WorldWideScience

Sample records for biotech oncology research

  1. Neuro-oncology biotech industry progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shamik; Bodhinayake, Imithri; Chiluwal, Amrit; Langer, David J; Ruggieri, Rosamaria; Symons, Marc; Boockvar, John A

    2016-05-01

    The Brain Tumor Biotech Center at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, in collaboration with Voices Against Brain Cancer hosted The Brain Tumor Biotech Summit at in New York City in June 2015. The focus was once again on fostering collaboration between neuro-oncologist, neurosurgeons, scientists, leaders from biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, and members of the financial community. The summit highlighted the recent advances in the treatment of brain tumor, and specifically focused on targeting of stem cells and EGFR, use of prophage and immunostimulatory vaccines, retroviral vectors for drug delivery, biologic prodrug, Cesium brachytherapy, and use of electric field to disrupt tumor cell proliferation. This article summarizes the current progress in brain tumor research as presented at 2015 The Brain Tumor Biotech Summit.

  2. Industry progress report on neuro-oncology: a biotech update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Jessica S; Banu, Matei A; Ray, Ashley; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; Boockvar, John A

    2013-04-01

    With steadily rising revenue and large numbers of clinical trials utilizing novel treatment strategies, the field of neuro-oncology is at the core of the growing cancer therapy industry. In June 2012, the Weill Cornell Brain and Tumor Center hosted the first Brain Tumor Biotech Summit as a forum for fostering and encouraging collaboration between researches and investors to accelerate novel treatments for brain cancer. This event brought together neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, academicians, entrepreneurs, non-profits, CEOs and investors in an attempt to bring innovative treatments and concepts to the fore. Specific subjects presented at the meeting included new surgical devices and delivery techniques, targeted therapeutics, immunotherapy, and stem cell biology. The mission of the summit was to provide opportunities for researchers in neuro-oncology to directly interact with leaders from the investment community with insight into the commercial aspects of our work. Our shared goal is to shorten the time for basic science ideas to be translated into the clinical setting. The following serves as a progress report on the biotech industry in neuro-oncology, as presented at the Brain Tumor Biotech Summit.

  3. Industry progress report on neuro-oncology: Biotech update 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenhausen, Malte; Bodhinayake, Imithri; Banu, Matei; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; Ray, Ashley; Boockvar, John A

    2013-11-01

    For the second time, The Brain Tumor Center of the Weill Cornell Brain and Spine Center, in collaboration with Voices Against Brain Cancer, hosted The Brain Tumor Biotech Summit in New York City in June 2013. After a very successful first summit in 2012, this innovative event has established a platform for intensive networking between neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, members of the biotechnology and pharmaceutical communities, members of the financial community and leaders of non-profit organizations. This year's summit highlighted dendritic cell vaccines, novel antibody, heat shock protein and targeted therapies as well as exosome technologies, MRI-guided therapies and other novel drug delivery tools. This report presents a short overview of the current progress in brain tumor research and therapy as presented at the 2013 Brain Tumor Biotech Summit.

  4. Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN) was established in March 2015 with the goal to accelerate knowledge generation, synthesis and translation of oncologic emergency medicine research through multi-center collaborations.

  5. Poor States Urged to Research Biotech, Fight Hunger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Brough; 柯善雪

    2002-01-01

    夜读此文,既兴奋,又悲凉。兴奋,是因为千百年来,人们靠天吃饭,地里的活,种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。得多少,并非“大跃进”可以吹出来的,而是有一个常规,种地能手,能超出常规亩产20%,已有登天之难。而如今,植物的遗传工程(genetic engineering of plants)令世人一惊:It can improve crop yields and develop resis-tance to drought(干旱),salinity(盐份)and pests(害虫)。Biotechnology is also used todevelop drugs to treat diseases such as diabetes and hepatitis(肝炎);悲凉的是,这些专利正紧锁于富国的保险柜中待价而沽:The big biotech companies are locking uppatents at an incredible(难以置信的)rate!其另一个借口是:The full impact of thesenew life sciences on health and the environment is not known。 本文末尾的一句话又让我们另有想法: Biotechnology is by no means the only answer to the problem of hunger as the words already producing more food than it needs。】

  6. Research in the Biotech Age: Can Informational Privacy Compete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peekhaus, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the privacy of personal medical information in the health research context. Arguing that biomedical research in Canada has been caught up in the government's broader neoliberal policy agenda that has positioned biotechnology as a strategic driver of economic growth, the author discusses the tension between informational…

  7. Profiles of four projects in Biotech Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn

    2004-01-01

    In April 2004, Copenhagen Business School opens a centre for research on biotech business. Biotech Business includes a number of senior and junior researchers from CBS. Initially the centre takes its point of departure in four projects included in the research program on Competence, Organisation...... and Management in Biotech Industries (COMBI). Starting in March 2004, COMBI is funded jointly by The Danish Social Research Council, firms and organisations in the Danish biotech industry and CBS. This presentation refers exclusively to four COMBI projects....

  8. Voices of biotech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Ido; Baker, David; Barker, Roger;

    2016-01-01

    What will be the most important areas of research in biotech over the coming years? Which technologies will be most important to advance knowledge and applications in these areas? Nature Biotechnology reached out to a set of investigators working in research areas representative of the journal...

  9. A global need for women's biotech leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Doerr, L.; Kemekliene, G.; Teutonico, R.;

    2011-01-01

    Increasing women's participation in leadership of biotech policy making, funding, research and implementation will strengthen the race to solve global problems......Increasing women's participation in leadership of biotech policy making, funding, research and implementation will strengthen the race to solve global problems...

  10. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute’s Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  11. Generation of Comprehensive Thoracic Oncology Database - Tool for Translational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Surati, Mosmi; Robinson, Matthew; Nandi, Suvobroto; Faoro, Leonardo; Demchuk, Carley; Kanteti, Rajani; Ferguson, Benjamin; Gangadhar, Tara; Hensing, Thomas; Hasina, Rifat; Husain, Aliya; Ferguson, Mark; Karrison, Theodore; Salgia, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The Thoracic Oncology Program Database Project was created to serve as a comprehensive, verified, and accessible repository for well-annotated cancer specimens and clinical data to be available to researchers within the Thoracic Oncology Research Program. This database also captures a large volume of genomic and proteomic data obtained from various tumor tissue studies. A team of clinical and basic science researchers, a biostatistician, and a bioinformatics expert was convened to design the ...

  12. A framework for prescription in exercise-oncology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, John P; Eves, Neil D; Christensen, Jesper F;

    2015-01-01

    The field of exercise-oncology has increased dramatically over the past two decades, with close to 100 published studies investigating the efficacy of structured exercise training interventions in patients with cancer. Of interest, despite considerable differences in study population and primary......-oncology research. We contend that the application of these guidelines will ensure continued progress in the field while optimizing the safety and efficacy of exercise treatment following a cancer diagnosis....

  13. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  14. Research in Undergraduate Instruction: A Biotech Lab Project for Recombinant DNA Protein Expression in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Mark; Ordman, Alfred B.; Campbell, A. Malcolm

    1996-06-01

    In the sophomore-level Molecular Biology and Biotechnology course at Beloit College, students learn basic methods in molecular biology in the context of pursuing a semester-long original research project. We are exploring how DNA sequence affects expression levels of proteins. A DNA fragment encoding all or part of the guanylate monokinase (gmk) sequence is cloned into pSP73 and expressed in E. coli. A monoclonal antibody is made to gmk. The expression level of gmk is determined by SDS gel elctrophoresis, a Western blot, and an ELISA assay. Over four years, an increase in enrollment in the course from 9 to 34 students, the 85% of majors pursuing advanced degrees, and course evaluations all support the conclusion that involving students in research during undergraduate courses encourages them to pursue careers in science.

  15. NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of cancer care investigators, providers, academia, and other organizations that care for diverse populations in health systems. View the list of publications from NCORP. | Clinical Trials network of cancer care professionals who care for diverse populations across the U.S.

  16. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  17. Contract research organizations in oncology clinical research: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel A; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Steensma, David P

    2016-05-15

    Contract research organizations (CROs) represent a multibillion dollar industry that is firmly embedded in the contemporary clinical trial process. Over the past 30 years, and especially within the last decade, the reach of CROs has extended to service all phases of drug trials in an increasingly global research environment. The presence of CROs is particularly noticeable in medical oncology because of the large number of investigational compounds developed to treat cancer that are currently undergoing testing in human subjects. Although limited data are available with which to objectively define the effects that CROs have had on the clinical trial process, with the expansion of these organizations, several reports have called into question whether ethical and professional standards in research conduct are at times secondary to economic considerations. CROs can add considerable value to the clinical trial process, but difficulty communicating with CRO representatives and time spent answering trivial data queries generated by CROs are current obstacles for study site personnel interacting with CROs. Further study of the effect of the CRO industry on the clinical trial process is needed to ensure efficient data collection and patient safety while collaboratively developing novel therapies in an expedited fashion. Cancer 2016;122:1476-82. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27018651

  18. The impact of industry on oncology research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Beverly; Jagsi, Reshma; Gaynor, Richard B; Ratain, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Public scrutiny has increased over potential conflicts of interest among oncology researchers and providers. Given the increased prevalence and complexity of industry relationships, oncologists are increasingly faced with ethical challenges when navigating their financial relationships with industry. Oncologists are continually dealing with changing conflict of interest policies within academic centers and professional societies. With the recent passage of The Sunshine Act, oncologists are beginning to understand the repercussions of this new law. The consequences of the increasing use of direct-to-consumer advertising on patients with cancer are also unclear. Finally, industry's perspective on the evolution of these relationships is not clearly understood. This manuscript discusses issues related to industry's influence on oncology practice and research. PMID:25993151

  19. Financial risk of the biotech industry versus the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Joseph; Vernon, John A

    2009-01-01

    The biotech industry now accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of total R&D spending on new medicines. However, compared with the pharmaceutical industry, the biotech industry is financially fragile. This article illustrates the financial fragility of the biotech and pharmaceutical industries in the US and the implications of this fragility for the effects that government regulation could have on biotech firms. Graphical analysis and statistical tests were used to show how the biotech industry differs from the pharmaceutical industry. The two industries' characteristics were measured and compared, along with various measures of firms' financial risk and sensitivity to government regulation. Data from firms' financial statements provided accounting-based measures and firms' stock returns applied to a multifactor asset pricing model provided financial market measures. The biotech industry was by far the most research-intensive industry in the US, averaging 38% R&D intensity (ratio of R&D spending to total firm assets) over the past 25 years, compared with an average of 25% for the pharmaceutical industry and 3% for all other industries. Biotech firms exhibited lower and more volatile profits and higher market-related and size-related risk, and they suffered more negative stock returns in response to threatened government price regulation. Biotech firms' financial risks increase their costs of capital and make them more sensitive to government regulations that affect their financial prospects. As biotech products grow to represent a larger share of new medicines, general stock market conditions and government regulations could have a greater impact on the level of innovation of new medicines.

  20. Scientific knowledge dynamics and relatedness in biotech cities

    OpenAIRE

    Boschma, Ron; Heimeriks, Gaston; Balland, Pierre-Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of scientific relatedness on knowledge dynamics in biotech at the city level during the period 1989-2008. We assess the extent to which the emergence of new research topics and the disappearance of existing topics in cities are dependent on their degree of scientific relatedness with existing topics in those cities. We make use of the rise and fall of title words in scientific publications in biotech to identify major cognitive developments within the field....

  1. Scientific Knowledge Dynamics and Relatedness in Bio-Tech Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Boschma; Gaston Heimeriks; Pierre-Alexandre Balland

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of scientific relatedness on knowledge dynamics in biotech at the city level during the period 1989-2008. We assess the extent to which the emergence of new research topics and the disappearance of existing topics in cities are dependent on their degree of scientific relatedness with existing topics in those cities. We make use of the rise and fall of title words in scientific publications in biotech to identify major cognitive developments within the field....

  2. Biotech in medicine--the topic of the Olten Meeting 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2011-01-01

    Since 1998, the biotechnet--the national network of competence in biotech research--has been helping partners from industry to access excellence in R&D, giving them optimal support at low cost. Its annual 'Olten Meeting' is a dynamic hub for companies and research institutes as it highlights the latest trends in biotech. On November 24, 2010, the topical subject was biotech in medicine.

  3. Science communication in policy making:A qualitative research about the motivation of academic biotech scientists to participate in policy making in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Coumou, Hilde; van der Werf Kulichova, Z.; Wehrmann, C.; Osseweijer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Policy making regarding application of agricultural biotechnology has been controversial. This study investigates what determines the motivation of European biotech scientists to actively participate in policy making. To do this, a conceptual framework was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The framework was operationalized in semi-structured interviews with 17 European biotech scientists to collect data about their motivation to involve in GMO policy making. The results of th...

  4. Biotech as 'Biothreat'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    groups. In this, the paper tries to make up for the limited focus upon the role played by metaphor and discourse in shaping public attitudes of biotechnology. The paper has two parts; a theoretical part discussing the combination of conceptual metaphor studies and critical discourse analysis to provide...... a more comprehensive frame for explaining the function of metaphor in use, and an empirical part analysing biotech-metaphors in the Danish print press. Although not conclusive, the analysis points to metaphorical constructions in the press being both grounded in basic image schematic structures......In Denmark, as in many other European countries, biotechnology continues to be a much debated and controversial issue. The paper takes its starting point in this debate, investigating how metaphorical constructions in media discourse reproduce and promote the viewpoints of particular societal...

  5. Communicating financials in the biotech industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark, biotechnology and its physical product, the genetically modified organism, continues to be controversial, leading to widespread public scepticism. This paper explores the effect of such scepticism on part of the financial communication of one of Denmark's largest biotech companies......, Novozymes. Research indicates that besides accommodating a legal demand for the disclosure of company financial details, the annual report, in particular the letter to the shareholders or the CEO's letter, serves the purpose of marketing the company to its constituents (Bowman 1984; Bülow-Møller 2003......; Hyland 1998). This point is arguably of more importance to a biotech company which in its communication to the public may have to consider promoting an overly favourable and trustworthy image not only of its financial results, but also of the industry in which it is engaged, to ensure continuous...

  6. Much Ado about Something: Cuban Biotech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Cuban advances in biotech have made headlines, particularly since the US-Cuba rapprochement and signing of the historic memorandum of understanding between the US Department of Health and Human Services and Cuba's Ministry of Public Health in June. Some 34 Cuban institutions with 22,000 employees are the backbone of a biotech industry that dates to the early 1980s, obtaining novel products that have sparked interest among potential global partners. While a number of these Cuban products are registered in various countries, their testing in the USA remains ensnared in the red tape of embargo laws that tend to make investors skittish and thus delay, if not curtail, joint research and clinical trial applications to the FDA.

  7. Social Network Analysis of the Irish Biotech Industry: Implications for Digital Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egeraat, Chris; Curran, Declan

    This paper presents an analysis of the socio-spatial structures of innovation, collaboration and knowledge flow among SMEs in the Irish biotech sector. The study applies social network analysis to determine the structure of networks of company directors and inventors in the biotech sector. In addition, the article discusses the implications of the findings for the role and contours of a biotech digital ecosystem. To distil these lessons, the research team organised a seminar which was attended by representatives of biotech actors and experts.

  8. 近年来我国生物技术药物研究进展和趋势%The Research Progress and Trend of Biotech Drugs in Recent Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友同; 吴文俊; 李谦; 高美风

    2013-01-01

    Biological technology is the topic height at the development of economy and technology in the 21st century all over the world . The authors based on the world biotech- drugs total development trend, summarized the biotech drugs research achievements in recent five years in China. The content includes: cytokine, protein and peptide drugs, fusion protein, cell-penetrating peptides, enzymes,gene therapy,stem cells,monoclonal antibodies,therapeutic vaccine,polysaccharide drugs,etc. It is found in the survey that the development of biotech drugs has a bright future in treating complicated diseases, protecting the human health, improving the life quality, and developing the biotech drugs industry, thank to the emerging of many creative biotech drug researches within our country. This paper provides the reference for establishing the relevant research plan, deciding the research project, setting development goals for enterprise research,and choosing professional development direction,and to biological pharmaceutical researchers.%生物技术是21世纪世界各国竞相发展的经济、技术的制高点,作者站在世界生物技术药物发展总趋势的高度上,具体而微地调查和总结了我国近5年来生物技术药物研究所取得的成果,内容包括:细胞因子、其它蛋白质和多肽药物、融合蛋白、穿膜肽、酶、基因治疗、干细胞、单克隆抗体、治疗性疫苗及多糖药物等.调查发现,在攻克人类顽疾、保障人民身体健康、提高生活质量和发展我国生物技术药物产业方面,由于国内成批有创见的研究成果持续涌现,发展前景一片光明.该文可为有关部门科研规划、确定研究项目、企业锁定发展目标及生物制药人员选择专业发展方向提供参考.

  9. First Author Research Productivity of United States Radiation Oncology Residents: 2002-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Participation in investigative research is a required element of radiation oncology residency in the United States. Our purpose was to quantify the first author research productivity of recent U.S. radiation oncology residents during their residency training. Methods and Materials: We performed a computer-based search of PubMed and a manual review of the proceedings of the annual meetings of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology to identify all publications and presented abstracts with a radiation oncology resident as the first author between 2002 and 2007. Results: Of 1,098 residents trained at 81 programs, 50% published ≥1 article (range, 0-9), and 53% presented ≥1 abstract (range, 0-3) at an American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meeting. The national average was 1.01 articles published and 1.09 abstracts presented per resident during 4 years of training. Of 678 articles published, 82% represented original research and 18% were review articles. Residents contributed 15% of all abstracts at American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meetings, and the resident contribution to orally presented abstracts increased from 12% to 21% during the study period. Individuals training at programs with >6 residents produced roughly twice as many articles and abstracts. Holman Research Pathway residents produced double the national average of articles and abstracts. Conclusion: Although variability exists among individuals and among training programs, U.S. radiation oncology residents routinely participate in investigative research suitable for publication or presentation at a scientific meeting. These data provide national research benchmarks that can assist current and future radiation oncology residents and training programs in their self-assessment and research planning.

  10. Combining Instructionist and Constructionist Learning in a Virtual Biotech Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawabi, Peter; Wessner, Martin

    The background of this paper is an internal research project at the German National Research Center for Information Technology, Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, (GMD-IPSI) dealing with software engineering, computer-supported cooperative learning (CSCL) and practical biotech knowledge. The project goal is to develop a…

  11. Biotech 2011 conference Zurich University of applied sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Caspar

    2011-01-01

    More than 160 experts from industry and academia came together this September for the Biotech 2011 at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) in Wädenswil. As one of the main topics, the conference addressed innovations in sensor technology, where new measurement principles and methods have helped to enhance robustness and user friendliness. Another main emphasis of Biotech 2011 was the application of sensors and related analytical techniques in bioprocesses. In this area, the sensor industry needs to meet the challenges introduced by the increasing use of single-use bioreactors. With its strong focus on sensor applications, Biotech 2011 successfully promoted interaction between professionals in academic and industrial research as well as with experts who apply sensors in biopharmaceutical production.

  12. NMSBA: Sandia Biotech 2016 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this project is to modify the FluorAbody plasmid previously developed by Sandia Biotech to include a binding site for biotin by introducing the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP)and a gold binding protein (GBP) into a loop of the red fluorescent protein (mRFP).

  13. Scientific knowledge dynamics and relatedness in biotech cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Heimeriks, Gaston; Balland, Pierre-Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of scientific relatedness on knowledge dynamics in biotech at the city level during the period 1989-2008. We assess the extent to which the emergence of new research topics and the disappearance of existing topics in cities are dependent on their degree of scientif

  14. MARKETING OF BIOTECH FUNCTIONAL FOODS IN THE US

    OpenAIRE

    Chema, Kambua; Marks, Leonie A.; Parcell, Joseph L.; Bredahl, Maury E.

    2004-01-01

    To date, most research in Europe and the United States has focused on eliciting consumer WTP for biotech foods without directly addressing strategies for marketing them. We use means-end theory to link consumers' knowledge about functional attributes, to their knowledge about consequences and core values, in order to gain insights into valued attributes for developing potential marketing strategies.

  15. The integration of research and care in pediatric oncology: implications for review and consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekking, S.A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The large majority of children with cancer participate in medical research. This varies from observational studies, to laboratory research on different types of tissue, to drug research, to supportive care studies. As such, pediatric oncology is a field where treatments are often provided in the res

  16. Indian Biotech Bazaar: a swot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek

    2007-05-01

    Biotechnology is a life science-based technique especially used in agriculture, medicine and food sciences. It is generally defined as the manipulation in organisms to generate products for the welfare of the world. Biotechnology combines disciplines such as genetics, biochemistry, microbiology, and cell biology along with information technology, chemical engineering, robotics etc. It includes basic industries such as food processing, tissue culture, plant development and other sophisticated ones such as recombinant therapeutics and diagnostics. Biotechnology, globally recognized as a rapidly emerging and far-reaching technology, is aptly described as the "technology of hope" for its promise of food, health and environmental sustainability. In India, biotechnology employs more than 10 000 people and generates roughly US$ 500 million in revenue annually. The biotechnology market has increased its sales from Rs. 50 billion in 1997 to Rs.70 billion in 2000, and is expected to cross Rs. 240 billion by the year 2010. In India, the human health biotech products account for 60% of the total market; agribiotech and veterinary 25%, medical devices, contract research and development (R&D), reagents and supplies constitute the remaining 15% Moreover, to facilitate foreign investment, capital and government policies are being revised. Other important industries include industrial enzyme manufacture, bioinformatics, and medical devices. Biotechnology has had limited appeal so far on our capital markets, and we have less then a dozen biotech companies listed on the public markets. PMID:17479978

  17. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Ethics and Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chen, Aileen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hoffman, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tina Shih, Ya-Chen [Department of Medicine, Section of Hospital Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, and Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yu, James B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  18. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  19. Biotech 101: an educational outreach program in genetics and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Kelly M; Hott, Adam M; Callanan, Nancy P; Lamb, Neil E

    2012-10-01

    Recent advances in research and biotechnology are making genetics and genomics increasingly relevant to the lives and health of the general public. For the public to make informed healthcare and public policy decisions relating to genetic information, there is a need for increased genetic literacy. Biotech 101 is a free, short-course for the local community introducing participants to topics in genetics, genomics, and biotechnology, created at the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Biotech 101 in increasing the genetic literacy of program participants through pre-and-post surveys. Genetic literacy was measured through increases in self-perceived knowledge for each content area covered through the course and the self-reported impact the course had on various aspects of participants' lives. Three hundred ninety-two individuals attended Biotech 101 during the first three course offerings. Participants reported a significant increase in self-perceived knowledge for each content area (p Biotech 101 is an effective mechanism for impacting participants' lives and genetic literacy and serves as a model for other similar programs, adding to the currently limited evidence base regarding public educational strategies in genetics and biotechnology.

  20. Single-Cell Sequencing Technology in Oncology: Applications for Clinical Therapies and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baixin Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular heterogeneity is a fundamental characteristic of many cancers. A lack of cellular homogeneity contributes to difficulty in designing targeted oncological therapies. Therefore, the development of novel methods to determine and characterize oncologic cellular heterogeneity is a critical next step in the development of novel cancer therapies. Single-cell sequencing (SCS technology has been recently employed for analyzing the genetic polymorphisms of individual cells at the genome-wide level. SCS requires (1 precise isolation of the single cell of interest; (2 isolation and amplification of genetic material; and (3 descriptive analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic data. In addition to targeted analysis of single cells isolated from tumor biopsies, SCS technology may be applied to circulating tumor cells, which may aid in predicting tumor progression and metastasis. In this paper, we provide an overview of SCS technology and review the current literature on the potential application of SCS to clinical oncology and research.

  1. The Application of SEM to Behavioral Research in Oncology: Past Accomplishments and Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoll, Robert A.; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Manne, Sharon L.

    2004-01-01

    The past decade has seen a tremendous growth in the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) to address research questions in 2 subfields of behavioral science: cancer prevention and control (e.g., determinants of cancer screening adherence) and behavioral oncology (e.g., determinants of psychosocial adjustment among cancer patients or…

  2. Health care biotech industry (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Padmanaban

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern biotechnology became possible because of the ability to clone genes and produce gene products barriers of species and sex. Potential entrepreneurs are getting interested in venturing into health care biotech industry, stimulated by the success story in information technology. Products of protein therapeutics, such as insulin, growth hormones, interferons, blood proteins, streptokinase and vaccines have received special attention. Pharmaceutical companies got into the field of diagnostics, a major thrust area being products of antigen/antibody and nucleic acid-based diagnostic kits. The ability to clone and sequence genes from a variety of organisms has culminated in the subject of genomics. High throughput screening of thousands of organic molecules against a battery of drug targets using robotic machinery is the current approach to come up with lead molecules. New drug delivery systems for slow, sustained and direct delivery to target tissues are under way. There is hope that hereditary and metabolic disorders may have a cure through replacements of defective genes by normal cloned genes and by blocking the expression of unwanted genes, respectively. This mega approach would call for the availability of DNA chips, a product of collaboration between molecular biologists and electronic engineers. The tendency now-a-days is for a marriage between biotech and pharmaceutical industries. Animal cloning, spearheaded by the birth of Dolly, has revolutionised cell biology and is of promise to generate animal bio-vectors to produce desired protein pharmaceuticals in milk. Stem cell research has assumed a lot of importance. In our country, reasonable competence has been built-up in the field of biotechnology. Around two dozen institutes carry out front-line research in medical biotechnology. Successful commercialisation of a few diagnostic kits and recombinant vaccines has provided an impetus and enthusiasm to exploit biotechnology in a big way

  3. Ethical reasons for narrowing the scope of biotech patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Patents on biotech products have a scope that goes well beyond what is covered by the most widely applied ethical justifications of intellectual property. Neither natural rights theory from Locke, nor public interest theory of IP rights justifies the wide scope of legal protection. The article takes human genes as an example, focusing on the component that is not invented but persists as unaltered gene information even in the synthetically produced complementary DNA, the cDNA. It is argued that patent on cDNA holds this information captive, or illegitimately appropriates it in limiting other researchers and inventors' opportunity to explore new functions and uses based on this non-invented information. A tighter connection between legal IP protection and the use description stated in the patent claim is suggested. By binding protection to the product's foreseeable functions and use, instead of the product itself and all future uses of it, legitimacy of biotech product patents is restored.

  4. Chemometrics applications in biotech processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag S; Bhushan, Nitish; Hadpe, Sandip

    2011-01-01

    Biotech unit operations are often characterized by a large number of inputs (operational parameters) and outputs (performance parameters) along with complex correlations amongst them. A typical biotech process starts with the vial of the cell bank, ends with the final product, and has anywhere from 15 to 30 such unit operations in series. The aforementioned parameters can impact process performance and product quality and also interact amongst each other. Chemometrics presents one effective approach to gather process understanding from such complex data sets. The increasing use of chemometrics is fuelled by the gradual acceptance of quality by design and process analytical technology amongst the regulators and the biotech industry, which require enhanced process and product understanding. In this article, we review the topic of chemometrics applications in biotech processes with a special focus on recent major developments. Case studies have been used to highlight some of the significant applications.

  5. The present state of research and exploitation of biotech (GM) crops in horticulture: results of research on plum cv. 'HoneySweet' resistant to plum pox virus (Sharka) and the deregulation of this cultivar in the CR & Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha in 2011. Only 114.57 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.90 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. Currently, developing count...

  6. Children’s Oncology Group’s 2013 Blueprint for Research: Nursing Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Landier, Wendy; Leonard, Marcia; Ruccione, Kathleen S.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of the nursing discipline within cooperative groups conducting pediatric oncology clinical trials provides unique opportunities to maximize nursing’s contribution to clinical care, and to pursue research questions that extend beyond cure of disease to address important gaps in knowledge surrounding the illness experience. Key areas of importance to the advancement of the nursing discipline’s scientific knowledge are understanding the effective delivery of patient/family education,...

  7. Integrating Personalized Medicine in the Canadian Environment: Efforts Facilitating Oncology Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Rachel; Carleton, Bruce; Leyens, Lada; Richer, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a rapid evolution of clinical practices based on the introduction of patient stratification and molecular diagnosis that is likely to improve health outcomes. Building on a strong research base, complemented by strong support from clinicians and health authorities, the oncology field is at the forefront of this evolution. Yet, clinical research is still facing many challenges that need to be addressed in order to conduct necessary studies and effectively translate medical breakthroughs based on personalized medicine into standards of care. Leveraging its universal health care system and on resources developed to support oncology clinical research, Canada is well positioned to join the international efforts deployed to address these challenges. Available resources include a broad range of structures and funding mechanisms, ranging from direct clinical trial support to post-marketing surveillance. Here, we propose a clinical model for the introduction of innovation for precision medicine in oncology that starts with patients' and clinicians' unmet needs to initiate a cycle of discovery, validation, translation and sustainability development. PMID:26565702

  8. Radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Oncology Division has had as its main objectives both to operate an academic training program and to carry out research on radiation therapy of cancer. Since fiscal year 1975, following a directive from ERDA, increased effort has been given to research. The research activities have been complemented by the training program, which has been oriented toward producing radiation oncologists, giving physicians short-term experience in radiation oncology, and teaching medical students about clinical cancer and its radiation therapy. The purpose of the research effort is to improve present modalities of radiation therapy of cancer. As in previous years, the Division has operated as the Radiation Oncology Program of the Department of Radiological Sciences of the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine. It has provided radiation oncology support to patients at the University Hospital and to academic programs of the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus. The patients, in turn, have provided the clinical basis for the educational and research projects of the Division. Funding has been primarily from PRNC (approx. 40%) and from National Cancer Institute grants channeled through the School of Medicine (approx. 60%). Special inter-institutional relationships with the San Juan Veterans Administration Hospital and the Metropolitan Hospital in San Juan have permitted inclusion of patients from these institutions in the Division's research projects. Medical physics and radiotherapy consultations have been provided to the Radiotherapy Department of the VA Hospital

  9. Clinical perspectives of cancer stem cell research in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy has a proven potential to eradicate cancer stem cells which is reflected by its curative potential in many cancer types. Considerable progress has been made in identification and biological characterisation of cancer stem cells during the past years. Recent biological findings indicate significant inter- and intratumoural and functional heterogeneity of cancer stem cells and lead to more complex models which have potential implications for radiobiology and radiotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging that biomarkers of cancer stem cells may be prognostic for the outcome of radiotherapy in some tumour entities. Perspectives of cancer stem cell based research for radiotherapy reviewed here include their radioresistance compared to the mass of non-cancer stem cells which form the bulk of all tumour cells, implications for image- and non-image based predictive bio-assays of the outcome of radiotherapy and a combination of novel systemic treatments with radiotherapy

  10. [Rethinking clinical research in surgical oncology. From comic opera to quality control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The evidence base for the effectiveness of surgical interventions is relatively poor and data from large, randomized prospective studies are rare with often a poor quality. Many efforts have been made to increase the number of high quality randomized trials in surgery and theoretical proposals have been put forward to improve the situation, but practical implementation of these proposals is seriously lacking. The consequences of this policy are not trivial; with very few patients included in surgical oncology trials, this represents wasted opportunity for advances in cancer treatment. In this review, we cover the difficulties inherent to clinical research in surgical oncology, such as quality control, equipoise, accrual, and funding and promote alternative designs to the randomized controlled trial. Although the classic randomized controlled trial has a valid but limited place in surgical oncology, other prospective designs need to be promoted as a new deal. This new deal not only implicates surgeons but also journal editors, tender jury, as well as regulatory bodies to cover legal gaps currently surrounding surgical innovation.

  11. Business Ethics 101 for the biotech industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Biotechnology companies face ethical challenges of two distinct types: bioethical challenges faced on account of the nature of work in the life sciences, and corporate ethical challenges on account of their nature as commercial entities. The latter set of challenges has received almost no attention at all in the academic literature or media. This paper begins to remedy that lacuna, examining ethical issues that arise specifically on account of the status of biotech companies as commercial entities. The focus here is on three representative issues: product safety, corporate social responsibility, and corporate governance. It is argued that each of these issues poses particular ethical challenges for companies in the biotech sector. In the area of product safety, it is noted that biotech companies face particular challenges in determining what counts as a "safe" product, given the contentious nature of what might count as a "harm" in the biotech field. In the area of corporate social responsibility, the adoption of a "stakeholder approach" and an attempt to manage the social consequences of products pose special challenges for biotech companies. This is due to the enormous range of groups and individuals claiming to have a stake in the doings of such companies, and the trenchant controversies over just what the social consequences of various biotechnologies might be. In the area of corporate governance, biotech companies need to seek out and follow best practices regarding the ways in which information, authority, and influence flow between a company's shareholders, managers, and Board of Directors, if they are to avoid duplicating the ethical and financial scandal that brought down ImClone. An important meta-issue, here--one that renders each of these corporate ethical challenges more vexing--is the difficulty of finding the appropriate benchmarks for ethical corporate behavior in a field as controversial, and as rapidly evolving, as biotechnology. Three

  12. Business Ethics 101 for the biotech industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Biotechnology companies face ethical challenges of two distinct types: bioethical challenges faced on account of the nature of work in the life sciences, and corporate ethical challenges on account of their nature as commercial entities. The latter set of challenges has received almost no attention at all in the academic literature or media. This paper begins to remedy that lacuna, examining ethical issues that arise specifically on account of the status of biotech companies as commercial entities. The focus here is on three representative issues: product safety, corporate social responsibility, and corporate governance. It is argued that each of these issues poses particular ethical challenges for companies in the biotech sector. In the area of product safety, it is noted that biotech companies face particular challenges in determining what counts as a "safe" product, given the contentious nature of what might count as a "harm" in the biotech field. In the area of corporate social responsibility, the adoption of a "stakeholder approach" and an attempt to manage the social consequences of products pose special challenges for biotech companies. This is due to the enormous range of groups and individuals claiming to have a stake in the doings of such companies, and the trenchant controversies over just what the social consequences of various biotechnologies might be. In the area of corporate governance, biotech companies need to seek out and follow best practices regarding the ways in which information, authority, and influence flow between a company's shareholders, managers, and Board of Directors, if they are to avoid duplicating the ethical and financial scandal that brought down ImClone. An important meta-issue, here--one that renders each of these corporate ethical challenges more vexing--is the difficulty of finding the appropriate benchmarks for ethical corporate behavior in a field as controversial, and as rapidly evolving, as biotechnology. Three

  13. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia AGENCY: International Trade... Biotech Life Sciences trade mission to Australia, October 29-November 2, 2012. The mission to Australia is... prominent biotech organizations, government meetings, and briefings and receptions during the...

  14. Bioluminescent imaging: a critical tool in pre-clinical oncology research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Karen

    2010-02-01

    Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a non-invasive imaging modality widely used in the field of pre-clinical oncology research. Imaging of small animal tumour models using BLI involves the generation of light by luciferase-expressing cells in the animal following administration of substrate. This light may be imaged using an external detector. The technique allows a variety of tumour-associated properties to be visualized dynamically in living models. The increasing use of BLI as a small-animal imaging modality has led to advances in the development of xenogeneic, orthotopic, and genetically engineered animal models expressing luciferase genes. This review aims to provide insight into the principles of BLI and its applications in cancer research. Many studies to assess tumour growth and development, as well as efficacy of candidate therapeutics, have been performed using BLI. More recently, advances have also been made using bioluminescent imaging in studies of protein-protein interactions, genetic screening, cell-cycle regulators, and spontaneous cancer development. Such novel studies highlight the versatility and potential of bioluminescent imaging in future oncological research.

  15. Perspective: Biotech funding trends: Insights from entrepreneurs and investors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Alexandra C

    2009-08-01

    Based on a qualitative study analyzing a series of interviews with dedicated biotech entrepreneurs and high-level investors, "Biotech Funding Trends" provides a comprehensive overview of current trends in biotech funding by taking a close look behind the scenes of the biotech industry. In particular, it illustrates the tensions between both key players based on their different backgrounds and expectations. Here we outline the various funding opportunities for the biotech industry in Europe and identify ways for both sides, entrepreneurs and investors to overcome their prejudices to successfully thrive in a competitive environment. The results are also discussed in the light of the current financial and economic crisis.

  16. RADIATION THERAPY ONCOLOGY GROUP TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM STEM CELL SYMPOSIUM : INCORPORATING STEM CELL HYPOTHESES INTO CLINICAL TRIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodward, Wendy A.; Bristow, Robert G.; Clarke, Michael F.; Coppes, Robert P.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Duda, Dan G.; Fike, John R.; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Hill, Richard P.; Jordan, Craig T.; Milas, Luka; Pajonk, Frank; Curran, Walter J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2009-01-01

    At a meeting of the Translation Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group held in early 2008, attendees focused on updating the current state of knowledge in cancer stem cell research and discussing ways in which this knowledge can be translated into clinical use across all disease si

  17. Role of French teams in the development of clinical and translational research in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many clinical studies have showed the key role of radiotherapy in anticancer treatment strategy. Radiations are delivered alone or in combination with systemic therapies. In recent years, the main goal of all clinical developments has focused on improving clinical benefit, with an increased tumour control and a higher normal tissue protection. This research was designed to reduce local recurrences, to increase recurrence-free or overall survival and to decrease acute and late effects. Technological and biological evolutions (or revolutions) accompanied clinicians to improve clinical benefit, namely with strong progress in radiology and better understanding of radiobiology, particularly at the molecular level. Differences in tumour and normal tissues radiosensitivity are nowadays integrated in daily clinical practice of radiation oncologists. The current report details the last 5-year developments of clinical and translational research in radiation oncology, especially the role of French teams in the development of personalized treatment. (authors)

  18. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report

  19. Current status and recommendations for the future of research, teaching, and testing in the biological sciences of radiation oncology: report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Paul E; Anscher, Mitchell S; Barker, Christopher A; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G; Cha, Yong I; Dicker, Adam P; Formenti, Silvia C; Graves, Edward E; Hahn, Stephen M; Hei, Tom K; Kimmelman, Alec C; Kirsch, David G; Kozak, Kevin R; Lawrence, Theodore S; Marples, Brian; McBride, William H; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Park, Catherine C; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Zietman, Anthony L; Steinberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  20. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  1. Oncologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpida Th. Georgiadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with malignancies are subject to develop a unique set of urgent and life-threatening complications. These emergency problems can be the result of the disease itself, the result from the therapy directed against the cancer or the result of previously existing pathological conditions not related to cancer. In some cases, these problems are the first symptom of the tumor. Aim: The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the oncologic emergencies. Method: The method of this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the on-line data base 'Pubmed'. Results: Tumor lysis syndrome, malignant spinal cord compression, superior vena cava syndrome, cardiovascular emergencies, acute renal failure, venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, metabolic emergencies, neutropenic infection, acute pulmonary problems, acute hemorrhage and hematuria are the most important oncologic emergencies. Conclusions: Early diagnosis of the oncologic emergencies and prompt interventions can be lifesaving. However, staging of the tumor, response to current treatment, overall prognosis and patient and family wishes should be assessed in order to establish an appropriate treatment plan.

  2. Does Cluster Policy Trigger R&D Activity? – Evidence from German Biotech Contests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Dirk; Mitze, Timo; Patuelli, Roberto;

    in research clusters. We apply a Difference-in-Differences estimation technique in a generalized linear model framework, which allows us to control for different initial regional conditions in R&D activity of the biotech sector. Our econometric findings support the view that winners generally outperform non...

  3. Research biopsies in the context of early phase oncology studies: clinical and ethical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Saggese

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Personalized Medicine approach in oncology is a direct result of an improved understanding of complex tumor biology and advances in diagnostic technologies. In recent years, there has been an increased demand for archival and fresh tumor analysis in early clinical trials to foster proof-of-concept biomarker development, to understand resistance mechanisms, and ultimately to assess biological response. Although phase I studies are aimed at defining drug safety, pharmacokinetics, and to recommend a phase II dose for further testing, there is now increasing evidence of mandatory tumor biopsies even at the earliest dose-finding stages of drug development. The increasing demand for fresh tumor biopsies adds to the complexity of novel phase I studies and results in different challenges, ranging from logistical support to ethical concerns. This paper investigates key issues, including patients’ perceptions of research biopsies, the need for accurate informed consent, and alternative strategies that may guide the drug development process.

  4. Research biopsies in the context of early phase oncology studies: clinical and ethical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Saggese

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Personalised medicine’ approach in oncology is a direct result of improved understanding of complex tumour biology and advances in diagnostic technologies. In recent years there has been an increased demand for archival and fresh tumour analysis in early clinical trials to foster-proof-of-concept biomarker development, understand resistance mechanisms and ultimately to assess biological response. Although phase-1 studies are aimed to define drug safety, pharmacokinetics and to recommend a phase-2 dose for further testing, there is now increasing evidence of mandatory tumour biopsies even at the earliest dose-finding stages of drug development. The increasing demand for fresh tumour biopsies adds to the complexity of novel phase-1 studies and results in different challenges ranging from logistical support to ethical concerns. This paper investigates key issues including patients’ perceptions towards research biopsies, the need for accurate informed consent and alternative strategies that may guide in the drug development process.

  5. Investor Outlook: After the Biotech Bubble Popped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven; Yang, Jerry

    2016-03-01

    After a few torrid years of value appreciation, the biotech "bubble" has precipitously popped over the past few months. In this report, we take a look at some of the factors that drove the run-up in valuations, the triggers that led to their substantial pullback, and where the industry may be headed from here. Gene therapy/editing companies have been particularly affected by these dynamics, raising a new set of questions and challenges for the group.

  6. Fourth Medical Biotech Forum of the Chinese Medical Biotech Association. 8-10 August 2009, Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzmann, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The Chinese Medical Biotech Association's Fourth Medical Biotech Forum held in Dalian, China included topics covering the biotechnology industry in China and new therapeutic developments in the field of immunological approaches to cancer treatment. This conference report highlights selected presentations on China's biotechnology development policy, tumor-specific antigens, clinical applications of antitumor immune therapy, and novel photodynamic tumor therapy. Investigational therapeutics discussed include astuprotimut-r (GlaxoSmithKline plc) and the dendritic cell vaccine Trivax (Trimed Biotech).

  7. The Childhood Solid Tumor Network: A new resource for the developmental biology and oncology research communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Federico, Sara; Karlstrom, Asa; Shelat, Anang; Sablauer, Andras; Pappo, Alberto; Dyer, Michael A

    2016-03-15

    Significant advances have been made over the past 25 years in our understanding of the most common adult solid tumors such as breast, colon, lung and prostate cancer. Much less is known about childhood solid tumors because they are rare and because they originate in developing organs during fetal development, childhood and adolescence. It can be very difficult to study the cellular origins of pediatric solid tumors in developing organs characterized by rapid proliferative expansion, growth factor signaling, developmental angiogenesis, programmed cell death, tissue reorganization and cell migration. Not only has the etiology of pediatric cancer remained elusive because of their developmental origins, but it also makes it more difficult to treat. Molecular targeted therapeutics that alter developmental pathway signaling may have devastating effects on normal organ development. Therefore, basic research focused on the mechanisms of development provides an essential foundation for pediatric solid tumor translational research. In this article, we describe new resources available for the developmental biology and oncology research communities. In a companion paper, we present the detailed characterization of an orthotopic xenograft of a pediatric solid tumor derived from sympathoadrenal lineage during development. PMID:26068307

  8. An analysis of the most-cited research papers on oncology: which journals have they been published in?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk

    2014-05-01

    The most-cited papers (MCPs) are likely those that impressed researchers and had profound influence on clinical practice or future developments in the related scientific field. This study was conducted to explore a bibliometric approach to assess where the oncology-related MCPs have been published in. The source of the data presented in this study was provided by using the InCitesTM, Web of Science, Thomson Reuters Database (2013). It contained any journal indexed by ISI between 1979 and 2013. The term MCPs arbitrarily defined as equal or more than 100 citations. A total of 565 publications were cited equal or more than 100 times. They were published in 79 different journals (64 oncology, 12 medicine, and 3 science), led by the Journal of Clinical Oncology (n = 76; 13.5%) and Cancer Research (n = 66; 11.7%) followed by Oncogene (n = 46; 8.1%), Nature Reviews Cancer (n = 41; 7.3%), and Cancer (n = 37; 6.5%). Moreover, the journal categories with the MCPs were the Oncology with 495 articles (87.6%), followed by the Medicine with 60 (10.6%) articles. However, the numbers of journals related to Science (n = 10; 1.8%) were the least. The MCPs were cited a total of 118,531 times. The citations ranged from 100 to 1,790, and the median number was 149. The total numbers of MCPs were the most prominent for the journals, the New England Journal of Medicine (median 398), Lancet (median 213), and Nature Reviews Cancer (median 210). In other side, the counts of MCPs were the highest for the Science and Medicine-categorized journals (median 212.5 and 192.5 citations, respectively). The MCPs categorized as Oncology were the least cited (median 145). The median number of MCPs per year was 18.7 with range 4.1-858.5. The annual most valuable MCPs were also published in the journal Nature Reviews Cancer (median 42) and the New England Journal of Medicine (median 38.7). Likewise, the numbers of MCPs were the highest for the Science-categorized journals (median

  9. Can science be a business? Lessons from biotech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Gary P

    2006-10-01

    In 1976, Genentech, the first biotechnology company, was founded by a young venture capitalist and a university professor to exploit recombinant DNA technology. Thirty years and more than 300 billion dollars in investments later, only a handful of biotech firms have matched Genentech's success or even shown a profit. No avalanche of new drugs has hit the market, and the long-awaited breakthrough in R&D productivity has yet to materialize. This disappointing performance raises a question: Can organizations motivated by the need to make profits and please shareholders successfully conduct basic scientific research as a core activity? The question has largely been ignored, despite intense debate over whether business's invasion of basic science-long the domain of universities and nonprofit research institutions- is limiting access to discoveries, thereby slowing advances in science. Biotech has not lived up to its promise, says the author, because its anatomy, which has worked well in other high-tech sectors, can't handle the fundamental challenges facing drug R&D: profound, persistent uncertainty and high risks rooted in the limited knowledge of human biology; the need for the diverse disciplines involved in drug discovery to work together in an integrated fashion; and barriers to learning, including tacit knowledge and murky intellectual property rights, which can slow the pace of scientific advance. A more suitable anatomy would include increased vertical integration; a smaller number of closer, longer collaborations; an emphasis by universities on sharing rather than patenting scientific discoveries; more cross-disciplinary academic research; and more federal and private funding for translational research, which bridges basic and applied science. With such modifications, science can be a business. PMID:17040044

  10. Can science be a business? Lessons from biotech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Gary P

    2006-10-01

    In 1976, Genentech, the first biotechnology company, was founded by a young venture capitalist and a university professor to exploit recombinant DNA technology. Thirty years and more than 300 billion dollars in investments later, only a handful of biotech firms have matched Genentech's success or even shown a profit. No avalanche of new drugs has hit the market, and the long-awaited breakthrough in R&D productivity has yet to materialize. This disappointing performance raises a question: Can organizations motivated by the need to make profits and please shareholders successfully conduct basic scientific research as a core activity? The question has largely been ignored, despite intense debate over whether business's invasion of basic science-long the domain of universities and nonprofit research institutions- is limiting access to discoveries, thereby slowing advances in science. Biotech has not lived up to its promise, says the author, because its anatomy, which has worked well in other high-tech sectors, can't handle the fundamental challenges facing drug R&D: profound, persistent uncertainty and high risks rooted in the limited knowledge of human biology; the need for the diverse disciplines involved in drug discovery to work together in an integrated fashion; and barriers to learning, including tacit knowledge and murky intellectual property rights, which can slow the pace of scientific advance. A more suitable anatomy would include increased vertical integration; a smaller number of closer, longer collaborations; an emphasis by universities on sharing rather than patenting scientific discoveries; more cross-disciplinary academic research; and more federal and private funding for translational research, which bridges basic and applied science. With such modifications, science can be a business.

