WorldWideScience

Sample records for biotech oncology research

  1. Neuro-oncology biotech industry progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shamik; Bodhinayake, Imithri; Chiluwal, Amrit; Langer, David J; Ruggieri, Rosamaria; Symons, Marc; Boockvar, John A

    2016-05-01

    The Brain Tumor Biotech Center at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, in collaboration with Voices Against Brain Cancer hosted The Brain Tumor Biotech Summit at in New York City in June 2015. The focus was once again on fostering collaboration between neuro-oncologist, neurosurgeons, scientists, leaders from biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, and members of the financial community. The summit highlighted the recent advances in the treatment of brain tumor, and specifically focused on targeting of stem cells and EGFR, use of prophage and immunostimulatory vaccines, retroviral vectors for drug delivery, biologic prodrug, Cesium brachytherapy, and use of electric field to disrupt tumor cell proliferation. This article summarizes the current progress in brain tumor research as presented at 2015 The Brain Tumor Biotech Summit. PMID:26897014

  2. Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN) was established in March 2015 with the goal to accelerate knowledge generation, synthesis and translation of oncologic emergency medicine research through multi-center collaborations.

  3. Comparative Effectiveness Research in Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Lyman, Gary H.

    2013-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials represent the gold standard for comparative effective research, but additional methods are available when randomized controlled trials are lacking or inconclusive. Comparative effective research requires oversight of study design and analysis, but if appropriately conducted, offers an opportunity to identify the most effective and safe approach to patient care. Oncologists and oncology societies are uniquely positioned to provide the expertise to steer the appropr...

  4. Servier's pipeline in oncology: moving from research to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therasse, Patrick; Abastado, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Patrick Therasse and Jean-Pierre Abastado speak to Roshaine Gunawardana, Managing Commissioning Editor: Patrick Therasse is an MD, PhD who has focused his career on drug development in oncology. He is currently the Head of Oncology Development for Servier. Before working for Servier, he worked 8 years for GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines as Vice President, Head of Global Clinical Development for immunotherapeutics. He started his career at the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) as a research fellow and then served as Director of the EORTC Research Center for 11 years. He has worked in all fields of oncology with a long track record of publications mainly in the field of breast cancer and methodological research. He is most well known for developing new Response Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST), the reference for response assessment in cancer clinical trials since 2000. His areas of expertise encompass Phase I-III drug development with small molecules or active/passive immunotherapy and translational research. Jean-Pierre Abastado is an immuno-oncologist in charge of the R&D in Oncology at Servier, where he is Director of the Therapeutic Innovation Pole in Oncology. He conducted his professional career between various academic and industrial institutions. He was trained at Ecole Polytechnique (Paris), prepared his PhD on Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) at the Pasteur Institute, and made a postdoctoral training at NIH (Bethesda, MD, USA). He studied T-cell activation in the Immunology department of the Pasteur Institute and at the CNRS. He was Vice President, Chief Scientific Officer of IDM-Pharma, a company specialized in cell therapy against cancer. Before joining Servier, he headed the Laboratory of Tumour Immunology within the Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN) where his team studied the tumor immune microenvironment. He has served on the Editorial board of several journals and in the Scientific Advisory Board of several biotech

  5. Voices of biotech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Ido; Baker, David; Barker, Roger; Berger, Bonnie; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Biffi, Alessandra; Demichelis, Francesca; Doudna, Jennifer; Dowdy, Steven F.; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander; Zhang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    What will be the most important areas of research in biotech over the coming years? Which technologies will be most important to advance knowledge and applications in these areas? Nature Biotechnology reached out to a set of investigators working in research areas representative of the journal's ...

  6. Voluntary Informed Consent in Paediatric Oncology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekking, Sara A S; Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    In paediatric oncology, research and treatments are often closely combined, which may compromise voluntary informed consent of parents. We identified two key scenarios in which voluntary informed consent for paediatric oncology studies is potentially compromised due to the intertwinement of research and care. The first scenario is inclusion by the treating paediatric oncologist, the second scenario concerns treatments confined to the research context. In this article we examine whether voluntary informed consent of parents for research is compromised in these two scenarios, and if so whether this is also morally problematic. For this, we employ the account of voluntary consent from Nelson and colleagues, who assert that voluntary consent requires substantial freedom from controlling influences. We argue that, in the absence of persuasion or manipulation, inclusion by the treating physician does not compromise voluntariness. However, it may function as a risk factor for controlling influence as it narrows the scope within which parents make decisions. Furthermore, physician appeal to reciprocity is not controlling as it constitutes persuasion. In addition, framing information is a form of informational manipulation and constitutes a controlling influence. In the second scenario, treatments confined to the research context qualify as controlling if the available options are restricted through manipulation of options. Although none of the influences is morally problematic in itself, a combination of influences may create morally problematic instances of involuntary informed consent. Therefore, safeguards should be implemented to establish an optimal environment for parents to provide voluntary informed consent in an integrated research-care context. PMID:26686529

  7. Structure, Employment and Performance in Biotech Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    biotech firms in a relevant context we compare a Danish segment of biotech firms with a matching Swedish segment.From an overall assessment modern biotechnology, despite the three decades elapsed since the first genetic manipulation, is still in a stage of experimentation, learning how to turn its new...... segment of Drug Discovery Firms (DDFs), which almost exclusively are based on capabilities in biotech research. This delimitation gives the advantage of studying a homogenous segment of firms. At the same time, this segment of biotech research firms is an informative indicator of the ability of the Danish...... economy to perform in the transition towards knowledge and sciencebased competitiveness. That is so because DDFs to an unusual extent depend on the ability of their framework to perform as an innovation system, by which we refer to advantages growing out of interactions and complementarities between e...

  8. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute’s Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  9. Generation of Comprehensive Thoracic Oncology Database - Tool for Translational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Surati, Mosmi; Robinson, Matthew; Nandi, Suvobroto; Faoro, Leonardo; Demchuk, Carley; Kanteti, Rajani; Ferguson, Benjamin; Gangadhar, Tara; Hensing, Thomas; Hasina, Rifat; Husain, Aliya; Ferguson, Mark; Karrison, Theodore; Salgia, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The Thoracic Oncology Program Database Project was created to serve as a comprehensive, verified, and accessible repository for well-annotated cancer specimens and clinical data to be available to researchers within the Thoracic Oncology Research Program. This database also captures a large volume of genomic and proteomic data obtained from various tumor tissue studies. A team of clinical and basic science researchers, a biostatistician, and a bioinformatics expert was convened to design the ...

  10. Research in Undergraduate Instruction: A Biotech Lab Project for Recombinant DNA Protein Expression in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Mark; Ordman, Alfred B.; Campbell, A. Malcolm

    1996-06-01

    In the sophomore-level Molecular Biology and Biotechnology course at Beloit College, students learn basic methods in molecular biology in the context of pursuing a semester-long original research project. We are exploring how DNA sequence affects expression levels of proteins. A DNA fragment encoding all or part of the guanylate monokinase (gmk) sequence is cloned into pSP73 and expressed in E. coli. A monoclonal antibody is made to gmk. The expression level of gmk is determined by SDS gel elctrophoresis, a Western blot, and an ELISA assay. Over four years, an increase in enrollment in the course from 9 to 34 students, the 85% of majors pursuing advanced degrees, and course evaluations all support the conclusion that involving students in research during undergraduate courses encourages them to pursue careers in science.

  11. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  12. Impact of radiation research on clinical trials in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present an outline review of the history of the formation of the cooperative group called International Clinical Trials in Radiation Oncology (ICTRO), and the following areas are briefly discussed together with some projections for the direction of clinical trials in radiation oncology into the 1990s:- radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and their combination, drug-radiation interactions, dose/time/fractionation, hyperthermia, biological response modifiers and radiolabelled antibodies, high LET, particularly neutron therapy, large field irradiation and interoperative irradiation, research studies on specific sites. (U.K.)

  13. NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of cancer care investigators, providers, academia, and other organizations that care for diverse populations in health systems. View the list of publications from NCORP. | Clinical Trials network of cancer care professionals who care for diverse populations across the U.S.

  14. Partnership between small biotech and big pharma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederrecht, Gregory J; Hill, Raymond G; Beer, Margaret S

    2006-08-01

    The process involved in the identification and development of novel breakthrough medicines at big pharma has recently undergone significant changes, in part because of the extraordinary complexity that is associated with tackling diseases of high unmet need, and also because of the increasingly demanding requirements that have been placed on the pharmaceutical industry by investors and regulatory authorities. In addition, big pharma no longer have a monopoly on the tools and enabling technologies that are required to identify and discover new drugs, as many biotech companies now also have these capabilities. As a result, researchers at biotech companies are able to identify credible drug leads, as well as compounds that have the potential to become marketed medicinal products. This diversification of companies that are involved in drug discovery and development has in turn led to increased partnering interactions between the biotech sector and big pharma. This article examines how Merck and Co Inc, which has historically relied on a combination of internal scientific research and licensed products, has poised itself to become further engaged in partnering with biotech companies, as well as academic institutions, to increase the probability of success associated with identifying novel medicines to treat unmet medical needs--particularly in areas such as central nervous system disorders, obesity/metabolic diseases, atheroma and cancer, and also to cultivate its cardiovascular, respiratory, arthritis, bone, ophthalmology and infectious disease franchises. PMID:16871465

  15. Contract research organizations in oncology clinical research: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel A; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Steensma, David P

    2016-05-15

    Contract research organizations (CROs) represent a multibillion dollar industry that is firmly embedded in the contemporary clinical trial process. Over the past 30 years, and especially within the last decade, the reach of CROs has extended to service all phases of drug trials in an increasingly global research environment. The presence of CROs is particularly noticeable in medical oncology because of the large number of investigational compounds developed to treat cancer that are currently undergoing testing in human subjects. Although limited data are available with which to objectively define the effects that CROs have had on the clinical trial process, with the expansion of these organizations, several reports have called into question whether ethical and professional standards in research conduct are at times secondary to economic considerations. CROs can add considerable value to the clinical trial process, but difficulty communicating with CRO representatives and time spent answering trivial data queries generated by CROs are current obstacles for study site personnel interacting with CROs. Further study of the effect of the CRO industry on the clinical trial process is needed to ensure efficient data collection and patient safety while collaboratively developing novel therapies in an expedited fashion. Cancer 2016;122:1476-82. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27018651

  16. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  17. Financial risk of the biotech industry versus the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Joseph; Vernon, John A

    2009-01-01

    The biotech industry now accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of total R&D spending on new medicines. However, compared with the pharmaceutical industry, the biotech industry is financially fragile. This article illustrates the financial fragility of the biotech and pharmaceutical industries in the US and the implications of this fragility for the effects that government regulation could have on biotech firms. Graphical analysis and statistical tests were used to show how the biotech industry differs from the pharmaceutical industry. The two industries' characteristics were measured and compared, along with various measures of firms' financial risk and sensitivity to government regulation. Data from firms' financial statements provided accounting-based measures and firms' stock returns applied to a multifactor asset pricing model provided financial market measures. The biotech industry was by far the most research-intensive industry in the US, averaging 38% R&D intensity (ratio of R&D spending to total firm assets) over the past 25 years, compared with an average of 25% for the pharmaceutical industry and 3% for all other industries. Biotech firms exhibited lower and more volatile profits and higher market-related and size-related risk, and they suffered more negative stock returns in response to threatened government price regulation. Biotech firms' financial risks increase their costs of capital and make them more sensitive to government regulations that affect their financial prospects. As biotech products grow to represent a larger share of new medicines, general stock market conditions and government regulations could have a greater impact on the level of innovation of new medicines. PMID:19799470

  18. Scientific knowledge dynamics and relatedness in biotech cities

    OpenAIRE

    Boschma, Ron; Heimeriks, Gaston; Balland, Pierre-Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of scientific relatedness on knowledge dynamics in biotech at the city level during the period 1989-2008. We assess the extent to which the emergence of new research topics and the disappearance of existing topics in cities are dependent on their degree of scientific relatedness with existing topics in those cities. We make use of the rise and fall of title words in scientific publications in biotech to identify major cognitive developments within the field....

  19. Scientific Knowledge Dynamics and Relatedness in Bio-Tech Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Boschma; Gaston Heimeriks; Pierre-Alexandre Balland

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of scientific relatedness on knowledge dynamics in biotech at the city level during the period 1989-2008. We assess the extent to which the emergence of new research topics and the disappearance of existing topics in cities are dependent on their degree of scientific relatedness with existing topics in those cities. We make use of the rise and fall of title words in scientific publications in biotech to identify major cognitive developments within the field....

  20. Science communication in policy making:A qualitative research about the motivation of academic biotech scientists to participate in policy making in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Coumou, Hilde; van der Werf Kulichova, Z.; Wehrmann, C.; Osseweijer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Policy making regarding application of agricultural biotechnology has been controversial. This study investigates what determines the motivation of European biotech scientists to actively participate in policy making. To do this, a conceptual framework was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The framework was operationalized in semi-structured interviews with 17 European biotech scientists to collect data about their motivation to involve in GMO policy making. The results of th...

  1. Communicating financials in the biotech industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark, biotechnology and its physical product, the genetically modified organism, continues to be controversial, leading to widespread public scepticism. This paper explores the effect of such scepticism on part of the financial communication of one of Denmark's largest biotech companies......, Novozymes. Research indicates that besides accommodating a legal demand for the disclosure of company financial details, the annual report, in particular the letter to the shareholders or the CEO's letter, serves the purpose of marketing the company to its constituents (Bowman 1984; Bülow-Møller 2003......; Hyland 1998). This point is arguably of more importance to a biotech company which in its communication to the public may have to consider promoting an overly favourable and trustworthy image not only of its financial results, but also of the industry in which it is engaged, to ensure continuous...

  2. Social Network Analysis of the Irish Biotech Industry: Implications for Digital Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egeraat, Chris; Curran, Declan

    This paper presents an analysis of the socio-spatial structures of innovation, collaboration and knowledge flow among SMEs in the Irish biotech sector. The study applies social network analysis to determine the structure of networks of company directors and inventors in the biotech sector. In addition, the article discusses the implications of the findings for the role and contours of a biotech digital ecosystem. To distil these lessons, the research team organised a seminar which was attended by representatives of biotech actors and experts.

  3. 近年来我国生物技术药物研究进展和趋势%The Research Progress and Trend of Biotech Drugs in Recent Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友同; 吴文俊; 李谦; 高美风

    2013-01-01

    Biological technology is the topic height at the development of economy and technology in the 21st century all over the world . The authors based on the world biotech- drugs total development trend, summarized the biotech drugs research achievements in recent five years in China. The content includes: cytokine, protein and peptide drugs, fusion protein, cell-penetrating peptides, enzymes,gene therapy,stem cells,monoclonal antibodies,therapeutic vaccine,polysaccharide drugs,etc. It is found in the survey that the development of biotech drugs has a bright future in treating complicated diseases, protecting the human health, improving the life quality, and developing the biotech drugs industry, thank to the emerging of many creative biotech drug researches within our country. This paper provides the reference for establishing the relevant research plan, deciding the research project, setting development goals for enterprise research,and choosing professional development direction,and to biological pharmaceutical researchers.%生物技术是21世纪世界各国竞相发展的经济、技术的制高点,作者站在世界生物技术药物发展总趋势的高度上,具体而微地调查和总结了我国近5年来生物技术药物研究所取得的成果,内容包括:细胞因子、其它蛋白质和多肽药物、融合蛋白、穿膜肽、酶、基因治疗、干细胞、单克隆抗体、治疗性疫苗及多糖药物等.调查发现,在攻克人类顽疾、保障人民身体健康、提高生活质量和发展我国生物技术药物产业方面,由于国内成批有创见的研究成果持续涌现,发展前景一片光明.该文可为有关部门科研规划、确定研究项目、企业锁定发展目标及生物制药人员选择专业发展方向提供参考.

  4. The integration of research and care in pediatric oncology: implications for review and consent

    OpenAIRE

    Dekking, S.A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The large majority of children with cancer participate in medical research. This varies from observational studies, to laboratory research on different types of tissue, to drug research, to supportive care studies. As such, pediatric oncology is a field where treatments are often provided in the research context, thereby integrating research with care. This thesis evaluates the challenges and advantages that come with the integration of research and care in pediatric oncology. The first part ...

  5. Quo vadis, biotech? (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, J

    2001-01-01

    Those following the financial markets and the valuation of biotechnology companies recently might find themselves perplexed. Towards the end of 1999, during which the availability of capital for biotech initial public offerings and for private investment rounds seemingly withered, the markets suddenly turned around and gave the biotechnology industry its biggest bonanza ever. PMID:11165169

  6. NMSBA: Sandia Biotech 2016 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this project is to modify the FluorAbody plasmid previously developed by Sandia Biotech to include a binding site for biotin by introducing the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP)and a gold binding protein (GBP) into a loop of the red fluorescent protein (mRFP).

  7. Combining Instructionist and Constructionist Learning in a Virtual Biotech Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawabi, Peter; Wessner, Martin

    The background of this paper is an internal research project at the German National Research Center for Information Technology, Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, (GMD-IPSI) dealing with software engineering, computer-supported cooperative learning (CSCL) and practical biotech knowledge. The project goal is to develop a…

  8. Social Network Analysis of the Irish Biotech Industry: Implications for Digital Ecosystems (NIRSA) Working Paper Series No. 55.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Egeraat, Chris; Curran, Declan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the socio-spatial structures of innovation, collaboration and knowledge flow among SMEs in the Irish biotech sector. The study applies social network analysis to determine the structure of networks of company directors and inventors in the biotech sector. In addition, the article discusses the implications of the findings for the role and contours of a biotech digital ecosystem. To distil these lessons, the research team organised a seminar which was attende...

  9. MARKETING OF BIOTECH FUNCTIONAL FOODS IN THE US

    OpenAIRE

    Chema, Kambua; Marks, Leonie A.; Parcell, Joseph L.; Bredahl, Maury E.

    2004-01-01

    To date, most research in Europe and the United States has focused on eliciting consumer WTP for biotech foods without directly addressing strategies for marketing them. We use means-end theory to link consumers' knowledge about functional attributes, to their knowledge about consequences and core values, in order to gain insights into valued attributes for developing potential marketing strategies.

  10. Novel Translational Research Concepts and Strategies in Radiation Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, P. K.; Seema Gupta; Ahmed, Mansoor M.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of X-rays by Roentgen in 1895 and the discovery of radiations emitted from Uranium compounds by Becquerel led to the establishment of the field of Radiation Sciences. When Radiation Sciences utilized the knowledge in the field of Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Medicine, newer fields were established such as Radiation -Oncology, -Chemistry, -Biology, -Protection, - Physics, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. Fields of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Biology have gained significant...

  11. First Author Research Productivity of United States Radiation Oncology Residents: 2002-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Participation in investigative research is a required element of radiation oncology residency in the United States. Our purpose was to quantify the first author research productivity of recent U.S. radiation oncology residents during their residency training. Methods and Materials: We performed a computer-based search of PubMed and a manual review of the proceedings of the annual meetings of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology to identify all publications and presented abstracts with a radiation oncology resident as the first author between 2002 and 2007. Results: Of 1,098 residents trained at 81 programs, 50% published ≥1 article (range, 0-9), and 53% presented ≥1 abstract (range, 0-3) at an American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meeting. The national average was 1.01 articles published and 1.09 abstracts presented per resident during 4 years of training. Of 678 articles published, 82% represented original research and 18% were review articles. Residents contributed 15% of all abstracts at American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meetings, and the resident contribution to orally presented abstracts increased from 12% to 21% during the study period. Individuals training at programs with >6 residents produced roughly twice as many articles and abstracts. Holman Research Pathway residents produced double the national average of articles and abstracts. Conclusion: Although variability exists among individuals and among training programs, U.S. radiation oncology residents routinely participate in investigative research suitable for publication or presentation at a scientific meeting. These data provide national research benchmarks that can assist current and future radiation oncology residents and training programs in their self-assessment and research planning.

  12. A framework for prescription in exercise-oncology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, John P; Eves, Neil D; Christensen, Jesper F;

    2015-01-01

    The field of exercise-oncology has increased dramatically over the past two decades, with close to 100 published studies investigating the efficacy of structured exercise training interventions in patients with cancer. Of interest, despite considerable differences in study population and primary ...

  13. Health care biotech industry (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Padmanaban

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern biotechnology became possible because of the ability to clone genes and produce gene products barriers of species and sex. Potential entrepreneurs are getting interested in venturing into health care biotech industry, stimulated by the success story in information technology. Products of protein therapeutics, such as insulin, growth hormones, interferons, blood proteins, streptokinase and vaccines have received special attention. Pharmaceutical companies got into the field of diagnostics, a major thrust area being products of antigen/antibody and nucleic acid-based diagnostic kits. The ability to clone and sequence genes from a variety of organisms has culminated in the subject of genomics. High throughput screening of thousands of organic molecules against a battery of drug targets using robotic machinery is the current approach to come up with lead molecules. New drug delivery systems for slow, sustained and direct delivery to target tissues are under way. There is hope that hereditary and metabolic disorders may have a cure through replacements of defective genes by normal cloned genes and by blocking the expression of unwanted genes, respectively. This mega approach would call for the availability of DNA chips, a product of collaboration between molecular biologists and electronic engineers. The tendency now-a-days is for a marriage between biotech and pharmaceutical industries. Animal cloning, spearheaded by the birth of Dolly, has revolutionised cell biology and is of promise to generate animal bio-vectors to produce desired protein pharmaceuticals in milk. Stem cell research has assumed a lot of importance. In our country, reasonable competence has been built-up in the field of biotechnology. Around two dozen institutes carry out front-line research in medical biotechnology. Successful commercialisation of a few diagnostic kits and recombinant vaccines has provided an impetus and enthusiasm to exploit biotechnology in a big way

  14. Buying big into biotech: scale, financing, and the industrial dynamics of UK biotech, 1980–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, M.M.; Crane, P.A.; Nightingale, P.; Baden-Fuller, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the UK's biotech firms have evolved in response to their financial environment. As investors' expectations about the potential of biotech have changed, funding options have opened up and closed down, leading firms to develop new business models and routes of technology development. After a favorable period, new constraints on stock market funding have forced UK biotech firms to compress their life cycles, constraining their ability to generate the late-stage drug can...

  15. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Ethics and Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chen, Aileen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hoffman, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tina Shih, Ya-Chen [Department of Medicine, Section of Hospital Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, and Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yu, James B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  16. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  17. The present state of research and exploitation of biotech (GM) crops in horticulture: results of research on plum cv. 'HoneySweet' resistant to plum pox virus (Sharka) and the deregulation of this cultivar in the CR & Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha in 2011. Only 114.57 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.90 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. Currently, developing count...

  18. [Using Twitter in oncology. Research, continuing education, and advocacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiore, Luciano; Ascierto, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional mass media coverage has been enhanced by Twitter, an interactive, real-time media, useful in health care, and particularly in oncology. Social media such as Twitter are gaining increasing acceptance as tools for instantaneous scientific dialogue. Professional medical societies such as ASCO and ESMO are using microblogging to expand the reach of scientific communications at and around their scientific meetings. To widen the message and maximize the potential for word-of-mouth marketing using Twitter, organizations (such as AIOM, ASCO or ESMO) and industries need a strategic communications plan to ensure on-going social media conversations. Twitter is a very powerful tool indeed that amplifies the results of scientific meetings, and conference organisers should put in place strategies to capitalise on this. This review demonstrates that cancer patients also share information more and more via Twitter about their disease, including diagnosis, symptoms, and treatments. This information could prove useful to health care providers. PMID:25621780

  19. Single-Cell Sequencing Technology in Oncology: Applications for Clinical Therapies and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baixin Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular heterogeneity is a fundamental characteristic of many cancers. A lack of cellular homogeneity contributes to difficulty in designing targeted oncological therapies. Therefore, the development of novel methods to determine and characterize oncologic cellular heterogeneity is a critical next step in the development of novel cancer therapies. Single-cell sequencing (SCS technology has been recently employed for analyzing the genetic polymorphisms of individual cells at the genome-wide level. SCS requires (1 precise isolation of the single cell of interest; (2 isolation and amplification of genetic material; and (3 descriptive analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic data. In addition to targeted analysis of single cells isolated from tumor biopsies, SCS technology may be applied to circulating tumor cells, which may aid in predicting tumor progression and metastasis. In this paper, we provide an overview of SCS technology and review the current literature on the potential application of SCS to clinical oncology and research.

  20. The Application of SEM to Behavioral Research in Oncology: Past Accomplishments and Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoll, Robert A.; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Manne, Sharon L.

    2004-01-01

    The past decade has seen a tremendous growth in the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) to address research questions in 2 subfields of behavioral science: cancer prevention and control (e.g., determinants of cancer screening adherence) and behavioral oncology (e.g., determinants of psychosocial adjustment among cancer patients or…

  1. Business Ethics 101 for the biotech industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Biotechnology companies face ethical challenges of two distinct types: bioethical challenges faced on account of the nature of work in the life sciences, and corporate ethical challenges on account of their nature as commercial entities. The latter set of challenges has received almost no attention at all in the academic literature or media. This paper begins to remedy that lacuna, examining ethical issues that arise specifically on account of the status of biotech companies as commercial entities. The focus here is on three representative issues: product safety, corporate social responsibility, and corporate governance. It is argued that each of these issues poses particular ethical challenges for companies in the biotech sector. In the area of product safety, it is noted that biotech companies face particular challenges in determining what counts as a "safe" product, given the contentious nature of what might count as a "harm" in the biotech field. In the area of corporate social responsibility, the adoption of a "stakeholder approach" and an attempt to manage the social consequences of products pose special challenges for biotech companies. This is due to the enormous range of groups and individuals claiming to have a stake in the doings of such companies, and the trenchant controversies over just what the social consequences of various biotechnologies might be. In the area of corporate governance, biotech companies need to seek out and follow best practices regarding the ways in which information, authority, and influence flow between a company's shareholders, managers, and Board of Directors, if they are to avoid duplicating the ethical and financial scandal that brought down ImClone. An important meta-issue, here--one that renders each of these corporate ethical challenges more vexing--is the difficulty of finding the appropriate benchmarks for ethical corporate behavior in a field as controversial, and as rapidly evolving, as biotechnology. Three

  2. Financial Risk of the Biotech Industry versus the Pharmaceutical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Golec

    2009-01-01

    The biotech industry now accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of total R&D spending on new medicines. However, compared with the pharmaceutical industry, the biotech industry is financially fragile. This article illustrates the financial fragility of the biotech and pharmaceutical industries in the US and the implications of this fragility for the effects that government regulation could have on biotech firms. Graphical analysis and statistical tests were used to show how the bio...

  3. Children’s Oncology Group’s 2013 Blueprint for Research: Nursing Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Landier, Wendy; Leonard, Marcia; Ruccione, Kathleen S.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of the nursing discipline within cooperative groups conducting pediatric oncology clinical trials provides unique opportunities to maximize nursing’s contribution to clinical care, and to pursue research questions that extend beyond cure of disease to address important gaps in knowledge surrounding the illness experience. Key areas of importance to the advancement of the nursing discipline’s scientific knowledge are understanding the effective delivery of patient/family education,...

  4. NCI Approves Funding Plan for NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2014, the Scientific Program Leaders (SPL) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) approved the funding plan for the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP), a national network of investigators, cancer care providers, academic institutions, and other organizations. NCORP will conduct multi-site cancer clinical trials and studies in diverse populations in community-based healthcare systems across the United States. The program will receive $93 million a year for five years. |

  5. Integrating Personalized Medicine in the Canadian Environment: Efforts Facilitating Oncology Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Rachel; Carleton, Bruce; Leyens, Lada; Richer, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a rapid evolution of clinical practices based on the introduction of patient stratification and molecular diagnosis that is likely to improve health outcomes. Building on a strong research base, complemented by strong support from clinicians and health authorities, the oncology field is at the forefront of this evolution. Yet, clinical research is still facing many challenges that need to be addressed in order to conduct necessary studies and effectively translate medical breakthroughs based on personalized medicine into standards of care. Leveraging its universal health care system and on resources developed to support oncology clinical research, Canada is well positioned to join the international efforts deployed to address these challenges. Available resources include a broad range of structures and funding mechanisms, ranging from direct clinical trial support to post-marketing surveillance. Here, we propose a clinical model for the introduction of innovation for precision medicine in oncology that starts with patients' and clinicians' unmet needs to initiate a cycle of discovery, validation, translation and sustainability development. PMID:26565702

  6. Clinical and Outcome Research in oncology The need for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolone Giovanni

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer is one of the main healthcare problems in Europe. Although significant progress has recently been made, long-term survival is still disappointing for most common solid tumours. The explosion of information has strengthened the need to create and sustain coordinated interaction between technology, biology, clinical research, clinical practice and health policy. A simple process based on automatic and passive translation from bench to clinical research and eventually to the bed side is usually assumed but cannot be taken for granted. A critical role might be played by Outcome Research (OR, defined as the discipline that describes, interprets, and predicts the impact of various influences, especially interventions, on final endpoints (from survival to satisfaction with care that matter to decision makers (from patients to society at large, with special emphasis on the use of patient-reported outcomes (PRO. Recently, under pressure from several parts of society, the FDA, recognizing the need for faster drug approval, has modified existing regulations and created new rules to allow anti-cancer drugs to be approved more quickly and, in certain but quite common circumstances, single arm trials and surrogate endpoints to be used as measures of clinical benefit. In this context, the faster approval process may lead to drugs being marketed without there being a complete picture of how effective or safe they are. The FDA move to speed up drug approval, together with the use of not fully validated surrogate endpoints, give OR the unique opportunity to help understand the value of drugs that have received accelerated approval. Despite this opportunity, OR has yet to demonstrate its role in this specific setting and provide proof of the validity, reliability and added value of its primary endpoint measures when evaluated in a broader context. The implementation of lines of OR in the development and evaluation of anti-cancer drugs hinges upon

  7. The Centre for Oncology Education and Research Translation (CONCERT) Biobank

    OpenAIRE

    Caixeiro, Nicole J.; Aghmesheh, Morteza; De Souza, Paul; Lee, C. Soon

    2015-01-01

    The CONCERT Biobank was established as an open-access, multiple collection site biorepository designed to collect, process, store, retrieve and disseminate biological samples and health information for research projects following informed consent from participants diagnosed with cancer. Informed consent is obtained prior to surgery by either the nursing, medical or biobank staff. Tissues for biobanking are examined within the diagnostic anatomical pathology department of the participating hos...

  8. A systematic review of psycho-oncology research in Chinese populations: emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S K; Hyde, M K; Au, A M L; Ip, D; Shum, D; Dunn, J

    2013-11-01

    The burden of cancer in China is increasing with future psycho-oncological interventions crucial. A systematic review of psycho-oncology research in China was undertaken to assess quantity, design and target trends over time. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ProQuest, Web of Science (1999-November Week 4, 2012) were searched. Inclusion criteria were: included cancer patients and/or partners or caregivers from resident Chinese populations (either at least 80% of participants are from China, Hong Kong or Taiwan); assessed psychological adjustment relating to cancer and published in English after 1 January 1999 and prior to 30 November 2012. In all, 208 articles met inclusion criteria. Of these: 52 were cross-sectional descriptive quantitative; 30 were cross-sectional descriptive qualitative; 27 were prospective descriptive quantitative; 2 were prospective descriptive qualitative; 18 assessed interventions; 79 presented instrument validation. Publications increased eightfold from 1999 to 2012. Most studies included patients (n = 195) with 11 articles focusing on caregivers and two on patient-caregiver dyads. The most common cancer studied was breast cancer. The psycho-oncology research effort in China is dramatically increasing. A focus on culturally relevant approaches to underpin the evaluation of empirically derived interventions is warranted; as is direction of efforts to other cancers such as lung and prostate. PMID:23834328

  9. An ICT infrastructure to integrate clinical and molecular data in oncology research

    OpenAIRE

    Segagni Daniele; Tibollo Valentina; Dagliati Arianna; Zambelli Alberto; Priori Silvia G; Bellazzi Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The ONCO-i2b2 platform is a bioinformatics tool designed to integrate clinical and research data and support translational research in oncology. It is implemented by the University of Pavia and the IRCCS Fondazione Maugeri hospital (FSM), and grounded on the software developed by the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) research center. I2b2 has delivered an open source suite based on a data warehouse, which is efficiently interrogated to find sets of...

