal and human health and biopharmaceuticals; - Microbial and environmental biotechnology; - Agricultural, Food and marine biotechnology

  15. Crowdfunding and Cultural Industry: The new relations between production and consumption based on the culture of participation and collective funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Amália Dalpizol Valiati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The configuration of a new standard of consumption and cultural production based on the participation of consumers through the Internet has become a feature of modern society (Jenkins, 2009; Shirky, 2011. Based on this premise, we intend to analyze the process of crowd funding, in which a mass of staff is united in the realization of cultural projects and to create a unique product, under the bias of the culturological theory. This work is also raising questions as to the timeliness of the concept of cultural industry in the face of new practices allowed by digital networks and a potential democratization, focusing the brazilian website Catarse.

  16. STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sastrapradja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave of biotechnology promises has struck not only the developed countries but the developing countries as well. The scientific community in Indonesia is aware of the opportunities and is eager to take an active part in this particular endeavour. Meanwhile resources are required to welcoming the biotech­nology era. The need of trained manpower, appropriate infrastructure and equipment, operational and maintenance costs requires serious consideration if a unit or a laboratory is expected to be functional in biotechnology. There is a good opportunity of applying biotechnology in the field of agriculture and industry considering the availability of biological resources in Indonesia. This paper outlines what have been done so far, the difficulties encountered and the efforts made to strengthening biotechnology research in Indonesia.

  17. Biotechnology of riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwechheimer, Susanne Katharina; Park, Enoch Y; Revuelta, José Luis; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) production has shifted from chemical synthesis to exclusive biotechnological synthesis in less than 15 years. The underlying extraordinary achievement in metabolic engineering and bioprocess engineering is reviewed in this article with regard to the two most important industrial producers Bacillus subtilis and Ashbya gossypii. The respective biosynthetic routes and modifications are discussed, and also the regulation of riboflavin synthesis. As the terminal biosynthesis of riboflavin starts from the two precursors, ribulose 5-phosphate and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), both strains have been optimized for an improved flux through the pentose phosphate pathway as well as the purine biosynthetic pathway. Specific targets for improvement of A. gossypii were the increase of the glycine pool and the increase of carbon flow through the glyoxylic shunt. In B. subtilis, research interest, amongst others, has focused on gluconeogenesis and overexpression of the rib operon. In addition, insight into large-scale production of vitamin B2 is given, as well as future prospects and possible developments. PMID:26758294

  18. New Directions in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The macromolecule crystallization program within NASA is undergoing considerable pressure, particularly budgetary pressure. While it has shown some successes, they have not lived up to the expectations of others, and technological advances may rapidly overtake the natural advantages offered by crystallization in microgravity. Concomitant with the microgravity effort has been a research program to study the macromolecule crystallization process. It was believed that a better understanding of the process would lead to growth of improved crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. The results of the various research efforts have been impressive in improving our understanding of macromolecule crystallization, but have not led to any improved structures. Macromolecule crystallization for structure determination is "one of", the job being unique for every protein and finished once a structure is obtained. However, the knowledge gained is not lost, but instead lays the foundation for developments in new areas of biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this it is highly analogous to studies into small molecule crystallization, the results of which have led to our present day microelectronics-based society. We are conducting preliminary experiments into areas such as designed macromolecule crystals, macromolecule-inorganic hybrid structures, and macromolecule-based nanotechnology. In addition, our protein crystallization studies are now being directed more towards industrial and new approaches to membrane protein crystallization.

  19. Ancient Cultural Center Building and Materials Research Numismatic Collection Museum--Ancient COINS by Tibetan cultural center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠利

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the Chinese cultural center is located in the ancient COINS hidden city, the city center in Jinan, convenient transportation, beautiful scenery, poured enough, the surrounding environment culture atmosphere, be helpful for cultural centers in the long run. The building area is about 3500 square meters, the whole building is divided into two layer, a layer of main distribution the exhibition hall, second floor mainly by the studio to form. The designer of the coin reference model, through the deepening, evolution techniques such as the characteristics of Chinese coin will, connotation unity emerges into design, show to buildings. Very good carry the historical culture, also captures the pulse of the times lived.

  20. (Workshop on Willow Breeding and Biotechnology Development Activities)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, P.A.

    1988-10-12

    P.A. Layton attended a workshop on Willow Breeding and Biotechnology Development Activities,'' which was organized by the International Energy Agency/Bioenergy Agreement (IEA/BA) Task II. The traveler spent 1 d prior to the meeting to visit scientists and administrators of Shell Research Limited. Physiology and Biological Chemistry Division to discus their interest in biomass production research as well as their other research interests in tissue culture, biotechnology, and management of forests and agricultural crops that are pertinent to the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Biomass Production program.

  1. Connecting Biotechnology and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, John; Glasson, George

    2003-01-01

    Points out the importance of socioscientific aspects of laboratory activities for the development of understanding of different cultures' contributions to science. Describes a lesson on gene splicing using the 5E Learning Model. (YDS)

  2. Withania Coagulans (Stocks Dunal: Biotechnological Achievements And Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Withania coagulans (Stocks Dunal is an important medicinal plant of the Solanaceae. Biotechnological studies on this plant started in 2009 and are still in a nascent phase of development. Even so, some important advances have been made, particularly in the field of tissue culture, which is an important means for its large-scale propagation and in vitro conservation. This review focuses on methods for surface sterilization, culture initiation, multiplication, rooting and acclimatization of W. coagulans.

  3. Patho-biotechnology; using bad bugs to make good bugs better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Given the increasing commercial and clinical relevance of probiotic cultures, improving their stress tolerance profile and ability to overcome the physiochemical defences of the host is an important biological goal. Pathogenic bacteria have evolved sophisticated strategies to overcome host defences, interact with the immune system and interfere with essential host systems. We coin the term 'patho-biotechnology' to describe the exploitation of these valuable traits in biotechnology and biomedicine. This approach shows promise for the design of more technologically robust and effective probiotic cultures with improved biotechnological and clinical applications as well as the development of novel vaccine and drug delivery platforms.

  4. Culture, Materiality, Memory: Collective Ownership and Action In Romanian Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis TULBURE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the tensions between collectivist and corporatist forms of ownership for Romanian mutual funds. Drawing on my research among retail investors of funds that ended up in bankruptcy throughout the postsocialist period, I document the material practices and graphic artefacts they deploy in litigation as ways to make claims and produce evidence regarding their ongoing financial involvement and the rights to compensations. I focus specifically on the files documenting their personal histories (providing moral reasons for pursuing “speculative” investments as well as those materializing the memory of their involvement with the capital market. I conclude that material practices are constitutive of vernacular forms of financial and legal knowledge. Furthermore, they engender specific types of property that serve as premises for the defense of investor rights and as grounds for emerging forms of collective action. Methodologically, the conclusion of the paper is that qualitative methods constitute alternative approaches and a valuable complement of quantitate research methods for the behaviors of mutual fund investors illustrating some of the cultural components giving specific dynamics to the popular participation to the capital market that can be subsequently quantified.

  5. Biotechnological and molecular approaches for vanillin production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar

    2013-02-01

    Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavoring agents in the world. As the annual world market demand of vanillin could not be met by natural extraction, chemical synthesis, or tissue culture technology, thus biotechnological approaches may be replacement routes to make production of bio-vanillin economically viable. This review's main focus is to highlight significant aspects of biotechnology with emphasis on the production of vanillin from eugenol, isoeugenol, lignin, ferulic acid, sugars, phenolic stilbenes, vanillic acid, aromatic amino acids, and waste residues by applying fungi, bacteria, and plant cells. Production of biovanillin using GRAS lactic acid bacteria and metabolically engineered microorganisms, genetic organization of vanillin biosynthesis operons/gene cassettes and finally the stability of biovanillin generated through various biotechnological procedures are also critically reviewed in the later sections of the review.

  6. Pulp Poets and Superhero Prophets: A Case for Popular Culture in Academic Library Collection Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, William M.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, popular culture was neglected and frowned upon by academics. In recent years, cultural critics, including librarians, have found popular culture materials to be didactic tools, and vital to the study of society and the zeitgeist that has prevailed at the time of their production. As a result, many academic librarians have found it…

  7. Proteomics meets blue biotechnology: a wealth of novelties and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Erica M; Durighello, Emie; Pible, Olivier; Nogales, Balbina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Bosch, Rafael; Christie-Oleza, Joseph A; Armengaud, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Blue biotechnology, in which aquatic environments provide the inspiration for various products such as food additives, aquaculture, biosensors, green chemistry, bioenergy, and pharmaceuticals, holds enormous promise. Large-scale efforts to sequence aquatic genomes and metagenomes, as well as campaigns to isolate new organisms and culture-based screenings, are helping to push the boundaries of known organisms. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can complement 16S gene sequencing in the effort to discover new organisms of potential relevance to blue biotechnology by facilitating the rapid screening of microbial isolates and by providing in depth profiles of the proteomes and metaproteomes of marine organisms, both model cultivable isolates and, more recently, exotic non-cultivable species and communities. Proteomics has already contributed to blue biotechnology by identifying aquatic proteins with potential applications to food fermentation, the textile industry, and biomedical drug development. In this review, we discuss historical developments in blue biotechnology, the current limitations to the known marine biosphere, and the ways in which mass spectrometry can expand that knowledge. We further speculate about directions that research in blue biotechnology will take given current and near-future technological advancements in mass spectrometry.

  8. Biotechnological modification of lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    A literature search of organisms capable of degrading lignin was conducted. Four fungi were selected for study and these were Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Chrysosporium pruinosum, Phlebia tremellosus and Trametes versicolor. Other organisms, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus florida and Lentinus edodes were also tested in preliminary experiments. All cultures were screened for their ability to degrade the lignin component of aspen sawdust and also lignin extracted from steam-exploded wood. This type of screen was followed by analysis of culture filtrates for the presence of ligninase, the marker enzyme for lignin degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and consequently chosen for further studies in fermentors. Considerable efforts were directed to production of ligninase in fermentors. Only when Chrysosporium pruinosum was pre-cultured in a shake flask for 4 days and then transferred to a fermentor could ligninase activity be detected. The enzyme from shake flasks has been concentrated ready for use in bench-scale studies on cell-free depolymerization of lignin. 13 refs., 8 tabs.

  9. Connecting to the World's Collections: Making the Case for the Conservation and Preservation of Our Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Joyce Hill

    2009-01-01

    Sixty cultural heritage leaders from thirty-two countries, including representatives from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, South America, Australia, Europe, and North America gathered in October 2009 in Salzburg, Austria, to develop a series of practical recommendations to ensure optimal collections conservation worldwide. Convened at Schloss…

  10. Cosmetics - chemical technology or biotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G

    1984-04-01

    Synopsis Over the past 25 years the cosmetic industry has become increasingly technological. The origins of many of these advances were based upon chemical technology usually related to colloid science, although more recent developments have had clear biological improvements. A number of recent innovations are examined to consider how far developments in the future will stem from biotechnology rather than chemical technology. The working of surface active materials (e.g. CTAB) is discussed as an example of cosmetic effects being generated purely from chemical technology. The role of fluoride toothpaste in decreasing the incidence of dental caries is discussed as an effect based essentially on chemical technology in an area where future alternatives might come from biotechnology. Skin research is highlighted as the area where new understanding, e.g. of the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibronectin and laminin, could lead to a whole new biotechnological approach to the appraisal of skin. As we venture into innovations based on biotechnology we may be introducing new dimensions in product safety which will need an even closer relationship with the medical fraternity. Consequently the introduction of products based on biotechnology may not be as rapid as is sometimes suggested.

  11. Biotechnological applications of microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Loy Chu

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae are important biologicalresources that have a wide range of biotechnologicalapplications. Due to their high nutritional value,microalgae such as Spirulina and Chlorella are beingmass cultured for health food. A variety of high-valueproducts including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA),pigments such as carotenoids and phycobiliproteins, andbioactive compounds are useful as nutraceuticals andpharmaceuticals, as well as for industrial applications. Interms of environmental biotechnolo...

  12. 76 FR 33395 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: ECA Sports & Culture Evaluation Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ...: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division (ECA/P... Evaluation, International Visitor Leadership Program (IVLP) Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request... & Culture Evaluation, International Writing Program (IWP) Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of...

  13. The Benefits of Collective Pedagogical Teacher Culture for Diverse Students' Mathematics Achievement by Academic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Bottia, Martha; Banerjee, Neena

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of educational organizations have focused on structural features of schools, such as size, resources, and infrastructure. Research on schools' organizational culture is more sparse. Yet, these studies have suggested that the organizational culture of schools can have important implications for teaching practices and student outcomes.…

  14. Applied thermodynamics: A new frontier for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific career of one of the most outstanding scientists in molecular thermodynamics, Professor John M. Prausnitz at Berkeley, reflects the change in the agenda of molecular thermodynamics, from hydrocarbon chemistry to biotechnology. To make thermodynamics a frontier for biotechnology...

  15. Archives for the lay person a guide to managing cultural collections

    CERN Document Server

    Hamill, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Collections management can be a daunting task for volunteers and employees alike. Archives for the Lay Person provides practical, step-by-step guidance for those managing all facets of archival collections at small organizations.

  16. Biotechnology Facility (BTF) for ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Engineering mockup shows the general arrangement of the plarned Biotechnology Facility inside an EXPRESS rack aboard the International Space Station. This layout includes a gas supply module (bottom left), control computer and laptop interface (bottom right), two rotating wall vessels (top right), and support systems.

  17. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in "World J Microbiol Biotechnol" 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in "Int J Sci Educ" 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in "Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia" (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in "Am Biol Teach" 64(2):93-99, 2002). A…

  18. Biotechnology in defence (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazar Mathew

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology, in its present perspective, encompasses activities, such as recombination of genes; cloning, or making genetically identical copies of a living thing; and splicing of genes from DNA of one organism into the genome of unrelated species, to create new, self-reproducing forms of life. The vast potential of biotechnology is being increasingly realised, and efforts are in progress to harness it for improving quality and quantity of bio-weapons, The bio-weapons, as such, are highly attractive because of their non-detection by routine security systems, ease of access, low production cost and easy transportation, A wide range of genetically manipulated organisms and their by-products are considered to have an added advantage, because these genetically manipulated biologics not only accentuate the existing properties of bio-weapons, but also could be made target-specific. Biotechnology, if used prudently, can play a significant role to counter such threats of biologics, viz., by producing (i bio-armoury comprising powerful antibiotics, antisera toxoids and vaccines to neutralise and eliminate a wide range of diseases, and (ii bio-sensors for rapid detection, identification and neutralisation of biological warfare agents. This article elucidates some facets of biological warfare, legal protective strategies emphasised through international consultation, cooperation and adherence to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and discusses how biotechnology could be effectively used to strengthen countries' defence and combat the threat of biological warfare.

  19. Biotechnology Gains Brighten Resource Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1979-01-01

    This report details recent advances in fermentation biotechnology as presented by speakers at the 27th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Congress. Discussion centered around the use of bacteria, yeasts, and fungi as future sources of essential materials as food, fuel, and medicine. (BT)

  20. The Future of Plant Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant biotechnology has been wildly successful and has literally transformed plant agriculture. There are still undulating concerns about safety and sustainability that critics demand to be addressed. In that light, there are some biotechnoloogies that are being developed that might not only improve...

  1. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  2. Organizational culture - a factor of potential positive influence on the collectivities of any organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Andreea MIHALACHE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is a relatively new and rapidly expanding concept, but partly invisible and therefore very difficult analyze, offering in the same time the possibility to carry out complex studies. This paper was drawn up into two different organizations - Pentalog Romania, an IT service provider, and House of Dracula Hotel, a tourist unit - and it is based on a research carried out in order to highlight the importance of organizational culture within any entity. Considered a powerful strategic tool, the organizational culture can be used for focusing companies and their staff on joint goals, for mobilizing the initiatives, ensuring loyalty and facilitating intercommunication.

  3. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be foreseen, not only with respect of R&D, but also in general technological development represents scope of priority in the USA and in European Union (EU as well. It is accepted that the results achieved in biotechnology oversize scientific domain and find their entrance into economics, legislation, quality of life and even of politics. Corresponding with the definition of biotechnology as "the integration of natural sciences and engineering in the application of microorganisms, cells, their components and molecular analogues in production (General assembly of the European federation for Biotechnology, 1989 European Commission (1999 adopted the biotechnological taxonomy, i.e. fields and sub-fields of biotechnology. R&D activities in this domain are oriented to eight fields and branched through them. Fields of biotechnology (EC, 1999 are: 1 Plant biotechnology (agricultural cultivars, trees, bushes etc; 2 Animal biotechnology; 3 Biotechnology in environment protection; 4 Industrial biotechnology (food, feed, paper, textile, pharmaceutical and chemical productions; 5 Industrial biotechnology (production of cells and research of cells - producers of food and of other commodities; 6 Development of humane and veterinarian diagnostics (therapeutical systems 7 Development of the basic biotechnology, and 8 Nontechnical domains of biotechnology. In concordance with some judgments, in the World exist about 4000 biotechnological companies. World market of biotechnological

  4. Synthesis of aromatic cytokinins for plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plíhalová, Lucie; Vylíčilová, Hana; Doležal, Karel; Zahajská, Lenka; Zatloukal, Marek; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Cytokinins represent an important group of plant growth regulators that can modulate several biotechnological processes owing to their ability to influence almost all stages of plant development and growth. In addition, the use of purine based cytokinins with aromatic substituent in C6 position of the purine moiety in tissue culture techniques is currently experiencing a surge in interest, made possible by the ongoing systematic synthesis and study of these compounds. This review article outlines progress in the synthesis of aromatic cytokinins, the in vitro and in vivo effects of these substances and insights gleaned from their synthesis. As the purine moiety in these compounds can be substituted at several positions, we examine each of the substitution possibilities in relation to the derivatives prepared so far. The discussion highlights the gradual simplification of their preparation in relation to their application in practice and summarizes the relevant organic chemistry literature and published patents. PMID:26703810

  5. The Hierarchical Role Relationship Exercises Negative Influences On Communication in Collective Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋仙

    2015-01-01

    Based on the previous studies,the present paper intends to further discuss why and how the hierarchical nature of role relationship influences communication in a negative way in collectivistic culture where high power distance dominates.

  6. Partnership for organizational transformation : Collectively co-creating a new VVAA 2.0 culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierdsma, A.F.M.; Hemsbergen, van H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how VVAA's decision to work with the Nyenrode Business University (EMDC) to develop and change the culture of its organization and improve the business proposition they offered to their members.

  7. Culturability of Bacillus spores on aerosol collection filters exposed to airborne combustion products of Al, Mg, and B·Ti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Atin; Yermakov, Michael; Indugula, Reshmi; Reponen, Tiina; Driks, Adam; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2016-05-01

    Destruction of bioweapon facilities due to explosion or fire could aerosolize highly pathogenic microorganisms. The post-event air quality assessment is conducted through air sampling. A bioaerosol sample (often collected on a filter for further culture-based analysis) also contains combustion products, which may influence the microbial culturability and, thus, impact the outcome. We have examined the interaction between spores deposited on collection filters using two simulants of Bacillus anthracis [B. thuringiensis (Bt) and B. atrophaeus (referred to as BG)] and incoming combustion products of Al as well as Mg and B·Ti (common ingredient of metalized explosives). Spores extracted from Teflon, polycarbonate, mixed cellulose ester (MCE), and gelatin filters (most common filter media for bioaerosol sampling), which were exposed to combustion products during a short-term sampling, were analyzed by cultivation. Surprisingly, we observed that aluminum combustion products enhanced the culturability of Bt (but not BG) spores on Teflon filters increasing the culturable count by more than an order of magnitude. Testing polycarbonate and MCE filter materials also revealed a moderate increase of culturability although gelatin did not. No effect was observed with either of the two species interacting on either filter media with products originated by combustion of Mg and B·Ti. Sample contamination, spore agglomeration, effect of a filter material on the spore survival, changes in the spore wall ultrastructure and germination, as well as other factors were explored to interpret the findings. The study raises a question about the reliability of certain filter materials for collecting airborne bio-threat agents in combustion environments. PMID:26914458

  8. UK biotechnology companies lead the way for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    A number of new well-structured biotechnology companies have been launched in Britain over the last few years, e.g. Imperial Biotechnology, IQ(Bio) and Celltech, while Wellcome and Searle (U.K.) are established firms, keeping up with the new technology. Imperial Biotechnology, with its accent on development rather than research and making products not in anyone else's catalogue, has produced a whole range of enzymes, biopolymers, antibiotics, and human proteins under contract. Its long term objective is to develop its own bioproducts. IQ(Bio) is poised to enter the diagnostic big league with its enzyme-linked immunoassay (Aelia) technology and intends to pursue opportunities where there is a strict regulatory climate prohibiting the growth of radioimmunoassays, e.g. France and Japan. It plans to produce kits that a doctor can use simply and give results in less than 30 minutes. Celltech has a culture products division which supplies large quantities of monoclonal antibodies, it has a diagnostics and health care research section, a speciality chemicals area and an industrial microbiology sector. Wellcome Biotechnology has an interferon programme which includes a broad range of chemical trials in the anticancer and antiviral areas. The company could supply the entire world market for interferon using cell culture and produces a very large range of conventional vaccines. Searle uses biotechnology as just another means of producing new drugs as they have a large drug development machine in place. A considerable amount of process development work has focused on Searle's artificial sweetener, aspartame, and they are looking at all the technical approaches to aspartame production.

  9. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development.

  10. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Ferreira

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with both Cell Biology (tissue culture and Molecular Biology (genetic engineering.

  11. 76 FR 16030 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... numbers (SV-yyyy- ) will be generated as needed. Respondents: Kennedy Center (KC) Fellowship Mentoring... reporting burden on those who are to respond, including the use of automated collection techniques or other... KC Fellowship Mentoring Program. Collecting this data will help ECA/P/V assess and measure...

  12. The rise (and decline?) of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1970s, biotechnology has been a key innovator in drug development. An analysis of FDA-approved therapeutics demonstrates pharmaceutical companies outpace biotechs in terms of new approvals but biotechnology companies are now responsible for earlier-stage activities (patents, INDs or clinical development). The number of biotechnology organizations that contributed to an FDA approval began declining in the 2000s and is at a level not seen since the 1980s. Whereas early biotechnology companies had a decade from first approval until acquisition, the average acquisition of a biotechnology company now occurs months before their first FDA approval. The number of hybrid organizations that arise when pharmaceutical companies acquire biotechnology is likewise declining, raising questions about the sustainability of biotechnology.

  13. Plant protoplasts: status and biotechnological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Michael R; Anthony, Paul; Power, J Brian; Lowe, Kenneth C

    2005-03-01

    Plant protoplasts ("naked" cells) provide a unique single cell system to underpin several aspects of modern biotechnology. Major advances in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics have stimulated renewed interest in these osmotically fragile wall-less cells. Reliable procedures are available to isolate and culture protoplasts from a range of plants, including both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous crops. Several parameters, particularly the source tissue, culture medium, and environmental factors, influence the ability of protoplasts and protoplast-derived cells to express their totipotency and to develop into fertile plants. Importantly, novel approaches to maximise the efficiency of protoplast-to-plant systems include techniques already well established for animal and microbial cells, such as electrostimulation and exposure of protoplasts to surfactants and respiratory gas carriers, especially perfluorochemicals and hemoglobin. However, despite at least four decades of concerted effort and technology transfer between laboratories worldwide, many species still remain recalcitrant in culture. Nevertheless, isolated protoplasts are unique to a range of experimental procedures. In the context of plant genetic manipulation, somatic hybridisation by protoplast fusion enables nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes to be combined, fully or partially, at the interspecific and intergeneric levels to circumvent naturally occurring sexual incompatibility barriers. Uptake of isolated DNA into protoplasts provides the basis for transient and stable nuclear transformation, and also organelle transformation to generate transplastomic plants. Isolated protoplasts are also exploited in numerous miscellaneous studies involving membrane function, cell structure, synthesis of pharmaceutical products, and toxicological assessments. This review focuses upon the most recent developments in protoplast-based technologies.

  14. Students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-09-10

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p biotechnology. There was a positive correlation between biotechnology knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology for current students who study Advanced Biology (AB). However, for current students who did not study AB, there was a negative correlation.The attitude results showed that students today expressed less favorable opinions toward agricultural biotechnology (p medical biotechnology. In addition, current students showed a greater concern involving environmental risks than former students. Interestingly, the high school curriculum did affect students' attitudes toward genetically engineered (GE) plants but not GE animals. Our current study also found that the students' attitude towards GE animals was influenced more by their limited knowledge than by their moral belief. On the basis of findings from this study, we suggest that more materials of emerging animal biotechnology should be included in high school curriculum and recommend that high school teachers and university faculty establish a collaborative framework in the near future. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):475-491, 2016.

  15. Biotechnology Science Experiments on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity biotechnology experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. Four experiments investigated the growth of protein crystals, and three investigated cellular growth. Many hundreds of protein samples were processed using four different techniques. The objective of these experiments was to determine optimum conditions for the growth of very high quality single crystals to be used for structure determination. The Biotechnology System (BTS) was used to process the three cell growth investigations. The samples processed by these experiments were: bovine chondrocytes, human renal epithelial cells, and human breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. The objective was to determine the unique properties of cell aggregates produced in the microgravity environment.