  11. Implementation of comparative effectiveness research in personalized medicine applications in oncology: current and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJzerman MJ

    2015-11-01

    medicine, precision medicine, comparative effectiveness research, health technology assessment, oncology, genomics 

  12. Space Biotech: Hindsight, Insight, Foresight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Over the past forty years, microgravity has inspired and enabled applications in a wide range of sectors including medicine, materials, computers, communications, and national defense. Trends show that demand for high-tech solutions is increasing in these sectors, solutions that require higher resolution, greater precision, novel materials, innovative processes, and more sophisticated tools. These are areas where microgravity can offer unique capabilities for innovation. The Emerging Space Office (ESO) has engaged in multiple studies over the past year that have found that microgravity RD is one of the most promising technology areas for contributing to economic growth and to NASAs mission. The focus of these studies was on terrestrial markets rather than NASA applications, applied research rather than basic research, and commercial rather than academic investigators. There have been more success stories than are generally appreciated and there are significant areas of promising future potential. Many of the problems that have limited commercial microgravity development in the past are being solved. Microgravity research and development (RD) requires iteration and learning, as rapidly as possible. New technologies enable high throughput and rapid data collection in increasingly small payloads. The International Space Station is in orbit and provides a laboratory that is available 247 at least until 2024. Frequent flights by commercial space providers to and from the ISS now enable the fast learning cycles needed by high-tech industries. Launch costs are decreasing and the ability to return payloads to Earth is increasing. New commercial space laboratories, such as those being developed by SpaceX and Bigelow Aerospace, are in the final stages of development and testing. This ecosystem for microgravity RD has never been available before. These are game-changer conditions for attracting high-tech industries to space for terrestrial, as well as NASA, applications

  13. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Translational Research Program Stem Cell Symposium: Incorporating Stem Cell Hypotheses into Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a meeting of the Translation Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group held in early 2008, attendees focused on updating the current state of knowledge in cancer stem cell research and discussing ways in which this knowledge can be translated into clinical use across all disease sites. This report summarizes the major topics discussed and the future directions that research should take. Major conclusions of the symposium were that the flow cytometry of multiple markers in fresh tissue would remain the standard technique of evaluating cancer-initiating cells and that surrogates need to be developed for both experimental and clinical use.

  14. American Society for Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for postmastectomy radiotherapy PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS ASTROnews Supersize it: Big Data comes to radiation oncology research. PRO Official clinical practice journal of ASTRO. Bimonthly journal dedicated to improving ...

  15. NTN Swiss Biotech - A Look at Support Measures for Dynamic Start-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2016-01-01

    The Swiss biotech landscape seems to be on a healthy footing: There are many imaginative start-ups, we have first-class hospitals, highly advanced clinical research and the availability of a great deal of capital. But we have no reason to rest on our laurels as countries like the USA lead the field. We must lay down the tracks today to remain an attractive country and maintain our ranking among the 10 best locations.

  16. The written description rejection as a barrier to biotech patent prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-05-01

    Biotech firms always pursue broad claims to secure new discoveries, new technologies and even as yet undiscovered results of future research. However, expansive claims without sufficient description violate the principal of granting the patentee the right to exclude others from using the technical development for a certain amount of time in return for disclosing the innovation. Based on this investigation, a written description can be a barrier to biotech patents with broad claims. To avoid a written description rejection during patent prosecution or invalidation in litigation, the patent applicant or assignee should demonstrate possession of the claimed invention by describing the claimed invention with all of its limitations using descriptive means such as words, structures, figures, diagrams, and formulas that fully set forth the claimed invention. Although the court cases analyzed in this study were not directly related to vaccines, the guideline indeed is applicable to patents of vaccine. Furthermore, a vaccine patent application is also demonstrated. PMID:21552000

  17. The written description rejection as a barrier to biotech patent prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-05-01

    Biotech firms always pursue broad claims to secure new discoveries, new technologies and even as yet undiscovered results of future research. However, expansive claims without sufficient description violate the principal of granting the patentee the right to exclude others from using the technical development for a certain amount of time in return for disclosing the innovation. Based on this investigation, a written description can be a barrier to biotech patents with broad claims. To avoid a written description rejection during patent prosecution or invalidation in litigation, the patent applicant or assignee should demonstrate possession of the claimed invention by describing the claimed invention with all of its limitations using descriptive means such as words, structures, figures, diagrams, and formulas that fully set forth the claimed invention. Although the court cases analyzed in this study were not directly related to vaccines, the guideline indeed is applicable to patents of vaccine. Furthermore, a vaccine patent application is also demonstrated.

  18. The Swiss biotech referendum: A case study of science communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 7 , 1998, the Swiss citizens voted on a constitutional amendment, which could have jeopardised the future of biotechnological research in Switzerland. Scientists and opinion leaders around the world expected the referendum with great anxiety. 'Nature', in an editorial, had firmly stated that the Swiss way showed 'how not to run a country', the 'Economist', a week prior to the referendum, had written that the Swiss might be the only people in the world who decided on their own to forego a world class position in scientific research. In fact, the Swiss did none of that. They rejected the constitutional amendment with an overwhelming majority of 67 per cent of the votes, and what started out as a dramatic threat to scientific research in Switzerland became a platform in favour of modern biotechnology. The presentation addresses some of the key features of the Swiss biotech campaign, analyses the success factors of the campaign, provides an insight in the most in-depth collection of data on public perception of biotechnology in the world, and draws conclusions as to what extent the Swiss experience can be of use in the way to communicate on modem science. The result of the Swiss referendum has convincingly shown that successful communication of modem science is possible if - scientists, authorities, and the industry accept the challenge to cope with the demands of communicating with the public at large, - there is a clear understanding that the public's needs may often be based on psychological rather than on logic scientific reasons, - all participants in the dialogue are willing to forego scientific jargon for clear understandable language, i.e. understand that it is hardly the public's fault if messages do not get across, - everybody accepts that dialogue, information, and education on modem science is a long-haul task. The Swiss biotech referendum was seen as a major threat to Switzerland as a leading country of scientific research. However, something which

  19. Quality Research in Radiation Oncology Analysis of Clinical Performance Measures in the Management of Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Karyn A., E-mail: goodmank@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Khalid, Najma [Quality Research in Radiation Oncology, American College of Radiology Clinical Research Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Minsky, Bruce D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD, Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crozier, Cheryl; Owen, Jean B. [Quality Research in Radiation Oncology, American College of Radiology Clinical Research Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Devlin, Phillip M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute at the Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States)

    2013-02-01

    -based planning with use of DVH to evaluate normal tissue doses. Most patients completed adjuvant RT in the prescribed time frame. IMRT and IGRT were not routinely incorporated into clinical practice during the 2005-2007 period. These data will be a benchmark for future Quality Research in Radiation Oncology GC surveys.

  20. Enhancing Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Research Within the National Clinical Trials Network: Rationale, Progress, and Emerging Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Aaron R; Nichols, Craig R; Freyer, David R

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology (AYAO, including patients 15-39 years of age) is an emerging discipline in the field of cancer treatment and research. Poorer survival outcomes for this population and characteristic age-related challenges in care have called attention to the need for increased AYAO research. This chapter outlines pressing questions and reviews recent progress in AYAO research within the current organizational structure of the federal clinical trials enterprise, emphasizing how the United States National Cancer Institute's National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) has created novel opportunities for collaborative AYAO research among the pediatric and adult NCTN groups. Potential strategies for expanding AYAO research, both within the NCTN and with other partners in the federal and advocacy domains are identified. PMID:26433555

  1. The role of preclinical SPECT in oncological and neurological research in combination with either CT or MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernsen, Monique R.; Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vaissier, Pieter E.B. [Delft University of Technology, Section Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Delft (Netherlands); Holen, Roel van [Ghent University, iMinds, ELIS Department, MEDISIP, Ghent (Belgium); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beekman, Freek J. [Delft University of Technology, Section Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Delft (Netherlands); MILabs B.V., Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Preclinical imaging with SPECT combined with CT or MRI is used more and more frequently and has proven to be very useful in translational research. In this article, an overview of current preclinical research applications and trends of SPECT combined with CT or MRI, mainly in tumour imaging and neuroscience imaging, is given and the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches are described. Today SPECT and CT systems are often integrated into a single device (commonly called a SPECT/CT system), whereas at present combined SPECT and MRI is almost always carried out with separate systems and fiducial markers to combine the separately acquired images. While preclinical SPECT/CT is most widely applied in oncology research, SPECT combined with MRI (SPECT/MRI when integrated in one system) offers the potential for both neuroscience applications and oncological applications. Today CT and MRI are still mainly used to localize radiotracer binding and to improve SPECT quantification, although both CT and MRI have additional potential. Future technology developments may include fast sequential or simultaneous acquisition of (dynamic) multimodality data, spectroscopy, fMRI along with high-resolution anatomic MRI, advanced CT procedures, and combinations of more than two modalities such as combinations of SPECT, PET, MRI and CT all together. This will all strongly depend on new technologies. With further advances in biology and chemistry for imaging molecular targets and (patho)physiological processes in vivo, the introduction of new imaging procedures and promising new radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice may be accelerated. (orig.)

  2. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics. Focus on collaboration and diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2012-10-15

    Background and purpose: Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Methods: Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Results: Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with {>=} 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. Conclusion: A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. (orig.)

  3. The role of preclinical SPECT in oncological and neurological research in combination with either CT or MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preclinical imaging with SPECT combined with CT or MRI is used more and more frequently and has proven to be very useful in translational research. In this article, an overview of current preclinical research applications and trends of SPECT combined with CT or MRI, mainly in tumour imaging and neuroscience imaging, is given and the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches are described. Today SPECT and CT systems are often integrated into a single device (commonly called a SPECT/CT system), whereas at present combined SPECT and MRI is almost always carried out with separate systems and fiducial markers to combine the separately acquired images. While preclinical SPECT/CT is most widely applied in oncology research, SPECT combined with MRI (SPECT/MRI when integrated in one system) offers the potential for both neuroscience applications and oncological applications. Today CT and MRI are still mainly used to localize radiotracer binding and to improve SPECT quantification, although both CT and MRI have additional potential. Future technology developments may include fast sequential or simultaneous acquisition of (dynamic) multimodality data, spectroscopy, fMRI along with high-resolution anatomic MRI, advanced CT procedures, and combinations of more than two modalities such as combinations of SPECT, PET, MRI and CT all together. This will all strongly depend on new technologies. With further advances in biology and chemistry for imaging molecular targets and (patho)physiological processes in vivo, the introduction of new imaging procedures and promising new radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice may be accelerated. (orig.)

  4. The integration of psychology in pediatric oncology research and practice: collaboration to improve care and outcomes for children and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Noll, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancers are life-threatening diseases that are universally distressing and potentially traumatic for children and their families at diagnosis, during treatment, and beyond. Dramatic improvements in survival have occurred as a result of increasingly aggressive multimodal therapies delivered in the context of clinical research trials. Nonetheless, cancers remain a leading cause of death in children, and their treatments have short- and long-term impacts on health and well-being. For over 35 years, pediatric psychologists have partnered with pediatric oncology teams to make many contributions to our understanding of the impact of cancer and its treatment on children and families and have played prominent roles in providing an understanding of treatment-related late effects and in improving quality of life. After discussing the incidence of cancer in children, its causes, and the treatment approaches to it in pediatric oncology, we present seven key contributions of psychologists to collaborative and integrated care in pediatric cancer: managing procedural pain, nausea, and other symptoms; understanding and reducing neuropsychological effects; treating children in the context of their families and other systems (social ecology); applying a developmental perspective; identifying competence and vulnerability; integrating psychological knowledge into decision making and other clinical care issues; and facilitating the transition to palliative care and bereavement. We conclude with a discussion of the current status of integrating knowledge from psychological research into practice in pediatric cancer. PMID:25730721

  5. MO-E-BRF-01: Research Opportunities in Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (Highlight of ASTRO NCI 2013 Workshop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, S [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jaffray, D [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    efficacy, and provided a glimpse into the future. Learning Objectives: To understand the impact of technology on the field of radiation therapy To learn about the trends of technology development for the field of radiation oncology To understand the opportunities for in innovative technology research.

  6. MO-E-BRF-01: Research Opportunities in Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (Highlight of ASTRO NCI 2013 Workshop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    efficacy, and provided a glimpse into the future. Learning Objectives: To understand the impact of technology on the field of radiation therapy To learn about the trends of technology development for the field of radiation oncology To understand the opportunities for in innovative technology research

  7. 77 FR 14852 - Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover... of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Amazon ] Biotech, Inc. because...

  8. What Medical Oncologist Residents Think about the Italian Speciality Schools: A Survey of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) on Educational, Clinical and Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Anna; De Angelis, Carmine; Lambertini, Matteo; Cremolini, Chiara; Imbimbo, Martina; Berardi, Rossana; Di Maio, Massimo; Cascinu, Stefano; La Verde, Nicla

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Relevant heterogeneity exists among Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, also within the same country. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of the landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) undertook an online survey, inviting all the residents to describe their daily activities and to express their overall satisfaction about their programs. Methods A team composed of five residents and three consultants in medical oncology prepared a 38 items questionnaire that was published online in a reserved section, accessible through a link sent by e-mail. Residents were invited to anonymously fill in the questionnaire that included the following sub-sections: quality of teaching, clinical and research activity, overall satisfaction. Results Three-hundred and eleven (57%) out of 547 invited residents filled in the questionnaire. Two-hundred and twenty-three (72%) participants declared that attending lessons was frequently difficult and 153 (49%) declared they did not gain substantial improvement in their knowledge from them. Fifty-five percent stated that they did not receive lessons on palliative care. Their overall judgment about didactic activity was low in 63% of the interviewed. The satisfaction for clinical activity was in 86% of cases good: 84% recognized that, during the training period, they acquired a progressive independence on patients' management. About research activity, the majority (79%) of participants in the survey was actively engaged in managing patients included in clinical trials but the satisfaction level for the involvement in research activities was quite low (54%). Overall, 246 residents (79%) gave a positive global judgment of their Medical Oncology Schools. Conclusions The landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology is quite heterogeneous across the country. Some improvements in the organization of teaching and in the

  9. [Mexico recovers leadership on regulation of biosimilar biotech drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Silva, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Amid the epidemiological transition that Mexico is currently experiencing, an adequate access to biotech medicines is becoming very important. However, these medicines also involve new challenges for the sanitary authorities, given their higher complexity in structure and function than conventional chemical drugs. Consequently, it has been necessary to update the Mexican legal framework, which has placed Mexico at the forefront in this sector. This article describes briefly what biotech drugs are, why it has been necessary to regulate them differently, the evolution of the regulatory framework in Mexico, and the general features of the new system. PMID:22367313

  10. [Mexico recovers leadership on regulation of biosimilar biotech drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Silva, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Amid the epidemiological transition that Mexico is currently experiencing, an adequate access to biotech medicines is becoming very important. However, these medicines also involve new challenges for the sanitary authorities, given their higher complexity in structure and function than conventional chemical drugs. Consequently, it has been necessary to update the Mexican legal framework, which has placed Mexico at the forefront in this sector. This article describes briefly what biotech drugs are, why it has been necessary to regulate them differently, the evolution of the regulatory framework in Mexico, and the general features of the new system.

  11. 肿瘤姑息治疗研究进展%Research progress on oncology palliative care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昕; 闻曲; 毛菲; 包莹琦

    2015-01-01

    Based on the latest published 2015 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology Pallitive Care,this paper introduced the research progress on palliative care,which included overview,the first and overall assessment of palliative care. Besides,this paper introduced interventions of palliative care,so as to promote the development of palliative care in China.%文章基于2015版肿瘤姑息治疗指南,综述了肿瘤姑息治疗的进展,包括姑息治疗的概述,姑息治疗的首次评估、全面评估和姑息治疗的干预措施,以期促进我国护理姑息治疗的发展。

  12. Video News release (A-roll) International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Visual Media Office; Paola Catapano

    2012-01-01

    Video News Release (A-roll) accompanying the Press Release announcing the International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health in Europe, organized by CERN at the International Conference Centre Geneva from February 27 to March 2.

  13. 76 FR 17621 - Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... issues and biotechnology to discuss industry developments, opportunities, and sales strategies... consumer base and impressive economic growth further reinforce the importance of the market for U.S. firms... trials in Asia. The Biotech Life Science Sector Despite the global financial crisis, China's GDP...

  14. Project BIOTECH: Use of Modules in Technician Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Richard B.

    1974-01-01

    Describes Project Biotech, a program that utilizes the audio-tutorial principle to develop skill-oriented modules. The modules are self-pacing, independent units of instruction which concentrate on a few well-defined objectives and allow the student to learn at his own rate with minimal supervision. (PB)

  15. Accumulation and Circulation of the Knowledge Needed for Biotech Business Promotion by Engineers of R&D Section in an IT Enterprise: The Case of Hitachi Software Engineering Co., Ltd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Ota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been carried out on the accumulation and effective use of knowledge as a company-specific form of intellectual property. However, insufficient attention has been given to research focusing on the effects of micro-level knowledge absorption and its effective use. In this paper, we try to demonstrate what should be done in order to promote new biotech business from the perspective of each engineer’s knowledge, through a micro-level investigation focusing on the life science business section of one IT enterprise. Based on the results of a questionnaire survey of engineers, interviews of several engineers, and patent data analysis, we discuss the progress of the biotech business in an IT enterprise from the aspect of accumulation and circulation of knowledge in a core technology field, the IT business, and a technology field of new entry, the biotech business. This paper reports that the positive growth cycle of biotech business promotion in an IT enterprise, using Hitachi Software Engineering Co., Ltd. as a case, attained by incorporating the latest biotech knowledge from junior engineers and utilizing IT knowledge from middle engineers leads to the recruiting of qualified students.Keywords: accumulation and circulation of the knowledge, biotech business, open innovation, patent data analysis, questionnaire survey

  16. Heterogeneous Optimization Framework: Reproducible Preprocessing of Multi-Spectral Clinical MRI for Neuro-Oncology Imaging Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchenko, Mikhail; Snyder, Abraham Z; LaMontagne, Pamela; Shimony, Joshua S; Benzinger, Tammie L; Fouke, Sarah Jost; Marcus, Daniel S

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging research often relies on clinically acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets that can originate from multiple institutions. Such datasets are characterized by high heterogeneity of modalities and variability of sequence parameters. This heterogeneity complicates the automation of image processing tasks such as spatial co-registration and physiological or functional image analysis. Given this heterogeneity, conventional processing workflows developed for research purposes are not optimal for clinical data. In this work, we describe an approach called Heterogeneous Optimization Framework (HOF) for developing image analysis pipelines that can handle the high degree of clinical data non-uniformity. HOF provides a set of guidelines for configuration, algorithm development, deployment, interpretation of results and quality control for such pipelines. At each step, we illustrate the HOF approach using the implementation of an automated pipeline for Multimodal Glioma Analysis (MGA) as an example. The MGA pipeline computes tissue diffusion characteristics of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquisitions, hemodynamic characteristics using a perfusion model of susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI, and spatial cross-modal co-registration of available anatomical, physiological and derived patient images. Developing MGA within HOF enabled the processing of neuro-oncology MR imaging studies to be fully automated. MGA has been successfully used to analyze over 160 clinical tumor studies to date within several research projects. Introduction of the MGA pipeline improved image processing throughput and, most importantly, effectively produced co-registered datasets that were suitable for advanced analysis despite high heterogeneity in acquisition protocols. PMID:26910516

  17. Dynamics of center-periphery patterns in knowledge networks - the case of China's biotech science and technology system

    CERN Document Server

    Hennemann, Stefan; Liefner, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Science and technology systems - and their epistemic communities - are usually hierarchical and composed of a number of strong, large, leading organizations, along with a number of smaller and less influential ones. Moreover, these hierarchical patterns have a spatial structure: the leading organizations are concentrated in a few places, creating a science and technology center, whereas the majority of locations are peripheral. In the example of biotech research in China, we found dynamic changes in center-periphery patterns. These results are based on a network analysis of evolving co-authorship networks from 2001 to 2009 that were built combining national and international databases. Therefore, our results are not only relevant for evaluating the spatial structure and dynamics in the Chinese biotech system and its integration into the global knowledge network, but also revive a discussion on persistence and processes of change in the systems theory for sciencebased industries.

  18. Molecular imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-02-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  19. Topics in clinical oncology. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph comprising primarily papers on topical subjects of oncology and cancer research, contains also a selection of papers presented at the 2. Congress of the Czechoslovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene. Seven papers were selected on behalf of their subject related to clinical oncology. All of them were iputted in INIS; five of them deal with the scintiscanning of the skeleton of cancer patients, one with radioimmunodetection of tumors, and one with radionuclide lymphography. (A.K.)

  20. Impact of America Invents Act on Biotech Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Amanda; Stramiello, Michael; Stroud, Jonathan; Lewis, Stacy; Irving, Tom

    2015-04-27

    This review introduces the America Invents Act (AIA), a comprehensive reform of U.S. law on patentability and patent enforceability that Congress enacted in 2011. The AIA's most publicized change transforms the United States from a "first-to-invent" system to a "first-inventor-to-file" regime, bringing U.S. patent law more in line with the patent systems of nearly every other industrialized country in the world. This new system requires small companies and independent inventors to toe the line against larger competitors in what many have called a "race to the patent office." But a closer look at the AIA reveals several opportunities for smaller entities that may even the playing field, particularly for innovators in the biotech sector. This article addresses changes that the AIA brings to U.S. patent law, keeping an eye toward issues relevant to biotech companies.

  1. Imaging Opportunities in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interdisciplinary efforts may significantly affect the way that clinical knowledge and scientific research related to imaging impact the field of Radiation Oncology. This report summarizes the findings of an intersociety workshop held in October 2008, with the express purpose of exploring 'Imaging Opportunities in Radiation Oncology.' Participants from the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), American Association of physicists in Medicine (AAPM), American Board of Radiology (ABR), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO), and Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) discussed areas of education, clinical practice, and research that bridge disciplines and potentially would lead to improved clinical practice. Findings from this workshop include recommendations for cross-training opportunities within the allowed structured of Radiology and Radiation Oncology residency programs, expanded representation of ASTRO in imaging related multidisciplinary groups (and reciprocal representation within ASTRO committees), increased attention to imaging validation and credentialing for clinical trials (e.g., through the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN)), and building ties through collaborative research as well as smaller joint workshops and symposia.

  2. The Sino-French 2012 Conference in Thoracic Oncology: an international academic platform for in-depth exchange on comprehensive research

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Rong Situ; Philippe Dartevelle; Thierry Le Chevalier; Lan-Jun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The Sino-French 2012 Conference in Thoracic Oncology, held November 17-18, 2012, was hosted by the Department of Thoracic Surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and organized in collaboration with two prestigious French hospitals: Institute Gustave Roussy and Marie Lannelongue Hospital. The conference was established by leading experts from China and France to serve as an international academic platform for sharing novel findings in basic research and valuable clinical practice exper...

  3. Development of polymeric drug delivery systems for biotech products

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualin, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 80’s the forward steps in genetics and proteomics, have led a particular interest to biotech products, such as DNA and proteins. Although difficult, their large-scale production enabled the therapeutic use of this compounds. Proteins and DNA sequences can be very interesting therapeutic molecules owing to their high selectivity/affinity for the receptor or the specific site of action. Unfortunately, some issues still limit their pharmaceutical use, such as the susceptibilit...

  4. Production and Price Impact of Biotech Crops, The

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Brookes; Tun-Hsiang (Edward) Yu; Simla Tokgoz; Amani Elobeid

    2010-01-01

    Biotech crops have now been grown commercially on a substantial global scale since 1996. This paper examines the production effects of the technology and impacts on cereal and oilseed markets through the use of agricultural commodity models. It analyses the impacts on global production, consumption, trade and prices in the soybean, canola and corn sectors. The analysis suggests that world prices of corn, soybeans and canola would probably be, respectively, 5.8%, 9.6% and 3.8% higher, on avera...

  5. The path- and place-dependent nature of scientific knowledge production in biotech 1986-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Gaston Heimeriks; Ron Boschma

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the worldwide spatial evolution of scientific knowledge production in biotechnology in the period 1986-2008. We employ new methodology that identifies new key topics in biotech on the basis of frequent use of title worlds in major biotech journals as an indication of new cognitive developments within this scientific field. Our analyses show that biotech is subject to a path- and place-dependent process of knowledge production. We observed a high degree of re-occurrences of...

  6. Pharmacokinetics of biotech drugs: peptides, proteins and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiunn H

    2009-09-01

    With the advances in recombinant DNA biotechnology, molecular biology and immunology, the number of biotech drugs, including peptides, proteins and monoclonal antibodies, available for clinical use has dramatically increased in recent years. Although pharmacokinetic principles are equally applicable to the large molecule drugs and conventional small molecule drugs, the underlying mechanisms for the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of large molecule drugs are often very different from that of small molecule drugs. Therefore, a good understanding of the ADME processes of large molecule drugs is essential in support of the development of therapeutic biologics. The purpose of this article is to review the current knowledge of the ADME processes that govern the pharmacokinetics of biotech drugs. The challenges encountered by orally administered peptide and protein drugs, and the nature of lymphatic absorption after subcutaneous administration will be discussed. In addition, molecular mechanisms of biodistribution, metabolism and renal excretion of biotech drugs will also be discussed. Finally, approaches used for prediction of human pharmacokinetics of protein drugs will be briefly discussed.

  7. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION 3 OVERALL REVIEW CRITERIA AND IMPACT 3 FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT (FOA) SPECIFIC CRITERIA 8 ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE 8 CLINCAL TRIALS RESEARCH PROGRAM 10 CANCER CARE DELIVERY RESEARCH PROGRAM 11 OPERATIONS/DATA MANAGEMENT CORE 12 ADDITIONAL REVIEW CRITERIA 14 PROTECTIONS FOR HUMAN SUBJECTS 14 INCLUSION OF WOMEN, MINORITIES, AND CHILDREN 14 BIOHAZARDS 14 RESOURCE SHARING PLAN 14 BUDGET AND PERIOD OF SUPPORT 14 SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER'S NOTES 14 SPECIAL EMPHASIS PANEL ROSTER |

  8. Organisational design for an integrated oncological department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch.L. Meiss-de Haas

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The outcomes of a Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat (SWOT analysis of three Integrated Oncological Departments were compared with their present situation three years later to define factors that can influence a successful implementation and development of an Integrated Oncological Department in- and outside (i.e. home care the hospital. Research design: Comparative Qualitative Case Study. Methods: Auditing based on care-as-usual norms by an external, experienced auditing committee. Research setting: Integrated Oncological Departments of three hospitals. Results: Successful multidisciplinary care in an integrated, oncological department needs broad support inside the hospital and a well-defined organisational plan.

  9. Ethical issues at the interface of clinical care and research practice in pediatric oncology: a narrative review of parents' and physicians' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Martine C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric oncology has a strong research culture. Most pediatric oncologists are investigators, involved in clinical care as well as research. As a result, a remarkable proportion of children with cancer enrolls in a trial during treatment. This paper discusses the ethical consequences of the unprecedented integration of research and care in pediatric oncology from the perspective of parents and physicians. Methodology An empirical ethical approach, combining (1 a narrative review of (primarily qualitative studies on parents' and physicians' experiences of the pediatric oncology research practice, and (2 comparison of these experiences with existing theoretical ethical concepts about (pediatric research. The use of empirical evidence enriches these concepts by taking into account the peculiarities that ethical challenges pose in practice. Results Analysis of the 22 studies reviewed revealed that the integration of research and care has consequences for the informed consent process, the promotion of the child's best interests, and the role of the physician (doctor vs. scientist. True consent to research is difficult to achieve due to the complexity of research protocols, emotional stress and parents' dependency on their child's physician. Parents' role is to promote their child's best interests, also when they are asked to consider enrolling their child in a trial. Parents are almost never in equipoise on trial participation, which leaves them with the agonizing situation of wanting to do what is best for their child, while being fearful of making the wrong decision. Furthermore, a therapeutic misconception endangers correct assessment of participation, making parents inaccurately attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures. Physicians prefer the perspective of a therapist over a researcher. Consequently they may truly believe that in the research setting they promote the child's best interests, which maintains the

  10. Strategic Plans to Promote Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: A Report From the Translational Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, with an overall survival rate of approximately 40-50%. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, research efforts designed to maximize benefit and reduce toxicities of therapy are in progress. Basic research in cancer biology has accelerated this endeavor and provided preclinical data and technology to support clinically relevant advances in early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Recent completion of the Human Genome Project has promoted the rapid development of novel 'omics' technologies that allow more broad based study from a systems biology perspective. However, clinically relevant application of resultant gene signatures to clinical trials within cooperative groups has advanced slowly. In light of the large numbers of variables intrinsic to biomarker studies, validation of preliminary data for clinical implementation presents a significant challenge and may only be realized with large trials that involve significant patient numbers. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Program recognizes this problem and brings together three unique features to facilitate this research: (1) availability of large numbers of clinical specimens from homogeneously treated patients through multi-institutional clinical trials; (2) a team of physicians, scientists, and staff focused on patient-oriented head-and-neck cancer research with the common goal of improving cancer care; and (3) a funding mechanism through the RTOG Seed Grant Program. In this position paper we outline strategic plans to further promote translational research within the framework of the RTOG

  11. Decentralized Data Sharing of Tissue Microarrays for Investigative Research in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Chen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue microarray technology (TMA is a relatively new approach for efficiently and economically assessing protein and gene expression across large ensembles of tissue specimens. Tissue microarray technology holds great potential for reducing the time and cost associated with conducting research in tissue banking, proteomics, and outcome studies. However, the sheer volume of images and other data generated from even limited studies involving tissue microarrays quickly approach the processing capacity and resources of a division or department. This challenge is compounded by the fact that large-scale projects in several areas of modern research rely upon multi-institutional efforts in which investigators and resources are spread out over multiple campuses, cities, and states. To address some of the data management issues several leading institutions have begun to develop their own “in-house” systems, independently, but such data will be only minimally useful if it isn’t accessible to others in the scientifi c community. Investigators at different institutions studying the same or related disorders might benefit from the synergy of sharing results. To facilitate sharing of TMA data across different database implementations, the Technical Standards Committee of the Association for Pathology Informatics organized workshops in efforts to establish a standardized TMA data exchange specification. The focus of our research does not relate to the establishment of standards for exchange, but rather builds on these efforts and concentrates on the design, development and deployment of a decentralized collaboratory for the unsupervised characterization, and seamless and secure discovery and sharing of TMA data. Specifically, we present a self-organizing, peer-to-peer indexing and discovery infrastructure for quantitatively assessing digitized TMA’s. The system utilizes a novel, optimized decentralized search engine that supports flexible querying

  12. SU-E-P-26: Oncospace: A Shared Radiation Oncology Database System Designed for Personalized Medicine, Decision Support, and Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Advancement in Radiation Oncology (RO) practice develops through evidence based medicine and clinical trial. Knowledge usable for treatment planning, decision support and research is contained in our clinical data, stored in an Oncospace database. This data store and the tools for populating and analyzing it are compatible with standard RO practice and are shared with collaborating institutions. The question is - what protocol for system development and data sharing within an Oncospace Consortium? We focus our example on the technology and data meaning necessary to share across the Consortium. Methods: Oncospace consists of a database schema, planning and outcome data import and web based analysis tools.1) Database: The Consortium implements a federated data store; each member collects and maintains its own data within an Oncospace schema. For privacy, PHI is contained within a single table, accessible to the database owner.2) Import: Spatial dose data from treatment plans (Pinnacle or DICOM) is imported via Oncolink. Treatment outcomes are imported from an OIS (MOSAIQ).3) Analysis: JHU has built a number of webpages to answer analysis questions. Oncospace data can also be analyzed via MATLAB or SAS queries.These materials are available to Consortium members, who contribute enhancements and improvements. Results: 1) The Oncospace Consortium now consists of RO centers at JHU, UVA, UW and the University of Toronto. These members have successfully installed and populated Oncospace databases with over 1000 patients collectively.2) Members contributing code and getting updates via SVN repository. Errors are reported and tracked via Redmine. Teleconferences include strategizing design and code reviews.3) Successfully remotely queried federated databases to combine multiple institutions’ DVH data for dose-toxicity analysis (see below – data combined from JHU and UW Oncospace). Conclusion: RO data sharing can and has been effected according to the Oncospace

  13. SU-E-P-26: Oncospace: A Shared Radiation Oncology Database System Designed for Personalized Medicine, Decision Support, and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M; Robertson, S; Moore, J; Wong, J; DeWeese, T; McNutt, T [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Phillips, M [Univ Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Hendrickson, K [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Song, W; Kwok, P [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, U of T, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Advancement in Radiation Oncology (RO) practice develops through evidence based medicine and clinical trial. Knowledge usable for treatment planning, decision support and research is contained in our clinical data, stored in an Oncospace database. This data store and the tools for populating and analyzing it are compatible with standard RO practice and are shared with collaborating institutions. The question is - what protocol for system development and data sharing within an Oncospace Consortium? We focus our example on the technology and data meaning necessary to share across the Consortium. Methods: Oncospace consists of a database schema, planning and outcome data import and web based analysis tools.1) Database: The Consortium implements a federated data store; each member collects and maintains its own data within an Oncospace schema. For privacy, PHI is contained within a single table, accessible to the database owner.2) Import: Spatial dose data from treatment plans (Pinnacle or DICOM) is imported via Oncolink. Treatment outcomes are imported from an OIS (MOSAIQ).3) Analysis: JHU has built a number of webpages to answer analysis questions. Oncospace data can also be analyzed via MATLAB or SAS queries.These materials are available to Consortium members, who contribute enhancements and improvements. Results: 1) The Oncospace Consortium now consists of RO centers at JHU, UVA, UW and the University of Toronto. These members have successfully installed and populated Oncospace databases with over 1000 patients collectively.2) Members contributing code and getting updates via SVN repository. Errors are reported and tracked via Redmine. Teleconferences include strategizing design and code reviews.3) Successfully remotely queried federated databases to combine multiple institutions’ DVH data for dose-toxicity analysis (see below – data combined from JHU and UW Oncospace). Conclusion: RO data sharing can and has been effected according to the Oncospace

  14. Big data and comparative effectiveness research in radiation oncology: synergy and accelerated discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eTrifiletti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several advances in large data set collection and processing have the potential to provide a wave of new insights and improvements in the use of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The era of electronic health records, genomics, and improving information technology resources creates the opportunity to leverage these developments to create a learning healthcare system that can rapidly deliver informative clinical evidence. By merging concepts from comparative effectiveness research with the tools and analytic approaches of big data, it is hoped that this union will accelerate discovery, improve evidence for decision-making, and increase the availability of highly relevant, personalized information. This combination offers the potential to provide data and analysis that can be leveraged for ultra-personalized medicine and high quality, cutting-edge radiation therapy.

  15. A Clinical Librarian-Nursing Partnership to Bridge Clinical Practice and Research in an Oncology Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginex, Pamela K; Hernandez, Marisol; Vrabel, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Nurses today work in practice settings where the expectation is to "draw upon the best evidence to provide the care most appropriate to each patient" (Olsen, Goolsby, & McGinnis, 2009, p. 10) while caring for patients with high acuity in highly specialized settings. Within the nursing profession, the Magnet Recognition Program® advocates for exemplary professional practice and the generation of new knowledge through research and clinical innovation. Nurses working in a clinical setting are often the best resource to identify important clinical questions and gaps in practice, but a lack of resources presents challenges to nurses in fully developing their questions and identifying the most appropriate methods to answer them. These challenges often fall into three broad categories: individual nurse characteristics, organizational characteristics, and environmental characteristics (Dobbins, Ciliska, Cockerill, Barnsley, & DiCenso, 2002). Creating a dedicated partnership between nurses and library staff is one method that can overcome these challenges to use existing resources and support nurses who are asking and answering important clinical questions (DePalma, 2005; Vrabel, 2005). 
. PMID:27541547

  16. How to start a biotech company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajonar, Adriana

    2014-11-01

    The spirit of life science entrepreneurship is alive and well, with outstanding innovation hubs arising throughout the country and the world. Of note, many of these hubs flourish in close proximity to research universities. If universities are the engine for discovery, then startups are the vehicle for innovation. The creativity and drive of young researchers has the potential to explore novel or underserved applications and revolutionize industries. PMID:25360051

  17. Deutsche Biotech-Unternehmen und ihre Innovationsfähigkeit im internationalen Vergleich : eine institutionentheoretische Analyse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, K.S.G.

    2006-01-01

    German Biotech-Companies and their Innovativeness in International Comparison – an Institutionalist Analysis 1 Introduction In the mid-1990s, legal changes and policy initiatives in Germany led to the rapid emergence of a biotechnology industry. Initially, German biotech companies focused on the mar

  18. The path- and place-dependent nature of scientific knowledge production in biotech 1986-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimeriks, G.J.; Boschma, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the worldwide spatial evolution of scientific knowledge production in biotechnology in the period 1986–2008. We employ new methodology that identifies new key topics in biotech on the basis of frequent use of title worlds in major biotech journals as an indication of new cognitiv

  19. The path- and place-dependent nature of scientific knowledge production in biotech 1986-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimeriks, Gaston; Boschma, Ron

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the worldwide spatial evolution of scientific knowledge production in biotechnology in the period 1986-2008. We employ new methodology that identifies new key topics in biotech on the basis of frequent use of title worlds in major biotech journals as an indication of new cognitiv

  20. 77 FR 10598 - BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics... concerning the securities of BIOTECH Holdings Ltd. because it has not filed any annual reports since...

  1. State Incentives for Innovation, Star Scientists, and Jobs: Evidence from Biotech. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 14-203

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Enrico; Wilson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of state-provided financial incentives for biotech companies, which are part of a growing trend of placed-based policies designed to spur innovation clusters. We estimate that the adoption of subsidies for biotech employers by a state raises the number of star biotech scientists in that state by about 15 percent over a…

  2. A global overview of biotech (GM) crops: adoption, impact and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Clive

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, some were skeptical that genetically modified (GM) crops, now referred to as biotech crops, could deliver improved products and make an impact at the farm level. There was even more skepticism that developing countries would adopt biotech crops. The adoption of and commercialization of biotech crops in 2008 is reviewed. The impact of biotech crops are summarized including their contribution to: global food, feed and fiber security; a safer environment; a more sustainable agriculture; and the alleviation of poverty, and hunger in the developing countries of the world. Future prospects are discussed. Notably, Egypt planted Bt maize for the first time in 2008 thereby becoming the first country in the Arab world to commercialize biotech crops.

  3. Biotech Tradeoffs in the Rural Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttel, Frederick H.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesizes findings with personal estimates of likely impacts of biotechnology on nonmetropolitan economy, farming, public research institutions. Indicates biotechnology's benefit to rural America may come in expanded demand for raw materials although drawbacks may include declining farm numbers and displacement of rural workers in…

  4. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository--research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Bruce H; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-05-10

    Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  5. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  6. Proceedings on 10th National Congress on Oncology. 1st National Congress on Mastology. 5th International Meeting of Oncological Nursing. 3rd International Congress of Nuclear Oncology. 3rd International Conference of Medical Physics. (Oncology Havana 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of Oncology Havana 2009 is to propitiate the exchange with the delegates of all continents, focusing on issues such as advances and controversial aspects of oncology and current research and discussion of new diagnostic-therapeutic possibilities of cancer. About 240 scientific works are presented: 11 about medicine, 42 on mastology, 43 in medical physics, 143 on oncology.

  7. Chemometrics applications in biotech processes: assessing process comparability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Nitish; Hadpe, Sandip; Rathore, Anurag S

    2012-01-01

    A typical biotech process starts with the vial of the cell bank, ends with the final product and has anywhere from 15 to 30 unit operations in series. The total number of process variables (input and output parameters) and other variables (raw materials) can add up to several hundred variables. As the manufacturing process is widely accepted to have significant impact on the quality of the product, the regulatory agencies require an assessment of process comparability across different phases of manufacturing (Phase I vs. Phase II vs. Phase III vs. Commercial) as well as other key activities during product commercialization (process scale-up, technology transfer, and process improvement). However, assessing comparability for a process with such a large number of variables is nontrivial and often companies resort to qualitative comparisons. In this article, we present a quantitative approach for assessing process comparability via use of chemometrics. To our knowledge this is the first time that such an approach has been published for biotech processing. The approach has been applied to an industrial case study involving evaluation of two processes that are being used for commercial manufacturing of a major biosimilar product. It has been demonstrated that the proposed approach is able to successfully identify the unit operations in the two processes that are operating differently. We expect this approach, which can also be applied toward assessing product comparability, to be of great use to both the regulators and the industry which otherwise struggle to assess comparability.

  8. An increasing number of qualitative research papers in oncology and palliative care: does it mean a thorough development of the methodology of research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunelli Cinzia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the second half of the nineties, a scientific debate about the usefulness of qualitative research in medicine began in the main medical journals as well as the amount of "qualitative" papers published on peer reviewed journals has noticeably increased during these last years. Nevertheless the label of qualitative methodology has been assigned to an heterogeneous collection of studies. Some of them show a complete awareness of the specificity of this kind of research, while others are still largely influenced by the quantitative paradigm prevailing in the medical field. The concern with the rigour and credibility of qualitative methods has lead to the development of a number of checklist for assessing qualitative research. The purposes of this review were to describe the quality of the development of qualitative research in the medical field, focusing on oncology and palliative care, and to discuss the applicability of a descriptive checklist. Methods A review was conducted on Medline and PsycINFO databases. On the basis of their abstract, papers found have been classified considering: publication year, kind of journal, paper type, data gathering method, sample size and declared methodological approach. A sub sample of the previous papers was than selected and their methodological characteristics were evaluated based on a descriptive checklist. Results 351 abstracts and 26 full papers were analysed. An increase over time in the number of qualitative studies is evident. While most of the papers before 1999 were published on nursing journals (43%, afterwards also medical journals were largely represented. Psychological journals increased from 7% to 12%. The 22% of studies used a sample size lower than 15 and the 15% did not specify the sample size in the abstract. The methodological approach was also often not specified and the percentage increased in the second time period (from 73% to 80%. Grounded theory was the most

  9. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin;

    2012-01-01

    of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...... be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new...

  10. Nanotechnology in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z; Tepper, Joel E

    2014-09-10

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology.

  11. [History of Oncology in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondruš, D; Kaušitz, J

    2016-01-01

    The history of oncology in Slovakia is closely linked to the history of St. Elizabeth Hospital, which was set up in the mid-18th century by nuns of the St. Elizabeth Order in Bratislava. In the first half of the 20th century, a unit was set up in the hospital dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Shortly after World War II, the unit was turned into the Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment. In 1950, St. Elizabeth Hospital was nationalized, and the Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Institute of Clinical Oncology were located there as centers for oncological diagnosis and treatment. After the restitution of church property in the early 1990s, the hospital was returned to the Order of St. Elizabeth, which set up the St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in the hospital premises in January of 1996. This year marks the 20th anniversary of this institute in its new premises and the 85th anniversary of the Institute of Radiumtherapy founded in Bratislava, and thus the establishment of institutional healthcare for cancer patients in Slovakia is the reason for balancing. We present a view of the consecutive changes in the organization, space and staff of the Institute and evaluate the impact of celebrities on medicine who developed oncology as a clinical, scientific and educational discipline in Bratislava and in other cities and regions of Slovakia. PMID:27296401

  12. [History of Oncology in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondruš, D; Kaušitz, J

    2016-01-01

    The history of oncology in Slovakia is closely linked to the history of St. Elizabeth Hospital, which was set up in the mid-18th century by nuns of the St. Elizabeth Order in Bratislava. In the first half of the 20th century, a unit was set up in the hospital dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Shortly after World War II, the unit was turned into the Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment. In 1950, St. Elizabeth Hospital was nationalized, and the Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Institute of Clinical Oncology were located there as centers for oncological diagnosis and treatment. After the restitution of church property in the early 1990s, the hospital was returned to the Order of St. Elizabeth, which set up the St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in the hospital premises in January of 1996. This year marks the 20th anniversary of this institute in its new premises and the 85th anniversary of the Institute of Radiumtherapy founded in Bratislava, and thus the establishment of institutional healthcare for cancer patients in Slovakia is the reason for balancing. We present a view of the consecutive changes in the organization, space and staff of the Institute and evaluate the impact of celebrities on medicine who developed oncology as a clinical, scientific and educational discipline in Bratislava and in other cities and regions of Slovakia.

  13. Mathematical oncology 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    With chapters on free boundaries, constitutive equations, stochastic dynamics, nonlinear diffusion–consumption, structured populations, and applications of optimal control theory, this volume presents the most significant recent results in the field of mathematical oncology. It highlights the work of world-class research teams, and explores how different researchers approach the same problem in various ways. Tumors are complex entities that present numerous challenges to the mathematical modeler. First and foremost, they grow. Thus their spatial mean field description involves a free boundary problem. Second, their interiors should be modeled as nontrivial porous media using constitutive equations. Third, at the end of anti-cancer therapy, a small number of malignant cells remain, making the post-treatment dynamics inherently stochastic. Fourth, the growth parameters of macroscopic tumors are non-constant, as are the parameters of anti-tumor therapies. Changes in these parameters may induce phenomena that a...

  14. Exploiting the business opportunities in biotech connections : The power of social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail

    2007-01-01

    Networks have a well-established importance in business. Here network analysis, grounded in socialnetwork theory, is used to analyse two international biotech business-to-business environments. Ofadditional value, the methodology employed is described for the benefi t of academics and practitionersalike. Swedish and Australian biotech fi rms are analysed through the examination of internet networks.Once gathered and analysed following the described methodology, several features of the networks ...

  15. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  16. The Sino-French 2012 Conference in Thoracic Oncology:an international academic platform for in-depth exchange on comprehensive research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Rong Situ; Philippe Dartevelle; Thierry Le Chevalier; Lan-Jun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The Sino-French 2012 Conference in Thoracic Oncology,held November t7-18,2012,was hosted by the Department of Thoracic Surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and organized in collaboration with two prestigious French hospitals:Institute Gustave Roussy and Marie Lannelongue Hospital.The conference was established by leading experts from China and France to serve as an international academic platform for sharing novel findings in basic research and valuable clinical practice experiences.Hot topics including innovation in surgical techniques,diagnosis and staging of early-stage lung cancer,minimally invasive surgery,multidisciplinary treatment of lung cancer,and progress in radiotherapy for lung cancer were explored.Highlights of the conference presentations are summarized in this report.

  17. The Sino-French 2012 Conference in Thoracic Oncology:an international academic platform for in-depth exchange on comprehensive research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Rong Situ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sino-French 2012 Conference in Thoracic Oncology, held November 17-18, 2012, was hosted by the Department of Thoracic Surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and organized in collaboration with two prestigious French hospitals: Institute Gustave Roussy and Marie Lannelongue Hospital. The conference was established by leading experts from China and France to serve as an international academic platform for sharing novel findings in basic research and valuable clinical practice experiences. Hot topics including innovation in surgical techniques, diagnosis and staging of early-stage lung cancer, minimally invasive surgery, multidisciplinary treatment of lung cancer, and progress in radiotherapy for lung cancer were explored. Highlights of the conference presentations are summarized in this report.

  18. 3D-BioPrinting: The future of Red Biotech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every day Science moves little steps forward, contributing to the progress of our society. Sometimes, however, a single invention revolutionizes the world. Indeed, the invention of woodblock printing and development of industrial-scale printing-press in the 15. century have changed our society. 3D-printing is now boosting another revolution. The production of custom-made objects from a virtual model will trigger a rapid development of a more versatile, less expensive manufacturing sector for the on-demand market. The real revolution, however, is represented by 3D-printing in biomedicine. 3D-bioprinting represents the future of the Red-Biotech. This technology, indeed, will be able to build ex-novo organs using biocompatible materials and human cells; replace the allograft transplants, eliminating waiting lists that often make the difference between life and death; and provide more predictive, less expensive experimental models, replacing animal tests. The high innovation content of this technology, can make the difference between being obsolete and new

  19. Oncology Advanced Practitioners Bring Advanced Community Oncology Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring. PMID:27249776

  20. Psychosocial Issues in Pediatric Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial oncology, a relatively new discipline, is a multidisciplinary application of the behavioral and social sciences, and pediatric psychosocial oncology is an emerging subspecialty within the domain of psychosocial oncology. This review presents a brief overview of some of the major clinical issues surrounding pediatric psychosocial oncology.