  10. Clinical perspectives of cancer stem cell research in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy has a proven potential to eradicate cancer stem cells which is reflected by its curative potential in many cancer types. Considerable progress has been made in identification and biological characterisation of cancer stem cells during the past years. Recent biological findings indicate significant inter- and intratumoural and functional heterogeneity of cancer stem cells and lead to more complex models which have potential implications for radiobiology and radiotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging that biomarkers of cancer stem cells may be prognostic for the outcome of radiotherapy in some tumour entities. Perspectives of cancer stem cell based research for radiotherapy reviewed here include their radioresistance compared to the mass of non-cancer stem cells which form the bulk of all tumour cells, implications for image- and non-image based predictive bio-assays of the outcome of radiotherapy and a combination of novel systemic treatments with radiotherapy

  11. [Rethinking clinical research in surgical oncology. From comic opera to quality control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The evidence base for the effectiveness of surgical interventions is relatively poor and data from large, randomized prospective studies are rare with often a poor quality. Many efforts have been made to increase the number of high quality randomized trials in surgery and theoretical proposals have been put forward to improve the situation, but practical implementation of these proposals is seriously lacking. The consequences of this policy are not trivial; with very few patients included in surgical oncology trials, this represents wasted opportunity for advances in cancer treatment. In this review, we cover the difficulties inherent to clinical research in surgical oncology, such as quality control, equipoise, accrual, and funding and promote alternative designs to the randomized controlled trial. Although the classic randomized controlled trial has a valid but limited place in surgical oncology, other prospective designs need to be promoted as a new deal. This new deal not only implicates surgeons but also journal editors, tender jury, as well as regulatory bodies to cover legal gaps currently surrounding surgical innovation. PMID:26610367

  12. Radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Oncology Division has had as its main objectives both to operate an academic training program and to carry out research on radiation therapy of cancer. Since fiscal year 1975, following a directive from ERDA, increased effort has been given to research. The research activities have been complemented by the training program, which has been oriented toward producing radiation oncologists, giving physicians short-term experience in radiation oncology, and teaching medical students about clinical cancer and its radiation therapy. The purpose of the research effort is to improve present modalities of radiation therapy of cancer. As in previous years, the Division has operated as the Radiation Oncology Program of the Department of Radiological Sciences of the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine. It has provided radiation oncology support to patients at the University Hospital and to academic programs of the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus. The patients, in turn, have provided the clinical basis for the educational and research projects of the Division. Funding has been primarily from PRNC (approx. 40%) and from National Cancer Institute grants channeled through the School of Medicine (approx. 60%). Special inter-institutional relationships with the San Juan Veterans Administration Hospital and the Metropolitan Hospital in San Juan have permitted inclusion of patients from these institutions in the Division's research projects. Medical physics and radiotherapy consultations have been provided to the Radiotherapy Department of the VA Hospital

  13. Bioluminescent imaging: a critical tool in pre-clinical oncology research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Karen

    2010-02-01

    Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a non-invasive imaging modality widely used in the field of pre-clinical oncology research. Imaging of small animal tumour models using BLI involves the generation of light by luciferase-expressing cells in the animal following administration of substrate. This light may be imaged using an external detector. The technique allows a variety of tumour-associated properties to be visualized dynamically in living models. The increasing use of BLI as a small-animal imaging modality has led to advances in the development of xenogeneic, orthotopic, and genetically engineered animal models expressing luciferase genes. This review aims to provide insight into the principles of BLI and its applications in cancer research. Many studies to assess tumour growth and development, as well as efficacy of candidate therapeutics, have been performed using BLI. More recently, advances have also been made using bioluminescent imaging in studies of protein-protein interactions, genetic screening, cell-cycle regulators, and spontaneous cancer development. Such novel studies highlight the versatility and potential of bioluminescent imaging in future oncological research.

  14. RADIATION THERAPY ONCOLOGY GROUP TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM STEM CELL SYMPOSIUM : INCORPORATING STEM CELL HYPOTHESES INTO CLINICAL TRIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodward, Wendy A.; Bristow, Robert G.; Clarke, Michael F.; Coppes, Robert P.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Duda, Dan G.; Fike, John R.; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Hill, Richard P.; Jordan, Craig T.; Milas, Luka; Pajonk, Frank; Curran, Walter J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2009-01-01

    At a meeting of the Translation Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group held in early 2008, attendees focused on updating the current state of knowledge in cancer stem cell research and discussing ways in which this knowledge can be translated into clinical use across all disease si

  15. Role of French teams in the development of clinical and translational research in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many clinical studies have showed the key role of radiotherapy in anticancer treatment strategy. Radiations are delivered alone or in combination with systemic therapies. In recent years, the main goal of all clinical developments has focused on improving clinical benefit, with an increased tumour control and a higher normal tissue protection. This research was designed to reduce local recurrences, to increase recurrence-free or overall survival and to decrease acute and late effects. Technological and biological evolutions (or revolutions) accompanied clinicians to improve clinical benefit, namely with strong progress in radiology and better understanding of radiobiology, particularly at the molecular level. Differences in tumour and normal tissues radiosensitivity are nowadays integrated in daily clinical practice of radiation oncologists. The current report details the last 5-year developments of clinical and translational research in radiation oncology, especially the role of French teams in the development of personalized treatment. (authors)

  16. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia AGENCY: International Trade... Biotech Life Sciences trade mission to Australia, October 29-November 2, 2012. The mission to Australia is... of the trade mission to Australia are to (1) increase U.S. exports to Australia, (2) introduce...

  17. 76 FR 17621 - Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade.... biotechnology and life science firms and trade organizations. The mission will introduce mission participants to.... Commercial Setting U.S. biotech and life science firms often consider China the most important future...

  18. Can science be a business? Lessons from biotech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Gary P

    2006-10-01

    In 1976, Genentech, the first biotechnology company, was founded by a young venture capitalist and a university professor to exploit recombinant DNA technology. Thirty years and more than 300 billion dollars in investments later, only a handful of biotech firms have matched Genentech's success or even shown a profit. No avalanche of new drugs has hit the market, and the long-awaited breakthrough in R&D productivity has yet to materialize. This disappointing performance raises a question: Can organizations motivated by the need to make profits and please shareholders successfully conduct basic scientific research as a core activity? The question has largely been ignored, despite intense debate over whether business's invasion of basic science-long the domain of universities and nonprofit research institutions- is limiting access to discoveries, thereby slowing advances in science. Biotech has not lived up to its promise, says the author, because its anatomy, which has worked well in other high-tech sectors, can't handle the fundamental challenges facing drug R&D: profound, persistent uncertainty and high risks rooted in the limited knowledge of human biology; the need for the diverse disciplines involved in drug discovery to work together in an integrated fashion; and barriers to learning, including tacit knowledge and murky intellectual property rights, which can slow the pace of scientific advance. A more suitable anatomy would include increased vertical integration; a smaller number of closer, longer collaborations; an emphasis by universities on sharing rather than patenting scientific discoveries; more cross-disciplinary academic research; and more federal and private funding for translational research, which bridges basic and applied science. With such modifications, science can be a business. PMID:17040044

  19. The role of medical physicists in developing a generic research framework for the assessment of new radiation oncology technology and treatments in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: TROG Cancer Research has secured funding from the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing to develop and pilot an evaluation framework for new radiation oncology technologies and treatments. Four site specific projects will be undertaken to test the framework including IMRT for nasopharynx, anal canal and post-prostatectomy and IGRT for prostate fiducial markers. Multidisciplinary Expert Groups that include medical physicists, have been appointed for each site specific project. Each project will collect data from at least ten treatment centres who have been credentialed. The Framework will have the capacity to gather information to substantiate the clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of new technologies and treatments in radiation oncology. The framework will be tested by gathering data to evaluate the superiority of IMRT and lGRT over other treatments and economic analysis will examine the potential trade-off between efficiency and the clinical gains to a patient. It is anticipated that the outcome of this research will inform future funding decisions. The involvement of medical physicists has been central to development of the framework, protocol development and the credentialing process. (author)

  20. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report

  1. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  2. Research biopsies in the context of early phase oncology studies: clinical and ethical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Saggese

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Personalized Medicine approach in oncology is a direct result of an improved understanding of complex tumor biology and advances in diagnostic technologies. In recent years, there has been an increased demand for archival and fresh tumor analysis in early clinical trials to foster proof-of-concept biomarker development, to understand resistance mechanisms, and ultimately to assess biological response. Although phase I studies are aimed at defining drug safety, pharmacokinetics, and to recommend a phase II dose for further testing, there is now increasing evidence of mandatory tumor biopsies even at the earliest dose-finding stages of drug development. The increasing demand for fresh tumor biopsies adds to the complexity of novel phase I studies and results in different challenges, ranging from logistical support to ethical concerns. This paper investigates key issues, including patients’ perceptions of research biopsies, the need for accurate informed consent, and alternative strategies that may guide the drug development process.

  3. Research biopsies in the context of early phase oncology studies: clinical and ethical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Saggese

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Personalised medicine’ approach in oncology is a direct result of improved understanding of complex tumour biology and advances in diagnostic technologies. In recent years there has been an increased demand for archival and fresh tumour analysis in early clinical trials to foster-proof-of-concept biomarker development, understand resistance mechanisms and ultimately to assess biological response. Although phase-1 studies are aimed to define drug safety, pharmacokinetics and to recommend a phase-2 dose for further testing, there is now increasing evidence of mandatory tumour biopsies even at the earliest dose-finding stages of drug development. The increasing demand for fresh tumour biopsies adds to the complexity of novel phase-1 studies and results in different challenges ranging from logistical support to ethical concerns. This paper investigates key issues including patients’ perceptions towards research biopsies, the need for accurate informed consent and alternative strategies that may guide in the drug development process.

  4. Space Biotech: Hindsight, Insight, Foresight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Over the past forty years, microgravity has inspired and enabled applications in a wide range of sectors including medicine, materials, computers, communications, and national defense. Trends show that demand for high-tech solutions is increasing in these sectors, solutions that require higher resolution, greater precision, novel materials, innovative processes, and more sophisticated tools. These are areas where microgravity can offer unique capabilities for innovation. The Emerging Space Office (ESO) has engaged in multiple studies over the past year that have found that microgravity RD is one of the most promising technology areas for contributing to economic growth and to NASAs mission. The focus of these studies was on terrestrial markets rather than NASA applications, applied research rather than basic research, and commercial rather than academic investigators. There have been more success stories than are generally appreciated and there are significant areas of promising future potential. Many of the problems that have limited commercial microgravity development in the past are being solved. Microgravity research and development (RD) requires iteration and learning, as rapidly as possible. New technologies enable high throughput and rapid data collection in increasingly small payloads. The International Space Station is in orbit and provides a laboratory that is available 247 at least until 2024. Frequent flights by commercial space providers to and from the ISS now enable the fast learning cycles needed by high-tech industries. Launch costs are decreasing and the ability to return payloads to Earth is increasing. New commercial space laboratories, such as those being developed by SpaceX and Bigelow Aerospace, are in the final stages of development and testing. This ecosystem for microgravity RD has never been available before. These are game-changer conditions for attracting high-tech industries to space for terrestrial, as well as NASA, applications

  5. Psychosocial needs and quality of life of healthy siblings of pediatric oncology patients - A critical research review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárová, Š.; Tóthová, K.; Loubalová, S.; Kepák, T.; Blatný, Marek; Bendová, M.; Štěrba, J.

    Istanbul: Turkish Psychological Association, 2011. s. 354-354. [European Congress of Psychology /12./. 04.07.2011-08.07.2011, Istanbul] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : quality of life * pediatric oncology patients * psychosocial needs Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  6. The Childhood Solid Tumor Network: A new resource for the developmental biology and oncology research communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Federico, Sara; Karlstrom, Asa; Shelat, Anang; Sablauer, Andras; Pappo, Alberto; Dyer, Michael A

    2016-03-15

    Significant advances have been made over the past 25 years in our understanding of the most common adult solid tumors such as breast, colon, lung and prostate cancer. Much less is known about childhood solid tumors because they are rare and because they originate in developing organs during fetal development, childhood and adolescence. It can be very difficult to study the cellular origins of pediatric solid tumors in developing organs characterized by rapid proliferative expansion, growth factor signaling, developmental angiogenesis, programmed cell death, tissue reorganization and cell migration. Not only has the etiology of pediatric cancer remained elusive because of their developmental origins, but it also makes it more difficult to treat. Molecular targeted therapeutics that alter developmental pathway signaling may have devastating effects on normal organ development. Therefore, basic research focused on the mechanisms of development provides an essential foundation for pediatric solid tumor translational research. In this article, we describe new resources available for the developmental biology and oncology research communities. In a companion paper, we present the detailed characterization of an orthotopic xenograft of a pediatric solid tumor derived from sympathoadrenal lineage during development. PMID:26068307

  7. Integrative oncology drug discovery accompanied by preclinical translational research as prerequisite for clinical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jens

    2014-06-01

    The molecular heterogeneity of cancer calls for individualized therapies to become the standard of care. It is now generally accepted that target-specific compounds require specific new development programs. But, even for new drugs with general mode of action (i.e., chemotherapy), tailored treatment approaches, such as specific schedules or combinations, have been shown to improve the therapeutic outcome. Therefore, the preclinical development of new therapeutic agents needs, next to the "classical pharmacodynamic studies", the implementation of integrative translational research (TR) as early as possible. New TR approaches, starting already at target identification and validation (TIV) will allow to defining the optimal patient population for clinical development, to tailor individual treatment of the tumor disease and to choose a rational basis among the manifold options for treatment combinations. We will discuss several examples from TR studies, which have initially been started to evaluate the molecular mode of action and to recognize mechanisms which can lead to resistance. Research was extended later to identify predictive response biomarkers and establish a rationale for combination with different therapies. A detailed gene expression analysis of lung cancer cells and apoptotic pathway interference studies in colon cancer cells provided insight in the molecular mechanisms of action. These new findings are correlated with results from other studies performed during the preclinical development program. We discuss pros and cons, successes and failures of our integrative preclinical development program and provide recommendations for future oncology projects. PMID:25841411

  8. The written description rejection as a barrier to biotech patent prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-05-01

    Biotech firms always pursue broad claims to secure new discoveries, new technologies and even as yet undiscovered results of future research. However, expansive claims without sufficient description violate the principal of granting the patentee the right to exclude others from using the technical development for a certain amount of time in return for disclosing the innovation. Based on this investigation, a written description can be a barrier to biotech patents with broad claims. To avoid a written description rejection during patent prosecution or invalidation in litigation, the patent applicant or assignee should demonstrate possession of the claimed invention by describing the claimed invention with all of its limitations using descriptive means such as words, structures, figures, diagrams, and formulas that fully set forth the claimed invention. Although the court cases analyzed in this study were not directly related to vaccines, the guideline indeed is applicable to patents of vaccine. Furthermore, a vaccine patent application is also demonstrated. PMID:21552000

  9. The Swiss biotech referendum: A case study of science communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 7 , 1998, the Swiss citizens voted on a constitutional amendment, which could have jeopardised the future of biotechnological research in Switzerland. Scientists and opinion leaders around the world expected the referendum with great anxiety. 'Nature', in an editorial, had firmly stated that the Swiss way showed 'how not to run a country', the 'Economist', a week prior to the referendum, had written that the Swiss might be the only people in the world who decided on their own to forego a world class position in scientific research. In fact, the Swiss did none of that. They rejected the constitutional amendment with an overwhelming majority of 67 per cent of the votes, and what started out as a dramatic threat to scientific research in Switzerland became a platform in favour of modern biotechnology. The presentation addresses some of the key features of the Swiss biotech campaign, analyses the success factors of the campaign, provides an insight in the most in-depth collection of data on public perception of biotechnology in the world, and draws conclusions as to what extent the Swiss experience can be of use in the way to communicate on modem science. The result of the Swiss referendum has convincingly shown that successful communication of modem science is possible if - scientists, authorities, and the industry accept the challenge to cope with the demands of communicating with the public at large, - there is a clear understanding that the public's needs may often be based on psychological rather than on logic scientific reasons, - all participants in the dialogue are willing to forego scientific jargon for clear understandable language, i.e. understand that it is hardly the public's fault if messages do not get across, - everybody accepts that dialogue, information, and education on modem science is a long-haul task. The Swiss biotech referendum was seen as a major threat to Switzerland as a leading country of scientific research. However, something which

  10. Implementation of comparative effectiveness research in personalized medicine applications in oncology: current and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJzerman MJ

    2015-11-01

    medicine, precision medicine, comparative effectiveness research, health technology assessment, oncology, genomics 

  11. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Translational Research Program Stem Cell Symposium: Incorporating Stem Cell Hypotheses into Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a meeting of the Translation Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group held in early 2008, attendees focused on updating the current state of knowledge in cancer stem cell research and discussing ways in which this knowledge can be translated into clinical use across all disease sites. This report summarizes the major topics discussed and the future directions that research should take. Major conclusions of the symposium were that the flow cytometry of multiple markers in fresh tissue would remain the standard technique of evaluating cancer-initiating cells and that surrogates need to be developed for both experimental and clinical use.

  12. Quality Research in Radiation Oncology Analysis of Clinical Performance Measures in the Management of Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -based planning with use of DVH to evaluate normal tissue doses. Most patients completed adjuvant RT in the prescribed time frame. IMRT and IGRT were not routinely incorporated into clinical practice during the 2005-2007 period. These data will be a benchmark for future Quality Research in Radiation Oncology GC surveys.

  13. [Mexico recovers leadership on regulation of biosimilar biotech drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Silva, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Amid the epidemiological transition that Mexico is currently experiencing, an adequate access to biotech medicines is becoming very important. However, these medicines also involve new challenges for the sanitary authorities, given their higher complexity in structure and function than conventional chemical drugs. Consequently, it has been necessary to update the Mexican legal framework, which has placed Mexico at the forefront in this sector. This article describes briefly what biotech drugs are, why it has been necessary to regulate them differently, the evolution of the regulatory framework in Mexico, and the general features of the new system. PMID:22367313

  14. China's Biotech Policies and Their Impacts on U.S. Agricultural Exports to China

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Baohui; Marchant, Mary A.

    2006-01-01

    China is a key player in global agricultural markets, and the number one importer of U.S. soybeans and cotton, whereby soybeans and cotton are two of the main biotech commodities commercialized in the United States. As of 2005, 87% of soybeans and 79% of cotton planted in the U.S. were biotech. Thus, changes in China's biotech policies may have a significant impact on U.S. biotech commodity exports to China. An understanding of the evolution of China's biotech regulations and factors that may...

  15. The role of preclinical SPECT in oncological and neurological research in combination with either CT or MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preclinical imaging with SPECT combined with CT or MRI is used more and more frequently and has proven to be very useful in translational research. In this article, an overview of current preclinical research applications and trends of SPECT combined with CT or MRI, mainly in tumour imaging and neuroscience imaging, is given and the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches are described. Today SPECT and CT systems are often integrated into a single device (commonly called a SPECT/CT system), whereas at present combined SPECT and MRI is almost always carried out with separate systems and fiducial markers to combine the separately acquired images. While preclinical SPECT/CT is most widely applied in oncology research, SPECT combined with MRI (SPECT/MRI when integrated in one system) offers the potential for both neuroscience applications and oncological applications. Today CT and MRI are still mainly used to localize radiotracer binding and to improve SPECT quantification, although both CT and MRI have additional potential. Future technology developments may include fast sequential or simultaneous acquisition of (dynamic) multimodality data, spectroscopy, fMRI along with high-resolution anatomic MRI, advanced CT procedures, and combinations of more than two modalities such as combinations of SPECT, PET, MRI and CT all together. This will all strongly depend on new technologies. With further advances in biology and chemistry for imaging molecular targets and (patho)physiological processes in vivo, the introduction of new imaging procedures and promising new radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice may be accelerated. (orig.)

  16. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics. Focus on collaboration and diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Methods: Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Results: Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with ≥ 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. Conclusion: A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. (orig.)

  17. The role of preclinical SPECT in oncological and neurological research in combination with either CT or MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernsen, Monique R.; Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vaissier, Pieter E.B. [Delft University of Technology, Section Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Delft (Netherlands); Holen, Roel van [Ghent University, iMinds, ELIS Department, MEDISIP, Ghent (Belgium); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beekman, Freek J. [Delft University of Technology, Section Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Delft (Netherlands); MILabs B.V., Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Preclinical imaging with SPECT combined with CT or MRI is used more and more frequently and has proven to be very useful in translational research. In this article, an overview of current preclinical research applications and trends of SPECT combined with CT or MRI, mainly in tumour imaging and neuroscience imaging, is given and the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches are described. Today SPECT and CT systems are often integrated into a single device (commonly called a SPECT/CT system), whereas at present combined SPECT and MRI is almost always carried out with separate systems and fiducial markers to combine the separately acquired images. While preclinical SPECT/CT is most widely applied in oncology research, SPECT combined with MRI (SPECT/MRI when integrated in one system) offers the potential for both neuroscience applications and oncological applications. Today CT and MRI are still mainly used to localize radiotracer binding and to improve SPECT quantification, although both CT and MRI have additional potential. Future technology developments may include fast sequential or simultaneous acquisition of (dynamic) multimodality data, spectroscopy, fMRI along with high-resolution anatomic MRI, advanced CT procedures, and combinations of more than two modalities such as combinations of SPECT, PET, MRI and CT all together. This will all strongly depend on new technologies. With further advances in biology and chemistry for imaging molecular targets and (patho)physiological processes in vivo, the introduction of new imaging procedures and promising new radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice may be accelerated. (orig.)

  18. Does Cluster Policy Trigger R&D Activity? – Evidence from German Biotech Contests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Dirk; Mitze, Timo; Patuelli, Roberto; Reinkowski, Janina

    in research clusters. We apply a Difference-in-Differences estimation technique in a generalized linear model framework, which allows us to control for different initial regional conditions in R&D activity of the biotech sector. Our econometric findings support the view that winners generally...... outperform non-winning participants during the treatment period, thus indicating that exclusive funding as well as the stimulating effect of being a “winner” have positive effects on R&D activity in the short-term. Apart from this direct winner effect, for the non-winning participants no beneficial indirect...

  19. The integration of psychology in pediatric oncology research and practice: collaboration to improve care and outcomes for children and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Noll, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancers are life-threatening diseases that are universally distressing and potentially traumatic for children and their families at diagnosis, during treatment, and beyond. Dramatic improvements in survival have occurred as a result of increasingly aggressive multimodal therapies delivered in the context of clinical research trials. Nonetheless, cancers remain a leading cause of death in children, and their treatments have short- and long-term impacts on health and well-being. For over 35 years, pediatric psychologists have partnered with pediatric oncology teams to make many contributions to our understanding of the impact of cancer and its treatment on children and families and have played prominent roles in providing an understanding of treatment-related late effects and in improving quality of life. After discussing the incidence of cancer in children, its causes, and the treatment approaches to it in pediatric oncology, we present seven key contributions of psychologists to collaborative and integrated care in pediatric cancer: managing procedural pain, nausea, and other symptoms; understanding and reducing neuropsychological effects; treating children in the context of their families and other systems (social ecology); applying a developmental perspective; identifying competence and vulnerability; integrating psychological knowledge into decision making and other clinical care issues; and facilitating the transition to palliative care and bereavement. We conclude with a discussion of the current status of integrating knowledge from psychological research into practice in pediatric cancer. PMID:25730721

  20. Accumulation and Circulation of the Knowledge Needed for Biotech Business Promotion by Engineers of R&D Section in an IT Enterprise: The Case of Hitachi Software Engineering Co., Ltd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Ota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been carried out on the accumulation and effective use of knowledge as a company-specific form of intellectual property. However, insufficient attention has been given to research focusing on the effects of micro-level knowledge absorption and its effective use. In this paper, we try to demonstrate what should be done in order to promote new biotech business from the perspective of each engineer’s knowledge, through a micro-level investigation focusing on the life science business section of one IT enterprise. Based on the results of a questionnaire survey of engineers, interviews of several engineers, and patent data analysis, we discuss the progress of the biotech business in an IT enterprise from the aspect of accumulation and circulation of knowledge in a core technology field, the IT business, and a technology field of new entry, the biotech business. This paper reports that the positive growth cycle of biotech business promotion in an IT enterprise, using Hitachi Software Engineering Co., Ltd. as a case, attained by incorporating the latest biotech knowledge from junior engineers and utilizing IT knowledge from middle engineers leads to the recruiting of qualified students.Keywords: accumulation and circulation of the knowledge, biotech business, open innovation, patent data analysis, questionnaire survey

  1. MO-E-BRF-01: Research Opportunities in Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (Highlight of ASTRO NCI 2013 Workshop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, S [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jaffray, D [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    efficacy, and provided a glimpse into the future. Learning Objectives: To understand the impact of technology on the field of radiation therapy To learn about the trends of technology development for the field of radiation oncology To understand the opportunities for in innovative technology research.

  2. MO-E-BRF-01: Research Opportunities in Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (Highlight of ASTRO NCI 2013 Workshop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    efficacy, and provided a glimpse into the future. Learning Objectives: To understand the impact of technology on the field of radiation therapy To learn about the trends of technology development for the field of radiation oncology To understand the opportunities for in innovative technology research

  3. What Medical Oncologist Residents Think about the Italian Speciality Schools: A Survey of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) on Educational, Clinical and Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Anna; De Angelis, Carmine; Lambertini, Matteo; Cremolini, Chiara; Imbimbo, Martina; Berardi, Rossana; Di Maio, Massimo; Cascinu, Stefano; La Verde, Nicla

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Relevant heterogeneity exists among Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, also within the same country. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of the landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) undertook an online survey, inviting all the residents to describe their daily activities and to express their overall satisfaction about their programs. Methods A team composed of five residents and three consultants in medical oncology prepared a 38 items questionnaire that was published online in a reserved section, accessible through a link sent by e-mail. Residents were invited to anonymously fill in the questionnaire that included the following sub-sections: quality of teaching, clinical and research activity, overall satisfaction. Results Three-hundred and eleven (57%) out of 547 invited residents filled in the questionnaire. Two-hundred and twenty-three (72%) participants declared that attending lessons was frequently difficult and 153 (49%) declared they did not gain substantial improvement in their knowledge from them. Fifty-five percent stated that they did not receive lessons on palliative care. Their overall judgment about didactic activity was low in 63% of the interviewed. The satisfaction for clinical activity was in 86% of cases good: 84% recognized that, during the training period, they acquired a progressive independence on patients' management. About research activity, the majority (79%) of participants in the survey was actively engaged in managing patients included in clinical trials but the satisfaction level for the involvement in research activities was quite low (54%). Overall, 246 residents (79%) gave a positive global judgment of their Medical Oncology Schools. Conclusions The landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology is quite heterogeneous across the country. Some improvements in the organization of teaching and in the

  4. Development of polymeric drug delivery systems for biotech products

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualin, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 80’s the forward steps in genetics and proteomics, have led a particular interest to biotech products, such as DNA and proteins. Although difficult, their large-scale production enabled the therapeutic use of this compounds. Proteins and DNA sequences can be very interesting therapeutic molecules owing to their high selectivity/affinity for the receptor or the specific site of action. Unfortunately, some issues still limit their pharmaceutical use, such as the susceptibilit...

  5. Video News release (A-roll) International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Visual Media Office; Paola Catapano

    2012-01-01

    Video News Release (A-roll) accompanying the Press Release announcing the International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health in Europe, organized by CERN at the International Conference Centre Geneva from February 27 to March 2.

  6. The path- and place-dependent nature of scientific knowledge production in biotech 1986-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Gaston Heimeriks; Ron Boschma

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the worldwide spatial evolution of scientific knowledge production in biotechnology in the period 1986-2008. We employ new methodology that identifies new key topics in biotech on the basis of frequent use of title worlds in major biotech journals as an indication of new cognitive developments within this scientific field. Our analyses show that biotech is subject to a path- and place-dependent process of knowledge production. We observed a high degree of re-occurrences of...

  7. Safe Anesthesia for Radiotherapy in Pediatric Oncology: St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Experience, 2004-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of anesthesia-related complications in children undergoing radiotherapy and the associated risk factors. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively investigated the incidence and types of anesthesia-related complications and examined their association with age, weight, oncology diagnosis, type of anesthetic (propofol vs. propofol and adjuncts), total propofol dose, anesthetic duration, type of radiotherapy procedure (simulation vs. radiotherapy) and patient position (prone vs. supine). Results: Between July 2004 and June 2006, propofol was used in 3,833 procedures (3,611 radiotherapy sessions and 222 simulations) in 177 patients. Complications occurred during 49 anesthetic sessions (1.3%). On univariate analysis, four factors were significantly associated with the risk of complications: procedure duration (p <0.001), total propofol dose (p <0.001), use of adjunct agents (vs. propofol alone; p = 0.029), and simulation (vs. radiotherapy; p = 0.014). Patient position (prone vs. supine) was not significantly associated with the frequency of complications (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.53; p = 0.38). On multivariate analysis, the procedure duration (p <0.0001) and total propofol dose (p ≤0.03) were the most significant risk factors after adjustment for age, weight, anesthetic type, and procedure type. We found no evidence of the development of tolerance to propofol. Conclusion: The rate of anesthesia-related complications was low (1.3%) in our study. The significant risk factors were procedure duration, total propofol dose, the use of adjunct agents with propofol, and simulation (vs. radiotherapy)

  8. Heterogeneous Optimization Framework: Reproducible Preprocessing of Multi-Spectral Clinical MRI for Neuro-Oncology Imaging Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchenko, Mikhail; Snyder, Abraham Z; LaMontagne, Pamela; Shimony, Joshua S; Benzinger, Tammie L; Fouke, Sarah Jost; Marcus, Daniel S

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging research often relies on clinically acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets that can originate from multiple institutions. Such datasets are characterized by high heterogeneity of modalities and variability of sequence parameters. This heterogeneity complicates the automation of image processing tasks such as spatial co-registration and physiological or functional image analysis. Given this heterogeneity, conventional processing workflows developed for research purposes are not optimal for clinical data. In this work, we describe an approach called Heterogeneous Optimization Framework (HOF) for developing image analysis pipelines that can handle the high degree of clinical data non-uniformity. HOF provides a set of guidelines for configuration, algorithm development, deployment, interpretation of results and quality control for such pipelines. At each step, we illustrate the HOF approach using the implementation of an automated pipeline for Multimodal Glioma Analysis (MGA) as an example. The MGA pipeline computes tissue diffusion characteristics of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquisitions, hemodynamic characteristics using a perfusion model of susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI, and spatial cross-modal co-registration of available anatomical, physiological and derived patient images. Developing MGA within HOF enabled the processing of neuro-oncology MR imaging studies to be fully automated. MGA has been successfully used to analyze over 160 clinical tumor studies to date within several research projects. Introduction of the MGA pipeline improved image processing throughput and, most importantly, effectively produced co-registered datasets that were suitable for advanced analysis despite high heterogeneity in acquisition protocols. PMID:26910516

  9. How to start a biotech company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajonar, Adriana

    2014-11-01

    The spirit of life science entrepreneurship is alive and well, with outstanding innovation hubs arising throughout the country and the world. Of note, many of these hubs flourish in close proximity to research universities. If universities are the engine for discovery, then startups are the vehicle for innovation. The creativity and drive of young researchers has the potential to explore novel or underserved applications and revolutionize industries. PMID:25360051

  10. Deutsche Biotech-Unternehmen und ihre Innovationsfähigkeit im internationalen Vergleich : eine institutionentheoretische Analyse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, K.S.G.