  16. Biodiesel production by microalgal biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, GuanHua [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, China University of Mining and Technology (China); Chen, Feng [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Wei, Dong; Zhang, XueWu; Chen, Gu [College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2010-01-15

    Biodiesel has received much attention in recent years. Although numerous reports are available on the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils of terraneous oil-plants, such as soybean, sunflower and palm oils, the production of biodiesel from microalgae is a newly emerging field. Microalgal biotechnology appears to possess high potential for biodiesel production because a significant increase in lipid content of microalgae is now possible through heterotrophic cultivation and genetic engineering approaches. This paper provides an overview of the technologies in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, including the various modes of cultivation for the production of oil-rich microalgal biomass, as well as the subsequent downstream processing for biodiesel production. The advances and prospects of using microalgal biotechnology for biodiesel production are discussed. (author)

  17. Bioaccumulation of 137Cs by culture collection strains of bacteria and fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil decontamination of soil contaminated by low-level activities of radionuclides, mainly by caesium-137, which come from accidental releases by maintenance of nuclear devices and by liquid wastes reprocessing, is long-term and expensive technology. Knowledge of the causations, which control the processes of bioaccumulation of radionuclides, is a necessary condition for critical assessment and successful utilization of processes of bioremediation in situ in practise. The authors present the experimentally gained quantitative values of bioaccumulation of caesium-137 from water solutions by micro organism cultures of Rhodotorula aurantiaca CCY 20-9-1, Sacharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 15906, Streptomyces sp. DX-IX, Coriolus versicolor CCWDF-14 and Rhizopus sp. R-18. Intensively growing cultures reach the highest values of bioaccumulation; the cultures in non-growing phase reach several orders lower values. From researched micro organisms the highest values of bioaccumulation of Cs+ 5.1 pmol/g (wet weight) at initial concentration of Cs+ in solution co = 1 nmol/l (without carrier) and 29.2 μmol/g (wet weight) at co = 6 mmol/l Cs+ (adding of carrier CsCl) were found out at growing culture S. cerevisiae as model of eukaryotic cell after an achievement of maximal stationary grow phase. Acquired information refer to the possible role of soil micro organisms at bioaccumulation of 137Cs in contaminated soils and their potential utilization in lowering of radioactive contamination of environment (authors)

  18. Banking culture and collective responsibility: A memorandum to the UK Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Dorn (Nicholas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBasic assumptions • There is wide interest in connecting issues of (i) occupational culture, (ii) compliance/ misconduct, (iii) remuneration and (iv) clawback (the bonus/malus debate). • Individual-focussed measures (supervision, remuneration and measures in civil or criminal law) must b

  19. IMPORTANCE OF IPR IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Mishra*

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to highlight and explore the inter-relationship and the functioning of the intellectual property right in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. The rising tide of patent applications can be witnessed globally in this industry as the need for such protection and licensing has become imperative so as to safeguard the rights of the inventor and also to encourage and promote new talents, inventions and innovations which can be a boon for the economy. The f...

  20. Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.

    2004-01-01

    collect real-time information from these systems to ensure crew safety. This new class of nanosensors will be critical to monitoring the space flight environment in future NASA space systems. The Commercial Applications component of this program pursued industry partnerships to develop products for terrestrial use of NASA sponsored technologies, and in turn to stimulate growth in the biotechnology industry. For technologies demonstrating near term commercial potential, the objective is to include industry partners on or about the time of proof of concept that will not only co-invest in the technology but also take the resultant technology to the commercial market.

  1. Interface of nuclear and biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addressing nuclear and biotechnologies in the International Year of Physics should begin by highlighting the important role that this science has played in the development of both branches of science and technologies. The first as a direct consequence of the Theory of Relativity, the further was considerably influenced by Schroedinger's remarks that there must be a code of some kind that allowed molecules in cells to carry information, making a connection between genes and proteins. Both, like any highly technical endeavor, have also in common that the use of technologies demands a vast accumulation of knowledge, i.e. volumes of scientific research, engineering analysis, strict regulatory controls and a huge amount of information combined with a complex assortment of people with the required educational background, expertise and skills to master it. This presentation briefly explores the ways in which nuclear technology has been used in the last decades of the 20th century in the field of biomedicine applications, which includes the use of radiation to obtain accurate images as well as in diagnosis and therapy. The paper looks at the present prospects of some nuclear methods and instrumentation in the so-called Red biotechnology and its genetically engineered therapeutic agents and diagnostic tests as well as some related perspectives in the field of bioinformatics. As an example of biotechnology being successfully applied to health problems in developing countries the presentation gives an outlook of relevant Cuban achievements in this field. (author)

  2. Rational selection of alternative, environmentally compatible surfactants for biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals--a step toward green biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jürg Oliver; Shearer, Russel; Studer, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The biotechnological production of pharmaceutical active substances needs ancillary substances. Surfactants are used at the end of the cell culture as a protection against potential viral or bacterial contamination and to lyse the producing cells for isolation and purification of the products. To find a replacement for a surfactant that had raised environmental concern, environmentally relevant data for potential alternatives were searched for in the literature. Significant data gaps were filled with additional tests: biodegradability, algal growth inhibition, acute daphnid immobilization and chronic daphnid reproduction toxicity, acute fish toxicity, and activated sludge respiration inhibition. The results were used to model removal in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serving 3 biotechnological production sites in the Roche Group. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated using realistic amounts of surfactants and site-specific wastewater fluxes, modeled removals for the WWTPs and dilution factors by the respective receiving waters. Predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived for WWTPs and for both fresh and marine receiving waters as the treated wastewater of 1 production site is discharged into a coastal water. This resulted in a spreadsheet showing PECs, PNECs, and PEC ÷ PNEC risk characterization ratios for the WWTPs and receiving waters for all investigated surfactants and all 3 sites. This spreadsheet now serves as a selection support for the biotechnological developers. This risk-based prioritization of surfactants is a step toward green biotechnological production.

  3. A common basis for facilitated legitimate exchange of biological materials proposed by the European Culture Collections' Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Fritze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Being charged with the task of accessioning and supplying of living microbiological material, microbial culture collections are institutions that play a central role between the interests of a variety of user communities. On the one side are the providers of living microbiological material, such as individual scientists, institutions and countries of origin and on the other side are the various kinds of recipients/users of cultures of microorganisms from academia and industry. Thus, providing access to high quality biological material and scientific services while at the same time observing donor countries' rights, intellectual property rights, biosafety and biosecurity aspects poses demanding challenges. E.g. donor countries rights relate to Article 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity: "Contracting parties …. recognize the sovereign rights of states over their natural resources …. shall facilitate access to resources … and not impose restrictions that run counter to the aims of the Convention. Access to natural resources shall be by mutually agreed terms and subject to prior informed consent ..." The use of a proposed standard contract by culture collections is discussed as a way of contractually safeguarding the existing research commons, while observing the new rights established in the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as other existing and new legislation impacting on the accessibility of living microbial material.

  4. Biofuels and Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    research and resulting development activities using the latest biological research tools and techniques. Among the most recently evolving research tools is what is collectively known as "omics" techniques such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and fluxomics, plus an ever growing omics word generation . These and other similar methodologies are central to understanding the interactive functioning of gene expression, resulting protein/enzyme production, which impacts the cellular metabolism, and carbon and metabolite flow. These system biology "omics" tools are beginning to be applied to understand and improve the biological processes involved in conversion of renewable plant and animal material to biofuels which will be discussed in this chapter.

  5. LIIS: A web-based system for culture collections and sample annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Forster

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Lab Information Indexing System (LIIS is a web-driven database application for laboratories looking to store their sample or culture metadata on a central server. The design was driven by a need to replace traditional paper storage with an easier to search format, and extend current spreadsheet storage methods. The system supports the import and export of CSV spreadsheets, and stores general metadata designed to complement the environmental packages provided by the Genomic Standards Consortium. The goals of the LIIS are to simplify the storage and archival processes and to provide an easy to access library of laboratory annotations. The program will find utility in microbial ecology laboratories or any lab that needs to annotate samples/cultures.

  6. Cultivation and detection of endophytic aerobic methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum species as a perspective for environmental biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Stępniewska, Zofia; Kuźniar, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Enriched cultures of microorganisms are an essential step in the production of inoculum of these organisms for biotechnology and bioengineering. The potential application of methanotrophic microorganisms for removal of methane produced from landfills and coal mines as well as biodegradation of toxic compounds has been widely studied. Therefore, searching for new sources of methanotrophs can contribute to increasing the possibilities of biotechnology and bioengineering. Enrichment cultures of ...

  7. Collective motion of cells mediates segregation and pattern formation in co-cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elod Méhes

    Full Text Available Pattern formation by segregation of cell types is an important process during embryonic development. We show that an experimentally yet unexplored mechanism based on collective motility of segregating cells enhances the effects of known pattern formation mechanisms such as differential adhesion, mechanochemical interactions or cell migration directed by morphogens. To study in vitro cell segregation we use time-lapse videomicroscopy and quantitative analysis of the main features of the motion of individual cells or groups. Our observations have been extensive, typically involving the investigation of the development of patterns containing up to 200,000 cells. By either comparing keratocyte types with different collective motility characteristics or increasing cells' directional persistence by the inhibition of Rac1 GTP-ase we demonstrate that enhanced collective cell motility results in faster cell segregation leading to the formation of more extensive patterns. The growth of the characteristic scale of patterns generally follows an algebraic scaling law with exponent values up to 0.74 in the presence of collective motion, compared to significantly smaller exponents in case of diffusive motion.

  8. The Threatened History and Collective Memory of the Cultural Revolution’s Lost Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnin, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Since the Communist Party of China published its brief official version of the Cultural Revolution in 1981, few works on the history of that period have been approved for publication, even if they have kept strictly to the orthodox line. Still, some research work and eye-witness accounts by Chinese people outside the official apparatus have appeared, mostly in Hong Kong and Taiwan but also on the mainland. In spite of official attempts to bury the memory of that time, and against the grain of...

  9. Les Biotechnologies Marines dans le Grand Ouest

    OpenAIRE

    Boyen, Catherine; Jaouen, Pascal; Blanchard, Gilbert; Compere, Chantal; Dufour, Alain; Durand, Patrick; Guerard, Fabienne; Hallouin, Florence; Jebbar, Mohamed; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Le Deit, Hervé; Le Seyec, Jocelyne; Monks, Brian; Portal-sellin, Rachel; Probert, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Marine (= blue) biotechnology, i.e. the utilization of marine bio-resources as a target or source of biotechnological applications, is a field with massive potential for innovation and economic growth. In a context of rapid climate change and increasing pressure on natural resources, renewed interest in marine biotechnology has been promoted by application of recent methodological and technological advances, notably in bioprocessing and in the various –omics domains, to the study of marine bi...

  10. Innovation Challenges in Malaysia SME Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Tuck Keong

    2013-01-01

    The study was to find out the supporting elements that lead to innovation in Malaysia SME biotechnology firms. The context of this study was to understand the collaboration process that lead to better innovation for their product and service development. The results is to assist potential new start-up to navigate Malaysia biotechnology landscape as a lessons learned and what it takes to be successful in biotechnology investment. There are four settings that author was trying to uncover like c...

  11. Biotechnology in India : Current scene (Review Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nagaratnam

    2001-01-01

    Realising the immense potential of biotechnology in the fields of agricultural production and health care, especially in developing countries, India has been devoting special attention over the past two decades to biotechnology and its applications. Necessary infrastructure has been built-up, the human resources and technical expertise built-up, and fruitful interactions between academic institutions and industries supported. The Department of Biotechnology, Govt of India has been play...

  12. Emerging Approaches in Synchrotron Studies of Materials from Cultural and Natural History Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Loïc; Bernard, Sylvain; Marone, Federica; Thoury, Mathieu; Reiche, Ina; Gourrier, Aurélien; Sciau, Philippe; Bergmann, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    Synchrotrons have provided significant methods and instruments to study ancient materials from cultural and natural heritages. New ways to visualise (surfacic or volumic) morphologies are developed on the basis of elemental, density and refraction contrasts. They now apply to a wide range of materials, from historic artefacts to paleontological specimens. The tunability of synchrotron beams owing to the high flux and high spectral resolution of photon sources is at the origin of the main chemical speciation capabilities of synchrotron-based techniques. Although, until recently, photon-based speciation was mainly applicable to inorganic materials, novel developments based, for instance, on STXM and deep UV photoluminescence bring new opportunities to study speciation in organic and hybrid materials, such as soaps and organometallics, at a submicrometric spatial resolution over large fields of view. Structural methods are also continuously improved and increasingly applied to hierarchically structured materials for which organisation results either from biological or manufacturing processes. High-definition (spectral) imaging appears as the main driving force of the current trend for new synchrotron techniques for research on cultural and natural heritage materials.

  13. Emerging Approaches in Synchrotron Studies of Materials from Cultural and Natural History Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Loïc; Bernard, Sylvain; Marone, Federica; Thoury, Mathieu; Reiche, Ina; Gourrier, Aurélien; Sciau, Philippe; Bergmann, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    Synchrotrons have provided significant methods and instruments to study ancient materials from cultural and natural heritages. New ways to visualise (surfacic or volumic) morphologies are developed on the basis of elemental, density and refraction contrasts. They now apply to a wide range of materials, from historic artefacts to paleontological specimens. The tunability of synchrotron beams owing to the high flux and high spectral resolution of photon sources is at the origin of the main chemical speciation capabilities of synchrotron-based techniques. Although, until recently, photon-based speciation was mainly applicable to inorganic materials, novel developments based, for instance, on STXM and deep UV photoluminescence bring new opportunities to study speciation in organic and hybrid materials, such as soaps and organometallics, at a submicrometric spatial resolution over large fields of view. Structural methods are also continuously improved and increasingly applied to hierarchically structured materials for which organisation results either from biological or manufacturing processes. High-definition (spectral) imaging appears as the main driving force of the current trend for new synchrotron techniques for research on cultural and natural heritage materials. PMID:27572990

  14. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-12-01

    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology sector by providing a pipeline of university graduates entering into the profession, it has been proposed that formal science communication training be introduced at this early stage of career development. The aim of the present study was to examine the views of biotechnology students towards science communication and science communication training. Using an Australian biotechnology degree programme as a case study, 69 undergraduates from all three years of the programme were administered a questionnaire that asked them to rank the importance of 12 components of a biotechnology curriculum, including two science communication items. The results were compared to the responses of 274 students enrolled in other science programmes. Additional questions were provided to the second year biotechnology undergraduates and semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 13 of these students to further examine their views of this area. The results of this study suggest that the biotechnology students surveyed do not value communication with non-scientists nor science communication training. The implications of these findings for the reform of undergraduate biotechnology courses yet to integrate science communication training into their science curriculum are discussed.

  15. Reforming an institutional culture of corruption: A model of motivated agents and collective reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Valasek, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted social image and identity concerns as factors that influence economic decisions. Given that an individual’s choice of employment may be important for their social image, we consider a model of worker sorting into the mission-oriented or private sector with motivated agents who also value the collective reputation of their place of employment. The initial insight of the analysis is that, from the institution’s perspective, there may exist both a high-reputation,...

  16. Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rai MK (2010 Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Biodiversitas 11: 157-166. The use of medicinal plants is as old as human civilization. The biotechnological tools play a crucial role in conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The rapid depletion of plant genetic diversity has made essential to develop new in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Advances in biotechnology offer new methods for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The present review is focused on biotechnological tools like in vitro culture, micropropagation, mycorrhization, genetic transformation and development of DNA banks. These are imperative and important alternatives for the conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants.

  17. Biotechnology: employing organism as bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Baniasad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological products, especially proteins, have numerous applications including prevention, diagnosis, and treating diseases. Advances in biotechnology in recent years have opened up many ways to manufacture these products in large scales. To engineer biopharmaceuticals, often pro and/or eukaryotic sustainable resources are used. Selection of the cellular factory depends on the type and application of protein needed. In this review, we explore current resources used to produce biologics, examine these resources critically for their biological output, and finally highlight impact of using sustainable resources in modern medicine.

  18. Certain problems of space biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilyarov, V. N.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments in the field of biotechnology conducted by the USA Apollo and Skylab space probes are described, as well as the joint Soviet-American Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP). Experiments in electrophoretic separation in space of biological compounds in a liquid medium are detailed. Space processing of vaccines and separation of human and animal cells are described. Methyl-cellulose, a coating for use in electrophoresis was developed. Erythropoietin, which stimulates the formation of red blood corpuscles in bone marrow, was obtained in pure form.

  19. The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability study: methods of data collection and characteristics of study sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Coggon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability study was established to explore the hypothesis that common musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs and associated disability are importantly influenced by culturally determined health beliefs and expectations. This paper describes the methods of data collection and various characteristics of the study sample. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A standardised questionnaire covering musculoskeletal symptoms, disability and potential risk factors, was used to collect information from 47 samples of nurses, office workers, and other (mostly manual workers in 18 countries from six continents. In addition, local investigators provided data on economic aspects of employment for each occupational group. Participation exceeded 80% in 33 of the 47 occupational groups, and after pre-specified exclusions, analysis was based on 12,426 subjects (92 to 1018 per occupational group. As expected, there was high usage of computer keyboards by office workers, while nurses had the highest prevalence of heavy manual lifting in all but one country. There was substantial heterogeneity between occupational groups in economic and psychosocial aspects of work; three- to five-fold variation in awareness of someone outside work with musculoskeletal pain; and more than ten-fold variation in the prevalence of adverse health beliefs about back and arm pain, and in awareness of terms such as "repetitive strain injury" (RSI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The large differences in psychosocial risk factors (including knowledge and beliefs about MSDs between occupational groups should allow the study hypothesis to be addressed effectively.

  20. The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) Study: Methods of Data Collection and Characteristics of Study Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Serra, Consol; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H.; Sarquis, Leila M.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J.; Harris, E. Clare; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Sirk, Tuuli; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derett, Sarah; McBride, David; Gray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) study was established to explore the hypothesis that common musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and associated disability are importantly influenced by culturally determined health beliefs and expectations. This paper describes the methods of data collection and various characteristics of the study sample. Methods/Principal Findings A standardised questionnaire covering musculoskeletal symptoms, disability and potential risk factors, was used to collect information from 47 samples of nurses, office workers, and other (mostly manual) workers in 18 countries from six continents. In addition, local investigators provided data on economic aspects of employment for each occupational group. Participation exceeded 80% in 33 of the 47 occupational groups, and after pre-specified exclusions, analysis was based on 12,426 subjects (92 to 1018 per occupational group). As expected, there was high usage of computer keyboards by office workers, while nurses had the highest prevalence of heavy manual lifting in all but one country. There was substantial heterogeneity between occupational groups in economic and psychosocial aspects of work; three- to five-fold variation in awareness of someone outside work with musculoskeletal pain; and more than ten-fold variation in the prevalence of adverse health beliefs about back and arm pain, and in awareness of terms such as “repetitive strain injury” (RSI). Conclusions/Significance The large differences in psychosocial risk factors (including knowledge and beliefs about MSDs) between occupational groups should allow the study hypothesis to be addressed effectively. PMID:22792189

  1. Students' Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in Agriculture Biotechnology but Not in Medical Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and…

  2. Biotechnology for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, A.; Maule, J.; Toporski, J.; Parro-Garcia, V.; Briones, C.; Schweitzer, M.; McKay, D.

    With the advent of a new era of astrobiology missions in the exploration of the solar system and the search for evidence of life elsewhere, we present a new approach to this goal, the integration of biotechnology. We have reviewed the current list of biotechnology techniques, which are applicable to miniaturization, automatization and integration into a combined flight platform. Amongst the techniques reviewed are- The uses of antibodies- Fluorescent detection strategies- Protein and DNA chip technology- Surface plasmon resonance and its relation to other techniques- Micro electronic machining (MEMS where applicable to biologicalsystems)- nanotechnology (e.g. molecular motors)- Lab-on-a-chip technology (including PCR)- Mass spectrometry (i.e. MALDI-TOF)- Fluid handling and extraction technologies- Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)- Raman Spectroscopy We have begun to integrate this knowledge into a single flight instrument approach for the sole purpose of combining several mutually confirming tests for life, organic and/or microbial contamination, as well as prebiotic and abiotic organic chemicals. We will present several innovative designs for new instrumentation including pro- engineering design drawings of a protein chip reader for space flight and fluid handling strategies. We will also review the use of suitable extraction methodologies for use on different solar system bodies.

  3. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  4. THE ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malabika Roy Pathak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological diversity provides the variety of life on the Earth and can be defined as the variability among and between the living organisms and species of surrounding ecosystems and ecological complexes of their life support. It has been estimated that one third of the global plant species are threatened in different level according to the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN.The major threat to rapid loss and extinction of genetic diversity due to habitat destruction, pollution, climate change, invasion of exotic species, human population pressure, ever increasing agricultural pressure and practices, life style change etc. are well-known. Biodiversity conservation is a global concern. All member states of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD took measure to preserve both native and agricultural biodiversity. The global concern of biodiversity conservation initiated either by in situ or ex situ methods. In situ methods protect both plants and their natural habitat. On the other hand, ex situ methods involves preservation and maintenance of plant species or plant parts (such as seeds, cuttings, rhizomes, tubers etc. outside their natural habitat for the purpose of developing seed banks or more preciously gene banks following classical / advanced methods of plant propagation. Classical methods of plant propagations have certain limitations in terms of rapid production of plants or plant propagules and their long term conservation. So, the biotechnological methods such as plant tissue culture, plant cell culture, anther culture, embryo culture etc. are quite applicable and useful techniques for ex situ conservation. On the other hand, the production of superior quality seeds has enhanced by the application of plant biotechnology. So, plant biotechnology offers new means of improving biodiversity conservation rather than threatening biodiversity in various ways.

  5. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig, M.G.; Martin Rodriguez, M.J.M.; Cachaza, J.M. (Univ. de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica); Mendoza Sanchez, L. (C/Sol Oriente, Salamanca (Spain). Estudios y Proyectos); Kennedy, J.F. (Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Research Lab. for the Chemistry of Bioactive Carbohydrates and Proteins)

    1993-07-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents. It was foreseen in 1980 that biotechnology would foster the creation of new industries with low energy requirements. This is because the growth of microorganisms provides a renewable source of energy.

  6. Biotechnology in the Middle School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, De Ann

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology is a fairly new concept for middle school students as well as teachers. If the latest craze of TV shows focused on crime scene investigation events were not so popular, the term and concept might be even obscure to the public. There is an increased presence of biotechnology in our daily surroundings that makes it practical and…

  7. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology…

  8. Agricultural Biotechnology Research and Development in Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Recent agricultural biotechnology research and advances in the province are reviewed. Targets and practices for biotechnological development in depth are discussed, with stress on the talent's training, new techniques' establishment and its industrialization, starting from the existing level and problems in the field in the province.

  9. Assessment and diffusion of biotechnology drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart-van Rijkom, J.E.F.

    2002-01-01

    Biotechnology, viewed as a young and innovative field, is associated with great possibilities and high expectation on patient benefits. But there are also public controversies on ethical, social and economic issues. Beginning with recombinant human insulin in 1982, more than 50 biotechnology drugs h

  10. Interdisciplinarity in Biotechnology, Genomics and Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimeriks, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study developments in biotechnology, genomics and nanotechnology in the period 1998–2008. The fields show changing interdisciplinary characteristics in relation to distinct co-evolutionary dynamics in research, science and society. Biotechnology emerged as a discipline in publicatio

  11. New trends in biotechnology. Biotechnology no atarashii choryu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karube, I. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology)

    1993-11-30

    This paper focuses on application of the recent biotechnology and introduces its new trends. What has triggered the boom in the application is when the technology has been applied to medicines in the 1970's. Beginning with insulin and interferon, various fibrinolytic agents including tPA and monoclonals have been put on markets one after another in 1991. Progress in humangenomic analysis has led to implementation of gene therapies and diagnoses using genes on gene diseases. Sweeteners used in a large quantity in the foodstuff field are fructoses made by isomerizing glucose produced by using enzymatic bioreactors. Needless to say about production of amino acid, organic acids, saccharides, antibiotics, steroids, and nucleic acid-based compounds by using enzymatic bioreactors, chemicals including acrylic amide from acrylonitrile, enzyme detergents, and bio-herbicides are available commercially. Progress in the technology is seen in all of the fields, including electronics industry and environmental preservation. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  13. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blessed with extremely rich biodiversity, Malaysia is all geared up to explore new high technology to utilize the advantage it possesses whilst to protect its environment. Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities for industrial growth, health and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to address the evolution of biotechnology institutions and the stumbling blocks in developing the Malaysian biotechnology industry. This paper identifies three main impediments in the current Malaysian biotechnology, namely lack of skilled human capital; weak industrial base; and lack of commercialization effort. Besides, a set of strategies are discussed with aim to further improve and strengthen the Malaysian biotechnology industry. In general, the arguments are presented by mapping out the symbiotic relationship between data from elite interviews, archival data and observations.

  14. In vitro culture of oocytes and granulosa cells collected from normal, obese, emaciated and metabolically stressed ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S K; Farman, M; Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Gupta, Psp; Kumar, V Girish

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the oocyte morphology, its fertilizing capacity and granulosa cell functions in ewes (obese, normal, metabolic stressed and emaciated). Ewes (Ovis aries) of approximately 3 years of age (Bellary breed) from a local village were screened, chosen and categorized into a) normal b) obese but not metabolically stressed, c) Emaciated but not metabolically stressed d) Metabolically stressed based on body condition scoring and blood markers. Oocytes and granulosa cells were collected from ovaries of the ewes of all categories after slaughter and were classified into good (oocytes with more than three layers of cumulus cells and homogenous ooplasm), fair (oocytes one or two layers of cumulus cells and homogenous ooplasm) and poor (denuded oocytes or with dark ooplasm). The good and fair quality oocytes were in vitro matured and cultured with fresh semen present and the fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst development were observed. The granulosa cells were cultured for evaluation of metabolic activity by use of the MTT assay, and cell viability, cell number as well as estrogen and progesterone production were assessed. It was observed that the good and fair quality oocytes had greater metabolic activity when collected from normal and obese ewes compared with those from emaciated and metabolically stressed ewes. No significant difference was observed in oocyte quality and maturation amongst the oocytes collected from normal and obese ewes. The cleavage and blastocyst production rates were different for the various body condition classifications and when ranked were: normal>obese>metabolically stressed>emaciated. Lesser metabolic activity was observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of emaciated ewes. However, no changes were observed in viability and cell number of granulosa cells obtained from ewes with the different body condition categories. Estrogen and progesterone production from cultured granulosa cells were

  15. Intellectual Property Rights and Agro-Biotechnology: Limitations and Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Luz Yaya-Lancheros

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property rights have led to stimulating innovation in different fields such as biotechnology. Patents, plant variety protection, industrial secrets and material transfer agreements are legal terms individually and/or collectively protecting materials or processes deemed necessary for agricultural-biotech product development. Such terms may often accumulate to such an extent that this hinders a product’s development and commercial release. Some current initiatives are aimed at facilitating access to basic technology for agricultural-biotech product development, including public organisation cooperation networks, requests for special licences for humanitarian programmes and open access projects. These may be good short-and medium-term alternatives for carrying out biotechnological research in countries like Colombia.