  1. Where is the biotech industry in China headed to?%中国生物技术产生的发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏慰国

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2008 was a year marked with changes and turns for biotech industry in China. 2008 began with tremendous promises riding on the waves of a history-making, exceptionally strong year in 2007. However, the biotech industry in China was not immune to the macroeconomic changes during 2008. This report will attempt to examine changes and new trends in biotech industry in China.

  2. Clinical cancer advances 2007: major research advances in cancer treatment, prevention, and screening--a report from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralow, Julie; Ozols, Robert F; Bajorin, Dean F; Cheson, Bruce D; Sandler, Howard M; Winer, Eric P; Bonner, James; Demetri, George D; Curran, Walter; Ganz, Patricia A; Kramer, Barnett S; Kris, Mark G; Markman, Maurie; Mayer, Robert J; Raghavan, Derek; Ramsey, Scott; Reaman, Gregory H; Sawaya, Raymond; Schuchter, Lynn M; Sweetenham, John W; Vahdat, Linda T; Davidson, Nancy E; Schilsky, Richard L; Lichter, Allen S

    2008-01-10

    A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT: For the third year, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is publishing Clinical Cancer Advances: Major Research Advances in Cancer Treatment, Prevention, and Screening, an annual review of the most significant cancer research presented or published over the past year. ASCO publishes this report to demonstrate the important progress being made on the front lines of clinical cancer research today. The report is intended to give all those with an interest in cancer care-the general public, cancer patients and organizations, policymakers, oncologists, and other medical professionals-an accessible summary of the year's most important cancer research advances. These pages report on the use of magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening, the association between hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer incidence, the link between human papillomavirus and head and neck cancers, and the use of radiation therapy to prevent lung cancer from spreading. They also report on effective new targeted therapies for cancers that have been historically difficult to treat, such as liver cancer and kidney cancer, among many others. A total of 24 advances are featured in this year's report. These advances and many more over the past several years show that the nation's long-term investment in cancer research is paying off. But there are disturbing signs that progress could slow. We are now in the midst of the longest sustained period of flat government funding for cancer research in history. The budgets for the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have been unchanged for four years. When adjusted for inflation, cancer research funding has actually declined 12% since 2004. These budget constraints limit the NCI's ability to fund promising cancer research. In the past several years the number of grants that the NCI has been able to fund has significantly decreased; this year, in response to just the

  3. Trends in global approvals of biotech crops (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemita, Rhodora R; Reaño, Ian Mari E; Solis, Renando O; Hautea, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, traits, and crops that are developed to benefit the global population, approval of these technologies for food, feed, cultivation and import in each country may vary depending on needs, demand and trade interest. ISAAA established a GMO Approval Database to document global approvals of biotech crops. GM event name, crops, traits, developer, year of approval for cultivation, food/feed, import, and relevant dossiers were sourced from credible government regulatory websites and biosafety clearinghouses. This paper investigates the trends in GM approvals for food, feed and cultivation based on the number of approving countries, GM crops, events, and traits in the last 23 y (1992-2014), rationale for approval, factors influencing approvals, and their implications in GM crop adoption. Results show that in 2014, there was an accumulative increase in the number of countries granting approvals at 29 (79% developing countries) for commercial cultivation and 31 (70% developing countries) for food and 19 (80% developing developing) for feed; 2012 had the highest number of approving countries and cultivation approvals; 2011 had the highest number of country approvals for feed, and 2014 for food approvals. Herbicide tolerance trait had the highest events approved, followed by insect tolerance traits. Approvals for food product quality increased in the second decade. Maize had the highest number of events approved (single and stacked traits), and stacked traits product gradually increased which is already 30% of the total trait approvals. These results may indicate understanding and acceptance of countries to enhance regulatory capability to be able to benefit from GM crop commercialization. Hence, the paper provided information on the trends on the growth of the GM crop industry in the last 23 y which may be vital in predicting future GM crops and traits. PMID:26039675

  4. Trends in global approvals of biotech crops (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemita, Rhodora R; Reaño, Ian Mari E; Solis, Renando O; Hautea, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, traits, and crops that are developed to benefit the global population, approval of these technologies for food, feed, cultivation and import in each country may vary depending on needs, demand and trade interest. ISAAA established a GMO Approval Database to document global approvals of biotech crops. GM event name, crops, traits, developer, year of approval for cultivation, food/feed, import, and relevant dossiers were sourced from credible government regulatory websites and biosafety clearinghouses. This paper investigates the trends in GM approvals for food, feed and cultivation based on the number of approving countries, GM crops, events, and traits in the last 23 y (1992-2014), rationale for approval, factors influencing approvals, and their implications in GM crop adoption. Results show that in 2014, there was an accumulative increase in the number of countries granting approvals at 29 (79% developing countries) for commercial cultivation and 31 (70% developing countries) for food and 19 (80% developing developing) for feed; 2012 had the highest number of approving countries and cultivation approvals; 2011 had the highest number of country approvals for feed, and 2014 for food approvals. Herbicide tolerance trait had the highest events approved, followed by insect tolerance traits. Approvals for food product quality increased in the second decade. Maize had the highest number of events approved (single and stacked traits), and stacked traits product gradually increased which is already 30% of the total trait approvals. These results may indicate understanding and acceptance of countries to enhance regulatory capability to be able to benefit from GM crop commercialization. Hence, the paper provided information on the trends on the growth of the GM crop industry in the last 23 y which may be vital in predicting future GM crops and traits.

  5. Detection methods for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913 by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Jin-Kug; Yi, Bu-Young

    2007-05-01

    Plants derived through agricultural biotechnology, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs), may affect human health and ecological environment. A living GMO is also called a living modified organism (LMO). Biotech cotton is a GMO in food or feed and also an LMO in the environment. Recently, two varieties of biotech cotton, MON 15985 and MON 88913, were developed by Monsanto Co. The detection method is an essential element for the GMO labeling system or LMO management of biotech plants. In this paper, two primer pairs and probes were designed for specific amplification of 116 and 120 bp PCR products from MON 15985 and MON 88913, respectively, with no amplification from any other biotech cotton. Limits of detection of the qualitative method were all 0.05% for MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was developed using a TaqMan real-time PCR. A synthetic plasmid, as a reference molecule, was constructed from a taxon-specific DNA sequence of cotton and two construct-specific DNA sequences of MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was validated using six samples that contained levels of biotech cotton mixed with conventional cotton ranging from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-20%. Limits of quantitation of the quantitative method were all 0.1%. Consequently, it is reported that the proposed detection methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analyses for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913.

  6. Gaps in Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version provides background for the curriculum and identifies gaps in current and desired comprehensive cancer care.

  7. Parameters of Regional Cooperative Behavior in the German Biotech Industry – A Quantitative Social Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Strotebeck, Falk

    We analyse the determinants of network formation in Germany’s biotechnology industry using social network analysis combined with a regression approach for count data. Outcome variable of interest is the degree centrality of German regions, which is specified as a function of the region’s innovative...... and economic performance as well as biotech-related policy variables. The inclusion of the latter allows us to shed new light on the question to what extent R&D-based cluster policies are able to impact on the formation of the German biotech network. Our results show that policy indicators such as the volume...

  8. Psycho-oncology: Searching for practical wisdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlin, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The debate is vigorous in psycho-oncology about whether spiritual, existential, and psychosocial are the most comprehensive terms for academic research discourses investigating meaning and purpose. A call-to-action email from the International Society of Psycho-Oncology included the term soul. The current essay highlights the historical and contemporary uses of "soul" to suggest that the re-emergent soul signifies a tacit quest for an "intangible" that seems missing in current constructs of clinical domains reflected in the vigor of the debates. It is suggested that the re-emergence of the pre-Medieval meaning(s) of the notion of soul affirms a growing need for integrative paradigms on "being human" to guide psycho-oncology practitioners and their research. As a paradigmatic example, a clinical support group entitled Soul Medicine is described as employing the term soul to open up the more marginal discourses about experiences of illness arising from philosophical reflection, arts, humanities, and spirituality within a clinical oncology context. A link between soul and wisdom is suggested for further exploration with the view that phronesis ("the virtue of practical wisdom"), an emerging concept in health professional education research, is of ultimate value to the people psycho-oncology seeks to serve. This group holds that garnering wisdom from the expertise of those living with cancer should be a central aim of our field.

  9. Psycho-oncology: Searching for practical wisdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlin, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The debate is vigorous in psycho-oncology about whether spiritual, existential, and psychosocial are the most comprehensive terms for academic research discourses investigating meaning and purpose. A call-to-action email from the International Society of Psycho-Oncology included the term soul. The current essay highlights the historical and contemporary uses of "soul" to suggest that the re-emergent soul signifies a tacit quest for an "intangible" that seems missing in current constructs of clinical domains reflected in the vigor of the debates. It is suggested that the re-emergence of the pre-Medieval meaning(s) of the notion of soul affirms a growing need for integrative paradigms on "being human" to guide psycho-oncology practitioners and their research. As a paradigmatic example, a clinical support group entitled Soul Medicine is described as employing the term soul to open up the more marginal discourses about experiences of illness arising from philosophical reflection, arts, humanities, and spirituality within a clinical oncology context. A link between soul and wisdom is suggested for further exploration with the view that phronesis ("the virtue of practical wisdom"), an emerging concept in health professional education research, is of ultimate value to the people psycho-oncology seeks to serve. This group holds that garnering wisdom from the expertise of those living with cancer should be a central aim of our field. PMID:26399749

  10. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry.

  11. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry. PMID:18506395

  12. Biotech/GM crops in horticulture: plum cv. HoneySweet resistant to plum pox virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. By 2011, genetically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha. Only 114.507 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.490 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Currently, developing c...

  13. How Is Corporate Social Responsibility Addressed by Biotech Firms? a Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bustamante, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the biotech high-tech sector as a way to achieve competitive advantages. After presenting the importance of science for high-tech firms, the paper focuses on the social and economic role of CSR. Next, the primary reasons for firms' engagement in CSR activities are presented,…

  14. 76 FR 42682 - China Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission-Clarification and Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... publishing this supplement to the Notice of the Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China, 76 FR 17,621..., 76 FR 17621, Mar. 30, 2011, are revised to read October 14-18, 2011. In addition, revise the Proposed... Trade Mission to China, 76 FR 17,621, Mar. 30, 2011, is amended to read as follows: Timeframe...

  15. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  16. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  17. Designing and Implementing an Ambulatory Oncology Nursing Peer Preceptorship Program: Using Grounded Theory Research to Guide Program Development

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Linda C.; Raffin-Bouchal, Shelley; Melnick, Amy; Whyte, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Having enough staff to provide high-quality care to cancer patients will become a growing issue across Canada over the next decades. Statistical predictions indicate that both the number of new diagnoses and the prevalence of cancer will increase dramatically in the next two decades. When combining these trends with the simultaneous trend toward health human resource shortage in Canada, the urgency of assuring we have adequate staff to deliver cancer care becomes clear. This research study fo...

  18. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  19. Medical oncology, history and its future in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzania, Mehrzad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Allahyari, Abolghasem; Rostami, Nematollah; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Ramzi, Mani; Nemanipour, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Systemic therapy is one of the cornerstones of cancer treatment. In 1972, following representations by American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) recognized medical oncology as a new subspecialty of internal medicine. Subspecialty of Hematology and Medical Oncology was emerged in Iran in 1983. In the past, modern medical treatments and education were started in Dar Al-fonun school and then in Tehran University; now six universities in Iran are training in Subspecialty of Hematology and Medical Oncology. There are also ten active hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers, thirty-one provincial medical schools use their specialized services. Future goals for Hematology and Medical Oncology in Iran include expansion and reinforcement of multidisciplinary teams across the country, early detection and prevention of cancer, providing educational program and conducting cancer researches. To achieve these goals, it is necessary to establish Cancer Hospitals in each province that link together through a network.

  20. Translational Research in Oncology Research & Development and Its Impact on Early Development in China: report of the 5th Annual Meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) at 2013 AACR Annual Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingjie Guan; Yun Dai; Roger Luo

    2013-01-01

    In April 2013,the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) held its 5th annual meeting in conjunction with the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 2013 Annual Meeting in Washington DC.The USCACA executive committee reported activities and programs and highlighted the partnership and collaboration between USCACA and other major organizations.The key initiatives and programs of USCACA included 1) USCACA-TIGM Esophageal Cancer Program that funds translational research of esophageal cancer prevention and treatment at the Xinxiang Medical University in Henan province,China; 2) the USCACA-NFCR-AFCR Scholarship Program,which has supported 10 young outstanding Chinese cancer researchers and will award 4 fellowships at the Guangzhou International Symposium on Oncology in November this year; 3) USCACA-Hengrui Training Program for Early Phase Clinical Research,which has supported the training of a Chinese scholar at two major cancer centers in the US; and 4) USCACA has continued its partnership with the Chinese Journal of Cancer,which has reached significant international impact.

  1. Translational Research in Oncology Research & Development and Its Impact on Early Development in China: report of the 5th Annual Meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA at 2013 AACR Annual Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LingjieGuan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In April 2013, the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA held its 5th annual meeting in conjunction with the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR 2013 Annual Meeting in Washington DC. The USCACA executive committee reported activities and programs and highlighted the partnership and collaboration between USCACA and other major organizations. The key initiatives and programs of USCACA included 1 USCACA-TIGM Esophageal Cancer Program that funds translational research of esophageal cancer prevention and treatment at the Xinxiang Medical University in Henan province, China; 2 the USCACA-NFCR-AFCR Scholarship Program, which has supported 10 young outstanding Chinese cancer researchers and will award 4 fellowships at the Guangzhou International Symposium on Oncology in November this year; 3 USCACA-Hengrui Training Program for Early Phase Clinical Research, which has supported the training of a Chinese scholar at two major cancer centers in the US; and 4 USCACA has continued its partnership with the Chinese Journal of Cancer, which has reached significant international impact.

  2. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Indrin J; Martel, Mary K; Jaffray, David A; Benedict, Stanley H; Hahn, Stephen M; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Ollendorf, Daniel; Paganetti, Harald; Ross, Brian; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo C; Timmerman, Robert D; Wong, John W

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled "Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology," which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic.

  3. The third Symptom Management Research Trial in Oncology (SMaRT Oncology-3: a randomised trial to determine the efficacy of adding a complex intervention for major depressive disorder (Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer to usual care, compared to usual care alone in patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer is a complex intervention delivered by specially trained cancer nurses, under the supervision of a psychiatrist. It is given as a supplement to the usual care for depression, which patients receive from their general practitioner and cancer service. The third Symptom Management Research Trial in Oncology (SMaRT Oncology-3 Trial will test its efficacy when compared to usual care alone. Design A two arm parallel group multi-centre randomised controlled trial. 200 patients will be recruited through established systematic Symptom Monitoring Services, which screen patients for depression. Patients will have: a diagnosis of lung cancer; an estimated life expectancy of three months or more and a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder. Patients will be randomised to usual care or usual care plus Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer. Randomisation will be carried out by telephoning a secure computerised central randomisation system or by using a secure web interface. The primary outcome measure is average depression severity. This will be assessed using scores on the 20-item Symptom Hopkins Checklist (SCL-20D, collected every four weeks over 32 weeks. Secondary outcomes include severity of anxiety, pain and fatigue; self-rated improvement of depression; quality of life and satisfaction with depression care. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN75905964

  4. Nine-year change in statistical design, profile, and success rates of Phase II oncology trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Paul, Barry; Marchenko, Olga; Song, Guochen; Patel, Neerali; Moschos, Stergios J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated nine-year trends in statistical design and other features of Phase II oncology clinical trials published in 2005, 2010, and 2014 in five leading oncology journals: Cancer, Clinical Cancer Research, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, and Lancet Oncology. The features analyzed included cancer type, multicenter vs. single-institution, statistical design, primary endpoint, number of treatment arms, number of patients per treatment arm, whether or not statistical methods were well described, whether the drug was found effective based on rigorous statistical testing of the null hypothesis, and whether the drug was recommended for future studies.

  5. Knowledge management in the QbD paradigm: manufacturing of biotech therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Christoph; Garcia-Aponte, Oscar F; Golabgir, Aydin; Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-07-01

    In the quality by design (QbD) paradigm, global regulatory agencies have introduced the concepts of quality risk management and knowledge management (KM) as enablers for an enhanced pharmaceutical quality system. Although the concept of quality risk management has been well elucidated in the literature, the topic of KM has received relatively scant attention. In this paper we present an opinion on KM in the QbD paradigm as it relates to the manufacturing of biotech therapeutic products. Both academic and industrial viewpoints have been considered and key gaps have been elucidated. The authors conclude that there is an urgent need for the biotech industry to create efficient KM approaches if they wish to be successful in QbD implementation. PMID:25980924

  6. Knowledge management in the QbD paradigm: manufacturing of biotech therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Christoph; Garcia-Aponte, Oscar F; Golabgir, Aydin; Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-07-01

    In the quality by design (QbD) paradigm, global regulatory agencies have introduced the concepts of quality risk management and knowledge management (KM) as enablers for an enhanced pharmaceutical quality system. Although the concept of quality risk management has been well elucidated in the literature, the topic of KM has received relatively scant attention. In this paper we present an opinion on KM in the QbD paradigm as it relates to the manufacturing of biotech therapeutic products. Both academic and industrial viewpoints have been considered and key gaps have been elucidated. The authors conclude that there is an urgent need for the biotech industry to create efficient KM approaches if they wish to be successful in QbD implementation.

  7. Which Model of Technology Transfer for Nanotechnology? A Comparison with Biotech and Microelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Genet, Corine; Errabi, Khalid; Gauthier, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    International audience Nanotechnologies are often presented as breakthrough innovations, where technology transfer and knowledge-bridging will play a pivotal role in the industrial dynamics. This article investigates the model of knowledge transfer in the nanotechnologies in depth, by comparing it with the models of two recently emerged technologies: biotech and microelectronics. Our results show that the nanotechnology transfer model is very different from that involved in biotechnology e...

  8. The Effects of Information on Consumer Demand for Biotech Foods: Evidence from Experimental Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Tegene, Abebayehu; Huffman, Wallace E; Rousu, Matthew C.; Shogren, Jason F.

    2003-01-01

    Consumers' willingness to pay for food products decreases when the food label indicates that a food product is produced with the aid of modern biotechnology. This bulletin presents empirical evidence on consumers' willingness to pay for biotech foods based on the presence or absence of labels advising that the food was prepared with the aid of biotechnology. The authors designed and conducted an experimental auction to elicit consumers' willingness to pay for "genetically modified" (GM)-label...

  9. Role of R&D alliances in Pharma-Biotech Industry Case study of Indian Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzra, Inderpreet Kaur

    2007-01-01

    In today's intensely competitive business milieu, pharmaceutical companies are increasing their product pipelines by both developing drugs on their own and also by R&D alliances. This study attempts to understand the importance and need of R&D alliances in pharmaceutical and biotech industry. Declining product pipelines and astringent patent law across the world are bothering the companies and they are relying on strategic alliances to speed up the process of innovation. Strategic alliances a...

  10. Penetration of Recommended Procedures for Lung Cancer Staging and Management in the United States Over 10 Years: A Quality Research in Radiation Oncology Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To document the penetration of clinical trial results, practice guidelines, and appropriateness criteria into national practice, we compared the use of components of staging and treatment for lung cancer among patients treated in 2006-2007 with those used in patients treated in 1998-1999. Methods and Materials: Patient, staging work-up, and treatment characteristics were extracted from the process survey database of the Quality Research in Radiation Oncology (QRRO), consisting of records of 340 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) at 44 institutions and of 144 patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) at 39 institutions. Data were compared for patients treated in 2006-2007 versus those for patients treated in 1998-1999. Results: Use of all recommended procedures for staging and treatment was more common in 2006-2007. Specifically, disease was staged with brain imaging (magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography) and whole-body imaging (positron emission tomography or bone scanning) in 66% of patients with LA-NSCLC in 2006-2007 (vs 42% in 1998-1999, P=.0001) and in 84% of patients with LS-SCLC in 2006-2007 (vs 58.3% in 1998-1999, P=.0011). Concurrent chemoradiation was used for 77% of LA-NSCLC patients (vs 45% in 1998-1999, P<.0001) and for 90% of LS-SCLC patients (vs 62.5% in 1998-1999, P<.0001). Use of the recommended radiation dose (59-74 Gy for NSCLC and 60-70 Gy as once-daily therapy for SCLC) did not change appreciably, being 88% for NSCLC in both periods and 51% (2006-2007) versus 43% (1998-1999) for SCLC. Twice-daily radiation for SCLC was used for 21% of patients in 2006-2007 versus 8% in 1998-1999. Finally, 49% of patients with LS-SCLC received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in 2006-2007 (vs 21% in 1998-1999). Conclusions: Although adherence to all quality indicators improved over time, brain imaging and recommended radiation doses for stage III NSCLC were used in <90% of cases. Use

  11. Simplex and duplex event-specific analytical methods for functional biotech maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Yi, Bu-Young

    2009-08-26

    Analytical methods are very important in the control of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling systems or living modified organism (LMO) management for biotech crops. Event-specific primers and probes were developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038 on the basis of the 3' flanking regions, respectively. The qualitative primers confirmed the specificity by a single PCR product and sensitivity to 0.05% as a limit of detection (LOD). Simplex and duplex quantitative methods were also developed using TaqMan real-time PCR. One synthetic plasmid was constructed from two taxon-specific DNA sequences of maize and two event-specific 3' flanking DNA sequences of event 3272 and LY 038 as reference molecules. In-house validation of the quantitative methods was performed using six levels of mixing samples, from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-30%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the quantitative methods were all 0.1% for simplex real-time PCRs of event 3272 and LY 038 and 0.5% for duplex real-time PCR of LY 038. This study reports that event-specific analytical methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038.

  12. The experiential world of the Oncology nurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia le Roux

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In her experiential world, the oncology nurse experiences unique, challenging and rewarding relationships in a multidimensional, dynamic way. The aim of this study was to describe, from her viewpoint and perspective, how she experiences and reacts to this world. Through this study the researcher wants the oncology nurse’s voice to be heard, the richness of her story acknowledged and the derived data to be applied to the benefit of the field of oncology. In-depth, unstructured phenomenological interviews provided the saturated data from which the uniqueness of the world of the oncology nurse unfolded as the uniqueness of the oncology patients and their world emerged clearly. Findings show that the oncology nurse, attending to the cancer patients and their family, experiences many different relationships. The uniqueness of the oncology nurse-patient relationship is described as unlike any other nurse-patient relationship. The challenging interpersonal relationships with management and other members of the multiprofessional team, as experienced from the perspective of the oncology nurse, are also highlighted. Furthermore, a unifying intrapersonal relationship with the self was identified. This enables the oncology nurse to be both on the giving and receiving end of the intensely emotional environment she works in, explaining, at least partly, the high job satisfaction that permeated the interviews in this study. Recommendations for nursing practice, education and research were formulated. Opsomming In haar leefwêreld ondervind onkologieverpleegkundige unieke, uitdagende en belonende verhoudinge op ‘n multidimensionele en dinamiese wyse. Die doel van hierdie studie was om ‘n beskrywing van die onkologieverpleegkundige se ervarings van en reaksie op haar leefwêreld vanuit haar oogpunt en perspektief. Deur middel van hierdie studie wil die navorser die stem van die onkologieverpleegkundige gehoor laat word, die rykdom van haar verhaal

  13. ASCO 2007: “Translating Research into Practice”. Report from the 34th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo Porta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This year, for the 34th time in its history, the mastodontic machinery of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO once again welcomed thousand of members and participants from all over the world to the Society’s annual meeting, which, this year, took place in the ample and well-appointed, McCormick’s Convention Center in Chicago, Illinois...

  14. Oncology and palliative care

    OpenAIRE

    Bausewein, Claudia; Hartenstein, R.

    2000-01-01

    Oncology developed as a discipline over the last decades. Treatment is concentrated on cure or palliation of the illness with the help of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery. Palliative care has its origin in the hospice movement that started around 1960 in the UK. Centre of care is the patient and his family. Focus of care has moved from quantity to quality of life. Symptom control, communication, rehabilitation and care for the dying are main areas of palliative care. Palliative care and ...

  15. Introduction to pediatric oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWhirter, W.R.; Masel, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book covers the varied and complex aspects of management in pediatric oncology. Emphasis is placed on a team approach and on establishing and maintaining an individualized, humanistic relationships with the patient. Numerous illustrations show modern imaging techniques that are proving most valuable in the investigation of suspected or confirmed childhood cancer. Physical and psychological side effects of short-term and long-term treatment are also discussed.

  16. Gamma camera based FDG PET in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) was introduced as a research tool in the 1970s and it took about 20 years before PET became an useful clinical imaging modality. In the USA, insurance coverage for PET procedures in the 1990s was the turning point, I believe, for this progress. Initially PET was used in neurology but recently more than 80% of PET procedures are in oncological applications. I firmly believe, in the 21st century, one can not manage cancer patients properly without PET and PET is very important medical imaging modality in basic and clinical sciences. PET is grouped into 2 categories; conventional (c) and gamma camera based (CB) PET. CBPET is more readily available utilizing dual-head gamma cameras and commercially available FDG to many medical centers at low cost to patients. In fact there are more CBPET in operation than cPET in the USA. CBPET is inferior to cPET in its performance but clinical studies in oncology is feasible without expensive infrastructures such as staffing, rooms and equipments. At Ajou university Hospital, CBPET was installed in late 1997 for the first time in Korea as well as in Asia and the system has been used successfully and effectively in oncological applications. Our was the fourth PET operation in Korea and I believe this may have been instrumental for other institutions got interested in clinical PET. The following is a brief description of our clinical experience of FDG CBPET in oncology

  17. An increasing number of qualitative research papers in oncology and palliative care: does it mean a thorough development of the methodology of research?

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelli Cinzia; Miccinesi Guido; Borreani Claudia; Lina Micaela

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background In the second half of the nineties, a scientific debate about the usefulness of qualitative research in medicine began in the main medical journals as well as the amount of "qualitative" papers published on peer reviewed journals has noticeably increased during these last years. Nevertheless the label of qualitative methodology has been assigned to an heterogeneous collection of studies. Some of them show a complete awareness of the specificity of this kind of research, wh...

  18. The Radiation Therapy Oncology in the context of oncological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the radiation therapy oncology in the context of oncological practice. The radiotherapy is a speciality within medicine that involves the generation, application and dissemination of knowledge about the biology, causes, prevention and treatment of the cancer and other pathologies by ionising radiation

  19. The problems of surgical training in gynaecologic oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, CW; Oliveira, CF; Kehoe, ST

    2000-01-01

    During the late 60s and early 70s it was recognised that the surgical training for residents in Obstetrics and Gynaecology was inadequate to comprehensively acquire the surgical skills necessary in managing women with gynaecologic cancers. Gynaecologic Oncology (Gynae-Oncology) has three important goals: 1) to maintain the highest standards for patients with gynaecologic cancer, 2) to provide the trainee with clinical skills and structural clinical research after his/her surgical completion, ...

  20. Exploring Business Models for SMEs in the Biotech Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Holm-Bergqvist, Linus; Ödmark, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The interest in business models has lately increased, which could be traced back to the dot-com burst during the 2000s. There exists no general definition of business models. Howev-er, researchers all agree that business models are used to illustrate the design and architec-ture of the value creation process of companies. Today’s research of business models has mainly been focused on e-commerce. This thesis contributes to the research of business models by extending the research to focus on S...

  1. Biotech crops: imperative for achieving the millenium development goals and sustainability of agriculture in the climate change era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Amjad M; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological intervention in the development of crops has opened new vistas in agriculture. Central to the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), biotech-agriculture is essential in meeting these targets. Biotech crops have already made modest contributions toward ensuring food and nutrition security by reducing losses and increasing productivity, with less pesticide input. These crops could help address some of the major challenges in agriculture-based economies created by climate change. Projections of global climate change expect the concentration of greenhouse gases to increase, aridization of the environment to increase, temperature fluctuations to occur sharply and frequently, and spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall to be disturbed-all of which will increase abiotic stress-related challenges to crops. Countering these challenges and to meet the food requirement of the ever-increasing world population (expected to reach 9 billion by 2030) we need to (1) develop and use biotech crops for mitigating adverse climatic changes; (2) develop biotech crops resilient to adverse environmental conditions; and (3) address the issues/non-issues raised by NGO's and educate the masses about the benefits of biotech crops.

  2. [Dignity therapy in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Carla Ida

    2016-04-01

    In oncology, little is known about dignity, dignity-related distress and the issues that influence the sense of dignity for patients. Dignity is personal, subject to changes depending on the experience and the path of life. In oncology some patients feel that their dignity is directly related to the disease, to physical and emotional symptoms, to the highest level of physical and cognitive autonomy and to the continuity of the self. Patient dignity inventory (PDI) is a validate tool designed to measure various sources of dignity-related distress among patients nearing the end of life and serve as a screening tool to assess a broad range of issues that influence the sense of dignity. Dignity therapy is a novel focused psychotherapy consisting in a brief semi-structured interview, audio-recorded and transcribed in order to obtain the "generativity document". The patients are invited to tell about their life history, and to leave words of guidance and offer instructions to pass along to their son, daughters, husband, wife, parents, others. The generativity document is the result of process of emotional and existential care for the patients and a gift for everybody will receive it. PMID:27093325

  3. Research on caring behaviors of oncology nurses%肿瘤科护士关怀照护行为现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬广丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查肿瘤科护士关怀照护行为现状.方法 采用关怀行为量表,对115名肿瘤科护士进行问卷调查.结果 肿瘤科护士关怀照护行为得分为(59.64±11.82)分.3个维度的得分从高到低为:协助患者度过疾病不平顺的过程(2.00±0.43)分、了解患者需求(1.99±0.47)分、患者权益的维护(1.97±0.44)分.不同学历和工作性质的护士整体关怀照护行为差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);不同职称、工作年限以及工作性质的护士“协助患者度过疾病不平顺的过程”维度得分差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 肿瘤科护士协助患者度过疾病不平顺关怀照护行为较好,维护患者权益的关怀照护行为较差.低学历、低职称以及合同制护士的关怀行为亟待提高.%Objective To investigate the statue of caring behaviors of oncology nurses. Method A total of 115 oncology nurses were investigated with Caring Behavior Scale (CBS). Results The mean score of caring behaviors of oncology nurses was (59.64 ± 11.82). The mean scores of three dimensions in descending order were (2.00 ±0.43) in helping patients through the un - smooth disease process, (1.99 ±0.47) in understanding the needs of patients,and (1.97 ± 0,44) in protecting the interests of patients. Education levels of nurses and relationship nature of nurses and hospitals were the related factors of caring behaviors, and professional titles, work experience, and relationship nature of nurses were the related factors of the dimension of helping patients through the un -smooth disease process (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Conclusion Oncology nurses show good caring behaviors on helping patients through the un - smooth disease process of oncology nurses, but relatively poor caring behaviors on safeguarding the interests of patients. Lower education, less work experience and contract nurses 'caring behavior should be improved.

  4. Safety assessment of nonbrowning potatoes: opening the discussion about the relevance of substantial equivalence on next generation biotech crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Briardo; Alonso, Guillermo D; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Rodríguez, Vanina; López, Mariana G; Carrari, Fernando; Torres, Héctor N; Flawiá, Mirtha M

    2011-02-01

    It is expected that the next generation of biotech crops displaying enhanced quality traits with benefits to both farmers and consumers will have a better acceptance than first generation biotech crops and will improve public perception of genetic engineering. This will only be true if they are proven to be as safe as traditionally bred crops. In contrast with the first generation of biotech crops where only a single trait is modified, the next generation of biotech crops will add a new level of complexity inherent to the mechanisms underlying their output traits. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of the comparative safety approach on a quality-improved biotech crop with metabolic modifications is presented. Three genetically engineered potato lines with silenced polyphenol oxidase (Ppo) transcripts and reduced tuber browning were characterized at both physiological and molecular levels and showed to be equivalent to wild-type (WT) plants when yield-associated traits and photosynthesis were evaluated. Analysis of the primary metabolism revealed several unintended metabolic modifications in the engineered tubers, providing evidence for potential compositional inequivalence between transgenic lines and WT controls. The silencing construct sequence was in silico analysed for potential allergenic cross-reactivity, and no similarities to known allergenic proteins were identified. Moreover, in vivo intake safety evaluation showed no adverse effects in physiological parameters. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence supporting that the safety of next generation biotech crops can be properly assessed following the current evaluation criterion, even if the transgenic and WT crops are not substantially equivalent.

  5. The Industrial Application Requirement for Biotech Inventions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2016-01-01

    New Research CollectionEuropean Intellectual Property Law. Edited by Jan Rosén, Stockholm University and former ATRIP President. This one volume collection thoroughly covers and systematically displays the three main areas of Intellectual Property (IP) Law - Patents, Trademarks and Copyright - wi...

  6. Mind-body therapies in integrative oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary; Fisher, William; Johnson, Aimee

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in mind-body therapies as adjuncts to mainstream cancer treatment, and an increasing number of patients turn to these interventions for the control of emotional stress associated with cancer. Increased research funding has enabled many such interventions to be evaluated for their efficacy, including studies of mind-body interventions to reduce pain, anxiety, insomnia, anticipatory, and treatment-related nauseas, hot flashes, and improved mood. Mind-body treatments evaluated for their utility in oncology include relaxation therapies, biofeedback, meditation and hypnosis, yoga, art and music therapy, tai chi, and qigong. Although studies are not always methodologically sound and results mixed, a growing number of well-designed studies provide convincing evidence that mind-body techniques are beneficial adjuncts to cancer treatment. The evidence is sufficient to recommend further investigation and adoption of these techniques in mainstream oncology care. PMID:21116746

  7. Neuro-oncology of CNS tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, J.C. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Westphal, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Rutka, J.T. [Toronto Univ. Hospital for Sick Children, ON (Canada). Div. of Neurosurgery; Grossmann, S.A. (eds.) [Johns Hopkins Oncology Center Neuro-Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis and treatment modalities for neuro-oncologic diseases have made considerable advances in recent years. There is hardly a segment of the field of solid tumours that is experiencing such dynamic development with regard to basic scientific findings and clinical results. In the present book the world's leading experts have compiled the current practice-relevant knowledge of neuro-oncologic diseases. The book's clear structure and the uniform presentation of all chapters make this volume a valuable reference, especially for practice-oriented activities, allowing swift access to information about current treatment standards. Hence it will be of great value to both clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  8. Mind-body therapies in integrative oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary; Fisher, William; Johnson, Aimee

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in mind-body therapies as adjuncts to mainstream cancer treatment, and an increasing number of patients turn to these interventions for the control of emotional stress associated with cancer. Increased research funding has enabled many such interventions to be evaluated for their efficacy, including studies of mind-body interventions to reduce pain, anxiety, insomnia, anticipatory, and treatment-related nauseas, hot flashes, and improved mood. Mind-body treatments evaluated for their utility in oncology include relaxation therapies, biofeedback, meditation and hypnosis, yoga, art and music therapy, tai chi, and qigong. Although studies are not always methodologically sound and results mixed, a growing number of well-designed studies provide convincing evidence that mind-body techniques are beneficial adjuncts to cancer treatment. The evidence is sufficient to recommend further investigation and adoption of these techniques in mainstream oncology care.

  9. 生物技术药物中残留DNA检测方法的比较%Comparison of testing methods for residual DNA in biotech drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭燕

    2016-01-01

    Biotech drugs are drugs made by modem biotechnology with bioactive substances and their synthetic analogs,using biomass as raw materials.Biotech drugs,including cytokines,recombinant proteins,antibodies,vaccines,and oligonucleotides,have begun to be widely used clinically,and brought revolutionary change for the pharmaceutical industry.However,residual DNA in biological products may be potentially dangerous,so purification processes need to be validated to confirm its clearance.The new United States pharmacopoeia will recommend real-time quantitative PCR method be the only standard method for testing host residual DNA in biotech drugs.This method has the technical advantage of high specificity,high sensitivity,good reproducibility,and quantitative detection,making results more accurate,thereby provides a reliable means of detection in process research and product quality control for biopharmaceutical enterprises.This review compares 4 types of testing methods and focuses on two real-time quantitative methods.%生物技术药物是所有以生物质为原料的生物活性物质及其人工合成类似物通过现代生物技术制得的药物,包括细胞因子、重组蛋白、抗体、疫苗和寡核苷酸等,临床上已开始广泛应用,为制药工业带来了革命性变化.但是生物技术药物中残留DNA可能存在安全性问题,因此应尽可能将产品中残留DNA的水平降到最低.新版美国药典将推荐实时定量PCR法作为生物技术药物中宿主残留DNA检定的唯一标准方法.该法的技术优势在于序列特异性高、灵敏度高、重现性好,还可以实现定量检测,使得结果更为精确,从而为生物技术药物企业在工艺研究和成品质量控制方面提供了可靠的检测手段.此综述对4类检测方法进行了比较,重点比较两种实时定量方法.

  10. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  11. La revolución de los microarrays en la investigación biosanitaria: tipos de plataformas, usos y perspectivas en oncología The microarray revolution in biomedical research: types of platforms, uses and perspectives in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Cigudosa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la introducción, uso y manejo de herramientas de base genómica, la investigación sobre las alteraciones genéticas que están en el origen de enfermedades tan comunes como el cáncer han sufrido una revolución técnica comparable a la incorporación del microscopio en los laboratorios. Ahora, estudiar la relación gen-enfermedad no está basado en analizar un gen único y sus efectos sino en analizar el comportamiento de miles de genes de forma simultánea. Estos sistemas, denominados genéricamente como matrices, arrays, microarrays o biochips, están cambiando nuestra forma de plantear problemas y extraer conclusiones de los experimentos ya que nos ofrecen una foto compleja del conjunto del genoma. Los análisis de expresión mediante microarrays de cDNA o de oligos ya son accesibles a la comunidad científica española. Los resultados, además, fascinan a los investigadores ya que son bastante reproducibles y aportan una gran cantidad de información sobre la regulación de la expresión génica en condiciones normales y patológicas.Through the introduction, use and management of genome-based tools, research into genetic alterations that give rise to diseases as common as cancer has undergone a technical revolution comparable to the introduction of the microscope in laboratories. Now, study of the gene-disease relationship is no longer based on analysing a single gene and its effects, but on analysing the behaviour of thousands of genes in a simultaneous form. These systems, generically called matrices, arrays, microarrays or biochips, are changing the way we pose problems and draw conclusions from experiments, since they offer us a complex photo of the genome as a whole. Analyses of expression through microarrays of cDNI or oligos are now accessible to the Spanish scientific community. The results have proved fascinating to researchers since they can be reproduced easily and contribute a great quantity of information on the

  12. Nordic research in ophthalmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Zetterström, Charlotta; Ehlers, Niels;

    2003-01-01

    Ophthalmology, eye research, cornea, catarcat, paediatric ophthalmology, glaucoma, diabetic eye disease, age-related macular degeneration, ophthalmic oncology......Ophthalmology, eye research, cornea, catarcat, paediatric ophthalmology, glaucoma, diabetic eye disease, age-related macular degeneration, ophthalmic oncology...

  13. Biotechnology regulation: limiting or contributing to biotech development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Grethe

    2001-01-01

    Modern biotechnology has been characterized by being surrounded by scientific and public debate and by interest conflicts. An early Danish debate and regulation has been criticized for inhibiting or retarding development and thus growth. Though much regulation and debate have been transferred...... to the European arena, their role and extension are still an issue. In this paper, the often anticipated innovation-inhibiting effects of regulation are questioned by giving an account of regulations and debates in Denmark. An account which includes the shifting positions of industry, the research community...... that regulation and debate changed the rate and direction of new biotechnology development, contributing to technology acceptance, without however ensuring it. The paper thus questions the caricatured assumptions in economics and industrial policy that regulation restrict techno-economic growth. The paper further...

  14. The income and production effects of biotech crops globally 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A critical feature in evaluating the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture must include an assessment of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income, indirect (non-pecuniary) farm level income effects and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of biotech crops is continuing to proceed rapidly, with significant changes in the overall level of adoption and impact taking place in 2010. This updated analysis shows that there have been substantial net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $14 billion in 2010 and $78.4 billion for the 15-year period (in nominal terms). The non-pecuniary benefits associated with the use of the technology have also had a positive impact on adoption (in the US accounting for the equivalent of 22% of the total US direct farm income benefit). Biotech crops are, moreover, making important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops. They have, for example, now added 97.5 million tons and 159 million tons respectively, to the global production of soybeans and corn since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s.

  15. Future directions in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cancer treatment has evolved progressively over the years as a joint result of improvements in technology and better understanding of the biological responses of neoplastic and normal cells to cytotoxic agents. Although major therapeutic 'breakthroughs' are unlikely absent the discovery of exploitable fundamental differences between cancer cells and their normal homologs, further incremental improvements in cancer treatment results can confidently be expected as we apply existing knowledge better and take advantage of new research insights. Areas in which I can foresee significant improvements (in approximate chronological order) are as follows: better physical radiation dose distributions; more effective radiation and chemoradiation protocols based on radiobiological principles; more rational use of radiation adjuvants based on biologic criteria; use of novel targets and vectors for systemic radionuclide therapy; use of genetic markers of radiosensitivity to determine radiation dose tolerances; and use of radiation as a modulator of therapeutic gene expression. Radiation research has contributed greatly to the efficacy of radiation oncology as it is now practised but has even greater potential for the future

  16. Exercise Promotion in Geriatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhenn, Peggy S; Bryant, Ashley Leak; Mustian, Karen M

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of the benefits of exercise for people with cancer from diagnosis through survivorship is growing. However, most cancers occur in older adults and little exercise advice is available for making specific recommendations for older adults with cancer. Individualized exercise prescriptions are safe, feasible, and beneficial for the geriatric oncology population. Oncology providers must be equipped to discuss the short- and long-term benefits of exercise and assist older patients in obtaining appropriate exercise prescriptions. This review provides detailed information about professionals and their roles as it relates to functional assessment, intervention, and evaluation of the geriatric oncology population. This review addresses the importance of functional status assessment and appropriate referrals to other oncology professionals. PMID:27484061

  17. Radiation Oncology reviewer acknowledgement 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The editorial team of Radiation Oncology would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in 2015. Without the participation of skilful reviewers, no academic journal could succeed, and we are grateful to the committed individuals who have given their time and expertise to the peer review of manuscripts for Radiation Oncology. We look forward to your continued support in 2016

  18. Clinical Oncology-A New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biyun Qian; Dan Su; Herbert Yu

    2007-01-01

    Rapid growth in biomedical research coupled with dramatic advancement in biotechnology has significantly improved our understanding of the molecular basis involving cancer development and progression.This improvement has led to the discovery of new molecular markers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis as well as new molecular targets for cancer treatment and intervention.Continuous emergence of some new developing area in molecular profiling,new therapeutic agents,tissue microenvironment and systems biology have made significant progress in clinical oncology.Clinical research and investigation that focus on these new developments have begun to show exciting results that indicate future promises in improving patient management and survival.

  19. Intuitive Expertise and Empowerment: The Long-Term Impact of Simulation Training on Changing Accountabilities in a Biotech Firm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBello, Lia; Missildine, Whit; Struttman, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a two-year study in which high levels of performance were achieved and sustained among so-called low-level workers in a biotech company. The purpose of the study--funded by National Science Foundation and lnvitrogen Corporation--were to explore the effectiveness of an accelerated learning Operational Simulation (OpSim)…

  20. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  1. Quality of life in oncology with emphasis upon neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choucair, Ali K

    2007-01-01

    Quality of life, as a science has been steadily gaining importance in both clinical practice as well as research. Despite major progress in the development of validated and clinically-relevant health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures, we still face many challenges in bridging the gap between what we know and how to apply it in clinical practice: in making the transfer from the mere collection of QOL data to its utilization in improving patient outcome through interventional symptomatic therapy. This manuscript traces the development of QOL as a science to its potential utility in both clinical care and clinical research, as well as an outcomes measure. The emphasis has been placed upon quality of life in oncology with special attention to neuro-oncology. PMID:17127306

  2. Oncology in primary health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book Oncology in the primary health care, constitutes an important contribution to the prevention and treatment of cancer, from a very comprehensive assessment. It's a disease that is the second leading cause of death in our country, to much pain and suffering is for the patient and their family. The book has a very useful for basic health equipment approach, since it emphasizes that cancer can be prevented if achieved in the population changes in lifestyle. The book is valued not correct food as responsible for one third of all cancers. Currently important research being developed in relation to psiconeuroinmuno-Endocrinology, who is studying the association between psychological factors and the development of cancer valuing that kept stress and depression reduces the antitumor activity of the immune system; that made programs with encouraging results where the treatment of cancer has joined elements of psychotherapy, immunotherapy and the use of the biotherapy. The focus of the book fills an important place in the primary health care and is an indispensable guide for professionals at this level of care (author)

  3. Current situation research and causes analysis of compassion fatigue in nursing staff in oncology department%肿瘤科护理人员同情心疲乏的现状调查及原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴爱丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查肿瘤科护理人员同情心疲乏的现状和原因,探究解决方法。方法通过调查表、同情心疲乏量表、满意度量表等方式对肿瘤科的128例护理人员进行统计分析调查。结果肿瘤科护理人员的同情心疲乏总分为(102.32±8.23)分,其中得分最低的是个人能力怀疑项,得分最高的是感情低落项。而影响同情心疲乏水平的影响因素主要是护龄、内在和外在满意度。结论缓解同情心疲乏的有效方式是提高护理人员的工作满意度,并努力保证护理人员的心理健康。%ObjectiveTo research current situation and causes of compassion fatigue in nursing staff in oncology department, and to explore solutions.MethodsA total of 128 nursing staff received statistical analysisand investigation by questionnaire, compassion fatigue scale, and satisfaction degree scale.ResultsTotal score of compassion fatigue in nursing staff in oncology department was (102.32±8.23) points. The lowest item was individual ability suspension, and the higher one was depressed feeling. Main influencing factors included working time, internal and external satisfaction degrees.ConclusionImprovement of satisfaction degree and enhancing of psychological health in nursing staff are effective methods in relieving their compassion fatigue.

  4. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%–90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better—with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations—when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient’s medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual’s background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician.

  5. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Holzhauer, Peter; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F; Adamietz, Irenäus A

    2016-03-01

    Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%-90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better-with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations-when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient's medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual's background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician. PMID:26985904

  6. Evidence-based integrative medicine in clinical veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology. PMID:25174902

  7. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Sachin M.; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  8. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Sachin M; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  9. The industrial application requirement for biotech inventions in light of recent EPO & UK case law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2012-01-01

    In this study we illuminate and discuss the most recent developments in respect of the interpretation of the “industrial application” requirement with respect to gene and protein related inventions in Europe. The analysis will focus on the relevant provisions of the EPC and decisional practice from...... discussion, we will elaborate on two issues in particular; (i) determine which types of qualities an invention should have in order to meet the industrial application requirement in the first place; and (ii) what type of evidence an applicant is expected to present in respect of (potential) applications......-depth background, and maybe repetition for some readers, as to why the industrial application requirement raises particular concerns and questions in respect of biotech inventions....

  10. BIOTECH CHINA 2007新闻发布会在沪举行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    本着“整合资源,培育品牌,多方受益”的原则,世博集团上海现代国际展览有限公司、上海科技会展有限公司和德国汉诺威展览公司将在2007年7月4-6日联手推出“2007中国国际生物技术和仪器设备博览会。(BIOTECH CHINA 2007),三大展览公司携手打造的此次展会预计展出面积6000m2。

  11. Implementing quality by design for biotech products: Are regulators on track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Francesca; Galluzzo, Sara; Gaggioli, Andrea; Kruse, Nanna Aaby; Venneugues, Pascal; Schneider, Christian K; Pini, Carlo; Melchiorri, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) is an innovative approach to drug development that has started to be implemented into the regulatory framework, but currently mainly for chemical drugs. The recent marketing authorization of the first monoclonal antibody developed using extensive QbD concepts in the European Union paves the way for future further regulatory approvals of complex products employing this cutting-edge technological concept. In this paper, we report and comment on insights and lessons learnt from the non-public discussions in the European Medicines Agency's Biologicals Working Party and Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use on the key issues during evaluation related to the implementation of an extensive QbD approach for biotechnology-derived medicinal products. Sharing these insights could prove useful for future developments in QbD for biotech products in general and monoclonal antibodies in particular.