    2006-01-01

    German Biotech-Companies and their Innovativeness in International Comparison – an Institutionalist Analysis 1 Introduction In the mid-1990s, legal changes and policy initiatives in Germany led to the rapid emergence of a biotechnology industry. Initially, German biotech companies focused on the mar

  11. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  12. Matching biotech needs and yeast physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Passolunghi,

    2009-01-01

    The research in the field of industrial biotechnology, especially regards bioproducts and bioprocesses, are aimed at developing innovative technologies that lead to obtaining compounds with the use of microorganisms, or seeking to enhance existing processes to increase yield, production and productivity, trying to ensure a higher degree of sustainability and reducing environmental impact. To pursue these goals is possible to intervene by adopting a “technologic” approach that includes the...

  13. PROTECTING BIOTECH INVENTIONS: ARE WE READY?

    OpenAIRE

    Namrata Solanki

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used in agriculture, food production and medicine since the dawn of our civilization. Biotechnology is a popular term for the generic technology of the 21st century. With the advancement in science and research, modern biotechnological inventions have brought a revolution in our lives. These inventions are protected under the Patent Law. The World Trade Organization’s TRIPS agreement sets down the minimum standards for intellectual property regulation for its member cou...

  14. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION 3 OVERALL REVIEW CRITERIA AND IMPACT 3 FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT (FOA) SPECIFIC CRITERIA 8 ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE 8 CLINCAL TRIALS RESEARCH PROGRAM 10 CANCER CARE DELIVERY RESEARCH PROGRAM 11 OPERATIONS/DATA MANAGEMENT CORE 12 ADDITIONAL REVIEW CRITERIA 14 PROTECTIONS FOR HUMAN SUBJECTS 14 INCLUSION OF WOMEN, MINORITIES, AND CHILDREN 14 BIOHAZARDS 14 RESOURCE SHARING PLAN 14 BUDGET AND PERIOD OF SUPPORT 14 SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER'S NOTES 14 SPECIAL EMPHASIS PANEL ROSTER |

  15. Molecular imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-02-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  16. The Sino-French 2012 Conference in Thoracic Oncology: an international academic platform for in-depth exchange on comprehensive research

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Rong Situ; Philippe Dartevelle; Thierry Le Chevalier; Lan-Jun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The Sino-French 2012 Conference in Thoracic Oncology, held November 17-18, 2012, was hosted by the Department of Thoracic Surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and organized in collaboration with two prestigious French hospitals: Institute Gustave Roussy and Marie Lannelongue Hospital. The conference was established by leading experts from China and France to serve as an international academic platform for sharing novel findings in basic research and valuable clinical practice exper...

  17. Strategic Plans to Promote Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: A Report From the Translational Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, with an overall survival rate of approximately 40-50%. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, research efforts designed to maximize benefit and reduce toxicities of therapy are in progress. Basic research in cancer biology has accelerated this endeavor and provided preclinical data and technology to support clinically relevant advances in early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Recent completion of the Human Genome Project has promoted the rapid development of novel 'omics' technologies that allow more broad based study from a systems biology perspective. However, clinically relevant application of resultant gene signatures to clinical trials within cooperative groups has advanced slowly. In light of the large numbers of variables intrinsic to biomarker studies, validation of preliminary data for clinical implementation presents a significant challenge and may only be realized with large trials that involve significant patient numbers. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Program recognizes this problem and brings together three unique features to facilitate this research: (1) availability of large numbers of clinical specimens from homogeneously treated patients through multi-institutional clinical trials; (2) a team of physicians, scientists, and staff focused on patient-oriented head-and-neck cancer research with the common goal of improving cancer care; and (3) a funding mechanism through the RTOG Seed Grant Program. In this position paper we outline strategic plans to further promote translational research within the framework of the RTOG

  18. Active NCI Community Oncology Research Program Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Ethical issues at the interface of clinical care and research practice in pediatric oncology: a narrative review of parents' and physicians' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Martine C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric oncology has a strong research culture. Most pediatric oncologists are investigators, involved in clinical care as well as research. As a result, a remarkable proportion of children with cancer enrolls in a trial during treatment. This paper discusses the ethical consequences of the unprecedented integration of research and care in pediatric oncology from the perspective of parents and physicians. Methodology An empirical ethical approach, combining (1 a narrative review of (primarily qualitative studies on parents' and physicians' experiences of the pediatric oncology research practice, and (2 comparison of these experiences with existing theoretical ethical concepts about (pediatric research. The use of empirical evidence enriches these concepts by taking into account the peculiarities that ethical challenges pose in practice. Results Analysis of the 22 studies reviewed revealed that the integration of research and care has consequences for the informed consent process, the promotion of the child's best interests, and the role of the physician (doctor vs. scientist. True consent to research is difficult to achieve due to the complexity of research protocols, emotional stress and parents' dependency on their child's physician. Parents' role is to promote their child's best interests, also when they are asked to consider enrolling their child in a trial. Parents are almost never in equipoise on trial participation, which leaves them with the agonizing situation of wanting to do what is best for their child, while being fearful of making the wrong decision. Furthermore, a therapeutic misconception endangers correct assessment of participation, making parents inaccurately attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures. Physicians prefer the perspective of a therapist over a researcher. Consequently they may truly believe that in the research setting they promote the child's best interests, which maintains the

  1. Topics in clinical oncology. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph comprising primarily papers on topical subjects of oncology and cancer research, contains also a selection of papers presented at the 2. Congress of the Czechoslovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene. Seven papers were selected on behalf of their subject related to clinical oncology. All of them were iputted in INIS; five of them deal with the scintiscanning of the skeleton of cancer patients, one with radioimmunodetection of tumors, and one with radionuclide lymphography. (A.K.)

  2. Integrative Oncology: Best of Both Worlds—Theoretical, Practical, and Research Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Cramer; Lorenzo Cohen; Gustav Dobos; Witt, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    More and more cancer patients use complementary therapies. As the majority of patients do not disclose their use of complementary therapies to their oncologists, they expose themselves to possible detrimental effects from the therapies due to drug interactions. To meet the needs of patients and health care professionals on valid information on complementary therapies, the collaborative research project “Competence Network Complementary Medicine in Oncology—KOKON”, an interdisciplinary network...

  3. Decentralized Data Sharing of Tissue Microarrays for Investigative Research in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Chen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue microarray technology (TMA is a relatively new approach for efficiently and economically assessing protein and gene expression across large ensembles of tissue specimens. Tissue microarray technology holds great potential for reducing the time and cost associated with conducting research in tissue banking, proteomics, and outcome studies. However, the sheer volume of images and other data generated from even limited studies involving tissue microarrays quickly approach the processing capacity and resources of a division or department. This challenge is compounded by the fact that large-scale projects in several areas of modern research rely upon multi-institutional efforts in which investigators and resources are spread out over multiple campuses, cities, and states. To address some of the data management issues several leading institutions have begun to develop their own “in-house” systems, independently, but such data will be only minimally useful if it isn’t accessible to others in the scientifi c community. Investigators at different institutions studying the same or related disorders might benefit from the synergy of sharing results. To facilitate sharing of TMA data across different database implementations, the Technical Standards Committee of the Association for Pathology Informatics organized workshops in efforts to establish a standardized TMA data exchange specification. The focus of our research does not relate to the establishment of standards for exchange, but rather builds on these efforts and concentrates on the design, development and deployment of a decentralized collaboratory for the unsupervised characterization, and seamless and secure discovery and sharing of TMA data. Specifically, we present a self-organizing, peer-to-peer indexing and discovery infrastructure for quantitatively assessing digitized TMA’s. The system utilizes a novel, optimized decentralized search engine that supports flexible querying

  4. Imaging Opportunities in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interdisciplinary efforts may significantly affect the way that clinical knowledge and scientific research related to imaging impact the field of Radiation Oncology. This report summarizes the findings of an intersociety workshop held in October 2008, with the express purpose of exploring 'Imaging Opportunities in Radiation Oncology.' Participants from the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), American Association of physicists in Medicine (AAPM), American Board of Radiology (ABR), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO), and Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) discussed areas of education, clinical practice, and research that bridge disciplines and potentially would lead to improved clinical practice. Findings from this workshop include recommendations for cross-training opportunities within the allowed structured of Radiology and Radiation Oncology residency programs, expanded representation of ASTRO in imaging related multidisciplinary groups (and reciprocal representation within ASTRO committees), increased attention to imaging validation and credentialing for clinical trials (e.g., through the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN)), and building ties through collaborative research as well as smaller joint workshops and symposia.

  5. Big data and comparative effectiveness research in radiation oncology: synergy and accelerated discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eTrifiletti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several advances in large data set collection and processing have the potential to provide a wave of new insights and improvements in the use of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The era of electronic health records, genomics, and improving information technology resources creates the opportunity to leverage these developments to create a learning healthcare system that can rapidly deliver informative clinical evidence. By merging concepts from comparative effectiveness research with the tools and analytic approaches of big data, it is hoped that this union will accelerate discovery, improve evidence for decision-making, and increase the availability of highly relevant, personalized information. This combination offers the potential to provide data and analysis that can be leveraged for ultra-personalized medicine and high quality, cutting-edge radiation therapy.

  6. SU-E-P-26: Oncospace: A Shared Radiation Oncology Database System Designed for Personalized Medicine, Decision Support, and Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Advancement in Radiation Oncology (RO) practice develops through evidence based medicine and clinical trial. Knowledge usable for treatment planning, decision support and research is contained in our clinical data, stored in an Oncospace database. This data store and the tools for populating and analyzing it are compatible with standard RO practice and are shared with collaborating institutions. The question is - what protocol for system development and data sharing within an Oncospace Consortium? We focus our example on the technology and data meaning necessary to share across the Consortium. Methods: Oncospace consists of a database schema, planning and outcome data import and web based analysis tools.1) Database: The Consortium implements a federated data store; each member collects and maintains its own data within an Oncospace schema. For privacy, PHI is contained within a single table, accessible to the database owner.2) Import: Spatial dose data from treatment plans (Pinnacle or DICOM) is imported via Oncolink. Treatment outcomes are imported from an OIS (MOSAIQ).3) Analysis: JHU has built a number of webpages to answer analysis questions. Oncospace data can also be analyzed via MATLAB or SAS queries.These materials are available to Consortium members, who contribute enhancements and improvements. Results: 1) The Oncospace Consortium now consists of RO centers at JHU, UVA, UW and the University of Toronto. These members have successfully installed and populated Oncospace databases with over 1000 patients collectively.2) Members contributing code and getting updates via SVN repository. Errors are reported and tracked via Redmine. Teleconferences include strategizing design and code reviews.3) Successfully remotely queried federated databases to combine multiple institutions’ DVH data for dose-toxicity analysis (see below – data combined from JHU and UW Oncospace). Conclusion: RO data sharing can and has been effected according to the Oncospace

  7. SU-E-P-26: Oncospace: A Shared Radiation Oncology Database System Designed for Personalized Medicine, Decision Support, and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M; Robertson, S; Moore, J; Wong, J; DeWeese, T; McNutt, T [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Phillips, M [Univ Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Hendrickson, K [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Song, W; Kwok, P [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, U of T, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Advancement in Radiation Oncology (RO) practice develops through evidence based medicine and clinical trial. Knowledge usable for treatment planning, decision support and research is contained in our clinical data, stored in an Oncospace database. This data store and the tools for populating and analyzing it are compatible with standard RO practice and are shared with collaborating institutions. The question is - what protocol for system development and data sharing within an Oncospace Consortium? We focus our example on the technology and data meaning necessary to share across the Consortium. Methods: Oncospace consists of a database schema, planning and outcome data import and web based analysis tools.1) Database: The Consortium implements a federated data store; each member collects and maintains its own data within an Oncospace schema. For privacy, PHI is contained within a single table, accessible to the database owner.2) Import: Spatial dose data from treatment plans (Pinnacle or DICOM) is imported via Oncolink. Treatment outcomes are imported from an OIS (MOSAIQ).3) Analysis: JHU has built a number of webpages to answer analysis questions. Oncospace data can also be analyzed via MATLAB or SAS queries.These materials are available to Consortium members, who contribute enhancements and improvements. Results: 1) The Oncospace Consortium now consists of RO centers at JHU, UVA, UW and the University of Toronto. These members have successfully installed and populated Oncospace databases with over 1000 patients collectively.2) Members contributing code and getting updates via SVN repository. Errors are reported and tracked via Redmine. Teleconferences include strategizing design and code reviews.3) Successfully remotely queried federated databases to combine multiple institutions’ DVH data for dose-toxicity analysis (see below – data combined from JHU and UW Oncospace). Conclusion: RO data sharing can and has been effected according to the Oncospace

  8. 77 FR 10598 - BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics... current and accurate information concerning the securities of California Oil & Gas Corp. because it...

  9. Deutsche Biotech-Unternehmen und ihre Innovationsfähigkeit im internationalen Vergleich: eine institutionentheoretische Analyse

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, K.S.G.

    2006-01-01

    German Biotech-Companies and their Innovativeness in International Comparison – an Institutionalist Analysis 1 Introduction In the mid-1990s, legal changes and policy initiatives in Germany led to the rapid emergence of a biotechnology industry. Initially, German biotech companies focused on the market segment of platform technologies, characterized by incremental innovations. In recent years however, many companies have shifted their strategic focus on the market segment of therapeutics, cha...

  10. Exploiting the business opportunities in biotech connections : The power of social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail

    2007-01-01

    Networks have a well-established importance in business. Here network analysis, grounded in socialnetwork theory, is used to analyse two international biotech business-to-business environments. Ofadditional value, the methodology employed is described for the benefi t of academics and practitionersalike. Swedish and Australian biotech fi rms are analysed through the examination of internet networks.Once gathered and analysed following the described methodology, several features of the networks ...

  11. An increasing number of qualitative research papers in oncology and palliative care: does it mean a thorough development of the methodology of research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunelli Cinzia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the second half of the nineties, a scientific debate about the usefulness of qualitative research in medicine began in the main medical journals as well as the amount of "qualitative" papers published on peer reviewed journals has noticeably increased during these last years. Nevertheless the label of qualitative methodology has been assigned to an heterogeneous collection of studies. Some of them show a complete awareness of the specificity of this kind of research, while others are still largely influenced by the quantitative paradigm prevailing in the medical field. The concern with the rigour and credibility of qualitative methods has lead to the development of a number of checklist for assessing qualitative research. The purposes of this review were to describe the quality of the development of qualitative research in the medical field, focusing on oncology and palliative care, and to discuss the applicability of a descriptive checklist. Methods A review was conducted on Medline and PsycINFO databases. On the basis of their abstract, papers found have been classified considering: publication year, kind of journal, paper type, data gathering method, sample size and declared methodological approach. A sub sample of the previous papers was than selected and their methodological characteristics were evaluated based on a descriptive checklist. Results 351 abstracts and 26 full papers were analysed. An increase over time in the number of qualitative studies is evident. While most of the papers before 1999 were published on nursing journals (43%, afterwards also medical journals were largely represented. Psychological journals increased from 7% to 12%. The 22% of studies used a sample size lower than 15 and the 15% did not specify the sample size in the abstract. The methodological approach was also often not specified and the percentage increased in the second time period (from 73% to 80%. Grounded theory was the most

  12. Proceedings on 10th National Congress on Oncology. 1st National Congress on Mastology. 5th International Meeting of Oncological Nursing. 3rd International Congress of Nuclear Oncology. 3rd International Conference of Medical Physics. (Oncology Havana 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of Oncology Havana 2009 is to propitiate the exchange with the delegates of all continents, focusing on issues such as advances and controversial aspects of oncology and current research and discussion of new diagnostic-therapeutic possibilities of cancer. About 240 scientific works are presented: 11 about medicine, 42 on mastology, 43 in medical physics, 143 on oncology.

  13. Oncology Nursing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill Days Monday, August 22, 2016 Oncology Nursing Society Announces Support for DAISY Foundation Monday, August 8, 2016 Oncology Nursing Society and Haymarket Media Inc. Announce Navigation Summit Collaboration ...

  14. 3D-BioPrinting: The future of Red Biotech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every day Science moves little steps forward, contributing to the progress of our society. Sometimes, however, a single invention revolutionizes the world. Indeed, the invention of woodblock printing and development of industrial-scale printing-press in the 15. century have changed our society. 3D-printing is now boosting another revolution. The production of custom-made objects from a virtual model will trigger a rapid development of a more versatile, less expensive manufacturing sector for the on-demand market. The real revolution, however, is represented by 3D-printing in biomedicine. 3D-bioprinting represents the future of the Red-Biotech. This technology, indeed, will be able to build ex-novo organs using biocompatible materials and human cells; replace the allograft transplants, eliminating waiting lists that often make the difference between life and death; and provide more predictive, less expensive experimental models, replacing animal tests. The high innovation content of this technology, can make the difference between being obsolete and new

  15. Towards secondary use of heterogeneous radio-oncological data for retrospective clinical trials: service-oriented connection of a central research database with image analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougatf, Nina; Bendl, Rolf; Debus, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Our overall objective is the utilization of heterogeneous and distributed radio-oncological data in retrospective clinical trials. Previously, we have successfully introduced a central research database for collection of heterogeneous data from distributed systems. The next step is the integration of image analysis tools in the standard retrieval process. Hence, analyses for complex medical questions can be processed automatically and facilitated immensely. In radiation oncology recurrence analysis is a central approach for the evaluation of therapeutic concepts. However, various analysis steps have to be performed like image registration, dose transformation and dose statistics. In this paper we show the integration of image analysis tools in the standard retrieval process by connecting them with our central research database using a service-oriented approach. A concrete problem from recurrence analysis has been selected to prove our concept exemplarily. We implemented service-oriented data collection and analysis tools to use them in a central analysis platform, which is based on a work flow management system. An analysis work flow has been designed that, at first, identifies patients in the research database fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Then the relevant imaging data is collected. Finally the imaging data is analyzed automatically. After the successful work flow execution, the results are available for further evaluation by a physician. As a result, the central research database has been connected successfully with automatic data collection and image analysis tools and the feasibility of our service-oriented approach has been demonstrated. In conclusion, our approach will simplify retrospective clinical trials in our department in future.

  16. Biotech outsourcing strategies cmc--biologics stream. June 17, 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Now in its third year, the Biotech Outsourcing Strategies (BOS) meeting organized by Bio2Business took place at the Søhuset Conference Centre in Hørsholm, Copenhagen. The focus of this year's event was the demanding and challenging area of chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC), and the meeting provided ample opportunity for lively discussion of the key issues surrounding this area. New for the 2010 conference, a biologics-focused lecture stream ran in parallel to the established small molecule stream. Both streams boasted a distinguished panel of keynote speakers who discussed all aspects of CMC from early stage scale-up through late stage clinical development. In addition to the keynote speakers, selected contract research organizations (CROs) gave short presentations on the solutions that they could provide to some of the challenges facing CMC. The meeting attracted more than 150 delegates from leading drug development companies and CRO service providers, and greatly facilitated the forging of new working relationships through pre-arranged one-to-one meetings. Moreover, exhibitions from event sponsors and considerable scheduled networking time over lunch and evening reception further enhanced the highly productive and interactive nature of the meeting. PMID:20716956

  17. Trends in global approvals of biotech crops (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemita, Rhodora R; Reaño, Ian Mari E; Solis, Renando O; Hautea, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, traits, and crops that are developed to benefit the global population, approval of these technologies for food, feed, cultivation and import in each country may vary depending on needs, demand and trade interest. ISAAA established a GMO Approval Database to document global approvals of biotech crops. GM event name, crops, traits, developer, year of approval for cultivation, food/feed, import, and relevant dossiers were sourced from credible government regulatory websites and biosafety clearinghouses. This paper investigates the trends in GM approvals for food, feed and cultivation based on the number of approving countries, GM crops, events, and traits in the last 23 y (1992-2014), rationale for approval, factors influencing approvals, and their implications in GM crop adoption. Results show that in 2014, there was an accumulative increase in the number of countries granting approvals at 29 (79% developing countries) for commercial cultivation and 31 (70% developing countries) for food and 19 (80% developing developing) for feed; 2012 had the highest number of approving countries and cultivation approvals; 2011 had the highest number of country approvals for feed, and 2014 for food approvals. Herbicide tolerance trait had the highest events approved, followed by insect tolerance traits. Approvals for food product quality increased in the second decade. Maize had the highest number of events approved (single and stacked traits), and stacked traits product gradually increased which is already 30% of the total trait approvals. These results may indicate understanding and acceptance of countries to enhance regulatory capability to be able to benefit from GM crop commercialization. Hence, the paper provided information on the trends on the growth of the GM crop industry in the last 23 y which may be vital in predicting future GM crops and traits. PMID:26039675

  18. Where is the biotech industry in China headed to?%中国生物技术产生的发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏慰国

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2008 was a year marked with changes and turns for biotech industry in China. 2008 began with tremendous promises riding on the waves of a history-making, exceptionally strong year in 2007. However, the biotech industry in China was not immune to the macroeconomic changes during 2008. This report will attempt to examine changes and new trends in biotech industry in China.

  19. Detection methods for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913 by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Jin-Kug; Yi, Bu-Young

    2007-05-01

    Plants derived through agricultural biotechnology, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs), may affect human health and ecological environment. A living GMO is also called a living modified organism (LMO). Biotech cotton is a GMO in food or feed and also an LMO in the environment. Recently, two varieties of biotech cotton, MON 15985 and MON 88913, were developed by Monsanto Co. The detection method is an essential element for the GMO labeling system or LMO management of biotech plants. In this paper, two primer pairs and probes were designed for specific amplification of 116 and 120 bp PCR products from MON 15985 and MON 88913, respectively, with no amplification from any other biotech cotton. Limits of detection of the qualitative method were all 0.05% for MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was developed using a TaqMan real-time PCR. A synthetic plasmid, as a reference molecule, was constructed from a taxon-specific DNA sequence of cotton and two construct-specific DNA sequences of MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was validated using six samples that contained levels of biotech cotton mixed with conventional cotton ranging from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-20%. Limits of quantitation of the quantitative method were all 0.1%. Consequently, it is reported that the proposed detection methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analyses for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913. PMID:17402745

  20. Mathematical oncology 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    With chapters on free boundaries, constitutive equations, stochastic dynamics, nonlinear diffusion–consumption, structured populations, and applications of optimal control theory, this volume presents the most significant recent results in the field of mathematical oncology. It highlights the work of world-class research teams, and explores how different researchers approach the same problem in various ways. Tumors are complex entities that present numerous challenges to the mathematical modeler. First and foremost, they grow. Thus their spatial mean field description involves a free boundary problem. Second, their interiors should be modeled as nontrivial porous media using constitutive equations. Third, at the end of anti-cancer therapy, a small number of malignant cells remain, making the post-treatment dynamics inherently stochastic. Fourth, the growth parameters of macroscopic tumors are non-constant, as are the parameters of anti-tumor therapies. Changes in these parameters may induce phenomena that a...

  1. Parameters of Regional Cooperative Behavior in the German Biotech Industry – A Quantitative Social Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Strotebeck, Falk

    We analyse the determinants of network formation in Germany’s biotechnology industry using social network analysis combined with a regression approach for count data. Outcome variable of interest is the degree centrality of German regions, which is specified as a function of the region’s innovative...... and economic performance as well as biotech-related policy variables. The inclusion of the latter allows us to shed new light on the question to what extent R&D-based cluster policies are able to impact on the formation of the German biotech network. Our results show that policy indicators such as the...... the German biotechnology network....

  2. [History of Oncology in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondruš, D; Kaušitz, J

    2016-01-01

    The history of oncology in Slovakia is closely linked to the history of St. Elizabeth Hospital, which was set up in the mid-18th century by nuns of the St. Elizabeth Order in Bratislava. In the first half of the 20th century, a unit was set up in the hospital dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Shortly after World War II, the unit was turned into the Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment. In 1950, St. Elizabeth Hospital was nationalized, and the Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Institute of Clinical Oncology were located there as centers for oncological diagnosis and treatment. After the restitution of church property in the early 1990s, the hospital was returned to the Order of St. Elizabeth, which set up the St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in the hospital premises in January of 1996. This year marks the 20th anniversary of this institute in its new premises and the 85th anniversary of the Institute of Radiumtherapy founded in Bratislava, and thus the establishment of institutional healthcare for cancer patients in Slovakia is the reason for balancing. We present a view of the consecutive changes in the organization, space and staff of the Institute and evaluate the impact of celebrities on medicine who developed oncology as a clinical, scientific and educational discipline in Bratislava and in other cities and regions of Slovakia. PMID:27296401

  3. The Sino-French 2012 Conference in Thoracic Oncology:an international academic platform for in-depth exchange on comprehensive research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Rong Situ; Philippe Dartevelle; Thierry Le Chevalier; Lan-Jun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The Sino-French 2012 Conference in Thoracic Oncology,held November t7-18,2012,was hosted by the Department of Thoracic Surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and organized in collaboration with two prestigious French hospitals:Institute Gustave Roussy and Marie Lannelongue Hospital.The conference was established by leading experts from China and France to serve as an international academic platform for sharing novel findings in basic research and valuable clinical practice experiences.Hot topics including innovation in surgical techniques,diagnosis and staging of early-stage lung cancer,minimally invasive surgery,multidisciplinary treatment of lung cancer,and progress in radiotherapy for lung cancer were explored.Highlights of the conference presentations are summarized in this report.

  4. The Sino-French 2012 Conference in Thoracic Oncology:an international academic platform for in-depth exchange on comprehensive research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Rong Situ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sino-French 2012 Conference in Thoracic Oncology, held November 17-18, 2012, was hosted by the Department of Thoracic Surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and organized in collaboration with two prestigious French hospitals: Institute Gustave Roussy and Marie Lannelongue Hospital. The conference was established by leading experts from China and France to serve as an international academic platform for sharing novel findings in basic research and valuable clinical practice experiences. Hot topics including innovation in surgical techniques, diagnosis and staging of early-stage lung cancer, minimally invasive surgery, multidisciplinary treatment of lung cancer, and progress in radiotherapy for lung cancer were explored. Highlights of the conference presentations are summarized in this report.

  5. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  6. American Society for Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PAC Become an Advocate Log In SNIPEND American Society for Radiation Oncology Plan your time at the ... oncology practices. RO-ILS The only medical specialty society-sponsored incident learning system for radiation oncology. RO ...

  7. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry. PMID:18506395

  8. How Is Corporate Social Responsibility Addressed by Biotech Firms? a Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bustamante, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the biotech high-tech sector as a way to achieve competitive advantages. After presenting the importance of science for high-tech firms, the paper focuses on the social and economic role of CSR. Next, the primary reasons for firms' engagement in CSR activities are presented,…

  9. The industrial application requirement for biotech inventions in light of recent EPO & UK case law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2012-01-01

    at the date of filing to demonstrate a credible – or to use the terminology of the EPO – a plausible industrial application. In the final section of the article we shall also discuss various policy considerations relevant for the biotech industry and briefly refer to corresponding developments in the US...

  10. Biotech/GM crops in horticulture: plum cv. HoneySweet resistant to plum pox virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. By 2011, genetically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha. Only 114.507 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.490 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Currently, developing c...

  11. 77 FR 14852 - Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover... securities of Advantage Capital Development Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  12. 76 FR 42682 - China Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission-Clarification and Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... publishing this supplement to the Notice of the Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China, 76 FR 17,621... and life science firms and trade organizations. In response to various inquiries, CS is clarifying...), interested U.S. biotechnology and life science firms and trade organizations which have not already...

  13. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  14. Clinical cancer advances 2007: major research advances in cancer treatment, prevention, and screening--a report from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralow, Julie; Ozols, Robert F; Bajorin, Dean F; Cheson, Bruce D; Sandler, Howard M; Winer, Eric P; Bonner, James; Demetri, George D; Curran, Walter; Ganz, Patricia A; Kramer, Barnett S; Kris, Mark G; Markman, Maurie; Mayer, Robert J; Raghavan, Derek; Ramsey, Scott; Reaman, Gregory H; Sawaya, Raymond; Schuchter, Lynn M; Sweetenham, John W; Vahdat, Linda T; Davidson, Nancy E; Schilsky, Richard L; Lichter, Allen S

    2008-01-10

    A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT: For the third year, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is publishing Clinical Cancer Advances: Major Research Advances in Cancer Treatment, Prevention, and Screening, an annual review of the most significant cancer research presented or published over the past year. ASCO publishes this report to demonstrate the important progress being made on the front lines of clinical cancer research today. The report is intended to give all those with an interest in cancer care-the general public, cancer patients and organizations, policymakers, oncologists, and other medical professionals-an accessible summary of the year's most important cancer research advances. These pages report on the use of magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening, the association between hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer incidence, the link between human papillomavirus and head and neck cancers, and the use of radiation therapy to prevent lung cancer from spreading. They also report on effective new targeted therapies for cancers that have been historically difficult to treat, such as liver cancer and kidney cancer, among many others. A total of 24 advances are featured in this year's report. These advances and many more over the past several years show that the nation's long-term investment in cancer research is paying off. But there are disturbing signs that progress could slow. We are now in the midst of the longest sustained period of flat government funding for cancer research in history. The budgets for the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have been unchanged for four years. When adjusted for inflation, cancer research funding has actually declined 12% since 2004. These budget constraints limit the NCI's ability to fund promising cancer research. In the past several years the number of grants that the NCI has been able to fund has significantly decreased; this year, in response to just the

  15. Oncology Advanced Practitioners Bring Advanced Community Oncology Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring. PMID:27249776

  16. Public administration and R&D localisation by pharmaceutical and biotech companies: a theoretical framework and the Italian case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jommi, Claudio; Paruzzolo, Silvia

    2007-04-01

    This article has two objectives. It firstly provides a general framework for variables that influence R&D (Research and Development) localisation by pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The analysis of R&D localization includes both in-house R&D and contracted R&D. Following a systematic literature search, these variables were classified into four distinct categories: regulatory environment, institutional framework, national systems of innovation and local development and specialisation. The authors highlight that some of these factors directly depend on the action of public administrations (e.g., patent protection, price regulation, public investments in research, and incentives to private companies); others are indirectly influenced by public policies (e.g., GDP growth rate, infrastructures). This theoretical framework was used to analyse the Italian case-study. Pros and cons of the Italian context were investigated from the point of view of multinational pharmaceutical companies and the Italian Association of Biotech Companies. Interviews were chosen as the most appropriate data gathering technique given the exploratory nature of the study of the Italian context. The paper is divided into five parts. A brief introduction provides figures showing that Europe has been loosing positions compared with other Continents and the same has occurred in Italy compared with other EU countries. The second one illustrates the methodology. The third one is focused on variables affecting R&D localisation. In the fourth section the Italian case-study is discussed. Theoretical and empirical findings are summarised and discussed in the conclusions. PMID:16824641

  17. Gaps in Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version provides background for the curriculum and identifies gaps in current and desired comprehensive cancer care.