  16. CULTURE SOVIET TRADE IN THE COLLECTIVE FARMS IN THE POSTWAR DECADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasyanov O. R.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the periodic analysis of the materials of the Soviet post-war decades, this article attempts to analyze the activities of commercial enterprises to meet the consumer demand of the rural population. According to the author, the abolition of the card system in the Soviet Union in 1947 did not reach the stated goals: increasing demand of the population was unable to meet the deficit and preserve consumer goods led to the emergence of new social relations and relations between individuals included in the power hierarchy and employees trade institutions, and the bulk of the rural population is supplied with goods on leftovers. Many shopping facilities in collective farms did not have time to prepare for work in a trade without a card and as a result, the first days of the reform were not working. In rural areas, acute shortage of food and industrial products: matches, kerosene, clothing, etc. Villagers not infrequently encountered rude attitude on the part of those engaged in trade and unsanitary conditions reigning in retail establishments. In many settlements, timetable of stores sellers was not respected and it gave yet another disadvantage to the rural population

  17. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come. PMID:23797042

  18. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come.

  19. Biotechnological production and application of fructooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Maltos, Dulce A; Mussatto, Solange I; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Teixeira, José A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2016-01-01

    Currently, prebiotics are all carbohydrates of relatively short chain length. One important group is the fructooligosaccharides (FOS), a special kind of prebiotic associated to the selective stimulation of the activity of certain groups of colonic bacteria. They have a positive and beneficial effect on intestinal microbiota, reducing the incidence of gastrointestinal infections and also possessing a recognized bifidogenic effect. Traditionally, these prebiotic compounds have been obtained through extraction processes from some plants, as well as through enzymatic hydrolysis of sucrose. However, different fermentative methods have also been proposed for the production of FOS, such as solid-state fermentations utilizing various agro-industrial by-products. By optimizing the culture parameters, FOS yields and productivity can be improved. The use of immobilized enzymes and cells has also been proposed as being an effective and economic method for large-scale production of FOS. This article is an overview of the results considering recent studies on FOS biosynthesis, physicochemical properties, sources, biotechnological production and applications.

  20. Biotechnological production and application of fructooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Maltos, Dulce A; Mussatto, Solange I; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Teixeira, José A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2016-01-01

    Currently, prebiotics are all carbohydrates of relatively short chain length. One important group is the fructooligosaccharides (FOS), a special kind of prebiotic associated to the selective stimulation of the activity of certain groups of colonic bacteria. They have a positive and beneficial effect on intestinal microbiota, reducing the incidence of gastrointestinal infections and also possessing a recognized bifidogenic effect. Traditionally, these prebiotic compounds have been obtained through extraction processes from some plants, as well as through enzymatic hydrolysis of sucrose. However, different fermentative methods have also been proposed for the production of FOS, such as solid-state fermentations utilizing various agro-industrial by-products. By optimizing the culture parameters, FOS yields and productivity can be improved. The use of immobilized enzymes and cells has also been proposed as being an effective and economic method for large-scale production of FOS. This article is an overview of the results considering recent studies on FOS biosynthesis, physicochemical properties, sources, biotechnological production and applications. PMID:25519697

  1. Biotechnology and bioforensics new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This Brief covers broad areas of Applied Biology specifically into the domains of Biotechnology/Biomedicine and Forensic Science. Chapters included here would also explain the role of bioinformatics in protein and gene characterization, modeling of the protein structure, survey related to the chromosomal effect on Human Disorders like Diabetes and Cardiac Problems. This Brief is full of Innovative Literature like Use of Microbes in Electricity Production, Brain connection to Type 2 Diabetes etc. Interesting issues in Forensic biology and the aspects of Bioforensics like STR profiling of exhumed bones makes this brief truly useful and informative for Researchers. It also includes the advancements and new ideologies in understanding crop improvements & crop quality. This Brief witnesses Innovative Research related to the Bio and Agri software development too which are capable of accelerating Insilico biological data analysis.

  2. Environmental biotechnology research: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, J C

    1994-05-01

    Cleanup and treatment of hazardous wastes incur major operational costs for the U.S. Air Force. Bioremediation can provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional technologies for a wide range of natural organic compounds such as jet fuel. Bioventing and natural attenuation are emerging as treatments of choice in many instances. Synthetic organic chemicals are much more resistant to biodegradation. However, recent advances in biotechnology allow the development of strains able to use nitro- and chloro-substituted organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. Current basic research is focused on expanding the range of synthetic chemicals amenable to biodegradation. At the same time, development of appropriate bioreactors and models for scale up are essential for practical application of the technology.

  3. Challenge of Biotechnology (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R. Dando

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The unravelling of the human genetic code whose first draft was announced in June 2000 has rightly blood been hailed as a momentous achievement, opening thc book of life, certain to be the dominant technology of the 21st century, which will inform all about medicine and biology. and lead us to a total understanding of life. Simultaneously, concerns have been expressed about thc implications of this work. In the past, major new technologies have been used intensively for hostile purposes. What is thc challenge that biotechnology poses in this regard'? This review paper looks at the enormous changes in civil society that thc genomics revolution could bring. Against this background, thc growing concerns about its potential misuses have been reviewed. Thc strengths and weaknesses or the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC are then touched upon. The BTWC presently lacks an adequate verification mechanism. Although biotechnology has been used by human beings since prehistoric times (eg. making of bread. cheese. wines its scientific understanding came only in the latter part of the 19th century. Thc decisive turning point in the field came in the 1970s with the advent of genetic engineering. In the military context classical agents like anthrax and toxin remain the threat today. Although thc current level or sophistication for many biological agents is low, there is enormous potential for making more sophisticated weapons. It might be possible to specifically target the genetic makeup of different ethnic groups. The limited varieties of staple crops and the limited strains of modern animals make agriculture particularly open to attack. Another serious possibility is the impact of genomics in neuroscience. With a better understanding of cellular receptor systems and bioregulators, it is not inconceivable that new means would be evolved for disturbing the functions of the nervous system. Thc genomics revolution can be used for peaceful purposes

  4. Biological effect of human serum collected before and after oral intake of Pygeum africanum on various benign prostate cell cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stéphane Larré; Philippe Camparo; Eva Comperat; Delphine Boulbés; Mohammed Haddoum; Sylvain Baulande; Pascal Soularue; Pierre Costa; Olivier Cussenot

    2012-01-01

    Pygeum africanum (Tadenan) is a popular phytotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.The active compounds of the drug have not been identified,and determining the plasma concentration of the drug is,therefore,not possible.Because there are conflicting results on the efficacy of this drug,we aimed to investigate its effect on prostate cell growth in vitro using human serum collected before and after Pygeum africanum intake.We used primary and organotypic cultures of human prostatic stromal myofibroblast cell line WPMY and prostatic epithelial cell line PNT2.We also used fresh benign prostatic tissue.The serum of a treated man induced decreases in the proliferation of primary cells,organotypic cells and WPMY cells but not PNT2 cells.We also analysed the effect of treated serum on the gene expression profile of WPMY cells.The transcriptome analysis revealed an upregulation of genes involved in multiple tumour suppression pathways and a downregulation of genes involved in inflammation and oxidative-stress pathways.The oral intake of Pygeum africanum resulted in serum levels of active substances that were sufficient to inhibit the proliferation of cultured myofibroblasts prostatic cells.This inhibition was associated with changes in the transcriptome.

  5. Use of biotechnology in flax germplasm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Andro, CDC Normandy, CDC Triffid, and Linola 989 are examples of flax varieties that have been developed through the application of biotechnology. Somaclonal variation, cell selection, haploid breeding, mutagenesis, genetic engineering and molecular marker development are all being employed in flax germplasm development. Tissue culture techniques such as somaclonal variation (CDC Normandy) and cell selection (Andro) have been successful, but the greatest potential for the use of tissue culture methodology is the application of haploid breeding. While a number of groups worldwide have had limited success in producing doubled haploid plants from anther and/or microspore culture [Chen et al. 1998, Plant Breeding 117: 463; Friedt et al. 1995, Plant Breeding 114: 322; Nichterlein and Friedt 1993, Plant Cell Rep. 12: 426], the frequency of regeneration has limited its application in variety development. Several groups are currently using anther culture within their breeding programs, but the ultimate success of haploid breeding will undoubtedly depend on developing an efficient microspore-derived system for doubled haploid production. Perhaps the most successful technique to date, in terms of germplasm development, has been the use of mutagenesis. The Linola types [Dribnenki et al. 1996, Can. J. Plant Sci. 76:329; Dribnenki and Green 1995, Can. J. Plant Sci. 75: 201], have already been released, and other modified oil types are currently being developed [Saeidi and Rowland 1997, J. Hered. 88: 466; Ntiamoah et al. 1995, Crop Sci. 35: 148]. Additional traits being investigated in mutagenized populations include seed colour, reduced levels of anti nutritional factors in seed, increased nutraceutical content, and traits of agronomic interest. For example, screening of an EMS-treated population of McGregor flax at the Crop Development Centre identified three mutant lines which had greatly reduced levels of cyanogenic glucosides. Flax has proven to be amenable to

  6. Chronological development avenues in biotechnology across the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Y Mali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is expected to be a great technological revolution followed by information technology. It is an application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of material by biological agents to provide better goods and services to mankind. Commercially its techniques are applied long back in 6 th century in the art of brewing, wine making and baking. It has progressed there after crossing different land marks. Modern biotechnology has developed significantly in the late 19 th century with groundbreaking discoveries applicable in medicine, food, agriculture, chemistry, environmental protection and many more industries. It is widely used in the development of high-yielding, disease-resistant, better quality varieties by applying tissue culture and recombinant DNA techniques. It has wide application in animal breeding using techniques such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Specific enzymes used in laundry, fuel and leather industries for better quality, economically feasible and environmental friendly production. Biotechnology in healthcare system uses body′s own tools and weapons to fight against diseases, manufacturing of targeted therapeutic proteins, gene therapy and so on. Novel approaches such as proteomics and structural biology are contributing to understanding the chemistry of life and diseases. Malfunctioning gene replaced with correctly functioning gene by using gene therapy. Tissue engineering has opened up the use of in vitro developed tissue or organ in repairing wounded tissue and system biology which is a computer-based approach to understand cell functions. Although every new discovery related to biology and its implications is significant and has taken the technology ahead. This includes applications, commercialization, controversies, media exposure and so on. Hence, we have enlisted some of the chronological development avenues in biotechnology across the world.

  7. AMELIORATION DES PLANTES Biotechnologies et arachide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavel Danièle

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches sur les biotechnologies de l’arachide sont principalement conduites aux États-Unis mais également à travers des programmes collaboratifs internationaux où interviennent l’Icrisat et le Cirad. Malgré une forte variation phénotypique, l’arachide cultivée montre peu de variabilité moléculaire. L’arachide étant une culture alimentaire et de rente très importante dans les régions sahéliennes, la sécheresse et la contamination des graines par l’aflatoxine en cours de culture constituent des contraintes majeures. La seule application connue en sélection assistée par marqueurs d’ADN fait intervenir des gènes provenant d’une espèce sauvage compatible en croisement avec l’espèce cultivée. Les principaux résultats publiés jusqu’à présent concernent la mise au point de techniques de régénération et de transfert de gènes. Le marquage moléculaire s’avérant inefficace, les recherches s’orientent aujourd’hui sur la génomique fonctionnelle du fait de la disponibilité des techniques de transformation génétique. L’objectif est de développer de nouveaux outils moléculaires capables d’assister les programmes de sélection pour la résistance à ces deux traits complexes.

  8. Biotechnology and the developing world. Finding ways to bridge the agricultural technology gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platais, K W; Collinson, M P

    1992-03-01

    Biotechnology is a controversial subject that involves a range of scientific principles from basic tissue culture to genetic manipulation. Proponents include private sector capitalists, public sector researchers, and developing nation governments. Opponents include environmental organizations and social organizations involved in protecting the rights of developing nations. Biotechnology is being presented as the next step after the Green Revolution and the only way that the people of the developing world will be able to feed themselves in the next half century. Research by industrialized nations world wide total an estimated $11 billion with 66% being contributed by the private sector. Biotechnology represents somewhat of a dilemma. Since the majority of the work is being done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater than that of public welfare or safety. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is one public sector group that is concerned about this problem. The countries of the developing world fall into 2 categories in relation to use of biotechnology: (1) those that have the potential to adapt imported biotechnologies to local conditions; (2) those that have little or no applied research capacity to effectively use biotechnologies. Currently only Brazil, China, India, and Thailand belong in the 1st category, all other developing countries fall into the 2nd. CGIAR believes it can help in 2 ways: (1) it can provide a bridge for needed information and germplasm between developed and developing countries; (2) it can help to ensure that the agricultural needs of developing countries are not lost. In 1990 CGIAR's plant and animal biotechnology research totaled $14.5 million which was less than 5% of the total CGIAR budget. Networking and institutions building are areas that CGIAR focuses on in an attempt to increase its affect

  9. Biotechnology and the developing world. Finding ways to bridge the agricultural technology gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platais, K W; Collinson, M P

    1992-03-01

    Biotechnology is a controversial subject that involves a range of scientific principles from basic tissue culture to genetic manipulation. Proponents include private sector capitalists, public sector researchers, and developing nation governments. Opponents include environmental organizations and social organizations involved in protecting the rights of developing nations. Biotechnology is being presented as the next step after the Green Revolution and the only way that the people of the developing world will be able to feed themselves in the next half century. Research by industrialized nations world wide total an estimated $11 billion with 66% being contributed by the private sector. Biotechnology represents somewhat of a dilemma. Since the majority of the work is being done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater than that of public welfare or safety. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is one public sector group that is concerned about this problem. The countries of the developing world fall into 2 categories in relation to use of biotechnology: (1) those that have the potential to adapt imported biotechnologies to local conditions; (2) those that have little or no applied research capacity to effectively use biotechnologies. Currently only Brazil, China, India, and Thailand belong in the 1st category, all other developing countries fall into the 2nd. CGIAR believes it can help in 2 ways: (1) it can provide a bridge for needed information and germplasm between developed and developing countries; (2) it can help to ensure that the agricultural needs of developing countries are not lost. In 1990 CGIAR's plant and animal biotechnology research totaled $14.5 million which was less than 5% of the total CGIAR budget. Networking and institutions building are areas that CGIAR focuses on in an attempt to increase its affect

  10. Quality Control of Biotechnological Inputs DetectingMycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Netto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR as a tool of quality control of bovine sera and cellular cultures used in the biotechnological industry. A total of 46 samples of bovine sera derived from two slaughterhouses and 33 samples of BHK21 cells derived from two biotechnological industries were evaluated using the primers GPO-3 (sense and MGSO (antisense. The PCR technique sensibility analysis showed that 280 bp were amplified for the quantities of 50 ng to 0.006 ng of Micoplasma DNA. The primers specificity was confirmed in the test using Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilisand Candida albicans; except by the positive control, none of the samples showed amplification. The presence of Mycoplasma in bovine sera and in the cultures of BHK21 cells showed that 56.5 and 15.2%, respectively, were contaminated. Thus, it was possible to conclude that PCR was a fast and confident technique to detect mycoplasma and that it could be used to control the quality of immunobiological products and inputs, such as sera and cultures of BHK21 cells.

  11. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  12. Developments in biotechnological research in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, C P

    1996-01-01

    Austria is a small European country with a small number of universities and biotechnological industries, but with great efforts in the implementation of environmental consciousness and corresponding legal standards. This review attempts to describe the biotechnological landscape of Austria, thereby focusing on the highlights in research by industry, universities, and research laboratories, as published during 1990 to early 1995. These will include microbial metabolite (organic acids, antibiotics) and biopolymer (polyhydroxibutyrate, S-layers) production; enzyme (cellulases, hemicellulases, ligninases) technology and biocatalysis; environmental biotechnology; plant breeding and plant protection; mammalian cell products; fermenter design; and bioprocess engineering. PMID:8856962

  13. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Hurlbert, Katy

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput.

  14. Bio-Technological Characterization of the Saccharomyces bayanus Yeast Strains in Order to Preserve the Local Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikő Gaspar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The wine yeasts have multiple and important applications in the industry, aiming to obtain pure cultures and the selection of those strains which, according to the lab investigations, present superior bio-technological properties. In this study we monitored three types of Saccharomyces bayanus yeast strains, isolated from indigenous grapes varieties, Apold Iordana, Italian Blaj Riesling and Royal Feteasca from Jidvei area, which are present in the collection of the Biotechnologies and Microbiology Research Center of SAIAPM University. The yeast strains were subject to alcoholic fermentation in malt must at different temperatures, in the presence of alcohol, sugar and SO2 in various concentrations. The obtained results led to selecting of those strains which had best results regarding the alcoholic tolerance, osmo-tolerance, fermentation speed under stress conditions and resistance to SO2. These results can have practical applications in using the indigenous strains, isolated from grapes which are from inside the country, so that we preserve the local specificity, and reduce imports regarding this area.

  15. Colonizing Bodies: Corporate Power and Biotechnology in Young Adult Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The American cultural and political landscape has seen changes on the level of seismic shifts in the past four decades, thanks in part to the two very diverse fields of big business and biotechnology. Linking the two arenas together in the literary landscape is a growing body of young adult science fiction that envisions a future shaped profoundly…

  16. Program Applied Biology and Biotechnology. Annual report 1986. Programm Angewandte Biologie und Biotechnologie. Jahresbericht 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    BMFT-funded research projects in 1986 on the sector 'Applied Biology and Biotechnology' are reviewed. The main fields of research were: Microbiological screening methods, waste water, refuse and soil microbiology, genetic engineering, cell cultures, development of new bioreactor systems, measurement and control, biocatalysts, plant cultivation, safety research, biosensory research, biomass utilisation.

  17. Throat Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Throat Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Collecting | ... treatment | Getting results | see BLOOD SAMPLE Collecting A culture is a test that is often used to ...

  18. Characterization of the photosynthetic conditions and pigment profiles of the colour strains of Hypnea musciformis from field-collected and in vitro cultured samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela R. P. Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen JV Lamour. is a species of great economic interest as it produces Κ-carrageenan and has shown biological activities against HIV and HSV viruses. This species displays different colour strains in its natural habitat, which may have implications for the biotechnological potential of the species. The aim of this study was to characterize the photosynthetic apparatus and pigment profile of three colour strains of H. musciformis (green, brown and red in their natural habitat and in culture. Chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II was measured with a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer and pigments were quantified by spectrofluorimetry (chlorophyll a and spectrophotometry (phycobiliproteins. In the natural habitat, we detected significant differences between the colour strains for the following photochemical parameters: the green strain had a higher effective quantum yield (ΦPSII than the red strain and a higher maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax than the brown and red strains. Saturation irradiances were 1000 µE.m-2.s-1 (green and 500 µE.m-2.s-1 (brown and red. Concerning in vitro culture, the green strain presented the lowest ΦPSII, rETRmax, and α rETR, while the brown strain presented the highest values for these same parameters. The chlorophyll a content of the cultured green strain was the lowest. The phycoerythrin contents of the three colour strains were unchanged by either natural of in vitro conditions: lower in green, intermediate in brown and higher in the red strain, ensuring the chromatic identity of the strains. Our results suggest that the green strain has a better performance when exposed to high irradiance, but a lower efficiency under low irradiance compared to the brown and red strains.

  19. Social Responsibility in Developing New Biotechnology : Interpretations of Responsibility in the Governance of Finnish Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Snell, Karoliina

    2009-01-01

    The object of the dissertation is to analyse the concept of social responsibility in relation to research and development of new biotechnology. This is done by examining the relevant actors – researchers, administrators, decision-makers, experts, industry, and the public – involved in the Finnish governance of biotechnology through their roles and responsibilities. Existing practises of responsibility in biotechnology governance, as well as the discourses of responsibility – the actorsâ...

  20. Isolation by a sensitive centrifugation cell culture system of 52 strains of spotted fever group rickettsiae from ticks collected in France.

    OpenAIRE

    Péter, O; Raoult, D.; Gilot, B.

    1990-01-01

    Boutonneuse fever caused by Rickettsia conorii is transmitted mainly by the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. We collected 540 ticks in Marseille, France, and tried to isolate as many strains of rickettsia as possible. Ticks were evaluated for the presence of rickettsia by the hemolymph test and by a new culture system, the centrifugation-shell vial technique. We avoided contamination in the culture system. Prior to ticks being submitted to the hemolymph test, they were disinfected. O...

  1. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  2. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  3. What is the future of animal biotechnology?

    OpenAIRE

    Alison L Van Eenennaam

    2006-01-01

    Animal biotechnology encompasses a broad range of techniques for the genetic improvement of domesticated animal species, although the term is increasingly associated with the more controversial technologies of cloning and genetic engineering. Despite the many potential applications of these two biotechnologies, no public or private entity has yet delivered a genetically engineered food-animal product to the global market, and the sale of milk or meat from cloned animals and their offspring is...

  4. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR; Mahalingam, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Blessed with extremely rich biodiversity, Malaysia is all geared up to explore new high technology to utilize the advantage it possesses whilst to protect its environment. Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities for industrial growth, health and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to address the evolution of biotechnology in...

  5. Framing Biotechnology in Iranian TV Series

    OpenAIRE

    H. Khaniki; M. H. Panahi; M. A. Ghaneirad; Z. Zardar

    2014-01-01

    Media as public opinion formers have crucial role in supporting the growth and development of science and technology . They form media frames in various fields of science and Technology. This paper seeks to identify frames which Iranian television series depict biotechnology. The Biotechnology frames Identified through qualitative framing analysis. To achieve this goal, all TV series of Five main national channels for a five-year period (2008-2013) were considered and two TV series – “Balhaye...

  6. Ethics in biotechnology and biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jameel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Great advances in technology produce unique challenges. Every technology also has a dual use, which needs to be understood and managed to extract maximum benefits for mankind and the development of civilization. The achievements of physicists in the mid-20th century resulted in the nuclear technology, which gave us the destructive power of the atomic bomb as also a source of energy. Towards the later part of the 20th century, information technology empowered us with fast, easy and cheap access to information, but also led to intrusions into our privacy. Today, biotechnology is yielding life- saving and life-enhancing advances at a fast pace. But, the same tools can also give rise to fiercely destructive forces. How do we construct a security regime for biology? What have we learnt from the management of earlier technological advances? How much information should be in the public domain? Should biology, or more broadly science, be regulated? Who should regulate it? These and many other ethical questions need to be addressed.

  7. Immunoassays in monitoring biotechnological drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygax, D; Botta, L; Ehrat, M; Graf, P; Lefèvre, G; Oroszlan, P; Pfister, C

    1996-08-01

    For the evaluation and interpretation of pharmacokinetic data reliable quantitative determinations are a requirement that can only be met by well-characterized and fully validated analytical methods. To cope with these requirements a method is being established that is based on an integrated and automated fiber-optic biospecific interaction analysis system (FOBIA) for immunoassays. Performance characteristics of this system used in monitoring of recombinant hirudin (CGP 39 393) are presented. Recombinant hirudin is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of human thrombin. Owing to its size and charge, recombinant hirudin is mainly eliminated by glomerular filtration. But only a fraction of the hirudin dose seems to be reabsorbed at the proximal tubule by luminal endocytosis and hydrolyzed by lysosomal enzymes, leaving approximately 50% of the dose to be extracted in the urine. Thus, renal clearance of recombinant hirudin in the absence of renal insufficiency appears to depend primarily on the glomerular filtration rate. During a 3-month i.v. tolerability study in dogs, some of the dogs developed antibodies against recombinant hirudin. The hirudin-antibody complex accumulated in plasma and apparent hirudin plasma concentrations were therefore much higher than expected from single-dose kinetics. Hirudin captured by antibodies showed an extended half-life and the hirudin-antibody complex is still pharmacologically active, as demonstrated by the observed increase in thrombin time. In conclusion, only appropriate analytical methods allow adequate monitoring and pharmacokinetic characterization of biotechnology drugs in biological materials. PMID:8857560

  8. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Menendez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellulases have numerous applications in several industries, including biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, pulp and paper, textile, laundry, and agriculture.Cellulose-degrading bacteria are widely spread in nature, being isolated from quite different environments. Cellulose degradation is the result of a synergic process between an endoglucanase, an exoglucanase and a,β-glucosidase. Bacterial endoglucanases degrade ß-1,4-glucan linkages of cellulose amorphous zones, meanwhile exoglucanases cleave the remaining oligosaccharide chains, originating cellobiose, which is hydrolyzed by ß-glucanases. Bacterial cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 are comprised in fourteen Glycosil Hydrolase families. Several advantages, such as higher growth rates and genetic versatility, emphasize the suitability and advantages of bacterial cellulases over other sources for this group of enzymes. This review summarizes the main known cellulolytic bacteria and the best strategies to optimize their cellulase production, focusing on endoglucanases, as well as it reviews the main biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases in several industries, medicine and agriculture.

  9. New biotechnologies in Serbian forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galović Vladislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the results achieved in the laboratory for molecular studies of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad, in the field of biotechnology, mainly in molecular genetics, genomics and functional genomics. Researches are designed to serve as a breeding tool. The aim was to clarify the processes of classical genetics by applying modern methods and enable a qualitative and rapid progress in understanding the processes that occur at the level of genes in the genome of forest plant species and thus help the processes of conservation of valuable taxa at the time of global climate change. The results are presented within various research fields and by type of forest trees that were given priority by importance in forest ecosystems. Studies have in most cases been of applicative character with the aim of solving the major problems in forestry, but also of fundamental nature when they were necessary to elucidate the response of forest species to the induced stress, which is an inevitable component of the time characterized by tolerance and adaptation as keywords. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike SRbije, br. III 43002: Biosenzing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirano istraživanje i integrisano upravljanje ekosistemima i br. III 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje i IPA - OXIT

  10. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 μm plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  11. Medical biotechnology trends and achievements in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-10-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers' role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology.