  12. Capacity optimization and scheduling of a multiproduct manufacturing facility for biotech products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Munawar A; Dhakre, Ankita; Rathore, Anurag S; Patil, Nitin

    2014-01-01

    A general mathematical framework has been proposed in this work for scheduling of a multiproduct and multipurpose facility involving manufacturing of biotech products. The specific problem involves several batch operations occurring in multiple units involving fixed processing time, unlimited storage policy, transition times, shared units, and deterministic and fixed data in the given time horizon. The different batch operations are modeled using state-task network representation. Two different mathematical formulations are proposed based on discrete- and continuous-time representations leading to a mixed-integer linear programming model which is solved using General Algebraic Modeling System software. A case study based on a real facility is presented to illustrate the potential and applicability of the proposed models. The continuous-time model required less number of events and has a smaller problem size compared to the discrete-time model.

  13. 78 FR 63222 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... ] (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... relevance and potential use of such measures in the pediatric development plans of oncology products....

  14. 75 FR 66773 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... were either recently approved by FDA or, are in late stage development for an adult oncology...

  15. 78 FR 63224 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... late stage development for various adult oncology indications. The subcommittee will consider...

  16. 77 FR 57095 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... plans for four products that are in development for an adult oncology indication. The subcommittee...

  17. Palliative medicine and medical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, M; Amadori, D

    2001-04-01

    Traditionally, medical oncology and palliative care have been considered two distinct and separate disciplines, both as regards treatment objectives and delivery times. Palliative care in terminal stages, aimed exclusively at evaluating and improving quality of life, followed antitumor therapies, which concentrated solely on quantitative results (cure, prolongation of life, tumoral mass shrinkage). Over the years, more modern concepts have developed on the subject. Medical oncology, dealing with the skills and strategic co-ordination of oncologic interventions from primary prevention to terminal phases, should also include assessment and treatment of patients' subjective needs. Anticancer therapies should be evaluated in terms of both the quantitative and qualititative impact on patients' lives. Hence, the traditional view of palliative care has to be modified: it constitutes a philosophical and methodological approach to be adopted from the early phases of illness. It is not the evident cultural necessity of integrating medical oncology with palliative medicine that may be a matter of argument, but rather the organizational models needed to put this combined care into practice: should continuous care be guaranteed by a single figure, the medical oncologist, or rather by an interdisciplinary providers' team, including full-time doctors well-equipped for palliative care? In this paper the needs of cancer patients and the part that a complete oncologist should play to deal with such difficult and far-reaching problems are firstly described. Then, as mild provocation, data and critical considerations on the ever increasing needs of palliative care, the present shortcomings in quality of life and pain assessment and management by medical oncologists, and the uncertain efficacy of interventional programmes to change clinical practice are described. Finally, a model of therapeutic continuity is presented. which in our view is realistic and feasible: an Oncologic

  18. Establishment of the Asia Oncology Nursing Society (AONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Onishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, whenever an informal group of Asian oncology nurses gathered, they talked about their mutual desire to create an organization closer to their homes that would be similar to the European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS. They saw this as a means for more of their colleagues to learn about the latest in cancer nursing and to have a time and place to network among themselves. This message continued to gain strength whenever these nurses met at other international meetings such as the International Conference on Cancer Nursing (ICCN, the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC and the Oncology Nursing Society in US. A definite and planned step toward forming an Asian organization as the first meeting was taken on June 24 2011 when several Asian nurses were attending a MASCC meeting in Greece. The second meeting was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in conjunction with the 17 th ICCN meeting on September 10 2012, where the participants of the meeting included 21 oncology nurses from Asian countries. Finally, the first official meeting of the board directors from nine countries was held on November 21 2013 in Bangkok, Thailand. Now, and in the future, sharing and collaborating in the practice, education and research for oncology nursing in Asia is needed.

  19. Establishment of the Asia Oncology Nursing Society (AONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Onishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, whenever an informal group of Asian oncology nurses gathered, they talked about their mutual desire to create an organization closer to their homes that would be similar to the European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS. They saw this as a means for more of their colleagues to learn about the latest in cancer nursing and to have a time and place to network among themselves. This message continued to gain strength whenever these nurses met at other international meetings such as the International Conference on Cancer Nursing (ICCN, the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC and the Oncology Nursing Society in US. A definite and planned step toward forming an Asian organization as the first meeting was taken on June 24 2011 when several Asian nurses were attending a MASCC meeting in Greece. The second meeting was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in conjunction with the 17 th ICCN meeting on September 10 2012, where the participants of the meeting included 21 oncology nurses from Asian countries. Finally, the first official meeting of the board directors from nine countries was held on November 21 2013 in Bangkok, Thailand. Now, and in the future, sharing and collaborating in the practice, education and research for oncology nursing in Asia is needed.

  20. Geriatric oncology in the Netherlands: a survey of medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, J M; Smorenburg, C H; Schiphorst, A H; van Rixtel, B; Portielje, J E A; Hamaker, M E

    2014-11-01

    To identify ways to improve cancer care for older patients, we set out to examine how older patients in the Netherlands are currently being evaluated prior to oncological treatment and to explore the potential obstacles in the incorporation of a geriatric evaluation, using a web-based survey sent to Dutch medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists. The response rate was 34% (183 out of 544). Two-thirds of respondents reported that a geriatric evaluation was being used, although primarily on an ad hoc basis only. Most respondents expressed a desire for a routine evaluation or more intensive collaboration with the geriatrician and 86% of respondents who were not using a geriatric evaluation expressed their interest to do so. The most important obstacles were a lack of time or personnel and insufficient availability of a geriatrician to perform the assessment. Thus, over 30% of oncology professionals in the Netherlands express an interest in geriatric oncology. Important obstacles to a routine implementation of a geriatric evaluation are a lack of time, or insufficient availability of geriatricians; this could be overcome with policies that acknowledge that quality cancer care for older patients requires the investment of time and personnel.

  1. Tracking the 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium: bridging cancer biology to clinical gastrointestinal oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprile G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Aprile,1 Francesco Leone,2,3 Riccardo Giampieri,4 Mariaelena Casagrande,1 Donatella Marino,2,3 Luca Faloppi,4 Stefano Cascinu,4 Gianpiero Fasola,1 Mario Scartozzi5,6 1Department of Oncology, University and General Hospital, Udine, Italy; 2Medical Oncology Department, University of Turin, 3Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo, Turin, Italy; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; 5Medical Oncology Department, University of Cagliari, 6General Hospital, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: The 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium (San Francisco, CA, USA; January 15–17 is the world-class conference co-sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the American Gastroenterological Association Institute, and the Society of Surgical Oncology, in which the most innovative research results in digestive tract oncology are presented and discussed. In its twelfth edition, the meeting has provided new insights focusing on the underpinning biology and clinical management of gastrointestinal malignancies. More than 3,400 health care professionals gathered from all over the world to share their experiences on how to bridge the recent novelties in cancer biology with everyday medical practice. In this article, the authors report on the most significant advances, didactically moving on three different anatomic tracks: gastroesophageal malignancies, pancreatic and biliary cancers, and colorectal adenocarcinomas. Keywords: colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, target therapy, onartuzumab, AMG 337

  2. Communication, Documentation, and Training Standards in Pediatric Psychosocial Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Pelletier, Wendy; Bingen, Kristin

    2015-12-01

    As part of a larger effort to create standards for psychosocial care of children with cancer, we document consensus and evidence-based data on interprofessional communication, documentation, and training for professionals providing psycho-oncology services. Six databases were searched. Sixty-five articles and six guidelines and consensus-based documents were identified; 35 met inclusion criteria. Data support strong recommendations for standards of care in communication/collaboration, documentation of patient information, and training in pediatric psycho-oncology. These are areas where extensive research is unlikely to be conducted; however, professional expectations and qualifications may be further clarified and strengthened with time.

  3. Early phase Technology Assessment of nanotechnology in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retèl, Valesca P.; Hummel, Marjan J.M.; Harten, van Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    To perform early Technology Assessment (TA) of nanotechnology in oncology. The possibilities of nanotechnology for detection (imaging), diagnosis and treatment of cancer are subject of different research programs where major investments are concerned. As a range of bio- nanotechnologies is expected

  4. Radiation Oncology Physics and Medical Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Medical physics, an applied field of physics, is the applications of physics in medicine. Medical physicists are essential professionals in contemporary healthcare, contributing primarily to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases through numerous inventions, advances, and improvements in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Clinical service, research, and teaching by medical physicists benefits thousands of patients and other individuals every day. This talk will cover three main topics. First, exciting current research and development areas in the medical physics sub-specialty of radiation oncology physics will be described, including advanced oncology imaging for treatment simulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and biologically-optimized radiation treatment. Challenges in patient safety in high-technology radiation treatments will be briefly reviewed. Second, the educational path to becoming a medical physicist will be reviewed, including undergraduate foundations, graduate training, residency, board certification, and career opportunities. Third, I will introduce the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), which is the professional society that represents, advocates, and advances the field of medical physics (www.aapm.org).

  5. Pharmacological foundations of cardio-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minotti, Giorgio; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Menna, Pierantonio

    2010-07-01

    Anthracyclines and many other antitumor drugs induce cardiotoxicity that occurs "on treatment" or long after completing chemotherapy. Dose reductions limit the incidence of early cardiac events but not that of delayed sequelae, possibly indicating that any dose level of antitumor drugs would prime the heart to damage from sequential stressors. Drugs targeted at tumor-specific moieties raised hope for improving the cardiovascular safety of antitumor therapies; unfortunately, however, many such drugs proved unable to spare the heart, aggravated cardiotoxicity induced by anthracyclines, or were safe in selected patients of clinical trials but not in the general population. Cardio-oncology is the discipline aimed at monitoring the cardiovascular safety of antitumor therapies. Although popularly perceived as a clinical discipline that brings oncologists and cardiologists working together, cardio-oncology is in fact a pharmacology-oriented translational discipline. The cardiovascular performance of survivors of cancer will only improve if clinicians joined pharmacologists in the search for new predictive models of cardiotoxicity or mechanistic approaches to explain how a given drug might switch from causing systolic failure to inducing ischemia. The lifetime risk of cardiotoxicity from antitumor drugs needs to be reconciled with the identification of long-lasting pharmacological signatures that overlap with comorbidities. Research on targeted drugs should be reshaped to appreciate that the terminal ballistics of new "magic bullets" might involve cardiomyocytes as innocent bystanders. Finally, the concepts of prevention and treatment need to be tailored to the notion that late-onset cardiotoxicity builds on early asymptomatic cardiotoxicity. The heart of cardio-oncology rests with such pharmacological foundations. PMID:20335321

  6. Exploring targeted therapies in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mom, Constantijne Helene

    2007-01-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology is treatment directed at specific biological pathways and processes that play a critical role in carcinogenesis. Increased knowledge regarding the molecular changes underlying tumor progression and metastatis has resulted in the development of agents that are designed to

  7. Positron emission tomography and radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, PhD, Gary D.; Fox, MD, Peter; Phillips, MD, William T.

    2001-10-01

    Medical physics research is providing new avenues for addressing the fundamental problem of radiation therapy-how to provide a tumor-killing dose while reducing the dose to a non-lethal level for critical organs in adjacent portions of the patient anatomy. This talk reviews the revolutionary impact of Positron Emission Tomography on the practice of radiation oncology. The concepts of PET imaging and the development of "tumor" imaging methods using 18F-DG flouro-deoxyglucose are presented to provide the foundation for contemporary research and application to therapy. PET imaging influences radiation therapy decisions in multiple ways. Imaging of occult but viable tumor metastases eliminates misguided therapy attempts. The ability to distinguish viable tumor from scar tissue and necroses allows reduction of treatment portals and more selective treatments. Much research remains before the clinical benefits of these advances are fully realized.

  8. Contribution for Invitation for The Chinese-German Journal of Clinical Oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese-German Journal of Clinical Oncology isan international, professional, academic periodical on on-cology, co-edited by China and Germany. With the au-thors from around the world, especially from China, thejournal focuses on introducing clinical experience in diag-nosis and treatment and leading scientific research a-chievement in the tumor domain, in addition to reportingbasic theory research which help to teach the clinicalpractice of oncology and closely connect with the disci-pline. All manuscripts are published in English: the jour-nal is issued quarterly, with the International SerialStandard Number (ISSN) 1610-1979/CN/42-1654/R.

  9. Beyond the Standard Curriculum: A Review of Available Opportunities for Medical Students to Prepare for a Career in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review currently available opportunities for medical students to supplement their standard medical education to prepare for a career in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: Google and PubMed were used to identify existing clinical, health policy, and research programs for medical students in radiation oncology. In addition, results publicly available by the National Resident Matching Program were used to explore opportunities that successful radiation oncology applicants pursued during their medical education, including obtaining additional graduate degrees. Results: Medical students can pursue a wide variety of opportunities before entering radiation oncology. Several national specialty societies, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology and the Radiological Society of North America, offer summer internships for medical students interested in radiation oncology. In 2011, 30% of allopathic senior medical students in the United States who matched into radiation oncology had an additional graduate degree, including PhD, MPH, MBA, and MA degrees. Some medical schools are beginning to further integrate dedicated education in radiation oncology into the standard 4-year medical curriculum. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of available opportunities for medical students interested in radiation oncology. Early exposure to radiation oncology and additional educational training beyond the standard medical curriculum have the potential to create more successful radiation oncology applicants and practicing radiation oncologists while also promoting the growth of the field. We hope this review can serve as guide to radiation oncology applicants and mentors as well as encourage discussion regarding initiatives in radiation oncology opportunities for medical students

  10. Canadian oncology nurse work environments: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Debra; Conlon, Michael; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Olson, Karin; Cummings, Greta

    2012-03-01

    In the aftermath of healthcare restructuring, it is important to pay attention to nurses' perceptions of workplace and professional practice factors that attract nurses and influence their retention. Continuing constraints on cancer care systems make the issue of health human resources an ongoing priority. This paper presents the findings of a follow-up study of a cohort of Canadian oncology nurses that aimed to compare nurses' perceptions of their work environment, job satisfaction and retention over a two-year period. Participants of the follow-up survey represented 65% (397/615) of the initial cohort. Many similar perceptions about the work environment were found over two years; however, at follow-up a larger proportion of nurses reported an absence of enough RNs to provide quality care and a lack of support for innovative ideas. With respect to career status, only 6% (25/397) of the follow-up sample had left oncology nursing. However, the proportion of nurses declaring an intention to leave their current job increased from 6.4% (39/615) on the initial survey to 26% (102/397) on the follow-up survey. Findings suggest that decision-makers need to use both the growing body of workplace knowledge and the input from staff nurses to implement changes that positively influence nurse recruitment and retention. Future research should focus on the implementation and evaluation of strategies that address workplace issues such as nurse staffing adequacy, leadership and organizational commitment. PMID:22469763

  11. Publish, not perish: Introducing Experimental Hematology & Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zihai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a scientific discipline, medicine can only be advanced by experimentation. Experimentation could either validate or refute a hypothesis. Unfortunately, today's publication climate strongly favors publication of positive research findings, especially with clinical trials. Experimental Hematology & Oncology (eHO is a new open access online journal that emphasizes preclinical, patient-oriented and translational aspects of research. The journal differentiates from others in the field by making a deliberate effort in publishing clinical trials with "negative" results and basic science studies with provocative findings. The focus of the peer-review mechanism for eHO will be on the technical merit of the study and not on demanding a long list of additional experiments that hinders rapid information dissemination.

  12. Trait stacking for biotech crops: an essential consideration for agbiotech development projects for building trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of agricultural biotechnology humanitarian projects for food security in the last five years has been rapid in developing countries and is expected to rise sharply over the coming years. An extremely critical issue in these projects involves building trust with the community and farmers they aim to serve. For the first time, our social audit engagement with one of these initiatives, the Water Efficient Maize for Africa project, has revealed that a critical but unrecognized component of building trust with farmers involves publicly addressing the concerns surrounding stacked trait crops. As a result, we argue in this article that it is critical to actively anticipate the concerns that could be raised over trait stacking by incorporating them into global access plans of such initiatives early in order to facilitate adoption, provide the best value to the small-scale farmer and gain trust with the community whom these projects aim to serve. This perspective, based on an actual international social audit, should be of value to scientists, funders and partners involved in biotech development initiatives for food security.

  13. Report on the International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology (Rome, 12–14 March 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewer, Michael; Gianni, Luca; Pane, Fabrizio; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Steiner, Rudolf K; Wojnowski, Leszek; Yeh, Edward T; Carver, Joseph R; Lipshultz, Steven E; Minotti, Giorgio; Armstrong, Gregory T; Cardinale, Daniela; Colan, Steven D; Darby, Sarah C; Force, Thomas L; Kremer, Leontien CM; Lenihan, Daniel J; Sallan, Stephen E; Sawyer, Douglas B; Suter, Thomas M; Swain, Sandra M; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2014-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a relatively new discipline that focuses on the cardiovascular sequelae of anti-tumour drugs. As any other young adolescent discipline, cardio-oncology struggles to define its scientific boundaries and to identify best standards of care for cancer patients or survivors at risk of cardiovascular events. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was held in Rome, Italy, 12–14 March 2014, with the aim of illuminating controversial issues and unmet needs in modern cardio-oncology. This colloquium embraced contributions from different kind of disciplines (oncology and cardiology but also paediatrics, geriatrics, genetics, and translational research); in fact, cardio-oncology goes way beyond the merging of cardiology with oncology. Moreover, the colloquium programme did not review cardiovascular toxicity from one drug or the other, rather it looked at patients as we see them in their fight against cancer and eventually returning to everyday life. This represents the melting pot in which anti-cancer therapies, genetic backgrounds, and risk factors conspire in producing cardiovascular sequelae, and this calls for screening programmes and well-designed platforms of collaboration between one key professional figure and another. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was promoted by the Menarini International Foundation and co-chaired by Giorgio Minotti (Rome), Joseph R Carver (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States), and Steven E Lipshultz (Detroit, Michigan, United States). The programme was split into five sessions of broad investigational and clinical relevance (what is cardiotoxicity?, cardiotoxicity in children, adolescents, and young adults, cardiotoxicity in adults, cardiotoxicity in special populations, and the future of cardio-oncology). Here, the colloquium chairs and all the session chairs briefly summarised what was said at the colloquium. Topics and controversies were reported on behalf of all members of the working group

  14. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis.Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC and the International Patent Classification (IPC, respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012 and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012 was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones.The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Oncology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiological diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Pathology and morphology of pancreatic cancer; Staging and prognosis of pancreatic cancer; Biological and immunological markers in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer; Drug therapy of pancreatic cancer; Radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer; Selected studies on the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer; Clinical correlates and syndromes associated with pancreatic neoplasia

  16. Nuclear medical oncology; Nuklearmedizinische Onkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd J.; Buck, Andreas K.; Schwaiger, Markus (eds.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2007-07-01

    Modern nuclear oncology is based on molecular imaging techniques and radiotherapy. The book is aimed to integrate efficiently nuclear medical diagnostics and therapy into oncologic patient management. The book covers the following topics: Chapter 1: basics: instrumentation (SPECT, PET, PET/CT), digital image processing, radiopharmaceuticals, radiation protection, nuclear medical dosimetry, radiotherapy planning. Chapter 2: diagnostics: PET and PET/CT, skeleton metastases diagnostics, lymphoma diagnostics in case of mammary carcinomas and malign melanoma, MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidin) diagnostics. Chapter 3: therapy: Radiotherapy of thyroid carcinomas, radioimmunotherapy of malign melanomas and in haematology, MIBG therapy, radiotherapy of neuroendocrine tumors, radiotherapy of skeleton metastases, intercavitary and locoregional therapy, 32{sup 3}2 phosphor therapy of polycythaemia vera.

  17. Raman Spectroscopy for Clinical Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Fenn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death throughout the world. Advancements in early and improved diagnosis could help prevent a significant number of these deaths. Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique which has received considerable attention recently with regards to applications in clinical oncology. Raman spectroscopy has the potential not only to improve diagnosis of cancer but also to advance the treatment of cancer. A number of studies have investigated Raman spectroscopy for its potential to improve diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of cancers. In this paper the most recent advances in dispersive Raman spectroscopy, which have demonstrated promising leads to real world application for clinical oncology are reviewed. The application of Raman spectroscopy to breast, brain, skin, cervical, gastrointestinal, oral, and lung cancers is reviewed as well as a special focus on the data analysis techniques, which have been employed in the studies.

  18. PET/TAC in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From this presentation of PET-TAC in oncology the following advantages on the conventional PET are obtained: 1. More short study and stadium in one session. 2. It adds the information of both techniques. 3. Better localization of leisure: affected organ, stadium change (neck, mediastinum, abdomen). 4. Reduction of false positive (muscle, brown fat, atelectasis, pneumonias, intestine, urinary vials, etc.). 5. Reduction of negative false. 6. Reduction of not conclusive. 7. More understandable for other specialists. 8. Biopsies guide. 9. Planning radiotherapy

  19. Generalities of the oncological pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah María Regueira Betancourt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer pain can be caused by a malignant tumor, by the therapy used to treat it, or by both causes. It begins with an acute onset that goes towards healing or chronicity. Together with the manifestations of a chronic pain, acute episodes may appear. A bibliographic study was carried out on the oncological pain, using the resources available in the Infomed network, specifically Ebsco, The Cochrane Librery, PubMed, Hinari and SciELO, by means of which the following databases were accessed: MEDLINE, AcademicSearch Premier and MedicLatina. The presence of pain in an oncological process is variable and it depends on the type and extension of the disease, as well as on each person's own individual tolerance. The terminal intense oncological pain is a circumstance both foreseeable and necessarily avoidable. Its relief is a priority in the cancer program of the World Health Organization. To know the classification of pain, its causes, the assessment scales and the way in which it may be described provides a comprehensive treatment for cancer pain. It also helps to optimize the comprehensive care to the patients suffering from this condition and improve their quality of life.

  20. Advances in radiation oncology in new millennium in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seung Jae [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Charn Il [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    The objective of recent radiation therapy is to improve the quality of treatment and the after treatment quality of life. In Korea, sharing the same objective, significant advancement was made due to the gradual increase of patient number and rapid increase of treatment facilities. The advancement includes generalization of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), application of linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and furthermore, the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Authors in this paper prospectively review the followings: the advancement of radiation oncology in Korea, the recent status of four-dimensional radiation therapy. IMRT, the concept of the treatment with biological conformity, the trend of combined chemoradiotherapy, the importance of internet and radiation oncology information management system as influenced by the revolution of information technology, and finally the global trend of telemedicine in radiation oncology. Additionally, we suggest the methods to improve radiotherapy treatment, which include improvement of quality assurance (QA) measures by developing Koreanized QA protocol and system, regional study about clinical protocol development for phase three clinical trial, suggestion of unified treatment protocol and guideline by academic or research societies, domestic generation of treatment equipment's or system, establishment of nationwide data base of radiation-oncology-related information, and finally pattems-of-care study about major cancers.

  1. Reorganisation of Oncologic Care in Greece: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouilides Christos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is becoming a major public health issue as patients enjoy longer survivals than ever before due to the introduction innovative but expensive drugs in the clinic. In addition, the ageing of the population in Greece is expected to increase the absolute incidence of cancer. The National Health System should rapidly and efficiently adapt to the new challenges, including increased pharmaceutical costs. Resources ought to be allocated rationally and efficiently while maintaining adequate coverage for the insured population. Economising due to large-scale operations should be pursued by the governmental single payor (EOPYY, so that affordable coverage remains feasible. Establishment of mechanisms to deal with new and very costly drugs should be put in place. The major changes in anchor oncologic hospitals are needed in order to play a role as regional leaders in oncologic care, including merging of similar divisions, subspecialisation of services and promotion of clinical research. These major centres could coordinate a host of satellite oncology services in other urban hospitals and in the provinces. In addition, joint operations in training and patient care should be pursued with major private centres, without mutual mistrust or obsolete inflexibilities. The current financial crisis represents an excellent opportunity for revisioning and restructuring oncologic care in Greece, taking into account the societal needs and based on flexibility and efficiency.

  2. Spirituality as experienced by Muslim oncology nurses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorami Markani, Abdolah; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Khodayari Fard, Mohammad

    Spirituality, as an essential part of holistic care, is concerned with faith and meaning, and is usually conceptualised as a 'higher' experience or a transcendence of oneself. A resurgence of interest in this area is evident in post modern culture because of the effects that spirituality and religious beliefS may have on health. Up until the last two decades, spirituality and spiritual care, although vital, were invisible aspects of nursing. However, now that these concepts have made their way into the mainstream, literature in this area has burgeoned. In addition, modern nursing grew out of spiritual roots, and spiritual care is a component of holistic care. In the Islamic Republic of Iran,little information exists documenting the expressed spirituality of nurses in general and of oncology nurses in particular. This article presents spirituality as it is experienced by Muslim oncology nurses.The investigation involved a qualitative analysis of the spirituality of 24 participants, using semi-structured interviews. Participants were oncology nurses at 12 hospitals in two educational universities of medical sciences in Tehran. The main categories of spirituality as experienced by oncology nurses included religious and existential dimensions in an Iranian Muslim context. Findings are consistent with the holistic view of Islam, that considers all dimensions of personhood simultaneously. This study is important to transcultural nursing because of the benefits of increasing nursing knowledge through research that examines nurses' spirituality in diverse cultures.

  3. Improving oncology nurses' communication skills for difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Linda; Weinstein, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    When oncology nurses have strong communication skills, they play a pivotal role in influencing patient satisfaction, adherence to plans of care, and overall clinical outcomes. However, research studies indicate that nurses tend to keep communication with patients and families at a superficial, nontherapeutic level. Processes for teaching goals-of-care communication skills and for implementing skills into clinical practice are not clearly defined. Nurses at a large comprehensive cancer center recognized the need for help with this skill set and sought out communication experts to assist in providing the needed education. An educational project was developed to improve therapeutic communication skills in oncology nurses during goals-of-care discussions and giving bad news. The program was tailored to nurses and social workers providing care to patients in a busy, urban, academic, outpatient oncology setting. Program topics included exploring the patient's world, eliciting hopes and concerns, and dealing with conflict about goals. Sharing and discussing specific difficult questions and scenarios were encouraged throughout the program. The program was well attended and well received by oncology nurses and social workers. Participants expressed interest in the continuation of communication programs to further enhance skills.

  4. Project reconversion Service Hospital Radiation Oncology Clinics-Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The Health Sector operates within the framework of Social Policy and it is therefore one of the ways of distribution of public benefit, like Housing, Education and Social Security. While public spending on health has grown in recent years, its distribution has been uneven and the sector faces funding and management problems. The Service Hospital Radiation Oncology has reduced its health care liavility , lack technological development and unsufficient human resources and training. Aim: developing an inclusive reform bill Service Hospital Radiation Oncology .Material and Methods: This project tends to form a network institutional, introducing concepts of evidence-based medicine, risk models, cost analysis, coding systems, system implementation of quality management (ISO-9000 Standards). Proposes redefining radiotherapy centers and their potential participation in training resource development goals humanos.Promueve scientific research of national interest. Separate strictly administrative function, management and teaching. The project takes into account the characteristics of demand, the need to order it and organize around her, institutional network system and within the Hospital das Clinicas own related services related to Service Hospital Radiation Oncology , Encourages freedom of choice, and confers greater equity in care. The project would managed by the Hospital Clínicas. Conclusions: We believe this proposal identifies problems and opportunities, Service Hospital Radiation Oncology proposes the development of institutional network under one management model

  5. Application of nursing clinical thinking in oncology patients:a qualitative research%护理临床思维应用于肿瘤患者护理过程的质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关晨阳; 高文; 廖海涛; 韦义萍

    2016-01-01

    目的:深入了解护理人员护理肿瘤患者时临床思维的应用情况。方法采用质性研究中的现象学研究方法,对11名某肿瘤医院护理工作者进行半结构式访谈,并采用 Colaizzi 7步分析法对资料进行分析。结果得到6个主题:动态地评估患者、密切地观察病情、预防潜在的风险、高效的医护合作、灵活的健康宣教、注重心理护理。结论护理临床思维贯穿于护理人员的工作过程,但仍需要给予系统的培训和学习。%Objective To analyse the application status of clinical thinking in the course of cancer patients nursing.Methods The qualitative phenomenological study was adopted in the study.Using semi-structural interview syllabus,this research conducted in-depth interview among eleven nurses from tumor hospital and analyzed data by Colaizzi 7 methods.Results Six themes of the application of clinical thinking were obtained:dynamic assessment,meticulous observation,prophylaxis of potential risk,efficient doctor-nurse cooperation,flexible health education,and emphasize on the psychological care.Conclusions The clinical thinking penetrate the working process of oncology nurses,but these nurses still need systematic training and learning.

  6. 76 FR 58520 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee...

  7. Future of clinical genomics in pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeway, Katherine A; Place, Andrew E; Kieran, Mark W; Harris, Marian H

    2013-05-20

    The somatic genomic alterations in pediatric cancers to some extent overlap with those seen in adult cancers, but the exact distribution throughout the genome and the types and frequency of alterations differ. The ultimate goal of genomic research in children, as with adults, is translation to the clinic to achieve more accurate diagnosis, more precise risk stratification, and more effective, less toxic therapy. The genomic features of pediatric malignancies and pediatric-specific issues in clinical investigation may make translating genomic discoveries to the clinic more difficult. However, through large-scale molecular profiling of pediatric tumors, continued coordinated efforts to evaluate novel therapies in the pediatric population, thoughtful phase II and III trial design, and continued drug development, genomically based therapies will become more common in the pediatric oncology clinic in the future.

  8. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is increasingly prevalent in our society. There is a life-time risk that 1 in 3 Australian men and 1 in 4 Australian women will get cancer before the age of 75 years. Overall, 27% of the deaths in NSW are currently related to cancer. The common cancers for men are prostate, lung, melanoma, colon, rectum and bladder. For women the common cancers are breast, colon, melanoma, lung and unknown primary. However, overall lung cancer remains the major cause of cancer deaths (20%) followed by colorectal (13%), unknown site (8%), breast and prostate. Breast and lung cancer are the major causes of death in women. Recent information on 5 year survivals reveal good 5 year survival rates for breast (78.6%), prostate (72.4%) and melanoma (92%), while some tumours such as lung cancer (10.7%) have poor survival. Colon cancer has intermediate survival (57.1%). Projections for cancer incidence suggests rates of cancer will increase for colorectal cancer, melanoma, lung cancer in females but decrease for breast, lung in males and prostate cancer. Major strategic directions in cancer research are understanding carcinogenesis, identification of high risk groups, screening and early detection, chemo-prevention, new cancer therapies, combined modality therapy and quality of life issues. Nuclear medicine will play an important part in many of these areas

  9. Corporate culture assessments in integrative oncology: a qualitative case study of two integrative oncology centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittring, Nadine; Pérard, Marion; Witt, Claudia M

    2013-01-01

    The offer of "integrative oncology" is one option for clinics to provide safe and evidence-based complementary medicine treatments to cancer patients. As known from merger theories, corporate culture and integration models have a strong influence on the success of such integration. To identify relevant corporate culture aspects that might influence the success in two highly visible integrative oncology clinics, we interviewed physicians, nurses, practitioners, and managers. All interviews (11 in a German breast cancer clinic and 9 in an integrative medicine cancer service in the USA) were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed with content analysis. According to the theoretical framework of mergers, each clinic selected a different integration type ("best of both worlds" and "linking"). Nonetheless, each developed a similar corporate culture that has a strong focus on research and safe and evidence-based treatments, and fosters a holistic and patient-centered approach. Structured communication within the team and with other departments had high relevance. Research was highlighted as a way to open doors and to facilitate a more general acceptance within the hospital. Conventional physicians felt unburdened by the provision of integrative medicine service but also saw problems in the time required for scheduled treatments, which often resulted in long waiting lists.

  10. Awareness, time and dimensions and their link to Medical Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, Dietmar

    2015-07-01

    The achievements of medical physics research and developments to beam delivery imaging techniques, image processing and analysis, treatment planning and efforts for treatment individualization has enormously contributed to the unprecedented sophistication of radiation oncology. In order to bring personalized radiation oncology to the next level the interdisciplinary cooperation across fields or discipline, respectively, and the mutual scientific and clinical understanding needs to evolve to a new dimension as well.

  11. Lack of timely accrual information in oncology clinical trials: a cross-sectional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Aaron P.; Bradford R Hirsch; Abernethy, Amy P

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor accrual is a significant barrier to the successful completion of oncology clinical trials; half of all phase 3 oncology trials close due to insufficient accrual. Timely access to accrual data fosters an understanding of successful trial design and can be used to inform the design of new clinical trials prospectively. Accrual statistics are available within research networks, such as the cancer cooperative groups, but comprehensive data reflecting the overall portfolio of cance...

  12. Patterns of Radiation Therapy Practice for Patients Treated for Intact Cervical Cancer in 2005 to 2007: A Quality Research in Radiation Oncology Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess practice patterns and compliance with clinical performance measures for radiation therapy (RT) for patients with intact carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Trained research associates reviewed the records of 261 randomly selected patients who received RT for cervix carcinoma between 2005 and 2007 from 45 facilities randomly selected after stratification by practice type. National estimates of patient and treatment characteristics were calculated from survey data using SUDAAN statistical software. Results: From the survey data, we estimated that only 8% of US facilities treated on average more than 3 eligible patients per year. No small or medium nonacademic facilities in the survey treated more than 3 eligible patients per year. Approximately 65.5% of patients began treatment in a facility that treated 3 or fewer eligible patients per year. Although 87.5% of patients had brachytherapy as part of their treatment, the proportion treated with external beam RT only was about double that estimated from the 1996 to 1999 survey. The use of high-dose-rate brachytherapy sharply increased, particularly in small nonacademic facilities. Overall, patients treated in nonacademic facilities were more likely to have incomplete or protracted treatment; 43% of patients treated in small nonacademic facilities did not have treatment completed within 10 weeks. Also, patients treated in facilities that treated 3 or fewer eligible patients per year were significantly less likely to receive concurrent chemotherapy than were patients treated in other facilities. Conclusion: Survey results indicate a disturbingly high rate of noncompliance with established criteria for high-quality care of patients with cervical cancer. Noncompliance rates are particularly high in nonacademic facilities, especially those that treat relatively few patients with intact cervical cancer

  13. 70(th)anniversary of the lviv scientific school of oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilynsky, B T; Shparyk, Ya V; Mryglotsky, M M; Lukavetskyy, N O; Volod'ko, N A; Litvinyak, R I

    2016-03-01

    Contemporary development of scientific thought is fostered not by separate people but is a purposeful activity of a group of like-minded people armed with progressive ideas and modern technical equipment. Such schools appeared and work actively in the majo-rity of research and educational establishments, clinics, and universities. The Lviv school established in 1945 by Professor H.P. Kovtunovych and developed by Professor A.I. Hnatyshak and his disciples can serve as an example of a successful school of oncology that continues its activity and yields scientific results. This school appeared not out of the thin air. Medieval Lviv could boast of the first university on the territory of the present-day Ukraine. Many discoveries and endeavors that made a beneficial impact on the development of medicine in Eastern Europe were made in this city. For historical reasons, the city of Lviv used to belong to different state formations (Austria-Hungary, Poland, the USSR; now it is a part of Ukraine), which could not but reflect on the staffing of doctor-researchers. This process acquired a special intensity in 1939-1945 when the research staff of the university changed substantially. Then, in 1945, H.P. Kovtunovych, the disciple of the prominent oncologist N.N. Petrov, came to Lviv and brought the ideas of St.-Petersburg onco-logy to the Lviv ground. The Lviv school was influenced by the two times Nobel Prize winner Marie Skłodowska Curie, who facilitated the initiation of oncological radiology in Lviv. The article contains data on research done by the disciples of Professors H.P. Kovtunovych and A.I. Hnatyshak. The first ever teaching chair of oncology in the USSR was founded in Lviv (1966), as well as the first Ukrainian hospice - an institution for palliative care for the oncological patients. The Lviv oncology center is one of the biggest and best-equipped oncology centers in Ukraine. An organic combination of theory and clinical practice has always been the guiding

  14. 7 Leadership Blind Spots: Adult Development, Emotional Intelligence, and Leadership Effectiveness Among Biotech R&D Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Shiner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In this multiple-case study of 6 mid-level leaders working in biotech R&D--an archetype of a complex, uncertain, turbulent, and, multidisciplinary 21st-Century workplace--I explore the importance and interaction of mental complexity (MC), an aspect of adult development, and emotional intelligence (EI) for leadership effectiveness (LE). MC concerns the sophistication of the mindsets we use to construct stories for ourselves about the meaning of things. EI refers to one’s ability to manage one’...

  15. Explaining ICT Infrastructure and E-Commerce Uses and Benefits in Industrial Clusters-Evidence from a Biotech Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Steinfield, Charles

    2006-01-01

    industrial cluster might utilize and derive benefit from a public, broadband ICT infrastructure, particularly in support of e-commerce applications. A case study of a successful biotech cluster in Denamrk and Sweden-The Medicon Valley-provides a preliminary test of these expectations. Distinctions in uses...... and benefits based upon firm size are considered. A key finding is that small firms that would not otherwise be expected to gain from global e-commerce can rely on the cluster "brand" to enable trade with unknown and distant partners....

  16. Explaining ICT Infrastructure and E-Commerce Uses and Benefits in Industrial Clusters-Evidence from a Biotech Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Steinfield, Charles

    2006-01-01

    in an industrial cluster might utilize and derive benefit from a public, broadband ICT infrastructure, particularly in support of e-commerce applications. A case study of a successful biotech cluster in Denamrk and Sweden-The Medicon Valley-provides a preliminary test of these expectations. Distinctions in uses...... and benefits based upon firm size are considered. A key finding is that small firms that would not otherwise be expected to gain from global e-commerce can rely on the cluster "brand" to enable trade with unknown and distant partners....

  17. 《科学新闻》携手“科学网”亮相BIOTECH CHINA2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    6月1日,“中国国际生物技术和仪器设备博览会”(BIOTECH CHINA2009)暨“上海国际生物技术与医药研讨会”(BIO—FOURM)在上海国际展览中心隆重开幕,《科学新闻》杂志携手“科学网”共同参加了这一生物技术界的集会。

  18. High Added Value - but Many Stumbling Blocks along the Way NTN Biotech Identifies where the Shoe Pinches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2016-01-01

    The year 1958, when DNA was first made in a test tube, marked the birth of modern biotechnology. DNA has now developed into an important technology that makes a key contribution in various sectors such as agriculture, environment and cleansing, and it has triggered a veritable boom in medicine. Today, biologics account for more than 60% of newly approved drugs. They are efficient, save time and money and have few or minimal side effects, fuelling the appetite of big pharma to take over biotech companies. Where will the journey lead?

  19. Introduction to veterinary clinical oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. New Technologies in Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Wolfgang; Bortfeld, Thomas; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in radiation oncology, many of which have originated from physics and engineering sciences. After an introductory section on basic aspects of 3D medical imaging, the role of 3D imaging in the context of radiotherapy is explored in a series of chapters on the various modern imaging techniques. A further major section addresses 3D treatment planning for conformal radiotherapy, with consideration of both external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Subsequently the modern techniques of 3D conformal radiotherapy are described, including stereotactic radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided and adaptive radiotherapy, and radiotherapy with charged particles.

  1. Judicial activism, the Biotech Directive and its institutional implications – Is the Court acting as a legislator or a court when defining the ‘human embryo’?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeh, Andrea Beata

    2015-01-01

    The Court of Justice of the European Union (Court) delivered a preliminary ruling in 2011 in the case of Oliver Brüstle v Greenpeace on the interpretation of Article 6(2) of the Biotech Directive and thereby established an autonomous concept of the term ‘human embryo’. The Brüstle decision raises...... for it to be regarded as a “human embryo”.’ This contribution discusses the two judgments both in relation to the role of the EU institutions and the potential effects of the judgments on biotech inventions, in particular on medical innovation...

  2. ESTRO educational activities in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Enormous progress has been made in the field of radiotherapy over the last years. Clinical science is changing rapidly from a 'school-centred' to an evidence based approach. Numerous scientific advances in medical physics and translational research made it possible to implement new technologies for treatment planning into clinical practice Unprecedented developments in the field of biology and biotechnology are dramatically changing our understanding of malignant disease. This will likely change major aspects of our approach to cancer treatment in the next years. Clinical research and evidence based approaches have increased significantly in radiation oncology. It is one of the most important challenges for the future to integrate these novel developments into optimized comprehensive radiotherapy strategies. State of the art basic education and training of professionals and continuous professional education are crucial for delivery of optimal quality care to cancer patients as well as for continuous scientific and technological progress in radiation oncology. Throughout its history during more than 20 years the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) has seen it as a most important task to provide high quality teaching activities to its members. In 1985 ESTRO organized its first course (Physics for Clinical Radiotherapy). Over the years, the society developed more courses and in 2005 the 'European School of Radiotherapy' was created, offering a variety of modular basic courses, advanced teaching courses and multidisciplinary courses, including other cancer treatments such as surgery and medical oncology. In 2007 ESTRO will organize 15 different courses, of which a number will be duplicated in Central Europe and outside Europe. This gradual expansion has been a step by step process driven by the developments in the field and the needs of the members of the society, mainly by activities of individuals and groups within the bodies of

  3. Art Therapy with an Oncology Care Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainis, Nancy A.

    2005-01-01

    Oncology nurses are particularly vulnerable to "burnout" syndrome due to the intensity of their work and the ongoing losses they experience while providing oncology care to their patients. High levels of stress in the workplace left untended lead to high job turnover, poor productivity, and diminished quality of care for patients. Attention to…

  4. Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Barbara A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences is described, along with student reactions to the program. The summer elective program involves cancer lectures (one week) and clinical exposure (nine weeks) in medical, surgical, and pediatric oncology services, as well as self-directed learning…

  5. Nursing 436A: Pediatric Oncology for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Cynthia L.

    A description is provided of "Pediatric Oncology for Nurses," the first in a series of three courses offered to fourth-year nursing students in pediatric oncology. The first section provides a course overview, discusses time assignments, and describes the target student population. Next, a glossary of terms, and lists of course goals, long-range…

  6. Report from the OECI Oncology Days 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harten, van W.H.; Stanta, G.; Bussolati, G.; Riegman, P.; Hoefler, G.; Becker, K.F.; Folprecht, G.; Truini, M.; Haybaeck, J.; Buiga, R.; Dono, M.; Bagg, A.; Lopez Guerrero, J.A.; Zupo, S.; Lemare, F.; Lorenzo, de F.; Goedbloed, N.; Razavi, D.; Lovey, J.; Cadariu, P.A.; Rollandi, G.A.; Paparo, F.; Pierotti, M.; Ciuleanu, T.; de Paoli, P.; Weiner, G.; Saghatchian, M.; Lombardo, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 OECI Oncology Days was held at the ‘Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta’ Oncology Institute in Cluj, Romania, from 12 to 13 June. The focus of this year’s gathering was on developments in personalised medicine and other treatment advances which have made the cost of cancer care too high for many region

  7. Perceptions of Oncology as a Medical Specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics and prestige associated with oncology and assessed shifts in medical students' perceptions as a result of participation in an oncology course are explored. Respondents were asked to rate the prestige of eight specialities and asked to select characteristics "that best describe each type of specialist." (MLW)

  8. Organisational design for an integrated oncological department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiss-de Haas, Ch.L.; Falkmann, H.; Douma, J.; Van Gassel, J.G.; Peters, W.G.; Van Mierlo, R.; Van Turnhout, J.M.; Verhagen, C.A.H.H.V.M.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The outcomes of a Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat (SWOT) analysis of three Integrated Oncological Departments were compared with their present situation three years later to define factors that can influence a successful implementation and development of an Integrated Oncolog

  9. Gynecologic oncology patients' satisfaction and symptom severity during palliative chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons Heidi E; Reidy Anne; Hutchins Jessica R; von Gruenigen Vivian E; Daly Barbara J; Eldermire Elisa M; Fusco Nancy L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Research on quality and satisfaction with care during palliative chemotherapy in oncology patients has been limited. The objective was to assess the association between patient's satisfaction with care and symptom severity and to evaluate test-retest of a satisfaction survey in this study population. Methods A prospective cohort of patients with recurrent gynecologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy were enrolled after a diagnosis of recurrent cancer. Patients completed...

  10. The Use of Healing Touch in Integrative Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Laura K.; Freel, Mildred I.; Haylock, Pam J.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of complementary therapies by cancer patients has become so prevalent that nurses working in oncology are finding it necessary to understand these therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. The integrative use of the biofield therapy Healing Touch (HT) in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages 1B1 to IVA) during a recent research study is described. Findings indicated effects of HT on the immune response and on depression, in...

  11. New science-based endpoints to accelerate oncology drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloff, Gary J; Sigman, Caroline C

    2005-03-01

    Although several new oncology drugs have reached the market, more than 80% of drugs for all indications entering clinical development do not get marketing approval, with many failing late in development often in Phase III trials, because of unexpected safety issues or difficulty determining efficacy, including confounded outcomes. These factors contribute to the high costs of oncology drug development and clearly show the need for faster, more cost-effective strategies for evaluating oncology drugs and better definition of patients who will benefit from treatment. Remarkable advances in the understanding of neoplastic progression at the cellular and molecular levels have spurred the discovery of molecularly targeted drugs. This progress along with advances in imaging and bioassay technologies are the basis for describing and evaluating new biomarker endpoints as well as for defining other biomarkers for identifying patient populations, potential toxicity, and providing evidence of drug effect and efficacy. Definitions and classifications of these biomarkers for use in oncology drug development are presented in this paper. Science-based and practical criteria for validating biomarkers have been developed including considerations of mechanistic plausibility, available methods and technology, and clinical feasibility. New promising tools for measuring biomarkers have also been developed and are based on genomics and proteomics, direct visualisation by microscopy (e.g., confocal microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis of cellular features), nanotechnologies, and direct and remote imaging (e.g., fluorescence endoscopy and anatomical, functional and molecular imaging techniques). The identification and evaluation of potential surrogate endpoints and other biomarkers require access to and analysis of large amounts of data, new technologies and extensive research resources. Further, there is a requirement for a convergence of research, regulatory and drug developer

  12. Decision making in surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B; Green, J S A; Vincent, C; Sevdalis, N

    2011-09-01

    Decisions in surgical oncology are increasingly being made by multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs). Although MDTs have been widely accepted as the preferred model for cancer service delivery, the process of decision making has not been well described and there is little evidence pointing to the ideal structure of an MDT. Performance in surgery has been shown to depend on non-technical skills, such as decision making, as well as patient factors and the technical skills of the healthcare team. Application of this systems approach to MDT working allows the identification of factors that affect the quality of decision making for cancer patients. In this article we review the literature on decision making in surgical oncology and by drawing from the systems approach to surgical performance we provide a framework for understanding the process of decision making in MDTs. Technical factors that affect decision making include the information about patients, robust ICT and video-conferencing equipment, a minimum dataset with expert review of radiological and pathological information, implementation and recording of the MDTs decision. Non-technical factors with an impact on decision making include attendance of team members at meetings, leadership, teamwork, open discussion, consensus on decisions and communication with patients and primary care. Optimising these factors will strengthen the decision making process and raise the quality of care for cancer patients.

  13. A Primer on Health Economic Evaluations in Thoracic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Atherly, Adam J; Bocsi, Gregary T; Camidge, D Ross

    2016-08-01

    There is growing interest for economic evaluation in oncology to illustrate the value of multiple new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. As these analyses have started to move from specialist publications into mainstream medical literature, the wider medical audience consuming this information may need additional education to evaluate it appropriately. Here we review standard practices in economic evaluation, illustrating the different methods with thoracic oncology examples where possible. When interpreting and conducting health economic studies, it is important to appraise the method, perspective, time horizon, modeling technique, discount rate, and sensitivity analysis. Guidance on how to do this is provided. To provide a method to evaluate this literature, a literature search was conducted in spring 2015 to identify economic evaluations published in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology. Articles were reviewed for their study design, and areas for improvement were noted. Suggested improvements include using more rigorous sensitivity analyses, adopting a standard approach to reporting results, and conducting complete economic evaluations. Researchers should design high-quality studies to ensure the validity of the results, and consumers of this research should interpret these studies critically on the basis of a full understanding of the methodologies used before considering any of the conclusions. As advancements occur on both the research and consumer sides, this literature can be further developed to promote the best use of resources for this field.