  18. Knowledge management in the QbD paradigm: manufacturing of biotech therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Christoph; Garcia-Aponte, Oscar F; Golabgir, Aydin; Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-07-01

    In the quality by design (QbD) paradigm, global regulatory agencies have introduced the concepts of quality risk management and knowledge management (KM) as enablers for an enhanced pharmaceutical quality system. Although the concept of quality risk management has been well elucidated in the literature, the topic of KM has received relatively scant attention. In this paper we present an opinion on KM in the QbD paradigm as it relates to the manufacturing of biotech therapeutic products. Both academic and industrial viewpoints have been considered and key gaps have been elucidated. The authors conclude that there is an urgent need for the biotech industry to create efficient KM approaches if they wish to be successful in QbD implementation. PMID:25980924

  19. Nanotechnology in Radiation Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Andrew Z.; Tepper, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also wel...

  20. The Effects of Information on Consumer Demand for Biotech Foods: Evidence from Experimental Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Tegene, Abebayehu; Huffman, Wallace E; Rousu, Matthew C.; Shogren, Jason F.

    2003-01-01

    Consumers' willingness to pay for food products decreases when the food label indicates that a food product is produced with the aid of modern biotechnology. This bulletin presents empirical evidence on consumers' willingness to pay for biotech foods based on the presence or absence of labels advising that the food was prepared with the aid of biotechnology. The authors designed and conducted an experimental auction to elicit consumers' willingness to pay for "genetically modified" (GM)-label...

  1. The Strategic Importance of M&A in the Biotech and Pharmaceutical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Savri

    2011-01-01

    Background: The companies involved for the purpose of improving their respective market standings and income executes mergers. It is interesting how this merger & acquisition phenomena continue to attract many organizations across different sectors of the business world. The mergers & acquisition culture around the globe provides an ideal scenario to investigate into the healthcare industry which comprises of pharmaceutical and biotech companies and the impact of the mergers on the firms inv...

  2. Which Model of Technology Transfer for Nanotechnology? A Comparison with Biotech and Microelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Genet, Corine; Errabi, Khalid; Gauthier, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    International audience Nanotechnologies are often presented as breakthrough innovations, where technology transfer and knowledge-bridging will play a pivotal role in the industrial dynamics. This article investigates the model of knowledge transfer in the nanotechnologies in depth, by comparing it with the models of two recently emerged technologies: biotech and microelectronics. Our results show that the nanotechnology transfer model is very different from that involved in biotechnology e...

  3. Simplex and duplex event-specific analytical methods for functional biotech maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Yi, Bu-Young

    2009-08-26

    Analytical methods are very important in the control of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling systems or living modified organism (LMO) management for biotech crops. Event-specific primers and probes were developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038 on the basis of the 3' flanking regions, respectively. The qualitative primers confirmed the specificity by a single PCR product and sensitivity to 0.05% as a limit of detection (LOD). Simplex and duplex quantitative methods were also developed using TaqMan real-time PCR. One synthetic plasmid was constructed from two taxon-specific DNA sequences of maize and two event-specific 3' flanking DNA sequences of event 3272 and LY 038 as reference molecules. In-house validation of the quantitative methods was performed using six levels of mixing samples, from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-30%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the quantitative methods were all 0.1% for simplex real-time PCRs of event 3272 and LY 038 and 0.5% for duplex real-time PCR of LY 038. This study reports that event-specific analytical methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038. PMID:19650633

  4. Psycho-oncology: Searching for practical wisdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlin, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The debate is vigorous in psycho-oncology about whether spiritual, existential, and psychosocial are the most comprehensive terms for academic research discourses investigating meaning and purpose. A call-to-action email from the International Society of Psycho-Oncology included the term soul. The current essay highlights the historical and contemporary uses of "soul" to suggest that the re-emergent soul signifies a tacit quest for an "intangible" that seems missing in current constructs of clinical domains reflected in the vigor of the debates. It is suggested that the re-emergence of the pre-Medieval meaning(s) of the notion of soul affirms a growing need for integrative paradigms on "being human" to guide psycho-oncology practitioners and their research. As a paradigmatic example, a clinical support group entitled Soul Medicine is described as employing the term soul to open up the more marginal discourses about experiences of illness arising from philosophical reflection, arts, humanities, and spirituality within a clinical oncology context. A link between soul and wisdom is suggested for further exploration with the view that phronesis ("the virtue of practical wisdom"), an emerging concept in health professional education research, is of ultimate value to the people psycho-oncology seeks to serve. This group holds that garnering wisdom from the expertise of those living with cancer should be a central aim of our field. PMID:26399749

  5. Addressing the challenge of intergroup studies in oncology: the EORTC experience. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, A; Therasse, P

    2002-03-01

    Intergroup studies are conducted by more than one clinical research group. There are several difficulties that hamper in practice the possibility of conducting such trials, as all interested parties will have to address unusual and complex issues. These are mainly related to differences in size, interests, motivations and means among different research organisations. The EORTC recognises the importance to promote intergroup collaboration providing to all interested groups the necessary expertise and organisational support to conduct intergroup studies. The role of the EORTC evolved from the spontaneous organisations of intergroup trials to the definition of a basic set of principles and criteria that groups have to fulfil to participate in intergroup trials. Recently, a specific EORTC Intergroup Office started its activity devoted to solve the issues related to the intergroup co-operation. This office will have an increasing role to promote and help in conducting intergroup studies. PMID:11858988

  6. Designing and Implementing an Ambulatory Oncology Nursing Peer Preceptorship Program: Using Grounded Theory Research to Guide Program Development

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Linda C.; Raffin-Bouchal, Shelley; Melnick, Amy; Whyte, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Having enough staff to provide high-quality care to cancer patients will become a growing issue across Canada over the next decades. Statistical predictions indicate that both the number of new diagnoses and the prevalence of cancer will increase dramatically in the next two decades. When combining these trends with the simultaneous trend toward health human resource shortage in Canada, the urgency of assuring we have adequate staff to deliver cancer care becomes clear. This research study fo...

  7. PET in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, Stefan (ed.) [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-07-01

    In the management of oncologic diseases, modern imaging modalities contribute heavily to the decision of which form of treatment - local or systemic, surgical or interdisciplinary - will be most efficient. The addition of functional image information to conventional staging procedures helps improve the diagnostic pathway. The information needed for therapeutic management and for follow-up can be provided by correlative imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) or PET/CT. This book is a comprehensive compilation of the accumulated knowledge on PET and PET/CT in oncology, covering the entire spectrum from solidly documented indications, such as staging and monitoring of lung and colorectal cancer, to the application of PET/CT in head and neck surgery, gynecology, radiation therapy, urology, pediatrics etc. It is aimed at nuclear medicine and radiology specialists as well as physicians interested in the possibilities and limitations of PET and PET/CT in oncology. (orig.)

  8. Exploring Business Models for SMEs in the Biotech Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Holm-Bergqvist, Linus; Ödmark, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The interest in business models has lately increased, which could be traced back to the dot-com burst during the 2000s. There exists no general definition of business models. Howev-er, researchers all agree that business models are used to illustrate the design and architec-ture of the value creation process of companies. Today’s research of business models has mainly been focused on e-commerce. This thesis contributes to the research of business models by extending the research to focus on S...

  9. American Society of Clinical Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Policy Sponsor Policy Terms of Use American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary Cancers Symposium Call for ... or cosponsored by ASCO View Event 13th Asian Society for Neuro-Oncology (ASNO) Meeting/9th COGNO Annual ...

  10. Life Science Forum showcases regional research, new companies

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Annual Southwest Virginia Life Science Forum on Monday, Oct. 4, will showcase New River Valley biotech companies' research and job opportunities, and be a resource for the ACC Interdisciplinary Forum for Discovery in Life Sciences.

  11. Translational Research in Oncology Research & Development and Its Impact on Early Development in China: report of the 5th Annual Meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA at 2013 AACR Annual Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LingjieGuan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In April 2013, the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA held its 5th annual meeting in conjunction with the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR 2013 Annual Meeting in Washington DC. The USCACA executive committee reported activities and programs and highlighted the partnership and collaboration between USCACA and other major organizations. The key initiatives and programs of USCACA included 1 USCACA-TIGM Esophageal Cancer Program that funds translational research of esophageal cancer prevention and treatment at the Xinxiang Medical University in Henan province, China; 2 the USCACA-NFCR-AFCR Scholarship Program, which has supported 10 young outstanding Chinese cancer researchers and will award 4 fellowships at the Guangzhou International Symposium on Oncology in November this year; 3 USCACA-Hengrui Training Program for Early Phase Clinical Research, which has supported the training of a Chinese scholar at two major cancer centers in the US; and 4 USCACA has continued its partnership with the Chinese Journal of Cancer, which has reached significant international impact.

  12. Translational Research in Oncology Research & Development and Its Impact on Early Development in China: report of the 5th Annual Meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) at 2013 AACR Annual Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingjie Guan; Yun Dai; Roger Luo

    2013-01-01

    In April 2013,the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) held its 5th annual meeting in conjunction with the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 2013 Annual Meeting in Washington DC.The USCACA executive committee reported activities and programs and highlighted the partnership and collaboration between USCACA and other major organizations.The key initiatives and programs of USCACA included 1) USCACA-TIGM Esophageal Cancer Program that funds translational research of esophageal cancer prevention and treatment at the Xinxiang Medical University in Henan province,China; 2) the USCACA-NFCR-AFCR Scholarship Program,which has supported 10 young outstanding Chinese cancer researchers and will award 4 fellowships at the Guangzhou International Symposium on Oncology in November this year; 3) USCACA-Hengrui Training Program for Early Phase Clinical Research,which has supported the training of a Chinese scholar at two major cancer centers in the US; and 4) USCACA has continued its partnership with the Chinese Journal of Cancer,which has reached significant international impact.

  13. Mentoring medical students in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNunzio, Nick; Parekh, Arti; Hirsch, Ariel E

    2010-09-01

    Mentoring in academic medicine has been described on a multitude of levels in medical literature, but seldom with respect to medical students. In fact, although some fields have addressed mentoring in the context of medical student education, radiation oncology has yet to do so in a comprehensive fashion. Furthermore, the projected domestic and worldwide epidemiologic trends in cancer cases, coupled with the frequent use of radiation-based cancer treatment regimens, make this an opportune moment to initiate such a discussion. Herein, the authors consider mentoring in the context of radiation oncology and related fields from the perspective of a medical student. They present a paradigm for promoting mentorship through traditional classroom-based and nontraditional socially and research-based initiatives. It is the authors' hope that both radiation oncology and other specialties will benefit from the initiation of this discussion, as well as build on the suggestions detailed here as we prepare the next generation of radiation oncologists. PMID:20816635

  14. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  15. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: prajdas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  16. Penetration of Recommended Procedures for Lung Cancer Staging and Management in the United States Over 10 Years: A Quality Research in Radiation Oncology Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To document the penetration of clinical trial results, practice guidelines, and appropriateness criteria into national practice, we compared the use of components of staging and treatment for lung cancer among patients treated in 2006-2007 with those used in patients treated in 1998-1999. Methods and Materials: Patient, staging work-up, and treatment characteristics were extracted from the process survey database of the Quality Research in Radiation Oncology (QRRO), consisting of records of 340 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) at 44 institutions and of 144 patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) at 39 institutions. Data were compared for patients treated in 2006-2007 versus those for patients treated in 1998-1999. Results: Use of all recommended procedures for staging and treatment was more common in 2006-2007. Specifically, disease was staged with brain imaging (magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography) and whole-body imaging (positron emission tomography or bone scanning) in 66% of patients with LA-NSCLC in 2006-2007 (vs 42% in 1998-1999, P=.0001) and in 84% of patients with LS-SCLC in 2006-2007 (vs 58.3% in 1998-1999, P=.0011). Concurrent chemoradiation was used for 77% of LA-NSCLC patients (vs 45% in 1998-1999, P<.0001) and for 90% of LS-SCLC patients (vs 62.5% in 1998-1999, P<.0001). Use of the recommended radiation dose (59-74 Gy for NSCLC and 60-70 Gy as once-daily therapy for SCLC) did not change appreciably, being 88% for NSCLC in both periods and 51% (2006-2007) versus 43% (1998-1999) for SCLC. Twice-daily radiation for SCLC was used for 21% of patients in 2006-2007 versus 8% in 1998-1999. Finally, 49% of patients with LS-SCLC received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in 2006-2007 (vs 21% in 1998-1999). Conclusions: Although adherence to all quality indicators improved over time, brain imaging and recommended radiation doses for stage III NSCLC were used in <90% of cases. Use

  17. Penetration of Recommended Procedures for Lung Cancer Staging and Management in the United States Over 10 Years: A Quality Research in Radiation Oncology Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaki, Ritsuko, E-mail: rkomaki@mdanderson.org [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Khalid, Najma [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Langer, Corey J. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kong, Feng-Ming [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Owen, Jean B.; Crozier, Cheryl L. [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wilson, J. Frank [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Wei, Xiong [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To document the penetration of clinical trial results, practice guidelines, and appropriateness criteria into national practice, we compared the use of components of staging and treatment for lung cancer among patients treated in 2006-2007 with those used in patients treated in 1998-1999. Methods and Materials: Patient, staging work-up, and treatment characteristics were extracted from the process survey database of the Quality Research in Radiation Oncology (QRRO), consisting of records of 340 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) at 44 institutions and of 144 patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) at 39 institutions. Data were compared for patients treated in 2006-2007 versus those for patients treated in 1998-1999. Results: Use of all recommended procedures for staging and treatment was more common in 2006-2007. Specifically, disease was staged with brain imaging (magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography) and whole-body imaging (positron emission tomography or bone scanning) in 66% of patients with LA-NSCLC in 2006-2007 (vs 42% in 1998-1999, P=.0001) and in 84% of patients with LS-SCLC in 2006-2007 (vs 58.3% in 1998-1999, P=.0011). Concurrent chemoradiation was used for 77% of LA-NSCLC patients (vs 45% in 1998-1999, P<.0001) and for 90% of LS-SCLC patients (vs 62.5% in 1998-1999, P<.0001). Use of the recommended radiation dose (59-74 Gy for NSCLC and 60-70 Gy as once-daily therapy for SCLC) did not change appreciably, being 88% for NSCLC in both periods and 51% (2006-2007) versus 43% (1998-1999) for SCLC. Twice-daily radiation for SCLC was used for 21% of patients in 2006-2007 versus 8% in 1998-1999. Finally, 49% of patients with LS-SCLC received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in 2006-2007 (vs 21% in 1998-1999). Conclusions: Although adherence to all quality indicators improved over time, brain imaging and recommended radiation doses for stage III NSCLC were used in <90% of cases. Use

  18. Job Opportunities in Pharma and Biotech: What Makes a Future Employee Stand Out?

    OpenAIRE

    Mische, Sheenah

    2012-01-01

    These are turbulent times. For Pharma and Biotech there is the potential of new inventions and discovery tempered by the fact that it now takes an average of 12 to 15 years and up to $1.7 billion for a drug to go from discovery to market. Despite all the time and money invested, only a handful of drugs are approved by the FDA each year. The arduous drug approval process reveals a central fact about the pharmaceutical industry: it's one of the most intensely regulated industries in the world. ...

  19. The Industrial Application Requirement for Biotech Inventions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2016-01-01

    New Research CollectionEuropean Intellectual Property Law. Edited by Jan Rosén, Stockholm University and former ATRIP President. This one volume collection thoroughly covers and systematically displays the three main areas of Intellectual Property (IP) Law - Patents, Trademarks and Copyright - wi...

  20. The third Symptom Management Research Trial in Oncology (SMaRT Oncology-3: a randomised trial to determine the efficacy of adding a complex intervention for major depressive disorder (Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer to usual care, compared to usual care alone in patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer is a complex intervention delivered by specially trained cancer nurses, under the supervision of a psychiatrist. It is given as a supplement to the usual care for depression, which patients receive from their general practitioner and cancer service. The third Symptom Management Research Trial in Oncology (SMaRT Oncology-3 Trial will test its efficacy when compared to usual care alone. Design A two arm parallel group multi-centre randomised controlled trial. 200 patients will be recruited through established systematic Symptom Monitoring Services, which screen patients for depression. Patients will have: a diagnosis of lung cancer; an estimated life expectancy of three months or more and a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder. Patients will be randomised to usual care or usual care plus Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer. Randomisation will be carried out by telephoning a secure computerised central randomisation system or by using a secure web interface. The primary outcome measure is average depression severity. This will be assessed using scores on the 20-item Symptom Hopkins Checklist (SCL-20D, collected every four weeks over 32 weeks. Secondary outcomes include severity of anxiety, pain and fatigue; self-rated improvement of depression; quality of life and satisfaction with depression care. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN75905964

  1. ASCO 2007: “Translating Research into Practice”. Report from the 34th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo Porta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This year, for the 34th time in its history, the mastodontic machinery of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO once again welcomed thousand of members and participants from all over the world to the Society’s annual meeting, which, this year, took place in the ample and well-appointed, McCormick’s Convention Center in Chicago, Illinois...

  2. An increasing number of qualitative research papers in oncology and palliative care: does it mean a thorough development of the methodology of research?

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelli Cinzia; Miccinesi Guido; Borreani Claudia; Lina Micaela

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background In the second half of the nineties, a scientific debate about the usefulness of qualitative research in medicine began in the main medical journals as well as the amount of "qualitative" papers published on peer reviewed journals has noticeably increased during these last years. Nevertheless the label of qualitative methodology has been assigned to an heterogeneous collection of studies. Some of them show a complete awareness of the specificity of this kind of research, wh...

  3. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Indrin J; Martel, Mary K; Jaffray, David A; Benedict, Stanley H; Hahn, Stephen M; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Ollendorf, Daniel; Paganetti, Harald; Ross, Brian; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo C; Timmerman, Robert D; Wong, John W

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled "Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology," which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic. PMID:26460989

  4. Radiopharmaceuticals in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopharmaceuticals are generally made of an artificial radionuclide chemically bound to a molecule showing an affinity for a particular type of cells. In oncology, the radionuclide emits either photons for scintigraphic imaging, either beta or alpha particles for metabolic radiotherapy. The development of new radiopharmaceuticals is mostly hampered by the modifications of conformation and hence, of biological behavior, of the original molecule induced by its radiolabelling. The use of positron emitters can be a solution to this difficulty, but their short half-life generates serious management limitations. Radiopharmaceutical used in oncology are targeted toward the cellular and tissular tumorous abnormalities. They belong to different categories: membrane agents, metabolic substrates (such as fluorodeoxyglucose), receptors ligands, antibodies and other agents under development such as hypoxia, apoptosis and genes markers. (authors)

  5. Oncology and palliative care

    OpenAIRE

    Bausewein, Claudia; Hartenstein, R.

    2000-01-01

    Oncology developed as a discipline over the last decades. Treatment is concentrated on cure or palliation of the illness with the help of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery. Palliative care has its origin in the hospice movement that started around 1960 in the UK. Centre of care is the patient and his family. Focus of care has moved from quantity to quality of life. Symptom control, communication, rehabilitation and care for the dying are main areas of palliative care. Palliative care and ...

  6. Neurologic complications in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pace

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic side effects related to cancer therapy are a common problem in oncology practice. These complications can negatively affect the management of the patient, because they can inhibit treatment and diminish quality of life. Therefore specific skills are required to recognise symptoms and clinical manifestations. This review focuses on the most common neurologic complications to improve physician’s familiarity in determining the aetiology of these symptoms.

  7. The experiential world of the Oncology nurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia le Roux

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In her experiential world, the oncology nurse experiences unique, challenging and rewarding relationships in a multidimensional, dynamic way. The aim of this study was to describe, from her viewpoint and perspective, how she experiences and reacts to this world. Through this study the researcher wants the oncology nurse’s voice to be heard, the richness of her story acknowledged and the derived data to be applied to the benefit of the field of oncology. In-depth, unstructured phenomenological interviews provided the saturated data from which the uniqueness of the world of the oncology nurse unfolded as the uniqueness of the oncology patients and their world emerged clearly. Findings show that the oncology nurse, attending to the cancer patients and their family, experiences many different relationships. The uniqueness of the oncology nurse-patient relationship is described as unlike any other nurse-patient relationship. The challenging interpersonal relationships with management and other members of the multiprofessional team, as experienced from the perspective of the oncology nurse, are also highlighted. Furthermore, a unifying intrapersonal relationship with the self was identified. This enables the oncology nurse to be both on the giving and receiving end of the intensely emotional environment she works in, explaining, at least partly, the high job satisfaction that permeated the interviews in this study. Recommendations for nursing practice, education and research were formulated. Opsomming In haar leefwêreld ondervind onkologieverpleegkundige unieke, uitdagende en belonende verhoudinge op ‘n multidimensionele en dinamiese wyse. Die doel van hierdie studie was om ‘n beskrywing van die onkologieverpleegkundige se ervarings van en reaksie op haar leefwêreld vanuit haar oogpunt en perspektief. Deur middel van hierdie studie wil die navorser die stem van die onkologieverpleegkundige gehoor laat word, die rykdom van haar verhaal

  8. [Factitious diseases in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Michel; Clermont, Amélie; Amela, Éric; Kotecki, Nuria

    2015-12-01

    Factitious diseases and pathomimias and particularly Munchausen's syndrome, due to their rarity, are poorly diagnosed by medical teams working in oncology. Consequences can be serious and result in unadapted surgery or non justified implementation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. These patients simulate diseases in order to attract medical attention. They might become belligerent and are likely to promptly discharge themselves from hospital if they do not get the desired attention or are unmasked. With two following case reports and literature review, we would like to alert clinicians about difficulties encountered in diagnosis and management of factitious disorders. When faced with this diagnosis, the patient will tend to deny reality and break contact with the medical team who exposed him. Medical peregrinating behavior surrounded by conflicts with medical team, past psychiatric illness, history of working in the medical and paramedical field and social isolation can guide the diagnosis. Somaticians and especially surgeons working in the oncologic field must remain vigilant about this diagnosis and collaborate with either the psycho-oncologic team or the consultation-liaison psychiatric team. Some recommendations for medical professionals how to cope with these patients will be suggested. PMID:26597474

  9. Quality Indicators in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncologic specialty societies and multidisciplinary collaborative groups have dedicated considerable effort to developing evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) to facilitate quality improvement, accreditation, benchmarking, reimbursement, maintenance of certification, and regulatory reporting. In particular, the field of radiation oncology has a long history of organized quality assessment efforts and continues to work toward developing consensus quality standards in the face of continually evolving technologies and standards of care. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of quality assessment in radiation oncology. Specifically, this report highlights implications of the healthcare quality movement for radiation oncology and reviews existing efforts to define and measure quality in the field, with focus on dimensions of quality specific to radiation oncology within the “big picture” of oncologic quality assessment efforts

  10. Solid lipid nanoparticles for hydrophilic biotech drugs: optimization and cell viability studies (Caco-2 & HEPG-2 cell lines)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Severino, P.; Andreani, T.; Jäger, Alessandro; Chaud, M. V.; Santana, M. H. A.; Silva, A. M.; Souto, E. B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 81, 23 June (2014), s. 28-34. ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : lipid nanoparticles * double emulsion * hydrophilic biotech drugs Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.447, year: 2014

  11. Gamma camera based FDG PET in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) was introduced as a research tool in the 1970s and it took about 20 years before PET became an useful clinical imaging modality. In the USA, insurance coverage for PET procedures in the 1990s was the turning point, I believe, for this progress. Initially PET was used in neurology but recently more than 80% of PET procedures are in oncological applications. I firmly believe, in the 21st century, one can not manage cancer patients properly without PET and PET is very important medical imaging modality in basic and clinical sciences. PET is grouped into 2 categories; conventional (c) and gamma camera based (CB) PET. CBPET is more readily available utilizing dual-head gamma cameras and commercially available FDG to many medical centers at low cost to patients. In fact there are more CBPET in operation than cPET in the USA. CBPET is inferior to cPET in its performance but clinical studies in oncology is feasible without expensive infrastructures such as staffing, rooms and equipments. At Ajou university Hospital, CBPET was installed in late 1997 for the first time in Korea as well as in Asia and the system has been used successfully and effectively in oncological applications. Our was the fourth PET operation in Korea and I believe this may have been instrumental for other institutions got interested in clinical PET. The following is a brief description of our clinical experience of FDG CBPET in oncology

  12. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin;

    2012-01-01

    a number of different MRI techniques, such as DWI-MR (diffusion weighted imaging MR), DCE-MR (dynamic contrast enhanced MR), MRS (MR spectroscopy) and MR for attenuation correction of PET. All MR techniques presented in this paper have shown promising results in the treatment of patients with solid......After more than 20 years of research, a fully integrated PET/MR scanner was launched in 2010 enabling simultaneous acquisition of PET and MR imaging. Currently, no clinical indication for combined PET/MR has been established, however the expectations are high. In this paper we will discuss some of...... the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to...

  13. Preclinical models in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the incidence of cancer continues to rise, the use of radiotherapy has emerged as a leading treatment modality. Preclinical models in radiation oncology are essential tools for cancer research and therapeutics. Various model systems have been used to test radiation therapy, including in vitro cell culture assays as well as in vivo ectopic and orthotopic xenograft models. This review aims to describe such models, their advantages and disadvantages, particularly as they have been employed in the discovery of molecular targets for tumor radiosensitization. Ultimately, any model system must be judged by its utility in developing more effective cancer therapies, which is in turn dependent on its ability to simulate the biology of tumors as they exist in situ. Although every model has its limitations, each has played a significant role in preclinical testing. Continued advances in preclinical models will allow for the identification and application of targets for radiation in the clinic

  14. The Radiation Therapy Oncology in the context of oncological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the radiation therapy oncology in the context of oncological practice. The radiotherapy is a speciality within medicine that involves the generation, application and dissemination of knowledge about the biology, causes, prevention and treatment of the cancer and other pathologies by ionising radiation

  15. Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Guggenheim, Alena G.; Wright, Kirsten M.; Zwickey, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the immunological roles of 5 major mushrooms in oncology: Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, and Trametes versicolor. These mushrooms were selected based on the body of research performed on mushroom immunology in an oncology model. First, this article focuses on how mushrooms modify cytokines within specific cancer models and on how those cytokines affect the disease process. Second, this article examines the direct effect of mushr...

  16. The problems of surgical training in gynaecologic oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, CW; Oliveira, CF; Kehoe, ST

    2000-01-01

    During the late 60s and early 70s it was recognised that the surgical training for residents in Obstetrics and Gynaecology was inadequate to comprehensively acquire the surgical skills necessary in managing women with gynaecologic cancers. Gynaecologic Oncology (Gynae-Oncology) has three important goals: 1) to maintain the highest standards for patients with gynaecologic cancer, 2) to provide the trainee with clinical skills and structural clinical research after his/her surgical completion, ...

  17. Early phase Technology Assessment of nanotechnology in oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Retèl, Valesca P; Hummel, Marjan J.M.; Harten, van, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    To perform early Technology Assessment (TA) of nanotechnology in oncology. The possibilities of nanotechnology for detection (imaging), diagnosis and treatment of cancer are subject of different research programs where major investments are concerned. As a range of bio- nanotechnologies is expected to enter the oncology field it is relevant to consider the various aspects involved in especially early TA. This article provides two cases of early assessment of (predecessors of) nanotechnologies...

  18. [Dignity therapy in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Carla Ida

    2016-04-01

    In oncology, little is known about dignity, dignity-related distress and the issues that influence the sense of dignity for patients. Dignity is personal, subject to changes depending on the experience and the path of life. In oncology some patients feel that their dignity is directly related to the disease, to physical and emotional symptoms, to the highest level of physical and cognitive autonomy and to the continuity of the self. Patient dignity inventory (PDI) is a validate tool designed to measure various sources of dignity-related distress among patients nearing the end of life and serve as a screening tool to assess a broad range of issues that influence the sense of dignity. Dignity therapy is a novel focused psychotherapy consisting in a brief semi-structured interview, audio-recorded and transcribed in order to obtain the "generativity document". The patients are invited to tell about their life history, and to leave words of guidance and offer instructions to pass along to their son, daughters, husband, wife, parents, others. The generativity document is the result of process of emotional and existential care for the patients and a gift for everybody will receive it. PMID:27093325

  19. La revolución de los microarrays en la investigación biosanitaria: tipos de plataformas, usos y perspectivas en oncología The microarray revolution in biomedical research: types of platforms, uses and perspectives in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Cigudosa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la introducción, uso y manejo de herramientas de base genómica, la investigación sobre las alteraciones genéticas que están en el origen de enfermedades tan comunes como el cáncer han sufrido una revolución técnica comparable a la incorporación del microscopio en los laboratorios. Ahora, estudiar la relación gen-enfermedad no está basado en analizar un gen único y sus efectos sino en analizar el comportamiento de miles de genes de forma simultánea. Estos sistemas, denominados genéricamente como matrices, arrays, microarrays o biochips, están cambiando nuestra forma de plantear problemas y extraer conclusiones de los experimentos ya que nos ofrecen una foto compleja del conjunto del genoma. Los análisis de expresión mediante microarrays de cDNA o de oligos ya son accesibles a la comunidad científica española. Los resultados, además, fascinan a los investigadores ya que son bastante reproducibles y aportan una gran cantidad de información sobre la regulación de la expresión génica en condiciones normales y patológicas.Through the introduction, use and management of genome-based tools, research into genetic alterations that give rise to diseases as common as cancer has undergone a technical revolution comparable to the introduction of the microscope in laboratories. Now, study of the gene-disease relationship is no longer based on analysing a single gene and its effects, but on analysing the behaviour of thousands of genes in a simultaneous form. These systems, generically called matrices, arrays, microarrays or biochips, are changing the way we pose problems and draw conclusions from experiments, since they offer us a complex photo of the genome as a whole. Analyses of expression through microarrays of cDNI or oligos are now accessible to the Spanish scientific community. The results have proved fascinating to researchers since they can be reproduced easily and contribute a great quantity of information on the

  20. Nordic research in ophthalmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Zetterström, Charlotta; Ehlers, Niels;

    2003-01-01

    Ophthalmology, eye research, cornea, catarcat, paediatric ophthalmology, glaucoma, diabetic eye disease, age-related macular degeneration, ophthalmic oncology......Ophthalmology, eye research, cornea, catarcat, paediatric ophthalmology, glaucoma, diabetic eye disease, age-related macular degeneration, ophthalmic oncology...