  12. Establishment of in vitro culture of grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of in vitro culture from shoot tip explants (meristemetic tissue) of grapes was investigated through tissue culture technique. These explants were collected from gene bank of Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources (IABGR), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. Fifteen accessions of grapes were surface sterilized and tested on 75% MS media for germination and initial growth parameters. Accession No. 020017 (Dakh-1) exhibited highest viability (100%), shoot length (4.12 cm) and nodes plant (3.8). Moreover, it was found that response of cultures to different treatments was dependent both on accession and treatment duration. In conclusion, this protocol proved to be useful in optimizing the dose and duration of the treatment of grape explants with the surface disinfectant. (author)

  13. Applications of microfluidics in microalgae biotechnology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Yi-Je; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2016-03-01

    Microalgae have been one of the important sources for biofuel production owing to their competitive advantages such as no need to tap into the global food supply chain, higher energy density, and absorbing carbon dioxide to mitigate global warming. One of the key factors to ensure successful biofuel production is that it requires not only bioprospecting of the microalgae with high lipid content, high growth rate and tolerance to environmental parameters but also on-site monitoring of the cultivation process and optimization of the culturing conditions. However, as the conventional techniques usually involve in complicated procedures, or are time-consuming or labor intensive, microfluidics technology offers an attractive alternative to resolve these issues. In this review, applications of microfluidics to bioprospecting in microalgae biotechnology were discussed such as cell identification, cell sorting/screening, cell culturing and cell disruption. In addition, utilization of microalgae in micro-sized fuel cells and microfluidic platforms for biosensing was addressed. This review reports the recent studies and offers a look into how microfluidics is exploited to tackle the issues encountered in the microalgae biotechnology. PMID:26807667

  14. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta F. Simões

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM. Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  15. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection

    KAUST Repository

    Simoes, Marta Filipa

    2016-06-22

    Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs) and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs) are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM). Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  16. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Marta F; Dias, Nicolina; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2016-06-22

    Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs) and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs) are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM). Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  17. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Marta F; Dias, Nicolina; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs) and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs) are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM). Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders. PMID:27681915

  18. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Marta F.; Dias, Nicolina; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs) and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs) are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM). Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  19. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Black, R; F. Fava; Mattei, N.; Robert, Vincent; Seal, S; Verdier, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare (...

  20. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. [Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  1. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  2. Biotechnology Education. Engaging the Learner: Embedding Information Literacy Skills into a Biotechnology Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Helena; Hockey, Julie

    2007-01-01

    One of the challenges of the Biotechnology industry is keeping up to date with the rapid pace of change and that much of the information, which students learn in their undergraduate studies, will be out of date in a few years. It is therefore crucial that Biotechnology students have the skills to access the relevant information for their studies…

  3. Crafts and Craft Education as Expressions of Cultural Heritage: Individual Experiences and Collective Values among an International Group of Women University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores relationships between crafts, craft education and cultural heritage as reflected in the individual experiences and collective values of fifteen female university students of different nationalities. The students (all trainee teachers) were following a course in crafts and craft education as part of an International Study…

  4. Asian and European American Cultural Values, Collective Self-Esteem, Acculturative Stress, Cognitive Flexibility, and General Self-Efficacy among Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bryan S. K.; Omizo, Michael M.

    2005-01-01

    Asian American college students' adherence to Asian and European American cultural values and their relations to collective self-esteem, acculturative stress, cognitive flexibility, and general self-efficacy were examined. On the basis of data from 156 respondents, the results supported the hypothesis that adherence to Asian and European American…

  5. A Study on Effect of different culture media on amylase enzyme production by a native strain of Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    ziba Akbari; Hashem Nayeri; Keivan Beheshtimaal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Amylases are among the most important enzymes and have great significance in present-day biotechnology. Amylase with commercial applications is mainly derived from the genus Bacillus. The main purpose of this study is identification and isolatation amylase enzyme producer Bacillus, determining the amylase enzyme activity and affecting a number of culture medium on amylase enzyme production. Materials and methods: Soil, water and wastewater samples were collected from agricul...

  6. Proteomics: A Biotechnology Tool for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa eEldakak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path towards crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.

  7. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I M; Nawar, Ali I; Rohila, Jai S

    2013-01-01

    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path toward crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. PMID:23450788

  8. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis complex species isolated from culture collection of clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silvestre Ataides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Candida parapsilosis is a common yeast species found in cases of onychomycosis and candidemia associated with infected intravascular devices. In this study, we differentiated Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis , and Candida metapsilosis from a culture collection containing blood and subungual scraping samples. Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of these species to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.METHODS:Differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex species was performed by amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH gene and digestion by the restriction enzyme Ban I. All isolates were evaluated for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using Etest, a method for antifungal susceptibility testing.RESULTS:Among the 87 isolates, 78 (89.7% were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto , five (5.7% were identified as C. orthopsilosis , and four (4.6% were identified as C. metapsilosis . Analysis of antifungal susceptibility showed that C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole. One C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to amphotericin B and itraconazole. Moreover, 10.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Two C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates and one C. metapsilosis isolate were susceptible to fluconazole in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSIONS:We reported the first molecular identification of C. parapsilosiscomplex species in State of Goiás, Brazil. Additionally, we showed that although the three species exhibited differences in antifungal susceptibility profiles, the primary susceptibility of this species was to caspofungin.

  9. Biotechnology Approaches to Life Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Andrew; McKay, David; Schweitzer, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The direct detection of organic biomarkers for living or fossil microbes on Mars by an in situ instrument is a worthy goal for future lander missions. Several new and innovative biotechnology approaches are being explored. Firstly we have proposed an instrument based on immunological reactions to specific antibodies to cause activation of fluorescent stains. Antibodies are raised or acquired to a variety of general and specific substances that might be in Mars soil. These antibodies are then combined with various fluorescent stains and applied to micron sized numbered spots on a small (2-3 cm) test plate where they become firmly attached after freeze drying. Using technology that has been developed for gene mining in DNA technology up to 10,000 tests per square inch can now be applied to a test plate. On Mars or the planet/moon of interest, a sample of soil from a trench or drill core is extracted with water and/or an organic solvent and ultrasonication and then applied to the test plate. Any substance, which has an antibody on the test plate, will react with its antibody and activate its fluorescent stain. At the moment a small UV light source will illuminate the test plate, which is observed with a small CCD camera, although other detection systems will be applied. The numbered spots that fluoresce indicate the presence of the tested-for substance, and the intensity indicates relative amounts. Furthermore with up to a thousand test plates available false positives and several variations of antibody can also be screened for. The entire instrument can be quite small and light, on the order of 10 cm in each dimension. A possible choice for light source may be small UV lasers at several wavelengths. Some of the wells or spots can contain simply standard fluorescent stains used to detect live cells, dead cells, DNA, etc. The stains in these spots may be directly activated, with no antibodies being necessary. The proposed system will look for three classes of

  10. Organisation of biotechnological information into knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boh, B

    1996-09-01

    The success of biotechnological research, development and marketing depends to a large extent on the international transfer of information and on the ability to organise biotechnology information into knowledge. To increase the efficiency of information-based approaches, an information strategy has been developed and consists of the following stages: definition of the problem, its structure and sub-problems; acquisition of data by targeted processing of computer-supported bibliographic, numeric, textual and graphic databases; analysis of data and building of specialized in-house information systems; information processing for structuring data into systems, recognition of trends and patterns of knowledge, particularly by information synthesis using the concept of information density; design of research hypotheses; testing hypotheses in the laboratory and/or pilot plant; repeated evaluation and optimization of hypotheses by information methods and testing them by further laboratory work. The information approaches are illustrated by examples from the university-industry joint projects in biotechnology, biochemistry and agriculture.

  11. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its application to diverse biotechnologies, including the bioremediation of toxic metals, recovery of useful metals, biocorrosion, and microbial electrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis), were introduced. Two potential biotechnologies based on microbial EET, namely the electrochemical control of microbial metabolism and electrochemical stimulation of microbial symbiotic reactions (electric syntrophy), were also discussed. PMID:26004795

  12. Needed: models of biotechnology intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E Richard; Castle, David; Cloutier, L Martin; Daar, Abdallah S; Smith, Pamela J

    2002-08-01

    Although never uncontroversial, intellectual property rights in biotechnological innovation are once more the focus of intense debate. The debate has yet to reach any result, largely because of several important errors in the way that various disciplines approach it. These errors include making assumptions without empirical basis and conflating various intellectual property regimes. What is needed is a transdisciplinary integrated method to correct these errors. Such a method can be implemented through the construction of alternative models of intellectual property protection designed to balance the various social, ethical and economic constraints that affect biotechnology.

  13. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  14. Biotechnology and medicine of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practice of biology and medicine has been revolutionized during the past ten years by the advent of three biotechnologies-recombinant DNA techniques, the monoclonal antibody technology, and the development of microchemical instrumentation, machines that permit the rapid and effective synthesis and sequence analysis of proteins and genes. In this article, these powerful biotechnologies are discussed, with particular emphasis on microchemical instrumentation, a major focus of my efforts for the past 15 years. The author also discusses two fundamental problems in modern medicine that are being explored in the laboratory using these techniques-genetic engineering of the nervous system and the mapping and sequencing of the human genome

  15. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Pogue, Brian W.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Tunnell, James W.; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, “Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery,” which includes 12 contributions from attendees of the 2011 conference Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XII.

  16. What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

  17. Biotechnology for site restoration: scope of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitchaeva, O.

    1996-09-18

    The potential of modern biotechnology for solving problems related with the nuclear industry, especially site restoration, are investigated. The advantages of biotechnology, the current applications in Russia, main points of international collaboration, and political considerations are discussed.

  18. Culture, corporation and collective action: The Department of Energy's American Indian consultation program on the Nevada Test Site in political ecological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmo, David Brian

    In the western United States, Numic-speaking Indian peoples wield more power today than ever before. Following centuries of depopulation, land and resource loss, and directed change interventions aimed at assimilating them into mainstream society, they are revitalizing traditional culture and renewing their claims to lands and resources by demanding equal participation in national-level activities that affect land and resources that were once under their control. In 1994, representatives of Numic Indian tribes representing three ethnic groups involved in consultation with the U.S. Department of Energy on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) decided by consensus to "incorporate" themselves as the Consolidated Group of Tribes and Organizations (CGTO) to defend their common interests in and claims to NTS lands and resources. What caused 16 distinct, autonomous, sovereign American Indian tribal entities to incorporate themselves as a corporate organization? Using a political ecology perspective, this study examines the social, cultural and political processes operating at multiple levels of analysis and applies social and cultural theories of (1) ethnic cultural persistence, (2) the emergence and evolution of collective action groups for defending cultural interests in "common property," (3) the role of corporate and organizational structure and culture in the articulation of social relations between contending groups, and (4) the related shifts or changes in the distribution of structural power as a result of changing policy environments to a case study-based ethnographic analysis of an ongoing program of American Indian consultation.

  19. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development...

  20. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research, and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development...

  1. Initiatives on a sustainable development strategy for Finnish biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Raine; Kulvik, Martti

    2005-01-01

    The need for the strategic initiatives for biotechnology strategy emerged in interviews with 90 Finnish biotechnology leaders in the ETLA Biotechnology Survey, conducted at the end of 2004. This paper discusses on the policy implications for the project on “The biotechnology industry as a part of the Finnish National Innovation System” financed by Tekes, the National Technology Agency of Finland. Tekes has strongly encouraged the formation of policy implications and strategic initiatives for ...

  2. Life sciences, biotechnology, and microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Hayes, C.; Grindeland, R.; Lanhan, J. W.; Morrison, D.

    1987-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) studies on rats flown aboard Spacelab 3 are discussed, and evidence for the direct effect of microgravity on cell function is reviewed. SL-3 rat GH cells were found to experience a secretory lesion (they contained more hormone per cell, but released less per cell relative to controls). Pituitary cell culture experiments on the STS-8 mission showed that GH cells did not subsequently release as much hormone as did control cells, indicating a secretory lesion. Changes in bone and muscle noted in SL-3 rats are related to GH cell findings.

  3. Biotechnological approach in crop improvement by mutation breeding in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeranto, H.; Sobrizal; Sutarto, Ismiyati; Manurung, Simon; Mastrizal [National Nuclear Energy Agency, Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2002-02-01

    Mutation breeding has become a proven method of improving crop varieties. Most research on plant mutation breeding in Indonesia is carried out at the Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). Nowadays, a biotechnological approach has been incorporated in some mutation breeding researches in order to improve crop cultivars. This approach is simply based on cellular totipotency, or the ability to regenerate whole, flowering plants from isolated organs, pieces of tissue, individual cells, and protoplasts. Tissue culture technique has bee extensively used for micro propagation of disease-free plants. Other usage of this technique involves in various steps of the breeding process such as germplasm preservation, clonal propagation, and distant hybridization. Mutation breeding combined with tissue culture technique has made a significant contribution in inducing plant genetic variation, by improving selection technology, and by accelerating breeding time as for that by using anther or pollen culture. In Indonesia, research on mutation breeding combined with tissue culture techniques has been practiced in different crop species including rice, ginger, banana, sorghum etc. Specially in rice, a research on identification of DNA markers linked to blast disease resistance is now still progressing. A compiled report from some research activities is presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  5. Energy Crop and Biotechnology for Biofuel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangcai Peng; Neal Gutterson

    2011-01-01

    @@ Selection of energy crops is the first priority for large-scale biofuel production in China.As a major topic, it was extensively discussed in the Second International Symposium on Bioenergy and Biotechnology, held from October 16-19(th), 2010 in Huazhong Agricultural University(HZAU), Wuhan, China, with more than one hundred registered participants(Figure 1).

  6. Biotechnologizing Jatropha for local sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puente, D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether and how the biotechnologization process that the fuel-plant Jatropha curcas is undergoing might strengthen local sustainable development. It focuses on the ongoing efforts of the multi-stakeholder network Gota Verde to harness Jatropha within local small-scale productio

  7. National strategy of safety of biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document was drafted in the frame of the sustainable development, the social fairness, the citizen participation; in Bolivia the management of the biotechnology and the security of the same one are identified for the first time to the actors involved in constituting in a document for the sustainable management of the conservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity in Bolivia

  8. Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

  9. Final report, International Symposium on Environmental Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, Donald L.

    2000-03-20

    This meeting included technical presentations of state-of-the-art research which were integrated with tutorials and workshops by practicing technologies in the broad field of environmental biotechnology. This meeting was designed to be, in every respect, truly global. Over 150 excellent abstracts from around the world were accepted. For example, presentations were heard from technical workers in Southeast Asia, Russia, China, Europe, North Africa, India, and the US. By having these selected presenters, as well as identified experienced tutors with focused workshops, all participants benefited from this interactive symposium. A number of social events further promoted informal exchange of ideas, discussions of technical problems, and exploration of new applications. This international symposium on environmental biotechnology was on the campus of Northeastern University but all Boston area universities were included and participated using designed conference Co-Chairs. This symposium, with an attendance of several hundred people, was considered a major success. Workers with experience in one area of environmental biotechnology learned from the wealth of established backgrounds of those in other areas of environmental biotechnology. To formally disseminate conference results, it was pre-arranged that all technical presentations were reviewed for formal publications.

  10. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  11. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  12. Biotechnology Education in India: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kirti; Mehra, Kavita; Govil, Suman; Singh, Nitu

    2013-01-01

    Among the developing countries, India is one of those that recognises the importance of biotechnology. The trajectory of different policies being formulated over time is proof that the government is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency. However, to cater to the ever-growing biotech industry, skilled manpower is required. This article…

  13. [The new Colombian criminal code and biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2002-01-01

    The author describes the process by which new offenses concerning biotechnology have been included in Colombia's Penal Code and discusses some of the more controversial aspects involved. She examines the various stages of the passage of the Bill through Parliament and the modifications undergone. She also provides well-argued criticism of the text, with appropriate reference to Constitutional provisions regarding the rights concerned.

  14. Design for values in agricultural biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, van den Henk

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology dates from the last two decades of the twentieth century. It involves the creation of plants and animals with new useful traits by inserting one or more genes taken from other species. New legal possibilities for patenting transgenic organisms and isolated genes have be

  15. Personality and Impersonality in Biotechnology Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2006-01-01

    With the emergence of biotechnology, the field account has been replaced by something that we may refer to as a laboratory account - a kind of narrative that constitutes the Materials and Methods section of the IMRD model (introduction, methods, results and discussion). Research focusing on field...

  16. The Brave New World of Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Is it the science that will save the world from starvation, or will it mean the end of the world as it is known? While some people fear genetically altered "Frankenfoods" and DNA experiments with pathogenic microorganisms that could result in worldwide epidemics, others view biotechnology as using biological organisms to make products that benefit…

  17. Biotechnology System Facility: Risk Mitigation on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R., III; Galloway, Steve R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is working with its international partners to develop space vehicles and facilities that will give researchers the opportunity to conduct scientific investigations in space. As part of this activity, NASA's Biotechnology Cell Science Program (BCSP) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a world-class biotechnology laboratory facility for the International Space Station (ISS). This report describes the BCSP, including the role of the BTS. We identify the purpose and objectives of the BTS and a detailed description of BTS facility design and operational concept, BTS facility and experiment-specific hardware, and scientific investigations conducted in the facility. We identify the objectives, methods, and results of risk mitigation investigations of the effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on the BTS data acquisition and control system. These results may apply to many other space experiments that use commercial, terrestrial-based data acquisition technology. Another focal point is a description of the end-to-end process of integrating and operating biotechnology experiments on a variety of space vehicles. The identification of lessons learned that can be applied to future biotechnology experiments is an overall theme of the report. We include a brief summary of the science results, but this is not the focus of the report. The report provides some discussion on the successful 130-day tissue engineering experiment performed in BTS on Mir and describes a seminal gene array investigation that identified a set of unique genes that are activated in space.

  18. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  19. Analysis of Factors Influencing Forest Farmers' Enthusiasm for Forest Culture and Management after the Completion of Reform of Collective Forest Right System

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Xingliang; Wu, Hailong; HU, Wangyin

    2014-01-01

    Taking Jiangshan City in Zhejiang Province for example, this article uses the binary logit choice model based on the field survey data, to study the factors influencing forest farmers' enthusiasm for forest culture and management after the completion of reform of collective forest right. Finally the following recommendations are put forth: further improving and implementing the forest ecological benefit compensation fund system; reforming the felling management mode and gradually establishing...

  20. Dance as self, culture, and community : the construction of personal and collective meaning and identity in competitive ballroom and salsa dancing

    OpenAIRE

    Marion, Jonathan Saul

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation uses salsa and competitive ballroom dancing as case studies to explore the role of chosen activities and commitment systems in shaping personal and collective meaning and identity in modern, urbanized society. Embedded in the wider social phenomena of leisure, these dance forms constitute chosen cultural arenas where people often find meaning, identity, and community. Participation is voluntary, and people are not compelled to engage in these activities. Yet these leisure ac...

  1. Cross-border extended collective licensing: a solution to online dissemination of Europe’s cultural heritage? : Final report prepared for EuropeanaConnect

    OpenAIRE

    Axhamn, Johan; Guibault, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    An issue which recently has gained increased attention from legislators is how to stimulate the digitization and online availability of the collections held by libraries, museums and other cultural institutions – sometimes referred to as our “common heritage” – and at the same time give full respect to established copyright norms. At European level, this attention is evident in the Digital Libraries Initiative, the Communication from the European Commission on Copyright in the Knowledge Econo...

  2. Cultures of "Clostridium acetobutylicum" from various collections comprise Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium beijerinckii, and two other distinct types based on DNA-DNA reassociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J L; Toth, J; Santiwatanakul, S; Chen, J S

    1997-04-01

    The best-known acetone-butanol (solvent)-producing bacterium is the Weizmann organism, Clostridium acetobutylicum, which was used for starch-based industrial fermentation. In the past two decades, cultures of "C. acetobutylicum" from various culture collections have included organisms that were isolated for sugar (molasses)-based industrial solvent production. Recent biochemical and genetic studies have revealed significant differences among some of these "C. acetobutylicum" strains. We used DNA-DNA reassociation to analyze 39 cultures of "C. acetobutylicum" and phenotypically similar organisms from major collections. The results of this study clearly identified four groups intergroup reassociation values of less than 30%. All of the intragroup values except the value for one strain were 68% or more, which supported species status for each group. The C. acetobutylicum group (with ATCC 824 as the type strain) consisted of 17 cultures and had average reassociation values of 10% with the other three groups. All strains of C. acetobutylicum produced riboflavin in milk, and the cultures were bright yellow, which is useful for differentiating this species from the other three groups. The Clostridium beijerinckii group (with VPI 5481 [= ATCC 25752] as the type strain) consisted of 16 cultures and included strains NCIMB 8052 and NCP 270. Strains NCP 262 and NRRL B643 constituted the third group, whereas strain N1-4 ("Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum") and its derivative, strain N1-4081, formed the fourth group. At present, the last two groups are each represented by only one independent strain; definitive descriptions of these two groups as two new or revived species will require further phenotypic characterization, as well as identification of additional strains. C. beijerinckii NCP 270, Clostridium sp. strain NRRL B643, and "C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum" were used in industrial solvent production from molasses, which confirms that the new organisms used for the

  3. Biotechnological production of natural zero-calorie sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Ryan N; De Mey, Marjan; Anderson, Jeff; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

    2014-04-01

    The increasing public awareness of adverse health impacts from excessive sugar consumption has created increasing interest in plant-derived, natural low-calorie or zero-calorie sweeteners. Two plant species which contain natural sweeteners, Stevia rebaudiana and Siraitia grosvenorii, have been extensively profiled to identify molecules with high intensity sweetening properties. However, sweetening ability does not necessarily make a product viable for commercial applications. Some criteria for product success are proposed to identify which targets are likely to be accepted by consumers. Limitations of plant-based production are discussed, and a case is put forward for the necessity of biotechnological production methods such as plant cell culture or microbial fermentation to meet needs for commercial-scale production of natural sweeteners. PMID:24503452

  4. Liquid-liquid extraction by reversed micelles in biotechnological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilikian B. V.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In biotechnology there is a need for new purification and concentration processes for biologically active compounds such as proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, or cells that combine a high selectivity and biocompatibility with an easy scale-up. A liquid-liquid extraction with a reversed micellar phase might serve these purposes owing to its capacity to solubilize specific biomolecules from dilute aqueous solutions such as fermentation and cell culture media. Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant molecules containing an inner core of water molecules, dispersed in a continuous organic solvent medium. These reversed micelles are capable of selectively solubilizing polar compounds in an apolar solvent. This review gives an overview of liquid-liquid extraction by reversed micelles for a better understanding of this process.

  5. Technoscience, technological cultures and socialisation

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Aarden

    2009-01-01

    Technoscience is deeply linked to national cultures across terrains as diverse as medicine, agricultural biotechnologies, ICTs, energy technologies, etc. Understanding the cultural dimension of technoscience is vital for the project of socialisation. This project should be embedded in technological and political cultures, taking variation in cultural approaches to technoscience, national identity and political decision-making seriously. Socialisation of science and technology in Europe should...

  6. Attitudes in China about Crops and Foods Developed by Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Zhou, Dingyang; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their attitudes. Data were collected using interview surveys of consumer households, farmer households and scientists. A discrete choice approach was used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Two separate probit models were developed to examine the effect of various factors on the choices of the respondents. Bt cotton farmers had a very positive attitude because Bt cotton provided them with significant economic benefits. Chinese consumers from developed regions had a higher acceptance and willingness to pay for GM foods than consumers in other regions. The positive attitude toward GM foods by the scientific community will help to promote biotechnology in China in the future. Our survey emphasized that educational efforts made by government officials, the media and scientists can facilitate the acceptance of GM technology in China. Further educational efforts will be critical for influencing consumer attitudes and decisions of government agencies in the future. More effective educational efforts by government agencies and public media concerning the scientific facts and safety of GM foods would enhance the acceptance of GM crops in China.

  7. Biotechnological production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Menga, Valeria; Digesu, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale; van Sinderen, Douwe; Cattivelli, Luigi; Fares, Clara; Spano, Giuseppe

    2011-07-27

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were obtained from durum wheat flour samples and screened for roseoflavin-resistant variants to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing strains. Two riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated as described above were used for the preparation of bread (by means of sourdough fermentation) and pasta (using a prefermentation step) to enhance their vitamin B2 content. Pasta was produced from a monovarietal semolina obtained from the durum wheat cultivar PR22D89 and, for experimental purposes, from a commercial remilled semolina. Several samples were collected during the pasta-making process (dough, extruded, dried, and cooked pasta) and tested for their riboflavin content by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The applied approaches resulted in a considerable increase of vitamin B2 content (about 2- and 3-fold increases in pasta and bread, respectively), thus representing a convenient and efficient food-grade biotechnological application for the production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta. This methodology may be extended to a wide range of cereal-based foods, feed, and beverages. Additionally, this work exemplifies the production of a functional food by a novel biotechnological exploitation of LAB in pasta-making.

  8. Attitudes in China about Crops and Foods Developed by Biotechnology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Han

    Full Text Available Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their attitudes. Data were collected using interview surveys of consumer households, farmer households and scientists. A discrete choice approach was used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Two separate probit models were developed to examine the effect of various factors on the choices of the respondents. Bt cotton farmers had a very positive attitude because Bt cotton provided them with significant economic benefits. Chinese consumers from developed regions had a higher acceptance and willingness to pay for GM foods than consumers in other regions. The positive attitude toward GM foods by the scientific community will help to promote biotechnology in China in the future. Our survey emphasized that educational efforts made by government officials, the media and scientists can facilitate the acceptance of GM technology in China. Further educational efforts will be critical for influencing consumer attitudes and decisions of government agencies in the future. More effective educational efforts by government agencies and public media concerning the scientific facts and safety of GM foods would enhance the acceptance of GM crops in China.

  9. Attitudes in China about Crops and Foods Developed by Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Zhou, Dingyang; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their attitudes. Data were collected using interview surveys of consumer households, farmer households and scientists. A discrete choice approach was used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Two separate probit models were developed to examine the effect of various factors on the choices of the respondents. Bt cotton farmers had a very positive attitude because Bt cotton provided them with significant economic benefits. Chinese consumers from developed regions had a higher acceptance and willingness to pay for GM foods than consumers in other regions. The positive attitude toward GM foods by the scientific community will help to promote biotechnology in China in the future. Our survey emphasized that educational efforts made by government officials, the media and scientists can facilitate the acceptance of GM technology in China. Further educational efforts will be critical for influencing consumer attitudes and decisions of government agencies in the future. More effective educational efforts by government agencies and public media concerning the scientific facts and safety of GM foods would enhance the acceptance of GM crops in China. PMID:26418161

  10. Biotechnology Applications in Fish Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Baylan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to put cultured species on the market with high quality and few casualties, many important studies are carried out. Most of the researches are conducted in the development of feed and feed ingredients 30-60% of the production cost in farming. Therefore, in aquaculture, an interest in alternative feed ingredients is moving at a very fast rate. In this context, the use of enzymes, probiotics and prebiotics in animal feed has steadily increased in recent years with reasons such as effective control of fish diseases and prevention of infection, strengthening the immune system of fish, increase of the digestibility, reduction of the feed cost, reduction of larval-term mortality, provision of increase in growth, live weight gain, and getting rid of the negative effects of stress.