  14. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  15. When subatomic physics research meets clinical oncology

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    New but costly forms of hadron therapy to treat certain cancers raise important questions about how much health systems can afford to pay, but for some cancers, including many child cancers, they are among the most promising treatments we have. Gary Humphreys reports.

  16. [A computerized database for managing otorhinolaryngologic oncology patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, E; Lanza, L; Castelli, A; Benazzo, M; Tinelli, C

    1998-06-01

    In recent years the management and interdisciplinary treatment of oncological patients has become extremely complex due to the progress made in diagnosis and therapy. As a result, the knowledge required to treat patients can no longer be simply memorized or manually filed. Computer technology provides the ideal instrument for organizing, saving and analyzing data from head and neck tumor patients. The authors have prepared a computerized database to meet the following needs: ease of use, even for non computer savvy users; minimal ambiguity for data entry; use for both clinical and scientific purposes; possibility to create a network with similar database at other Centers; possibility to expand to include image management. The archive is based on a personal computer with an INTEL 80486 microprocessor, 40 Mb RAM, DOS 6.0. and Windows 3.1. The software includes four main routines: a) formulation and management of tables where oncological data are gathered; b) entry and management of patient-related clinical data; c) statistical processing for epidemiological and oncological research and; d) management of basic computer services. In clinical practice the database allows the following: a) preparation of a monthly chart of check-ups, b) rapid tracking of patients lost to followup, c) printout of a summary of the clinical history of each patient at the time of check-up and rapid updating at the end of the examination, d) automatic production of forms such as discharge letters and reports to be shared with related services (i.e. medical oncology, radiotherapy). In addition, the database is a powerful, versatile research tool which can promptly provide all sorts of oncological data and can automatically prepare tables, diagrams, correlations, survival curves. The system was developed from 1993 to 1995 and has been operative, with a few minor modifications and updates, since 1995. Today the database contains more than 1200 oncological cases and the system is used daily by

  17. Plant Research Department annual report 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossmann, J.; Jakobsen, Iver; Nielsen, K.K.;

    2004-01-01

    In 2003 the Plant Research Department (PRD) at Risø National Laboratory was involved in establishing the consortium Plant Biotech Denmark, which is unifying most of the Danish Plant Biotechnology activities. Within the consortium, PRD has the uniqueopportunity to be the only life science department...

  18. Crowdfunding drug development: the state of play in oncology and rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojlovic, Nick; Lynd, Larry D

    2014-11-01

    In this article, we present descriptive data on 125 crowdfunding campaigns aimed at financing research in oncology (including basic research, drug discovery, and clinical trials). We also describe five campaigns that have succeeded in raising substantial funds to support the development of treatments for ultrarare diseases. The data suggest that crowdfunding is a viable approach to supporting early proof-of-concept research that could allow researchers in oncology and rare diseases to succeed in traditional grant competitions or to attract private investment. The data also suggest that such an approach could become a valuable additional source of funding for early-stage innovators in the drug development arena.

  19. Crowdfunding drug development: the state of play in oncology and rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojlovic, Nick; Lynd, Larry D

    2014-11-01

    In this article, we present descriptive data on 125 crowdfunding campaigns aimed at financing research in oncology (including basic research, drug discovery, and clinical trials). We also describe five campaigns that have succeeded in raising substantial funds to support the development of treatments for ultrarare diseases. The data suggest that crowdfunding is a viable approach to supporting early proof-of-concept research that could allow researchers in oncology and rare diseases to succeed in traditional grant competitions or to attract private investment. The data also suggest that such an approach could become a valuable additional source of funding for early-stage innovators in the drug development arena. PMID:24973645

  20. Predictive In Vivo Models for Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Diana; Rolff, Jana; Hoffmann, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Experimental oncology research and preclinical drug development both substantially require specific, clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo tumor models. The increasing knowledge about the heterogeneity of cancer requested a substantial restructuring of the test systems for the different stages of development. To be able to cope with the complexity of the disease, larger panels of patient-derived tumor models have to be implemented and extensively characterized. Together with individual genetically engineered tumor models and supported by core functions for expression profiling and data analysis, an integrated discovery process has been generated for predictive and personalized drug development.Improved “humanized” mouse models should help to overcome current limitations given by xenogeneic barrier between humans and mice. Establishment of a functional human immune system and a corresponding human microenvironment in laboratory animals will strongly support further research.Drug discovery, systems biology, and translational research are moving closer together to address all the new hallmarks of cancer, increase the success rate of drug development, and increase the predictive value of preclinical models.

  1. Drug repurposing in oncology--patient and health systems opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Francesco; Sukhatme, Vikas P; Bouche, Gauthier

    2015-12-01

    In most countries, healthcare service budgets are not likely to support the current explosion in the cost of new oncology drugs. Repurposing the large arsenal of approved, non-anticancer drugs is an attractive strategy to offer more-effective options to patients with cancer, and has the substantial advantages of cheaper, faster and safer preclinical and clinical validation protocols. The potential benefits are so relevant that funding of academically and/or independently driven preclinical and clinical research programmes should be considered at both national and international levels. To date, successes in oncology drug repurposing have been limited, despite strong evidence supporting the use of many different drugs. A lack of financial incentives for drug developers and limited drug development experience within the non-profit sector are key reasons for this lack of success. We discuss these issues and offer solutions to finally seize this opportunity in the interest of patients and societies, globally. PMID:26483297

  2. The 100 most-cited articles in spinal oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Benvenutti-Regato, Mario; Caro-Osorio, Enrique

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors' objective was to identify the 100 most-cited research articles in the field of spinal oncology. METHODS The Thomson Reuters Web of Science service was queried for the years 1864-2015 without language restrictions. Articles were sorted in descending order of the number of times they were cited by other studies, and all titles and abstracts were screened to identify the research areas of the top 100 articles. Levels of evidence were assigned on the basis of the North American Spine Society criteria. RESULTS The authors identified the 100 most-cited articles in spinal oncology, which collectively had been cited 20,771 times at the time of this writing. The oldest article on this top 100 list had been published in 1931, and the most recent in 2008; the most prolific decade was the 1990s, with 34 articles on this list having been published during that period. There were 4 studies with Level I evidence, 3 with Level II evidence, 9 with Level III evidence, 70 with Level IV evidence, and 2 with Level V evidence; levels of evidence were not assigned to 12 studies because they were not on therapeutic, prognostic, or diagnostic topics. Thirty-one unique journals contributed to the 100 articles, with the Journal of Neurosurgery contributing most of the articles (n = 25). The specialties covered included neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, neurology, radiation oncology, and pathology. Sixty-seven articles reported clinical outcomes. The most common country of article origin was the United States (n = 62), followed by Canada (n = 8) and France (n = 7). The most common topics were spinal metastases (n = 35), intramedullary tumors (n = 18), chordoma (n = 17), intradural tumors (n = 7), vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty (n = 7), primary bone tumors (n = 6), and others (n = 10). One researcher had authored 6 studies on the top 100 list, and 7 authors had 3 studies each on this list. CONCLUSIONS This study identified the 100 most-cited research articles in the area of

  3. Pharmacy Instruction in Medical Oncology: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cersosimo, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey concerning oncology instruction in pharmacy schools found it taught primarily as part of a course in medicinal chemistry/pharmacology or therapeutics. Twenty-one schools offer an oncology course, with others planning them. Oncology clerkships are currently available in 42 schools. Increased emphasis on oncology instruction is encouraged.…

  4. The present status of commercialized and developed biotech (GM) crops, results of evaluation of plum 'HoneySweet" for resistance to plum pox virus in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercialization of biotech (GM) crops started in 1996. A significant increase of 9 million hectars was realized in 1996-2009. In the years 2010-2011, it was already 12 million hectars (8 percent of total crop area). 16.7 million farmers in 29 countries planted 160 million hectars of GM crops in...

  5. Supportive care in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation therapist, concerned with the disease process and all the technical intricacies of treatment, has usually not been involved in managing the supportive aspects of caring for the patient. Yet, of the team of medical specialists and allied health personnel required in oncology, the radiation therapist is the one most responsible for overseeing the total care of the cancer patient. At times this might include emotional support, prevention and correction of tissue dysfunction, augmentation of nutrition, metabolic and electrolyte regulation, rehabilitation, and vocational support. This chapter is a brief overview of a considerable volume of literature that has occupied the interest of a rather small group of physicians, nutritionists, and psychologists. The discussion highlights the special management problems of the normal-tissue effects of radiation, the related nutritional aspects of cancer care, and certain emotional and pathologic considerations

  6. PET-Based Thoracic Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Charles B; Houshmand, Sina; Kalbasi, Anusha; Salavati, Ali; Alavi, Abass

    2016-07-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET is increasingly being integrated into multiple aspects of oncology. PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become especially important in radiation oncology. With the increasing use of advanced techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy, PET/CT scans have played critical roles in the target delineation of tumors for radiation oncologists delivering conformal treatment techniques. Use of PET/CT is well established in lung cancer and several other thoracic malignancies. This article details the current uses of PET/CT in thoracic radiation oncology with a focus on lung cancer and describes expected future roles of PET/CT for thoracic tumors.

  7. Elemente de terapie oncologică la animale / Elements of oncological therapy animals

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia B. Chirila; Eugenia Dumitrescu; Florin Muselin; Romeo T. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This bibliographic essay is an attempt to recall the main elements applicable in the oncologic therapy useful also in veterinary medicine. In the paper are presented: the pharmacological principles of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, oncologic surgery, nanoterapia and some modern methodologies (photodynamic therapy, cryotherapy, electrochimioterapia, vascular disruption agents). The last chapter is dedicated to phytotherapy, as alternative therapy in oncology with the presentation of the main plan...

  8. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as they get older in the baby boomer generation. The good thing about endometrial cancer is that ... that's what oncology is picking up on. For generations, they had to use open procedures to do ...

  9. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ROBOTIC-ASSISTED GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY PROCEDURE HALIFAX HEALTH DAYTONA BEACH, FLORIDA April 24, 2008 00:00:11 KELLY L. MOLPUS, MD: ANNOUNCER: Welcome to Halifax Health in Daytona Beach, Florida. ...

  10. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inches. That's a best -- it used to be traditional oncology incisions would be at least from the ... we can identify those who may need additional therapy. Fortunately, with uterine cancer, about three out of ...

  11. American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Become a Member ASPHO: Dedicated to advancing knowledge and professional community Join Today! Update your demographics ... Career Center Mentoring Funding Compensation Survey © The American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 8735 W. Higgins Road, ...

  12. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal cases into laparoscopic cases, and that's the beauty of the platform. And that's what oncology is ... that's been liberalized, and people are seeing the beauty of minimally invasive surgery. So Dr. Molpus, on ...

  13. Radiation oncology: An Irish hospitals approach to supporting patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite advances in medical technology, cancer is still one of the leading causes of death globally, leaving many patients to deal with the emotional and psychological aspects associated with cancer and its treatment [Department of Health and Children. A strategy for cancer control in Ireland. National Cancer Forum. Dublin; 2006]. The recognition and management of psychological conditions are an integral part of comprehensive cancer care. As a result, the Health Services Executive as part of the continuing expansion of Cork Radiation Oncology Department created the role of Information and Support Radiation Therapist. This post was specially created during June 2005 to facilitate the smooth entry into the treatment for patients and family members experiencing radiotherapy for the first time. Working alongside the oncology nurses and other health professionals the Information and Support Radiation Therapist aims to provide vital education/information and support to patients and their families. The provision of this new service for patients enables departments to adopt a holistic approach to treatment. This research identifies the cancer services and psychological support services in Ireland. Up-to-date audits of the new patient services established in the Cork Radiation Oncology Department and their psychological contribution towards cancer development and treatment are also discussed

  14. Development of an Integrated Subspecialist Multidisciplinary Neuro-oncology Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephen J; Guilfoyle, Mathew; J Jefferies, Sarah; Harris, Fiona; Oberg, Ingela; G Burnet, Neil; Santarius, Thomas; Watts, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the poor outcome for patients with malignant brain tumours led to therapeutic nihilism. In turn, this resulted in lack of interest in neurosurgical oncology subspecialisation, and less than ideal patient pathways. One problem of concern was the low rate of tumour resection. Between 1997 and 2006, 685 treated glioblastomas were identified. In the first four years only 40% of patients underwent tumour resection, rising to 55% in the last four years. Before revision of the pathway, the median length of hospital stay was 8 days, and 35% of patients received the results of their histology outside of a clinic setting. A pathway of care was established, in which all patients were discussed pre-operatively in an MDT meeting and then directed into a new surgical neuro-oncology clinic providing first point of contact. This limited the number of surgeons operating on adult glioma patients and aided recruitment into research studies. Now, three consultant neurosurgeons run this service, easily fulfilling IOG requirement to spend >50% of programmed activities in neuro-oncology. Nursing support has been critical to provide an integrated service. This model has allowed increased recruitment to clinical trials. The introduction of this service led to an increase in patients discussed pre-operatively in an MDT (66% rising to 87%; P=0.027), an increase in the rate of surgical resection (from 40% to 80%) and more patients being admitted electively (from 25% to 80%; P<0.001). There was a reduction in the median length of stay (8 days reduced to 4.5 days; P<0.001). For the cohort of GBM patients that went on to have chemoradiotherapy we improved median survival to 18 months, with 35% of patients alive at two years, comparable to international outcomes. Implementing a specialist neurosurgical oncology service begins with understanding the patient care pathway. Our patients have benefitted from the culture of subspecialisation and the excellent inter-disciplinary working

  15. A scoping review of the nurse practitioner workforce in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Lorinda A; Hunt, Lauren; Cataldo, Janine

    2016-08-01

    The quality of cancer care may be compromised in the near future because of work force issues. Several factors will impact the oncology health provider work force: an aging population, an increase in the number of cancer survivors, and expansion of health care coverage for the previously uninsured. Between October 2014 and March 2015, an electronic literature search of English language articles was conducted using PubMed(®) , the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Sciences (CINAHL(®) ), Web of Science, Journal Storage (JSTOR(®) ), Google Scholar, and SCOPUS(®) . Using the scoping review criteria, the research question was identified "How much care in oncology is provided by nurse practitioners (NPs)?" Key search terms were kept broad and included: "NP" AND "oncology" AND "workforce". The literature was searched between 2005 and 2015, using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 29 studies were identified, further review resulted in 10 relevant studies that met all criteria. Results demonstrated that NPs are utilized in both inpatient and outpatient settings, across all malignancy types and in a variety of roles. Academic institutions were strongly represented in all relevant studies, a finding that may reflect the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty work hour limitations. There was no pattern associated with state scope of practice and NP representation in this scoping review. Many of the studies reviewed relied on subjective information, or represented a very small number of NPs. There is an obvious need for an objective analysis of the amount of care provided by oncology NPs. PMID:27264203

  16. A scoping review of the nurse practitioner workforce in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Lorinda A; Hunt, Lauren; Cataldo, Janine

    2016-08-01

    The quality of cancer care may be compromised in the near future because of work force issues. Several factors will impact the oncology health provider work force: an aging population, an increase in the number of cancer survivors, and expansion of health care coverage for the previously uninsured. Between October 2014 and March 2015, an electronic literature search of English language articles was conducted using PubMed(®) , the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Sciences (CINAHL(®) ), Web of Science, Journal Storage (JSTOR(®) ), Google Scholar, and SCOPUS(®) . Using the scoping review criteria, the research question was identified "How much care in oncology is provided by nurse practitioners (NPs)?" Key search terms were kept broad and included: "NP" AND "oncology" AND "workforce". The literature was searched between 2005 and 2015, using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 29 studies were identified, further review resulted in 10 relevant studies that met all criteria. Results demonstrated that NPs are utilized in both inpatient and outpatient settings, across all malignancy types and in a variety of roles. Academic institutions were strongly represented in all relevant studies, a finding that may reflect the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty work hour limitations. There was no pattern associated with state scope of practice and NP representation in this scoping review. Many of the studies reviewed relied on subjective information, or represented a very small number of NPs. There is an obvious need for an objective analysis of the amount of care provided by oncology NPs.

  17. Selenium in oncology: from chemistry to clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micke, Oliver; Schomburg, Lutz; Buentzel, Jens; Kisters, Klaus; Muecke, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with selenium does not

  18. Selenium in Oncology: From Chemistry to Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Micke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with

  19. History and Accomplishments of USDA-ARS Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) in East Lansing, Michigan, formerly known as Regional Poultry Research Laboratory, was dedicated on August 8, 1939. Its establishment was the result of joint efforts by the Agricultural Experiment Stations of the Nor...

  20. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... services. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 18, 2012 (75 FR 23289). At the request... Employment and Training Administration Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source Right Solutions, Concord, California, Now...

  1. Molecular oncology of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Shinichi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Soh, Junichi; Aokage, Keiju; Yamane, Masaomi; Oto, Takahiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2011-08-01

    Progress in genetic engineering has made it possible to elucidate the molecular biological abnormalities in lung cancer. Mutations in KRAS and P53 genes, loss of specific alleles, and DNA methylation of the tumor suppressor genes were the major abnormalities investigated between 1980 and the 2000s. In 2004, mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene that cause oncogene addiction were discovered in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), especially in adenocarcinomas. Because they are strongly associated with sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), a great deal of knowledge has been acquired in regard to both EGFR and other genes in the EGFR family and their downstream genes. Moreover, in 2007 the existence of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene was discovered in NSCLC; and the same as EGFR-TKIs, ALK inhibitors are being found to be highly effective in lung cancers that have this translocation. These discoveries graphically illustrate that molecular biological findings are directly linked to the development of clinical oncology and to improving the survival rates of lung cancer patients. Here, we review the remarkable progress in molecular biological knowledge acquired thus far in regard to lung cancer, especially NSCLC, and the future possibilities. PMID:21850578

  2. Spirituality and religion in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, John R; Balboni, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Despite the difficulty in clearly defining and measuring spirituality, a growing literature describes its importance in oncology and survivorship. Religious/spiritual beliefs influence patients' decision-making with respect to both complementary therapies and aggressive care at the end of life. Measures of spirituality and spiritual well-being correlate with quality of life in cancer patients, cancer survivors, and caregivers. Spiritual needs, reflective of existential concerns in several domains, are a source of significant distress, and care for these needs has been correlated with better psychological and spiritual adjustment as well as with less aggressive care at the end of life. Studies show that while clinicians such as nurses and physicians regard some spiritual care as an appropriate aspect of their role, patients report that they provide it infrequently. Many clinicians report that their religious/spiritual beliefs influence their practice, and practices such as mindfulness have been shown to enhance clinician self-care and equanimity. Challenges remain in the areas of conceptualizing and measuring spirituality, developing and implementing training for spiritual care, and coordinating and partnering with chaplains and religious communities.

  3. Radiolanthanides in therapeutic nuclear oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolanthanides such as Holmium-166 (T1/2 26.8h), Samarium-153 (T1/2 46.3h) and Lutetium-177 (T1/2 6.7 days) all have beta emissions suitable for radiopharmaceutical therapy, bone marrow ablation and for pain palliation of skeletal metastases. They also emit gamma photons of energies which permit quantitative imaging on conventional gamma cameras which facilitates calculation of dosimetry in individual patients. The range of half-lives has the potential to match the irradiation of tumour cells to the residence time of the radiopharmaceutical thus minimising radiotoxicity to normal tissues. Relative ease and low cost of production of these radiolanthanides in rectors such as HIFAR at ANSTO render radiolanthanides a practical option for radiopharmaceutical treatment of cancer for patients in whom conventional therapy has failed. Radioimmunotherapy of cancer using various monoclonal antibodies targeted to specific tumor-cell antigens has been performed with Samarium-153, Holmium-166 and Lutetium-177-labelled antibodies in human tumor xenographs in nude mice and in clinical trials. The development of a large animal model of human cancer will be described, in particular in relation to improving the accuracy of prediction of dosimetry and preclinical evaluation of efficacy and toxicity of radiolanthanides in therapeutic nuclear oncology

  4. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement on Clinical Pathways in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zon, Robin T; Frame, James N; Neuss, Michael N; Page, Ray D; Wollins, Dana S; Stranne, Steven; Bosserman, Linda D

    2016-03-01

    The use of clinical pathways in oncology care is increasingly important to patients and oncology providers as a tool for enhancing both quality and value. However, with increasing adoption of pathways into oncology practice, concerns have been raised by ASCO members and other stakeholders. These include the process being used for pathway development, the administrative burdens on oncology practices of reporting on pathway adherence, and understanding the true impact of pathway use on patient health outcomes. To address these concerns, ASCO's Board of Directors established a Task Force on Clinical Pathways, charged with articulating a set of recommendations to improve the development of oncology pathways and processes, allowing the demonstration of pathway concordance in a manner that promotes evidence-based, high-value care respecting input from patients, payers, and providers. These recommendations have been approved and adopted by ASCO's Board of Directors on August 12, 2015, and are presented herein. PMID:26759491

  5. Contribution Invitation of The Chinese-German Journal of Clinical Oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Chinese-German Journal of Clinical Oncology is an international professional academic periodical on oncology, being co-edited by China and Germany. The Journal, with the authors from around world, especially from China, is dominated in introducing the clinical experience of diagnosis and treatment as well as leading scientific research achievement in the tumor domain, in addition to report basic theory researches which help instruct the clinical practice of oncology and closely connect with the discipline. All the manuscripts are published in English, quarterly issued both internal and external, 64 -80pages, big 16 opens domains, art paper in offset printing, with lay-out by international customs, unified issuing number: ISSN 1610-1979 (Paper) 1613-9089 (Online)/CN 42-1654/R.

  6. Radiation oncology training in the United States: report from the Radiation Oncology Resident Training Working Group organized by the Society of Chairman of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In response to the major changes occurring in healthcare, medical education, and cancer research, SCAROP addressed issues related to post-graduate education that could enhance existing programs and complement the present system. Methods and Materials: SCAROP brought together a Working Group with a broad range of representatives organized in subcommittees to address: training, curriculum, and model building. Results: The Working Group emphasized the importance of training physicians with the necessary clinical, scientific, and analytical skills, and the need to provide expert radiation oncology services to patients throughout the United States. Opportunities currently exist for graduates in academic medicine, although there may be limited time and financial resources available to support academic pursuits. Conclusions: In the face of diminishing resources for training and education and the increased scope of knowledge required, a number of models for resident training are considered that can provide flexibility to complement the present system. This report is intended to initiate dialogue among the organizations responsible for radiation oncology resident education so that resident training can continually evolve to meet the needs of cancer patients and take advantage of opportunities for progress through innovative cancer care and research

  7. Gender Trends in Radiation Oncology in the United States: A 30-Year Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials: We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. Results: The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusions: Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology

  8. Gender Trends in Radiation Oncology in the United States: A 30-Year Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Awad A. [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Egleston, Brian [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Holliday, Emma [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eastwick, Gary [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Takita, Cristiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials: We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. Results: The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusions: Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology.

  9. Precision oncology: origins, optimism, and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay; Fojo, Tito; Brada, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Imatinib, the first and arguably the best targeted therapy, became the springboard for developing drugs aimed at molecular targets deemed crucial to tumours. As this development unfolded, a revolution in the speed and cost of genetic sequencing occurred. The result--an armamentarium of drugs and an array of molecular targets--set the stage for precision oncology, a hypothesis that cancer treatment could be markedly improved if therapies were guided by a tumour's genomic alterations. Drawing lessons from the biological basis of cancer and recent empirical investigations, we take a more measured view of precision oncology's promise. Ultimately, the promise is not our concern, but the threshold at which we declare success. We review reports of precision oncology alongside those of precision diagnostics and novel radiotherapy approaches. Although confirmatory evidence is scarce, these interventions have been widely endorsed. We conclude that the current path will probably not be successful or, at a minimum, will have to undergo substantive adjustments before it can be successful. For the sake of patients with cancer, we hope one form of precision oncology will deliver on its promise. However, until confirmatory studies are completed, precision oncology remains unproven, and as such, a hypothesis in need of rigorous testing.

  10. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  11. Molecular oncology focus - Is carcinogenesis a 'mitochondriopathy'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ścińska Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mitochondria are sub-cellular organelles that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS. As suggested over 70 years ago by Otto Warburg and recently confirmed with molecular techniques, alterations in respiratory activity and in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA appear to be common features of malignant cells. Somatic mtDNA mutations have been reported in many types of cancer cells, and some reports document the prevalence of inherited mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in cancer patients. Nevertheless, a careful reanalysis of methodological criteria and methodology applied in those reports has shown that numerous papers can't be used as relevant sources of data for systematic review, meta-analysis, or finally for establishment of clinically applicable markers. In this review technical and conceptual errors commonly occurring in the literature are summarized. In the first place we discuss, why many of the published papers cannot be used as a valid and clinically useful sources of evidence in the biomedical and healthcare contexts. The reasons for introduction of noise in data and in consequence - bias for the interpretation of the role of mitochondrial DNA in the complex process of tumorigenesis are listed. In the second part of the text practical aspects of mtDNA research and requirements necessary to fulfill in order to use mtDNA analysis in clinics are shown. Stringent methodological criteria of a case-controlled experiment in molecular medicine are indicated. In the third part we suggest, what lessons can be learned for the future and propose guidelines for mtDNA analysis in oncology. Finally we conclude that, although several conceptual and methodological difficulties hinder the research on mitochondrial patho-physiology in cancer cells, this area of molecular medicine should be considered of high importance for future clinical practice.

  12. Staff burnout in paediatric oncology:new tools to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Suzanne Kathleen Mary; Beresford, Bryony Anne; Tennant, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Working in paediatric oncology can be stressful, and staff may need support if they are to avoid burnout, but there is currently no evidence base to guide the development of interventions. As a significant barrier to addressing this gap is a lack of context specific research instruments, a project was undertaken to develop measures of the stressors and rewards experienced by staff. Measure development involved: (1) qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of paediatric oncology staff to...

  13. Orthomolecular oncology review: ascorbic acid and cancer 25 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Michael J; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Mora, Edna M; Guzmán, Angelik; Riordan, Neil H; Riordan, Hugh D; Casciari, Joseph J; Jackson, James A; Román-Franco, Angel

    2005-03-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid on cancer has been a subject of great controversy. This is a follow-up review of the 1979 article by Cameron, Pauling, and Leibovitz published in Cancer Research. In this updated version, the authors address general aspects of ascorbic acid and cancer that have been presented before, while reviewing, analyzing, and updating new existing literature on the subject. In addition, they present and discuss their own mechanistic hypothesis on the effect of ascorbic acid on the cancer cell. The objective of this review is to provide an updated scientific basis for the use of ascorbic acid, especially intravenously as adjuvant treatment in pharmacological nutritional oncology. PMID:15695476

  14. Research on Compassion Fatigue status and influencing factors among nurses in oncology%肿瘤科护士共情疲劳现状及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巧梅; 王媛媛; 谭开宇; 王娟; 胡霞; 王冬华

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查肿瘤科护士共情疲劳现状并分析其影响因素。方法:采用一般资料问卷、共情疲劳量表及护士职业认知状况调查问卷对3个省17所综合医院的402名肿瘤科护士进行调查。结果:肿瘤科护士共情疲劳各维度的得分分别为:共情满意(33.47±4.90)分、职业倦怠(25.97±4.51)分、继发性创伤应激(28.54±3.44)分,处于中度共情疲劳;职业认知、健康状况、性别对共情满意有影响(R2=0.220,F=38.723,P<0.001);职业认知、健康状况、性别、社会支持对职业倦怠有影响(R2=0.203,F=26.525,P<0.001);职业认知、健康状况、社会支持对继发性创伤应激有影响(R2=0.325,F=65.414,P<0.001)。结论:护士自身应加强自我管理,管理者须重视并针对不同特征的肿瘤科护士开展有关职业认知和共情的教育及培训,改善工作环境,进而降低共情疲劳,从根本上提高肿瘤科护理质量。%Objective: To investigate the Compassion Fatigue status among the nurses in oncology department, and to discuss its influencing factors. Methods: Totally 402 nurses in oncology department of 17 general hospitals from 3 provinces were surveyed with three questionnaires: the general information questionnaire, the Compassion Fatigue scale and the nurses' career cognitive status questionnaire. Results: The scores of the Compassion Satisfaction, the job burnout and secondary trauma stress among the nurses were (33.47±4.90), (25.97±4.51), and (28.54±3.44) respectively, which were all in a moderate Compassion Fatigue status. The professional cognition, health condition and gender have inlfuence on the Compassion Fatigue (R2=0.220,F=38.723,P<0.001). The professional cognition, health condition, gender and social support have inlfuence on the job burnout (R2=0.203,F=26.525,P<0.001). The professional cognition, health condition and social support have inlfuence on the secondary trauma

  15. 强强联手 盛会空前——前瞻BIOTECH CHINA 2008,BIO-FORUM 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾定槐

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008"中国国际生物技术和仪器设备博览会"(BIOTECH CHINA)和"上海国际生物技术与医药研讨会"(BIO-FOURM).将于5月28~30日在上海国际展览中心及上海国际会议中心举办.

  16. Oncology Nursing Is Evidence-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa; Brown, Carlton G

    2016-06-01

    This issue of the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing (CJON) will be the final time that you will see the Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) feature column. Why? Because we have seen oncology nursing evolve in the past 20 years and EBP is everywhere! We use it in our clinics and hospital units, incorporate it into decisions about symptom management, and use evidence to develop survivorship guidelines. We discuss EBP in journal clubs and use applications on mobile devices to find the best interventions for our patients. We have oncology nurses sitting on committees to develop guidelines based on the best evidence and expert opinion. We have come a long way and it is our belief that EBP is included in almost every article in CJON and, therefore, a need no longer exists for an individual column about EBP. 
. PMID:27206287

  17. Current management of surgical oncologic emergencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne R F Bosscher

    Full Text Available For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC. In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisciplinary discussion is often not available. In this study, the management and short term outcome of patients after surgical oncologic emergency consultation was analyzed.A prospective registration and follow up of adult patients with surgical oncologic emergencies between 01-11-2013 and 30-04-2014. The follow up period was 30 days.In total, 207 patients with surgical oncologic emergencies were included. Postoperative wound infections, malignant obstruction, and clinical deterioration due to progressive disease were the most frequent conditions for surgical oncologic emergency consultation. During the follow up period, 40% of patients underwent surgery. The median number of involved medical specialties was two. Only 30% of all patients were discussed in a MCC within 30 days after emergency consultation, and only 41% of the patients who underwent surgery were discussed in a MCC. For 79% of these patients, the surgical procedure was performed before the MCC. Mortality within 30 days was 13%.In most cases, surgery occurred without discussing the patient in a MCC, regardless of the fact that multiple medical specialties were involved in the treatment process. There is a need for prognostic aids and acute oncology pathways with structural multidisciplinary management. These will provide in faster institution of the most appropriate personalized cancer care, and prevent unnecessary investigations or invasive therapy.

  18. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into cancer care: Canadian oncology nurses′ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L Truant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM and conventional cancer care in Canada is in its nascent stages. While most patients use CAM during their cancer experience, the majority does not receive adequate support from their oncology health care professionals (HCPs to integrate CAM safely and effectively into their treatment and care. A variety of factors influence this lack of integration in Canada, such as health care professional(HCP education and attitudes about CAM; variable licensure, credentialing of CAM practitioners, and reimbursement issues across the country; an emerging CAM evidence base; and models of cancer care that privilege diseased-focused care at the expense of whole person care. Oncology nurses are optimally aligned to be leaders in the integration of CAM into cancer care in Canada. Beyond the respect afforded to oncology nurses by patients and family members that support them in broaching the topic of CAM, policies, and position statements exist that allow oncology nurses to include CAM as part of their scope. Oncology nurses have also taken on leadership roles in clinical innovation, research, education, and advocacy that are integral to the safe and informed integration of evidence-based CAM therapies into cancer care settings in Canada.

  19. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steinbjørn; Nielsen, Jan; Laursen, René J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database completen......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database...

  20. Application progress of lymphography in oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang YU; Jibin LIU; Lixue YIN

    2009-01-01

    Lymphography is often used for the diagnosis of lymphatic metastasis in oncology. Determination of lymphatic metastasis is extremely important for accurate cancer staging, which may directly guide the clinical therapeutic scheme. In recent years, the technology of lymphography has developed rapidly on the basis of traditional lymphography, with the appearance of com-puted tomography (CT) lymphography, nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) lymphography, contrast-enhanced lym-phosonography, and so on; the diagnostic accuracy has also been improved. The imaging principles and methods of these various technologies of lymphography are reviewed in this paper, and their applications and significance in oncology are also discussed in detail.

  1. INNOVATIVE AND INDUSTRIAL-PERFORMANCE IN PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT, A MANAGEMENT CONTROL PERSPECTIVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OMTA, SWF; BOUTER, LM; VANENGELEN, JML

    1994-01-01

    In this paper management control is related to innovative and industrial performance in 14 non-biotech pharmaceutical companies. The study consisted of questionnaires, sent to the heads of the different research departments of European research laboratories of leading pharmaceutical companies, combi

  2. Integrated biophotonics in endoscopic oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Naoki; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Marcon, Norman E.

    2009-02-01

    endoscopic diagnosis is likely to be impacted by a combination of biomarkers and technology, and 'endoscopic molecular imaging' should be defined as "visualization of molecular characteristics with endoscopy". These innovations will allow us not only to locate a tumor or dysplastic lesion but also to visualize its molecular characteristics (e.g., DNA mutations and polymorphisms, gene and/or protein expression), and the activity of specific molecules and biological processes that affect tumor behavior and/or its response to therapy. In the near future, these methods should be promising technologies that will play a central role in gastrointestinal oncology.

  3. Using implementation science to improve urologic oncology care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Sales, Anne E

    2016-09-01

    There are many gaps between recommended urologic cancer care and real-world practice. Although we increasingly define these quality gaps because of our growing health services research capacity in urologic oncology, we often fall short in translating these findings into effective interventions and strategies to reduce gaps in care. In this article, we highlight implementation research as a logical next step for translating our health services research findings into effective individual and organizational behavior change strategies to improve quality of care. We explain how implementation research focuses on different, upstream outcomes from our clinical outcomes to get the right care to the right patient at the right time. Lastly, we share information about resources and training for those interested in learning more about this emerging, transdisciplinary field. PMID:27401405

  4. Music therapy services in pediatric oncology: a national clinical practice review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucquet, Belinda; Leung, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national clinical practice review conducted in Australia of music therapy services in pediatric oncology hospitals. Literature specifically related to music therapy and symptom management in pediatric oncology is reviewed. The results from a national benchmarking survey distributed to all music therapists working with children with cancer in Australian pediatric hospitals are discussed. Patient and family feedback provided from a quality improvement activity conducted at a major pediatric tertiary hospital is summarized, and considerations for future growth as a profession and further research is proposed.

  5. The relationship between coping strategies and burnout syndrome in oncology nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Šárka Vévodová; Šárka Ročková; Radka Kozáková; Simona Cakirpaloglu Dobešová; Helena Kisvetrová; Jiří Vévoda

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major problem in the nursing profession. It is related to work overload, lack of nursing staff, and work in shifts, lack of coping strategies and a high turnover amongst health care staff. Rapid increase of stress in the oncology centers results in a high risk of burnout. One of the options for prevention is to find suitable coping strategies. The research objective of this study was to determine the rate of burnout amongst oncology nurses and to determine the relationship between...

  6. Music therapy services in pediatric oncology: a national clinical practice review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucquet, Belinda; Leung, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national clinical practice review conducted in Australia of music therapy services in pediatric oncology hospitals. Literature specifically related to music therapy and symptom management in pediatric oncology is reviewed. The results from a national benchmarking survey distributed to all music therapists working with children with cancer in Australian pediatric hospitals are discussed. Patient and family feedback provided from a quality improvement activity conducted at a major pediatric tertiary hospital is summarized, and considerations for future growth as a profession and further research is proposed. PMID:25027188

  7. Paleo-oncology: the role of ancient remains in the study of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C

    2004-01-01

    Paleo-oncology is the study of carcinomas and sarcomas in ancient human populations and their hominid precursors. These populations are informative concerning the possible influences on cancer of morphologic and functional evolution, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. The prevalence of cancer in ancient populations might have differed from that in modern humans, because of substantial differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet, life expectancy, and the availability of treatment. The available physical data concerning cancer in antiquity includes evidence of its existence in animal fossils and ancient humans and their precursors. The difficulties of paleo-oncologic research include a limited soft tissue record. In evaluating cancer in ancient remains, one must also deal with the problem of pseudopathology: whether an observed tissue change is all antemortem pathologic lesion or a postmortem artifact. Future archeological discoveries and the application of improved diagnostic techniques may enable paleo-oncology to make further contributions to our understanding of cancer. PMID:15061165

  8. Paleo-oncology: the role of ancient remains in the study of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C

    2004-01-01

    Paleo-oncology is the study of carcinomas and sarcomas in ancient human populations and their hominid precursors. These populations are informative concerning the possible influences on cancer of morphologic and functional evolution, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. The prevalence of cancer in ancient populations might have differed from that in modern humans, because of substantial differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet, life expectancy, and the availability of treatment. The available physical data concerning cancer in antiquity includes evidence of its existence in animal fossils and ancient humans and their precursors. The difficulties of paleo-oncologic research include a limited soft tissue record. In evaluating cancer in ancient remains, one must also deal with the problem of pseudopathology: whether an observed tissue change is all antemortem pathologic lesion or a postmortem artifact. Future archeological discoveries and the application of improved diagnostic techniques may enable paleo-oncology to make further contributions to our understanding of cancer.

  9. From Patient-Specific Mathematical Neuro-Oncology to Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eBaldock

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are notoriously aggressive, malignant brain tumors that have variable response to treatment. These patients often have poor prognosis, informed primarily by histopathology. Mathematical neuro-oncology (MNO is a young and burgeoning field that leverages mathematical models to predict and quantify response to therapies. These mathematical models can form the basis of modern precision medicine approaches to tailor therapy in a patient-specific manner. Patient specific models (PSMs can be used to overcome imaging limitations, improve prognostic predictions, stratify patients and assess treatment response in silico. The information gleaned from such models can aid in the construction and efficacy of clinical trials and treatment protocols, accelerating the pace of clinical research in the war on cancer. This review focuses on the growing translation of PSM to clinical neuro-oncology. It will also provide a forward-looking view on a new era of patient-specific mathematical neuro-oncology.

  10. Recent advances in immuno-oncology and its application to urological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataraza, Jennifer M; Gotwals, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in immuno-oncology have the potential to transform the practice of medical oncology. Antibodies directed against negative regulators of T-cell function (checkpoint inhibitors), engineered cell therapies and innate immune stimulators, such as oncolytic viruses, are effective in a wide range of cancers. Immune'based therapies have had a clinically meaningful impact on the treatment of advanced melanoma, and the lessons regarding use of single agents and combinations in melanoma may be applicable to the treatment of urological cancers. Checkpoint inhibitors, cytokine therapy and therapeutic vaccines are already showing promise in urothelial bladder cancer, renal cell carcinoma and prostate cancer. Critical areas of future immuno-oncology research include the prospective identification of patients who will respond to current immune-based cancer therapies and the identification of new therapeutic agents that promote immune priming in tumours, and increase the rate of durable clinical responses.

  11. Nonintubated Videothoracoscopic Operations in Thoracic Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso C Mineo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite general anesthesia with one-lung ventilation represents the standard to perform thoracic surgery operations, there is an increasing interest toward alternative methods, such as the use of local or neuroaxial analgesia alone in fully alert or mildly sedated patients. These can be applied to perform a series of videothoracoscopic procedures. Material and Methods: We reviewed our own institutional experience with this kind of surgery, as well as the most relevant literature findings available on this topic at the usual search websites (PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE. We focused on more recent advances regarding indications, expected advantages, possible pitfalls and implications for future research. Results: Such an operative modality can be safely and successfully adopted to manage a series of common malignant and non-malignant diseases. In thoracic oncology, it is mainly employed to treat malignant pleural effusion, to remove of pulmonary lesions of any origin, and to perform mediastinal biopsies. Furthermore, even complex procedures such anatomic lung resections and thymectomy are now being performed in this way. When taking into the account just intermediate to major surgeries, reported conversion rates to general anesthesia range between 2.8 and 9%. Despite the lack of randomized controlled trial, there is a general perception that non-intubated videothoracoscopic operation may translate into a lower morbidity rate, better hematosis, and preserved perioperative immunosurveillance. No sufficient data is available as far as long-term outcomes are concerned. Conclusions: Non-intubated videthoracoscopic operations may be as effective as the equivalent procedures performed with general anesthesia, while providing advantages in terms of cost and postoperative morbidity. This surgical practice should thus be included in the armamentarium of modern era thoracic surgeons, and appropriately designed studies should be undertaken to better

  12. The effect of short term neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation on erectile function in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer: an analysis of the 4- versus 8-month randomised trial (Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Patricia E

    2012-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a common consequence of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. The addition of neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation (NAD) has an indeterminate additive effect. We examined the long-term effect on erectile function (EF) of two durations (4 months: arm 1 and 8 months: arm 2) of NAD prior to radiation (RT) for patients with localised prostate cancer from the Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group (ICORG 97-01) 4- versus 8-month trial. In this study we aimed to (1) analyse the overall effect on EF of NAD in an EBRT population, (2) compare the probability of retained EF over time in an EBRT population treated with either 4 or 8 months of NAD and (3) identify any variables such as risk group and age which may have an additive detrimental effect. This analysis provides unique long term follow up data.

  13. Factors Predicting Oncology Care Providers' Behavioral Intention to Adopt Clinical Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to examine the predictors of user behavioral intention on the decision of oncology care providers to adopt or reject the clinical decision support system. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) formed the foundation of the research model and survey instrument. The…

  14. An exploration of the experience of compassion fatigue in clinical oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Beth; Toffner, Greg; Merrick, Trish; Dalton, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Compassion fatigue (CF) is "debilitating weariness brought about by repetitive, empathic responses to the pain and suffering of others" (LaRowe, 2005, p. 21). The work performed by oncology nurses, and the experiences of the people they care for, place oncology nurses at high risk for CF (Pierce et al., 2007; Ferrell & Coyle, 2008). Thus oncology nurses were chosen as the study focus. This paper details a descriptive exploratory qualitative research study that investigated the experience of CF in Canadian clinical oncology registered nurses (RNs). A conceptual stress process model by Aneshensel, Pearlin, Mullan, Zarit, and Whitlatch (1995) that considers caregivers' stress in four domains provided the study framework (see Figure 1). Nineteen study participants were recruited through an advertisement in the Canadian Oncology Nursing Journal (CONJ). The advertisement directed potential participants to a university-based online website developed for this study. Participants completed a questionnaire and wrote a narrative describing an experience with CF and submitted these through the secure research website. Data were analyzed thematically. Five themes include: defining CF, causes of CF, factors that worsen CF, factors that lessen CF, and outcomes of CF. Participants had limited knowledge about CF, about lack of external support, and that insufficient time to provide high quality, care may precipitate CF. The gap between quality of care nurses wanted to provide and what they were able to do, compounded by coexisting physical and emotional stress, worsened CF. CF was lessened by colleague support, work-life balance, connecting with others, acknowledgement, and maturity and experience. Outcomes of CF included profound fatigue of mind and body, negative effects on personal relationships, and considering leaving the specialty. Recommendations that may enhance oncology nurse well-being are provided. PMID:21661623

  15. 肿瘤科护士情绪智力与压力应对方式的调查研究%Investigation research of oncology nurses' emotional intelligence and pressure coping style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗红; 胡慧敏; 郑依力; 谭凡; 任荣; 马琴

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解肿瘤科护士情绪智力水平与压力应对方式的现状,探讨情绪智力与压力应对方式的相关性,为提高护士情绪智力与压力应对方式提供依据.方法:采用情绪智力测量量表(WLEIS)及简易应对方式问卷,对358名肿瘤科护士情绪智力及压力应对方式进行测量,用相关系数与回归模型探讨二者的关系.结果:肿瘤科护士情绪智力总均分为(5.12±0.45)分,积极应对方式总均分为(2.90±0.43)分,消极应对方式总均分为(1.62±0.57)分;情绪智力水平不受人口学变量的影响,而不同年龄、护龄与职称的护士,积极应对方式得分有统计学意义(P<0.05).情绪智力各维度与积极应对方式呈显著正相关关系,而与消极应对方式存在显著负相关关系.自我情绪运用较强的护士,容易采取积极应对方式,而他人情绪评估较差的护士,容易采取消极应对方式.结论:肿瘤科护士情绪智力与积极应对水平较高.情绪智力对肿瘤科护士职业压力有不同预测作用.护理管理者应注重护士情绪智力的培养,提高与他人的沟通能力,在遇到压力时采取积极的应对方式.%Objective:Undewtending of oncology nones' emotional intelligence and coping styles of status,probe into the correlation between the emotional intelligence and coping style,in order to improve nurses' emotional intelligence and coping style. Method:The emotional intelligence scale ( WLEIS) and simple coping style questionnaire(on 358 oncology nurses' emotional intelligence and coping style were measured,discuss the relationship with correlation ooefficient and regression model. Results:Oncology mines'emotional intelligence scons was (5.12 ± 0.45),positive coping style scores was (2.90 ±0.43), negative coping style scores was ( L 62 ±0.57);emotional intelligence level is not affected by demographic variables,depending on age,nursing age and titles of nurses, positive coping scores were

  16. Evolution and accomplishments of the radiation therapy oncology group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) recently completed its first quarter century as a cooperative clinical cancer research organization. It is timely and appropriate to document its origins, evolution, and accomplishments. Methods and Materials: The historical review of the RTOG called upon written and oral documentation. Results: The RTOG is the most enduring product of the Committee for Radiation Therapy Studies (CRTS). Although not one of the original 17 clinical trials groups developed by the National Cancer Institute in 1956, the RTOG has pursued trials suggested by laboratory findings including the oxygen effect, intrinsic radiosensitivity, proliferation kinetics of normal and tumor cells, and interactions with other cytotoxic agents. Improvements in survival have been demonstrated for patients with carcinoma of the esophagus and cervix, and nonsmall cell carcinomas of the lung. The national and international radiation oncology communities have benefited from standards and quality control/assurance guidelines for established and new modalities. A growing number of institutions in North America participate in RTOG trials. Conclusion: The RTOG is an important clinical research resource, which has contributed to improved outcome for patients with many forms of cancer. It has become increasingly productive and widely adopted and endorsed by oncologists throughout North America

  17. Current management of surgical oncologic emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscher, Marianne R. F.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC). In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisc

  18. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... oncology case brought to you live from Halifax Health in Daytona Beach, Florida. OR-Live makes it easy for you to learn more. Just click on the Request Information button on your webcast screen and open the door to informed medical care. 01:05:35 [end of webcast

  19. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ROBOTIC-ASSISTED GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY PROCEDURE HALIFAX HEALTH DAYTONA BEACH, FLORIDA April 24, 2008 00:00:11 KELLY L. MOLPUS, MD: ANNOUNCER: Welcome to ... modified radical hysterectomy for the treatment of endometrial cancer. And for the lay people out there that ...

  20. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ROBOTIC-ASSISTED GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY PROCEDURE HALIFAX HEALTH DAYTONA BEACH, FLORIDA April 24, 2008 00:00:11 KELLY ... You're just minutes away from seeing a robotic-assisted laparoscopic gynecological case live. This very progressive ...