  1. Neuro-oncology of CNS tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, J.C. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Westphal, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Rutka, J.T. [Toronto Univ. Hospital for Sick Children, ON (Canada). Div. of Neurosurgery; Grossmann, S.A. (eds.) [Johns Hopkins Oncology Center Neuro-Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis and treatment modalities for neuro-oncologic diseases have made considerable advances in recent years. There is hardly a segment of the field of solid tumours that is experiencing such dynamic development with regard to basic scientific findings and clinical results. In the present book the world's leading experts have compiled the current practice-relevant knowledge of neuro-oncologic diseases. The book's clear structure and the uniform presentation of all chapters make this volume a valuable reference, especially for practice-oriented activities, allowing swift access to information about current treatment standards. Hence it will be of great value to both clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  2. Mind-body therapies in integrative oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary; Fisher, William; Johnson, Aimee

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in mind-body therapies as adjuncts to mainstream cancer treatment, and an increasing number of patients turn to these interventions for the control of emotional stress associated with cancer. Increased research funding has enabled many such interventions to be evaluated for their efficacy, including studies of mind-body interventions to reduce pain, anxiety, insomnia, anticipatory, and treatment-related nauseas, hot flashes, and improved mood. Mind-body treatments evaluated for their utility in oncology include relaxation therapies, biofeedback, meditation and hypnosis, yoga, art and music therapy, tai chi, and qigong. Although studies are not always methodologically sound and results mixed, a growing number of well-designed studies provide convincing evidence that mind-body techniques are beneficial adjuncts to cancer treatment. The evidence is sufficient to recommend further investigation and adoption of these techniques in mainstream oncology care. PMID:21116746

  3. Communication about the Risks and Benefits of Phase I Pediatric Oncology Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, Rebecca A.; Zyzanski, Stephen; Baker, Justin; Drotar, Dennis; Kodish, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Phase 1 pediatric oncology trials offer only a small chance of direct benefit and may have significant risks and an impact on quality of life. To date, research has not examined discussions of risks and benefits during informed consent conferences for phase 1 pediatric oncology trials. The objective of the current study was to examine clinician and family communication about risks, benefits, and quality of life during informed consent conferences for phase 1 pediatric oncology tr...

  4. Pediatric oncologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncologic emergencies arise in three ways: disease or therapy induced cytopenias; a space occupying lesion causing pressure on or obstruction of surrounding tissues; or leukemia or tumors creating life-threatening metabolic or hormonal problems. Knowledge of presenting signs and symptoms of these emergencies are essential in pediatric oncologic nursing. Neutropenia opens the door for all manner of infections, but the most life threatening is septicemia progressing to shock. A variety of organisms can cause septic shock in the neutropenic patient, but episodes are most often due to gram-negative organisms and the endotoxins they release. Shock, while still compensated, may present with a elevated or subnormal temperature, flushed, warm, dry skin, widening pulse pressure, tachycardia, tachypnoea and irritability, but without medical intervention will progress to hypo tension, cool, clammy extremities, decreased urinary out- put, and eventually to bradycardia and cardiogenic shock. Another emergency in the cytopenia category is bleeding as a result of thrombocytopenia. Of greatest concern is intracranial hemorrhage that may occur at platelet counts of less than 5,000/mm3. Space-occupying lesions of the chest may produce superior vena cava syndrome (SVGS), pleural and pericardial effusions, and cardiac tamponade. SVGS is most often caused by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and presents as cough, hoarseness, dyspnea, orthopnea and chest pain. Signs include swelling, plethora, cyanosis, edema of conjunctiva and wheezing. Pleural and pericardial effusions present with respiratory or cardiac distress as does cardiac tamponade. Abdominal emergencies arise because of inflammation, mechanical obstruction, hemorrhage (often from steroid induced ulcers), and perforation. Pain is the most common presenting symptom, although vital sign alterations, fever, blood in vomitus or stool, abdominal distension and cessation of flatus are also important components of the acute abdomen

  5. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  6. Nursing student attitudes toward oncology nursing: an evidence-based literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprood, Sarah R

    2013-02-01

    Oncology education can impact nursing students' attitudes toward oncology and their interest in oncology nursing. To explore that relationship, a literature search was conducted using the CINAHL®, Cochrane Library, ERIC®, PubMed, and Scopus® databases. Nineteen pertinent studies were incorporated into the review, and recommendations were graded by strength of evidence schemas. The reviewed literature indicated undergraduate oncology education may be effective in encouraging nursing students to consider oncology as a practice area. Negative attitudes toward oncology such as fear and pessimism often are seen in students and practicing nurses. Educational interventions for students and nurses are effective in increasing knowledge and skills that are instrumental in fostering confidence and positive attitudes toward oncology nursing. All nursing students should have organized, mandatory clinical and didactic oncology nursing education experiences. Additional research is needed to support the effectiveness of educational strategies in influencing students' intent to practice oncology nursing. Innovative strategies including nontraditional clinical experiences, internships, fellowships, high-fidelity simulation, and postgraduate residencies are needed to provide adequate educational opportunities for nursing students to foster a strong and proficient oncology nursing workforce. PMID:23372107

  7. Future directions in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cancer treatment has evolved progressively over the years as a joint result of improvements in technology and better understanding of the biological responses of neoplastic and normal cells to cytotoxic agents. Although major therapeutic 'breakthroughs' are unlikely absent the discovery of exploitable fundamental differences between cancer cells and their normal homologs, further incremental improvements in cancer treatment results can confidently be expected as we apply existing knowledge better and take advantage of new research insights. Areas in which I can foresee significant improvements (in approximate chronological order) are as follows: better physical radiation dose distributions; more effective radiation and chemoradiation protocols based on radiobiological principles; more rational use of radiation adjuvants based on biologic criteria; use of novel targets and vectors for systemic radionuclide therapy; use of genetic markers of radiosensitivity to determine radiation dose tolerances; and use of radiation as a modulator of therapeutic gene expression. Radiation research has contributed greatly to the efficacy of radiation oncology as it is now practised but has even greater potential for the future

  8. National Institutes of Health Funding in Radiation Oncology: A Snapshot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, pay lines for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants are at a historical low. In this climate of fierce competition, knowledge about the funding situation in a small field like radiation oncology becomes very important for career planning and recruitment of faculty. Unfortunately, these data cannot be easily extracted from the NIH's database because it does not discriminate between radiology and radiation oncology departments. At the start of fiscal year 2013 we extracted records for 952 individual grants, which were active at the time of analysis from the NIH database. Proposals originating from radiation oncology departments were identified manually. Descriptive statistics were generated using the JMP statistical software package. Our analysis identified 197 grants in radiation oncology. These proposals came from 134 individual investigators in 43 academic institutions. The majority of the grants (118) were awarded to principal investigators at the full professor level, and 122 principal investigators held a PhD degree. In 79% of the grants, the research topic fell into the field of biology, 13% in the field of medical physics. Only 7.6% of the proposals were clinical investigations. Our data suggest that the field of radiation oncology is underfunded by the NIH and that the current level of support does not match the relevance of radiation oncology for cancer patients or the potential of its academic work force

  9. Current situation research and causes analysis of compassion fatigue in nursing staff in oncology department%肿瘤科护理人员同情心疲乏的现状调查及原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴爱丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查肿瘤科护理人员同情心疲乏的现状和原因,探究解决方法。方法通过调查表、同情心疲乏量表、满意度量表等方式对肿瘤科的128例护理人员进行统计分析调查。结果肿瘤科护理人员的同情心疲乏总分为(102.32±8.23)分,其中得分最低的是个人能力怀疑项,得分最高的是感情低落项。而影响同情心疲乏水平的影响因素主要是护龄、内在和外在满意度。结论缓解同情心疲乏的有效方式是提高护理人员的工作满意度,并努力保证护理人员的心理健康。%ObjectiveTo research current situation and causes of compassion fatigue in nursing staff in oncology department, and to explore solutions.MethodsA total of 128 nursing staff received statistical analysisand investigation by questionnaire, compassion fatigue scale, and satisfaction degree scale.ResultsTotal score of compassion fatigue in nursing staff in oncology department was (102.32±8.23) points. The lowest item was individual ability suspension, and the higher one was depressed feeling. Main influencing factors included working time, internal and external satisfaction degrees.ConclusionImprovement of satisfaction degree and enhancing of psychological health in nursing staff are effective methods in relieving their compassion fatigue.

  10. Exercise Promotion in Geriatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhenn, Peggy S; Bryant, Ashley Leak; Mustian, Karen M

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of the benefits of exercise for people with cancer from diagnosis through survivorship is growing. However, most cancers occur in older adults and little exercise advice is available for making specific recommendations for older adults with cancer. Individualized exercise prescriptions are safe, feasible, and beneficial for the geriatric oncology population. Oncology providers must be equipped to discuss the short- and long-term benefits of exercise and assist older patients in obtaining appropriate exercise prescriptions. This review provides detailed information about professionals and their roles as it relates to functional assessment, intervention, and evaluation of the geriatric oncology population. This review addresses the importance of functional status assessment and appropriate referrals to other oncology professionals. PMID:27484061

  11. Radiation Oncology reviewer acknowledgement 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The editorial team of Radiation Oncology would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in 2015. Without the participation of skilful reviewers, no academic journal could succeed, and we are grateful to the committed individuals who have given their time and expertise to the peer review of manuscripts for Radiation Oncology. We look forward to your continued support in 2016

  12. Results of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs (ADROP) Survey of Radiation Oncology Residency Program Directors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To survey the radiation oncology residency program directors on the topics of departmental and institutional support systems, residency program structure, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements, and challenges as program director. Methods: A survey was developed and distributed by the leadership of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs to all radiation oncology program directors. Summary statistics, medians, and ranges were collated from responses. Results: Radiation oncology program directors had implemented all current required aspects of the ACGME Outcome Project into their training curriculum. Didactic curricula were similar across programs nationally, but research requirements and resources varied widely. Program directors responded that implementation of the ACGME Outcome Project and the external review process were among their greatest challenges. Protected time was the top priority for program directors. Conclusions: The Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs recommends that all radiation oncology program directors have protected time and an administrative stipend to support their important administrative and educational role. Departments and institutions should provide adequate and equitable resources to the program directors and residents to meet increasingly demanding training program requirements.

  13. Clinical Oncology-A New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biyun Qian; Dan Su; Herbert Yu

    2007-01-01

    Rapid growth in biomedical research coupled with dramatic advancement in biotechnology has significantly improved our understanding of the molecular basis involving cancer development and progression.This improvement has led to the discovery of new molecular markers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis as well as new molecular targets for cancer treatment and intervention.Continuous emergence of some new developing area in molecular profiling,new therapeutic agents,tissue microenvironment and systems biology have made significant progress in clinical oncology.Clinical research and investigation that focus on these new developments have begun to show exciting results that indicate future promises in improving patient management and survival.

  14. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  15. Oncology in primary health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book Oncology in the primary health care, constitutes an important contribution to the prevention and treatment of cancer, from a very comprehensive assessment. It's a disease that is the second leading cause of death in our country, to much pain and suffering is for the patient and their family. The book has a very useful for basic health equipment approach, since it emphasizes that cancer can be prevented if achieved in the population changes in lifestyle. The book is valued not correct food as responsible for one third of all cancers. Currently important research being developed in relation to psiconeuroinmuno-Endocrinology, who is studying the association between psychological factors and the development of cancer valuing that kept stress and depression reduces the antitumor activity of the immune system; that made programs with encouraging results where the treatment of cancer has joined elements of psychotherapy, immunotherapy and the use of the biotherapy. The focus of the book fills an important place in the primary health care and is an indispensable guide for professionals at this level of care (author)

  16. Quality of life in oncology with emphasis upon neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choucair, Ali K

    2007-01-01

    Quality of life, as a science has been steadily gaining importance in both clinical practice as well as research. Despite major progress in the development of validated and clinically-relevant health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures, we still face many challenges in bridging the gap between what we know and how to apply it in clinical practice: in making the transfer from the mere collection of QOL data to its utilization in improving patient outcome through interventional symptomatic therapy. This manuscript traces the development of QOL as a science to its potential utility in both clinical care and clinical research, as well as an outcomes measure. The emphasis has been placed upon quality of life in oncology with special attention to neuro-oncology. PMID:17127306

  17. Trait stacking for biotech crops: an essential consideration for agbiotech development projects for building trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of agricultural biotechnology humanitarian projects for food security in the last five years has been rapid in developing countries and is expected to rise sharply over the coming years. An extremely critical issue in these projects involves building trust with the community and farmers they aim to serve. For the first time, our social audit engagement with one of these initiatives, the Water Efficient Maize for Africa project, has revealed that a critical but unrecognized component of building trust with farmers involves publicly addressing the concerns surrounding stacked trait crops. As a result, we argue in this article that it is critical to actively anticipate the concerns that could be raised over trait stacking by incorporating them into global access plans of such initiatives early in order to facilitate adoption, provide the best value to the small-scale farmer and gain trust with the community whom these projects aim to serve. This perspective, based on an actual international social audit, should be of value to scientists, funders and partners involved in biotech development initiatives for food security.

  18. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%–90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better—with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations—when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient’s medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual’s background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician.

  19. Evidence-based integrative medicine in clinical veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology. PMID:25174902

  20. Research Strategies in Science-based Start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    Although biotech start-ups fail or succeed based on their research few attempts have been made to examine if and how they strategize in this core of their activity. Popular views on Dedicated Biotech Firms (DBFs) see the inherent uncertainty of research as defying notions of strategizing, directing...... instead the attention to the quality of their science, or the roles of boards, management, and collaborative networks etc. Using a unique comprehensive dataset on Danish and Swedish biotech start-ups in drug discovery this paper analyzes their research strategies. Adopting a Simonean point of departure we...... Shonhoovens classical argument that "strategy matters" is valid not only for the larger high-tech firms covered by her study, but also for small research-based start-ups operating at the very well springs of knowledge where science directly interacts with technologies. Even though a lot more research is...

  1. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Sachin M; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  2. 76 FR 61713 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of..., are in late stage development for an adult oncology indication, or in late stage development...

  3. 75 FR 66773 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... were either recently approved by FDA or, are in late stage development for an adult oncology...

  4. 78 FR 63224 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... late stage development for various adult oncology indications. The subcommittee will consider...

  5. 77 FR 57095 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... plans for four products that are in development for an adult oncology indication. The subcommittee...

  6. Establishment of Database System for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enlarge the efficiency of operation and establish a constituency for development of new radiotherapy treatment through database which is established by arranging and indexing radiotherapy related affairs in well organized manner to have easy access by the user. In this study, Access program provided by Microsoft (MS Office Access) was used to operate the data base. The data of radiation oncology was distinguished by a business logs and maintenance expenditure in addition to stock management of accessories with respect to affairs and machinery management. Data for education and research was distinguished by education material for department duties, user manual and related thesis depending upon its property. Registration of data was designed to have input form according to its subject and the information of data was designed to be inspected by making a report. Number of machine failure in addition to its respective repairing hours from machine maintenance expenditure in a period of January 2008 to April 2009 was analyzed with the result of initial system usage and one year after the usage. Radiation oncology database system was accomplished by distinguishing work related and research related criteria. The data are arranged and collected according to its subjects and classes, and can be accessed by searching the required data through referring the descriptions from each criteria. 32.3% of total average time was reduced on analyzing repairing hours by acquiring number of machine failure in addition to its type in a period of January 2008 to April 2009 through machine maintenance expenditure. On distinguishing and indexing present and past data upon its subjective criteria through the database system for radiation oncology, the use of information can be easily accessed to enlarge the efficiency of operation, and in further, can be a constituency for improvement of work process by acquiring various information required for new radiotherapy treatment in real time.

  7. Establishment of the Asia Oncology Nursing Society (AONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Onishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, whenever an informal group of Asian oncology nurses gathered, they talked about their mutual desire to create an organization closer to their homes that would be similar to the European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS. They saw this as a means for more of their colleagues to learn about the latest in cancer nursing and to have a time and place to network among themselves. This message continued to gain strength whenever these nurses met at other international meetings such as the International Conference on Cancer Nursing (ICCN, the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC and the Oncology Nursing Society in US. A definite and planned step toward forming an Asian organization as the first meeting was taken on June 24 2011 when several Asian nurses were attending a MASCC meeting in Greece. The second meeting was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in conjunction with the 17 th ICCN meeting on September 10 2012, where the participants of the meeting included 21 oncology nurses from Asian countries. Finally, the first official meeting of the board directors from nine countries was held on November 21 2013 in Bangkok, Thailand. Now, and in the future, sharing and collaborating in the practice, education and research for oncology nursing in Asia is needed.

  8. Establishment of the Asia Oncology Nursing Society (AONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Onishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, whenever an informal group of Asian oncology nurses gathered, they talked about their mutual desire to create an organization closer to their homes that would be similar to the European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS. They saw this as a means for more of their colleagues to learn about the latest in cancer nursing and to have a time and place to network among themselves. This message continued to gain strength whenever these nurses met at other international meetings such as the International Conference on Cancer Nursing (ICCN, the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC and the Oncology Nursing Society in US. A definite and planned step toward forming an Asian organization as the first meeting was taken on June 24 2011 when several Asian nurses were attending a MASCC meeting in Greece. The second meeting was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in conjunction with the 17 th ICCN meeting on September 10 2012, where the participants of the meeting included 21 oncology nurses from Asian countries. Finally, the first official meeting of the board directors from nine countries was held on November 21 2013 in Bangkok, Thailand. Now, and in the future, sharing and collaborating in the practice, education and research for oncology nursing in Asia is needed.

  9. 7 Leadership Blind Spots: Adult Development, Emotional Intelligence, and Leadership Effectiveness Among Biotech R&D Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Shiner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In this multiple-case study of 6 mid-level leaders working in biotech R&D--an archetype of a complex, uncertain, turbulent, and, multidisciplinary 21st-Century workplace--I explore the importance and interaction of mental complexity (MC), an aspect of adult development, and emotional intelligence (EI) for leadership effectiveness (LE). MC concerns the sophistication of the mindsets we use to construct stories for ourselves about the meaning of things. EI refers to one’s ability to manage one’...

  10. Explaining ICT Infrastructure and E-Commerce Uses and Benefits in Industrial Clusters-Evidence from a Biotech Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Steinfield, Charles

    2006-01-01

    in an industrial cluster might utilize and derive benefit from a public, broadband ICT infrastructure, particularly in support of e-commerce applications. A case study of a successful biotech cluster in Denamrk and Sweden-The Medicon Valley-provides a preliminary test of these expectations. Distinctions in uses...... and benefits based upon firm size are considered. A key finding is that small firms that would not otherwise be expected to gain from global e-commerce can rely on the cluster "brand" to enable trade with unknown and distant partners....

  11. Explaining ICT Infrastructure and E-Commerce Uses and Benefits in Industrial Clusters-Evidence from a Biotech Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Steinfield, Charles

    2006-01-01

    industrial cluster might utilize and derive benefit from a public, broadband ICT infrastructure, particularly in support of e-commerce applications. A case study of a successful biotech cluster in Denamrk and Sweden-The Medicon Valley-provides a preliminary test of these expectations. Distinctions in uses...... and benefits based upon firm size are considered. A key finding is that small firms that would not otherwise be expected to gain from global e-commerce can rely on the cluster "brand" to enable trade with unknown and distant partners....

  12. Tracking the 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium: bridging cancer biology to clinical gastrointestinal oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprile G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Aprile,1 Francesco Leone,2,3 Riccardo Giampieri,4 Mariaelena Casagrande,1 Donatella Marino,2,3 Luca Faloppi,4 Stefano Cascinu,4 Gianpiero Fasola,1 Mario Scartozzi5,6 1Department of Oncology, University and General Hospital, Udine, Italy; 2Medical Oncology Department, University of Turin, 3Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo, Turin, Italy; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; 5Medical Oncology Department, University of Cagliari, 6General Hospital, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: The 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium (San Francisco, CA, USA; January 15–17 is the world-class conference co-sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the American Gastroenterological Association Institute, and the Society of Surgical Oncology, in which the most innovative research results in digestive tract oncology are presented and discussed. In its twelfth edition, the meeting has provided new insights focusing on the underpinning biology and clinical management of gastrointestinal malignancies. More than 3,400 health care professionals gathered from all over the world to share their experiences on how to bridge the recent novelties in cancer biology with everyday medical practice. In this article, the authors report on the most significant advances, didactically moving on three different anatomic tracks: gastroesophageal malignancies, pancreatic and biliary cancers, and colorectal adenocarcinomas. Keywords: colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, target therapy, onartuzumab, AMG 337

  13. Trends and issues in oncology costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalo, Julieta F; Rascati, Karen L

    2014-02-01

    Approximately 18% of US gross domestic product is spent on healthcare and 5% of that is for cancer care. With rapidly increasing oncologic drug prices, growth in cancer spending will likely far outpace overall healthcare spending growth. Developing cost-saving strategies is imperative, but economizing must not compromise patients' well-being. Providing quality care at the most economical price is the main aim. This article summarizes trends in rising cancer costs, and reviews cost-management strategies, including those proposed in the Affordable Care Act. Many programs economize by correcting inefficiencies, preventing therapeutic failures and eliminating errors. Process improvement is important, but in oncology, medications substantially drive costs. Identifying the most effective and economical treatments requires cost-effectiveness research. At the current pace, the US payers cannot continue to afford increasing costs for cancer treatments. Research on maximizing patient outcomes for reasonable costs is essential. More analyses of quality of life assessment and cost-effectiveness can support future decisions about cancer care. PMID:24328809

  14. Pharmacological foundations of cardio-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minotti, Giorgio; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Menna, Pierantonio

    2010-07-01

    Anthracyclines and many other antitumor drugs induce cardiotoxicity that occurs "on treatment" or long after completing chemotherapy. Dose reductions limit the incidence of early cardiac events but not that of delayed sequelae, possibly indicating that any dose level of antitumor drugs would prime the heart to damage from sequential stressors. Drugs targeted at tumor-specific moieties raised hope for improving the cardiovascular safety of antitumor therapies; unfortunately, however, many such drugs proved unable to spare the heart, aggravated cardiotoxicity induced by anthracyclines, or were safe in selected patients of clinical trials but not in the general population. Cardio-oncology is the discipline aimed at monitoring the cardiovascular safety of antitumor therapies. Although popularly perceived as a clinical discipline that brings oncologists and cardiologists working together, cardio-oncology is in fact a pharmacology-oriented translational discipline. The cardiovascular performance of survivors of cancer will only improve if clinicians joined pharmacologists in the search for new predictive models of cardiotoxicity or mechanistic approaches to explain how a given drug might switch from causing systolic failure to inducing ischemia. The lifetime risk of cardiotoxicity from antitumor drugs needs to be reconciled with the identification of long-lasting pharmacological signatures that overlap with comorbidities. Research on targeted drugs should be reshaped to appreciate that the terminal ballistics of new "magic bullets" might involve cardiomyocytes as innocent bystanders. Finally, the concepts of prevention and treatment need to be tailored to the notion that late-onset cardiotoxicity builds on early asymptomatic cardiotoxicity. The heart of cardio-oncology rests with such pharmacological foundations. PMID:20335321

  15. IOTF- Interagency Oncology Taskforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), U.S. Department Health and Human Services (DHHS) fellowship training for Ph.D.s, M.D.s, and M.D./Ph.D.s or their equivalents in cancer-related scientific research and research-related regulatory review.

  16. Contribution for Invitation for The Chinese-German Journal of Clinical Oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese-German Journal of Clinical Oncology isan international, professional, academic periodical on on-cology, co-edited by China and Germany. With the au-thors from around the world, especially from China, thejournal focuses on introducing clinical experience in diag-nosis and treatment and leading scientific research a-chievement in the tumor domain, in addition to reportingbasic theory research which help to teach the clinicalpractice of oncology and closely connect with the disci-pline. All manuscripts are published in English: the jour-nal is issued quarterly, with the International SerialStandard Number (ISSN) 1610-1979/CN/42-1654/R.

  17. Treatment response in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Currently, the evaluation of response to therapy in Oncology consists of determination of changes in size of lesions measurable by structural imaging, notably computerized tomography. These criteria, formalized using RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors), are the current standard for evaluation (http://www3.cancer. gov/dip/RECIST.htm). An increasing body of evidence suggests that functional changes in tumors precede structural changes, and that methodologies that measure such changes may be able to evaluate the potential of therapy, allowing for better and earlier selection of these potentially cytotoxic therapies. Nuclear Medicine imaging is distinguished by its ability to determine functional characteristics. These include: 1. Receptor status - for example, the presence of sodium iodide symporters detected by radioiodine or pertechnetate imaging, the presence of somatostatin or norepinephrine receptors by pentetreotide or metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) imaging respectively. Such imaging can help guide appropriate therapies with iodine-131, somatostatin analogues (radiolabeled or otherwise) or iodine-131 labeled mIBG. 2. Metabolic status - for example, glycolytic status (with fluorine-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose); amino acid metabolism (e.g. using carbon-11 labeled methionine), or tumor proliferation (using radiolabeled thymidine or deoxyuridine). These methods have advantages over structural imaging because in the vast majority of tumors, changes in the functional or molecular status of tumors are seen earlier than are structural changes. 3. Overall cellular status - these imaging agents are still in their early development but hold great promise for the determination of cellular viability. Annexin imaging is the archetype of such imaging modalities that predict the overall fate of the cell, in this instance its entry into the apoptotic pathway. This review will highlight the uses of functional imaging using radiotracers in all three

  18. Canadian oncology nurse work environments: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Debra; Conlon, Michael; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Olson, Karin; Cummings, Greta

    2012-03-01

    In the aftermath of healthcare restructuring, it is important to pay attention to nurses' perceptions of workplace and professional practice factors that attract nurses and influence their retention. Continuing constraints on cancer care systems make the issue of health human resources an ongoing priority. This paper presents the findings of a follow-up study of a cohort of Canadian oncology nurses that aimed to compare nurses' perceptions of their work environment, job satisfaction and retention over a two-year period. Participants of the follow-up survey represented 65% (397/615) of the initial cohort. Many similar perceptions about the work environment were found over two years; however, at follow-up a larger proportion of nurses reported an absence of enough RNs to provide quality care and a lack of support for innovative ideas. With respect to career status, only 6% (25/397) of the follow-up sample had left oncology nursing. However, the proportion of nurses declaring an intention to leave their current job increased from 6.4% (39/615) on the initial survey to 26% (102/397) on the follow-up survey. Findings suggest that decision-makers need to use both the growing body of workplace knowledge and the input from staff nurses to implement changes that positively influence nurse recruitment and retention. Future research should focus on the implementation and evaluation of strategies that address workplace issues such as nurse staffing adequacy, leadership and organizational commitment. PMID:22469763

  19. Beyond the Standard Curriculum: A Review of Available Opportunities for Medical Students to Prepare for a Career in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review currently available opportunities for medical students to supplement their standard medical education to prepare for a career in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: Google and PubMed were used to identify existing clinical, health policy, and research programs for medical students in radiation oncology. In addition, results publicly available by the National Resident Matching Program were used to explore opportunities that successful radiation oncology applicants pursued during their medical education, including obtaining additional graduate degrees. Results: Medical students can pursue a wide variety of opportunities before entering radiation oncology. Several national specialty societies, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology and the Radiological Society of North America, offer summer internships for medical students interested in radiation oncology. In 2011, 30% of allopathic senior medical students in the United States who matched into radiation oncology had an additional graduate degree, including PhD, MPH, MBA, and MA degrees. Some medical schools are beginning to further integrate dedicated education in radiation oncology into the standard 4-year medical curriculum. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of available opportunities for medical students interested in radiation oncology. Early exposure to radiation oncology and additional educational training beyond the standard medical curriculum have the potential to create more successful radiation oncology applicants and practicing radiation oncologists while also promoting the growth of the field. We hope this review can serve as guide to radiation oncology applicants and mentors as well as encourage discussion regarding initiatives in radiation oncology opportunities for medical students

  20. Publish, not perish: Introducing Experimental Hematology & Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zihai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a scientific discipline, medicine can only be advanced by experimentation. Experimentation could either validate or refute a hypothesis. Unfortunately, today's publication climate strongly favors publication of positive research findings, especially with clinical trials. Experimental Hematology & Oncology (eHO is a new open access online journal that emphasizes preclinical, patient-oriented and translational aspects of research. The journal differentiates from others in the field by making a deliberate effort in publishing clinical trials with "negative" results and basic science studies with provocative findings. The focus of the peer-review mechanism for eHO will be on the technical merit of the study and not on demanding a long list of additional experiments that hinders rapid information dissemination.

  1. The present status of commercialized and developed biotech (GM) crops, results of evaluation of plum 'HoneySweet" for resistance to plum pox virus in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercialization of biotech (GM) crops started in 1996. A significant increase of 9 million hectars was realized in 1996-2009. In the years 2010-2011, it was already 12 million hectars (8 percent of total crop area). 16.7 million farmers in 29 countries planted 160 million hectars of GM crops in...

  2. Prediction tools in surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isariyawongse, Brandon K; Kattan, Michael W

    2012-07-01

    Artificial neural networks, prediction tables, and clinical nomograms allow physicians to transmit an immense amount of prognostic information in a format that exhibits comprehensibility and brevity. Current models demonstrate the feasibility to accurately predict many oncologic outcomes, including pathologic stage, recurrence-free survival, and response to adjuvant therapy. Although emphasis should be placed on the independent validation of existing prediction tools, there is a paucity of models in the literature that focus on quality of life outcomes. The unification of tools that predict oncologic and quality of life outcomes into a comparative effectiveness table will furnish patients with cancer with the information they need to make a highly informed and individualized treatment decision. PMID:22583992

  3. Raman Spectroscopy for Clinical Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Fenn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death throughout the world. Advancements in early and improved diagnosis could help prevent a significant number of these deaths. Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique which has received considerable attention recently with regards to applications in clinical oncology. Raman spectroscopy has the potential not only to improve diagnosis of cancer but also to advance the treatment of cancer. A number of studies have investigated Raman spectroscopy for its potential to improve diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of cancers. In this paper the most recent advances in dispersive Raman spectroscopy, which have demonstrated promising leads to real world application for clinical oncology are reviewed. The application of Raman spectroscopy to breast, brain, skin, cervical, gastrointestinal, oral, and lung cancers is reviewed as well as a special focus on the data analysis techniques, which have been employed in the studies.