  11. The Potential Biotechnological Applications of the Exopolysaccharide Produced by the Halophilic Bacterium Halomonas almeriensis

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Béjar; Emilia Quesada; Juan Antonio Mata; Inmaculada Llamas; Hakima Amjres

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) produced by the type strain, M8T, of the halophilic bacterium Halomonas almeriensis, to ascertain whether it might have any biotechnological applications. All the cultural parameters tested influenced both bacterial growth and polysaccharide production. EPS production was mainly growth-associated and under optimum environmental and nutritional conditions M8T excreted about...

  12. Biilliards, rhythms, collectives - Billiards at a Danish activity center as a culturally specific form of active ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2014-01-01

    Through an ethnographic study of older men playing billiards at an activity centre and a document study of how the concept of activity has changed during the last 60 years, this article argues that active ageing policies overlook that activities are culturally significant forms of practise situated...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Leptolyngbya sp. KIOST-1, a Filamentous Cyanobacterium with Biotechnological Potential for Alimentary Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome of cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. KIOST-1 isolated from a microalgal culture pond in South Korea. The genome consists of 13 contigs containing 6,320,172 bp, and a total of 5,327 coding sequences were predicted. This genomic information will allow further exploitation of its biotechnological potential for alimentary purposes. PMID:27635005

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Leptolyngbya sp. KIOST-1, a Filamentous Cyanobacterium with Biotechnological Potential for Alimentary Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome of cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. KIOST-1 isolated from a microalgal culture pond in South Korea. The genome consists of 13 contigs containing 6,320,172 bp, and a total of 5,327 coding sequences were predicted. This genomic information will allow further exploitation of its biotechnological potential for alimentary purposes. PMID:27635005

  15. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  16. Biotechnology/materials: The growing interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Raymond F.

    1986-01-01

    The biotechnology/materials interaction dates back 3.5 billion years, yet today offers novel challenges for human creativity. The materials cycle practiced by microorganisms is compared to that recently practiced by humans. The processes of the biotechnology materials cycle are biogenesis, bioleaching, biofouling, biocorrosion, biodeterioration, and bioaccumulation. Each process is examined for mechanisms, scale of effect, and opportunity for creative human intervention or utilization. More than 50 of our metallic elements are bio-processed in nature. A like number of biogenic materials have been identified, with some at production rates of trillions of kg per annum (p.a.). Microorganisms can substitute for energy, capital, and labor. Over the eons, microorganisms have gained special attributes that now offer creative humans a new era of partnership in materials processing.

  17. Bacterial communities in urban aerosols collected with wetted-wall cyclonic samplers and seasonal fluctuations of live and culturable airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Hernlem, Bradley J; Sarreal, Chester Z; Mandrell, Robert E

    2012-02-01

    Airborne transmission of bacterial pathogens from point sources (e.g., ranches, dairy waste treatment facilities) to areas of food production (farms) has been suspected. Determining the incidence, transport and viability of extremely low levels of pathogens require collection of high volumes of air and characterization of live bacteria from aerosols. We monitored the numbers of culturable bacteria in urban aerosols on 21 separate days during a 9 month period using high volume cyclonic samplers at an elevation of 6 m above ground level. Culturable bacteria in aerosols fluctuated from 3 CFU to 6 million CFU/L of air per hour and correlated significantly with changes in seasonal temperatures, but not with humidity or wind speed. Concentrations of viable bacteria determined by fluorescence staining and flow cytometry correlated significantly with culturable bacteria. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria constituted 98% of the bacterial community, which was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing using DNA from aerosols. Aquabacterium sp., previously characterized from aquatic environments, represented 63% of all clones and the second most common were Burkholderia sp; these are ubiquitous in nature and some are potential human pathogens. Whole genome amplification prior to sequencing resulted in a substantial decrease in species diversity compared to characterizing culturable bacteria sorted by flow cytometry based on scatter signals. Although 27 isolated colonies were characterized, we were able to culture 38% of bacteria characterized by sequencing. The whole genome amplification method amplified DNA preferentially from Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum, a minor member of the bacterial communities, whereas Variovorax paradoxus dominated the cultured organisms. PMID:22193549

  18. UNIVERSITY BASIC RESEARCH AND APPLIED AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Yin

    2004-01-01

    I examine the effects of R&D inputs on the subset of life-science outputs which demonstrably has influenced later technology, as evidenced by literature citations in agricultural biotechnology patents. Universities are found to be a principal seedbed for cutting-edge technology development. A university's life-science research budget strongly affects its technology-relevant life-science output as well as graduate education.

  19. The Nose Knows: Biotechnological Production of Vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Remko T.; van Beek, Hugo L.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin, the compound responsible for the well-known vanilla aroma, is almost exclusively produced via a chemical process, with only a small fraction extracted from natural sources, namely, the bean of the orchid Vanilla planifolia. Research is being done towards a green chemistry process to obtain natural vanillin. A model biotechnological process is described that exposes students to the essentials of a greener, chemoenzymatic synthesis of vanillin in a multiday laboratory experiment. Bact...

  20. Novel oscillatory flow reactors for biotechnological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica This thesis explores the biotechnological applications of two novel scale-down oscillatory flow reactors (OFRs). A micro-bioreactor (working mostly in batch) and a continuous meso-reactor systems were developed based on a 4.4 mm internal diameter tube with smooth periodic constrictions (SPC), both operating under oscillatory flow mixing (OFM). The first part is dedicated to the flow characterisation in the novel SPC geom...

  1. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper.

  2. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper. PMID:26683567

  3. Reproductive biotechnologies in Swedish male alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Maria Celina

    2016-01-01

    Alpacas have become more popular during the last decades. The herds have been built up by importing live animals since reproductive biotechnologies, for example artificial insemination and semen preservation, are not well-developed in this species. A major problem is the viscosity of the seminal plasma which hinders processing or evaluation of the semen. Enzymes have been used to deal with the viscous seminal plasma but they may damage spermatozoa or render them incapable of fertilization. Th...

  4. New challenges and opportunities for industrial biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Industrial biotechnology has not developed as fast as expected due to some challenges including the emergences of alternative energy sources, especially shale gas, natural gas hydrate (or gas hydrate) and sand oil et al. The weaknesses of microbial or enzymatic processes compared with the chemical processing also make industrial biotech products less competitive with the chemical ones. However, many opportunities are still there if industrial biotech processes can be as similar as th...

  5. Electrodes and Electrokinetic Systems for Biotechnological Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Research in bioelectronics studies biological systems and materials in combination with electronic interfaces for the development of devices, e.g., for medical applications, drug and toxicity tests, and biotechnology in general. Neural implants and pacemakers are examples of products developed from this area of research. Conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) bridge biology and electronics with a combination of biocompatibility, flexibility, and capability to the...

  6. Microencapsulation in food science and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Filomena; Orlando, Pierangelo; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele

    2012-04-01

    Microencapsulation can represent an excellent example of microtechnologies applied to food science and biotechnology. Microencapsulation can be successfully applied to entrap natural compounds, like essential oils or vegetal extracts containing polyphenols with well known antimicrobial properties to be used in food packaging. Microencapsulation preserves lactic acid bacteria, both starters and probiotics, in food and during the passage through the gastrointestinal tract, and may contribute to the development of new functional foods.

  7. Status of coal biotechnology in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Afzal Ghauri; M.A. Anwar; N. Akhtar; R. Haider; A. Tawab [National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    2009-07-01

    Pakistan is endued with 185 billion tons colossal reserves of coal, but only 7.89 % of the country total energy requirements are met by coal. Most of the Pakistani coal reserves are sub-bituminous or lignitic in nature and contain 3-12 % sulphur. Existence of sulphur compounds in coal limits its industrial application due to environmental as well as technical problems. However, coal biotechnology can emerge as panacea for upgrading the huge reserves of coal in Pakistan. In general, coal biotechnology refers to biodesulphurization, biosolubilization and biogasification of coal. NIBGE has long term interests in the field of coal bioprocessing for tapping prime resources of indigenous coal. In NIBGE, lab scale experiments for coal biodesulphurization led to 90% efficiency in sulphur removal. Heap leaching was also carried out at the level of 10 and 20 tons coal heaps with 60% sulphur removal efficiency. Furthermore, a prototype of 300 tons coal heap was set up with a local cement industry and 75% microbial desulphurization was achieved. The league of indigenously isolated chemolithotrophic bacteria was involved in coal desulphurization. On the other side, for making the best use of 175 billion tons of low rank coal reserves, coal biosolubilization and subsequent biogasification is being projected. Consequently, beneficiated coal through biotechnology is supposed to contribute in energy mix of Pakistan for providing electricity requirements of the country and saving huge oil import bills.

  8. Methods in industrial biotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with the definition that biotechnology is really no more than a name given to a set of techniques and processes, the authors apply some set of fuzzy techniques to chemical industry problems such as finding the proper proportion of raw mix to control pollution, to study flow rates, to find out the better quality of products. We use fuzzy control theory, fuzzy neural networks, fuzzy relational equations, genetic algorithms to these problems for solutions. When the solution to the problem can have certain concepts or attributes as indeterminate, the only model that can tackle such a situation is the neutrosophic model. The authors have also used these models in this book to study the use of biotechnology in chemical industries. This book has six chapters. First chapter gives a brief description of biotechnology. Second chapter deals will proper proportion of mix of raw materials in cement industries to minimize pollution using fuzzy control theory. Chapter three gives the method of determination of te...

  9. BIOTECHNOLOGY – SCIENCE AND SECTOR OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko N. P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents information about the features of biotechnology as the driving force of scientific and technological progress. The national programs of the leading countries of the world, it is one of the priority sectors, reflecting the level of the socio-economic condition of the society. Biotechnology is now successfully solves such vital tasks as providing food, the establishment of effective medicaments, obtaining fuel based on renewable raw materials, maintaining ecological balance, conservation of biological resources of the Earth. The development of agriculture in modern conditions is impossible without agricultural biotechnology. It is directly related to viticulture. Choosing an object of an integrated system (embryos, apical meristem, axillary buds, it is possible to clone plants, i.e. produce plants identical to the original. If the same as the object to use isolated cells or protoplasts, in this case, there will most likely altered versions, creating diversity for the breeder. Genetic engineering – the science of younger, since the establishment of the first chimeric DNA molecule. The origin of genetic engineering is rooted in the development of molecular genetics, biochemistry. These technologies, undoubtedly progressive, but their biological safety is still insufficiently explored and is a danger to all life on Earth. The leading Western powers carried out strict control over the introduction of transgenic crop plants, as they are in agrocenosis new biological risks that may adversely affect the plants, animals and humans. In Russia, as in other countries, have already adopted the law “State regulation of genetic engineering”

  10. New biotechnological procedures in swine reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.

  11. Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Vidal, Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli; Sousa, Maria da Glória Teixeira de; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro

    2013-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP) culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and genetic features in order to authenticate these fungal cultures. Only five isolates were viable after almost 30 years, showing typical morphological characteristics, and sequencing analysis using Coi-F and Coi-R primers revealed 99% identity with Coccidioides genera. These five isolates were then preserved in liquid nitrogen and sterile water, and remained viable after two years of storage under these conditions, maintaining the same features.

  12. Statistical experimental design for bioprocess modeling and optimization analysis: repeated-measures method for dynamic biotechnology process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Min; Gilmore, David F

    2006-11-01

    The statistical design of experiments (DOE) is a collection of predetermined settings of the process variables of interest, which provides an efficient procedure for planning experiments. Experiments on biological processes typically produce long sequences of successive observations on each experimental unit (plant, animal, bioreactor, fermenter, or flask) in response to several treatments (combination of factors). Cell culture and other biotech-related experiments used to be performed by repeated-measures method of experimental design coupled with different levels of several process factors to investigate dynamic biological process. Data collected from this design can be analyzed by several kinds of general linear model (GLM) statistical methods such as multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), univariate ANOVA (time split-plot analysis with randomization restriction), and analysis of orthogonal polynomial contrasts of repeated factor (linear coefficient analysis). Last, regression model was introduced to describe responses over time to the different treatments along with model residual analysis. Statistical analysis of biprocess with repeated measurements can help investigate environmental factors and effects affecting physiological and bioprocesses in analyzing and optimizing biotechnology production. PMID:17159235

  13. ISS Biotechnology Facility - Overview of Analytical Tools for Cellular Biotechnology Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, A. S.; Towe, B. C.; Anderson, M. M.; Gonda, S. R.; Pellis, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ISS Biotechnology Facility (BTF) platform provides scientists with a unique opportunity to carry out diverse experiments in a microgravity environment for an extended period of time. Although considerable progress has been made in preserving cells on the ISS for long periods of time for later return to Earth, future biotechnology experiments would desirably monitor, process, and analyze cells in a timely way on-orbit. One aspect of our work has been directed towards developing biochemical sensors for pH, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide for perfused bioreactor system developed at Johnson Space Center. Another aspect is the examination and identification of new and advanced commercial biotechnologies that may have applications to on-orbit experiments.

  14. A New Kind of English: Cultural Variance, Citizenship and DiY Politics amongst the Exodus Collective in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Lee Robert

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the construction of citizenship in contemporary England as a boundary between "proper" and "improper" English behavior. Through an ethnographic study of the Exodus Collective, a Rastafarian-anarchist community that was located north of London, I show that constructing citizenship also constructs criminality by indicating…

  15. The Programmers' Collective: Fostering Participatory Culture by Making Music Videos in a High School Scratch Coding Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Deborah; Vasudevan, Veena; Kafai, Yasmin B.

    2015-01-01

    We highlight ways to support interest-driven creation of digital media in Scratch, a visual-based programming language and community, within a high school programming workshop. We describe a collaborative approach, the programmers' collective, that builds on social models found in do-it-yourself and open source communities, but with scaffolding…

  16. Geological collections of the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum (Leiden, The Netherlands): cultural heritage of the geosciences and mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler Prins, C.F.

    2004-01-01

    The role played by the geological collections of the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, the National Museum of Natural History, in documenting the developments in the Earth sciences in The Netherlands and abroad is discussed, as well as the influence exercised by the mining industry and former Dutch

  17. Impact of the freeze-drying process on product appearance, residual moisture content, viability, and batch uniformity of freeze-dried bacterial cultures safeguarded at culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiren, Jindrich; Hellemans, Ann; De Vos, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In this study, causes of collapsed bacterial cultures in glass ampoules observed after freeze-drying were investigated as well as the influence of collapse on residual moisture content (RMC) and viability. Also, the effect of heat radiation and post freeze-drying treatments on the RMC was studied. Cake morphologies of 21 bacterial strains obtained after freeze-drying with one standard protocol could be classified visually into four major types: no collapse, porous, partial collapse, and collapse. The more pronounced the collapse, the higher residual moisture content of the freeze-dried product, ranging from 1.53 % for non-collapsed products to 3.62 % for collapsed products. The most important cause of collapse was the mass of the inserted cotton plug in the ampoule. Default cotton plugs with a mass between 21 and 30 mg inside the ampoule did not affect the viability of freeze-dried Aliivibrio fischeri LMG 4414(T) compared to ampoules without cotton plugs. Cotton plugs with a mass higher than 65 mg inside the ampoule induced a full collapsed product with rubbery look (melt-back) and decreasing viability during storage. Heat radiation effects in the freeze-drying chamber and post freeze-drying treatments such as exposure time to air after freeze-drying and manifold drying time prior to heat sealing of ampoules influenced the RMC of freeze-dried products. To produce uniform batches of freeze-dried bacterial strains with intact cake structures and highest viabilities, inserted cotton plugs should not exceed 21 mg per ampoule. Furthermore, heat radiation effects should be calculated in the design of the primary drying phase and manifold drying time before heat sealing should be determined as a function of exposure time to air.

  18. Investment into the future of microbial resources: culture collection funding models and BRC business plans for biological resource centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; McCluskey, Kevin; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2014-01-01

    Through their long history of public service, diverse microbial Biological Resource Centres (mBRCs) have made myriad contributions to society and science. They have enabled the maintenance of specimens isolated before antibiotics, made available strains showing the development and change of pathogenicity toward animals, humans and plants, and have maintained and provided reference strains to ensure quality and reproducibility of science. However, this has not been achieved without considerable financial commitment. Different collections have unique histories and their support is often tied to their origins. However many collections have grown to serve large constituencies and need to develop novel funding mechanisms. Moreover, several international initiatives have described mBRCs as a factor in economic development and have led to the increased professionalism among mBRCs. PMID:24570852

  19. Investment into the future of microbial resources: culture collection funding models and BRC business plans for biological resource centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; McCluskey, Kevin; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2014-01-01

    Through their long history of public service, diverse microbial Biological Resource Centres (mBRCs) have made myriad contributions to society and science. They have enabled the maintenance of specimens isolated before antibiotics, made available strains showing the development and change of pathogenicity toward animals, humans and plants, and have maintained and provided reference strains to ensure quality and reproducibility of science. However, this has not been achieved without considerable financial commitment. Different collections have unique histories and their support is often tied to their origins. However many collections have grown to serve large constituencies and need to develop novel funding mechanisms. Moreover, several international initiatives have described mBRCs as a factor in economic development and have led to the increased professionalism among mBRCs.

  20. Biotechnology and genetic optimization of fast-growing hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garton, S.; Syrkin-Wurtele, E.; Griffiths, H.; Schell, J.; Van Camp, L.; Bulka, K. (NPI, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1991-02-01

    A biotechnology research program was initiated to develop new clones of fast-growing Populus clones resistant to the herbicide glyphosate and resistant to the leaf-spot and canker disease caused by the fungus Septoria musiva. Glyphosate-resistant callus was selected from stem segments cultured in vitro on media supplemented with the herbicide. Plants were regenerated from the glyphosate-resistant callus tissue. A portion of plants reverted to a glyphosate susceptible phenotype during organogenesis. A biologically active filtrate was prepared from S. musiva and influenced fresh weight of Populus callus tissue. Disease-resistant plants were produced through somaclonal variation when shoots developed on stem internodes cultured in vitro. Plantlets were screened for disease symptoms after spraying with a suspension of fungal spores. A frequency of 0.83 percent variant production was observed. Genetically engineered plants were produced after treatment of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefasciens strains carrying plasmid genes for antibiotic resistance. Transformers were selected on media enriched with the antibiotic, kanamycin. Presence of foreign DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Protoplasts of popular were produced but did not regenerate into plant organs. 145 refs., 12 figs., 36 tabs.

  1. Coral-Associated Actinobacteria: Diversity, Abundance, and Biotechnological Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Huda M; Kalendar, Aisha A

    2016-01-01

    Marine Actinobacteria, particularly coral-associated Actinobacteria, have attracted attention recently. In this study, the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria associated with three types of coral thriving in a thermally stressed coral reef system north of the Arabian Gulf were investigated. Coscinaraea columna, Platygyra daedalea and Porites harrisoni have been found to harbor equivalent numbers of culturable Actinobacteria in their tissues but not in their mucus. However, different culturable actinobacterial communities have been found to be associated with different coral hosts. Differences in the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria were detected between the mucus and tissue of the same coral host. In addition, temporal and spatial variations in the abundance and diversity of the cultivable actinobacterial communities were detected. In total, 19 different actinobacterial genera, namely Micrococcus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Renibacterium, Nocardia, Microbacterium, Dietzia, Cellulomonas, Ornithinimicrobium, Rhodococcus, Agrococcus, Kineococcus, Dermacoccus, Devriesea, Kocuria, Marmoricola, and Arthrobacter, were isolated from the coral tissue and mucus samples. Furthermore, 82 isolates related to Micromonospora, Brachybacterium, Nocardia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, and Streptomyces showed antimicrobial activities against representative Gram-positive and/or Gram-negative bacteria. Even though Brevibacterium and Kocuria were the most dominant actinobacterial isolates, they failed to show any antimicrobial activity, whereas less dominant genera, such as Streptomyces, did show antimicrobial activity. Focusing on the diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria may help to understand how corals thrive under harsh environmental conditions and may lead to the discovery of novel antimicrobial metabolites with potential biotechnological applications. PMID:26973601

  2. The zootechnical applications of biotechnology in animal reproduction: current methods and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Thibier, Michel

    2005-01-01

    International audience The development of the four generations of Reproductive Biotechnology, particularly in cattle and since the last world war, represents one of the best examples of the success story of technology transfer. This review will only refer to the first three generations and will not deal with nuclear transfer nor transgenesis. Based on sound so-called "finalised" research, Artificial Insemination first, then in vivo collected embryo transfer and later in vitro fertilised em...

  3. The Carolina conference on marine biotechnology: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenberg, D.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes proceedings of a Carolina Conference on Marine Biotechnology held March 24-26, 1985, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This report consists of the responders' summary of each topic discussed. The topics presented were General Prospects for Marine Biotechnology, Bioactive Substances from Marine Organisms, Fundamental Processes in Marine Organisms as Guides for Biotechnology Development, Genetic Manipulation of Potential Use to Mariculture, Organisms Interactions with Marine Surfaces: Marine Glues, and Biomolecular Engineering Materials Applications.

  4. The science communication environment: biotechnology researchers' discourse on communication

    OpenAIRE

    Merton, Eve

    2009-01-01

    Communication is problematic for biotechnology because biotechnology uses or changes life processes, which leads us to question ourselves and our definitions of life — it is controversial. Yet, communication is crucial for engagement and understanding among research scientists and the wider community. This thesis examined the communication beliefs, attitudes and practices of researchers at the National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology (NICB) in Ireland, using semi- structured, face-to...

  5. UNCOVERING FACTORS INFLUENCING PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.

    2002-01-01

    Significant divergence exists in public opinions about biotechnology. Although there is broad support for plant biotechnology for health benefits, opinions differ on the issue of animal genetics for pure economic benefits. While some are opposed to it, many are undecided about genetically modified foods. Considerable skepticism exists about scientists, corporations and government which have negative influence on public acceptance of food biotechnology. Consumers' personal attributes have sign...

  6. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.

    2003-01-01

    Public debate on biotechnology is embroiled in controversy over the risks and benefits associated with this emerging technology. Using data from a national survey, this study analyzes public acceptance of biotechnology in food production. Empirical results suggest that while there is general optimism about biotechnology and support for its use in plants, public approval of its use in animals is perhaps more limited. Younger and more-educated individuals are generally more supportive of biotec...

  7. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.

    2002-01-01

    Public debate on biotechnology is embroiled in controversy over the risks and benefits associated with this emerging technology. Using data from a national survey, this study analyzes public acceptance of biotechnology in food production. Empirical results suggest that while there is general optimism about biotechnology, and support for its use in plants, public approval of its use in animals is perhaps more limited. Younger and more educated individuals are generally more supportive of biote...

  8. Advancement of Marketing Developing Biotechnology-Based Business

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidas Vilmantas; Borisas Melnikas

    2014-01-01

    The article, in a complex way, analyzes the needs of marketing improvement in developing biotechnology­based business and highlights its role in the context of modern society and globalization challenges. The article distinguishes between the existing problems of biotechnology business, the present perspectives and specific characteristics of developing the marketing of biotechnological business. The paper represents the possibility of the substantial modernization of marketing tools with reg...

  9. [Trends of microalgal biotechnology: a view from bibliometrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Yinsong; Yan, Jinding; Song, Haigang; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-10-01

    Microalgae is a single-cell organism with the characteristics of high light energy utilization rate, fast growth rate, high-value bioactive components and high energy material content. Therefore, microalgae has broad application prospects in food, feed, bioenergy, carbon sequestration, wastewater treatment and other fields. In this article, the microalgae biotechnology development in recent years were fully consulted, through analysis from the literature and patent. The progress of microalgal biotechnology at home and abroad is compared and discussed. Furthermore, the project layout, important achievements and development bottlenecks of microalgae biotechnology in our country were also summarized. At last, future development directions of microalgae biotechnology were discussed. PMID:26964332

  10. [Trends of microalgal biotechnology: a view from bibliometrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Yinsong; Yan, Jinding; Song, Haigang; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-10-01

    Microalgae is a single-cell organism with the characteristics of high light energy utilization rate, fast growth rate, high-value bioactive components and high energy material content. Therefore, microalgae has broad application prospects in food, feed, bioenergy, carbon sequestration, wastewater treatment and other fields. In this article, the microalgae biotechnology development in recent years were fully consulted, through analysis from the literature and patent. The progress of microalgal biotechnology at home and abroad is compared and discussed. Furthermore, the project layout, important achievements and development bottlenecks of microalgae biotechnology in our country were also summarized. At last, future development directions of microalgae biotechnology were discussed.

  11. Chinese Health Care Products Industry's Future Strategic Positioning: Elderly Biotechnological Health Care Products Based on TCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study future strategic positioning of elderly biotechnological health care products from biological extraction technology in Chinese health care products industries, we analyze that the development of high-quality elderly health care products is needed and still remains a challenge due to the rapid growth in biological extraction technology. In this study, with the improvement of people's living standards, health care products has become a major consumer products for elderly, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM as a traditional medicine health and health culture, is health care products developed an important theoretical basis and effective material source, development with biological extraction technology can promote future strategic positioning of elderly biotechnological health care products in Chinese health care products industry.

  12. Biotechnological and in situ food production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bleckwedel, Juliana; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2013-06-01

    Polyols such as mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol, and xylitol are naturally found in fruits and vegetables and are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and algae. These sugar alcohols are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries and in medicine because of their interesting physicochemical properties. In the food industry, polyols are employed as natural sweeteners applicable in light and diabetic food products. In the last decade, biotechnological production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been investigated as an alternative to their current industrial production. While heterofermentative LAB may naturally produce mannitol and erythritol under certain culture conditions, sorbitol and xylitol have been only synthesized through metabolic engineering processes. This review deals with the spontaneous formation of mannitol and erythritol in fermented foods and their biotechnological production by heterofermentative LAB and briefly presented the metabolic engineering processes applied for polyol formation. PMID:23604535

  13. Program Applied Biology and Biotechnology. Annual report 1987. Programm Angewandte Biologie und Biotechnologie. Jahresbericht 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    By order of the Federal Government, the Biology, Ecology, Energy Department (PBE) is responsible for the 3 sub-programs 'energy research and technologies', 'applied biology and biotechnology' and 'environmental research and technology'. This volume deals with the second-mentioned sub-program and briefly describes the projects supported by the Federal Government, specifically the objectives, working program, state of the studies, costs and share in the costs paid by the Federal Government. The following subdivision was made: 1. biological process engineering and enzyme technology, 2. cell culture and cell fusion technology, 3. genetic engineering and microbial technologies, 4. equivalent methods which can replace animal experiments, biological security, 5. plant genetics and protection, 6. promotion of focal points of activity, 7. indirect specific promotion, 8. new fields and overlapping activities in biotechnology, 9. regrowing raw materials. (RB).