  1. 肿瘤科医护人员对癌因性疲乏管理认知的质性研究%Recognition of medical staff in the oncology department about management of cancer related fatigue:a qualitative research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田利; 王芬; 薛嵋; 曹娟妹; 周群英; 杨益群; 李惠玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how medical staff in the oncology department understand management of cancer related fatigue (CRF), and explore what factors influencing the effective practice of CRF management. Methods Qualitative inquiry was adopted. Ten medical staffs in the oncology department were selected for in- depth interview. Generic analysis was applied to code, categorize and interpret the qualitative data. Results Participants believed that many factors influenced the CRF, which hadn′t been assessed as an independent symptom and lacked the systematic, effective and specific interventions. The medical staff, patients and their families neglecting the CRF management was the main barrier. Strengthening system construction and staff training was mentioned as major area which needed to be improved. Conclusions CRF management guideline should be formulated according to our national situations based on the clinical practices, besides, the training of correlated clinical knowledge and skills of medical staff should be strengthened and eventually promote the cancer patients′quality of life.%目的:了解肿瘤科医护人员对癌因性疲乏管理的认知,探讨实施有效癌因性疲乏管理的影响因素。方法采用质性研究对10名肿瘤科医护人员进行半结构式访谈,并运用类属分析法进行资料的编码、分类、提取主题。结果受访的肿瘤科医护人员认为癌因性疲乏的影响因素较多;尚未将其作为一个独立症状进行评估;认为尚缺乏系统、有效、具有针对性的管理措施;医护人员和家属缺乏对癌因性疲乏管理的重视是阻碍癌因性疲乏有效管理的障碍因素;只有加强制度层面建设和医护人员的培训才能有效推动癌因性疲乏管理工作。结论应结合临床实际情境,制定符合我国国情的癌因性疲乏管理指南,并对临床医护人员进行相关知识和技能培训,以提高肿瘤患者的生命质量。

  2. Guidelines for treatment naming in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Travis R; Shields, Lisa B E; Hahl, Michael; Maudlin, Casey; Bassett, Mark; Spalding, Aaron C

    2016-01-01

    Safety concerns may arise from a lack of standardization and ambiguity during the treatment planning and delivery process in radiation therapy. A standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention in radiation therapy was developed by a task force comprised of several Radiation Oncology Societies. We present a nested-survey approach in a community setting to determine the methodology for radiation oncology departments to standardize their practice. Our Institution's continuous quality improvement (CQI) committee recognized that, due to growth from one to three centers, significant variability existed within plan parameters specific to patients' treatment. A multidiscipline, multiclinical site consortium was established to create a guideline for standard naming. Input was gathered using anonymous, electronic surveys from physicians, physicists, dosimetrists, chief therapists, and nurse managers. Surveys consisted of several primary areas of interest: anatomical sites, course naming, treatment plan naming, and treatment field naming. Additional concepts included capitalization, specification of laterality, course naming in the event of multiple sites being treated within the same course of treatment, primary versus boost planning, the use of bolus, revisions for plans, image-guidance field naming, forbidden characters, and standard units for commonly used physical quantities in radiation oncology practice. Guidelines for standard treatment naming were developed that could be readily adopted. This multidisciplinary study provides a clear, straightforward, and easily implemented protocol for the radiotherapy treatment process. Standard nomenclature facilitates the safe means of communication between team members in radiation oncology. The guidelines presented in this work serve as a model for radiation oncology clinics to standardize their practices. PMID:27074449

  3. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  4. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  5. Psychosocial oncology in China——Challenges and opportunities%心理社会肿瘤学在中国的发展现状——机会与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Tang; Janet de Groot; Barry D. Bultz

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In China over the past decade, psychosocial oncology has emerged as a new program. Development of this program requires attention to current opportunities, obstacles and cultural concerns. Methods: A selected literature review of academic papers in Chinese and English language journals and web sites was analyzed for themes regarding the current status, challenges, and opportunities for psychosocial oncology in China. Results: China's national cancer strategy (2004-2010), based on WHO guidelines, is focused on cancer prevention and treatment, as well as quality of life among cancer patients and their families. The Chinese Anti-Cancer Association is now funding research, training and international collaboration in psychosocial oncology. The newly organized Chinese Psychosocial Oncology Society, founded in 2006, aims to provide a national forum for psychosocial oncology research. Cultural and systemic challenges to establishing psychosocial oncology as a core discipline in China include: (1) the family's desire to 'protect' cancer patients by with-holding cancer-related information; (2) stigma and privacy regarding mental health issues; (3) biomedical practitioners' claims that psychosocial on cology is not sufficiently evidence-based; and (4) limited funding for psychosocial oncology care and research. Conclusion:The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) is considered a valuable resource towards China's interest in partnering with the international psychosocial oncology community to enhance the discipline globally.

  6. The use of healing touch in integrative oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura K; Freel, Mildred I; Haylock, Pam J; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2011-10-01

    The use of complementary therapies by patients with cancer has become increasingly prevalent; as a result, oncology nurses find themselves needing to understand those therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. This article describes the integrative use of the biofield therapy healing touch in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages IB1 to IVA) as reported in a 2010 research study. Findings indicated effects on the immune response and depression in healing touch recipients compared to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, healing touch recipients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity over the course of treatment, whereas the cytotoxicity of patients receiving relaxation therapy and standard care declined sharply during radiation. Healing touch recipients also showed decreases in depressed mood compared to relaxation therapy and standard care recipients. The findings suggest that appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care can enhance the impact of conventional care by putting patients in the best condition to use their innate healing resources.

  7. Non interventional drug studies in oncology: Why we need them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Divya; Vora, Jesal

    2010-10-01

    Oncology is a highly researched therapeutic area with an ever expanding armamentarium of drugs entering the market. It is unique in how the heterogeneity of tumor, patient and treatment factors is critical in determining outcomes of interventions. When it comes to decision making in the clinic, the practicing physician often seeks answers in populations with obvious deviations from the ideal selected populations included in the pivotal phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While the randomized nature of the RCT ensures its high internal validity by removing bias, their 'controlled' nature casts a doubt on their generalizability to the real world population. It is for this reason that trials done in a naturalistic setting post the marketing authorization of a drug are increasingly required. This article discusses the importance of non interventional drug studies in oncology as an important tool in testing the external validity of controlled trial results and its value in generation of new hypothesis. It also discusses the limitations of such studies while outlining the steps in their effective conduct. PMID:21350727

  8. Non interventional drug studies in oncology: Why we need them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Mishra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncology is a highly researched therapeutic area with an ever expanding armamentarium of drugs entering the market. It is unique in how the heterogeneity of tumor, patient and treatment factors is critical in determining outcomes of interventions. When it comes to decision making in the clinic, the practicing physician often seeks answers in populations with obvious deviations from the ideal selected populations included in the pivotal phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs. While the randomized nature of the RCT ensures its high internal validity by removing bias, their ′controlled′ nature casts a doubt on their generalizability to the real world population. It is for this reason that trials done in a naturalistic setting post the marketing authorization of a drug are increasingly required. This article discusses the importance of non interventional drug studies in oncology as an important tool in testing the external validity of controlled trial results and its value in generation of new hypothesis. It also discusses the limitations of such studies while outlining the steps in their effective conduct.

  9. Organization and implementation of a cardio-oncology program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Manuela; Ribeiro, Leonor; Magalhães, Andreia; Sousa, Ana Rita; Nobre Menezes, Miguel; Jorge, Marília; Costa, Luís; Pinto, Fausto José

    2016-09-01

    Considerable advances in cancer therapies in recent decades have reshaped the prognosis of cancer patients. There are now estimated to be over 20 million cancer survivors in the USA and Europe, numbers unimaginable a few years ago. However, this increase in survival, along with the aging of the patient population, has been accompanied by a rise in adverse cardiovascular effects, particularly when there is a previous history of heart disease. The incidence of cardiotoxicity continues to grow, which can compromise the effectiveness of cancer therapy. Cardiotoxicity associated with conventional therapies, especially anthracyclines and radiation, is well known, and usually leads to left ventricular dysfunction. However, heart failure represents only a fraction of the cardiotoxicity associated with newer therapies, which have diverse cardiovascular effects. There are few guidelines for early detection, prevention and treatment of cardiotoxicity of cancer treatments, and no well-established tools for screening these patients. Echocardiography is the method of choice for assessment of patients before, during and after cancer treatment. It therefore makes sense to adopt a multidisciplinary approach to these patients, involving cardiologists, oncologists and radiotherapists, collaborating in the development of new training modules, and performing clinical and translational research in a cardio-oncology program. Cardio-oncology is a new frontier in medicine and has emerged as a new medical subspecialty that concentrates knowledge, understanding, training and treatment of cardiovascular comorbidities, risks and complications in patients with cancer in a comprehensive approach to the patient rather than to the disease. PMID:27503589

  10. [Renaissance of immuno-oncology for urological tumors : Current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, M-O; Winkler, Y; Fetter, I; Oppel-Heuchel, H

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors, immunotherapy has gained new importance in oncology. Current research is focused on the cytotoxic T‑lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoints. The CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab (melanoma) as well as the PD-1 antibodies nivolumab (melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma) and pembrolizumab (melanoma) are approved for the treatment of metastatic disease in Europe. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (re)activate the immune system against cancer cells and appear to be more effective than current standards for many tumors. The toxicity profile is favorable but involves new so-called immune-related side effects, which need to be recognized and treated in time. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are also currently being tested in uro-oncology in phase 3 trials relevant for approval status. Based on this it is to be expected that immune checkpoint inhibitors will become a new standard (as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy) in the early lines of therapy in the near future and replace the previous standard therapies, particularly for metastasized renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cancer.

  11. The use of healing touch in integrative oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura K; Freel, Mildred I; Haylock, Pam J; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2011-10-01

    The use of complementary therapies by patients with cancer has become increasingly prevalent; as a result, oncology nurses find themselves needing to understand those therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. This article describes the integrative use of the biofield therapy healing touch in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages IB1 to IVA) as reported in a 2010 research study. Findings indicated effects on the immune response and depression in healing touch recipients compared to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, healing touch recipients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity over the course of treatment, whereas the cytotoxicity of patients receiving relaxation therapy and standard care declined sharply during radiation. Healing touch recipients also showed decreases in depressed mood compared to relaxation therapy and standard care recipients. The findings suggest that appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care can enhance the impact of conventional care by putting patients in the best condition to use their innate healing resources. PMID:21951738

  12. Future vision for the quality assurance of oncology clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFitzGerald, MD

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Institute clinical cooperative groups have been instrumental over the past 50 years in developing clinical trials and evidence based process improvements for clinical oncology patient care. The cooperative groups are undergoing a transformation process as we further integrate molecular biology into personalized patient care and move to incorporate international partners in clinical trials. To support this vision, data acquisition and data management informatics tools must become both nimble and robust to support transformational research at an enterprise level. Information, including imaging, pathology, molecular biology, radiation oncology, surgery, systemic therapy and patient outcome data needs to be integrated into the clinical trial charter using adaptive clinical trial mechanisms for design of the trial. This information needs to be made available to investigators using digital processes for real time data analysis. Future clinical trials will need to be designed and completed in a timely manner facilitated by nimble informatics processes for data management. This paper discusses both past experience and future vision for clinical trials as we move to develop data management and quality assurance processes to meet the needs of the modern trial.

  13. Traditional roles in a non-traditional setting: genetic counseling in precision oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jessica N; Gustafson, Shanna L; Raymond, Victoria M

    2014-08-01

    Next generation sequencing technology is increasingly utilized in oncology with the goal of targeting therapeutics to improve response and reduce side effects. Interpretation of tumor mutations requires sequencing of paired germline DNA, raising questions about incidental germline findings. We describe our experiences as part of a research team implementing a protocol for whole genome sequencing (WGS) of tumors and paired germline DNA known as the Michigan Oncology Sequencing project (MI-ONCOSEQ) that includes options for receiving incidental germline findings. Genetic counselors (GCs) discuss options for return of results with patients during the informed consent process and document family histories. GCs also review germline findings and actively participate in the multi-disciplinary Precision Medicine Tumor Board (PMTB), providing clinical context for interpretation of germline results and making recommendations about disclosure of germline findings. GCs have encountered ethical and counseling challenges with participants, described here. Although GCs have not been traditionally involved in molecular testing of tumors, our experiences with MI-ONCOSEQ demonstrate that GCs have important applicable skills to contribute to multi-disciplinary care teams implementing precision oncology. Broader use of WGS in oncology treatment decision making and American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommendations for active interrogation of germline tissue in tumor-normal dyads suggests that GCs will have future opportunities in this area outside of research settings.

  14. Cooperation between medicine and sociology in head and neck oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Emmanuel; Grandazzi, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-first-century medicine is facing many challenges--knowledge and command of technical advances, research development, team management, knowledge transmission, and adaptation to economic constraints--without neglecting "human" aspects, via transformed carer-patient relationships, social change, and so on. The "modern" physicians know that simply treating disease is no longer enough. One of their essential missions lies in offering the individual patient overall care, which implies acknowledging the latter as an individual within a family, social, and professional environment. Indeed, medical practice requires pluridimensional knowledge of the patients' experience of their disease. Yet the contribution sociology can offer to health care remains largely unknown to many physicians, and medical training includes only limited instruction in the human sciences. On the basis of a few observations taken from sociological research, we would like to demonstrate how, in head and neck oncology, interdisciplinary collaboration between medicine and sociology can prove propitious to improving patient care and attention to their close relations.

  15. Oncological mamoplasty in the Cancerology National Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conservative surgery is analyzed in the breast cancer. As premise, it settles down that in the quadrantectomy, the breast should always be left aesthetic. The oncological mamoplasty is then a technique that should be considered and for it should always be left it margin oncology in the borders of the tumors, the surgeon should have experience and it is important to have a good pursuit. The surgery is bilateral and it doesn't leave scars in the superior quadrants. In this revision 53 patients were analyzed, keeping in mind that there are few reports on this technique or to proceed therapeutic in the literature. The procedures were carried out in their majority in patient pre menopauses and they were made inclusive in advanced states. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were used in the treatment

  16. Puget sound oncology nursing education cooperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, V T; Hogeland-Drummond, S; Purrier, M; Tofthagen, C

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Leadership & Professional Development feature is to provide readers with information, ideas, and exemplars of leadership competencies and professional roles in oncology nursing. Manuscripts submitted to the Leadership & Professional Development feature should be prepared according to the Information for Authors published in the Oncology Nursing Forum (ONF) but limited to six to eight double-spaced typed pages. Submit two copies of the manuscript using IBM-compatible software along with a computer disk copy, or submit a copy of the manuscript as an e-mail attachment to Joan Such Lockhart, PhD, RN, CORLN, ONF Associate Editor, 1365 Simona Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15201; lockhart /duq.edu (e-mail). Manuscripts should be referenced and include tables, figures, or illustrations as appropriate. Ideas for possible manuscripts are welcome.

  17. Plastic Surgery for the Oncological Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigeler, Adrien; Harati, Kamran; Kapalschinski, Nicolai; Goertz, Ole; Hirsch, Tobias; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Kolbenschlag, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The therapy of oncological patients has seen tremendous progress in the last decades. For most entities, it has been possible to improve the survival as well as the quality of life of the affected patients. To supply optimal cancer care, a multidisciplinary approach is vital. Together with oncologists, radiotherapists and other physicians, plastic surgeons can contribute to providing such care in all stages of treatment. From biopsies to the resection of advanced tumors, the coverage of the resulting defects and even palliative care, plastic surgery techniques can help to improve survival and quality of life as well as mitigate negative effects of radiation or the problems arising from exulcerating tumors in a palliative setting. This article aims to present the mentioned possibilities by illustrating selected cases and reviewing the literature. Especially in oncological patients, restoring their quality of life with the highest patient safety possible is of utmost importance. PMID:25593966

  18. Value: a framework for radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckie, Sewit; McCloskey, Susan A; Steinberg, Michael L

    2014-09-10

    In the current health care system, high costs without proportional improvements in quality or outcome have prompted widespread calls for change in how we deliver and pay for care. Value-based health care delivery models have been proposed. Multiple impediments exist to achieving value, including misaligned patient and provider incentives, information asymmetries, convoluted and opaque cost structures, and cultural attitudes toward cancer treatment. Radiation oncology as a specialty has recently become a focus of the value discussion. Escalating costs secondary to rapidly evolving technologies, safety breaches, and variable, nonstandardized structures and processes of delivering care have garnered attention. In response, we present a framework for the value discussion in radiation oncology and identify approaches for attaining value, including economic and structural models, process improvements, outcome measurement, and cost assessment.

  19. Oncologic emergencies. Analysis of surgical outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selecting the optimal treatment strategy for oncologic emergencies requires appropriate condition assessment. In the present study, we report on an algorithm which we developed for such cases. Preoperative pathological conditions, clinical course and prognosis were analyzed using abdominal X-ray and computed tomography images from 11 patients (male: n=8; age range, 42 to 73 years median age, 57 years; female: n=3; age range, 53 to 90 years; median age, 54 years) with oncologic emergencies who underwent laparotomy at our department between January 2003 and December 2007. The carcinoma type comprised seven cases of colon and rectum cancer, and one each of esophageal, intrahepatic cholangiocellular, hepatocellular and cervical cancers. The eight patients with residual tumors died, while the three without residual tumors (all with colon cancer) remained alive over the 26-month follow-up period. We conclude that patients with colon cancer without residual tumors have a greater rate of recurrence-free survival. (author)

  20. Radiation oncology a physicist's-eye view

    CERN Document Server

    Goitein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Oncology: A Physicist's-Eye View was written for both physicists and medical oncologists with the aim of helping them approach the use of radiation in the treatment of cancer with understanding, confidence, and imagination. The book will let practitioners in one field understand the problems of, and find solutions for, practitioners in the other. It will help them to know "why" certain approaches are fruitful while, at the same time, encouraging them to ask the question "Why not?" in the face of assertions that some proposal of theirs is impractical, unreasonable, or impossible. Unlike a textbook, formal and complete developments of the topics are not among the goals. Instead, the reader will develop a foundation for understanding what the author has found to be matters of importance in radiation oncology during over thirty years of experience. Presentations cover, in largely non-technical language, the principal physical and biological aspects of radiation treatment and address practical clinical c...

  1. Clinical oncology in resource-limited settings

    OpenAIRE

    Buonaguro, Franco M.; Gueye, Serigne N; Wabinga, Henry R; Ngoma, Twalib A.; Vermorken, Jan B; Mbulaiteye, Sam M

    2013-01-01

    Infectious Agents and Cancer is introducing a new section of Clinical Oncology with the main objective of stimulating debate through articles published in the section. Infectious diseases have been the major causes of morbidity and mortality in human populations, and have dominated the medical approach to clinical and public health. Successful efforts to control mortality from acute infections have paved the way for chronic, mostly indolent, infections to become major causes of morbidity. Can...

  2. Whole body MR imaging: applications in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Brennan, S; Ford, S; Eustace, S

    2006-04-01

    This article reviews technique and clinical applications of whole body MR imaging as a diagnostic tool in cancer staging. In particular the article reviews its role as an alternative to scintigraphy (bone scan and PET) in staging skeletal spread of disease, its role in assessing total tumour burden, its role in multiple myeloma and finally its evolving non oncologic role predominantly assessing total body composition.

  3. [Multidisciplinary oncology teams: beware of endless discussions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, Raimond W M

    2010-01-01

    The continual and increasing complexity of diagnostic and treatment options in oncology demands careful communication, coordination and decision making. Cancer care could be improved by multidisciplinary teamwork. Although this sort of teamwork has many advantages in theory, we know very little about its effectiveness in practice. We have to answer questions such as how teams can accomplish their task most effectively and how we must manage organizations in such a way that team-based working contributes optimally to organizational effectiveness. PMID:20619056

  4. Oncology nurses awareness of drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azize Karahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine oncology nurses awareness of drug interactions. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with nurses working in the oncology clinics who are a member of Oncology Nursing Association of Turkey. A total of 115 nurses (response rate %20 were responded to the online survey that consists of 28 questions. Results: The mean age of the nurses was 33 ± 6.8. The majority of nurses work in university hospital (60% as a clinical nurse (62.6% and have a Bachelor Degree in Nursing (63.5%. The mean working years in oncology was 4 years. Half of them stated receiving information on drug interactions mostly through in-service education and courses/congresses in last 5 years. The majority of them (84.3% indicated that they are considering the possibility of drug interactions when they are scheduling the medication administration time. More than half of the responders (59.1% encountered drug interactions; however, few explored drug interactions with food, drinks, and nutritional supplements. Their practices to assess possibility of drug interactions were reviewing the drug prospectus (78.3%; consulting with their colleagues (58.3% and searching on the available website (42.6% and looking at the drug interaction (39.1%. More than half (65.2% stated lack of any system to identify drug interactions in their workplace. Nearly half of them indicated to including the drug interaction into patient education mostly for food-drug (73.9% and drug-drug (63.5% interactions. Conclusions: Almost all indicated the needs for further education on drug interactions and suggested to have guideline/packet guide.

  5. Clinical oncology in Malaysia: 1914 to present

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, GCC

    2006-01-01

    A narration of the development of staff, infrastructure and buildings in the various parts of the country is given in this paper. The role of universities and other institutions of learning, public health, palliative care, nuclear medicine and cancer registries is described together with the networking that has been developed between the government, non-governmental organisations and private hospitals. The training of skilled manpower and the commencement of the Master of Clinical Oncology in...

  6. Penile Cancer: Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Peter E.; Philippe E. Spiess; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations o...

  7. [Multidisciplinary oncology teams: beware of endless discussions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, Raimond W M

    2010-01-01

    The continual and increasing complexity of diagnostic and treatment options in oncology demands careful communication, coordination and decision making. Cancer care could be improved by multidisciplinary teamwork. Although this sort of teamwork has many advantages in theory, we know very little about its effectiveness in practice. We have to answer questions such as how teams can accomplish their task most effectively and how we must manage organizations in such a way that team-based working contributes optimally to organizational effectiveness.

  8. Radiotherapy and immune reaction of oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Represented is a review of data accumulated in literature (1970-1976) on oppression of protection of oncologic patients and more oppression of immune reactions during radiotherapy. Underlined is the significance of studying immune homeostasis in a clinic of radiotherapy to evaluate total resistance of patients before the beginning and in the process of treatment. The prognostic significance of immunodepressive disturbances in patients with malignant tumors is elucidated

  9. Solid lipid nanoparticles for hydrophilic biotech drugs: optimization and cell viability studies (Caco-2 & HEPG-2 cell lines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Patrícia; Andreani, Tatiana; Jäger, Alessandro; Chaud, Marco V; Santana, Maria Helena A; Silva, Amélia M; Souto, Eliana B

    2014-06-23

    Insulin was used as model protein to developed innovative Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) for the delivery of hydrophilic biotech drugs, with potential use in medicinal chemistry. SLNs were prepared by double emulsion with the purpose of promoting stability and enhancing the protein bioavailability. Softisan(®)100 was selected as solid lipid matrix. The surfactants (Tween(®)80, Span(®)80 and Lipoid(®)S75) and insulin were chosen applying a 2(2) factorial design with triplicate of central point, evaluating the influence of dependents variables as polydispersity index (PI), mean particle size (z-AVE), zeta potential (ZP) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) by factorial design using the ANOVA test. Therefore, thermodynamic stability, polymorphism and matrix crystallinity were checked by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD), whereas the effect of toxicity of SLNs was check in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. Results showed a mean particle size (z-AVE) width between 294.6 nm and 627.0 nm, a PI in the range of 0.425-0.750, ZP about -3 mV, and the EE between 38.39% and 81.20%. After tempering the bulk lipid (mimicking the end process of production), the lipid showed amorphous characteristics, with a melting point of ca. 30 °C. The toxicity of SLNs was evaluated in two distinct cell lines (HEPG-2 and Caco-2), showing to be dependent on the concentration of particles in HEPG-2 cells, while no toxicity in was reported in Caco-2 cells. SLNs were stable for 24 h in in vitro human serum albumin (HSA) solution. The resulting SLNs fabricated by double emulsion may provide a promising approach for administration of protein therapeutics and antigens.

  10. Cold Atmospheric Plasma: methods of production and application in dentistry and oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Clotilde; Berganza, Carlos; Zhang, John

    2013-01-01

    Cold Atmospheric Plasma is an ionized gas that has recently been extensively studied by researchers as a possible therapy in dentistry and oncology. Several different gases can be used to produce Cold Atmospheric Plasma such as Helium, Argon, Nitrogen, Heliox, and air. There are many methods of production by which cold atmospheric plasma is created. Each unique method can be used in different biomedical areas. In dentistry, researchers have mostly investigated the antimicrobial effects produc...

  11. Progress in the toxicological researches for quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HongCheng; ZHOU QunFang; LIU Wei; YAN Bing; ZHAO Yibing; JIANG GuiBin

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have Received more and more attention as a novel example of nanomaterials. Due to their unique fluorescent characteristics, quantum dots have been successfully applied in biotech-nology and medicine applications. Recently, the toxicity and the potential environmental effects of QDs have become a research hotspot. In this paper, toxicological effects of QDs are reviewed, and the prospects and research directions are given based on the analysis of this research field.

  12. Progress in the toxicological researches for quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received more and more attention as a novel example of nanomaterials. Due to their unique fluorescent characteristics,quantum dots have been successfully applied in biotech-nology and medicine applications. Recently,the toxicity and the potential environmental effects of QDs have become a research hotspot. In this paper,toxicological effects of QDs are reviewed,and the prospects and research directions are given based on the analysis of this research field.

  13. Osteonecrosis - complication at oncological treatment in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteonecrosis is one of serious complications at oncological treatment of children. The etiopathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, mostly it has a multifactorial character. The incidence is in 1,5 - 9,3 % range. ON affects predominantly the weight bearing joints. It affects mostly the patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and those at adolescent age. The course of disease is unpredictable. The changes at early stages can be reversible, but at some patients the disease progresses and can lead to a disability. At Children oncology clinic of Children teaching hospital in Bratislava during the years 1992 - 2008 we identified 12 patients affected by ON out of 146 children with ALL (8,2 %), 1 out of 42 with NHL (2,4 %) and 1 out of 42 with HL (2,4 %). The age at diagnosis of malignity: 4y7m - 17y, the age at diagnosis ON: 10y5m - 19y. Further course: regression - 2 patients, stabilised state - 6 patients, progression - 3 patients. 3 patients were lost from our follow up. The treatment was conservative, with the exception of one patient, who had to undergo surgery due to the progression of disease. To avoid the risk of inducing ON during the treatment of oncological patient in childhood it is important to optimalize the therapeutical protocols and to diagnose this complication early. (author)

  14. Lymphoscintigraphy in oncology: a rediscovered challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Nieweg, O.E.; Jansen, L.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; Kroon, B.B.R. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Borger, J. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Horenblas, S. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Urology

    1999-04-01

    The validation of the sentinel node concept in oncology has led to the rediscovery of lymphoscintigraphy. By combining preoperative lymphatic mapping with intraoperative probe detection this nuclear medicine procedure is being increasingly used to identify and detect the sentinel node in melanoma, breast cancer, and in other malignancies such as penile cancer and vulvar cancer. In the past lymphoscintigraphy has been widely applied for various indications in oncology, and in the case of the internal mammary lymph-node chain its current use in breast cancer remains essential to adjust irradiation treatment to the individual findings of each patient. In another diagnostic area, lymphoscintigraphy is also useful to document altered drainage patterns after surgery and/or radiotherapy; its use in breast cancer patients with upper limb oedema after axillary lymph-node dissection or in melanoma patients with lower-extremity oedema after groin dissection can provide information for physiotherapy or reconstructive surgery. Finally, the renewed interest in lymphoscintigraphy in oncology has led not only to the rediscovery of findings from old literature reports, but also to a discussion about methodological aspects such as tracer characteristics, image acquisition or administration routes, as well as to discussion on the study of migration patterns of radiolabelled colloid particles in the context of cancer dissemination. All this makes the need for standardized guidelines for lymphoscintigraphy mandatory. (orig.) With 10 figs., 1 tab., 56 refs.

  15. Pesquisa brasileira em enfermagem oncológica: uma revisão integrativa Investigación brasileña en enfermería oncológica: una revisión integradora Brazilian research in oncology nursing: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santejo Silveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma revisão integrativa da literatura com o objetivo de caracterizar as pesquisas produzidas pela enfermagem brasileira em oncologia. O levantamento bibliográfico abrangeu as publicações nacionais em enfermagem, de 1980 a 2004, sendo identificados 84 artigos que compuseram a amostra do estudo. Os resultados apontaram a falta de esclarecimentos para demonstrar o rigor dos estudos nos artigos analisados. Sugerimos identificar prioridades de pesquisa, refinar estratégias de síntese de resultados de pesquisa, conduzir com rigor os estudos, respeitando-se as etapas do método científico e maior cuidado na elaboração dos relatórios encaminhados para publicação.Fue efectuada una revisión integradora de la literatura con objeto de caracterizar las investigaciones producidas por la enfermería brasileña en oncología. La recopilación bibliográfica abarcó las publicaciones nacionales en enfermería, de 1980 a 2004, siendo identificados 84 artículos, los cuales compusieron la muestra del estudio. Los resultados indicaron una falta de clarificaciones para demostrar el rigor de los estudios analizados. Sugerimos identificar prioridades de investigación, refinar estrategias de síntesis de resultados de investigación, conducir con rigor los estudios, respetándose las etapas del método científico y mejor elaboración de los relatos encaminados para publicación.We carried out an integrative literature review to characterize research produced by Brazilian oncology nursing. The bibliographic survey covered national nursing publications, from 1980 to 2004, from which we identified 84 articles, which composed the study sample. The results indicate the lack of clarifications to demonstrate study rigor in the analyzed articles. We suggest identifying research priorities, refining the strategies to synthesize research results, conducting studies rigorously, respecting the steps of the scientific method and taking greater care in

  16. Creating a unique, multi-stakeholder Paediatric Oncology Platform to improve drug development for children and adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassal, Gilles; Rousseau, Raphaël; Blanc, Patricia; Moreno, Lucas; Bode, Gerlind; Schwoch, Stefan; Schrappe, Martin; Skolnik, Jeffrey; Bergman, Lothar; Bradley-Garelik, Mary Brigid; Saha, Vaskar; Pearson, Andy; Zwierzina, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Seven years after the launch of the European Paediatric Medicine Regulation, limited progress in paediatric oncology drug development remains a major concern amongst stakeholders - academics, industry, regulatory authorities, parents, patients and caregivers. Restricted increases in early phase paediatric oncology trials, legal requirements and regulatory pressure to propose early Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs), missed opportunities to explore new drugs potentially relevant for paediatric malignancies, lack of innovative trial designs and no new incentives to develop drugs against specific paediatric targets are some unmet needs. Better access to new anti-cancer drugs for paediatric clinical studies and improved collaboration between stakeholders are essential. The Cancer Drug Development Forum (CDDF), previously Biotherapy Development Association (BDA), with Innovative Therapy for Children with Cancer Consortium (ITCC), European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE) and European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) has created a unique Paediatric Oncology Platform, involving multiple stakeholders and the European Union (EU) Commission, with an urgent remit to improve paediatric oncology drug development. The Paediatric Oncology Platform proposes to recommend immediate changes in the implementation of the Regulation and set the framework for its 2017 revision; initiatives to incentivise drug development against specific paediatric oncology targets, and repositioning of drugs not developed in adults. Underpinning these changes is a strategy for mechanism of action and biology driven selection and prioritisation of potential paediatric indications rather than the current process based on adult cancer indications. Pre-competitive research and drug prioritisation, early portfolio evaluation, cross-industry cooperation and multi-compound/sponsor trials are being explored, from which guidance for innovative trial designs will be

  17. The oncology medical image database (OMI-DB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling-Brown, Mark D.; Looney, P. T.; Patel, M. N.; Warren, L. M.; Mackenzie, A.; Young, K. C.

    2014-03-01

    Many projects to evaluate or conduct research in medical imaging require the large-scale collection of images (both unprocessed and processed) and associated data. This demand has led us to design and implement a flexible oncology image repository, which prospectively collects images and data from multiple sites throughout the UK. This Oncology Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) has been created to support research involving medical imaging and contains unprocessed and processed medical images, associated annotations and data, and where applicable expert-determined ground truths describing features of interest. The process of collection, annotation and storage is almost fully automated and is extremely adaptable, allowing for quick and easy expansion to disparate imaging sites and situations. Initially the database was developed as part of a large research project in digital mammography (OPTIMAM). Hence the initial focus has been digital mammography; as a result, much of the work described will focus on this field. However, the OMI -DB has been designed to support multiple modalities and is extensible and expandable to store any associated data with full anonymisation. Currently, the majority of associated data is made up of radiological, clinical and pathological annotations extracted from the UK's National Breast Screening System (NBSS). In addition to the data, software and systems have been created to allow expert radiologists to annotate the images with interesting clinical features and provide descriptors of these features. The data from OMI-DB has been used in several observer studies and more are planned. To date we have collected 34,104 2D mammography images from 2,623 individuals.

  18. The Sociology of the Gene: Genetics and Education on the Eve of the Biotech Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    Researchers in molecular biology are discovering an increasing genetic basis for a wide range of mental diseases, moods, behaviors, and personality traits. Findings are creating the context for a new sociobiology favoring a genetic interpretation of human motivations and drives. Genetic engineering will give some people unprecedented power over…

  19. Radiation Oncology in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review the published literature pertaining to radiation oncology in undergraduate medical education. Methods and Materials: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update and EMBASE databases were searched for the 11-year period of January 1, 1998, through the last week of March 2009. A medical librarian used an extensive list of indexed subject headings and text words. Results: The search returned 640 article references, but only seven contained significant information pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates. One article described a comprehensive oncology curriculum including recommended radiation oncology teaching objectives and sample student evaluations, two described integrating radiation oncology teaching into a radiology rotation, two described multidisciplinary anatomy-based courses intended to reinforce principles of tumor biology and radiotherapy planning, one described an exercise designed to test clinical reasoning skills within radiation oncology cases, and one described a Web-based curriculum involving oncologic physics. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review of the literature pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates, and it demonstrates the paucity of published work in this area of medical education. Teaching radiation oncology should begin early in the undergraduate process, should be mandatory for all students, and should impart knowledge relevant to future general practitioners rather than detailed information relevant only to oncologists. Educators should make use of available model curricula and should integrate radiation oncology teaching into existing curricula or construct stand-alone oncology rotations where the principles of radiation oncology can be conveyed. Assessments of student knowledge and curriculum effectiveness are critical.

  20. The Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO) Project

    OpenAIRE

    Pantziarka, Pan; Bouche, Gauthier; Meheus, Lydie; Sukhatme, Vidula; Sukhatme, Vikas P.; Vikas, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO) Project seeks to repurpose well-known and well-characterised non-cancer drugs for new uses in oncology. The rationale for this project is presented, examining current issues in oncological drug development, challenges for health systems, and existing and future patient needs. In addition to discussing the advantages of repurposing, the paper also outlines some of the characteristics used in the selection of drug candidates by this project. Challenges i...

  1. Cardio-Oncology: How New Targeted Cancer Therapies and Precision Medicine Can Inform Cardiovascular Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Andrew M; Arteaga, Carlos L; Force, Thomas; Humphreys, Benjamin D; Demetri, George D; Druker, Brian J; Moslehi, Javid J

    2015-12-01

    Cardio-oncology (the cardiovascular care of cancer patients) has developed as a new translational and clinical field based on the expanding repertoire of mechanism-based cancer therapies. Although these therapies have changed the natural course of many cancers, several may also lead to cardiovascular complications. Many new anticancer drugs approved over the past decade are "targeted" kinase inhibitors that interfere with intracellular signaling contributing to tumor progression. Unexpected cardiovascular and cardiometabolic effects of patient treatment with these inhibitors have provided unique insights into the role of kinases in human cardiovascular biology. Today, an ever-expanding number of cancer therapies targeting novel kinases and other specific cellular and metabolic pathways are being developed and tested in oncology clinical trials. Some of these drugs may affect the cardiovascular system in detrimental ways and others perhaps in beneficial ways. We propose that the numerous ongoing oncology clinical trials are an opportunity for closer collaboration between cardiologists and oncologists to study the cardiovascular and cardiometabolic changes caused by the modulation of these pathways in patients. In this regard, cardio-oncology represents an opportunity and a novel platform for basic and translational investigation and can serve as a potential avenue for optimization of anticancer therapies and for cardiovascular research and drug discovery.

  2. Attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine amongst oncology professionals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela, Siegel; Alex, Broom; Vanessa, Bowden; Jon, Adams; Nelson Filice de, Barros

    2016-08-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are popular amongst cancer patients in the Brazilian context, however little is known about oncology health professionals' attitudes toward the role of CAM and their perspectives on the potential for integration into oncological care. In this study, drawing on a series of interviews with oncology professionals (i.e. doctors, nurses, nutritionists, pharmacologists and psychologists), we provide insight into their views on the rise, validity, and role of CAM in cancer care. The results reveal two key dynamics in relation to CAM in cancer care in Brazil. First, that doctors, nurses and other allied professionals hold considerably different views on the value and place of CAM, and in turn ascribe it varying levels of legitimacy potentially limiting integration. Second, that while some health professionals may articulate a degree of support for CAM, this is limited by perceptions of CAM as lacking efficacy and intruding on their respective jurisdictional claims. Further research is needed in the Brazilian context to explore patient and professional perspectives on experiences on CAM in cancer care, including how oncology professionals' varying positions on CAM may influence what patients are prepared to use, or discuss, in the context of cancer care. PMID:27515873

  3. Evaluating stress, burnout and job satisfaction in New Zealand radiation oncology departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperse, M; Herst, P; Dungey, G

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the levels of occupational stress, burnout and job satisfaction among radiation oncology workers across New Zealand. All oncology staff practising in all eight radiation oncology departments in New Zealand were invited to participate anonymously in a questionnaire, which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and measures of stress intensity associated with specific occupational stressors, stress reduction strategies and job satisfaction. A total of 171 (out of 349) complete responses were analysed using spss 19; there were 23 oncologists, 111 radiation therapists, 22 radiation nurses and 15 radiation physicists. All participants, regardless of profession, reported high stress levels associated with both patient-centred and organisational stressors. Participants scored high in all three domains of burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Interestingly, although organisational stressors predicted higher emotional exhaustion and emotional exhaustion predicted lower job satisfaction, patient stressors were associated with higher job satisfaction. Job satisfaction initiatives such as ongoing education, mentoring and role extension were supported by many participants as was addressing organisational stressors, such as lack of recognition and support from management and unrealistic expectations and demands. New Zealand staff exhibit higher levels of burnout than Maslach Burnout Inventory medical norms and oncology workers in previous international studies.

  4. Promoting interprofessional collaboration in oncology through a teamwork skills simulation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ted A; Page, Jenna S; Sprague, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Outcomes in clinical oncology can be improved when care is delivered by high-performance teams. The purpose of the initiative described in this article was to develop interprofessional team training opportunities using simulated cancer care scenarios to enhance collaborative practice skills within clinical oncology. Scenarios were developed based on internal needs assessment and review of patient safety data. Paired teams of haematology-oncology nurses and fellows completed the patient management scenarios, followed by debriefing and performance feedback. Research design consisted of an observational case study and questionnaire of participants in a cross-sectional analysis. Twenty-three learners participated in two separate sessions. All participants responded with scores of 4-5 on a 5-point Likert scale regarding the perceived value of the training programme and its effectiveness in developing skills in teamwork and communication. Simulation-based team training scenarios were successfully implemented into an interprofessional curriculum for haematology-oncology nurses and fellows. Participants valued the experience and indicated that they acquired new knowledge, skills, and attitudes to enhance interprofessional collaboration in cancer care. These types of training programmes have the potential to transform cancer care by creating high-performing teams resulting in improved patient outcomes, enhanced clinical effectiveness, and higher levels of satisfaction among patients, families, and healthcare providers. PMID:27269669

  5. Promoting interprofessional collaboration in oncology through a teamwork skills simulation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ted A; Page, Jenna S; Sprague, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Outcomes in clinical oncology can be improved when care is delivered by high-performance teams. The purpose of the initiative described in this article was to develop interprofessional team training opportunities using simulated cancer care scenarios to enhance collaborative practice skills within clinical oncology. Scenarios were developed based on internal needs assessment and review of patient safety data. Paired teams of haematology-oncology nurses and fellows completed the patient management scenarios, followed by debriefing and performance feedback. Research design consisted of an observational case study and questionnaire of participants in a cross-sectional analysis. Twenty-three learners participated in two separate sessions. All participants responded with scores of 4-5 on a 5-point Likert scale regarding the perceived value of the training programme and its effectiveness in developing skills in teamwork and communication. Simulation-based team training scenarios were successfully implemented into an interprofessional curriculum for haematology-oncology nurses and fellows. Participants valued the experience and indicated that they acquired new knowledge, skills, and attitudes to enhance interprofessional collaboration in cancer care. These types of training programmes have the potential to transform cancer care by creating high-performing teams resulting in improved patient outcomes, enhanced clinical effectiveness, and higher levels of satisfaction among patients, families, and healthcare providers.

  6. Clinical practice guidelines and consensus statements in oncology--an assessment of their methodological quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines are widely available for enhancing the care of cancer patients. Despite subtle differences in their definition and purpose, these terms are often used interchangeably. We systematically assessed the methodological quality of consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published in three commonly read, geographically diverse, cancer-specific journals. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. METHODS: Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. FINDINGS: Thirty-four consensus statements and 67 clinical practice guidelines were evaluated. The rigour of development score for consensus statements over the three journals was 32% lower than that of clinical practice guidelines. The editorial independence score was 15% lower for consensus statements than clinical practice

  7. Process-driven information management system at a biotech company: concept and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Alberto; Funeriu, Sandra; Ioannou, John; Wang, Jinyi; Lee, Man-Ling; Palmer, Chris; Bamford, Bob; Hewitt, Robin

    2004-01-01

    While established pharmaceutical companies have chemical information systems in place to manage their compounds and the associated data, new startup companies need to implement these systems from scratch. Decisions made early in the design phase usually have long lasting effects on the expandability, maintenance effort, and costs associated with the information management system. Careful analysis of work and data flows, both inter- and intradepartmental, and identification of existing dependencies between activities are important. This knowledge is required to implement an information management system, which enables the research community to work efficiently by avoiding redundant registration and processing of data and by timely provision of the data whenever needed. This paper first presents the workflows existing at Anadys, then ARISE, the research information management system developed in-house at Anadys. ARISE was designed to support the preclinical drug discovery process and covers compound registration, analytical quality control, inventory management, high-throughput screening, lower throughput screening, and data reporting.

  8. Pharmacogenomics in Pediatric Oncology: Review of Gene-Drug Associations for Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Vid; Huezo-Diaz Curtis, Patricia; Satyanarayana Uppugunduri, Chakradhara Rao; Krajinovic, Maja; Ansari, Marc

    2016-01-01

    During the 3rd congress of the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Personalised Therapy (ESPT) in Budapest in 2015, a preliminary meeting was held aimed at establishing a pediatric individualized treatment in oncology and hematology committees. The main purpose was to facilitate the transfer and harmonization of pharmacogenetic testing from research into clinics, to bring together basic and translational research and to educate health professionals throughout Europe. The objective of this review was to provide the attendees of the meeting as well as the larger scientific community an insight into the compiled evidence regarding current pharmacogenomics knowledge in pediatric oncology. This preliminary evaluation will help steer the committee's work and should give the reader an idea at which stage researchers and clinicians are, in terms of personalizing medicine for children with cancer. From the evidence presented here, future recommendations to achieve this goal will also be suggested.

  9. Pharmacogenomics in Pediatric Oncology: Review of Gene—Drug Associations for Clinical Use †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Vid; Huezo-Diaz Curtis, Patricia; Satyanarayana Uppugunduri, Chakradhara Rao; Krajinovic, Maja; Ansari, Marc

    2016-01-01

    During the 3rd congress of the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Personalised Therapy (ESPT) in Budapest in 2015, a preliminary meeting was held aimed at establishing a pediatric individualized treatment in oncology and hematology committees. The main purpose was to facilitate the transfer and harmonization of pharmacogenetic testing from research into clinics, to bring together basic and translational research and to educate health professionals throughout Europe. The objective of this review was to provide the attendees of the meeting as well as the larger scientific community an insight into the compiled evidence regarding current pharmacogenomics knowledge in pediatric oncology. This preliminary evaluation will help steer the committee’s work and should give the reader an idea at which stage researchers and clinicians are, in terms of personalizing medicine for children with cancer. From the evidence presented here, future recommendations to achieve this goal will also be suggested. PMID:27618021

  10. Subspecialist training in surgical gynecological oncology in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Sofie L; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B;

    2011-01-01

    To survey the centers that can provide subspecialty surgical training and education in gynecological oncology in the Nordic countries we developed an online questionnaire in cooperation with the Nordic Society of Gynecological Oncology. The link to the survey was mailed to 22 Scandinavian...... (74%) centers were interested in being listed for exchange of fellows. Our data show a large Nordic potential and interest in improving the gynecologic oncology standards and can be used to enhance the awareness of gynecological oncology training in Scandinavia and to facilitate the exchange...

  11. Radiolabelled peptides for oncological diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverman, Peter; Boerman, Otto C.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sosabowski, Jane K. [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides targeting receptors (over)expressed on tumour cells are widely under investigation for tumour diagnosis and therapy. The concept of using radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides to target receptor-expressing tissues in vivo has stimulated a large body of research in nuclear medicine. The {sup 111}In-labelled somatostatin analogue octreotide (OctreoScan trademark) is the most successful radiopeptide for tumour imaging, and was the first to be approved for diagnostic use. Based on the success of these studies, other receptor-targeting peptides such as cholecystokinin/gastrin analogues, glucagon-like peptide-1, bombesin (BN), chemokine receptor CXCR4 targeting peptides, and RGD peptides are currently under development or undergoing clinical trials. In this review, we discuss some of these peptides and their analogues, with regard to their potential for radionuclide imaging of tumours. (orig.)

  12. Transforming Cancer Prevention through Precision Medicine and Immune-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensler, Thomas W; Spira, Avrum; Garber, Judy E; Szabo, Eva; Lee, J Jack; Dong, Zigang; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hait, William N; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Davidson, Nancy E; Foti, Margaret; Lippman, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    We have entered a transformative period in cancer prevention (including early detection). Remarkable progress in precision medicine and immune-oncology, driven by extraordinary recent advances in genome-wide sequencing, big-data analytics, blood-based technologies, and deep understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment (TME), has provided unprecedented possibilities to study the biology of premalignancy. The pace of research and discovery in precision medicine and immunoprevention has been astonishing and includes the following clinical firsts reported in 2015: driver mutations detected in circulating cell-free DNA in patients with premalignant lesions (lung); clonal hematopoiesis shown to be a premalignant state; molecular selection in chemoprevention randomized controlled trial (RCT; oral); striking efficacy in RCT of combination chemoprevention targeting signaling pathway alterations mechanistically linked to germline mutation (duodenum); molecular markers for early detection validated for lung cancer and showing promise for pancreatic, liver, and ovarian cancer. Identification of HPV as the essential cause of a major global cancer burden, including HPV16 as the single driver of an epidemic of oropharyngeal cancer in men, provides unique opportunities for the dissemination and implementation of public health interventions. Important to immunoprevention beyond viral vaccines, genetic drivers of premalignant progression were associated with increasing immunosuppressive TME; and Kras vaccine efficacy in pancreas genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model required an inhibitory adjuvant (Treg depletion). In addition to developing new (e.g., epigenetic) TME regulators, recent mechanistic studies of repurposed drugs (aspirin, metformin, and tamoxifen) have identified potent immune activity. Just as precision medicine and immune-oncology are revolutionizing cancer therapy, these approaches are transforming cancer prevention. Here, we set out a brief agenda for the

  13. Cancer patient-centered home care: a new model for health care in oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Tralongo P; Ferraù F; Borsellino N; Verderame F; Caruso M.; Giuffrida D; Butera A; Gebbia V

    2011-01-01

    Paolo Tralongo1, Francesco Ferraù2, Nicolò Borsellino3, Francesco Verderame4, Michele Caruso5, Dario Giuffrida6, Alfredo Butera7, Vittorio Gebbia81Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale, Siracusa; 2Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale San Vincenzo, Taormina; 3Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale Buccheri La Ferla, Palermo; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale Giovanni Paolo II, Sciacca; 5Medical Oncology Unit, Istituto Humanitas, Catania; 6Medical Oncology Unit, Istituto...