  4. Nuclear medical oncology; Nuklearmedizinische Onkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd J.; Buck, Andreas K.; Schwaiger, Markus (eds.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2007-07-01

    Modern nuclear oncology is based on molecular imaging techniques and radiotherapy. The book is aimed to integrate efficiently nuclear medical diagnostics and therapy into oncologic patient management. The book covers the following topics: Chapter 1: basics: instrumentation (SPECT, PET, PET/CT), digital image processing, radiopharmaceuticals, radiation protection, nuclear medical dosimetry, radiotherapy planning. Chapter 2: diagnostics: PET and PET/CT, skeleton metastases diagnostics, lymphoma diagnostics in case of mammary carcinomas and malign melanoma, MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidin) diagnostics. Chapter 3: therapy: Radiotherapy of thyroid carcinomas, radioimmunotherapy of malign melanomas and in haematology, MIBG therapy, radiotherapy of neuroendocrine tumors, radiotherapy of skeleton metastases, intercavitary and locoregional therapy, 32{sup 3}2 phosphor therapy of polycythaemia vera.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Oncology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiological diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Pathology and morphology of pancreatic cancer; Staging and prognosis of pancreatic cancer; Biological and immunological markers in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer; Drug therapy of pancreatic cancer; Radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer; Selected studies on the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer; Clinical correlates and syndromes associated with pancreatic neoplasia

  6. PET/TAC in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From this presentation of PET-TAC in oncology the following advantages on the conventional PET are obtained: 1. More short study and stadium in one session. 2. It adds the information of both techniques. 3. Better localization of leisure: affected organ, stadium change (neck, mediastinum, abdomen). 4. Reduction of false positive (muscle, brown fat, atelectasis, pneumonias, intestine, urinary vials, etc.). 5. Reduction of negative false. 6. Reduction of not conclusive. 7. More understandable for other specialists. 8. Biopsies guide. 9. Planning radiotherapy

  7. Report on the International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology (Rome, 12–14 March 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewer, Michael; Gianni, Luca; Pane, Fabrizio; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Steiner, Rudolf K; Wojnowski, Leszek; Yeh, Edward T; Carver, Joseph R; Lipshultz, Steven E; Minotti, Giorgio; Armstrong, Gregory T; Cardinale, Daniela; Colan, Steven D; Darby, Sarah C; Force, Thomas L; Kremer, Leontien CM; Lenihan, Daniel J; Sallan, Stephen E; Sawyer, Douglas B; Suter, Thomas M; Swain, Sandra M; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2014-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a relatively new discipline that focuses on the cardiovascular sequelae of anti-tumour drugs. As any other young adolescent discipline, cardio-oncology struggles to define its scientific boundaries and to identify best standards of care for cancer patients or survivors at risk of cardiovascular events. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was held in Rome, Italy, 12–14 March 2014, with the aim of illuminating controversial issues and unmet needs in modern cardio-oncology. This colloquium embraced contributions from different kind of disciplines (oncology and cardiology but also paediatrics, geriatrics, genetics, and translational research); in fact, cardio-oncology goes way beyond the merging of cardiology with oncology. Moreover, the colloquium programme did not review cardiovascular toxicity from one drug or the other, rather it looked at patients as we see them in their fight against cancer and eventually returning to everyday life. This represents the melting pot in which anti-cancer therapies, genetic backgrounds, and risk factors conspire in producing cardiovascular sequelae, and this calls for screening programmes and well-designed platforms of collaboration between one key professional figure and another. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was promoted by the Menarini International Foundation and co-chaired by Giorgio Minotti (Rome), Joseph R Carver (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States), and Steven E Lipshultz (Detroit, Michigan, United States). The programme was split into five sessions of broad investigational and clinical relevance (what is cardiotoxicity?, cardiotoxicity in children, adolescents, and young adults, cardiotoxicity in adults, cardiotoxicity in special populations, and the future of cardio-oncology). Here, the colloquium chairs and all the session chairs briefly summarised what was said at the colloquium. Topics and controversies were reported on behalf of all members of the working group

  8. Generalities of the oncological pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah María Regueira Betancourt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer pain can be caused by a malignant tumor, by the therapy used to treat it, or by both causes. It begins with an acute onset that goes towards healing or chronicity. Together with the manifestations of a chronic pain, acute episodes may appear. A bibliographic study was carried out on the oncological pain, using the resources available in the Infomed network, specifically Ebsco, The Cochrane Librery, PubMed, Hinari and SciELO, by means of which the following databases were accessed: MEDLINE, AcademicSearch Premier and MedicLatina. The presence of pain in an oncological process is variable and it depends on the type and extension of the disease, as well as on each person's own individual tolerance. The terminal intense oncological pain is a circumstance both foreseeable and necessarily avoidable. Its relief is a priority in the cancer program of the World Health Organization. To know the classification of pain, its causes, the assessment scales and the way in which it may be described provides a comprehensive treatment for cancer pain. It also helps to optimize the comprehensive care to the patients suffering from this condition and improve their quality of life.

  9. Patterns of Radiation Therapy Practice for Patients Treated for Intact Cervical Cancer in 2005 to 2007: A Quality Research in Radiation Oncology Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess practice patterns and compliance with clinical performance measures for radiation therapy (RT) for patients with intact carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Trained research associates reviewed the records of 261 randomly selected patients who received RT for cervix carcinoma between 2005 and 2007 from 45 facilities randomly selected after stratification by practice type. National estimates of patient and treatment characteristics were calculated from survey data using SUDAAN statistical software. Results: From the survey data, we estimated that only 8% of US facilities treated on average more than 3 eligible patients per year. No small or medium nonacademic facilities in the survey treated more than 3 eligible patients per year. Approximately 65.5% of patients began treatment in a facility that treated 3 or fewer eligible patients per year. Although 87.5% of patients had brachytherapy as part of their treatment, the proportion treated with external beam RT only was about double that estimated from the 1996 to 1999 survey. The use of high-dose-rate brachytherapy sharply increased, particularly in small nonacademic facilities. Overall, patients treated in nonacademic facilities were more likely to have incomplete or protracted treatment; 43% of patients treated in small nonacademic facilities did not have treatment completed within 10 weeks. Also, patients treated in facilities that treated 3 or fewer eligible patients per year were significantly less likely to receive concurrent chemotherapy than were patients treated in other facilities. Conclusion: Survey results indicate a disturbingly high rate of noncompliance with established criteria for high-quality care of patients with cervical cancer. Noncompliance rates are particularly high in nonacademic facilities, especially those that treat relatively few patients with intact cervical cancer

  10. Patterns of Radiation Therapy Practice for Patients Treated for Intact Cervical Cancer in 2005 to 2007: A Quality Research in Radiation Oncology Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eifel, Patricia J., E-mail: peifel@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ho, Alex; Khalid, Najma [American College of Radiology Clinical Research Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Erickson, Beth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Owen, Jean [American College of Radiology Clinical Research Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess practice patterns and compliance with clinical performance measures for radiation therapy (RT) for patients with intact carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Trained research associates reviewed the records of 261 randomly selected patients who received RT for cervix carcinoma between 2005 and 2007 from 45 facilities randomly selected after stratification by practice type. National estimates of patient and treatment characteristics were calculated from survey data using SUDAAN statistical software. Results: From the survey data, we estimated that only 8% of US facilities treated on average more than 3 eligible patients per year. No small or medium nonacademic facilities in the survey treated more than 3 eligible patients per year. Approximately 65.5% of patients began treatment in a facility that treated 3 or fewer eligible patients per year. Although 87.5% of patients had brachytherapy as part of their treatment, the proportion treated with external beam RT only was about double that estimated from the 1996 to 1999 survey. The use of high-dose-rate brachytherapy sharply increased, particularly in small nonacademic facilities. Overall, patients treated in nonacademic facilities were more likely to have incomplete or protracted treatment; 43% of patients treated in small nonacademic facilities did not have treatment completed within 10 weeks. Also, patients treated in facilities that treated 3 or fewer eligible patients per year were significantly less likely to receive concurrent chemotherapy than were patients treated in other facilities. Conclusion: Survey results indicate a disturbingly high rate of noncompliance with established criteria for high-quality care of patients with cervical cancer. Noncompliance rates are particularly high in nonacademic facilities, especially those that treat relatively few patients with intact cervical cancer.

  11. Continuing medical education in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, continuing medical education (CME) and professional practice evaluation (PPE) became mandatory by law in July 2009 for all health professionals. Recently published decrees led to the creation of national specialty councils to implement this organizational device. For radiation oncology, this council includes the French Society for Radiation Oncology (SFRO), the National Radiation Oncology Syndicate (SNRO) and the Association for Continuing Medical Education in Radiation Oncology (AFCOR). The Radiation Oncology National Council will propose a set of programs including CME and PPE, professional thesaurus, labels for CME actions consistent with national requirements, and will organize expertise for public instances. AFCOR remains the primary for CME, but each practitioner can freely choose an organisation for CME, provided that it is certified by the independent scientific commission. The National Order for physicians is the control authority. Radiation oncology has already a strong tradition of independent CME that will continue through this major reform. (authors)

  12. Advances in radiation oncology in new millennium in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seung Jae [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Charn Il [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    The objective of recent radiation therapy is to improve the quality of treatment and the after treatment quality of life. In Korea, sharing the same objective, significant advancement was made due to the gradual increase of patient number and rapid increase of treatment facilities. The advancement includes generalization of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), application of linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and furthermore, the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Authors in this paper prospectively review the followings: the advancement of radiation oncology in Korea, the recent status of four-dimensional radiation therapy. IMRT, the concept of the treatment with biological conformity, the trend of combined chemoradiotherapy, the importance of internet and radiation oncology information management system as influenced by the revolution of information technology, and finally the global trend of telemedicine in radiation oncology. Additionally, we suggest the methods to improve radiotherapy treatment, which include improvement of quality assurance (QA) measures by developing Koreanized QA protocol and system, regional study about clinical protocol development for phase three clinical trial, suggestion of unified treatment protocol and guideline by academic or research societies, domestic generation of treatment equipment's or system, establishment of nationwide data base of radiation-oncology-related information, and finally pattems-of-care study about major cancers.

  13. Project reconversion Service Hospital Radiation Oncology Clinics-Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The Health Sector operates within the framework of Social Policy and it is therefore one of the ways of distribution of public benefit, like Housing, Education and Social Security. While public spending on health has grown in recent years, its distribution has been uneven and the sector faces funding and management problems. The Service Hospital Radiation Oncology has reduced its health care liavility , lack technological development and unsufficient human resources and training. Aim: developing an inclusive reform bill Service Hospital Radiation Oncology .Material and Methods: This project tends to form a network institutional, introducing concepts of evidence-based medicine, risk models, cost analysis, coding systems, system implementation of quality management (ISO-9000 Standards). Proposes redefining radiotherapy centers and their potential participation in training resource development goals humanos.Promueve scientific research of national interest. Separate strictly administrative function, management and teaching. The project takes into account the characteristics of demand, the need to order it and organize around her, institutional network system and within the Hospital das Clinicas own related services related to Service Hospital Radiation Oncology , Encourages freedom of choice, and confers greater equity in care. The project would managed by the Hospital Clínicas. Conclusions: We believe this proposal identifies problems and opportunities, Service Hospital Radiation Oncology proposes the development of institutional network under one management model

  14. Advances in radiation oncology in new millennium in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of recent radiation therapy is to improve the quality of treatment and the after treatment quality of life. In Korea, sharing the same objective, significant advancement was made due to the gradual increase of patient number and rapid increase of treatment facilities. The advancement includes generalization of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), application of linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and furthermore, the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Authors in this paper prospectively review the followings: the advancement of radiation oncology in Korea, the recent status of four-dimensional radiation therapy. IMRT, the concept of the treatment with biological conformity, the trend of combined chemoradiotherapy, the importance of internet and radiation oncology information management system as influenced by the revolution of information technology, and finally the global trend of telemedicine in radiation oncology. Additionally, we suggest the methods to improve radiotherapy treatment, which include improvement of quality assurance (QA) measures by developing Koreanized QA protocol and system, regional study about clinical protocol development for phase three clinical trial, suggestion of unified treatment protocol and guideline by academic or research societies, domestic generation of treatment equipment's or system, establishment of nationwide data base of radiation-oncology-related information, and finally pattems-of-care study about major cancers

  15. 76 FR 58520 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee...

  16. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is increasingly prevalent in our society. There is a life-time risk that 1 in 3 Australian men and 1 in 4 Australian women will get cancer before the age of 75 years. Overall, 27% of the deaths in NSW are currently related to cancer. The common cancers for men are prostate, lung, melanoma, colon, rectum and bladder. For women the common cancers are breast, colon, melanoma, lung and unknown primary. However, overall lung cancer remains the major cause of cancer deaths (20%) followed by colorectal (13%), unknown site (8%), breast and prostate. Breast and lung cancer are the major causes of death in women. Recent information on 5 year survivals reveal good 5 year survival rates for breast (78.6%), prostate (72.4%) and melanoma (92%), while some tumours such as lung cancer (10.7%) have poor survival. Colon cancer has intermediate survival (57.1%). Projections for cancer incidence suggests rates of cancer will increase for colorectal cancer, melanoma, lung cancer in females but decrease for breast, lung in males and prostate cancer. Major strategic directions in cancer research are understanding carcinogenesis, identification of high risk groups, screening and early detection, chemo-prevention, new cancer therapies, combined modality therapy and quality of life issues. Nuclear medicine will play an important part in many of these areas

  17. When subatomic physics research meets clinical oncology

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    New but costly forms of hadron therapy to treat certain cancers raise important questions about how much health systems can afford to pay, but for some cancers, including many child cancers, they are among the most promising treatments we have. Gary Humphreys reports.

  18. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  19. Awareness, time and dimensions and their link to Medical Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, Dietmar

    2015-07-01

    The achievements of medical physics research and developments to beam delivery imaging techniques, image processing and analysis, treatment planning and efforts for treatment individualization has enormously contributed to the unprecedented sophistication of radiation oncology. In order to bring personalized radiation oncology to the next level the interdisciplinary cooperation across fields or discipline, respectively, and the mutual scientific and clinical understanding needs to evolve to a new dimension as well.

  20. Awareness, time and dimensions and their link to Medical Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achievements of medical physics research and developments to beam delivery imaging techniques, image processing and analysis, treatment planning and efforts for treatment individualization has enormously contributed to the unprecedented sophistication of radiation oncology. In order to bring personalized radiation oncology to the next level the interdisciplinary cooperation across fields or discipline, respectively, and the mutual scientific and clinical understanding needs to evolve to a new dimension as well.

  1. SPIRITUAL AND RELIGIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH CANCER THAT GO TO THE JAVERIANAN CENTER OF ONCOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    BLANCA PATRICIA BALLESTEROS; CAROLINE MÉNDEZ PORRAS; MARY ROSY MARTÍNEZ ECHEVERRI

    2004-01-01

    This work was based on the interest on the relation between cancer, spirituality and religiosity in grow uppatients of the Centro Javeriano de Oncología. The research was aimed to describe and analyze therelations between spiritual and religious variables defined in the specialized literature, and sociodemographicand oncological characteristics in these patients. Through a semi structured-interview validated byexperts, spiritual and religious behaviors were identified, including the different...

  2. Healing the mind/body split: bringing the patient back into oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Steven

    2003-03-01

    The effect on oncology of the doctrine of Cartesian dualism is examined. It is argued that (1) this doctrine continues to exert a baneful (though unacknowledged) influence on the practice of oncology, (2) Descartes's doctrine of a mind/body split is mistaken, and (3) mind and body (brain) are inextricably interwoven. A biopsychosocial model of disease is advocated. The role of psychooncology in healing the mind/body split by focusing research attention on the patient is outlined. PMID:12941164

  3. Lack of timely accrual information in oncology clinical trials: a cross-sectional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Aaron P.; Bradford R Hirsch; Abernethy, Amy P

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor accrual is a significant barrier to the successful completion of oncology clinical trials; half of all phase 3 oncology trials close due to insufficient accrual. Timely access to accrual data fosters an understanding of successful trial design and can be used to inform the design of new clinical trials prospectively. Accrual statistics are available within research networks, such as the cancer cooperative groups, but comprehensive data reflecting the overall portfolio of cance...

  4. 70(th)anniversary of the lviv scientific school of oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilynsky, B T; Shparyk, Ya V; Mryglotsky, M M; Lukavetskyy, N O; Volod'ko, N A; Litvinyak, R I

    2016-03-01

    Contemporary development of scientific thought is fostered not by separate people but is a purposeful activity of a group of like-minded people armed with progressive ideas and modern technical equipment. Such schools appeared and work actively in the majo-rity of research and educational establishments, clinics, and universities. The Lviv school established in 1945 by Professor H.P. Kovtunovych and developed by Professor A.I. Hnatyshak and his disciples can serve as an example of a successful school of oncology that continues its activity and yields scientific results. This school appeared not out of the thin air. Medieval Lviv could boast of the first university on the territory of the present-day Ukraine. Many discoveries and endeavors that made a beneficial impact on the development of medicine in Eastern Europe were made in this city. For historical reasons, the city of Lviv used to belong to different state formations (Austria-Hungary, Poland, the USSR; now it is a part of Ukraine), which could not but reflect on the staffing of doctor-researchers. This process acquired a special intensity in 1939-1945 when the research staff of the university changed substantially. Then, in 1945, H.P. Kovtunovych, the disciple of the prominent oncologist N.N. Petrov, came to Lviv and brought the ideas of St.-Petersburg onco-logy to the Lviv ground. The Lviv school was influenced by the two times Nobel Prize winner Marie Skłodowska Curie, who facilitated the initiation of oncological radiology in Lviv. The article contains data on research done by the disciples of Professors H.P. Kovtunovych and A.I. Hnatyshak. The first ever teaching chair of oncology in the USSR was founded in Lviv (1966), as well as the first Ukrainian hospice - an institution for palliative care for the oncological patients. The Lviv oncology center is one of the biggest and best-equipped oncology centers in Ukraine. An organic combination of theory and clinical practice has always been the guiding

  5. Introduction to veterinary clinical oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Alena G; Wright, Kirsten M; Zwickey, Heather L

    2014-02-01

    This review discusses the immunological roles of 5 major mushrooms in oncology: Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, and Trametes versicolor. These mushrooms were selected based on the body of research performed on mushroom immunology in an oncology model. First, this article focuses on how mushrooms modify cytokines within specific cancer models and on how those cytokines affect the disease process. Second, this article examines the direct effect of mushrooms on cancer. Finally, this article presents an analysis of how mushrooms interact with chemotherapeutic agents, including their effects on its efficacy and on the myelosuppression that results from it. For these 5 mushrooms, an abundance of in vitro evidence exists that elucidates the anticancer immunological mechanisms. Preliminary research in humans is also available and is promising for treatment. PMID:26770080

  7. ESTRO educational activities in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Enormous progress has been made in the field of radiotherapy over the last years. Clinical science is changing rapidly from a 'school-centred' to an evidence based approach. Numerous scientific advances in medical physics and translational research made it possible to implement new technologies for treatment planning into clinical practice Unprecedented developments in the field of biology and biotechnology are dramatically changing our understanding of malignant disease. This will likely change major aspects of our approach to cancer treatment in the next years. Clinical research and evidence based approaches have increased significantly in radiation oncology. It is one of the most important challenges for the future to integrate these novel developments into optimized comprehensive radiotherapy strategies. State of the art basic education and training of professionals and continuous professional education are crucial for delivery of optimal quality care to cancer patients as well as for continuous scientific and technological progress in radiation oncology. Throughout its history during more than 20 years the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) has seen it as a most important task to provide high quality teaching activities to its members. In 1985 ESTRO organized its first course (Physics for Clinical Radiotherapy). Over the years, the society developed more courses and in 2005 the 'European School of Radiotherapy' was created, offering a variety of modular basic courses, advanced teaching courses and multidisciplinary courses, including other cancer treatments such as surgery and medical oncology. In 2007 ESTRO will organize 15 different courses, of which a number will be duplicated in Central Europe and outside Europe. This gradual expansion has been a step by step process driven by the developments in the field and the needs of the members of the society, mainly by activities of individuals and groups within the bodies of

  8. Nursing 436A: Pediatric Oncology for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Cynthia L.

    A description is provided of "Pediatric Oncology for Nurses," the first in a series of three courses offered to fourth-year nursing students in pediatric oncology. The first section provides a course overview, discusses time assignments, and describes the target student population. Next, a glossary of terms, and lists of course goals, long-range…

  9. Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Barbara A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences is described, along with student reactions to the program. The summer elective program involves cancer lectures (one week) and clinical exposure (nine weeks) in medical, surgical, and pediatric oncology services, as well as self-directed learning…

  10. Perceptions of Oncology as a Medical Specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics and prestige associated with oncology and assessed shifts in medical students' perceptions as a result of participation in an oncology course are explored. Respondents were asked to rate the prestige of eight specialities and asked to select characteristics "that best describe each type of specialist." (MLW)

  11. Art Therapy with an Oncology Care Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainis, Nancy A.

    2005-01-01

    Oncology nurses are particularly vulnerable to "burnout" syndrome due to the intensity of their work and the ongoing losses they experience while providing oncology care to their patients. High levels of stress in the workplace left untended lead to high job turnover, poor productivity, and diminished quality of care for patients. Attention to…

  12. The Use of Healing Touch in Integrative Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Laura K.; Freel, Mildred I.; Haylock, Pam J.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of complementary therapies by cancer patients has become so prevalent that nurses working in oncology are finding it necessary to understand these therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. The integrative use of the biofield therapy Healing Touch (HT) in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages 1B1 to IVA) during a recent research study is described. Findings indicated effects of HT on the immune response and on depression, in...

  13. Gynecologic oncology patients' satisfaction and symptom severity during palliative chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons Heidi E; Reidy Anne; Hutchins Jessica R; von Gruenigen Vivian E; Daly Barbara J; Eldermire Elisa M; Fusco Nancy L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Research on quality and satisfaction with care during palliative chemotherapy in oncology patients has been limited. The objective was to assess the association between patient's satisfaction with care and symptom severity and to evaluate test-retest of a satisfaction survey in this study population. Methods A prospective cohort of patients with recurrent gynecologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy were enrolled after a diagnosis of recurrent cancer. Patients completed...

  14. [A computerized database for managing otorhinolaryngologic oncology patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, E; Lanza, L; Castelli, A; Benazzo, M; Tinelli, C

    1998-06-01

    In recent years the management and interdisciplinary treatment of oncological patients has become extremely complex due to the progress made in diagnosis and therapy. As a result, the knowledge required to treat patients can no longer be simply memorized or manually filed. Computer technology provides the ideal instrument for organizing, saving and analyzing data from head and neck tumor patients. The authors have prepared a computerized database to meet the following needs: ease of use, even for non computer savvy users; minimal ambiguity for data entry; use for both clinical and scientific purposes; possibility to create a network with similar database at other Centers; possibility to expand to include image management. The archive is based on a personal computer with an INTEL 80486 microprocessor, 40 Mb RAM, DOS 6.0. and Windows 3.1. The software includes four main routines: a) formulation and management of tables where oncological data are gathered; b) entry and management of patient-related clinical data; c) statistical processing for epidemiological and oncological research and; d) management of basic computer services. In clinical practice the database allows the following: a) preparation of a monthly chart of check-ups, b) rapid tracking of patients lost to followup, c) printout of a summary of the clinical history of each patient at the time of check-up and rapid updating at the end of the examination, d) automatic production of forms such as discharge letters and reports to be shared with related services (i.e. medical oncology, radiotherapy). In addition, the database is a powerful, versatile research tool which can promptly provide all sorts of oncological data and can automatically prepare tables, diagrams, correlations, survival curves. The system was developed from 1993 to 1995 and has been operative, with a few minor modifications and updates, since 1995. Today the database contains more than 1200 oncological cases and the system is used daily by

  15. Crowdfunding drug development: the state of play in oncology and rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojlovic, Nick; Lynd, Larry D

    2014-11-01

    In this article, we present descriptive data on 125 crowdfunding campaigns aimed at financing research in oncology (including basic research, drug discovery, and clinical trials). We also describe five campaigns that have succeeded in raising substantial funds to support the development of treatments for ultrarare diseases. The data suggest that crowdfunding is a viable approach to supporting early proof-of-concept research that could allow researchers in oncology and rare diseases to succeed in traditional grant competitions or to attract private investment. The data also suggest that such an approach could become a valuable additional source of funding for early-stage innovators in the drug development arena. PMID:24973645

  16. Drug repurposing in oncology--patient and health systems opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Francesco; Sukhatme, Vikas P; Bouche, Gauthier

    2015-12-01

    In most countries, healthcare service budgets are not likely to support the current explosion in the cost of new oncology drugs. Repurposing the large arsenal of approved, non-anticancer drugs is an attractive strategy to offer more-effective options to patients with cancer, and has the substantial advantages of cheaper, faster and safer preclinical and clinical validation protocols. The potential benefits are so relevant that funding of academically and/or independently driven preclinical and clinical research programmes should be considered at both national and international levels. To date, successes in oncology drug repurposing have been limited, despite strong evidence supporting the use of many different drugs. A lack of financial incentives for drug developers and limited drug development experience within the non-profit sector are key reasons for this lack of success. We discuss these issues and offer solutions to finally seize this opportunity in the interest of patients and societies, globally. PMID:26483297

  17. FDG-PET/CT in oncology. German guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FDG-PET/CT examinations combine metabolic and morphologic imaging within an integrated procedure. Over the past decade PET/CT imaging has gained wide clinical acceptance in the field of oncology. This FDG-PET/CT guideline focuses on indications, data acquisition and processing as well as documentation of FDG-PET/CT examinations in oncologic patients within a clinical and social context specific to Germany. Background information and definitions are followed by examples of clinical and research applications of FDG-PET/CT. Furthermore, protocols for CT scanning (low dose and contrast-enhanced CT) and PET emission imaging are discussed. Documentation and reporting of examinations are specified. Image interpretation criteria and sources of errors are discussed. Quality control for FDG and PET/CT-systems, qualification requirements of personnel as well as legal aspects are presented. (orig.)

  18. The 100 most-cited articles in spinal oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Benvenutti-Regato, Mario; Caro-Osorio, Enrique

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors' objective was to identify the 100 most-cited research articles in the field of spinal oncology. METHODS The Thomson Reuters Web of Science service was queried for the years 1864-2015 without language restrictions. Articles were sorted in descending order of the number of times they were cited by other studies, and all titles and abstracts were screened to identify the research areas of the top 100 articles. Levels of evidence were assigned on the basis of the North American Spine Society criteria. RESULTS The authors identified the 100 most-cited articles in spinal oncology, which collectively had been cited 20,771 times at the time of this writing. The oldest article on this top 100 list had been published in 1931, and the most recent in 2008; the most prolific decade was the 1990s, with 34 articles on this list having been published during that period. There were 4 studies with Level I evidence, 3 with Level II evidence, 9 with Level III evidence, 70 with Level IV evidence, and 2 with Level V evidence; levels of evidence were not assigned to 12 studies because they were not on therapeutic, prognostic, or diagnostic topics. Thirty-one unique journals contributed to the 100 articles, with the Journal of Neurosurgery contributing most of the articles (n = 25). The specialties covered included neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, neurology, radiation oncology, and pathology. Sixty-seven articles reported clinical outcomes. The most common country of article origin was the United States (n = 62), followed by Canada (n = 8) and France (n = 7). The most common topics were spinal metastases (n = 35), intramedullary tumors (n = 18), chordoma (n = 17), intradural tumors (n = 7), vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty (n = 7), primary bone tumors (n = 6), and others (n = 10). One researcher had authored 6 studies on the top 100 list, and 7 authors had 3 studies each on this list. CONCLUSIONS This study identified the 100 most-cited research articles in the area of

  19. Recent advances in radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent technical advances, including megavoltage radiation therapy machines, computerized treatment planning systems, and computed tomography scans, have affected veterinary radiation oncology. his equipment permits far better tumor definition and dose delivery than was possible in the past. In addition, newer anesthetic agents, more dedicated equipment, and willingness of owners to spend more money for treatment have permitted fractionation schedules that can better exploit advances in radiobiology. The challenge now is to use radiobiologic and tumor biology information to make the most effective use of radiation therapy. More collaboration among surgical, medical, and radiation oncologists should result in more effective use of combined-modality treatment for tumors. This article focuses on the recent technical advances and on application of these advances to specific tumor types

  20. Supportive care in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation therapist, concerned with the disease process and all the technical intricacies of treatment, has usually not been involved in managing the supportive aspects of caring for the patient. Yet, of the team of medical specialists and allied health personnel required in oncology, the radiation therapist is the one most responsible for overseeing the total care of the cancer patient. At times this might include emotional support, prevention and correction of tissue dysfunction, augmentation of nutrition, metabolic and electrolyte regulation, rehabilitation, and vocational support. This chapter is a brief overview of a considerable volume of literature that has occupied the interest of a rather small group of physicians, nutritionists, and psychologists. The discussion highlights the special management problems of the normal-tissue effects of radiation, the related nutritional aspects of cancer care, and certain emotional and pathologic considerations

  1. Pharmacy Instruction in Medical Oncology: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cersosimo, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey concerning oncology instruction in pharmacy schools found it taught primarily as part of a course in medicinal chemistry/pharmacology or therapeutics. Twenty-one schools offer an oncology course, with others planning them. Oncology clerkships are currently available in 42 schools. Increased emphasis on oncology instruction is encouraged.…

  2. Natural background radiation and oncologic disease incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cause and effect relationships between oncologic disease incidence in human population and environmental factors are examined using investigation materials of Soviet and foreign authors. The data concerning US white population are adduced. The role and contribution of natural background radiation oncologic disease prevalence have been determined with the help of system information analysis. The probable damage of oncologic disease is shown to decrease as the background radiation level diminishes. The linear nature of dose-response relationspip has been established. The necessity to include the life history of the studied population along with environmental factors in epidemiological study under conditions of multiplicity of cancerogenesis causes is emphasized

  3. PET / MRI vs. PET / CT. Indications Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid techniques in Nuclear Medicine is currently a field in full development for diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. With the recent advent of PET / MRI much it speculated about whether or not it is superior to PET / CT especially in oncology. The Conference seeks to clarify this situation by dealing issues such as: State of the art technology PET / MRI; Indications Oncology; Some clinical cases. It concludes by explaining the oncological indications of both the real and current situation of the PET / MRI. (author)

  4. Oncology nurses awareness of drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Azize Karahan; Sevcan Avcı Isik; Sultan Kav; Aysel Abbasoglu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine oncology nurses awareness of drug interactions. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with nurses working in the oncology clinics who are a member of Oncology Nursing Association of Turkey. A total of 115 nurses (response rate %20) were responded to the online survey that consists of 28 questions. Results: The mean age of the nurses was 33 ± 6.8. The majority of nurses work in university hospital (60%) as a clinical nurse (62.6%) and h...

  5. Elemente de terapie oncologică la animale / Elements of oncological therapy animals

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia B. Chirila; Eugenia Dumitrescu; Florin Muselin; Romeo T. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This bibliographic essay is an attempt to recall the main elements applicable in the oncologic therapy useful also in veterinary medicine. In the paper are presented: the pharmacological principles of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, oncologic surgery, nanoterapia and some modern methodologies (photodynamic therapy, cryotherapy, electrochimioterapia, vascular disruption agents). The last chapter is dedicated to phytotherapy, as alternative therapy in oncology with the presentation of the main plan...

  6. Psycho-Oncology, Psychosocial Problems and Measurement Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Beyhan Bag

    2012-01-01

    It is not possible to conceive psycho-oncology separately from modern oncology. It is expected from medical personnel to realize patients’ psycho-social needs and to possess knowledge about the demanding psycho-oncologic treatment for patients if it is needed. According to World Cancer Report statistics, the oncology personnel lack ability to determine the psycho-social needs of cancer patients and their families. For the medical personnel that work in oncology services, it is inevitable to r...

  7. Psycho-Oncology, Psychosocial Problems and Measurement Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bag, Beyhan

    2012-01-01

    It is not possible to conceive psycho-oncology separately from modern oncology. It is expected from medical personnel to realize patients' psycho-social needs and to possess knowledge about the demanding psycho-oncologic treatment for patients if it is needed. According to World Cancer Report statistics, the oncology personnel lack ability to determine the psycho-social needs of cancer patients and their families. For the medical personnel that work in oncology services, it is inevit...

  8. American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Engage with ASPHO and benefit from the Society’s professional development, education, and networking resources! Read More » ... Career Center Mentoring Funding Compensation Survey © The American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 8735 W. Higgins Road, ...

  9. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inches. That's a best -- it used to be traditional oncology incisions would be at least from the ... we can identify those who may need additional therapy. Fortunately, with uterine cancer, about three out of ...

  10. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ROBOTIC-ASSISTED GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY PROCEDURE HALIFAX HEALTH DAYTONA BEACH, FLORIDA April 24, 2008 00:00:11 KELLY L. MOLPUS, MD: ANNOUNCER: Welcome to Halifax Health in Daytona Beach, Florida. ...

  11. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as they get older in the baby boomer generation. The good thing about endometrial cancer is that ... that's what oncology is picking up on. For generations, they had to use open procedures to do ...

  12. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal cases into laparoscopic cases, and that's the beauty of the platform. And that's what oncology is ... that's been liberalized, and people are seeing the beauty of minimally invasive surgery. So Dr. Molpus, on ...