  14. The biotechnology innovation machine: a source of intelligent biopharmaceuticals for the pharma industry--mapping biotechnology's success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, R P; Kaitin, K I

    2014-05-01

    The marriage of biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry (pharma) is predicated on an evolution in technology and product innovation. It has come as a result of advances in both the science and the business practices of the biotechnology sector in the past 30 years. Biotechnology products can be thought of as "intelligent pharmaceuticals," in that they often provide novel mechanisms of action, new approaches to disease control, higher clinical success rates, improved patient care, extended patent protection, and a significant likelihood of reimbursement. Although the first biotechnology product, insulin, was approved just 32 years ago in 1982, today there are more than 200 biotechnology products commercially available. Research has expanded to include more than 900 biotechnology products in clinical trials. Pharma is substantially engaged in both the clinical development of these products and their commercialization.

  15. Biotechnological production of xylitol with Candida yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Granström, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a biotechnological production process for xylitol. The xylitol production characteristics of Candida millerii, Candida guilliermondii and Candida tropicalis were compared. C. tropicalis was the best xylitol producer. A volumetric productivity of 5.7 g xylitol L-1 h-1 was achieved with 69 % yield from D-xylose on a mineral medium with a modified repeated fed batch production method. The xylitol production mechanism was confirmed by chemostat cultivation stu...

  16. Production of vanillin: a biotechnological opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural aroma compounds are of major interest to the food and fragrance industry. Vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) was isolated from the vanilla beans in 1816 and its world consumption has reached today about 12000 tons per year. But only approximately 50 tons per year are extracted from vanilla pods (Vanilla planifolia). The remainder is provided by synthetic vanillin. This review is about alternative processes to produce natural vanillin de novo or by biotransformation using biotechnological methods involving enzymes, microorganisms and plant cells. (author)

  17. Biotechnology network promotes knowledge of transgenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red de Ingenieria Genetica Aplicada al Mejoramiento de Cultivos Tropicales (Rigatrop) integrated by a group of scientists from the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Universidad Nacional (UNA) and of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (TEC) have organized two forums on the topic of transgenics. The first forum has shown successful experiences of development of transgenic crops in Latin America, as for example: the transgenic bean, project realized in Brazil and transgenic eggplant in Bangladesh. The second forum has been about transgenics and environment effected at the UCR, on the occasion of World Environment Day. Rigatrop members are working currently in two projects applying biotechnological tools to coffee

  18. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  19. New developments in Biotechnology-an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    人类运用生物技术已经几千年了.直到上个世纪,发酵方法生产啤酒、白酒、面包、酱油以及其它食品都是在农产品领域的主要应用.自从50年前DNA和RNA结构和作用被揭示以来,一场生物技术的革命便产生了,并导致了两项关键技术的发展:1)通过基因技术进行遣传因素的修改;2)新型快速多样分析工具;最新的发展都基于遗传学.这篇文章我将探讨以下问题:遗传因子修改的进展和公众认可的争论;基因学技术在农产品领域的应用;我的TNO研究所与中国伙伴联合的生物技术项目的例子;谷物科技方面的生物技术.%Mankind applies biotechnology already for thousands of years. Until the last century, fermentation processes for producing beer, wine, bread, soy sauces and other food products were the main application in the agri- food area. The elucidation of the structure and role of DNA and RNA in living organisms since the past 50 years has created a revolution in biotechnology, resulting in two key technological developments: 1) Genetic modification by gene technology 2) New rapid and multiple analytical tools; the latest developments being based on genomics. In this presentation I will discuss: - progress in genetic modification and the issue of public acceptance - application of genomic based technologies in the agri- food field - examples of joint biotechnology projects of my TNO institute with partners in China - biotechnology in cereal science and technology

  20. Biotechnology Protein Expression and Purification Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Project Scientist Core Facility is to provide purified proteins, both recombinant and natural, to the Biotechnology Science Team Project Scientists and the NRA-Structural Biology Test Investigators. Having a core facility for this purpose obviates the need for each scientist to develop the necessary expertise and equipment for molecular biology, protein expression, and protein purification. Because of this, they are able to focus their energies as well as their funding on the crystallization and structure determination of their target proteins.

  1. Bioremediation Approaches in a Laboratory Activity for the Industrial Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology (IBAM Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Raiger Iustman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology is an optional 128h-course for Chemistry and Biology students at the Faculty of Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This course is usually attended by 25 students, working in teams of two. The curriculum, with 8 lab exercises, includes an oil bioremediation practice covering an insight of bioremediation processes: the influence of pollutants on autochthonous microbiota, biodegrader isolation and biosurfactant production for bioavailability understanding. The experimental steps are: (A evaluation of microbial tolerance to pollutants by constructing pristine soil microcosms contaminated with diesel or xylene and (B isolation of degraders and biosurfactant production analysis. To check microbial tolerance, microcosms are incubated during one week at 25-28ºC. Samples are collected at 0, 4 and every 48 h for CFU/g soil testing. An initial decrease of total CFU/g related to toxicity is noticed. At the end of the experiment, a recovery of the CFU number is observed, evidencing enrichment in biodegraders. Some colonies from the CFU counting plates are streaked in M9-agar with diesel as sole carbon source. After a week, isolates are inoculated on M9-Broth supplemented with diesel to induce biosurfactant production. Surface tension and Emulsification Index are measured in culture supernatants to visualize tensioactive effect of bacterial products. Besides the improvement in the good microbiological practices, the students show enthusiasm in different aspects, depending on their own interests. While biology students explore and learn new concepts on solubility, emulsions and bioavailability, chemistry students show curiosity in bacterial behavior and manipulation of microorganisms for environmental benefits.

  2. Halophiles, coming stars for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jin; Chen, Jin-Chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-11-15

    Industrial biotechnology aims to produce chemicals, materials and biofuels to ease the challenges of shortage on petroleum. However, due to the disadvantages of bioprocesses including energy consuming sterilization, high fresh water consumption, discontinuous fermentation to avoid microbial contamination, highly expensive stainless steel fermentation facilities and competing substrates for human consumption, industrial biotechnology is less competitive compared with chemical processes. Recently, halophiles have shown promises to overcome these shortcomings. Due to their unique halophilic properties, some halophiles are able to grow in high pH and high NaCl containing medium under higher temperature, allowing fermentation processes to run contamination free under unsterile conditions and continuous way. At the same time, genetic manipulation methods have been developed for halophiles. So far, halophiles have been used to produce bioplastics polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), ectoines, enzymes, and bio-surfactants. Increasing effects have been made to develop halophiles into a low cost platform for bioprocessing with advantages of low energy, less fresh water consumption, low fixed capital investment, and continuous production. PMID:25447783

  3. Transforming exoelectrogens for biotechnology using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TerAvest, Michaela A; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular electron transfer pathways allow certain bacteria to transfer energy between intracellular chemical energy stores and extracellular solids through redox reactions. Microorganisms containing these pathways, exoelectrogens, are a critical part of microbial electrochemical technologies that aim to impact applications in bioenergy, biosensing, and biocomputing. However, there are not yet any examples of economically viable microbial electrochemical technologies due to the limitations of naturally occurring exoelectrogens. Here we first briefly summarize recent discoveries in understanding extracellular electron transfer pathways, then review in-depth the creation of customized and novel exoelectrogens for biotechnological applications. We analyze engineering efforts to increase current production in native exoelectrogens, which reveals that modulating certain processes within extracellular electron transfer are more effective than others. We also review efforts to create new exoelectrogens and highlight common challenges in this work. Lastly, we summarize work utilizing engineered exoelectrogens for biotechnological applications and the key obstacles to their future development. Fueled by the development of genetic tools, these approaches will continue to expand and genetically modified organisms will continue to improve the outlook for microbial electrochemical technologies. PMID:26284614

  4. Plant biotechnological patents from the legal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhah Abdullah

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which plant biotechnological patent in terms of natural product which has human intervention, different from other product and the entitlement of such a patent whether it is the inventor or biological donor s patent? In addition, the article discusses how would one determine the value added” by the company s researchers as opposed to the value contributed by the original genetic material. Meanwhile, the poor farmers and indigenous people who are the pioneers in terms of the knowledge of the plant, they are left unprivileged and deprived of their contribution and benefits. Thus, this article would highlight the significance of the contribution made by the original donor especially, in a poor developing country whose natural heritage has been taken away without any consideration, acknowledgment and how to strike a balance between the rights of an inventor and biological donor? Keywords: Plant Biotechnology, Patents, Inventor, Biological Donor, Developing countries Received: 7 July 2009 / Received in revised form: 28 August 2009, Accepted: 28 August 2009, Published online: 22 September 2009

  5. Plant biotechnology : Future perspectives (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ananda Kumar

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant biotechnology has made significant strides in thc past 15 years encompassing within its fold the spectacular developments in plant molecular biology and genetic engineering. Some of the most vexing problems faced in agricultural ecosystems could be solved with the introduction of transgenic crops endowed with traits for insect pest resistance, herbicide tolerance and resistance to viral diseases. Attention is now being focussed on the development of transgenic plants having industrial, economic, pharmaceutical, nutritional and environmental importance. In the next millennium, crops will serve as factories for the synthesis of valuable metabolites and organic compounds. Agronomically important characters, such as drought tolerance, efficiency in photosynthesis, nutrient use and nitrogen fixation will be manipulated in the next century to enhance the genetic and physiological potential of the crops. Recent developments in the genome sequencing of Arabidopsis, rice and maize will have far reaching implications for future agriculture. Structural and functional genomics of plant species will virtually revolutionise the complexion of agricultural biotechnology as well as human health care. It is imperative that the developing world adopts these fast-changing technologies soon and harness their unprecedented potential for the benefit of the mankind. "

  6. Biotechnology Applications of Tethered Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Jackman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of cell membranes in biological systems has prompted the development of model membrane platforms that recapitulate fundamental aspects of membrane biology, especially the lipid bilayer environment. Tethered lipid bilayers represent one of the most promising classes of model membranes and are based on the immobilization of a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support that enables characterization by a wide range of surface-sensitive analytical techniques. Moreover, as the result of molecular engineering inspired by biology, tethered bilayers are increasingly able to mimic fundamental properties of natural cell membranes, including fluidity, electrical sealing and hosting transmembrane proteins. At the same time, new methods have been employed to improve the durability of tethered bilayers, with shelf-lives now reaching the order of weeks and months. Taken together, the capabilities of tethered lipid bilayers have opened the door to biotechnology applications in healthcare, environmental monitoring and energy storage. In this review, several examples of such applications are presented. Beyond the particulars of each example, the focus of this review is on the emerging design and characterization strategies that made these applications possible. By drawing connections between these strategies and promising research results, future opportunities for tethered lipid bilayers within the biotechnology field are discussed.

  7. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL POULTRY MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garda S. A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics based on normal microflora of the birds using perspective strains become increasingly popular for treatment and prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis in poultry. The purpose of the work is the biotechnological data analysis of the composition and functions of the microflora of different birds’ biotopes. One of biotechnological methods for the study of bacterial flora in the birds is a method of in vivo bacteriological control — analysis of group samples of fresh droppings. To study bird bacterial microflora the method based on vital bacteriological control (group sample study of fresh brood is the most effective. Only 60–70% of microorganisms are identified during the analysis of bowels bird microflora. It is shown that the normal microflora of the birds has a protective function because it is colonized on epithelial intestinal area and competes for power sources, has a wider set of enzymes, and also produces a wide range of exometabolites that determine their antagonistic action on pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic transient microorganisms. To improve modern technologies concerning cultivation of various breeds of birds with high genetic potential it needs full understanding of endogenous microflora role in a bird body. We found that as a source of probiotic strains it is better to use gastrointestinal tract laying hens and/or to make a selection of group tests of their fresh litter. Thus the best probiotic properties are characterized by microorganisms genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The results could be used for selection of promising strains to create a acomplex probiotic.

  8. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Lopes, Mariana R; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Long, Tanya M; Calvey, Christopher H; Aerts, Andrea L; Barry, Kerrie W; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P; Hanson, Sara J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lipzen, Anna M; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Ohm, Robin A; Otillar, Robert P; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos A; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A; Slot, Jason C; Stielow, J Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2016-08-30

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as xylose utilization, remains unresolved. Our data also provide insight into early evolution of ascomycetes. We document the loss of H3K9me2/3 heterochromatin, the origin of ascomycete mating-type switching, and panascomycete synteny at the MAT locus. These data and analyses will facilitate the engineering of efficient biosynthetic and degradative pathways and gateways for genomic manipulation.

  9. Halophiles, coming stars for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jin; Chen, Jin-Chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-11-15

    Industrial biotechnology aims to produce chemicals, materials and biofuels to ease the challenges of shortage on petroleum. However, due to the disadvantages of bioprocesses including energy consuming sterilization, high fresh water consumption, discontinuous fermentation to avoid microbial contamination, highly expensive stainless steel fermentation facilities and competing substrates for human consumption, industrial biotechnology is less competitive compared with chemical processes. Recently, halophiles have shown promises to overcome these shortcomings. Due to their unique halophilic properties, some halophiles are able to grow in high pH and high NaCl containing medium under higher temperature, allowing fermentation processes to run contamination free under unsterile conditions and continuous way. At the same time, genetic manipulation methods have been developed for halophiles. So far, halophiles have been used to produce bioplastics polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), ectoines, enzymes, and bio-surfactants. Increasing effects have been made to develop halophiles into a low cost platform for bioprocessing with advantages of low energy, less fresh water consumption, low fixed capital investment, and continuous production.

  10. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted.

  11. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Lopes, Mariana R; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Long, Tanya M; Calvey, Christopher H; Aerts, Andrea L; Barry, Kerrie W; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P; Hanson, Sara J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lipzen, Anna M; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Ohm, Robin A; Otillar, Robert P; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos A; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A; Slot, Jason C; Stielow, J Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2016-08-30

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as xylose utilization, remains unresolved. Our data also provide insight into early evolution of ascomycetes. We document the loss of H3K9me2/3 heterochromatin, the origin of ascomycete mating-type switching, and panascomycete synteny at the MAT locus. These data and analyses will facilitate the engineering of efficient biosynthetic and degradative pathways and gateways for genomic manipulation. PMID:27535936

  12. Governing nanobiotechnology: lessons from agricultural biotechnology regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article uses lessons from biotechnology to help inform the design of oversight for nanobiotechnology. Those lessons suggest the following: first, oversight needs to be broadly defined, encompassing not just regulatory findings around safety and efficacy, but also public understanding and acceptance of the technology and its products. Second, the intensity of scrutiny and review should reflect not just risks but also perceptions of risk. Finally, a global marketplace argues for uniform standards or commercially practical solutions to differences in standards. One way of designing oversight to achieve these purposes is to think about it in three phases—precaution, prudence, and promotion. Precaution comes early in the technology or product’s development and reflects real and perceived uncertainties. Prudence governs when risks and hazards have been identified, containment approaches established, and benefits broadly defined. Transparency and public participation rise to the fore. The promotional phase moves toward shaping public understanding and acceptance and involves marketing issues rather than safety ones. This flexible, three-phase approach to oversight would have avoided some of the early regulatory problems with agricultural biotechnology. It also would have led to a more risk-adjusted pathway to regulatory approval. Furthermore, it would avoid some of the arbitrary, disruptive marketing issues that have arisen.

  13. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted. PMID:25025271

  14. The application of biotechnology in animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal food has to incorporate multiple objectives, ie. it should provide good animal health, good production and reproductive performance, reduce pollution of the environment as well as have the impact on food of animal origin, by supplying it, in addition to basic nutrients, with certain useful substances that can act preventively on the occurrence of various diseases in humans in modern living conditions. This complex task implies the application of scientific knowledge concerning biotechnology in the field of animal feed production, and also includes the use of specific nutrients that are the result of the latest developments in specific disciplines such as molecular biology and genetic engineering. As a result of researches in these areas there were created some varieties of cereals and legumes with improved nutritional properties. On the other hand, obtaining a safe food of animal origin product imposes the use of substances of natural origin (such as probiotics, prebiotics, phytobiotics, enzymes, chelating forms .., which provide better digestibility and more complete utilization of certain nutrients from the feedstuff. In this way, the quantity of undigested substances are significantly reduced as well as soil and the atmosphere pollution. The use of specific additives in animal nutrition resulting from biotechnological research is most frequent when a problem concerning certain level of production or animal health has to be overcome. This implies a group of non-nutritional ingredients which are aimed to regulate the digestive tract microflora, pH, weight gain, as well as to modify metabolic processes etc.

  15. Microbial lipases: Production, properties and biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josana Maria Messias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipases belong to the group of hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol lipids to free fatty acids and glycerol. They have significant potential biotechnological applications in catalyzing organic synthesis reactions in non-aqueous solvents using simplified procedures resulting in conversions of high yields. Lipase production has conventionally been performed by submerged fermentation; however, solid-state fermentation processes have been prominent when residues are used as substrates because they serve as low-cost nutrient sources. Microbial lipases can be used as additives in foods to modify and enhance organoleptic properties, as well as in detergents to hydrolyse fats in the treatment of oily effluents, and also have value for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, and oil chemical industries. More recently, they are used in transesterification reactions to convert plant seed oils into biodiesel. The objective of this work was to review the published literature on the production, properties and applications of microbial lipases, and its biotechnological role in producing biodiesel.

  16. Biotechnology in China II. Chemicals, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, G.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lab. Renewable Resources Engineering; Ouyang, Pingkai [Nanjing Univ. of Technology (China). College of Life Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering; Chen, Jian (eds.) [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Biotechnology

    2010-07-01

    The biochemical engineering and biotechnology is now becoming the most important industry all over the world. China, as a country that has more than 1.3 billion people, has become one of the fastest growing countries in the world during the last several decades. Both the Chinese government and companies pay more and more attention on the research and the application of biotechnology. In the 11th five-year plan (2006-2010), Chinese government unprecedented enhanced the support on the biotechnology in both policy and finance. Currently, the biotechnology gains the most R and D funding in China. With the great support and the increasingly frequent exchanges from abroad, the biotechnology in China becomes more and more important in the world. In recognition of the enormous advances in biotechnology in China, we are pleased to present the second volume of Advances in Biochemical Engineering/ Biotechnology: Biotechnology in China II, edited by P. K. Ouyang, J. Chen and G. T. Tsao, relatively soon after the introduction of the first volume of this multivolume comprehensive books. Since the previous volume was extremely well accepted by the scientific community, we have maintained the overall goal of creating a number of chapters, each devoted to a certain topic by several Chinese research groups working in the field, which provide scientists in academia and public institutions with a well-balanced and comprehensive overview of this growing field in China. We have fully revised the volume and expanded it from bioreaction, bioseparation and bioremediation to more extensive issues in order to cover all recent developments in China into account as much as possible. The new volume of Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology: Biotechnology in China II is a comprehensive description of the state-of-the-art in China, and a guide to the understanding the work of Chinese biochemical engineering and biotechnology researchers. It is specifically directed to microbiologists

  17. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. T. Clint Nesbitt, Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory...://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet_proc_imp.shtml . Current Comment Process for Petitions...

  18. 75 FR 41798 - Solicitation of Letters of Interest to Participate in Biotechnology Quality Management System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Biotechnology Quality Management System Program AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...) is soliciting letters of interest to participate in the APHIS Biotechnology Quality Management System Program. The Biotechnology Quality Management System Program is a voluntary ] compliance...

  19. Forestry seedlings production by biotechnological methods, the forestry of 21th century in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASAN CANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest biotechnology on the Faculty of Forestry Sciences is an interdisciplinary research dedicated to the development and application of advanced technology for the enhancement of forest regeneration and adaptation. Technical capabilities include Eco physiology, forest ecology, tissue culture and adaptation to climate change mitigation. These techniques are also being used to improve nursery culture regimes, pest’s management by biological fighting, planting regimes and new product development for a variety of broadleaf species (Oaks under ecological stress. Successful regeneration relies on the application of work from many forestry disciplines toward the common goal. At the center of any successful program is the production of high-quality seedlings that have god performance on reforestation site. Performance of an reforestation site depends on seedlings growth potential to be expressed. Seedlings growth potential is influenced by the inherent genetic make-up of source material and the culture used during nursery development. If these attributes can be directed toward improving seedling growth on a reforestation site, then the potential productivity of reforestation/afforestation will be increased. Disciplines that are oriented toward improving these faces of producing high-quality seedlings are the main focus of Forest biotechnology, the main objectives of which have been: (i defining forest species through ecophysiological parameters; (ii developing advanced propagation systems through somatic embryogenesis tissue culture technology; (iii applying ecophysiological assessment techniques in supporting seedling production, improved quality and reforestation site performance. The first results, presented in this paper, have been optimistic, but still the profound studies are needed. The main benefit impacts using biotechnology methods in forestry are: (i a model of sustainable development, (ii maintaining forest biodiversity, (iii

  20. The Role of Biotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Views and Perceptions among Key Actors in the Swedish Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Edvardsson Björnberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have put forward agricultural biotechnology as one possible tool for increasing food production and making agriculture more sustainable. In this paper, it is investigated how key actors in the Swedish food supply chain perceive the concept of agricultural sustainability and the role of biotechnology in creating more sustainable agricultural production systems. Based on policy documents and semi-structured interviews with representatives of five organizations active in producing, processing and retailing food in Sweden, an attempt is made to answer the following three questions: How do key actors in the Swedish food supply chain define and operationalize the concept of agricultural sustainability? Who/what influences these organizations’ sustainability policies and their respective positions on agricultural biotechnology? What are the organizations’ views and perceptions of biotechnology and its possible role in creating agricultural sustainability? Based on collected data, it is concluded that, although there is a shared view of the core constituents of agricultural sustainability among the organizations, there is less explicit consensus on how the concept should be put into practice or what role biotechnology can play in furthering agricultural sustainability.

  1. Role of biotechnology in sustainable development of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prospect of biotechnology to provide cost-efficient sustainable cotton production under a safe environment for the 21st century is enormous. The role of plant biotechnology in the improvement of cotton is a rapidly evolving area and very broad. The specific objective of this paper is to provide...

  2. Preface: Biocatalysis and Biotechnology for Functional Foods and Industrial Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth review of biocatalysis and biotechnology with emphasis on functional foods and industrial products. Biocatalysis and biotechnology defined in this book include enzyme catalysis, biotransformation, bioconversi...

  3. Too New for Textbooks: The Biotechnology Discoveries & Applications Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Madelene; Lamb, Neil E.

    2013-01-01

    The "Biotechnology Discoveries and Applications" guidebook aims to provide teachers with an overview of the recent advances in genetics and biotechnology, allowing them to share these findings with their students. The annual guidebook introduces a wealth of modern genomic discoveries and provides teachers with tools to integrate exciting…

  4. Using the Mystery of the Cyclopic Lamb to Teach Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie L.

    2010-01-01

    I present a learning cycle that explores different biotechnologies using the process of in situ hybridization as a platform. Students are presented with a cyclopic lamb and must use biotechnology to discover the mechanism behind the deformity. Through this activity, students learn about signal transduction and discover the processes of polymerase…

  5. Current and Future Leaders' Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Miller, Rene P.

    2009-01-01

    Were elected state FFA officers' attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology significantly different from elected Texas legislators' attitudes about the same topic? The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed in agricultural biotechnology perceptions or information source preferences when compared by leadership status:…

  6. State FFA Officers' Confidence and Trustworthiness of Biotechnology Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.

    2007-01-01

    Are state FFA officers' awareness levels of agricultural topics reported in mass media superior to those who do not serve in leadership roles? The purpose of this study was to determine elected state FFA officers' awareness of biotechnology, and their confidence and trust of biotechnology information sources. Descriptive survey methods were used…

  7. Multidimensional Analysis of High-School Students' Perceptions about Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about public understanding of biotechnology have motivated educational initiatives to improve students' competency to make scientifically sustained decisions regarding controversial issues. Understanding students' perceptions about biotechnology is essential to determine the effectiveness of these programmes. To assess how students'…

  8. Anticipating the future: 'Biotechnology for the poor' as unrealized promise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.; Gupta, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses visions of the future articulated by proponents of `biotechnology for the poor¿, those who claim that an embrace of transgenic technology in agriculture is critical to alleviating poverty in developing countries. Specifically, we analyse how such `biotechnology for the poor¿ pr

  9. Agricultural Communications Students' Awareness and Perceptions of Biotechnology Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.; Dunsford, Deborah W.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural communications students (n=330) from 11 universities were most aware of biotechnology effects on food, less aware of effects on health and the environment. They were somewhat accepting of genetic modifications for plants, not humans. Sources of biotechnology knowledge were science classes, labs, and university professors' beliefs.…

  10. Teaching Biotechnology to Medical Students: Is There an Easy Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggles, Allen W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of biotechnology to medical students, undergraduate students and high school seniors. Suggests changes in how the basic sciences are taught in medical schools. Reviews the effects of teaching biotechnology at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM). (CW)

  11. Sectoral innovation foresight. Biotechnology sector. Final Reeport. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, T. van der; Gijsbers, G.W.; Meis, M.

    2010-01-01

    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s (e.g. recombinant DNA technology) into the full grown economic activity of today. The set of technologies that constitute the field of biotechnology thus find their applications in different sectors, most notably in agricul

  12. Sectoral Innovation Watch Biotechnology Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzing, C.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s into a full grown technological field that is the driving force in innovation processes in many industrial sectors (pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture, food, chemical, environment, instruments). Nowadays, biotechnology is

  13. Biotechnology policies and performance in central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senker, J.; Enzing, C.; Reiss, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how far ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have 'caught up' in biotechnology on the basis of information about the policies and funding for biotechnology research and commercialisation from 2002-2005 and on the research and commercialisation performance of these cou

  14. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  15. Analysis of Factors Influencing Forest Farmers’ Enthusiasm for Forest Culture and Management after the Completion of Reform of Collective Forest Right System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingliang; CHEN; Hailong; WU; Wangyin; HU

    2014-01-01

    Taking Jiangshan City in Zhejiang Province for example,this article uses the binary logit choice model based on the field survey data,to study the factors influencing forest farmers’enthusiasm for forest culture and management after the completion of reform of collective forest right.Finally the following recommendations are put forth:further improving and implementing the forest ecological benefit compensation fund system;reforming the felling management mode and gradually establishing the sustainable forest management system based on forest management plan;improving the technology,market and information services to strengthen the forestry science and technology support;developing the specialty industries such as the bamboo industry and oil-tea camellia industry;developing the under-forest economy and cultivating the underforest industries with characteristics based on the local circumstances.