  14. [Treatment of pain in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Conno, F; Polastri, D

    1997-01-01

    Basic guidelines for cancer pain treatment can be found in many different handbooks published in the last years. Particularly those of the World Health Organisation published in 1986 and revised in 1996, furnish useful indication for cancer pain treatment. The authors therefore focused on resuming the most recent development in this field. In the research regarding alternative routes of administration of opioids in alternative to the oral route, the rectal administration of morphine and methadone and the transdermal route for fentanyl have proved to be efficacious. The subcutaneous route (for morphine) as well as the intravenous, peridural and subaracnoid routes, being known for some time are not taken in consideration in this paper. Various studies suggest that alternative routes are necessary in 53-70% of patients in their last days or months of live. The most frequent causes for the need to stop oral administration are dysphagia, nausea, and uncontrollable vomiting, bowel obstruction, malabsorption, cognitive failure, coma, and pain syndromes requiring anaesthetics which need be administered via the spinal route. Among the drugs, tramadol seems to be effective in the control of moderate pain. Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic drug; it has an agonist effect on mu 1 receptors of opioids and acts also by inhibiting the re-uptake of noradrenaline and serotonine which activates descending monoaminergic inhibitory pathways. Recent clinical studies revealed that pamidronate has an analgesic effect in pain due to bone metastasis. Pamidronate is part of the biphosphonates, which are active on bone metabolism and are usually being used for the treatment of hypercalcaemia in cancer. The authors also describe briefly the indication of ketamin in association with morphine for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  15. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici). PMID:25282347

  16. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici).

  17. Validation of cross-contamination control in biological safety cabinet for biotech/pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Tu, Jin-Xin; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben

    2015-12-01

    For class II, type A2 biological safety cabinets (BSC), NSF/ANSI Standard 49 should be conformed in cabinet airflow velocity derivation, particle contamination, and aerodynamic flow properties. However, there exists a potential problem. It has been built that the cabinet air flow stabilize is influenced by the quantity of downflow of air and the height above the cabinet exhaust opening. Three air downflow quantities were compared as an operating apparatus was placed from 20 to 40 cm above the bench of the cabinet. The results show that the BSC air downflow velocity is a function of increased sampling height, displaying that containment is improvingly permitted over product protection as the sampling height decreases. This study investigated the concentration gradient of particles at various heights and downflow air quantity from the bench of the BSC. Experiment results indicate that performance near the bench was better than in the rest of the BSC. In terms of height, the best cleanliness was measured at a height of 10 cm over the bench; it reduced actually with add in height. The empirical curves accommodate, founded on the concentration gradient of particle created was elaborated for evaluating the particle concentration at different heights and downflow air quantity from the source of the bench of the BSC. The particle image velocimetry system applied for BSC airflow research to fix amount of airflow patterns and air distribution measurement and results of measurements show how obstructions can greatly influence the airflow and contaminant transportation in a BSC.

  18. [Genetic therapy in oncology: ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, L M; Fazio, V M

    2001-01-01

    The more advanced oncologic therapies are directing toward new frontiers, on account of the remarkable undesirable effects of chemio- and radio-therapies. This new therapeutic experiences are of type biological (vaccines), or genic (substitution again genes with shutters meaning-tumoral). This therapies involve, to be effected, some ethical shrewdnesses: choice of the patient, the engineering modality of the genes, the transfer of the genes in cells of the exclusively somatic line, the elimination of the pathogenic risk of the vector virus, the obligatory use of sterile rooms, the attention to the administration of the drug, a legal issue of the judgment of notoriety. PMID:11725612

  19. Oncology of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferret oncology is in full evolution. Many types of tumors are mentioned. They affect all the systems of the organism: the endocrine, hemo-lymphatic, integument, digestive, reproductive, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous, urinary or respiratory systems. Insulinoma, adrenocortical tumors and lymphoma are the three mostly seen tumors. Complementary examination have been developed too. CBC, biochemistry, radiography and ultrasonography can now be completed by cytology, immunohistochemistry, endoscopies, scan, I.R.M. or scintigraphy. Treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy can be associated. They allow recovery or, if not a palliative solution. (author)

  20. Whole-body imaging modalities in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Fiona; Shortt, Conor P; Shelly, Martin J; Eustace, Stephen J; O'Connell, Martin J

    2010-03-01

    This article outlines the expanding approaches to whole-body imaging in oncology focusing on whole-body MRI and comparing it to emerging applications of whole-body CT, scintigraphy, and above all PET CT imaging. Whole-body MRI is widely available, non-ionizing and rapidly acquired, and inexpensive relative to PET CT. While it has many advantages, WBMRI is non-specific and, when compared to PET CT, is less sensitive. This article expands each of these issues comparing individual modalities as they refer to specific cancers.

  1. INTEGRATIVE ONCOLOGY, A PRACTICE UNDER CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Pamela; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2013-01-01

    O termo Oncologia Integrativa (OI) foi criado a partir da medicina integrativa, que se diferencia das medicinas alternativa e complementarpor buscar resultados baseados em evidências e considerar o paciente em sua totalidade. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os resultados de uma revisão integrativa da literatura realizada no bancode dados PubMed-MEDLINE usando a expressão Integrative Oncology.Foram encontrados 74 estudos dos quais 26 foram incluídos e 48 excluídos pelos critérios de inclu...

  2. Internet utilization by radiation oncology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Studies describing the use of the Internet by radiation oncology patients are lacking. This multi-institutional study of cancer patients presenting to academic (AC), community (CO) and veterans (VA) radiation oncology centers was designed to analyze the use of the Internet, predictive factors for utilization, and barriers to access to the Internet. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire evaluating the use of the Internet was administered to 921 consecutive patients presenting to radiation oncology departments at AC, CO and VA Medical Centers. The study included 436 AC patients (47%), 284 CO patients (31%), and 201 VA patients (22%). A computer was available at home to 427 patients (46%) and 337 patients (37%) had Email access. The mean age of the patient population was 64 years (range=14-93). Males represented 70% of the patient population. The most common diagnoses included prostate cancer (33%), breast cancer (13%), and lung cancer (11%). Results: Overall, 265/921 patients (29%) were using the Internet to find cancer related information. The Internet was used by 42% of AC patients, 25% of CO patients and only 5% of VA patients (p<.0001). A computer was available at home in 62% AC vs. 45% CO vs. 12% VA patients (p<.0001). Patients < 60 years were much more likely to use the Internet than older patients (p<.0001). Most of the Internet users considered the information either very reliable (22%) or somewhat reliable (70%). Most patients were looking for information regarding treatment of their cancer (90%), management of side effects of treatment (74%), alternative/complementary treatments (65%) and clinical trials (51%). Unconventional medical therapies were purchased over the Internet by 12% of computer users. Products or services for the treatment or management of cancer were purchased online by 12% of Internet users. Conclusion: A significant number of cancer patients seen in radiation oncology departments at academic and community medical centers

  3. The Future of Precision Medicine in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Lori M; Strotman, Lindsay N

    2016-09-01

    Precision medicine in oncology focuses on identifying which therapies are most effective for each patient based on genetic characterization of the cancer. Traditional chemotherapy is cytotoxic and destroys all cells that are rapidly dividing. The foundation of precision medicine is targeted therapies and selecting patients who will benefit most from these therapies. One of the newest aspects of precision medicine is liquid biopsy. A liquid biopsy includes analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acid, or exosomes obtained from a peripheral blood draw. These can be studied individually or in combination and collected serially, providing real-time information as a patient's cancer changes. PMID:27514468

  4. Applied Nanotechnology and Nanoscience in Orthopedic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidou, Olga D; Bolia, Ioanna K; Chloros, George D; Goumenos, Stavros D; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Galanis, Evanthia C; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2016-09-01

    Nanomedicine is based on the fact that biological molecules behave similarly to nanomolecules, which have a size of less than 100 nm, and is now affecting most areas of orthopedics. In orthopedic oncology, most of the in vitro and in vivo studies have used osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma cell lineages. In this article, tumor imaging and treatment nanotechnology applications, including nanostructure delivery of chemotherapeutic agents, gene therapy, and the role of nano-selenium-coated implants, are outlined. Finally, the potential role of nanotechnology in addressing the challenges of drug and radiotherapy resistance is discussed. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(5):280-286.]. PMID:27636683

  5. An overview of viral oncology in Italy - report from the Pavia meeting on solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfetti Vittorio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on some of the research activities currently ongoing in Italy as outlined at the “Viruses and solid tumors” meeting jointly organized by the Oncology Sections of IRCCS Policlinico “San Matteo” (Pavia and IRCCS National Cancer Institute (Aviano, held in Pavia, Italy, on October 2011. Experts from the various disciplines involved in the study of the complex relationships between solid tumors and viruses met to discuss recent developments in the field and to report their personal contributions to the specified topics. Secondary end point was to establish a multidisciplinary work group specifically devoted to solid tumors and infectious agents, aimed to identify areas of common interest, promoting and establishing collaborative projects and programs, and to coordinate clinical and research activities. The group, which will be named IVOG (Italian Viral Oncology Group, will operate under the patronage of the various scientific societies of interest.

  6. Cardio-Oncology: An Update on Cardiotoxicity of Cancer-Related Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenneman, Carrie G; Sawyer, Douglas B

    2016-03-18

    Through the success of basic and disease-specific research, cancer survivors are one of the largest growing subsets of individuals accessing the healthcare system. Interestingly, cardiovascular disease is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors after recurrent malignancy. This recognition has helped stimulate a collaboration between oncology and cardiology practitioners and researchers, and the portmanteau cardio-oncology (also known as onco-cardiology) can now be found in many medical centers. This collaboration promises new insights into how cancer therapies impact cardiovascular homeostasis and long-term effects on cancer survivors. In this review, we will discuss the most recent views on the cardiotoxicity related to various classes of chemotherapy agents and radiation. We will also discuss broadly the current strategies for treating and preventing cardiovascular effects of cancer therapy.

  7. Cold Atmospheric Plasma: methods of production and application in dentistry and oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Clotilde; Berganza, Carlos; Zhang, John

    2013-01-01

    Cold Atmospheric Plasma is an ionized gas that has recently been extensively studied by researchers as a possible therapy in dentistry and oncology. Several different gases can be used to produce Cold Atmospheric Plasma such as Helium, Argon, Nitrogen, Heliox, and air. There are many methods of production by which cold atmospheric plasma is created. Each unique method can be used in different biomedical areas. In dentistry, researchers have mostly investigated the antimicrobial effects produced by plasma as a means to remove dental biofilms and eradicate oral pathogens. It has been shown that reactive oxidative species, charged particles, and UV photons play the main role. Cold Atmospheric Plasma has also found a minor, but important role in tooth whitening and composite restoration. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that Cold Atmospheric Plasma induces apoptosis, necrosis, cell detachment, and senescence by disrupting the S phase of cell replication in tumor cells. This unique finding opens up its potential therapy in oncology.

  8. Inside the 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary Cancers Symposium: part 1 - kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, Sebastiano; Ciccarese, Chiara; Iacovelli, Roberto; Bersanelli, Melissa; Scarpelli, Marina; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, Moscone West Building, San Francisco, CA, USA, 7-9 January 2016 The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, held in San Francisco (CA, USA), from 7 to 9 January 2016, focused on 'patient-centric care: translating research to results'. Every year, this meeting is a must for anyone studying genitourinary tumors to keep abreast of the most recent innovations in this field, exchange views on behaviors customarily adopted in daily clinical practice, and discuss future topics of scientific research. This two-part report highlights the key themes presented at the 2016 ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, with part 1 reporting the main novelties of kidney cancer and part 2 discussing the most relevant issues which have emerged for bladder and prostate tumors.

  9. Epitope-driven DNA vaccine design employing immunoinformatics against B-cell lymphoma: a biotech's challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurescia, Sandra; Fioretti, Daniela; Fazio, Vito Michele; Rinaldi, Monica

    2012-01-01

    DNA vaccination has been widely explored to develop new, alternative and efficient vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. DNA vaccines offer several benefits such as specific targeting, use of multiple genes to enhance immunity and reduced risk compared to conventional vaccines. Rapid developments in molecular biology and immunoinformatics enable rational design approaches. These technologies allow construction of DNA vaccines encoding selected tumor antigens together with molecules to direct and amplify the desired effector pathways, as well as highly targeted vaccines aimed at specific epitopes. Reliable predictions of immunogenic T cell epitope peptides are crucial for rational vaccine design and represent a key problem in immunoinformatics. Computational approaches have been developed to facilitate the process of epitope detection and show potential applications to the immunotherapeutic treatment of cancer. In this review a number of different epitope prediction methods are briefly illustrated and effective use of these resources to support experimental studies is described. Epitope-driven vaccine design employs these bioinformatics algorithms to identify potential targets of vaccines against cancer. In this paper the selection of T cell epitopes to develop epitope-based vaccines, the need for CD4(+) T cell help for improved vaccines and the assessment of vaccine performance against tumor are reviewed. We focused on two applications, namely prediction of novel T cell epitopes and epitope enhancement by sequence modification, and combined rationale design with bioinformatics for creation of new synthetic mini-genes. This review describes the development of epitope-based DNA vaccines and their antitumor effects in preclinical research against B-cell lymphoma, corroborating the usefulness of this platform as a potential tool for cancer therapy. Achievements in the field of DNA vaccines allow to overcome hurdles to clinical translation. In a scenario where the vaccine

  10. Approaching airways in oncology surgery of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive prospective study was conducted in 'Maria Curie' Oncology Teaching Provincial Hospital during the period from January 2010 to December 2010. The sample included 210 patients studied with the purpose of identifying morbimortality of the difficult airway in Oncology Surgery of the head and neck in our institution

  11. POSSIBILITY OF PLANTS ACTIVE PARTS USAGE FOR ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Goncharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an implementation of plant drugs for oncological diseases treatment. It focuses on multicomponent combination herbal medicinal preparation, its therapeutic action, and supposed efficiency during its implementation with basic therapy for oncological disease.

  12. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Lundh; S.L. Knijnenburg; A.W. Jørgensen; E.C. van Dalen; L.C.M. Kremer

    2009-01-01

    Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews th

  13. The Evidence Behind Integrating Palliative Care Into Oncology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Erin

    2016-08-01

    Palliative care services provided alongside traditional oncology care have been shown to be beneficial to patients and families. This article provides a brief history of palliative care, a pathway to implementing these services into currently established oncology programs, and a brief discussion of common barriers.

  14. Nursing Fatigue: An Evidence-Based Practice Review for Oncology Nurses
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Jordan

    2015-12-01

    Nursing fatigue is a current and well-researched topic. Many negative outcomes and consequences exist for patients and nurses that have been linked to nursing fatigue. Medical errors are one such consequence, and these errors have become one of the top three preventable deaths in the United States. Oncology nurses are not immune to fatigue, and the consequences of their fatigue can be much more harmful to patients. PMID:26583629

  15. Research Areas - Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about NCI programs and initiatives that sponsor, conduct, develop, or support clinical trials, including NCI’s Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) initiatives.

  16. The use of combinations of monoclonal antibodies in clinical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Linda M; Schellens, Jan H M; Huitema, Alwin D R; Beijnen, Jos H

    2015-12-01

    Treatment with monoclonal antibodies is becoming increasingly important in clinical oncology. These antibodies specifically inhibit signaling pathways in tumor growth and/or induce immunological responses against tumor cells. By combining monoclonal antibodies several pathways may be targeted simultaneously, potentially leading to additive or synergistic effects. Theoretically, antibodies are very suitable for use in combination therapy, because of limited overlapping toxicity and lack of pharmacokinetic interactions. In this article an overview is given of preclinical and clinical data on twenty-five different combinations of antibodies in oncology. Some of these combinations have proven clinical benefit, for example the combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer, which exemplifies an additive or synergistic effect on antitumor activity in clinical studies and the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab, which results in significant increases in progression-free and overall survival in patients with advanced melanoma. However, other combinations may lead to unfavorable results, such as bevacizumab with cetuximab or panitumumab in advanced colorectal cancer. These combinations result in shorter progression-free survival and increased toxicity compared to therapy with a single antibody. In summary, the different published studies showed widely varying results, depending on the combination of antibodies, indication and patient population. More preclinical and clinical studies are necessary to unravel the mechanisms behind synergistic or antagonistic effects of combining monoclonal antibodies. Most research on combination therapies is still in an early stage, but it is expected that for several tumor types the use of combination therapy of antibodies will become standard of care in the near future.

  17. How radiation oncology emerged as a discipline in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The news about the discovery of Roentgen's new rays spread over Finland quite early, and the first Finnish writing about the rays appeared in February 1896. The first x-ray machine was installed in 1897. Proper training of radiologists began, however, at a comparatively late date. For a long time the position of radiologists remained a subordinate one. Radiology had the nature of a spare time hobby, because in most hospitals surgeons treated x-ray machines as a sideline. Because of this, scientific research work was delayed. The specialty of x-ray diagnosis and therapy was, however, established in 1921, and the Finnish Society of Radiology was founded in 1924. The first radiotherapy department with its own beds was opened in 1936 in Helsinki. In 1950, the first professor of medical radiology was appointed at the University of Helsinki. The Finnish Cancer Society played an important role in developing the radiotherapy net in the country by supplying cobalt devises and auxiliary hospital activities in the 1960s. In the early 1960s roentgen diagnosis and radiotherapy were separated into two distinct disciplines. There are now five medical faculties with chairs in radiation oncology. The country is divided into five regions for cancer care. The managing groups in each region are headed by the professor of radiotherapy and oncology. The radiation oncologists in Finland are involved in diagnosis and staging of cancer and are responsible for radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormones. They are responsible for follow-up of treated patients, their own wards, and the general care of their patients

  18. Maintenance of Certification for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance of Certification (MOC) recognizes that in addition to medical knowledge, several essential elements involved in delivering quality care must be developed and maintained throughout one's career. The MOC process is designed to facilitate and document professional development of American Board of Radiology (ABR) diplomates in the essential elements of quality care in Radiation Oncology and Radiologic Physics. ABR MOC has been developed in accord with guidelines of the American Board of Medical Specialties. All Radiation Oncology certificates issued since 1995 are 10-year, time-limited certificates; diplomates with time-limited certificates who wish to maintain specialty certification must complete specific requirements of the American Board of Radiology MOC program. Diplomates with lifelong certificates are not required to participate but are strongly encouraged to do so. Maintenance of Certification is based on documentation of participation in the four components of MOC: (1) professional standing, (2) lifelong learning and self-assessment, (3) cognitive expertise, and (4) performance in practice. Through these components, MOC addresses six competencies-medical knowledge, patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Details of requirements for components 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are outlined along with aspects of the fourth component currently under development

  19. Postmarket policy considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Matthew J; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J; Weymann, Deirdre; Morgan, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Oncology biological products are some of the most expensive drugs on the market and are a growing financial burden on patients and health-care systems. By 2020, numerous major biological cancer drugs will lose their patent protection allowing follow-on competitors, known as biosimilars, to enter the market. Clinical and regulatory considerations for biosimilars have begun to harmonise in Europe and the USA to help to define and streamline the pathway for biosimilar market authorisation. Yet, substantial international variation still exists in the pricing and market uptake of approved biosimilar oncology drugs. Differences in national postmarket policies for biosimilars might explain these disparities in pricing and uptake. In this Policy Review, policy approaches to competition between biosimilars and originators used by seven European countries--Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and the UK--and the USA are discussed, chosen because these countries represent a variety of postmarket policies and build on conclusions from previous work. We discuss these policies within the context of interchangeability, physician prescribing, substitutability, pharmacist dispensing, hospital financing and tendering, and pricing. PMID:26758759

  20. A Study of Layered Learning in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jill S; Buie, Larry W; Lyons, Kayley; Rao, Kamakshi; Pinelli, Nicole R; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Roth, Mary T

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To explore use of pharmacy learners as a means to expand pharmacy services in a layered learning practice model (LLPM), to examine whether an LLPM environment precludes achievement of knowledge-based learning objectives, and to explore learner perception of the experience. Design. An acute care oncology pharmacy practice experience was redesigned to support the LLPM. Specifically, the redesign focused on micro discussion, standardized feedback (eg, rubrics), and cooperative learning to enhance educational gain through performing clinical activities. Assessment. Posttest scores evaluating knowledge-based learning objectives increased in mean percentage compared to pretest values. Learners viewed the newly designed practice experience positively with respect to perceived knowledge attainment, improved clinical time management skills, contributions to patient care, and development of clinical and self-management skills. A fifth theme among students, comfort with learning, was also noted. Conclusion. Layered learning in an oncology practice experience was well-received by pharmacy learners. Data suggest a practice experience in the LLPM environment does not preclude achieving knowledge-based learning objectives and supports further studies of the LLPM. PMID:27293235

  1. Evaluation of burnout syndrome in oncology employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Senem; Yildirim, Yasemin Kuzeyli; Ozsaran, Zeynep; Uslu, Ruchan; Yalman, Deniz; Aras, Arif B

    2010-09-01

    Burnout is an important occupational problem for health care workers. We aimed to assess the burnout levels among oncology employees and to evaluate the sociodemographic and occupational factors contributing to burnout levels. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, which is designed to measure the three stages of burnout-emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA), was used. The study sample consisted of 90 participants with a median age of 34 (range 23-56). The mean levels of burnout in EE, DP and PA stages were 23.80 +/- 10.98, 5.21 +/- 4.99, and 36.23 +/- 8.05, respectively, for the entire sample. Among the 90 participants, 42, 20, and 35.6% of the employees had high levels of burnout in the EE, DP, and PA substage, respectively. Sociodemographic and occupational factors associated with higher levels of burnout included age of less than 35, being unmarried, being childless, >40 work hours per week, working on night shifts, and burnout. Furthermore, employees who are not pleased with working in oncology field, who would like to change their specialty if they have an opportunity, and whose family and social lives have been negatively affected by their work experienced higher levels of burnout. Burnout syndrome may influence physical and mental health of the employee and affects the quality of health care as well. Therefore, several individual or organizational efforts should be considered for dealing with burnout.

  2. Tumor relapse present in oncologic nasal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Tumor relapse is one of the more fearsome complications of the oncologic course and also to obscure the life prognosis, causing the loss of many reconstructions and of exhausting the repairing surgical possibilities. The aim of this study was to determine the relapse frequency, the repercussion on the repair and the subsequent medical course of patients operated on malign nasal tumors. Methods: We made a retrospective and descriptive study in 20 patients operated on malign nasal tumors with immediate repair using frontal flap. Patients came from National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology (NIOR), where they were seen from 2002 and 2007. Results: There were two relapses in 5 patients (25% of total), and the 80% of these were an epidermoid carcinoma. All patients with relapse lost the repaired tissues and received radiotherapy. Only it was possible to repair the defect in one of the patients; two of remained deceased, and were alive, without tumor relapse but without possibilities of repair. Conclusions: Considering the relapse frequency of nasal epidermoid carcinomas and of its repercussions when the Mhos histography technique is not available, it is advisable to delay the nasal repair until will be possible to confirm completely the histology of tumor exeresis. (author)

  3. Radiation Oncology and Medical Devices (Part 2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning J. Yue; Ting Chen; Wei Zou

    2014-01-01

    Radiation oncology is one of the three major treatment modalities to manage cancer patient cares, and is a discipline mainly driven by technology and medical devices. Modern radiation treatments have become fairly complex and involve in utilizing a variety of medical devices to achieve the goal of providing conformal radiation dose coverage to the tumor target(s) while maximizing the sparing of normal organ structures. Recently, different forms of linear accelerators/radioactive source based machines have been invented and developed with the aim of providing improved treatments and more treatment options. Besides linear accelerators (Linac) that have been undergoing constant improvement and advancement and can deliver fairly complicated dose distribution patterns, imaging systems, computer information and calculation systems have been more and more integrated into radiotherapy processes. To bring radiotherapy to a potentially higher level, many institutions have either acquired or started to consider particle therapy, especially proton therapy. The complexity of modern radiotherapy demands in-depth understanding of radiation physics and machine engineering as well as computer information systems. This paper is intended to provide an introductory description of radiation oncology and related procedures, and to provide an overview of the current status of medical devices in radiotherapy in the United States of America. This paper covers the radiation delivery systems, imaging systems, treatment planning systems, record and verify systems, and QA systems.

  4. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  5. Psycho-oncology in India: Emerging trends from Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswaran Chitra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that around 2.5 million people suffer from cancer at any given time in India. Almost 80% of patients reach hospitals in advanced stages of the disease. The majority needs palliative care, whereas only a minority of the needy receives this input. The challenge in the developing world is to evolve a culturally and socio-economically appropriate and acceptable system of care, while addressing psychosocial issues along with long-term care needs, that is accessible to the majority of those who need it. The evolution of a specific service for psychosocial care for persons and families started in the 1970s, initial work focusing mainly on research. Contributions from persons in varied topics have been outlined. Only a few organized clinical services function as part of large tertiary hospitals, oncology centers or palliative care units. The emerging trend in Northern Kerala is based on an integrated service linking training, clinical services and research activities which are linked at several levels, involving volunteers in the community. Future hopes lie in developing core groups; establishing specific clinical services liaising with cancer care teams, large scale research projects and discussion with policy makers to develop guidelines at national level.

  6. Physical sciences and engineering advances in life sciences and oncology a WTEC global assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Daniel; Gerecht, Sharon; Levine, Ross; Mallick, Parag; McCarty, Owen; Munn, Lance; Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) by a panel of experts. It covers the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe and Asia. The book elaborates on the six topics identified by the panel that have the greatest potential to advance understanding and treatment of cancer, each covered by a chapter in the book. The study was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the NIH in the US under a cooperative agreement with the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC).

  7. Clinical trial or standard treatment? Shared decision making at the department of oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Trine Ammentorp; Birkelund, Regner; Ammentorp, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Title: Clinical trial or standard treatment? Shared decision making at the department of oncology. Authors: Ph.d. student, Trine A. Gregersen. Trine.gregersen@rsyd.dk. Department of Oncology. Health Services Research Unit Lillebaelt Hospital / IRS University of Southern Denmark. Professor, Regner......’, relatives’ and healthcare providers’ experiences with regard to the decision about participating in a clinical trial. Method It is a qualitative study including 20 breast cancer patients, there relatives and healthcare providers. Data will be collected from: 1) Observation of conferences where patient...... are involved in difficult treatment decisions including participation in clinical trials. The literature indicates that the decision is very often based on little knowledge about the treatment and that many patients who have consented to participate in a clinical trial are not always aware...

  8. Student Performance in a Pharmacotherapy Oncology Module Before and After Flipping the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaer, John B; Panus, Peter; Stewart, David W; Hagemeier, Nick E; George, Joshua

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To determine if a flipped classroom improved student examination performance in a pharmacotherapy oncology module. Design. Third-year pharmacy students in 2012 experienced the oncology module as interactive lectures with optional case studies as supplemental homework. In 2013, students experienced the same content in a primarily flipped classroom. Students were instructed to watch vodcasts (video podcasts) before in-class case studies but were not held accountable (ie, quizzed) for preclass preparation. Examination questions were identical in both cohorts. Performance on examination questions was compared between the two cohorts using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with prior academic performance variables (grade point average [GPA]) as covariates. Assessment. The students who experienced the flipped classroom approach performed poorer on examination questions than the cohort who experienced interactive lecture, with previous GPA used as a covariate. Conclusion. A flipped classroom does not necessarily improve student performance. Further research is needed to determine optimal classroom flipping techniques. PMID:27073284

  9. Student Performance in a Pharmacotherapy Oncology Module Before and After Flipping the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaer, John B; Panus, Peter; Stewart, David W; Hagemeier, Nick E; George, Joshua

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To determine if a flipped classroom improved student examination performance in a pharmacotherapy oncology module. Design. Third-year pharmacy students in 2012 experienced the oncology module as interactive lectures with optional case studies as supplemental homework. In 2013, students experienced the same content in a primarily flipped classroom. Students were instructed to watch vodcasts (video podcasts) before in-class case studies but were not held accountable (ie, quizzed) for preclass preparation. Examination questions were identical in both cohorts. Performance on examination questions was compared between the two cohorts using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with prior academic performance variables (grade point average [GPA]) as covariates. Assessment. The students who experienced the flipped classroom approach performed poorer on examination questions than the cohort who experienced interactive lecture, with previous GPA used as a covariate. Conclusion. A flipped classroom does not necessarily improve student performance. Further research is needed to determine optimal classroom flipping techniques.

  10. A critical appraisal of the clinical utility of proton therapy in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang D

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dongxu WangDepartment of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USAAbstract: Proton therapy is an emerging technology for providing radiation therapy to cancer patients. The depth dose distribution of a proton beam makes it a preferable radiation modality as it reduces radiation to the healthy tissue outside the tumor, compared with conventional photon therapy. While theoretically beneficial, its clinical values are still being demonstrated from the increasing number of patients treated with proton therapy, from several dozen proton therapy centers around the world. High equipment and facility costs are often the major obstacle for its wider adoption. Because of the high cost and lack of definite clinical evidence of its superiority, proton therapy treatment faces criticism on its cost-effectiveness. Technological development is causing a gradual lowering of costs, and research and clinical studies are providing further evidence on its clinical utility.Keywords: proton therapy, radiation, cancer, oncology

  11. Applications of Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery in Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Polyachenko, Nicole H.; Carroll, David L.; Stewart, John H.

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce carbon nanomaterials and highlight research focused on their use as cancer therapeutics. The physical properties of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, including their spectral characteristics are described. Current oncology treatment regimes are described to provide an overview of where carbon nanomaterials may have significant value in further development of the established standards of care procedures. Photodynamic therapy and drug delivery using fullerene C60 is explored. Thermal ablation techniques using carbon nanotubes are explained and alternate hyperthermic methods using carbon nanotubes are described. Specifically, carbon nanotubes are examined for their potential contribution to the currently practiced clinical therapy intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemoperfusion. Nanotubes and nanohorns filled with chemotherapeutic agents are examined as are different methods for filling and containment of drug moieties. The attachment of active molecules to fullerenes is described with examples for use in oncology. Toxicity issues are explored and the future directions and potential for carbon nanomaterial types concludes the chapter.

  12. Comparative oncology: what dogs and other species can teach us about humans with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Joshua D; Breen, Matthew

    2015-07-19

    Over 1.66 million humans (approx. 500/100,000 population rate) and over 4.2 million dogs (approx. 5300/100,000 population rate) are diagnosed with cancer annually in the USA. The interdisciplinary field of comparative oncology offers a unique and strong opportunity to learn more about universal cancer risk and development through epidemiology, genetic and genomic investigations. Working across species, researchers from human and veterinary medicine can combine scientific findings to understand more quickly the origins of cancer and translate these findings to novel therapies to benefit both human and animals. This review begins with the genetic origins of canines and their advantage in cancer research. We next focus on recent findings in comparative oncology related to inherited, or genetic, risk for tumour development. We then detail the somatic, or genomic, changes within tumours and the similarities between species. The shared cancers between humans and dogs that we discuss include sarcoma (osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma, hemangiosarcoma), haematological malignancies (lymphoma, leukaemia), bladder cancer, intracranial neoplasms (meningioma, glioma) and melanoma. Tumour risk in other animal species is also briefly discussed. As the field of genomics advances, we predict that comparative oncology will continue to benefit both humans and the animals that live among us.

  13. Radiation oncology--linking technology and biology in the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, C Norman

    2002-01-01

    Technical advances in radiation oncology including CT-simulation, 3D- conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques, and brachytherapy have allowed greater treatment precision and dose escalation. The ability to intensify treatment requires the identification of the critical targets within the treatment field, recognizing the unique biology of tumor, stroma and normal tissue. Precision is technology based while accuracy is biologically based. Therefore, the intensity of IMRT will undoubtedly mean an increase in both irradiation dose and the use of biological agents, the latter considered in the broadest sense. Radiation oncology has the potential and the opportunity to provide major contributions to the linkage between molecular and functional imaging, molecular profiling and novel therapeutics for the emerging molecular targets for cancer treatment. This process of 'credentialing' of molecular targets will require multi disciplinary imaging teams, clinicians and basic scientists. Future advances will depend on the appropriate integration of biology into the training of residents, continuing post graduate education, participation in innovative clinical research and commitment to the support of basic research as an essential component of the practice of radiation oncology.

  14. Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise in Radiation Oncology Plug and Play-The Future of Radiation Oncology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the processes and benefits of the integrating healthcare enterprises in radiation oncology (IHE-RO). Methods: The IHE-RO process includes five basic steps. The first step is to identify common interoperability issues encountered in radiation treatment planning and the delivery process. IHE-RO committees partner with vendors to develop solutions (integration profiles) to interoperability problems. The broad application of these integration profiles across a variety of vender platforms is tested annually at the Connectathon event. Demonstration of the seamless integration and transfer of patient data to the potential users are then presented by vendors at the public demonstration event. Users can then integrate these profiles into requests for proposals and vendor contracts by institutions. Results: Incorporation of completed integration profiles into requests for proposals can be done when purchasing new equipment. Vendors can publish IHE integration statements to document the integration profiles supported by their products. As a result, users can reference integration profiles in requests for proposals, simplifying the systems acquisition process. These IHE-RO solutions are now available in many of the commercial radiation oncology-related treatment planning, delivery, and information systems. They are also implemented at cancer care sites around the world. Conclusions: IHE-RO serves an important purpose for the radiation oncology community at large.

  15. Clinical oncology in Malaysia: 1914 to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gcc

    2006-01-01

    A narration of the development of staff, infrastructure and buildings in the various parts of the country is given in this paper. The role of universities and other institutions of learning, public health, palliative care, nuclear medicine and cancer registries is described together with the networking that has been developed between the government, non-governmental organisations and private hospitals. The training of skilled manpower and the commencement of the Master of Clinical Oncology in the University of Malaya is highlighted. Efforts taken to improve the various aspects of cancer control which includes prevention of cancer, early detection, treatment and palliative care are covered. It is vital to ensure that cancer care services must be accessible and affordable throughout the entire health system, from the primary care level up to the centres for tertiary care, throughout the whole country.

  16. Progress of radiation oncology: known and unknown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jing; Yu Jinming

    2014-01-01

    Objective To elaborate known and unknown aspects of radiation oncology.Data sources Data cited in this review were obtained mainly from PubMed and Medline in English from 1999 to 2013,with keywords "individualized medicine","personalized medicine","radiation dose","radiation target","molecular targeted therapy","molecular imaging" and "~nctional imaging".Study selection Articles regarding radiation target delineation,radiation doses,new technology and equipment,combination of radiotherapy and molecular targeted therapy as well as other aspects were identified,retrieved and reviewed.Results A larger radiation field and a higher radiation dose are not always better.New equipment and technology are also not always better than conventional equipment and technologies.Effectiveness of radiotherapy combined with molecular targeted therapy needs more data to verify.Conclusion Personalized radiotherapy is the direction for the future.

  17. Oncological hadrontherapy and the TERA project

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    1996-01-01

    The first hour is devoted to a review of the techniques of conventional radiotherapy and of the European statistics on cancer treated and cured with the various techniques. In the second lesson the most recent applications of hadron accelerators to t Italian "Hadrontherapy Project" is introduced. This project (described in detail in the last lesson) foresees three independent but coherent activities :i) the construction of a large National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherary; (ii) the design and development of relatively small and "cheap" proton accelerators ("compact accelerators"), with which various centres could be equipped within reasonable cost boundaries; (iii) a multimedia information network (RITA) connecting a large number of Associated Centres with the Centres having hadron beams, so to select before any travelling the patients to be irradiated.

  18. The oncologic and the geriatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oncologic and the geriatric patient have special needs in the nuclear medicine department. The nuclear medicine technologists must be knowledgeable and compassionate when dealing with these patients. The diagnosis of cancer will have a sociological and psychological impact on the patient, to which the technologist must relate in an empathetic way. Furthermore, the technologist should take cognisance of the patient's physical condition and be able to modify the examination accordingly. Dealing with the geriatric patient should be correctly placed on the continuum between a gerontological and geriatric approach taking into consideration normal changes due to aging. The patient experience when undergoing the high technology nuclear medicine diagnostic procedure is unique and all effort must be made to ensure the success of the examination and the satisfaction of the patient (Au)

  19. Complications of radiotherapy in oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasons, mechanisms of development and features of clinical course of radiation response (injuries) in different organs and systems in patients with lung, uterus neck, mammary and thyroid gland cancer are described. Their clinical classification is presented. Dependences of frequency, severity and time of occurrence of radiation reactions (injuries) on the absorbed radiation dose value, time-dose-fractioning factor, localization and size of the neoplasm and on other parameters are demonstrated. Results of complex examination of oncologic patients with radiation reactions and injuries are presented. Principles of prophylactic medical examination of patients subjected to radiotherapy are described. Recommendation on the optimization of radiotherapy methods and prophylaxis of its complications are given. 56 refs.; 22 figs.; 4 tabs

  20. Not only PET for oncological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Our data with oncological patients evaluated through planar and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) gamma cameras over a period of more than 20 years, confirms the value of this technique, although PET is superior in sensitivity. The greater availability of radiotracers labeled with In-111 and Tc-99m has helped in identifying malignant tissue more accurately. In Latin America availability of PET is restricted to one or two Nuclear Medicine Departments in few countries of the Region. Our aim was to reaffirm the value of planar and SPECT imaging in early diagnosis, in the oncological follow-up and determining response to treatment. Bone scan, a well established imaging modality for search of metastatic pathologies (breast, prostate, lung and kidney) forms more than 56% of the studies requested monthly in our Nuclear Medicine Departments. When solitary peripheral lesions are detected in ribs and long bones the orthopedic surgeon sometimes requires external skin marking for biopsy procedure (1-2%). Twenty-six percent of consultations are thyroid cancer, where different therapeutic doses of I-131 are administered. Gallium-67 scanning constitutes 8-10% of our workload. About 10 mCi (370 MBq) of radioactivity is administered, mainly for stratification and monitoring response of Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Sentinel node detection (5-6% of patients) with different colloid preparations and hand-held probes is used in breast, melanoma, neck and head cancers. In our center we have achieved an accuracy rate of 92-94% in detecting Sentinel Lymph Nodes after three years of practice. The demand for scintimammography (in dense breasts and breast implants) for palpable masses, through planar scans is increasing. In-111 labeled somatostatin an analogue imaging for detection of neuro-endocrine tumors was seldom requested in our country because of their high cost, until the labeling methods were developed locally and transferred to private commercial

  1. Requirements for radiation oncology physics in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L; Fitchew, R; Drew, J

    2001-03-01

    This Position Paper reviews the role, standards of practice, education, training and staffing requirements for radiation oncology physics. The role and standard of practice for an expert in radiation oncology physics, as defined by the ACPSEM, are consistent with the IAEA recommendations. International standards of safe practice recommend that this physics expert be authorised by a Regulatory Authority (in consultation with the professional organization). In order to accommodate the international and AHTAC recommendations or any requirements that may be set by a Regulatory Authority, the ACPSEM has defined the criteria for a physicist-in-training, a base level physicist, an advanced level physicist and an expert radiation oncology physicist. The ACPSEM shall compile separate registers for these different radiation oncology physicist categories. What constitutes a satisfactory means of establishing the number of physicists and support physics staff that is required in radiation oncology continues to be debated. The new ACPSEM workforce formula (Formula 2000) yields similar numbers to other international professional body recommendations. The ACPSEM recommends that Australian and New Zealand radiation oncology centres should aim to employ 223 and 46 radiation oncology physics staff respectively. At least 75% of this workforce should be physicists (168 in Australia and 35 in New Zealand). An additional 41 registrar physicist positions (34 in Australia and 7 in New Zealand) should be specifically created for training purposes. These registrar positions cater for the present physicist shortfall, the future expansion of radiation oncology and the expected attrition of radiation oncology physicists in the workforce. Registrar physicists shall undertake suitable tertiary education in medical physics with an organised in-house training program. The rapid advances in the theory and methodology of the new technologies for radiation oncology also require a stringent approach

  2. The relationship between coping strategies and burnout syndrome in oncology nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Vévodová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major problem in the nursing profession. It is related to work overload, lack of nursing staff, and work in shifts, lack of coping strategies and a high turnover amongst health care staff. Rapid increase of stress in the oncology centers results in a high risk of burnout. One of the options for prevention is to find suitable coping strategies. The research objective of this study was to determine the rate of burnout amongst oncology nurses and to determine the relationship between coping strategies and burnout amongst oncology nurses in the Czech Republic. The survey was designed as a quantitative research. A questionnaire battery was used consisting of questionnaires MBI-GS (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, evaluating the degree of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment and standardized questionnaire OSI-R (Inventory of occupational stress which evaluates the emotional, cognitive stress management and the coping strategy (personal resources for coping with stress. The results of a questionnaire MBI-GS showed that out of the total of 140 oncology nurses, burnout was detected in 36 (26 % in the area of emotional exhaustion, in 24 (17 % in depersonalization, and in 53 nurses (28 % in personal accomplishment. The existence of a significant negative relationship was confirmed between the extent of burnout and all coping strategies monitored - social support, relaxation, self-care, and rational / cognitive coping.When analyzing all three areas of burnout, 23.66 % from the total number of 140 nurses are in the state of burnout. The results can be compared with the results of studies conducted by Zálešáková, Bužgová (2011 who found alarming values of burnout among 36.9 % oncology nurses and 11.9 % of the nurses were in the state of burnout. A meta-analysis of studies focusing on burnout among health care professionals working in oncology indicated that 25-36 % showed signs of burnout

  3. Evolution of health technology assessment: best practices of the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchi A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Rocchi,1 Isabelle Chabot,2 Judith Glennie3 1Athena Research Inc., Burlington, ON, 2EvAccess Inc., Vaudreuil-Dorion, QC, 3JL Glennie Consulting Inc., Aurora, ON, Canada Background: In 2007, Canada chose to develop a separate and distinct path for oncology drug health technology assessment (HTA. In 2013, the decision was made to transfer the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR to the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, to align the pCODR and CADTH Common Drug Review processes while building on the best practices of both. The objective of this research was to conduct an examination of the best practices established by the pCODR. Methods: A qualitative research approach was taken to assess the policies, processes, and practices of the pCODR, based on internationally accepted best practice “principles” in HTA, with a particular focus on stakeholder engagement. Publicly available information regarding the approach of the pCODR was used to gauge the agency's performance against these principles. In addition, stakeholder observations and real-world experiences were gathered through key informant interviews to be inclusive of perspectives from patient advocacy groups, provincial and/or cancer agency decision-makers, community and academic oncologists, industry, expert committee members, and health economists. Results: This analysis indicated that, through the pCODR, oncology stakeholders have had a voice in and have come to trust the quality and relevance of oncology HTA as a vital tool to ensure the best decisions for Canadians with cancer and their health care system. It could be expected that adoption of the principles and processes of the pCODR would bring a similar level of engagement and trust to other HTA organizations in Canada and elsewhere. Conclusion: The results of this research led to recommendations for improvement and potential extrapolation of these best practices to other HTA organizations

  4. An Increase in Medical Student Knowledge of Radiation Oncology: A Pre-Post Examination Analysis of the Oncology Education Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Results: Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p ≤ 0.03) was seen in the questions regarding acute and late side effects of radiation, brachytherapy for prostate cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Conclusions: Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology

  5. Quantitative imaging features: extension of the oncology medical image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M. N.; Looney, P. T.; Young, K. C.; Halling-Brown, M. D.

    2015-03-01

    Radiological imaging is fundamental within the healthcare industry and has become routinely adopted for diagnosis, disease monitoring and treatment planning. With the advent of digital imaging modalities and the rapid growth in both diagnostic and therapeutic imaging, the ability to be able to harness this large influx of data is of paramount importance. The Oncology Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) was created to provide a centralized, fully annotated dataset for research. The database contains both processed and unprocessed images, associated data, and annotations and where applicable expert determined ground truths describing features of interest. Medical imaging provides the ability to detect and localize many changes that are important to determine whether a disease is present or a therapy is effective by depicting alterations in anatomic, physiologic, biochemical or molecular processes. Quantitative imaging features are sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible imaging measures of these changes. Here, we describe an extension to the OMI-DB whereby a range of imaging features and descriptors are pre-calculated using a high throughput approach. The ability to calculate multiple imaging features and data from the acquired images would be valuable and facilitate further research applications investigating detection, prognosis, and classification. The resultant data store contains more than 10 million quantitative features as well as features derived from CAD predictions. Theses data can be used to build predictive models to aid image classification, treatment response assessment as well as to identify prognostic imaging biomarkers.

  6. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ahmed, Awad A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Yoo, Stella K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E., E-mail: KHoffman1@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-07-15

    high-impact oncology and medicine literature. Further research and attention are necessary to guide efforts promoting appropriate representation of all oncology studies in high-impact, broad-readership journals.

  7. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    high-impact oncology and medicine literature. Further research and attention are necessary to guide efforts promoting appropriate representation of all oncology studies in high-impact, broad-readership journals

  8. Increasing Minority Enrollment Onto Clinical Trials: Practical Strategies and Challenges Emerge From the NRG Oncology Accrual Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sandra E; Muller, Carolyn Y; Robinson, William; Walker, Eleanor M; Yeager, Kate; Cook, Elise D; Friedman, Sue; Somkin, Carol P; Brown, Carol Leslie; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2015-11-01

    Racial and ethnic diversity has historically been difficult to achieve in National Cancer Institute-sponsored clinical trials, even while as many as 80% of those trials have faced difficulty in meeting overall recruitment targets. In an attempt to address these issues, NRG Oncology recently convened a comprehensive workshop titled "Clinical Trials Enrollment: Challenges and Opportunities." Discussants at the workshop included representatives of the three legacy groups of the NRG (ie, Gynecologic Oncology Group, National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Program, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group), a minority-based community clinical oncology program, a large integrated health care system, the leadership of the National Cancer Institute, and a large patient advocacy group. This article summarizes the concepts discussed at the workshop, which included: needs assessments, infrastructural support, training of investigators and research staff, specific clinical trial recruitment strategies (both system and community based), and development and mentoring of young investigators. Many new, more specific tactics, including use of diverse cancer care settings, direct-to-consumer communication, and the need for centralized information technology such as the use of software to match trials to special populations, are presented. It was concluded that new, innovative trial designs and the realities of limited funding would require the adoption of effective and efficient recruiting strategies, specialized training, and stakeholder engagement. US clinical research programs must generate and embrace new ideas and pilot test novel recruitment strategies if they are to maintain their historic role as world leaders in cancer care innovation and delivery. PMID:26464496

  9. IV. South-Bohemian Oncology Days. Survey of lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oncology Days dealt with carcinomas in the urology field, particularly carcinomas of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and prostate. From among the contributions presented, 5 lectures devoted to the radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma were input to INIS. (P.A.)

  10. Overview of Accountable Care Organizations for Oncology Specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Anish J.; Macklis, Roger M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the economic factors leading to the growth of accountable care organizations and describe how oncology specialists may participate in the model to ensure success for physicians and patients.

  11. Laparoscopic resection for low rectal cancer: evaluation of oncological efficacy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Diarmaid C

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopic resection of low rectal cancer poses significant technical difficulties for the surgeon. There is a lack of published follow-up data in relation to the surgical, oncological and survival outcomes in these patients.