  13. Accessibility of radiation oncology centers in Turkey through the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim EGEHAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The contents of web pages from radiation oncology centers in Turkey were evaluated. Accessibility of the web pages through search engines was also assessed. METHODS: A search was made for the presence of web sites for radiation oncology centers of 44 hospitals and for the accessibility of these sites through actively forwarding links using the “Google” search engine. RESULTS: All centers had web sites. Twenty-nine centers had actively forwarding links. Web pages from 23 centers included information concerning available treatment options. Web pages from 26 centers included information concerning medical staff. Web pages from 26 centers included information concerning research conducted by the medical staff. Of all web pages, information concerning radiation oncology was available in seven. Using the “Google” search engine, actively forwarding links were found for 21 centers using “radiation oncology” keyword. CONCLUSION: As Internet use expands, information requests by cancer patients gain in importance. The need for functional, comprehensive and easily accessible web sites is presently outweighed.

  14. Clinical exercise interventions in pediatric oncology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Freerk T; Bloch, Wilhelm; Beulertz, Julia

    2013-10-01

    Studies in pediatric oncology have shown a positive effect of physical activity on disease- and treatment-related side effects. Although several reviews have approved the benefits of therapeutic exercise for adult cancer patients, no systematic review exists summarizing the evidence of physical activity in pediatric oncology. We identified a total of 17 studies using the PubMed database and Cochrane library. To evaluate the evidence, we used the evaluation system of the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine 2001. The findings confirm that clinical exercise interventions are feasible and safe, especially with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and during medical treatment. No adverse effects have been reported. Positive effects were found on fatigue, strength, and quality of life. Single studies present positive effects on the immune system, body composition, sleep, activity levels, and various aspects of physical functioning. Child-specific aspects such as cognitive abilities, growth, adolescence, and reintegration into peer-groups, school, and sports have barely been taken into consideration. The evidence for exercise interventions in pediatric oncology is rated level "3." Although the results are very promising, future research of high methodological quality and focusing on child-specific aspects is needed to establish evidence-based exercise recommendations, particularly for childhood cancer patients. PMID:23857296

  15. Radiation oncology: An Irish hospitals approach to supporting patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite advances in medical technology, cancer is still one of the leading causes of death globally, leaving many patients to deal with the emotional and psychological aspects associated with cancer and its treatment [Department of Health and Children. A strategy for cancer control in Ireland. National Cancer Forum. Dublin; 2006]. The recognition and management of psychological conditions are an integral part of comprehensive cancer care. As a result, the Health Services Executive as part of the continuing expansion of Cork Radiation Oncology Department created the role of Information and Support Radiation Therapist. This post was specially created during June 2005 to facilitate the smooth entry into the treatment for patients and family members experiencing radiotherapy for the first time. Working alongside the oncology nurses and other health professionals the Information and Support Radiation Therapist aims to provide vital education/information and support to patients and their families. The provision of this new service for patients enables departments to adopt a holistic approach to treatment. This research identifies the cancer services and psychological support services in Ireland. Up-to-date audits of the new patient services established in the Cork Radiation Oncology Department and their psychological contribution towards cancer development and treatment are also discussed

  16. Development of an Integrated Subspecialist Multidisciplinary Neuro-oncology Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephen J; Guilfoyle, Mathew; J Jefferies, Sarah; Harris, Fiona; Oberg, Ingela; G Burnet, Neil; Santarius, Thomas; Watts, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the poor outcome for patients with malignant brain tumours led to therapeutic nihilism. In turn, this resulted in lack of interest in neurosurgical oncology subspecialisation, and less than ideal patient pathways. One problem of concern was the low rate of tumour resection. Between 1997 and 2006, 685 treated glioblastomas were identified. In the first four years only 40% of patients underwent tumour resection, rising to 55% in the last four years. Before revision of the pathway, the median length of hospital stay was 8 days, and 35% of patients received the results of their histology outside of a clinic setting. A pathway of care was established, in which all patients were discussed pre-operatively in an MDT meeting and then directed into a new surgical neuro-oncology clinic providing first point of contact. This limited the number of surgeons operating on adult glioma patients and aided recruitment into research studies. Now, three consultant neurosurgeons run this service, easily fulfilling IOG requirement to spend >50% of programmed activities in neuro-oncology. Nursing support has been critical to provide an integrated service. This model has allowed increased recruitment to clinical trials. The introduction of this service led to an increase in patients discussed pre-operatively in an MDT (66% rising to 87%; P=0.027), an increase in the rate of surgical resection (from 40% to 80%) and more patients being admitted electively (from 25% to 80%; P<0.001). There was a reduction in the median length of stay (8 days reduced to 4.5 days; P<0.001). For the cohort of GBM patients that went on to have chemoradiotherapy we improved median survival to 18 months, with 35% of patients alive at two years, comparable to international outcomes. Implementing a specialist neurosurgical oncology service begins with understanding the patient care pathway. Our patients have benefitted from the culture of subspecialisation and the excellent inter-disciplinary working

  17. A scoping review of the nurse practitioner workforce in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Lorinda A; Hunt, Lauren; Cataldo, Janine

    2016-08-01

    The quality of cancer care may be compromised in the near future because of work force issues. Several factors will impact the oncology health provider work force: an aging population, an increase in the number of cancer survivors, and expansion of health care coverage for the previously uninsured. Between October 2014 and March 2015, an electronic literature search of English language articles was conducted using PubMed(®) , the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Sciences (CINAHL(®) ), Web of Science, Journal Storage (JSTOR(®) ), Google Scholar, and SCOPUS(®) . Using the scoping review criteria, the research question was identified "How much care in oncology is provided by nurse practitioners (NPs)?" Key search terms were kept broad and included: "NP" AND "oncology" AND "workforce". The literature was searched between 2005 and 2015, using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 29 studies were identified, further review resulted in 10 relevant studies that met all criteria. Results demonstrated that NPs are utilized in both inpatient and outpatient settings, across all malignancy types and in a variety of roles. Academic institutions were strongly represented in all relevant studies, a finding that may reflect the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty work hour limitations. There was no pattern associated with state scope of practice and NP representation in this scoping review. Many of the studies reviewed relied on subjective information, or represented a very small number of NPs. There is an obvious need for an objective analysis of the amount of care provided by oncology NPs. PMID:27264203

  18. Selenium in Oncology: From Chemistry to Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Micke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with

  19. Selenium in oncology: from chemistry to clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micke, Oliver; Schomburg, Lutz; Buentzel, Jens; Kisters, Klaus; Muecke, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with selenium does not

  20. Internet-based communications in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, it is estimated that 40 million Americans have access to the Internet. The emergence of widely available software, inexpensive hardware and affordable connectivity have all led to an explosive growth in its use. Medicine in general and radiation oncology specifically are deriving great benefits from this technology. The use of this technology will result in a paradigm shift that is likely to change the way we all communicate. An understanding of the technology is therefore mandatory. The objectives of the course are to provide a practical introduction to the use of Internet technologies as they relate to our profession. The following topics will be reviewed. 1. A brief history of the Internet 2. Getting connected to the Internet 3. Internet venues - The Web, ftp, USENETS ... 4. Basic software tools - email, browsers ... 5. Specific Internet resources 6. Advanced Internet utilization 7. Business and the Internet 8. Intranet utilization 9. Philosophical and medicolegal issues 10. Predictions of the future Upon completion, the attendee will be familiar with the Internet, how it works, and how it can be used to fulfill the research, educational, and clinical care missions of our profession

  1. Molecular oncology of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Shinichi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Soh, Junichi; Aokage, Keiju; Yamane, Masaomi; Oto, Takahiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2011-08-01

    Progress in genetic engineering has made it possible to elucidate the molecular biological abnormalities in lung cancer. Mutations in KRAS and P53 genes, loss of specific alleles, and DNA methylation of the tumor suppressor genes were the major abnormalities investigated between 1980 and the 2000s. In 2004, mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene that cause oncogene addiction were discovered in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), especially in adenocarcinomas. Because they are strongly associated with sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), a great deal of knowledge has been acquired in regard to both EGFR and other genes in the EGFR family and their downstream genes. Moreover, in 2007 the existence of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene was discovered in NSCLC; and the same as EGFR-TKIs, ALK inhibitors are being found to be highly effective in lung cancers that have this translocation. These discoveries graphically illustrate that molecular biological findings are directly linked to the development of clinical oncology and to improving the survival rates of lung cancer patients. Here, we review the remarkable progress in molecular biological knowledge acquired thus far in regard to lung cancer, especially NSCLC, and the future possibilities. PMID:21850578

  2. Radiolanthanides in therapeutic nuclear oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolanthanides such as Holmium-166 (T1/2 26.8h), Samarium-153 (T1/2 46.3h) and Lutetium-177 (T1/2 6.7 days) all have beta emissions suitable for radiopharmaceutical therapy, bone marrow ablation and for pain palliation of skeletal metastases. They also emit gamma photons of energies which permit quantitative imaging on conventional gamma cameras which facilitates calculation of dosimetry in individual patients. The range of half-lives has the potential to match the irradiation of tumour cells to the residence time of the radiopharmaceutical thus minimising radiotoxicity to normal tissues. Relative ease and low cost of production of these radiolanthanides in rectors such as HIFAR at ANSTO render radiolanthanides a practical option for radiopharmaceutical treatment of cancer for patients in whom conventional therapy has failed. Radioimmunotherapy of cancer using various monoclonal antibodies targeted to specific tumor-cell antigens has been performed with Samarium-153, Holmium-166 and Lutetium-177-labelled antibodies in human tumor xenographs in nude mice and in clinical trials. The development of a large animal model of human cancer will be described, in particular in relation to improving the accuracy of prediction of dosimetry and preclinical evaluation of efficacy and toxicity of radiolanthanides in therapeutic nuclear oncology

  3. Oncologic imaging: kidney and ureter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant cancers of the kidney and ureter account for only 2 to 3% of all neoplasms in man. However, early diagnosis and treatment can have a profound effect on patient prognosis and survival. This article seeks to amalgamate a large body of information related to the pathology of primary renal tumors and metastatic disease with current imaging strategies to assist the clinician and enhance his understanding of the wide variety of modern imaging techniques available. Current tumor staging classifications are presented and the various imaging strategies are keyed to detection, definition and treatment options for tumors of the renal parenchyma and ureter. The strengths and limitations of all available imaging modalities are reviewed. An optimal approach to the imaging workup is developed with regard to availability, evolving technology and most importantly, cost efficacy. The controversies and conflicts in imaging and treatment options are explored while constructing a step by step approach that will be both flexible and utilitarian for the clinician faced with daily oncologic management choices

  4. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... services. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 18, 2012 (75 FR 23289). At the request... Employment and Training Administration Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source Right Solutions, Concord, California, Now...

  5. History and Accomplishments of USDA-ARS Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) in East Lansing, Michigan, formerly known as Regional Poultry Research Laboratory, was dedicated on August 8, 1939. Its establishment was the result of joint efforts by the Agricultural Experiment Stations of the Nor...

  6. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement on Clinical Pathways in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zon, Robin T; Frame, James N; Neuss, Michael N; Page, Ray D; Wollins, Dana S; Stranne, Steven; Bosserman, Linda D

    2016-03-01

    The use of clinical pathways in oncology care is increasingly important to patients and oncology providers as a tool for enhancing both quality and value. However, with increasing adoption of pathways into oncology practice, concerns have been raised by ASCO members and other stakeholders. These include the process being used for pathway development, the administrative burdens on oncology practices of reporting on pathway adherence, and understanding the true impact of pathway use on patient health outcomes. To address these concerns, ASCO's Board of Directors established a Task Force on Clinical Pathways, charged with articulating a set of recommendations to improve the development of oncology pathways and processes, allowing the demonstration of pathway concordance in a manner that promotes evidence-based, high-value care respecting input from patients, payers, and providers. These recommendations have been approved and adopted by ASCO's Board of Directors on August 12, 2015, and are presented herein. PMID:26759491

  7. Research on Compassion Fatigue status and influencing factors among nurses in oncology%肿瘤科护士共情疲劳现状及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巧梅; 王媛媛; 谭开宇; 王娟; 胡霞; 王冬华

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查肿瘤科护士共情疲劳现状并分析其影响因素。方法:采用一般资料问卷、共情疲劳量表及护士职业认知状况调查问卷对3个省17所综合医院的402名肿瘤科护士进行调查。结果:肿瘤科护士共情疲劳各维度的得分分别为:共情满意(33.47±4.90)分、职业倦怠(25.97±4.51)分、继发性创伤应激(28.54±3.44)分,处于中度共情疲劳;职业认知、健康状况、性别对共情满意有影响(R2=0.220,F=38.723,P<0.001);职业认知、健康状况、性别、社会支持对职业倦怠有影响(R2=0.203,F=26.525,P<0.001);职业认知、健康状况、社会支持对继发性创伤应激有影响(R2=0.325,F=65.414,P<0.001)。结论:护士自身应加强自我管理,管理者须重视并针对不同特征的肿瘤科护士开展有关职业认知和共情的教育及培训,改善工作环境,进而降低共情疲劳,从根本上提高肿瘤科护理质量。%Objective: To investigate the Compassion Fatigue status among the nurses in oncology department, and to discuss its influencing factors. Methods: Totally 402 nurses in oncology department of 17 general hospitals from 3 provinces were surveyed with three questionnaires: the general information questionnaire, the Compassion Fatigue scale and the nurses' career cognitive status questionnaire. Results: The scores of the Compassion Satisfaction, the job burnout and secondary trauma stress among the nurses were (33.47±4.90), (25.97±4.51), and (28.54±3.44) respectively, which were all in a moderate Compassion Fatigue status. The professional cognition, health condition and gender have inlfuence on the Compassion Fatigue (R2=0.220,F=38.723,P<0.001). The professional cognition, health condition, gender and social support have inlfuence on the job burnout (R2=0.203,F=26.525,P<0.001). The professional cognition, health condition and social support have inlfuence on the secondary trauma

  8. Radiation oncology training in the United States: report from the Radiation Oncology Resident Training Working Group organized by the Society of Chairman of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In response to the major changes occurring in healthcare, medical education, and cancer research, SCAROP addressed issues related to post-graduate education that could enhance existing programs and complement the present system. Methods and Materials: SCAROP brought together a Working Group with a broad range of representatives organized in subcommittees to address: training, curriculum, and model building. Results: The Working Group emphasized the importance of training physicians with the necessary clinical, scientific, and analytical skills, and the need to provide expert radiation oncology services to patients throughout the United States. Opportunities currently exist for graduates in academic medicine, although there may be limited time and financial resources available to support academic pursuits. Conclusions: In the face of diminishing resources for training and education and the increased scope of knowledge required, a number of models for resident training are considered that can provide flexibility to complement the present system. This report is intended to initiate dialogue among the organizations responsible for radiation oncology resident education so that resident training can continually evolve to meet the needs of cancer patients and take advantage of opportunities for progress through innovative cancer care and research

  9. Contribution Invitation of The Chinese-German Journal of Clinical Oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Chinese-German Journal of Clinical Oncology is an international professional academic periodical on oncology, being co-edited by China and Germany. The Journal, with the authors from around world, especially from China, is dominated in introducing the clinical experience of diagnosis and treatment as well as leading scientific research achievement in the tumor domain, in addition to report basic theory researches which help instruct the clinical practice of oncology and closely connect with the discipline. All the manuscripts are published in English, quarterly issued both internal and external, 64 -80pages, big 16 opens domains, art paper in offset printing, with lay-out by international customs, unified issuing number: ISSN 1610-1979 (Paper) 1613-9089 (Online)/CN 42-1654/R.

  10. Precision oncology: origins, optimism, and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay; Fojo, Tito; Brada, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Imatinib, the first and arguably the best targeted therapy, became the springboard for developing drugs aimed at molecular targets deemed crucial to tumours. As this development unfolded, a revolution in the speed and cost of genetic sequencing occurred. The result-an armamentarium of drugs and an array of molecular targets-set the stage for precision oncology, a hypothesis that cancer treatment could be markedly improved if therapies were guided by a tumour's genomic alterations. Drawing lessons from the biological basis of cancer and recent empirical investigations, we take a more measured view of precision oncology's promise. Ultimately, the promise is not our concern, but the threshold at which we declare success. We review reports of precision oncology alongside those of precision diagnostics and novel radiotherapy approaches. Although confirmatory evidence is scarce, these interventions have been widely endorsed. We conclude that the current path will probably not be successful or, at a minimum, will have to undergo substantive adjustments before it can be successful. For the sake of patients with cancer, we hope one form of precision oncology will deliver on its promise. However, until confirmatory studies are completed, precision oncology remains unproven, and as such, a hypothesis in need of rigorous testing. PMID:26868357

  11. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  12. Molecular oncology focus - Is carcinogenesis a 'mitochondriopathy'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ścińska Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mitochondria are sub-cellular organelles that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS. As suggested over 70 years ago by Otto Warburg and recently confirmed with molecular techniques, alterations in respiratory activity and in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA appear to be common features of malignant cells. Somatic mtDNA mutations have been reported in many types of cancer cells, and some reports document the prevalence of inherited mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in cancer patients. Nevertheless, a careful reanalysis of methodological criteria and methodology applied in those reports has shown that numerous papers can't be used as relevant sources of data for systematic review, meta-analysis, or finally for establishment of clinically applicable markers. In this review technical and conceptual errors commonly occurring in the literature are summarized. In the first place we discuss, why many of the published papers cannot be used as a valid and clinically useful sources of evidence in the biomedical and healthcare contexts. The reasons for introduction of noise in data and in consequence - bias for the interpretation of the role of mitochondrial DNA in the complex process of tumorigenesis are listed. In the second part of the text practical aspects of mtDNA research and requirements necessary to fulfill in order to use mtDNA analysis in clinics are shown. Stringent methodological criteria of a case-controlled experiment in molecular medicine are indicated. In the third part we suggest, what lessons can be learned for the future and propose guidelines for mtDNA analysis in oncology. Finally we conclude that, although several conceptual and methodological difficulties hinder the research on mitochondrial patho-physiology in cancer cells, this area of molecular medicine should be considered of high importance for future clinical practice.

  13. Gender Trends in Radiation Oncology in the United States: A 30-Year Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials: We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. Results: The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusions: Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology

  14. Gender Trends in Radiation Oncology in the United States: A 30-Year Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Awad A. [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Egleston, Brian [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Holliday, Emma [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eastwick, Gary [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Takita, Cristiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials: We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. Results: The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusions: Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology.

  15. Radiation oncology in Australia: a historical and evolutionary perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation tracks the development of the therapeutic application of radiation in Australia. Within six months of Roentgen's discovery, the Crooke's x-ray tube and later a radium plaque was used in Australia for treatment, in particular by the dermatologists. By 1920s radiology was an established specialty. A series of conferences was held between 1930 and 1940 to discuss the provision of cancer treatment, the integration of research and particularly, the establishment of central registry. The author also paid tribute to a a series of scientific personalities for their contribution to the Australian radiation oncology. 22 refs., ills

  16. Orthomolecular oncology review: ascorbic acid and cancer 25 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Michael J; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Mora, Edna M; Guzmán, Angelik; Riordan, Neil H; Riordan, Hugh D; Casciari, Joseph J; Jackson, James A; Román-Franco, Angel

    2005-03-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid on cancer has been a subject of great controversy. This is a follow-up review of the 1979 article by Cameron, Pauling, and Leibovitz published in Cancer Research. In this updated version, the authors address general aspects of ascorbic acid and cancer that have been presented before, while reviewing, analyzing, and updating new existing literature on the subject. In addition, they present and discuss their own mechanistic hypothesis on the effect of ascorbic acid on the cancer cell. The objective of this review is to provide an updated scientific basis for the use of ascorbic acid, especially intravenously as adjuvant treatment in pharmacological nutritional oncology. PMID:15695476

  17. Reiki as a clinical intervention in oncology nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Larraine M; Ott, Mary Jane; DeCristofaro, Susan

    2008-06-01

    Oncology nurses and their patients are frequently on the cutting edge of new therapies and interventions that support coping, health, and healing. Reiki is a practice that is requested with increasing frequency, is easy to learn, does not require expensive equipment, and in preliminary research, elicits a relaxation response and helps patients to feel more peaceful and experience less pain. Those who practice Reiki report that it supports them in self-care and a healthy lifestyle. This article will describe the process of Reiki, review current literature, present vignettes of patient responses to the intervention, and make recommendations for future study. PMID:18515247

  18. Evolution de l’industrie biotech et medtech suisse et influence de l’industrie pharmaceutique sur le système d’innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Klöpper, Christof; Haisch, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Cet article traite de l’influence d’un secteur ou d’une industrie dans l’économie nationale et de la manière dont il/elle peut influencer des secteurs et des technologies connexes. L’exemple choisi est constitué par l’industrie pharmaceutique suisse. L’article suggère que cette industrie a façonné le développement et la distribution spatiale des secteurs qui lui étaient liés, tels que les biotechnologies (biotech) et les technologies médicales (medtech). Il est supposé que cette influence dif...

  19. The effect of short term neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation on erectile function in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer: an analysis of the 4- versus 8-month randomised trial (Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Patricia E

    2012-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a common consequence of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. The addition of neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation (NAD) has an indeterminate additive effect. We examined the long-term effect on erectile function (EF) of two durations (4 months: arm 1 and 8 months: arm 2) of NAD prior to radiation (RT) for patients with localised prostate cancer from the Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group (ICORG 97-01) 4- versus 8-month trial. In this study we aimed to (1) analyse the overall effect on EF of NAD in an EBRT population, (2) compare the probability of retained EF over time in an EBRT population treated with either 4 or 8 months of NAD and (3) identify any variables such as risk group and age which may have an additive detrimental effect. This analysis provides unique long term follow up data.

  20. Staff burnout in paediatric oncology:new tools to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Suzanne Kathleen Mary; Beresford, Bryony Anne; Tennant, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Working in paediatric oncology can be stressful, and staff may need support if they are to avoid burnout, but there is currently no evidence base to guide the development of interventions. As a significant barrier to addressing this gap is a lack of context specific research instruments, a project was undertaken to develop measures of the stressors and rewards experienced by staff. Measure development involved: (1) qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of paediatric oncology staff to...

  1. 肿瘤科护士情绪智力与压力应对方式的调查研究%Investigation research of oncology nurses' emotional intelligence and pressure coping style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗红; 胡慧敏; 郑依力; 谭凡; 任荣; 马琴

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解肿瘤科护士情绪智力水平与压力应对方式的现状,探讨情绪智力与压力应对方式的相关性,为提高护士情绪智力与压力应对方式提供依据.方法:采用情绪智力测量量表(WLEIS)及简易应对方式问卷,对358名肿瘤科护士情绪智力及压力应对方式进行测量,用相关系数与回归模型探讨二者的关系.结果:肿瘤科护士情绪智力总均分为(5.12±0.45)分,积极应对方式总均分为(2.90±0.43)分,消极应对方式总均分为(1.62±0.57)分;情绪智力水平不受人口学变量的影响,而不同年龄、护龄与职称的护士,积极应对方式得分有统计学意义(P<0.05).情绪智力各维度与积极应对方式呈显著正相关关系,而与消极应对方式存在显著负相关关系.自我情绪运用较强的护士,容易采取积极应对方式,而他人情绪评估较差的护士,容易采取消极应对方式.结论:肿瘤科护士情绪智力与积极应对水平较高.情绪智力对肿瘤科护士职业压力有不同预测作用.护理管理者应注重护士情绪智力的培养,提高与他人的沟通能力,在遇到压力时采取积极的应对方式.%Objective:Undewtending of oncology nones' emotional intelligence and coping styles of status,probe into the correlation between the emotional intelligence and coping style,in order to improve nurses' emotional intelligence and coping style. Method:The emotional intelligence scale ( WLEIS) and simple coping style questionnaire(on 358 oncology nurses' emotional intelligence and coping style were measured,discuss the relationship with correlation ooefficient and regression model. Results:Oncology mines'emotional intelligence scons was (5.12 ± 0.45),positive coping style scores was (2.90 ±0.43), negative coping style scores was ( L 62 ±0.57);emotional intelligence level is not affected by demographic variables,depending on age,nursing age and titles of nurses, positive coping scores were

  2. Oncology Nursing Is Evidence-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa; Brown, Carlton G

    2016-06-01

    This issue of the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing (CJON) will be the final time that you will see the Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) feature column. Why? Because we have seen oncology nursing evolve in the past 20 years and EBP is everywhere! We use it in our clinics and hospital units, incorporate it into decisions about symptom management, and use evidence to develop survivorship guidelines. We discuss EBP in journal clubs and use applications on mobile devices to find the best interventions for our patients. We have oncology nurses sitting on committees to develop guidelines based on the best evidence and expert opinion. We have come a long way and it is our belief that EBP is included in almost every article in CJON and, therefore, a need no longer exists for an individual column about EBP. 
. PMID:27206287

  3. Imaging in oncology. Terms and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncologic imaging includes the morphological description of the primary tumor region for an accurate classification of the tumor and lymph node stage and whether distant metastases have occurred according to the TNM staging system. Knowing the stage of the disease helps to plan the treatment and to estimate the prognosis. In clinical routine this is accomplished by conventional imaging techniques, such as ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Additionally, oncologic imaging is essential in treatment monitoring to visualize and quantify the effect of cancer therapy according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The tremendous development in oncology and technical innovations in imaging represent a particular challenge for radiology. (orig.)

  4. Undergraduate preparation of the oncology nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, M

    1992-09-01

    Determining appropriate cancer-related content for undergraduate nursing curricula requires careful consideration of content that is needed versus content that is desired for the nurse generalist. Studies have indicated a wide variety of topics and time allotment for this content among schools of nursing. Innovative strategies using games, computers, preceptors, and elective courses have allowed schools of nursing to include more comprehensive coverage of oncology-related topics. Issues concerning clinical oncology nursing opportunities for undergraduate studies still need to be clarified. Undergraduate students must be afforded the legitimacy of their status as novices in nursing and in the specialty of oncology. Didactic and clinical experiences should result in the knowledge and skills needed to develop professionally from novice to expert. PMID:1408964

  5. Decision support systems in oncology: Are we there yet?

    OpenAIRE

    D'Aquin, Mathieu; Lieber, Jean; Napoli, Amedeo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the experience of the Kasimir project in the domain on decision knowledge management in oncology and, more broadly, a discussion about decision support systems dedicated to oncology.

  6. Current management of surgical oncologic emergencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne R F Bosscher

    Full Text Available For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC. In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisciplinary discussion is often not available. In this study, the management and short term outcome of patients after surgical oncologic emergency consultation was analyzed.A prospective registration and follow up of adult patients with surgical oncologic emergencies between 01-11-2013 and 30-04-2014. The follow up period was 30 days.In total, 207 patients with surgical oncologic emergencies were included. Postoperative wound infections, malignant obstruction, and clinical deterioration due to progressive disease were the most frequent conditions for surgical oncologic emergency consultation. During the follow up period, 40% of patients underwent surgery. The median number of involved medical specialties was two. Only 30% of all patients were discussed in a MCC within 30 days after emergency consultation, and only 41% of the patients who underwent surgery were discussed in a MCC. For 79% of these patients, the surgical procedure was performed before the MCC. Mortality within 30 days was 13%.In most cases, surgery occurred without discussing the patient in a MCC, regardless of the fact that multiple medical specialties were involved in the treatment process. There is a need for prognostic aids and acute oncology pathways with structural multidisciplinary management. These will provide in faster institution of the most appropriate personalized cancer care, and prevent unnecessary investigations or invasive therapy.