  16. 77 FR 16846 - National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity Meeting; Office of Biotechnology Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ...; Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Closed...: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive,...

  17. Exploring social norms around cohabitation: The life course, individualization, and culture: Introduction to Special Collection: "Focus on Partnerships: Discourses on cohabitation and marriage throughout Europe and Australia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brienna Perelli-Harris

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Explanations of the increase in cohabitation often rely on the concept of ideational change and shifting social norms. While researchers have investigated cohabitation and the role of social norms from a quantitative perspective, few studies have examined how people discuss the normative context of cohabitation, especially in cross-national comparison. Objective: This article introduces a Special Collection that uses focus group research to compare social norms relating to cohabitation and marriage in 8 countries in Europe. The Introduction explicates the concept of social norms, describes the focus group project, reflects on the method's advantages and limitations, and summarizes the theoretical and methodological contributions of the project. Methods: Collaborators conducted 7−8 focus groups in each country using a standardized questionnaire. They coded each discussion, analyzed the results, and produced a country-specific chapter on a particular theme. They also collaborated on an overview paper that synthesized the overall findings of the project. Results: The articles provide insights into the meanings of partnership formation in each country. In addition, their findings contribute to three main theoretical themes: 1 life courses, sequencing, and intersections; 2 individualization, freedom, and commitment; and 3 culture, religion, and the persistence of the past. Conclusions: This Special Collection contributes to and challenges current explanations of family change by pointing out how social norms shape partnership behavior. The project informs quantitative research by emphasizing the need for a culturally informed interpretation of demographic behavior. We urge researchers to recognize the multiple meanings of cohabitation within each context and across countries.

  18. Agriculture and biotechnology centers of the PAEC: a resume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan recognized the role of nuclear techniques in agricultural and other biological research and started establishing goal-oriented, multi- disciplinary institutions to help agricultural research in the country. A core manpower was trained and centers established in the cities where most of the agricultural research was located; the objective was to supplement the research activity in areas where nuclear techniques would have a clear advantage. The first centre was established at Tandojam, Sindh and others at Faisalabad, Mymensingh, Peshawar and again at Faisalabad. Apart from agricultural research, these centers utilized their facilities and ventured into other areas such as biotechnology and can now take some pride in contributing in the country's economy and in development of human resource and helping develop a science culture in the country. With better management systems, the inputs seem to have been better utilized. That the end users and the government have recognized the contributions of these centers is evident from the number of farmers visiting these institutions for advice and the number of medals awarded to their scientists by the government. These institutes could, perhaps, have done even better yet it seems their positive contributions outweigh their deficiencies. In this piece of writing a brief history of these institutions is given and some information provided about the raison for their programmes and the environment under which the programmes were executed. A few of their salient achievements have also been mentioned. (author)

  19. Contemporary molecular tools in microbial ecology and their application to advancing biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mamoon; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Novel methods in microbial ecology are revolutionizing our understanding of the structure and function of microbes in the environment, but concomitant advances in applications of these tools to biotechnology are mostly lagging behind. After more than a century of efforts to improve microbial culturing techniques, about 70-80% of microbial diversity - recently called the "microbial dark matter" - remains uncultured. In early attempts to identify and sample these so far uncultured taxonomic lineages, methods that amplify and sequence ribosomal RNA genes were extensively used. Recent developments in cell separation techniques, DNA amplification, and high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms have now made the discovery of genes/genomes of uncultured microorganisms from different environments possible through the use of metagenomic techniques and single-cell genomics. When used synergistically, these metagenomic and single-cell techniques create a powerful tool to study microbial diversity. These genomics techniques have already been successfully exploited to identify sources for i) novel enzymes or natural products for biotechnology applications, ii) novel genes from extremophiles, and iii) whole genomes or operons from uncultured microbes. More can be done to utilize these tools more efficiently in biotechnology.

  20. Contemporary molecular tools in microbial ecology and their application to advancing biotechnology

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Mamoon

    2015-09-25

    Novel methods in microbial ecology are revolutionizing our understanding of the structure and function of microbes in the environment, but concomitant advances in applications of these tools to biotechnology are mostly lagging behind. After more than a century of efforts to improve microbial culturing techniques, about 70–80% of microbial diversity – recently called the “microbial dark matter” – remains uncultured. In early attempts to identify and sample these so far uncultured taxonomic lineages, methods that amplify and sequence ribosomal RNA genes were extensively used. Recent developments in cell separation techniques, DNA amplification, and high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms have now made the discovery of genes/genomes of uncultured microorganisms from different environments possible through the use of metagenomic techniques and single-cell genomics. When used synergistically, these metagenomic and single-cell techniques create a powerful tool to study microbial diversity. These genomics techniques have already been successfully exploited to identify sources for i) novel enzymes or natural products for biotechnology applications, ii) novel genes from extremophiles, and iii) whole genomes or operons from uncultured microbes. More can be done to utilize these tools more efficiently in biotechnology.

  1. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, WS; Yuan, JS; Stewart, CN

    2013-10-09

    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  2. The Development of TALE Nucleases for Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousterout, David G; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    The development of a facile genome engineering technology based on transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has led to significant advances in diverse areas of science and medicine. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the development of TALENs and the use of this technology in basic science, biotechnology, and biomedical applications. This includes the discovery of DNA recognition by TALEs, engineering new TALE proteins to diverse targets, general advances in nuclease-based editing strategies, and challenges that are specific to various applications of the TALEN technology. We review examples of applying TALENs for studying gene function and regulation, generating disease models, and developing gene therapies. The current status of genome editing and future directions for other uses of these technologies are also discussed. PMID:26443211

  3. Biotechnological solutions to the nitrogen problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Giles E D; Dixon, Ray

    2014-04-01

    The availability of nitrogen is one of the major limiting factors to crop growth. In the developed world, farmers use unsustainable levels of inorganic fertilisers to promote crop production. In contrast, in the developing world inorganic fertilisers are often not available and small-holder farmers suffer the resultant poor yields. Finding alternatives to inorganic fertilisers is critical for sustainable and secure food production. Bacteria and Archaea have evolved the capability to fix atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, a form readily usable in biological processes. This capability presents an opportunity to improve the nutrition of crop plants, through the introduction into cereal crops of either the nitrogen fixing bacteria or the nitrogenase enzyme responsible for nitrogen fixation. While both approaches are challenging, recent advances have laid the groundwork to initiate these biotechnological solutions to the nitrogen problem. PMID:24679253

  4. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  5. Biotechnological production of gluconic acid: future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Om V; Kumar, Raj

    2007-06-01

    Gluconic acid (GA) is a multifunctional carbonic acid regarded as a bulk chemical in the food, feed, beverage, textile, pharmaceutical, and construction industries. The favored production process is submerged fermentation by Aspergillus niger utilizing glucose as a major carbohydrate source, which accompanied product yield of 98%. However, use of GA and its derivatives is currently restricted because of high prices: about US$ 1.20-8.50/kg. Advancements in biotechnology such as screening of microorganisms, immobilization techniques, and modifications in fermentation process for continuous fermentation, including genetic engineering programmes, could lead to cost-effective production of GA. Among alternative carbohydrate sources, sugarcane molasses, grape must show highest GA yield of 95.8%, and banana must may assist reducing the overall cost of GA production. These methodologies would open new markets and increase applications of GA.

  6. New challenges and opportunities for industrial biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guo-Qiang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Industrial biotechnology has not developed as fast as expected due to some challenges including the emergences of alternative energy sources, especially shale gas, natural gas hydrate (or gas hydrate and sand oil et al. The weaknesses of microbial or enzymatic processes compared with the chemical processing also make industrial biotech products less competitive with the chemical ones. However, many opportunities are still there if industrial biotech processes can be as similar as the chemical ones. Taking advantages of the molecular biology and synthetic biology methods as well as changing process patterns, we can develop bioprocesses as competitive as chemical ones, these including the minimized cells, open and continuous fermentation processes et al.

  7. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF UTILIZATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SEDIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Nikovskaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of information on air-conditioning contaminated with heavy metals sludge municipal wastewater points to the actual ecological and chemical problem and its solution could be implemented within the framework of the biological process involving heterotrophic microorganisms. Information on the spread, toxicity, biochemistry, microbiology, colloidal and chemical properties of sludge sediments of municipal wastewater biological treatment is given in the review. These sediments contain vitamins, amino acids, organic matter, heavy metals (micro- and macroelements. Therefore the most rational approach to sludge wastes utilization is their use as an agricultural fertilizer after partial removal of heavy metals. Hence, the interaction of sludge components with heavy metals, modern methods of their removing from biocolloidal systems and biotechnologies of conversion of sludge wastes into fertilizer based on the enhancing of vital ability of sludge biocenoses are discussed.

  8. A sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    ’s semiotics. I also provide a brief overview of current knowledge about genome architecture, evolution and communication. I stress the importance of not neglecting the fact that there is no simple linear relation between genotype and phenotype. In section 2.5, I present a “toolbox” of concepts for ”mapping...... to exemplify what is the relevance of a sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology. In particular, I introduce the notion of digital-analogical consensus as a semiotic pattern for the creation of complex logical products that constitute specific signs. The chapter ends with some examples of conspicuous semiotic...... to exemplify how a semiotic approach can be of help when organising the knowledge that can lead us to understanding the relevance, the role and the position of signal transduction networks in relation to the larger semiotic networks in which they function, i.e.: in the hierarchical formal processes of mapping...

  9. Nonclinical statistics for pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a reference text for regulatory, industry and academic statisticians and also a handy manual for entry level Statisticians. Additionally it aims to stimulate academic interest in the field of Nonclinical Statistics and promote this as an important discipline in its own right. This text brings together for the first time in a single volume a comprehensive survey of methods important to the nonclinical science areas within the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Specifically the Discovery and Translational sciences, the Safety/Toxiology sciences, and the Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls sciences. Drug discovery and development is a long and costly process. Most decisions in the drug development process are made with incomplete information. The data is rife with uncertainties and hence risky by nature. This is therefore the purview of Statistics. As such, this book aims to introduce readers to important statistical thinking and its application in these nonclinical areas. The cha...

  10. Engineered transcriptional systems for cyanobacterial biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eCamsund

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria can function as solar-driven biofactories thanks to their ability to perform photosynthesis and the ease with which they are genetically modified. In this review, we discuss transcriptional parts and promoters available for engineering cyanobacteria. First, we go through special cyanobacterial characteristics that may impact engineering, including the unusual cyanobacterial RNA polymerase, sigma factors and promoter types, mRNA stability, circadian rhythm, and gene dosage effects. Then, we continue with discussing component characteristics that are desirable for synthetic biology approaches, including decoupling, modularity and orthogonality. We then summarize and discuss the latest promoters for use in cyanobacteria regarding characteristics such as regulation, strength and dynamic range and suggest potential uses. Finally, we provide an outlook and suggest future developments that would advance the field and accelerate the use of cyanobacteria for renewable biotechnology.

  11. Electroporation-based applications in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik, Tadej; Frey, Wolfgang; Sack, Martin; Haberl Meglič, Saša; Peterka, Matjaž; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2015-08-01

    Electroporation is already an established technique in several areas of medicine, but many of its biotechnological applications have only started to emerge; we review here some of the most promising. We outline electroporation as a phenomenon and then proceed to applications, first outlining the best established - the use of reversible electroporation for heritable genetic modification of microorganisms (electrotransformation), and then explore recent advances in applying electroporation for inactivation of microorganisms, extraction of biomolecules, and fast drying of biomass. Although these applications often aim to upscale to the industrial and/or clinical level, we also outline some important chip-scale applications of electroporation. We conclude our review with a discussion of the main challenges and future perspectives.

  12. The Development of TALE Nucleases for Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousterout, David G; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    The development of a facile genome engineering technology based on transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has led to significant advances in diverse areas of science and medicine. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the development of TALENs and the use of this technology in basic science, biotechnology, and biomedical applications. This includes the discovery of DNA recognition by TALEs, engineering new TALE proteins to diverse targets, general advances in nuclease-based editing strategies, and challenges that are specific to various applications of the TALEN technology. We review examples of applying TALENs for studying gene function and regulation, generating disease models, and developing gene therapies. The current status of genome editing and future directions for other uses of these technologies are also discussed.

  13. Biomechatronic Design in Biotechnology A Methodology for Development of Biotechnological Products

    CERN Document Server

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    This cutting-edge guide on the fundamentals, theory, and applications of biomechatronic design principles Biomechatronic Design in Biotechnology presents a complete methodology of biomechatronics, an emerging variant of the mechatronics field that marries biology, electronics, and mechanics to create products where biological and biochemical, technical, human, management-and-goal, and information systems are combined and integrated in order to solve a mission that fulfills a human need. A biomechatronic product includes a biological, mechanical, and electronic part. Beginning with an overvie

  14. Biotechnology in petroleum recovery. The microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further

  15. Insect-derived enzymes: a treasure for industrial biotechnology and food biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Nicole; Zorn, Holger; Rühl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Insects are the most diverse group of organisms on earth, colonizing almost every ecological niche of the planet. To survive in various and sometimes extreme habitats, insects have established diverse biological and chemical systems. Core components of these systems are enzymes that enable the insects to feed on diverse nutrient sources. The enzymes are produced by either the insects themselves (homologous) or by symbiotic organisms located in the insects' bodies or in their nests (heterologous). The use of these insect-associated enzymes for applications in the fields of food biotechnology and industrial (white) biotechnology is gaining more and more interest. Prominent examples of insect-derived enzymes include peptidases, amylases, lipases, and β-D-glucosidases. Highly potent peptidases for the degradation of gluten, a storage protein that can cause intestinal disorders, may be received from grain pests. Several insects, such as bark and ambrosia beetles and termites, are able to feed on wood. In the field of white biotechnology, their cellulolytic enzyme systems of mainly endo-1,4-β-D-glucanases and β-D-glucosidases can be employed for saccharification of the most prominent polymer on earth-cellulose.

  16. Biotechnology in the 21st Century (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Das

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The two technologies that will essentially determine the shape of things to come in the present century are biotechnology and information technology. A merger of biotechnology and information technology is happening right now, a significant example of which is the success of the human genome project. Biotechnology can be said to have started with the unravelling of the structure of DNA in 1953. The next decade saw exciting developments in our understanding of the fundamentals of functioning of biological system, including the role of DNA in protein synthesis. The discovery of reverse transcriptase and restriction enzymes in 1970s paved the way for further advances, including recombinant DNA and hybridoma technologies, often called 'genetic engineering'. The discovery of polymerase chain reaction in 1986 laid the foundation for large-scale applications of biotechnology in various fields. The practical applications of mapping of the entire human genome would be enormous in terms of better overall health care (diagnosis, therapy and management of disorders. In the field of flora and fauna, it generally happens that biotechnologically-rich countries have poor biodiversity and vice versa. But countries like India and China that have rich biodiversity have, by the use of biotechnology, the potential to become also biotechnologically rich.

  17. A bibliometric assessment of ASEAN collaboration in plant biotechnology

    KAUST Repository

    Payumo, Jane

    2015-04-03

    This study draws on publication and citation data related to plant biotechnology from a 10-year (2004–2013) period to assess the research performance, impact, and collaboration of member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Plant biotechnology is one of the main areas of cooperation between ASEAN member states and among the research areas promoted to achieve regional food security and sustainable development. In general, findings indicate increased scientific output, influence, and overall collaboration of ASEAN countries in plant biotechnology over time. Research performance and collaboration (domestic, regional, and international) of the region in plant biotechnology are linked to the status of the economic development of each member country. Thailand produced the most publications of the ASEAN member states while Singapore had the highest influence as indicated by its citation activity in plant biotechnology among the ASEAN countries. Domestic and international collaborations on plant biotechnology are numerous. Regional collaboration or partnership among ASEAN countries was, however, was found to be very limited, which is a concern for the region’s goal of economic integration and science and technology cooperation. More studies using bibliometric data analysis need to be conducted to understand plant biotechnology cooperation and knowledge flows between ASEAN countries. © 2015 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary

  18. The potential role of biotechnology and induced mutations in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although conventional techniques including mutation induction have increased the productivity of crops, the application of biotechnological tools such as tissue culture and molecular markers can speed up crop improvement. Through the application of in vitro culture techniques in Mammilaria san-angelensis, an ornamental cactus severely endangered, we proved through flow cytometry, genetic uniformity in massive in vitro derived plantlets and after irradiation we were able to regenerate it up to M1V4 generation. Solid mutants are expected if somatic embryos are treated with mutagenic agents due to its unicellular origin. Somatic embryogenesis was successfully achieved in Agave tequilana and after irradiation of embryogenic callus cultures, survivors were challenged with pathogenic crude bacterial extracts allowing the selection of resistant or tolerant individuals. Specially important are studies on neglected crops due to the interruption of its domestication and they are locally important for indigenous people as marginal crops. The trend now is to combine biotechnology and induced mutations to overcome problems with this highly promising crops. Chenopodium quinoa exhibits a strong constraint as food due to the undesirable production of saponins. The mutation induction strategy has enabled the reduction of this compounds in M5 generation, but further research is needed to overcome productivity and adaptability problems. Here the use of molecular markers (RAPDS) and flow cytometry techniques acquire relevance in the study of related species such as Chenopodium berlandieri in order to design an inter-specific breeding programme among selected mutants and outstanding local races to combine productivity, adaptability and grain quality

  19. Program Applied Biology and Biotechnology. Annual report 1988. Programm Angewandte Biologie und Biotechnologie. Jahresbericht 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This annual report of the Biology, Ecology, Energy Department (PBE) of Juelich Nuclear Research Center contains short descriptions of the projects subsidized by the Federal Government on the following subjects: 1. Biological process and enzyme engineering; 2. Cell culture and cell fusion engineering; 3. Genetic engineering and microbial techniques; 4. Alternative methods for animal experiments, biological safety; 5. Plant breeding and plant protection; 6. Gene centres and priority projects; 7. New fields and interdisciplinary activities of biotechnology; 8. Regeneration of the raw materials. (RB).

  20. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  1. The metabolism and biotechnological application of betaine in microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huibin; Chen, Ningning; Shi, Mengxun; Xian, Mo; Song, Yimin; Liu, Junhong

    2016-05-01

    Glycine betaine (betaine) is widely distributed in nature and can be found in many microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, and fungi. Due to its particular functions, many microorganisms utilize betaine as a functional chemical and have evolved different metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis and catabolism of betaine. As in animals and plants, the principle role of betaine is to protect microbial cells against drought, osmotic stress, and temperature stress. In addition, the role of betaine in methyl group metabolism has been observed in a variety of microorganisms. Recent studies have shown that betaine supplementation can improve the performance of microbial strains used for the fermentation of lactate, ethanol, lysine, pyruvate, and vitamin B12, during which betaine can act as stress protectant or methyl donor for the biosynthesis of structurally complex compounds. In this review, we summarize the transport, synthesis, catabolism, and functions of betaine in microorganisms and discuss potential engineering strategies that employ betaine as a methyl donor for the biosynthesis of complex secondary metabolites such as a variety of vitamins, coenzymes, and antibiotics. In conclusion, the biocompatibility, C/N ratio, abundance, and comprehensive metabolic information of betaine collectively indicate that this molecule has great potential for broad applications in microbial biotechnology. PMID:27005411

  2. Porifera Lectins: Diversity, Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Gardères

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the diversity of 39 lectins from the phylum Porifera is presented, including 38 lectins, which were identified from the class of demosponges, and one lectin from the class of hexactinellida. Their purification from crude extracts was mainly performed by using affinity chromatography and gel filtration techniques. Other protocols were also developed in order to collect and study sponge lectins, including screening of sponge genomes and expression in heterologous bacterial systems. The characterization of the lectins was performed by Edman degradation or mass spectrometry. Regarding their physiological roles, sponge lectins showed to be involved in morphogenesis and cell interaction, biomineralization and spiculogenesis, as well as host defense mechanisms and potentially in the association between the sponge and its microorganisms. In addition, these lectins exhibited a broad range of bioactivities, including modulation of inflammatory response, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as anticancer and neuromodulatory activity. In view of their potential pharmacological applications, sponge lectins constitute promising molecules of biotechnological interest.

  3. Selection and validation of enzymatic activities as functional markers in wood biotechnology and fungal ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Yann; Gelhaye, Eric; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Gérardin, Philippe; Harvengt, Luc; Buée, Marc

    2013-02-15

    The dead wood and forest soils are sources of diversity and under-explored fungal strains with biotechnological potential, which require to be studied. Numerous enzymatic tests have been proposed to investigate the functional potential of the soil microbial communities or to test the functional abilities of fungal strains. Nevertheless, the diversity of these functional markers and their relevance in environmental studies or biotechnological screening does still have not been demonstrated. In this work, we assessed ten different extracellular enzymatic activities involved in the wood decaying process including β-etherase that specifically cleaves the β-aryl ether linkages in the lignin polymer. For this purpose, a collection of 26 fungal strains, distributed within three ecological groups (white, brown and soft rot fungi), has been used. Among the ten potential functional markers, the combinatorial use of only six of them allowed separation between the group of white and soft rot fungi from the brown rot fungi. Moreover, our results suggest that extracellular β-etherase is a rare and dispensable activity among the wood decay fungi. Finally, we propose that this set of markers could be useful for the analysis of fungal communities in functional and environmental studies, and for the selection of strains with biotechnological interests. PMID:23206919

  4. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  5. Potential of industrial biotechnology with cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Wijffels; O. Kruse; K.J. Hellingwerf

    2013-01-01

    Both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae are promising organisms for sustainable production of bulk products such as food, feed, materials, chemicals and fuels. In this review we will summarize the potential and current biotechnological developments. Cyanobacteria are promising host organisms fo

  6. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops. PMID:26785813

  7. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Pogue, Brian W; Tearney, Guillermo J; Tunnell, James W; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-02-01

    The guest editors introduce a Biomedical Optics Express feature issue that includes contributions from participants at the 2013 conference on Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XIII. PMID:24575348

  8. Arginine vasopressin increases cellular free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, S.; Okada, K.; Saito, T.

    1988-09-01

    The role of calcium (Ca) in the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. AVP increased both the cellular free Ca concentration ((Ca2+)i) using fura-2, and cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AVP-induced cellular Ca mobilization was totally blocked by the antagonist to the antidiuretic action of AVP, and somewhat weakened by the antagonist to the vascular action of AVP. 1-Deamino-8-D-AVP (dDAVP). an antidiuretic analog of AVP, also increased (Ca2+) significantly. Cellular Ca mobilization was not obtained with cAMP, forskolin (a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase), or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The early phase of (Ca2+)i depended on the intracellular Ca pool, since an AVP-induced rise in (Ca2+)i was obtained in cells pretreated with Ca-free medium containing 1 mM EGTA, verapamil, or cobalt, which blocked cellular Ca uptake. Also, AVP increased /sup 45/Ca2+ influx during the initial 10 min, which initiated the sustained phase of cellular Ca mobilization. However, cellular cAMP production induced by AVP during the 10-min observation period was diminished in the cells pretreated with Ca-free medium, verapamil, or cobalt, but was still significantly higher than the basal level. This was also diminished by a high Ca concentration in medium. These results indicate that 1) AVP concomitantly regulates cellular free Ca as well as its second messenger cAMP production; 2) AVP-induced elevation of cellular free Ca is dependent on both the cellular Ca pool and extracellular Ca; and 3) there is an optimal level of extracellular Ca to modulate the AVP action in renal papillary collecting tubule cells.

  9. Cell biology and biotechnology research for exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, N.; North, R.

    Health risks generated by human long exposure to radiation, microgravity, and unknown factors in the planetary environment are the major unresolved issues for human space exploration. A complete characterization of human and other biological systems adaptation processes to long-duration space missions is necessary for the development of countermeasures. The utilization of cell and engineered tissue cultures in space research and exploration complements research in human, animal, and plant subjects. We can bring a small number of humans, animals, or plants to the ISS, Moon, and Mars. However, we can investigate millions of their cells during these missions. Furthermore, many experiments can not be performed on humans, e.g. radiation exposure, cardiac muscle. Cells from critical tissues and tissue constructs per se are excellent subjects for experiments that address underlying mechanisms important to countermeasures. The development of cell tissue engineered for replacement, implantation of biomaterial to induce tissue regeneration (e.g. absorbable collagen matrix for guiding tissue regeneration in periodontal surgery), and immunoisolation (e.g. biopolymer coating on transplanted tissues to ward off immunological rejection) are good examples of cell research and biotechnology applications. NASA Cell Biology and Biotechnology research include Bone/Muscle and Cardiovascular cell culture and tissue engineering; Environmental Health and Life Support Systems; Immune System; Radiation; Gravity Thresholds ; and Advanced Biotechnology Development to increase the understanding of animal and plant cell adaptive behavior when exposed to space, and to advance technologies that facilitates exploration. Cell systems can be used to investigate processes related to food, microbial proliferation, waste management, biofilms and biomaterials. The NASA Cell Science Program has the advantage of conducting research in microgravity based on significantly small resources, and the ability to

  10. The biotechnology innovation system of Brazil (part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Judice; Connie Vedovello

    2007-01-01

    Scientific and technological development of the past 30 years, and a breakthrough in the field of biotechnology resulted in appearance of new knowledge-based industries related to knowledge and technology, interdisciplinary life sciences. It covers a variety of sectors, products, processes and services, entering into such sectors as health, agriculture, food processing, environmental protection, new materials and energy sources. Biotechnology industry is far from an organizational maturity, a...

  11. Bargaining in Technology Markets: An empirical study of biotechnology alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Kinukawa, Shinya; Motohashi, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    We empirically examine the distribution of bargaining power between buyers and sellers on the biotechnology markets by estimating the extracted surplus in alliance agreements, which depends on each party's bargaining power. The results show that buyers have extracted more surplus than sellers. However, these also reveal that the surplus extracted by buyers has been decreasing while that of the sellers has been increasing. We construe that the prices of biotechnologies have been lower than the...

  12. Canadian biotechnology policy: designing incentives for a new technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Niosi; Tomas G Bas

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1980s Canada has created a set of incentives in order to develop the new biotechnology based on genetic engineering. In the beginning, the emphasis was on agriculture and environmental biotechnology, but already by the late 1980s the focus had changed towards human health products and services. Even if the federal government was the original policymaker, several provinces added their own incentives in order to nurture a local industry. Although policies have been changing in s...