  12. Regulatory and clinical considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L; Chen, Brian; Hermanson, Terhi; Wyatt, Michael D; Schulz, Richard M; Georgantopoulos, Peter; Kessler, Samuel; Raisch, Dennis W; Qureshi, Zaina P; Lu, Z Kevin; Love, Bryan L; Noxon, Virginia; Bobolts, Laura; Armitage, Melissa; Bian, John; Ray, Paul; Ablin, Richard J; Hrushesky, William J; Macdougall, Iain C; Sartor, Oliver; Armitage, James O

    2015-01-01

    Biological oncology products are integral to cancer treatment, but their high costs pose challenges to patients, families, providers, and insurers. The introduction of biosimilar agents—molecules that are similar in structure, function, activity, immunogenicity, and safety to the original biological drugs—provide opportunities both to improve healthcare access and outcomes, and to reduce costs. Several international regulatory pathways have been developed to expedite entry of biosimilars into global marketplaces. The first wave of oncology biosimilar use was in Europe and India in 2007. Oncology biosimilars are now widely marketed in several countries in Europe, and in Australia, Japan, China, Russia, India, and South Korea. Their use is emerging worldwide, with the notable exception of the USA, where several regulatory and cost barriers to biosimilar approval exist. In this Review, we discuss oncology biosimilars and summarise their regulatory frameworks, clinical experiences, and safety concerns. PMID:25456378

  13. Radiation oncology physicists will need to better understand medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Allen; Hendee, William R

    2007-01-01

    Imaging is affecting radiation oncology at a dramatically advancing pace and scale and is likely to create a transformation to individualized, biologically conformal radiation therapy. Deploying and improving imaging technologies and ensuring their correct uses in treatment planning and delivery are the responsibilities of radiation oncology physicists. The potential magnitude of errors arising from the incorrect use of imaging may be far greater than that resulting from typical errors in dose calibration. A major effort is required for radiation oncology physicists to raise the quality assurance of image guidance to a level comparable with that achieved in the maintenance of dosimetric performance. Most radiation oncology physicists lack adequate knowledge to assume this emerging responsibility. Their knowledge of imaging must be enhanced, in most cases through on-the-job training and self-learning. Effective learning strategies include routine interactions with diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine physicists and physicians and the use of educational opportunities provided by professional organizations and vendors. PMID:17412223

  14. Oncology Nursing and Shared Decision Making for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariman, Joseph D; Mehmeti, Enisa; Spawn, Nadia; McCarter, Sarah P; Bishop-Royse, Jessica; Garcia, Ima; Hartle, Lisa; Szubski, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the contemporary role of the oncology nurse throughout the entire cancer shared decision-making (SDM) process. Study participants consisted of 30 nurses and nurse practitioners who are actively involved in direct care of patients with cancer in the inpatient or outpatient setting. The major themes that emerged from the content analysis are: oncology nurses have various roles at different time points and settings of cancer SDM processes; patient education, advocacy, and treatment side effects management are among the top nursing roles; oncology nurses value their participation in the cancer SDM process; oncology nurses believe they have a voice, but with various degrees of influence in actual treatment decisions; nurses' level of disease knowledge influences the degree of participation in cancer SDM; and the nursing role during cancer SDM can be complicated and requires flexibility.
. PMID:27668378

  15. NEURO-ONCOLOGIC PHYSICAL THERAPY FOR THE OLDER PERSON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Willie; Luhmann, Melissa

    2011-07-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the course of diagnoses, patients with neuro-oncological malignancies present challenges to the physical therapist. At times, the presentation of impairments and disabilities of these patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses do not necessarily coincide with the involved area of the brain or spinal cord. It is our intention to provide guidance to the physical therapist who will be working with these patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses, in hopes that their encounters will be more productive and meaningful. This article describes a brief overview of common central nervous system malignancies, its medical treatment, as well as possible complications and side effects that would need to be considered in rehabilitating these patients. Special consideration is given to the elderly patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses. Pertinent physical therapy assessments and interventions are discussed.

  16. Animal-Assisted Activities: Results From a Survey of Top-Ranked Pediatric Oncology Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubak, Jessica; Hawkes, Rene

    2016-07-01

    Animal-assisted activities (AAA) are increasingly common, yet little is known about practices in pediatric oncology. To address this gap, we surveyed the top 20 pediatric oncology hospitals in the United States in May and June of 2014. Questionnaires were sent via e-mail and generally returned by e-mail or postal mail. Among the 19 responding hospitals, the 18 that offered AAA to pediatric patients formed the basis of our analysis. All sites had written AAA policies. Most programs were restricted to dogs. At 11 hospitals, children with cancer could participate in AAA activities. Outpatient waiting rooms and individual inpatient rooms were the most common locations for AAA with pediatric oncology patients. Safety precautions varied by hospital, but all required hand sanitation after visits and that animals receive an annual health examination, be on a leash or in a carrier, be ≥1 year old, and not be directly from a shelter. Our findings reveal consistencies and variations in practice that may help other hospitals develop their own programs and researchers identify areas of future study.

  17. Animal-Assisted Activities: Results From a Survey of Top-Ranked Pediatric Oncology Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubak, Jessica; Hawkes, Rene

    2016-07-01

    Animal-assisted activities (AAA) are increasingly common, yet little is known about practices in pediatric oncology. To address this gap, we surveyed the top 20 pediatric oncology hospitals in the United States in May and June of 2014. Questionnaires were sent via e-mail and generally returned by e-mail or postal mail. Among the 19 responding hospitals, the 18 that offered AAA to pediatric patients formed the basis of our analysis. All sites had written AAA policies. Most programs were restricted to dogs. At 11 hospitals, children with cancer could participate in AAA activities. Outpatient waiting rooms and individual inpatient rooms were the most common locations for AAA with pediatric oncology patients. Safety precautions varied by hospital, but all required hand sanitation after visits and that animals receive an annual health examination, be on a leash or in a carrier, be ≥1 year old, and not be directly from a shelter. Our findings reveal consistencies and variations in practice that may help other hospitals develop their own programs and researchers identify areas of future study. PMID:26589356

  18. Diabetology and oncology meet in a network model: union is strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Marco; Gentile, Luigi; Arvat, Emanuela; Bertetto, Oscar; Clemente, Gennaro

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes and cancer are increasingly common conditions, and the management of cancer patients with diabetes is often challenging. Diabetes in cancer patients poses several complex clinical issues, including which treatment is suitable to control hyperglycemia, how to better counteract glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia, and how to manage nutritional problems of cachectic patients and glucose variability linked to artificial nutrition. A key aspect to consider is the patients' position on the trajectory of the oncologic disease, both to establish which level of glycemic control should be pursued and to decide the most suitable antidiabetic treatment to recommend. Endocrinologists are rarely involved in the management of patients with advanced cancer. Furthermore, lack of guidelines results in a "trial-and-error" approach, often with suboptimal disease management. Lastly, cancer survivors represent a frequently underestimated category of patients at higher cardiometabolic risk. A practical solution for these challenges lies in the implementation of care networks based on a close partnership and ongoing communication between oncologists, endocrinologists, and nutritionists, placing the patient at the center of the care process. At the same time, universities and scientific societies should play a key role in promoting research into areas of intersection of oncology and endocrinology, in raising awareness of common possibilities of primary and secondary prevention of metabolic and oncologic diseases, as well as specific challenges of managing diabetes and cancer, and proper training of health workers, while also supporting the shared implementation of effective management strategies. PMID:26862082

  19. International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): Outcomes of an IAEA Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment with photons or particles) in current clinical practice and future scenarios were discussed. ICARO was organized by the IAEA at the request of the Member States and co-sponsored and supported by other international organizations to assess advances in technologies in radiation oncology in the face of economic challenges that most countries confront. Participants submitted research contributions, which were reviewed by a scientific committee and presented via 46 lectures and 103 posters. There were 327 participants from 70 Member States as well as participants from industry and government. The ICARO meeting provided an independent forum for the interaction of participants from developed and developing countries on current and developing issues related to radiation oncology

  20. An investigation into the spiritual needs of neuro-oncology patients from a nurse perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Aline Victoria

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spiritual needs of cancer patients should be assessed and discussed by healthcare professionals. Neurosurgical nurses need to be able to assess and support neuro-oncology patients with their spiritual needs from diagnosis and throughout their hospital stay. Methods Data were collected through questionnaires using a Critical Incident Technique (CIT from neurosurgical nurses, findings were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Nurses reported some awareness of their patients’ spiritual needs during their stay on neurosurgical units although some used expressions approximating what could be described as spiritual needs. Patients’ spiritual needs were identified as: need to talk about spiritual concerns, showing sensitivity to patients’ emotions, responding to religious needs; and relatives’ spiritual needs included: supporting them with end of life decisions, supporting them when feeling being lost and unbalanced, encouraging exploration of meaning of life, and providing space, time and privacy to talk. Participants appeared largely to be in tune with their patients’ spiritual needs and reported that they recognised effective strategies to meet their patients’ and relatives’ spiritual needs. However, the findings also suggest that they don’t always feel prepared to offer spiritual support for neuro-oncology patients. Conclusions There is a need for healthcare professionals to provide spiritual care for neuro-oncology patients and their relatives. Although strategies were identified that nurses can use to support patients with spiritual needs further research is required to explore how effective nurses are at delivering spiritual care and if nurses are the most appropriate professionals to support neuro-oncology patients with spiritual care.

  1. Development of new on line statistical program for the Korean society for radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology (KOSRO) to collect and extract medical data in radiation oncology more efficiently. The statistical program is a web-based program. The directory was placed in a sub-folder of the homepage of KOSRO and its web address is http://www.kosro.or.kr/asda. The operating systems server is Linux and the webserver is the Apache HTTP server. For database (DB) server, MySQL is adopted and dedicated scripting language is the PHP. Each ID and password are controlled independently and all screen pages for data input or analysis are made to be friendly to users. Scroll-down menu is actively used for the convenience of user and the consistence of data analysis. Year of data is one of top categories and main topics include human resource, equipment, clinical statistics, specialized treatment and research achievement. Each topic or category has several subcategorized topics. Real-time on-line report of analysis is produced immediately after entering each data and the administrator is able to monitor status of data input of each hospital. Backup of data as spread sheets can be accessed by the administrator and be used for academic works by any members of the KOSRO. The new on-line statistical program was developed to collect data from nationwide departments of radiation oncology. Intuitive screen and consistent input structure are expected to promote entering data of member hospitals and annual statistics should be a cornerstone of advance in radiation oncology

  2. Development of new on line statistical program for the Korean society for radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Si Yeol; Ahn, Seung Do; Choi, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Weon Kuu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Kangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwan Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To develop new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology (KOSRO) to collect and extract medical data in radiation oncology more efficiently. The statistical program is a web-based program. The directory was placed in a sub-folder of the homepage of KOSRO and its web address is http://www.kosro.or.kr/asda. The operating systems server is Linux and the webserver is the Apache HTTP server. For database (DB) server, MySQL is adopted and dedicated scripting language is the PHP. Each ID and password are controlled independently and all screen pages for data input or analysis are made to be friendly to users. Scroll-down menu is actively used for the convenience of user and the consistence of data analysis. Year of data is one of top categories and main topics include human resource, equipment, clinical statistics, specialized treatment and research achievement. Each topic or category has several subcategorized topics. Real-time on-line report of analysis is produced immediately after entering each data and the administrator is able to monitor status of data input of each hospital. Backup of data as spread sheets can be accessed by the administrator and be used for academic works by any members of the KOSRO. The new on-line statistical program was developed to collect data from nationwide departments of radiation oncology. Intuitive screen and consistent input structure are expected to promote entering data of member hospitals and annual statistics should be a cornerstone of advance in radiation oncology.

  3. Paediatric oncology and intensive care treatments: changing trends

    OpenAIRE

    Keengwe, I.; Stansfield, F.; EDEN, O; Nelhans, N.; Dearlove, O.; Sharples, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To review the outcome of patients with childhood malignancy requiring intensive care treatment and to assess whether there is any secular trend for improved outcome.
DESIGN—Retrospective chart reviews of 74 consecutive admissions to a paediatric intensive care unit from a regional paediatric oncology centre between 1990 and 1997. During the same period there were 6419 admissions to the oncology unit, 814 of whom were new cases.
RESULTS—The overall survival a...

  4. Quality and safety in pediatric hematology/oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Brigitta U

    2014-06-01

    Many principles of quality of care and patient safety are at the foundation of pediatric hematology/oncology. However, we still see too many errors, continue to have problems with communication, and the culture in many of our areas is still one of worrying about retribution when mentioning a problem. This review explores why specialists in pediatric hematology/oncology should be leaders in the field of quality and safety in healthcare.

  5. The Road Not Taken and Choices in Radiation Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, C. Norman; Glatstein, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Accomplishments and contributions in a career in radiation oncology, and in medicine in general, involve individual choices that impact the direction of a specialty, decisions in patient care, consequences of treatment outcome, and personal satisfaction. Issues in radiation oncology include: the development and implementation of new radiation treatment technology; the use of multimodality and biologically based therapies; the role of nonradiation “energy” technologies, often by other medical ...

  6. An outline of the history of head and neck oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folz, Benedikt J; Silver, Carl E; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Fagan, Johannes J; Pratt, Loring W; Weir, Neil; Seitz, Daniela; Ferlito, Alfio

    2008-01-01

    This review analyzes the development of head and neck oncology as outlined in medical history articles. A systematic literature survey was conducted with the search engines "Google Scholar" and "PubMed" and the retrieved publications were cross-referenced. In addition, books and, when possible, original sources were consulted. While most of the material was obtained from publications from the modern era reviewing historical data, some of the information was derived from original source material. The obtained articles on the history of cancer were then analyzed for details on head and neck oncology. The cradle of oncology was located in ancient Egypt and Greece. The search showed that the first tumors treated in the head and neck were either cutaneous malignancies or cancers on the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity. The origin, diagnosis and treatment of more deeply situated tumors of the larynx and hypopharynx remained obscure for many centuries. The medieval age brought little progress to medicine in general, and in head and neck oncology in particular, due to religious concerns. Renaissance medicine was characterized by advances in medicine and oncology made by systematic dissection studies of normal and pathologic anatomy. The 19th and 20th century reflect the development of head and neck oncology in the era of science based medicine. Almost all of our current understanding of head and neck oncology, our diagnostic methods and treatment strategies have been developed in these two centuries. The analysis showed that many oncologic problems, which occupy our minds today, were also concerns of our medical ancestors. PMID:17659999

  7. The Need for Communication Skills Training in Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Hilaire, Dany Michaella

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health-care professionals and their patients is an element that can make all the difference in how those patients navigate their cancer journey. In a 2011 issue of the Annals of Oncology, Barth and Lannen reported on their systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of communication skills training courses in oncology. In this issue of JADPRO, two authors share their perspectives on the findings of Barth and Lannen and what advanced practitioners (APs) can learn ...

  8. Molecular Profiling to Optimize Treatment in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Review of Potential Molecular Targets for Radiation Therapy by the Translational Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausborn, Natalie L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Le, Quynh Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Saha, Debabrata [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Simko, Jeff [Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Story, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Torossian, Artour [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Lu, Bo, E-mail: bo.lu@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Therapeutic decisions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been mainly based on disease stage, performance status, and co-morbidities, and rarely on histological or molecular classification. Rather than applying broad treatments to unselected patients that may result in survival increase of only weeks to months, research efforts should be, and are being, focused on identifying predictive markers for molecularly targeted therapy and determining genomic signatures that predict survival and response to specific therapies. The availability of such targeted biologics requires their use to be matched to tumors of corresponding molecular vulnerability for maximum efficacy. Molecular markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), K-ras, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) represent potential parameters guide treatment decisions. Ultimately, identifying patients who will respond to specific therapies will allow optimal efficacy with minimal toxicity, which will result in more judicious and effective application of expensive targeted therapy as the new paradigm of personalized medicine develops.

  9. Molecular Profiling to Optimize Treatment in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Review of Potential Molecular Targets for Radiation Therapy by the Translational Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therapeutic decisions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been mainly based on disease stage, performance status, and co-morbidities, and rarely on histological or molecular classification. Rather than applying broad treatments to unselected patients that may result in survival increase of only weeks to months, research efforts should be, and are being, focused on identifying predictive markers for molecularly targeted therapy and determining genomic signatures that predict survival and response to specific therapies. The availability of such targeted biologics requires their use to be matched to tumors of corresponding molecular vulnerability for maximum efficacy. Molecular markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), K-ras, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) represent potential parameters guide treatment decisions. Ultimately, identifying patients who will respond to specific therapies will allow optimal efficacy with minimal toxicity, which will result in more judicious and effective application of expensive targeted therapy as the new paradigm of personalized medicine develops.

  10. The efficacy of hypnosis in the reduction of procedural pain and distress in pediatric oncology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Matt R; Espie, Colin A

    2004-06-01

    Children who suffer from cancer have to endure regular, painful medical procedures that are associated with a considerable degree of psychosocial distress. Hypnosis has been successfully employed in the management of pain and distress in the adult population, but is not well studied in pediatric populations. This review systematically evaluates the systematic research conducted in the field of procedure-related pain management in pediatric oncology within the context of a nationally agreed framework for the assessment of research evidence. It is concluded that there is not currently enough robust research evidence to recommend that hypnosis should form part of best practice guidelines for the management of procedure-related pain in pediatric oncology. However, there is sufficient evidence to justify larger-scale, appropriately controlled studies. A number of recommendations are made regarding future research. PMID:15194906

  11. [Strategies for improving care of oncologic patients: SHARE Project results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reñones Crego, María de la Concepción; Fernández Pérez, Dolores; Vena Fernández, Carmen; Zamudio Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment is a major burden for the patient and its family that requires an individualized management by healthcare professionals. Nurses are in charge of coordinating care and are the closest healthcare professionals to patient and family; however, in Spain, there are not standard protocols yet for the management of oncology patients. The Spanish Oncology Nursing Society developed between 2012 and 2014 the SHARE project, with the aim of establishing strategies to improve quality of life and nursing care in oncology patients. It was developed in 3 phases. First, a literature search and review was performed to identify nursing strategies, interventions and tools to improve cancer patients' care. At the second stage, these interventions were agreed within a group of oncology nursing experts; and at the third phase, a different group of experts in oncology care categorized the interventions to identify the ones with highest priority and most feasible to be implemented. As a result, 3 strategic actions were identified to improve nursing care during cancer treatment: To provide a named nurse to carry out the follow up process by attending to the clinic or telephonic consultation, develop therapeutic education with adapted protocols for each tumor type and treatment and ensure specific training for nurses on the management of the cancer patients. Strategic actions proposed in this paper aim to improve cancer patients' healthcare and quality of life through the development of advanced nursing roles based on a higher level of autonomy, situating nurses as care coordinators to assure an holistic care in oncology patients.

  12. Challenge of pediatric oncology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Larry G P; Rouma, Bankole S; Saad-Eldin, Yasser

    2012-05-01

    The care of children with malignant solid tumors in sub-Saharan Africa is compromised by resource deficiencies that range from inadequate healthcare budgets and a paucity of appropriately trained personnel, to scarce laboratory facilities and inconsistent drug supplies. Patients face difficulties accessing healthcare, affording investigational and treatment protocols, and attending follow-up. Children routinely present with advanced local and metastatic disease and many children cannot be offered any effective treatment. Additionally, multiple comorbidities, including malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV when added to acute on chronic malnutrition, compound treatment-related toxicities. Survival rates are poor. Pediatric surgical oncology is not yet regarded as a health care priority by governments struggling to achieve their millennium goals. The patterns of childhood solid malignant tumors in Africa are discussed, and the difficulties encountered in their management are highlighted. Three pediatric surgeons from different regions of Africa reflect on their experiences and review the available literature. The overall incidence of pediatric solid malignant tumor is difficult to estimate in Africa because of lack of vital hospital statistics and national cancer registries in most of countries. The reported incidences vary between 5% and 15.5% of all malignant tumors. Throughout the continent, patterns of malignant disease vary with an obvious increase in the prevalence of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and Kaposi sarcoma in response-increased prevalence of HIV disease. In northern Africa, the most common malignant tumor is leukemia, followed by brain tumors and nephroblastoma or neuroblastoma. In sub-Saharan countries, BL is the commonest tumor followed by nephroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. The overall 5-years survival varied between 5% (in Côte d'Ivoire before 2001) to 34% in Egypt and up to 70% in South Africa. In many reports, the survival rate of

  13. A clinical intranet model for radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A new paradigm in computing is being formulated from advances in client-server technology. This new way of accessing data in a network is referred to variously as Web-based computing, Internet computing, or Intranet computing. The difference between an internet and intranet being that the former is for global access and the later is only for intra-departmental access. Our purpose with this work is to develop a clinically useful radiation oncology intranet for accessing physically disparate data sources. Materials and Methods: We have developed an intranet client-server system using Windows-NT Server 4.0 running Internet Information Server (IIS) on the back-end and client PCs using a typical World Wide Web (WWW) browser. The clients also take advantage of the Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) standard for accessing commercial database systems. The various data sources used include: a traditional Radiation Oncology Information (ROIS) System (VARiS 1.3tm); a 3-D treatment planning system (CAD Plantm); a beam scanning system (Wellhoffertm); as well as an electronic portal imaging device (PortalVisiontm) and a CT-Simulator providing digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) (Picker AcQsimtm). We were able to leverage previously developed Microsoft Visual C++ applications without major re-writing of source code for this. Results: With the data sources and development materials used, we were able to develop a series of WWW-based clinical tool kits. The tool kits were designed to provide profession-specific clinical information. The physician's tool kit provides a treatment schedule for daily patients along with a dose summary from VARiS and the ability to review portal images and prescription images from the EPID and Picker. The physicists tool kit compares dose summaries from VARiS with an independent check against RTP beam data and serves as a quick 'chart-checker'. Finally, an administrator tool kit provides a summary of periodic charging

  14. CNAM: care and treatment aboard in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tunisian National Health Insurance Fund (TNHIF) has 186 practitioners and advisers (physicians, dentists and pharmacists) in the service of medical supervision. These advisers are distributed on three levels (regional, district and national). In the present paper we have discussed the CNAM support in the different types of oncology (FSD (Fully Supported Disorders), Hospitalization, the scans, the radiation therapy, specific drugs and treatment abroad). We begin by presenting expenditures by year and age group for FSD and hospitalization in the private and the public sectors. We then give the conventional packages for scans, radiotherapy: either for CLAM or CRAM. Daily benefits for the sickness leave and the disability will be presented briefly. Then we will give the administrative process for the approval of the commission for specific medication. The medical advice is based on certain criteria that will be explained in the paper. In certain cases definitive medical advice needs to call for the recommendation of a national commission and oncology or different experts. The spending trend of the TNHIF from 2001 to 2012 will be discussed. TNHIF generally considered Herceptin, Nexavar Erbitaux as the main drugs for targeted therapies. We present for the treatment cost and expenditure trends for the first drug from 2008 to 2012 as well as the estimation for 2013, which increases from one year to year. For the treatment with the second and the third drug we give the evolution of expenditure between 2010 and 2012. Cancer is a serious disease that requires a costly multidisciplinary support for the patients. This support has changed the prognosis survival (see cases of healing). The financial coverage of this support can never be supported by the family (whatever the wealth level) without any TNHIF support. The real gain in survival and expenditure control are closely related to awareness and early detection of the disease. TNHIF usually intervenes in the financing of

  15. Oncologic Outcomes After Transoral Robotic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, J. Scott; Smith, Richard V.; Moore, Eric; Lawson, Georges; Remacle, Marc; Ganly, Ian; Kraus, Dennis H.; Teng, Marita S.; Miles, Brett A.; White, Hilliary; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Ferris, Robert L.; Mehta, Vikas; Kiyosaki, Krista; Damrose, Edward J.; Wang, Steven J.; Kupferman, Michael E.; Koh, Yoon Woo; Genden, Eric M.; Holsinger, F. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Large patient cohorts are necessary to validate the efficacy of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the management of head and neck cancer. OBJECTIVES To review oncologic outcomes of TORS from a large multi-institutional collaboration and to identify predictors of disease recurrence and disease-specific mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective review of records from 410 patients undergoing TORS for laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2012, was performed. Pertinent data were obtained from 11 participating medical institutions. INTERVENTIONS Select patients received radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy before or after TORS. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Locoregional control, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were calculated. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank testing to evaluate individual variable association with these outcomes, followed by multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression modeling to identify independent predictors. RESULTS Of the 410 patients treated with TORS in this study, 364 (88.8%) had oropharyngeal cancer. Of these 364 patients, information about post-operative adjuvant therapy was known about 338: 106 (31.3) received radiation therapy alone, and 72 (21.3%) received radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. Neck dissection was performed in 323 patients (78.8%). Mean follow-up time was 20 months. Local, regional, and distant recurrence occurred in 18 (4.4%), 15 (3.7%), and 10 (2.4%) of 410 patients, respectively. Seventeen (4.1%) died of disease, and 13 (3.2%) died of other causes. The 2-year locoregional control rate was 91.8% (95% CI, 87.6%-94.7%), disease-specific survival 94.5% (95% CI, 90.6%-96.8%), and overall survival 91% (95% CI, 86.5%-94.0%). Multivariate analysis identified improved survival among women (P = .05) and for patients with tumors arising in tonsil (P = .01). Smoking was associated with worse overall

  16. Cancer-related fatigue. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    increase support, restorative therapies to decrease cognitive alterations and improve mood state, and nutritional and sleep interventions for patients with disturbances in eating or sleeping. Pharmacologic therapy may include drugs, such as antidepressants for depression or erythropoietin for anemia. A few clinical reports of the use of psychostimulants suggest the need for further research on these agents as potential treatment modalities in managing fatigue. Effective management of cancer-related fatigue involves an informed and supportive oncology care team that assesses patients' fatigue levels regularly and systematically, educates and counsels patients regarding strategies for coping with fatigue, and uses institutional fatigue management experts for referral of patients with unresolved fatigue. PMID:19761067

  17. Circulating tumor DNA detection (liquid biopsy: prospects in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zhukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern research techniques allows tumor studying in almost any level: protein expression, structural changes of DNA, RNA, epigenetic changes, activity of signaling pathways, microenvironment, interaction with the immune system, etc. However, tumor samples are obtained as 100 years ago – by tumor biopsy prior to treatment. Based on available data about intratumoral heterogeneity and tumor changes during treatment, it may be one of the factors braking to obtain required information of tumor biology. According to study, the analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA allows to hope to overcome the key limitations of routine biopsy. One of the key benefits of ctDNA analysis is the ability to a more comprehensive tumor investigation, while maintaining a high level of specificity, almost as well as a routine biopsy. Detection sensitivity of ctDNA continues to increase due to the development of new technology. The study of ctDNA may lead to breakthrough results in understanding of tumors molecular heterogeneity, development of resistance to anticancer therapy and ways to overcome it, screening and a number of other key areas of modern oncology.

  18. Circulating tumor DNA detection (liquid biopsy: prospects in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zhukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern research techniques allows tumor studying in almost any level: protein expression, structural changes of DNA, RNA, epigenetic changes, activity of signaling pathways, microenvironment, interaction with the immune system, etc. However, tumor samples are obtained as 100 years ago – by tumor biopsy prior to treatment. Based on available data about intratumoral heterogeneity and tumor changes during treatment, it may be one of the factors braking to obtain required information of tumor biology. According to study, the analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA allows to hope to overcome the key limitations of routine biopsy. One of the key benefits of ctDNA analysis is the ability to a more comprehensive tumor investigation, while maintaining a high level of specificity, almost as well as a routine biopsy. Detection sensitivity of ctDNA continues to increase due to the development of new technology. The study of ctDNA may lead to breakthrough results in understanding of tumors molecular heterogeneity, development of resistance to anticancer therapy and ways to overcome it, screening and a number of other key areas of modern oncology.

  19. A microchip platform for structural oncology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Carly E; Gilmore, Brian L; Demmert, Andrew C; Karageorge, Vasilea; Sheng, Zhi; Kelly, Deborah F

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of functional materials offer new tools to dissect human health and disease mechanisms. The use of tunable surfaces is especially appealing as substrates can be tailored to fit applications involving specific cell types or tissues. Here we use tunable materials to facilitate the three-dimensional (3D) analysis of BRCA1 gene regulatory complexes derived from human cancer cells. We employed a recently developed microchip platform to isolate BRCA1 protein assemblies natively formed in breast cancer cells with and without BRCA1 mutations. The captured assemblies proved amenable to cryo-electron microscopy (EM) imaging and downstream computational analysis. Resulting 3D structures reveal the manner in which wild-type BRCA1 engages the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) core complex that contained K63-linked ubiquitin moieties—a putative signal for DNA repair. Importantly, we also determined that molecular assemblies harboring the BRCA15382insC mutation exhibited altered protein interactions and ubiquitination patterns compared to wild-type complexes. Overall, our analyses proved optimal for developing new structural oncology applications involving patient-derived cancer cells, while expanding our knowledge of BRCA1’s role in gene regulatory events. PMID:27583302

  20. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallamini, Andrea, E-mail: gallamini.a@ospedale.cuneo.it [Department of Research and Medical Innovation, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice University, Nice Cedex 2-06189 Nice (France); Zwarthoed, Colette [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice University, Nice Cedex 2-06189 Nice (France); Borra, Anna [Hematology Department S. Croce Hospital, Via M. Coppino 26, Cuneo 12100 (Italy)

    2014-09-29

    Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG). FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later.

  1. Functional MRI and CT biomarkers in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, J.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, MRI Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Payne, G.S.; DeSouza, N.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Imaging biomarkers derived from MRI or CT describe functional properties of tumours and normal tissues. They are finding increasing numbers of applications in diagnosis, monitoring of response to treatment and assessment of progression or recurrence. Imaging biomarkers also provide scope for assessment of heterogeneity within and between lesions. A wide variety of functional parameters have been investigated for use as biomarkers in oncology. Some imaging techniques are used routinely in clinical applications while others are currently restricted to clinical trials or preclinical studies. Apparent diffusion coefficient, magnetization transfer ratio and native T{sub 1} relaxation time provide information about structure and organization of tissues. Vascular properties may be described using parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, transverse relaxation rate (R{sub 2}*), vessel size index and relative blood volume, while magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be used to probe the metabolic profile of tumours. This review describes the mechanisms of contrast underpinning each technique and the technical requirements for robust and reproducible imaging. The current status of each biomarker is described in terms of its validation, qualification and clinical applications, followed by a discussion of the current limitations and future perspectives. (orig.)

  2. Provider volume and outcomes for oncological procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Oncological procedures may have better outcomes if performed by high-volume providers. METHODS: A review of the English language literature incorporating searches of the Medline, Embase and Cochrane collaboration databases was performed. Studies were included if they involved a patient cohort from 1984 onwards, were community or population based, and assessed health outcome as a dependent variable and volume as an independent variable. The studies were also scored quantifiably to assess generalizability with respect to any observed volume-outcome relationship and analysed according to organ system; numbers needed to treat were estimated where possible. RESULTS: Sixty-eight relevant studies were identified and a total of 41 were included, of which 13 were based on clinical data. All showed either an inverse relationship, of variable magnitude, between provider volume and mortality, or no volume-outcome effect. All but two clinical reports revealed a statistically significant positive relationship between volume and outcome; none demonstrated the opposite. CONCLUSION: High-volume providers have a significantly better outcome for complex cancer surgery, specifically for pancreatectomy, oesphagectomy, gastrectomy and rectal resection.

  3. Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy in interventional oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a well-investigated locoregional cancer treatment in which a systemically administered photosensitizer is activated locally by illuminating the diseased tissue with light of a suitable wavelength. PDT offers various treatment strategies in oncology, especially palliative ones. This article focuses on the development and evaluation of interstitial PDT for the treatment of solid tumors, particularly liver tumors. The PDT is mostly used for superficial and endoluminal lesions like skin or bladder malignancies and also more frequently applied for the treatment of lung, esophageal, and head and neck cancer. With the help of specially designed application systems, PDT is now becoming a practicable option for solid lesions, including those in parenchymal organs such as the liver. After intravenous treatment with the photosensitizer followed by interstitial light activation, contrast-enhanced computed tomography shows the development of therapy-induced necrosis around the light-guiding device. With the use of multiple devices, ablation of liver tumors seems to be possible, and no severe side effects or toxicities related to the treatment are reported. PDT can become a clinically relevant adjunct in the locoregional therapy strategies. (orig.)

  4. Lean oncology: a new model for oncologists

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    Montesarchio Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The history of the term Lean is relatively recent and originates from the Toyota Production System (TPS. The term "Lean" means "thin", which refers to a mental process, operational, productive, no-frills, quick but not hasty, consequential to the previous event. The Lean process flows seamlessly into the result, eliminates unnecessary complications to the effect, prevents unnecessary equipment processes. The idea is to 'do more with less', like using the (few available resources in the most productive way possible, through the elimination of all types of waste that inevitably accompanies every stage of a production process. Lean management is primarily a management philosophy, a system of values and behaviors that goes beyond the mere application of the instrument and that, once internalized, will form the nucleus of the corporate culture. "Lean Oncology" is a term coined to identify a methodology of care and treatment to cancer patients, consisting on process simplification, streamlining of the organizational and routes of drug treatment, detection and elimination of waste. Its main objective is the centrality of the patient.

  5. Positron Emission Tomography (PET in Oncology

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    Andrea Gallamini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG. FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later.

  6. Attitudes of Chinese Oncology Physicians Toward Death with Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-ping; Huang, Bo-yan; Yi, Ting-wu; Deng, Yao-Tiao; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yu-qing; Zhang, Zong-yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Death with dignity (DWD) refers to the refusal of life-prolonging measures for terminally ill patients by “living wills” forms in advance. More and more oncology physicians are receiving DWD requests from advance cancer patients in mainland China. Objective: The study objective was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese oncology physicians toward the legalization and implementation of DWD. Methods: A questionnaire investigating the understanding and attitudes toward DWD was administered to 257 oncology physicians from 11 hospitals in mainland China. Results: The effective response rate was 86.8% (223/257). The majority of oncology physicians (69.1%) had received DWD requests from patients. Half of the participants (52.5%) thought that the most important reason was the patients' unwillingness to maintain survival through machines. One-third of participants (33.0%) attributed the most important reason to suffering from painful symptoms. Most oncology physicians (78.9%) had knowledge about DWD. A fifth of respondents did not know the difference between DWD and euthanasia, and a few even considered DWD as euthanasia. The majority of oncology physicians supported the legalization (88.3%) and implementation (83.9%) of DWD. Conclusions: Many Chinese oncology physicians have received advanced cancer patients' DWD requests and think that DWD should be legalized and implemented. Chinese health management departments should consider the demands of physicians and patients. It is important to inform physicians about the difference between DWD and euthanasia, as one-fifth of them were confused about it. PMID:27022774

  7. Radiation oncology career decision variables for graduating trainees seeking positions in 2003-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation oncology trainees must consider an array of variables when deciding upon an academic or private practice career path. This prospective evaluation of the 2004 graduating radiation oncology trainees, evaluates such variables and provides additional descriptive data. Methods: A survey that included 15 questions (one subjective, eleven categorical, and 3 continuous variables) was mailed to the 144 graduating radiation oncology trainees in United States programs in January of 2004. Questions were designed to gather information regarding factors that may have influenced career path choices. The responses were anonymous, and no identifying information was sought. Survey data were collated and analyzed for differences in both categorical and continuous variables as they related to choice of academic or private practice career path. Results: Sixty seven (47%) of the surveys were returned. Forty-five percent of respondents indicated pursuit of an academic career. All respondents participated in research during training with 73% participating in research publication authorship. Post graduate year-3 was the median in which career path was chosen, and 20% thought that a fellowship position was 'perhaps' necessary to secure an academic position. Thirty percent of the respondents revealed that the timing of the American Board of Radiology examination influenced their career path decision. Eighteen variables were offered as possibly influencing career path choice within the survey, and the top five identified by those seeking an academic path were: (1) colleagues, (2) clinical research, (3) teaching, (4) geography, (5) and support staff. For those seeking private practice, the top choices were: (1) lifestyle, (2) practice environment, (3) patient care, (4) geography, (5) colleagues. Female gender (p = 0.064), oral meeting presentation (p = 0.053), and international meeting presentation (p 0.066) were the variables most significantly associated with pursuing an

  8. Taking action: An exploration of the actions of exemplary oncology nurses when there is a sense of hopelessness and futility perceived by registered nurses at diagnosis, during treatment, and in palliative situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Katherine J; Perry, Beth

    2015-01-01

    "There is nothing more that can be done" is a phrase that may occasionally cross the minds of oncology nurses. This paper reports on the actions of exemplary oncology nurses who were faced with such situations where their colleagues gave up or turned away. The research question, "What actions do exemplary clinical oncology nurses (RNs) undertake in patient-care situations where further nursing interventions seem futile?" prefaced data collection via a secure website where 14 Canadian clinical oncology registered nurses (RNs) provided narratives documenting their actions. Thematic analysis utilized QRS NVivo 10 software and hand coding. Four themes were generated from data analysis: advocacy, not giving up, genuine presence, and moral courage. Implications for practice and future research are provided.

  9. Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) research update

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENOMICS To meet the growing demands of consumers, the poultry industry will need to continue to improve methods of selection in breeding programs for production and associated traits. One possible solution is genome-wide marker-assisted selection (GWMAS). In brief, evenly-spaced genetic markers s...

  10. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  11. In vitro models of pancreatic cancer for translational oncology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Georg; Rauenzahn, Sherri; Maitra, Anirban

    2009-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is a disease of near uniform fatality and the overwhelming majority of patients succumb to their advanced malignancy within a few months of diagnosis. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic carcinogenesis, this knowledge has not yet been fully translated into clinically available treatment strategies that yield significant improvements in disease free or overall survival. Objective Cell line-based in vitro model systems provide powerful tools to identify potential molecular targets for therapeutic intervention as well as for initial pre-clinical evaluation of novel drug candidates. Here we provide a brief overview of recent literature on cell line-based model systems of pancreatic cancer and their application in the search for novel therapeutics against this vicious disease. Conclusion While in vitro models of pancreatic cancer are of tremendous value for genetic studies and initial functional screenings in drug discovery, they carry several imanent drawbacks and are often poor in predicting therapeutic response in humans. Therefore, in most instances they are successfully exploited to generate hypothesis and identify molecular targets for novel therapeutics, which are subsequently subject to further in-depth characterization using more advanced in vivo model systems and clinical trials. PMID:20160967

  12. The impact of qualitative research on gynaecologic oncology guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Jeffrey Andrew; Abitbol, Jeremie; Lau, Susie; Gotlieb, Walter Henri; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2015-02-01

    Objectif : Les soins offerts aux patientes atteintes d’un cancer comptent une importante composante psychosociale, laquelle a été explorée de façon scientifique par l’intermédiaire de la recherche qualitative. Notre étude avait pour objectif d’évaluer la disponibilité de la recherche qualitative en gynéco-oncologie et d’en mesurer l’intégration aux directives cliniques relevant du domaine de la gynéco-oncologie. Méthodes : Nous avons mené des recherches dans diverses bases de données (Medline, CINHAL, Scopus et Web of Science) en vue de cerner la disponibilité de la recherche qualitative menée au cours des 20 dernières années au sujet des trois cancers gynécologiques les plus prévalents : les cancers de l’endomètre, de l’ovaire et du col utérin. Des directives cliniques nationales et internationales portant sur la prise en charge des cancers gynécologiques ont été sélectionnées au moyen du site Web National Guideline Clearinghouse, du site Web de la Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada, et du répertoire Standards and Guidelines Evidence de lignes directrices sur le cancer. Une analyse bibliométrique a été utilisée pour déterminer la fréquence des références qualitatives citées dans les directives cliniques en question. Résultats : Nous avons identifié 113 mémoires de recherche qualitative portant sur des cancers gynécologiques qui se centraient sur les effets psychologiques, sur la dynamique sociale et sur les interactions médecin-patiente dans le cadre du traitement anticancéreux et de la récupération. Au sein des 15 directives cliniques nationales et internationales portant sur la prise en charge des cancers gynécologiques que nous avons identifiées, nous avons dénombré un total de 2 272 références; parmi ces dernières, seules trois références citant une recherche qualitative ont été identifiées (0,1 %), et ce, au sein d’une seule directive clinique parmi les 15 qui ont été analysées. Conclusion : Bien que des efforts de recherche qualitative soient menés dans le domaine de la gynéco-oncologie, l’intégration de leurs résultats aux directives cliniques est essentiellement inexistante. La mise en œuvre de mesures visant à combler l’écart entre la recherche qualitative et la pratique clinique s’avère essentielle pour assurer l’utilisation d’une approche exhaustive envers le traitement des patientes qui présentent un cancer gynécologique.

  13. Evolución de la terapia ocupacional en el campo de la oncología = Occupational therapy evolution in oncology field

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    Navarrete Salas, E

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El objetivo de lasiguiente revisión bibliográfica fue conocer la trayectoria de la Terapia Ocupacional (T.O. en el área oncológica durante las últimas 4 décadas. Para ello se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH y AMED, con los descriptores Terapia Ocupacional, oncología y cáncer, tanto en el título como en el abstract; se excluyeron los artículos que no estuviesen en idioma inglés o español.Los resultados arrojaron un total de 68 publicaciones de T.O. y cáncer, con una curva sostenida de crecimiento en el número de trabajos publicados. En cuanto a tipo de cáncer predominan las publicaciones que aluden a cáncer en general, aunque destaca el interés por estudiar pacientes con cáncer mamario. La metodología predominante es descriptiva aunque en las últimas 2 décadas los trabajos publicados con metodología cualitativa alcanzaron un 30% del total. Destaca el foco puesto en los pacientes (86% de las publicaciones, aunque también hay trabajos referidos al equipo de salud oncológica (14%. Se comprueba además que la gran mayoría de las publicaciones corresponde a intervenciones de T.O. (80%. En conclusión, pese a que el número total de publicaciones de T.O. en oncología es reducido, nuestra revisión bibliográfica permite afirmar que existe un creciente y sostenido interés por explorar este tipo de patologías e integrar activamente los equipos de salud oncológica Abstract:The aim of following bibliographical review was to know which path of the Occupational Therapy (O.T. has been in the oncology area during the last 4 decades. A research was carried out in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH and AMED, with key words Occupational Therapy, oncology and cancer, as much in the title as in the abstract; only articles in English or Spanishwere included. Results threw a total of 68 publications of O.T. and cancer, with a sustained curve of growth in the number of published papers

  14. Rationale and design of the Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research Trial (MANTICORE 101 - Breast: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer using cardiac MRI

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    Ezekowitz Justin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MANTICORE 101 - Breast (Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research is a randomized trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or beta-blocker can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling, measured with cardiac MRI, among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty-nine patients with histologically confirmed HER2+ breast cancer will be enrolled in a parallel 3-arm, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind design. After baseline assessments, participants will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (perindopril, beta-blocker (bisoprolol, or placebo. Participants will receive drug or placebo for 1 year beginning 7 days before trastuzumab therapy. Dosages for all groups will be systematically up-titrated, as tolerated, at 1 week intervals for a total of 3 weeks. The primary objective of this randomized clinical trial is to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, as measured by 12 month change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume using cardiac MRI. Secondary objectives include 1 determine the evolution of left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, 2 understand the mechanism of trastuzumab mediated cardiac toxicity by assessing for the presence of myocardial injury and apoptosis on serum biomarkers and cardiac MRI, and 3 correlate cardiac biomarkers of myocyte injury and extra-cellular matrix remodeling with left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. Discussion Cardiac toxicity as a result of cancer therapies is now recognized as a significant health problem of increasing prevalence. To our knowledge, MANTICORE will be the first

  15. Monitoring cancer stem cells: insights into clinical oncology

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    Lin SC

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ShuChen Lin,1,* YingChun Xu,2,* ZhiHua Gan,1 Kun Han,1 HaiYan Hu,3 Yang Yao,3 MingZhu Huang,4 DaLiu Min1 1Department of Oncology, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital East Campus, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2Department of Oncology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 3Department of Oncology, The Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 4Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs are a small, characteristically distinctive subset of tumor cells responsible for tumor initiation and progression. Several treatment modalities, such as surgery, glycolytic inhibition, driving CSC proliferation, immunotherapy, and hypofractionated radiotherapy, may have the potential to eradicate CSCs. We propose that monitoring CSCs is important in clinical oncology as CSC populations may reflect true treatment response and assist with managing treatment strategies, such as defining optimal chemotherapy cycles, permitting pretreatment cancer surveillance, conducting a comprehensive treatment plan, modifying radiation treatment, and deploying rechallenge chemotherapy. Then, we describe methods for monitoring CSCs. Keywords: cancer stem cells, glycolytic inhibition, watchful waiting, rechallenge, immunotherapy

  16. 2016 AAHA Oncology Guidelines for Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, Barb; Berg, John; Garrett, Laura; Ruslander, David; Wearing, Richard; Abbott, Bonnie; Patel, Mithun; Smith, Diana; Bryan, Christine

    2016-01-01

    All companion animal practices will be presented with oncology cases on a regular basis, making diagnosis and treatment of cancer an essential part of comprehensive primary care. Because each oncology case is medically unique, these guidelines recommend a patient-specific approach consisting of the following components: diagnosis, staging, therapeutic intervention, provisions for patient and personnel safety in handling chemotherapy agents, referral to an oncology specialty practice when appropriate, and a strong emphasis on client support. Determination of tumor type by histologic examination of a biopsy sample should be the basis for all subsequent steps in oncology case management. Diagnostic staging determines the extent of local disease and presence or absence of regional or distant metastasis. The choice of therapeutic modalities is based on tumor type, histologic grade, and stage, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and adjunctive therapies, such as nutritional support and pain management. These guidelines discuss the strict safety precautions that should be observed in handling chemotherapy agents, which are now commonly used in veterinary oncology. Because cancer is often a disease of older pets, the time of life when the pet-owner relationship is usually strongest, a satisfying outcome for all parties involved is highly dependent on good communication between the entire healthcare team and the client, particularly when death or euthanasia of the patient is being considered. These guidelines include comprehensive tables of common canine and feline cancers as a resource for case management and a sample case history. PMID:27259020

  17. [What is new in pediatric oncology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, O; Brugières, L; Patte, C; Kalifa, C; Vassal, G; Valteau-Couanet, D; Hartmann, O

    2000-08-01

    The significant progress made in pediatric oncology during recent years has been due to a major breakthrough in the field of molecular biology and the introduction of new therapeutic strategies that take into account both the quality and the duration of life. Molecular biology has already been instrumental in more fully categorizing the 'small round-cell tumor' group, and in reclassifying the 'Ewing family' tumors. It also provides a valuable tool for the prognostic evaluation of neuroblastomas through the analysis of the N-myc oncogene. In addition, it has permitted the identification of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome of predisposition to cancer in the child, thereby raising the problematical ethical issue of communicating relevant information to subjects at risk. Two examples illustrate innovative strategic concepts: 1) Burkitt's lymphoma, or an example of the successful de-intensification of treatment; and 2) brain tumors in young children, regarding which the desire to improve the quality of life has led to innovative attempts to replace radiotherapy by chemotherapy. Considerable progress has been made in the field of neuropsychology, thereby permitting an improved assessment of disorders and a better management of rehabilitation programs. New anti-cancer agents and also chemo- and radiotherapy that spare healthy tissue are also being developed. Gene therapy and molecular biology will play a major role in future therapeutic strategies; and are now at the preclinical trial stage. This significant overall progress leads to a reconsideration of the organizational approach toward treatment of the pediatric patient population suffering from cancer, and a critical assessment of disease management, which should take into account not only the technical aspects of the disease but also familial and social considerations. PMID:10985189

  18. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  19. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneja, Sanjay [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Roberts, Kenneth [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  20. Informal patient payments in oncology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomenko, Tetiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Europe, new cases of cancer are diagnosed in 4 million people yearly, of whom 837 000 die. In Ukraine of 160 000 new cases almost 100 000 die. With proper treatment, one third of cancer cases is curable, but informal payments (IPP in health care limit access to treatment. We aimed to explore the experience of people treated for cancer to identify obstacles in obtaining health care and the expert opinion about health care for cancer patients in Ukraine.METHODS: The study is exploratory. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 convenience sample patients or their relatives as well as with three experts between October 2011 – April 2012. RESULTS. Solicitation or receipt of IPP depends on the organizational culture. Respondents do not mind about IPP, but want this to be their own decision. IPP are often considered a “thank” to the medical staff for the service. The significant percentage of expenditures while in treatment for patients is due to purchases of medicines at their own expense. The problem of a long process of diagnostics and incomplete information by the medical staff about the stage of cancer and possible prognoses are essential for the respondents. According to experts not sufficient number of specialists and equipment for proper diagnosis and treatment is another problem. The attitude of medical staff to the patient with cancer largely depends on the personal features of the staff.CONCLUSIONS: Significant problems perceived by cancer patients are related to purchase of medicines at their own expense, structural and organizational features of hospitals, where they are staying for the treatment. Informal payments largely depend on the personal qualities of medical staff. The government must ensure fairness and equal access in getting care in oncology practice because it mainly affects the health of the nation.