  13. Application of biotechnology to PCB disposal problems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terhorst, E.G.; Attaway, L.D.; Peyton, T.O.

    1985-05-01

    Results are presented of a study addressing the feasibility of using biotechnology to help solve the electric utility industry's PCB disposal problems. The study investigates those charateristics of PCB waste which influence biodegradation, the reported pathways and rates of degradation, the biotechnologies which appear to hold promise as treatment approaches, and the types of research and development which should be pursued to lead to commercial applications. 160 refs.

  14. Introduction of Shanghai Hua Xin High-Biotechnology Inc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Hua Xin High-Biotechnology Inc.,jointly sponsored by Hong Kong Pharmaceutical(Group) Co., Ltd., Shanghai Life Science Researching Institute of China Academy of Science, was founded in 1992, it is situated in Shanghai Biotechnology Industrial Garden. Prof. Liu Xinyuan, the founder of the company has been laureated three Academicians, including Academician of Chinese Academy of Science, Foreign Academician of National Academy of Ukraine,Academician of The Third World Academy of Science in 2001.

  15. Role of biotechnology in textile industry: а review

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2013-01-01

    Textile processing is a growing industry that traditionally has used a lot of water, energy and harsh chemicals. They are also not easily biodegradable. Biotechnology in textiles is one of the revolutionary ways to advance the textile field. Biotechnology offers the potential for new industrial processes that require less energy and are based on renewable raw materials, as well as the application of green technologies with low energy consumption and environmentally healthy practices. Due to t...

  16. Variability in forms of organisation in biotechnology firms

    OpenAIRE

    Luukkonen, Terttu

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines variability in forms of organisation, in terms of forward and backward networking versus vertical integration, in biotechnology SMEs. The study examines forms of organisation in a set of firms across different application segments. The forms of organisation vary by application segment in biotechnology, but differences are not clear-cut, and a firm can apply different forms to different application segments in its activities. Reasons for the variability are related to the s...

  17. Biotechnology and health Biotecnología y salud

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo C.; Reguero M. T

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology plays an important role in the Health Sciences. The production of immunoreagents and biological drugs, gene therapy, the food industry and the environmental protection have been using the molecular biology and genetic engineering knowledge to improve the quality of life. This review summarizes the contribution and impact of the Biotechnology to the advance of the Biomedical Sciences. The work is framed within the idea that the healthdisease process changes according to specific ...

  18. Magnetic separations: From steel plants to biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafer T. Yavuz; Arjun Prakash; J.T. Mayo; Vicki L. Colvin [Rice University, Houston, TX (United States). Department of Chemistry

    2009-05-15

    Magnetic separations have for decades been essential processes in diverse industries ranging from steel production to coal desulfurization. In such settings magnetic fields are used in continuous flow processes as filters to remove magnetic impurities. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) has found even broader use in wastewater treatment and food processing. Batch scale magnetic separations are also relevant in industry, particularly biotechnology where fixed magnetic separators are used to purify complex mixtures for protein isolation, cell separation, drug delivery, and biocatalysis. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts behind magnetic separations and summarize a few examples of its large scale application. HGMS systems and batch systems for magnetic separations have been developed largely in parallel by different communities. However, in this work we compare and contrast each approach so that investigators can approach both key areas. Finally, we discuss how new advances in magnetic materials, particularly on the nanoscale, as well as magnetic filter design offer new opportunities for industries that have challenging separation problems.

  19. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert W; Wang, Baojun

    2015-12-25

    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field.

  20. Biotechnology and the fight against onchocerciasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biotechnology has recently broken into the rather closed field of human and animal disease vectors and vector control. With regard to blackflies which carry onchocerciasis, in particular, some possible directions which initial research is taking, and which future research might follow are: identification of vectors among the species making up the Simulium damnosum group; identification in the vectors of Onchocerca volvulus strains, of greater or lesser pathogenic nature according to the geographical area; identification of the source of the blood meal; and identification of resistance on an individual level. This research will all contribute towards the development of tools for use in the field, which will enable the epidemiology of onchocerciasis to be better understood, and the fight against this form of parasitosis to be better planned. After a long period using chemical insecticides, the discovery of the larvicidal properties of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar 14 (B.t. H-14), and of Bacillus sphaericus, opens up new horizons. However, the formulation of these biological insecticides is not entirely satisfactory, and research is therefore in progress to discover the toxins inside the commensal organisms of certain disease vectors. (author). 29 refs

  1. Isolation and Purification of Biotechnological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbuch, Jürgen; Kula, Maria-Regina

    2007-05-01

    The production of modern pharma proteins is one of the most rapid growing fields in biotechnology. The overall development and production is a complex task ranging from strain development and cultivation to the purification and formulation of the drug. Downstream processing, however, still accounts for the major part of production costs. This is mainly due to the high demands on purity and thus safety of the final product and results in processes with a sequence of typically more than 10 unit operations. Consequently, even if each process step would operate at near optimal yield, a very significant amount of product would be lost. The majority of unit operations applied in downstream processing have a long history in the field of chemical and process engineering; nevertheless, mathematical descriptions of the respective processes and the economical large-scale production of modern pharmaceutical products are hampered by the complexity of the biological feedstock, especially the high molecular weight and limited stability of proteins. In order to develop new operational steps as well as a successful overall process, it is thus a necessary prerequisite to develop a deeper understanding of the thermodynamics and physics behind the applied processes as well as the implications for the product.

  2. Biological basis of beam application in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy particle beams have relatively high value of linear energy transfer (LET), and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). There is a sharp increase in ionization density (LET) in the so-called Bragg peak, close to the end of each track. The LET and RBE may, therefore, be high at the distal edge of the biological target volume. It is well-known that as the LET is increased beyond about 30 keV/um the RBE increases to a peak at 100 to 110 keV/um and then falls. At the same time the oxygen-enhancement ratio (OER) decreases steadily. The reason of these events has a greater chance per unit dose of depositing a certain minimum energy of about 300 eV, that is, 10 to 15 ionizations into each biological target volume of 5 to 10 nm diameter. These biological targets may be pictured as double strands of DNA and histones, 2 or 3 nm in diameter, with a surrounding water sheath of a few nm thick. The drop of RBE with increasing LET past the peak of RBE is due to either overkill or the recombinations of electrons and ions and of chemical radicals in the higher LET track. Large new accelerators have allowed the effects of heavy particle irradiation to be investigated. In biotechnology, radiation methods have found application as tools to explore some basic problems and this aspect of radiation research is likely to expand in the future. (author)

  3. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research. PMID:25721271

  4. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research.

  5. Biotechnology core facilities: trends and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanetich, K M; Niece, R L; Rohde, M; Fowler, E; Hayes, T K

    1993-09-01

    A survey of 128 biotechnology core facilities has provided data on the finances, services, space requirements, and personnel. An average facility had four full-time personnel and 7.5 major instrument systems, and occupied 969 sq. ft. Average total income was $244,000/year, but annual user fee income was only $125,000. Typically, facilities required substantial institutional support or grants. Cost recovery (user fee income divided by total income) averaged 49%. During the last 5 years user fee income, total income, and cost recovery have increased. In-house charges for protein sequencing and peptide synthesis increased approximately 30%, while oligonucleotide synthesis charges decreased by 74%. The costs (charges corrected for subsidy from non-user fee income) for most services did not significantly change, except that oligonucleotide synthesis costs decreased by 25% in 1992. DNA synthesis had the highest throughout per month (116 samples), followed by amino acid analysis (86 samples) and DNA sequencing (67 samples). Other services averaged from 5 to 60 samples. DNA synthesis and purification were the services used by the greatest number of principal investigators. A number of services including DNA sequencing, mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis, RNA synthesis, electroblotting, and carbohydrate analysis have been introduced in the last 3 years. Although these services are characterized by high levels of methods development and non-user runs, they are offered by twice the percentage of facilities as in 1989, and are increasingly contributing to facility income. PMID:8375609

  6. Comparative proteomics reveals highly and differentially expressed proteins in field-collected and laboratory-cultured blooming cells of the diatom Skeletonema costatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Zhang-Xian; Zhang, Shu-Fei; Wang, Ming-Hua; Lin, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Diatoms are a major phytoplankton group causing extensive blooms in the ocean. However, little is known about the intracellular biological processes occurring during the blooming period. This study compared the protein profiles of field-collected and laboratory-cultured blooming cells of Skeletonema costatum, and identified highly and differentially expressed proteins using the shotgun proteomic approach. A total of 1372 proteins were confidently identified with two or more peptides. Among them, 222 and 311 proteins were unique to the laboratory and field samples respectively. Proteins involved in photosynthesis, translation, nucleosome assembly, carbohydrate and energy metabolism dominated the protein profiles in both samples. However, different features of specific proteins were also found: proteins participated in light harvesting, photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis, photoprotection, cell division and redox homeostasis were highly detected in the field sample, whereas proteins involved in translation, amino acid and protein metabolic processes, and nitrogen and carbon assimilation presented high detection rates in the laboratory sample. ATP synthase cf1 subunit beta and light harvest complex protein were the most abundant protein in the laboratory and field samples respectively. These results indicated that S. costatum had evolved adaptive mechanisms to the changing environment, and integrating field and laboratory proteomic data should provide comprehensive understanding of bloom mechanisms. PMID:26014042

  7. 不同纳税文化下的群体申报行为差异%COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR OF TAXPAYERS UNDER DIFFERENT TAX CULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄阳; 周亚

    2014-01-01

    Taxpayer declaration behavior is not only affected by economic factors such as tax rate and fine rate,but also by non-economic factors.An experiment was designed to analyze tax cultural effect on taxpayer collective behavior.It was found that average declaring income level of group decreased when group tax evasion proportion increased.Taxpayers would evade more in high evasion rate group than groups with lower evasion rate.%个体的纳税申报行为不仅受到诸如税率、罚金等经济因素的影响,还受到非经济因素的影响。设计并实施一个互动实验,研究了不同税收文化(以群体逃税率表征)下,纳税群体的申报行为。结论是在逃税率上升,群体平均申报额会下降;在高逃税率环境中,群体平均申报额下降得更快。

  8. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, W.R. [Consultec Scientific, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes. The integration of these programs as viable bioprocessing initiatives proposes an innovative and conceptual principle for the development of a ``new`` approach to fossil energy biotechnology. This unifying principle is NON-AQUEOUS BIOCATALYSIS. Biocatalysis coupled to conventional chemical catalysis in organic-based media offers bioprocessing options uniquely characterized by the selectivity of biocatalysts plus fast reaction rates and specificity of chemical catalysts.

  9. 信任程度、履约文化和农村集体经济%Trust Degree, Performance Culture and the Orientation of Rural Collective Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周彬

    2011-01-01

    信任程度和履约意识属于社会资本范畴,现阶段中国农村存在信任程度缺失和履约意识淡薄的现象。根据案例分析,绩效较好的集体经济一般都是内嵌在较高信任程度和良好履约文化的非正式制度中。在传统乡土社会向现代农村社区转变的制度变迁过程中,信任程度和履约文化等非正式制度是影响中国农村集体经济发展的一个不容忽视的因素。具有一定信任程度的合作经济是农村经济的发展方向,所以培育包含信任程度和履约文化在内的非正式制度作为市场化的“土壤”具有重要现实意义。根据理论分析结论提出三项政策含义:一应促进农村劳动力自由流动,完善人力资本市场激励制度;二应建立农村征信体系,提高诚信收益与违约成本;三应培育农村经济中介和社会中介组织,实现非正式制度的自我传承。%At present, China's rural economic system is the combination of collective economy and household production. From the perspective of evolution, the paper studies some specific cases on collective economic institutions and organizations. This paper suggests that low trust degree and weak performance culture are some stylized facts of informal institutions system in China, and they are impeding the development of Chinese rural collective economy. In the process of Chinese countryside economic and social transformation, although cooperative economy system may be our development direction, there is still a long way to improve trust degree and performance culture, and cultivating a marketoriented "soil" may be more pressing. According to theoretical analyses, this paper proposes some policy implications. First, rural labor force should flow freely and human capital market should be perfected for incentive compatibility. Secondly, modem credit rating system should be established in the countryside, for this system can increase

  10. An Overview of Phytoconstituents, Biotechnological Applications, and Nutritive Aspects of Coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2016-08-01

    Cocos nucifera is one of the highest nutritional and medicinal value plants with various fractions of proteins which play a major role in several biological applications such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-neoplastic, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, and leishmanicidal activities. This review is focused on several biotechnological, biomedical aspects of various solvent extracts collected from different parts of coconut and the phytochemical constituents which are present in it. The results obtained from this source will facilitate most of the researchers to focus their work toward the process of diagnosing diseases in future. PMID:27052209

  11. Biotechnological approaches to the treatment of aspermatogenic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Pedro Manuel; Schlatt, Stefan; Franca, Luiz Renato de

    2013-01-01

    Aspermatogenesis is a severe impairment of spermatogenesis in which germ cells are completely lacking or present in an immature form, which results in sterility in approximately 25% of patients. Because assisted reproduction techniques require mature germ cells, biotechnology is a valuable tool for rescuing fertility while maintaining biological fatherhood. However, this process involves, for instance, the differentiation of preexisting immature germ cells or the production/derivation of sperm from somatic cells. This review critically addresses four potential techniques: sperm derivation in vitro, germ stem cell transplantation, xenologous systems, and haploidization. Sperm derivation in vitro is already feasible in fish and mammals through organ culture or 3D systems, and it is very useful in conditions of germ cell arrest or in type II Sertoli-cell-only syndrome. Patients afflicted by type I Sertoli-cell-only syndrome could also benefit from gamete derivation from induced pluripotent stem cells of somatic origin, and human haploid-like cells have already been obtained by using this novel methodology. In the absence of alternative strategies to generate sperm in vitro, in germ cells transplantation fertility is restored by placing donor cells in the recipient germ-cell-free seminiferous epithelium, which has proven effective in conditions of spermatogonial arrest. Grafting also provides an approach for ex-vivo generation of mature sperm, particularly using prepubertal testis tissue. Although less feasible, haploidization is an option for creating gametes based on biological cloning technology. In conclusion, the aforementioned promising techniques remain largely experimental and still require extensive research, which should address, among other concerns, ethical and biosafety issues, such as gamete epigenetic status, ploidy, and chromatin integrity. PMID:23503966

  12. BACTERIA OF NOCАRDIA GENUS AS OBJECT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature and own experimental data, concerning biotechnological potential of bacteria of Nocаrdia genus are given. The use of these microorganisms as destructors of aliphatic (octane, pentadecanol, eicosane, octacosane, hexatriacontane, pristane, aromatic (phenol, octylbenzene, phenanthrene, anthracene, nitroaromatic (4-nitrophenol, heterocyclic (pyridine, ?-picoline hydrocarbons is described. The prospects of use of Nocаrdia in processes of substances bio-transformation (production of daidzein, ibuprofen, nicotinic acid and synthesis of some valuable metabolites, in particular antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances (ayamycin, transvalencin А, nocathiacin, brasilibactin A, nocaracins etc. as well as substances with surface-active and emulsifying properties are discussed. The own experimental data concerning optimization of cultivation conditions and intensification of surfactant synthesis on glycerol (byproduct of biodiesel production by oil oxidizing bacteria strain Nocardia vaccinii K-8, that was isolated from oil polluted samples of soil are presented. The ability of strain K-8 to assimilate some aromatic compounds (phenol, benzene, toluene, naphthalene, hexachlorbenzene, sulfanilic acid and N-phenylanthranilic acid, 0.3–0.5% was determined. It was shown that the highest oil destruction degree (94–98% in polluted water (2.6 g/L was achieved in the case of treatment with suspension of N. vaccinii K-8 cells (9.8 x 107 CFU/mL after 30 days, while surfactant preparation of post fermentative cultural liquid (100–300 mL/kg was more effective for remediation (destruction of 74–83% of oil of oil polluted soil (20 g/kg. It was determined that surfactants (0.085–0.85 mg/mL and other exocellular metabolites of strain К-8 possess antimicrobial activity against some phytopathogen bacteria of Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas strains. In this connection the quantity of living cells decreased by 80–100% after the treatment with the

  13. Biotechnological approaches to the treatment of aspermatogenic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel Aponte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspermatogenesis is a severe impairment of spermatogenesis in which germ cells are completely lacking or present in an immature form, which results in sterility in approximately 25% of patients. Because assisted reproduction techniques require mature germ cells, biotechnology is a valuable tool for rescuing fertility while maintaining biological fatherhood. However, this process involves, for instance, the differentiation of preexisting immature germ cells or the production/derivation of sperm from somatic cells. This review critically addresses four potential techniques: sperm derivation in vitro, germ stem cell transplantation, xenologous systems, and haploidization. Sperm derivation in vitro is already feasible in fish and mammals through organ culture or 3D systems, and it is very useful in conditions of germ cell arrest or in type II Sertoli-cell-only syndrome. Patients afflicted by type I Sertoli-cell-only syndrome could also benefit from gamete derivation from induced pluripotent stem cells of somatic origin, and human haploid-like cells have already been obtained by using this novel methodology. In the absence of alternative strategies to generate sperm in vitro, in germ cells transplantation fertility is restored by placing donor cells in the recipient germ-cell-free seminiferous epithelium, which has proven effective in conditions of spermatogonial arrest. Grafting also provides an approach for ex-vivo generation of mature sperm, particularly using prepubertal testis tissue. Although less feasible, haploidization is an option for creating gametes based on biological cloning technology. In conclusion, the aforementioned promising techniques remain largely experimental and still require extensive research, which should address, among other concerns, ethical and biosafety issues, such as gamete epigenetic status, ploidy, and chromatin integrity.

  14. Approaches in biotechnological applications of natural polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Teixeira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural polymers, such as gums and mucilage, are biocompatible, cheap, easily available and non-toxic materials of native origin. These polymers are increasingly preferred over synthetic materials for industrial applications due to their intrinsic properties, as well as they are considered alternative sources of raw materials since they present characteristics of sustainability, biodegradability and biosafety. As definition, gums and mucilages are polysaccharides or complex carbohydrates consisting of one or more monosaccharides or their derivatives linked in bewildering variety of linkages and structures. Natural gums are considered polysaccharides naturally occurring in varieties of plant seeds and exudates, tree or shrub exudates, seaweed extracts, fungi, bacteria, and animal sources. Water-soluble gums, also known as hydrocolloids, are considered exudates and are pathological products; therefore, they do not form a part of cell wall. On the other hand, mucilages are part of cell and physiological products. It is important to highlight that gums represent the largest amounts of polymer materials derived from plants. Gums have enormously large and broad applications in both food and non-food industries, being commonly used as thickening, binding, emulsifying, suspending, stabilizing agents and matrices for drug release in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In the food industry, their gelling properties and the ability to mold edible films and coatings are extensively studied. The use of gums depends on the intrinsic properties that they provide, often at costs below those of synthetic polymers. For upgrading the value of gums, they are being processed into various forms, including the most recent nanomaterials, for various biotechnological applications. Thus, the main natural polymers including galactomannans, cellulose, chitin, agar, carrageenan, alginate, cashew gum, pectin and starch, in addition to the current researches about them

  15. States of uncertainty: governing the empire of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Ian

    2006-04-01

    The biotechnological revolution presents states and governments with a set of challenges that they have difficulty meeting. Part of the problem is associated with common perceptions of the speed, volume and the radical uncertainty of the new developments. Globalisation is also implicated, especially in relation to the development of the knowledge economy and the role of multinational actors. This in turn contributes to the apparent decline in the confidence of the public that national governments will be effective in addressing mounting concern about the dangers inherent in new techniques and products. Under these circumstances, 'normal' governance begins to look more like 'failure' governance. This article asks whether the effects of the biotechnological revolution on governance can adequately be explained by the critique of imperialism proposed by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, and whether the state is in danger of becoming implicated in sponsorship of modernist schemes to improve the human condition of the kind analysed by James E Scott. Biotechnology does appear to have imperial qualities, while there are strong reasons for states to see biotechnology as a feasible and desirable set of developments. For some critics of biotechnology, like Francis Fukuyama, this is a lethal combination, and the powers of the state should be used to stop biotechnological development. Others, by contrast and more pragmatically, propose a check on what the state will support by the application of precautionary principles. The article concludes that the association between the biotechnology empire and the state, combined with the inescapable duty of the state to be the risk manager of last resort, alerts us to the complexities of uncertainty at the same time as it renders a merely restrictive precautionary approach impracticable.

  16. Cultural challenges to biotechnology: Native American genetic resources and the concept of cultural harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsosie, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the intercultural context of issues related to genetic research on Native peoples. In particular, the article probes the disconnect between Western and indigenous concepts of property, ownership, and privacy, and examines the harms to Native peoples that may arise from unauthorized uses of blood and tissue samples or the information derived from such samples. The article concludes that existing legal and ethical frameworks are inadequate to address Native peoples' rights to their genetic resources and suggests an intercultural framework for accommodation based on theories of intergroup equality and fundamental human rights. PMID:17714250

  17. 国家遗产·集体记忆·文化认同%National Heritage, Collective Memory, and Cultural Identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋峰; 熊忻恺

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the definition and formation history of heritage and analyzes the nominal value of it in order to explore that the essence of heritage is the inheritance of collective memory and formation of cultural identity which cannot be effaced by applying to be listed in World Heritage wilh the example of Masada, Israel to illustrate this opinion. It also further explores the problems that national heritage in China has faced based on the present situation. One is the separation of the nominal value of the national heritage caused by applying to be listed in World Heritage. The other is the loss of nominal value of national heritage affected by over-development of tourism.%通过对遗产概念的历史过程回顾及其本体价值的分析,论证了遗产的本体价值在于集体记忆的传承和文化认同的构建,并以以色列的马萨达要塞为例说明这一观点,从而得出国家遗产地所内涵的集体记忆和文化认同不应该随着世界遗产的申报而被抹杀.在此基础上进一步探讨分析中国国家遗产所面临的2个重要问题:一是国家遗产申报世界遗产所引起的本体价值割裂;二是过度旅游开发所引起的国家遗产本体价值缺失.

  18. Challenges in biotechnology at LLNL: from genes to proteins; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This effort has undertaken the task of developing a link between the genomics, DNA repair and structural biology efforts within the Biology and Biotechnology Research Program at LLNL. Through the advent of the I.M.A.G.E. (Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genomes and their Expression) Consortium, a world-wide effort to catalog the largest public collection of genes, accepted and maintained within BBRP, it is now possible to systematically express the protein complement of these to further elucidate novel gene function and structure. The work has ensued in four phases, outlined as follows: (1) Gene and System selection; (2) Protein expression and purification; (3) Structural analysis; and (4) biological integration. Proteins to be expressed have been those of high programmatic interest. This includes, in particular, proteins involved in the maintenance of genome integrity, particularly those involved in the repair of DNA damage, including ERCC1, ERCC4, XRCC2, XRCC3, XRCC9, HEX1, APN1, p53, RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51. Full-length cDNA cognates of selected genes were isolated, and cloned into baculovirus-based expression vectors. The baculoviral expression system for protein over-expression is now well-established in the Albala laboratory. Procedures have been successfully optimized for full-length cDNA clining into expression vectors for protein expression from recombinant constructs. This includes the reagents, cell lines, techniques necessary for expression of recombinant baculoviral constructs in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. The laboratory has also generated a high-throughput baculoviral expression paradigm for large scale expression and purification of human recombinant proteins amenable to automation

  19. Avocado breeding in Cuba. State of the art biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic diversity studies of avocado germplasm: Genetic diversity among avocado varieties cultivated in Cuba was undertaken considering 22 agronomic and morphological traits, 12 AFLP and 16 SSR primer combinations. Using agromorphological traits, cultivars clustered within racial groups confirming the ecological classification and a catalogue was prepared. AFLP and SSR markers were useful for providing a more accurate estimate of genetic distances between the cultivars. Identification and characterization of soil-borne isolates: A collection of Phytopohthora spp. and Phytium spp. strains isolated from commercial avocado orchards was constructed. Identification and characterization of these isolates was done based on morphological, physiological and molecular markers (ITS and Lpv 3 primers pairs) differentiating both genus and confirming the usefulness of using a combined approach for an accurate identification. A first description about P. palmivora affecting avocado trees in Cuba was reported based on morphological traits, maximum temperature of growing, amplification pattern using ITS primer combinations and sequencing information of the amplified product obtained with Lpv 3 primer pairs. Radiosensitivity curves useful for breeding purposes: Radiosensitivity curves to Gamma rays were determined in 'Duke-7' and 'Hass' cultivars commonly used as rootstocks. LD50 values were calculated to be 28 and 27 Gy for each cultivar, respectively. Selection for salinity conditions using zygotic embryos: Survival curves (LD50) were calculated for 'Duke-7' (56 mM of NaCl), 'Jose Antonio' (66 mM) and 'Catalina' (148 mM). LD20 and LD10 values, useful for breeding purposes, were also determined. Breeding avocado rootstocks using biotechnologies: An in vitro propagation method for avocado breeding purposes was optimized using zygotic embryos, combined with the LD50 values for Gamma rays and LD50 values for NaCl to obtain mutant lines from rootstock 'Duke-7' with improved salt

  20. Advanced health biotechnologies in Thailand: redefining policy directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Román Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thailand faces a significant burden in terms of treating and managing degenerative and chronic diseases. Moreover, incidences of rare diseases are rising. Many of these—such as diabetes, cancer, and inherited inborn metabolic diseases—have no definite treatments or cure. Meanwhile, advanced health biotechnology has been found, in principle, to be an effective solution for these health problems. Methods Qualitative approaches were employed to analyse the current situation and examine existing public policies related to advanced health biotechnologies in Thailand. The results of this analysis were then used to formulate policy recommendations. Results Our research revealed that the system in Thailand in relation to advanced health biotechnologies is fragmented, with multiple unaddressed gaps, underfunding of research and development (R&D, and a lack of incentives for the private sector. In addition, there are no clear definitions of advanced health biotechnologies, and coverage pathways are absent. Meanwhile, false advertising and misinformation are prevalent, with no responsible bodies to actively and effectively provide appropriate information and education (I&E. The establishment of a specialised institution to fill the gaps in this area is warranted. Conclusion The development and implementation of a comprehensive national strategic plan related to advanced health biotechnologies, greater investment in R&D and I&E for all stakeholders, collaboration among agencies, harmonisation of reimbursement across public health schemes, and provision of targeted I&E are specifically recommended.