  7. 肿瘤科医护人员对癌因性疲乏管理认知的质性研究%Recognition of medical staff in the oncology department about management of cancer related fatigue:a qualitative research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田利; 王芬; 薛嵋; 曹娟妹; 周群英; 杨益群; 李惠玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how medical staff in the oncology department understand management of cancer related fatigue (CRF), and explore what factors influencing the effective practice of CRF management. Methods Qualitative inquiry was adopted. Ten medical staffs in the oncology department were selected for in- depth interview. Generic analysis was applied to code, categorize and interpret the qualitative data. Results Participants believed that many factors influenced the CRF, which hadn′t been assessed as an independent symptom and lacked the systematic, effective and specific interventions. The medical staff, patients and their families neglecting the CRF management was the main barrier. Strengthening system construction and staff training was mentioned as major area which needed to be improved. Conclusions CRF management guideline should be formulated according to our national situations based on the clinical practices, besides, the training of correlated clinical knowledge and skills of medical staff should be strengthened and eventually promote the cancer patients′quality of life.%目的:了解肿瘤科医护人员对癌因性疲乏管理的认知,探讨实施有效癌因性疲乏管理的影响因素。方法采用质性研究对10名肿瘤科医护人员进行半结构式访谈,并运用类属分析法进行资料的编码、分类、提取主题。结果受访的肿瘤科医护人员认为癌因性疲乏的影响因素较多;尚未将其作为一个独立症状进行评估;认为尚缺乏系统、有效、具有针对性的管理措施;医护人员和家属缺乏对癌因性疲乏管理的重视是阻碍癌因性疲乏有效管理的障碍因素;只有加强制度层面建设和医护人员的培训才能有效推动癌因性疲乏管理工作。结论应结合临床实际情境,制定符合我国国情的癌因性疲乏管理指南,并对临床医护人员进行相关知识和技能培训,以提高肿瘤患者的生命质量。

  8. Clinical PET: changing the practice of oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    disease, we have been able to demonstrate that PET has a high and appropriate impact on management. Our group have recently published data on the clinical impact of PET in specific diseases including the staging of NSCLC, the restaging of NSCLC, the staging of cervical cancer, the restaging of colorectal cancer, the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules, evaluation of lymphoma and malignant melanoma. The uptake of FDG in inflammatory conditions, leading to false positive results, is regarded as one of the major limitations of this tracer in oncological settings. In an attempt to address this limitation agents that look at biological processes more specific to cancers than is glycolytic metabolism, have been evaluated. These include amino acid analogues that trace protein synthesis, thymidine analogues that evaluate cellular proliferation, and markers of cellular sterol metabolism. An additional feature of cancers is the presence of hypoxia. PET tracers such as F-18 fluoromisonidazole have been shown to be taken up in a high percentage of some tumours that clinical and experimental evidence suggests are likely to be hypoxic and because of this, more resistant to conventional therapies. Additional potential limitation of FDG is the potential for an increase in uptake during the process of apoptosis, an energy requiring process, that may limit the utility of early scanning to determine therapeutic response. The so-called 'metabolic flare' has been described as actually being predictive of therapeutic response in breast cancer patients treated by hormone manipulation. Due to issues related to synthesis times and providing adequate tracer amounts for several studies at least, we have focussed on fluorinated PET tracers rather than shorter-lived tracers using carbon-11. Currently the Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute Centre for Molecular Imaging has active clinical research trials using the cellular proliferative tracer, F-18 fluorothymidine (FLT), and the hypoxia markers F-18

  9. Potential role for metformin in urologic oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyid, Rashid Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is one of the most commonly used drugs worldwide. It is currently considered first-line pharmacological agent for management of diabetes mellitus type 2. Recent studies have suggested that metformin may have further benefits, especially in the field of urologic oncology. Use of metformin has been shown to be associated with decreased incidence and improved outcomes of prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. These studies suggest that metformin does have a future role in the prevention and management of urologic malignancies. In this review, we will discuss the latest findings in this field and its implications on the management of urologic oncology patients. PMID:27195314

  10. Oncologic reconstruction: General principles and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adelyn L; Lyonel Carre, Antoine; Patel, Ketan M

    2016-06-01

    Halsted's principle of radical mastectomy influenced cancer treatment for decades. Randomized controlled trials resulted in a paradigm shift to less radical surgery and the use of adjuvant therapies. Oncologic reconstruction performed by plastic surgeons has evolved, ranging from skin grafts and local flaps for smaller defects to pedicled flaps and free flaps for larger and more complex defects. Immediate reconstruction facilitates resection is oncologically safe and contributes to meaningful improvements in quality of life. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:852-864. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26939879

  11. Practical visceral surgery. Oncological surgery. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book covers the actual knowledge on diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Modern oncological surgery is always interdisciplinary: for every therapeutic decision the surgical, chemotherapeutical and radiotherapeutical principles have to be considered. A fundamental knowledge on the oncogenesis, the molecular, functional and imaging diagnostics are a precondition; supporting therapeutical approaches and a targeting aftercare are contributing to the quality of patient's life. The book covers the basic oncological knowledge, diagnostic and therapeutical methods, a systematical presentation of all carcinomas of visceral organs and neighboring regions. Systematically structured recommendations of excellent experts concerning the method selection are included

  12. The Development of On-Line Statistics Program for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose : By developing on-line statistics program to record the information of radiation oncology to share the information with internet. It is possible to supply basic reference data for administrative plans to improve radiation oncology. Materials and methods : The information of radiation oncology statistics had been collected by paper forms about 52 hospitals in the past. Now, we can input the data by internet web browsers. The statistics program used windows NT 4.0 operation system, Internet Information Server 4.0 (IIS4.0) as a web server and the Microsoft Access MDB. We used Structured Query Language (SQL), Visual Basic, VBScript and JAVAScript to display the statistics according to years and hospitals. Results : This program shows present conditions about man power, research, therapy machines, technic, brachytherapy, clinic statistics, radiation safety management, institution, quality assurance and radioisotopes in radiation oncology department. The database consists of 38 inputs and 6 outputs windows. Statistical output windows can be increased continuously according to user need. Conclusion : We have developed statistics program to process all of the data in department of radiation oncology for reference information. Users easily could input the data by internet web browsers and share the information

  13. Using implementation science to improve urologic oncology care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Sales, Anne E

    2016-09-01

    There are many gaps between recommended urologic cancer care and real-world practice. Although we increasingly define these quality gaps because of our growing health services research capacity in urologic oncology, we often fall short in translating these findings into effective interventions and strategies to reduce gaps in care. In this article, we highlight implementation research as a logical next step for translating our health services research findings into effective individual and organizational behavior change strategies to improve quality of care. We explain how implementation research focuses on different, upstream outcomes from our clinical outcomes to get the right care to the right patient at the right time. Lastly, we share information about resources and training for those interested in learning more about this emerging, transdisciplinary field. PMID:27401405

  14. Nonintubated Videothoracoscopic Operations in Thoracic Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso C Mineo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite general anesthesia with one-lung ventilation represents the standard to perform thoracic surgery operations, there is an increasing interest toward alternative methods, such as the use of local or neuroaxial analgesia alone in fully alert or mildly sedated patients. These can be applied to perform a series of videothoracoscopic procedures. Material and Methods: We reviewed our own institutional experience with this kind of surgery, as well as the most relevant literature findings available on this topic at the usual search websites (PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE. We focused on more recent advances regarding indications, expected advantages, possible pitfalls and implications for future research. Results: Such an operative modality can be safely and successfully adopted to manage a series of common malignant and non-malignant diseases. In thoracic oncology, it is mainly employed to treat malignant pleural effusion, to remove of pulmonary lesions of any origin, and to perform mediastinal biopsies. Furthermore, even complex procedures such anatomic lung resections and thymectomy are now being performed in this way. When taking into the account just intermediate to major surgeries, reported conversion rates to general anesthesia range between 2.8 and 9%. Despite the lack of randomized controlled trial, there is a general perception that non-intubated videothoracoscopic operation may translate into a lower morbidity rate, better hematosis, and preserved perioperative immunosurveillance. No sufficient data is available as far as long-term outcomes are concerned. Conclusions: Non-intubated videthoracoscopic operations may be as effective as the equivalent procedures performed with general anesthesia, while providing advantages in terms of cost and postoperative morbidity. This surgical practice should thus be included in the armamentarium of modern era thoracic surgeons, and appropriately designed studies should be undertaken to better

  15. Scientific Advances with Aspergillus Species that Are Used for Food and Biotech Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesebeke, Rob Te; Record, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Yeast and filamentous fungi have been used for centuries in diverse biotechnological processes. Fungal fermentation technology is traditionally used in relation to food production, such as for bread, beer, cheese, sake and soy sauce. Last century, the industrial application of yeast and filamentous fungi expanded rapidly, with excellent examples such as purified enzymes and secondary metabolites (e.g. antibiotics), which are used in a wide range of food as well as non-food industries. Research on protein and/or metabolite secretion by fungal species has focused on identifying bottlenecks in (post-) transcriptional regulation of protein production, metabolic rerouting, morphology and the transit of proteins through the secretion pathway. In past years, genome sequencing of some fungi (e.g. Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger) has been completed. The available genome sequences have enabled identification of genes and functionally important regions of the genome. This has directed research to focus on a post-genomics era in which transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics methodologies will help to explore the scientific relevance and industrial application of fungal genome sequences. PMID:21558706

  16. 75 FR 81283 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory... of December 6, 2010 (75 FR 75680). On February 9, 2011, the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee...

  17. Music therapy services in pediatric oncology: a national clinical practice review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucquet, Belinda; Leung, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national clinical practice review conducted in Australia of music therapy services in pediatric oncology hospitals. Literature specifically related to music therapy and symptom management in pediatric oncology is reviewed. The results from a national benchmarking survey distributed to all music therapists working with children with cancer in Australian pediatric hospitals are discussed. Patient and family feedback provided from a quality improvement activity conducted at a major pediatric tertiary hospital is summarized, and considerations for future growth as a profession and further research is proposed. PMID:25027188

  18. The relationship between coping strategies and burnout syndrome in oncology nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Šárka Vévodová; Šárka Ročková; Radka Kozáková; Simona Cakirpaloglu Dobešová; Helena Kisvetrová; Jiří Vévoda

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major problem in the nursing profession. It is related to work overload, lack of nursing staff, and work in shifts, lack of coping strategies and a high turnover amongst health care staff. Rapid increase of stress in the oncology centers results in a high risk of burnout. One of the options for prevention is to find suitable coping strategies. The research objective of this study was to determine the rate of burnout amongst oncology nurses and to determine the relationship between...

  19. From Patient-Specific Mathematical Neuro-Oncology to Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eBaldock

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are notoriously aggressive, malignant brain tumors that have variable response to treatment. These patients often have poor prognosis, informed primarily by histopathology. Mathematical neuro-oncology (MNO is a young and burgeoning field that leverages mathematical models to predict and quantify response to therapies. These mathematical models can form the basis of modern precision medicine approaches to tailor therapy in a patient-specific manner. Patient specific models (PSMs can be used to overcome imaging limitations, improve prognostic predictions, stratify patients and assess treatment response in silico. The information gleaned from such models can aid in the construction and efficacy of clinical trials and treatment protocols, accelerating the pace of clinical research in the war on cancer. This review focuses on the growing translation of PSM to clinical neuro-oncology. It will also provide a forward-looking view on a new era of patient-specific mathematical neuro-oncology.

  20. Paleo-oncology: the role of ancient remains in the study of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C

    2004-01-01

    Paleo-oncology is the study of carcinomas and sarcomas in ancient human populations and their hominid precursors. These populations are informative concerning the possible influences on cancer of morphologic and functional evolution, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. The prevalence of cancer in ancient populations might have differed from that in modern humans, because of substantial differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet, life expectancy, and the availability of treatment. The available physical data concerning cancer in antiquity includes evidence of its existence in animal fossils and ancient humans and their precursors. The difficulties of paleo-oncologic research include a limited soft tissue record. In evaluating cancer in ancient remains, one must also deal with the problem of pseudopathology: whether an observed tissue change is all antemortem pathologic lesion or a postmortem artifact. Future archeological discoveries and the application of improved diagnostic techniques may enable paleo-oncology to make further contributions to our understanding of cancer. PMID:15061165

  1. Combined PET/MRI: a new dimension in whole-body oncology imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid imaging systems providing morphological and functional data in a single session have been available for oncological imaging for some time. So far, computed tomography (CT) has been the morphological method-of-choice for inclusion into these hybrid imaging systems. However, recently, research has focused on hardware-based fusion of function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rather than CT. Now that the first head-only positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI systems have been installed and whole-body systems are to be expected in the near future, potential indications in clinical oncology have to be addressed. This article discusses potential indications of PET/MRI in whole-body oncology imaging. Potential advantages and disadvantages compared with currently available hybrid imaging systems will be reviewed. (orig.)

  2. The Melanoma-bearing Libechov Minipigs as a Model in Experimental Oncology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, Monika; Strnádel, Ján; Plánská, Daniela; Vannucci, Luca; Usvald, Dušan; Burócziová, Monika; Vure, Michal; Klaudy, Jiří; Horák, Vratislav

    La Jolla: Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 2009. s. 103-103. [Mechanism and Models of Cancer-009; Quantum of Progress No.4. 08.12-16.12.2009, La Jolla] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Minipigs * experimental model * ncology Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology

  3. Factors Predicting Oncology Care Providers' Behavioral Intention to Adopt Clinical Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to examine the predictors of user behavioral intention on the decision of oncology care providers to adopt or reject the clinical decision support system. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) formed the foundation of the research model and survey instrument. The…

  4. An exploration of the experience of compassion fatigue in clinical oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Beth; Toffner, Greg; Merrick, Trish; Dalton, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Compassion fatigue (CF) is "debilitating weariness brought about by repetitive, empathic responses to the pain and suffering of others" (LaRowe, 2005, p. 21). The work performed by oncology nurses, and the experiences of the people they care for, place oncology nurses at high risk for CF (Pierce et al., 2007; Ferrell & Coyle, 2008). Thus oncology nurses were chosen as the study focus. This paper details a descriptive exploratory qualitative research study that investigated the experience of CF in Canadian clinical oncology registered nurses (RNs). A conceptual stress process model by Aneshensel, Pearlin, Mullan, Zarit, and Whitlatch (1995) that considers caregivers' stress in four domains provided the study framework (see Figure 1). Nineteen study participants were recruited through an advertisement in the Canadian Oncology Nursing Journal (CONJ). The advertisement directed potential participants to a university-based online website developed for this study. Participants completed a questionnaire and wrote a narrative describing an experience with CF and submitted these through the secure research website. Data were analyzed thematically. Five themes include: defining CF, causes of CF, factors that worsen CF, factors that lessen CF, and outcomes of CF. Participants had limited knowledge about CF, about lack of external support, and that insufficient time to provide high quality, care may precipitate CF. The gap between quality of care nurses wanted to provide and what they were able to do, compounded by coexisting physical and emotional stress, worsened CF. CF was lessened by colleague support, work-life balance, connecting with others, acknowledgement, and maturity and experience. Outcomes of CF included profound fatigue of mind and body, negative effects on personal relationships, and considering leaving the specialty. Recommendations that may enhance oncology nurse well-being are provided. PMID:21661623

  5. 2012 in review - part II: overcoming the obstacles in the pharma/biotech industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasseda, X; Dulsat, C; Navarro, D; Cruces, E; Graul, A I; Jago, C; Tracy, M

    2013-02-01

    As highlighted in the first part of this review published last month, the year 2012 saw the approval of a remarkable number of new drugs, and among the new drugs reaching the market, a significant proportion were orphan drugs developed for treating less prevalent diseases. These drugs are certainly not expected to become blockbusters, but are of high interest because of their efficacy in a narrow spectrum of patients. This trend aligns with the general tendency of staying away from fit-for-all blockbusters into personalized medicine as one of the strategies for overcoming the patent cliff that resulted in a long list of drugs going off patent and being approved as generics also during last year. The emerging scenario resulting from new developments in the form of new drugs and biosimilars and newly available generic medications paralleled by strategic movements within the pharmaceutical industry to reinforce their position in the market, as reflected by merger and acquisition deals accompanied by significant efforts into prioritization resulting in spin-off and split transactions, is reviewed in this second part. This paper includes a significant amount of data in tables for quick review and to profile the new strategic movements in drug pipelines. Further information, including details on mechanisms of action, current status, itemized pharmacology, pharmacokinetic and clinical trial research findings and updated information can be found in the proprietary databases Thomson Reuters Integrity(SM) and Thomson Reuters Cortellis™. PMID:23462626

  6. Validation of cross-contamination control in biological safety cabinet for biotech/pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Tu, Jin-Xin; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben

    2015-12-01

    For class II, type A2 biological safety cabinets (BSC), NSF/ANSI Standard 49 should be conformed in cabinet airflow velocity derivation, particle contamination, and aerodynamic flow properties. However, there exists a potential problem. It has been built that the cabinet air flow stabilize is influenced by the quantity of downflow of air and the height above the cabinet exhaust opening. Three air downflow quantities were compared as an operating apparatus was placed from 20 to 40 cm above the bench of the cabinet. The results show that the BSC air downflow velocity is a function of increased sampling height, displaying that containment is improvingly permitted over product protection as the sampling height decreases. This study investigated the concentration gradient of particles at various heights and downflow air quantity from the bench of the BSC. Experiment results indicate that performance near the bench was better than in the rest of the BSC. In terms of height, the best cleanliness was measured at a height of 10 cm over the bench; it reduced actually with add in height. The empirical curves accommodate, founded on the concentration gradient of particle created was elaborated for evaluating the particle concentration at different heights and downflow air quantity from the source of the bench of the BSC. The particle image velocimetry system applied for BSC airflow research to fix amount of airflow patterns and air distribution measurement and results of measurements show how obstructions can greatly influence the airflow and contaminant transportation in a BSC. PMID:26257118

  7. Evolution and accomplishments of the radiation therapy oncology group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) recently completed its first quarter century as a cooperative clinical cancer research organization. It is timely and appropriate to document its origins, evolution, and accomplishments. Methods and Materials: The historical review of the RTOG called upon written and oral documentation. Results: The RTOG is the most enduring product of the Committee for Radiation Therapy Studies (CRTS). Although not one of the original 17 clinical trials groups developed by the National Cancer Institute in 1956, the RTOG has pursued trials suggested by laboratory findings including the oxygen effect, intrinsic radiosensitivity, proliferation kinetics of normal and tumor cells, and interactions with other cytotoxic agents. Improvements in survival have been demonstrated for patients with carcinoma of the esophagus and cervix, and nonsmall cell carcinomas of the lung. The national and international radiation oncology communities have benefited from standards and quality control/assurance guidelines for established and new modalities. A growing number of institutions in North America participate in RTOG trials. Conclusion: The RTOG is an important clinical research resource, which has contributed to improved outcome for patients with many forms of cancer. It has become increasingly productive and widely adopted and endorsed by oncologists throughout North America

  8. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... oncology case brought to you live from Halifax Health in Daytona Beach, Florida. OR-Live makes it easy for you to learn more. Just click on the Request Information button on your webcast screen and open the door to informed medical care. 01:05:35 [end of webcast

  9. Current management of surgical oncologic emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscher, Marianne R. F.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC). In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisc

  10. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ROBOTIC-ASSISTED GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY PROCEDURE HALIFAX HEALTH DAYTONA BEACH, FLORIDA April 24, 2008 00:00:11 KELLY ... You're just minutes away from seeing a robotic-assisted laparoscopic gynecological case live. This very progressive ...

  11. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ROBOTIC-ASSISTED GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY PROCEDURE HALIFAX HEALTH DAYTONA BEACH, FLORIDA April 24, 2008 00:00:11 KELLY L. MOLPUS, MD: ANNOUNCER: Welcome to ... modified radical hysterectomy for the treatment of endometrial cancer. And for the lay people out there that ...

  12. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at home with your own germs taking care of things at home, and you're going to do ... oncology case brought to you live from Halifax Health in Daytona Beach, Florida. ... medical care. 01:05:35 [end of webcast

  13. Genomic-Wide Analysis with Microarrays in Human Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Inaoka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available DNA microarray technologies have advanced rapidly and had a profound impact on examining gene expression on a genomic scale in research. This review discusses the history and development of microarray and DNA chip devices, and specific microarrays are described along with their methods and applications. In particular, microarrays have detected many novel cancer-related genes by comparing cancer tissues and non-cancerous tissues in oncological research. Recently, new methods have been in development, such as the double-combination array and triple-combination array, which allow more effective analysis of gene expression and epigenetic changes. Analysis of gene expression alterations in precancerous regions compared with normal regions and array analysis in drug-resistance cancer tissues are also successfully performed. Compared with next-generation sequencing, a similar method of genome analysis, several important differences distinguish these techniques and their applications. Development of novel microarray technologies is expected to contribute to further cancer research.

  14. Guidelines for treatment naming in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Travis R; Shields, Lisa B E; Hahl, Michael; Maudlin, Casey; Bassett, Mark; Spalding, Aaron C

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns may arise from a lack of standardization and ambiguity during the treatment planning and delivery process in radiation therapy. A standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention in radiation therapy was developed by a task force comprised of several Radiation Oncology Societies. We present a nested-survey approach in a community setting to determine the methodology for radiation oncology departments to standardize their practice. Our Institution's continuous quality improvement (CQI) committee recognized that, due to growth from one to three centers, significant variability existed within plan parameters specific to patients' treatment. A multidiscipline, multiclinical site consortium was established to create a guideline for standard naming. Input was gathered using anonymous, electronic surveys from physicians, physicists, dosimetrists, chief therapists, and nurse managers. Surveys consisted of several primary areas of interest: anatomical sites, course naming, treatment plan naming, and treatment field naming. Additional concepts included capitalization, specification of later-ality, course naming in the event of multiple sites being treated within the same course of treatment, primary versus boost planning, the use of bolus, revisions for plans, image-guidance field naming, forbidden characters, and standard units for commonly used physical quantities in radiation oncology practice. Guidelines for standard treatment naming were developed that could be readily adopted. This multidisciplinary study provides a clear, straightforward, and easily implemented protocol for the radiotherapy treatment process. Standard nomenclature facilitates the safe means of communication between team members in radiation oncology. The guidelines presented in this work serve as a model for radiation oncology clinics to standardize their practices. PMID:27074449

  15. Investigation of the possible use of Arglabin, new antitumor medicine to prevent oncological diseases after radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: One of the heaviest effects of radiation exposure and its pollutants to the environment is a growth of oncologic diseases as a sequence of breakage of genetic body substance and transmission of Genetic load to the next generation. People of Kazakstan are anxious of the present situation with harmful effect of remaining radiation doses.Purpose of research: the examination of molecular mechanisms of action for a new drug 'Arglabin' was done with the purpose of preventing the malignant tumor occurrence for those people living on the territory of higher risk (in high radiation locations). Research work of the mechanisms of action for 'Arglabin' drug: - examination of the drug effectiveness to enzymes of prenylated proteins; - examination of the drug effectiveness on functioning the oncogene products; - examination of drug metabolism. Research work of the possibility for using 'Arglabin' to prevent oncology diseases includes: - establishment of experimental model of increased risk of oncologic disease on different groups of laboratory animals using the low-dosage radiation sphere; - examination of the drug effectiveness in oncology diseases prevention; - determination of mechanisms and the prevention's results on cancer

  16. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  17. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  18. Morbidity of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Clean - up Workers with Oncological Diseases from 1990 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    oncological morbidity in the age group 35-69 years over the observation period 1998-2004 is a little higher in comparison with age-matched non-exposed men population morbidity. Morbidity with thyroid cancer is 10 times higher, morbidity with prostate cancer - 9, but with ventriculi cancer 4. times higher than in population. The increase of oncological diseases for clean-up workers was over the observation period 1998-2000 and in 2003. Incidence of morbidity with oncological diseases of prostate has trend for progression during last 5 years. Maximal increase of incidence in clean-up workers was in age group till 60 years but in population - after 60 years. Thyroid cancer presents a special case, as the thyroid concentrates iodines and much of the radioactivity released from the damaged reactor was in the form of radioiodines; thus thyroid exposures could have come from internally deposited radioiodines as well as from external radiation. Based on studies of other population exposed to low-dose radiation latent period of radiation -induced oncological diseases could be 8-30 years. Conclusion. Oncological morbidity of Chernobyl NPP accident clean-up workers during 1990-2004 is progressively increasing. Increase of incidence of oncological diseases of thyroid gland, prostate and stomach is higher than that among age and sex matched group of Latvia's population. Research on development of oncological diseases of clean-up workers exposed by low-dose radiation needs further research. (authors)

  19. Psychosocial oncology in China——Challenges and opportunities%心理社会肿瘤学在中国的发展现状——机会与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Tang; Janet de Groot; Barry D. Bultz

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In China over the past decade, psychosocial oncology has emerged as a new program. Development of this program requires attention to current opportunities, obstacles and cultural concerns. Methods: A selected literature review of academic papers in Chinese and English language journals and web sites was analyzed for themes regarding the current status, challenges, and opportunities for psychosocial oncology in China. Results: China's national cancer strategy (2004-2010), based on WHO guidelines, is focused on cancer prevention and treatment, as well as quality of life among cancer patients and their families. The Chinese Anti-Cancer Association is now funding research, training and international collaboration in psychosocial oncology. The newly organized Chinese Psychosocial Oncology Society, founded in 2006, aims to provide a national forum for psychosocial oncology research. Cultural and systemic challenges to establishing psychosocial oncology as a core discipline in China include: (1) the family's desire to 'protect' cancer patients by with-holding cancer-related information; (2) stigma and privacy regarding mental health issues; (3) biomedical practitioners' claims that psychosocial on cology is not sufficiently evidence-based; and (4) limited funding for psychosocial oncology care and research. Conclusion:The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) is considered a valuable resource towards China's interest in partnering with the international psychosocial oncology community to enhance the discipline globally.

  20. Professional development utilizing an oncology summer nursing internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Michelle; Hyman, Zena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an oncology student nursing internship on role socialization and professional self-concept. This mixed-methods study utilized a convergent parallel approach that incorporated a quasi-experimental and qualitative design. Data was collected through pre and post-survey and open-ended questions. Participants were 11 baccalaureate nursing students participating in a summer oncology student nursing internship between their junior and senior years. Investigators completed a content analysis of qualitative questionnaires resulted in categories of meaning, while the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to compare pre and post internship scores. Aggregated mean scores from all instruments showed an increase in professionalism, role socialization, and sense of belonging from pre to post-internship, although no differences were significant. Qualitative data showed participants refined their personal philosophy of nursing and solidified their commitment to the profession. Participants did indicate, however, that the internship, combined with weekly debriefing forums and conferences, proved to have a positive impact on the students' role socialization and sense of belonging. Despite quantitative results, there is a need for longitudinal research to confirm the effect of nursing student internships on the transition from student to professional. PMID:26213148

  1. Non interventional drug studies in oncology: Why we need them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Mishra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncology is a highly researched therapeutic area with an ever expanding armamentarium of drugs entering the market. It is unique in how the heterogeneity of tumor, patient and treatment factors is critical in determining outcomes of interventions. When it comes to decision making in the clinic, the practicing physician often seeks answers in populations with obvious deviations from the ideal selected populations included in the pivotal phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs. While the randomized nature of the RCT ensures its high internal validity by removing bias, their ′controlled′ nature casts a doubt on their generalizability to the real world population. It is for this reason that trials done in a naturalistic setting post the marketing authorization of a drug are increasingly required. This article discusses the importance of non interventional drug studies in oncology as an important tool in testing the external validity of controlled trial results and its value in generation of new hypothesis. It also discusses the limitations of such studies while outlining the steps in their effective conduct.

  2. The use of healing touch in integrative oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura K; Freel, Mildred I; Haylock, Pam J; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2011-10-01

    The use of complementary therapies by patients with cancer has become increasingly prevalent; as a result, oncology nurses find themselves needing to understand those therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. This article describes the integrative use of the biofield therapy healing touch in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages IB1 to IVA) as reported in a 2010 research study. Findings indicated effects on the immune response and depression in healing touch recipients compared to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, healing touch recipients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity over the course of treatment, whereas the cytotoxicity of patients receiving relaxation therapy and standard care declined sharply during radiation. Healing touch recipients also showed decreases in depressed mood compared to relaxation therapy and standard care recipients. The findings suggest that appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care can enhance the impact of conventional care by putting patients in the best condition to use their innate healing resources. PMID:21951738

  3. Pesquisa brasileira em enfermagem oncológica: uma revisão integrativa Investigación brasileña en enfermería oncológica: una revisión integradora Brazilian research in oncology nursing: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santejo Silveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma revisão integrativa da literatura com o objetivo de caracterizar as pesquisas produzidas pela enfermagem brasileira em oncologia. O levantamento bibliográfico abrangeu as publicações nacionais em enfermagem, de 1980 a 2004, sendo identificados 84 artigos que compuseram a amostra do estudo. Os resultados apontaram a falta de esclarecimentos para demonstrar o rigor dos estudos nos artigos analisados. Sugerimos identificar prioridades de pesquisa, refinar estratégias de síntese de resultados de pesquisa, conduzir com rigor os estudos, respeitando-se as etapas do método científico e maior cuidado na elaboração dos relatórios encaminhados para publicação.Fue efectuada una revisión integradora de la literatura con objeto de caracterizar las investigaciones producidas por la enfermería brasileña en oncología. La recopilación bibliográfica abarcó las publicaciones nacionales en enfermería, de 1980 a 2004, siendo identificados 84 artículos, los cuales compusieron la muestra del estudio. Los resultados indicaron una falta de clarificaciones para demostrar el rigor de los estudios analizados. Sugerimos identificar prioridades de investigación, refinar estrategias de síntesis de resultados de investigación, conducir con rigor los estudios, respetándose las etapas del método científico y mejor elaboración de los relatos encaminados para publicación.We carried out an integrative literature review to characterize research produced by Brazilian oncology nursing. The bibliographic survey covered national nursing publications, from 1980 to 2004, from which we identified 84 articles, which composed the study sample. The results indicate the lack of clarifications to demonstrate study rigor in the analyzed articles. We suggest identifying research priorities, refining the strategies to synthesize research results, conducting studies rigorously, respecting the steps of the scientific method and taking greater care in

  4. Psychosocial Oncology Supports for Men: A Scoping Review and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Lisa M; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2016-01-01

    Although men's cancer experiences have received limited attention within the field of psychosocial oncology, increasing attention is being devoted to the development and evaluation of men-centered programs. This scoping review describes this emergent body of literature, detailing the focus, participation, and impact of interventions designed to help men with cancer build illness-specific knowledge, adapt to illness, manage side effects, distress, and uncertainty, sustain relationships, and more. Striving to build on existing knowledge, research gaps and opportunities are discussed, including a need for stronger methodologies, more tailored and targeted supports, attention to the experiences of men with nonprostate cancers, and the explicit integration of gender analyses in the research process. PMID:25389212

  5. Biotech as 'Biothreat'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    groups. In this, the paper tries to make up for the limited focus upon the role played by metaphor and discourse in shaping public attitudes of biotechnology. The paper has two parts; a theoretical part discussing the combination of conceptual metaphor studies and critical discourse analysis to provide a...... highly influenced by attitudes expressed by societal groups, based on the notions of risk, fear and danger....

  6. Radiation oncology a physicist's-eye view

    CERN Document Server

    Goitein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Oncology: A Physicist's-Eye View was written for both physicists and medical oncologists with the aim of helping them approach the use of radiation in the treatment of cancer with understanding, confidence, and imagination. The book will let practitioners in one field understand the problems of, and find solutions for, practitioners in the other. It will help them to know "why" certain approaches are fruitful while, at the same time, encouraging them to ask the question "Why not?" in the face of assertions that some proposal of theirs is impractical, unreasonable, or impossible. Unlike a textbook, formal and complete developments of the topics are not among the goals. Instead, the reader will develop a foundation for understanding what the author has found to be matters of importance in radiation oncology during over thirty years of experience. Presentations cover, in largely non-technical language, the principal physical and biological aspects of radiation treatment and address practical clinical c...

  7. Resilience and family of oncological patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Garassi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resilience like ability to overcome adversity and even learn and get out “strengthened” them has become, in the last decade, the focus of many studies throughout the life cycle and in different cultures. On the other hand, oncological disease was introduced globally in a high percentage of the population requiring labor and health team including psychologists for coping on the part of the patient and their family members. The authors cited in the course of this article refer to the importance of developing resilience at the personal, family and cultural level, started with the presence of trust relationships, cultivating positive emotions, the acceptance of different cycles of life and belief in a just world. These promoting resilience factors are the springs that allow the experience of oncological disease and even death and mourning as opportunities to generate personal and familiar learning. 

  8. Oncologic emergencies. Analysis of surgical outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selecting the optimal treatment strategy for oncologic emergencies requires appropriate condition assessment. In the present study, we report on an algorithm which we developed for such cases. Preoperative pathological conditions, clinical course and prognosis were analyzed using abdominal X-ray and computed tomography images from 11 patients (male: n=8; age range, 42 to 73 years median age, 57 years; female: n=3; age range, 53 to 90 years; median age, 54 years) with oncologic emergencies who underwent laparotomy at our department between January 2003 and December 2007. The carcinoma type comprised seven cases of colon and rectum cancer, and one each of esophageal, intrahepatic cholangiocellular, hepatocellular and cervical cancers. The eight patients with residual tumors died, while the three without residual tumors (all with colon cancer) remained alive over the 26-month follow-up period. We conclude that patients with colon cancer without residual tumors have a greater rate of recurrence-free survival. (author)

  9. Oncological mamoplasty in the Cancerology National Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conservative surgery is analyzed in the breast cancer. As premise, it settles down that in the quadrantectomy, the breast should always be left aesthetic. The oncological mamoplasty is then a technique that should be considered and for it should always be left it margin oncology in the borders of the tumors, the surgeon should have experience and it is important to have a good pursuit. The surgery is bilateral and it doesn't leave scars in the superior quadrants. In this revision 53 patients were analyzed, keeping in mind that there are few reports on this technique or to proceed therapeutic in the literature. The procedures were carried out in their majority in patient pre menopauses and they were made inclusive in advanced states. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were used in the treatment

  10. Clinical oncology in Malaysia: 1914 to present

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, GCC

    2006-01-01

    A narration of the development of staff, infrastructure and buildings in the various parts of the country is given in this paper. The role of universities and other institutions of learning, public health, palliative care, nuclear medicine and cancer registries is described together with the networking that has been developed between the government, non-governmental organisations and private hospitals. The training of skilled manpower and the commencement of the Master of Clinical Oncology in...

  11. Penile Cancer: Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Peter E.; Philippe E. Spiess; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations o...

  12. Clinical oncology in resource-limited settings

    OpenAIRE

    Buonaguro, Franco M.; Gueye, Serigne N; Wabinga, Henry R; Ngoma, Twalib A.; Vermorken, Jan B; Mbulaiteye, Sam M

    2013-01-01

    Infectious Agents and Cancer is introducing a new section of Clinical Oncology with the main objective of stimulating debate through articles published in the section. Infectious diseases have been the major causes of morbidity and mortality in human populations, and have dominated the medical approach to clinical and public health. Successful efforts to control mortality from acute infections have paved the way for chronic, mostly indolent, infections to become major causes of morbidity. Can...

  13. Plastic Surgery for the Oncological Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Daigeler, Adrien; Harati, Kamran; Kapalschinski, Nicolai; Goertz, Ole; Hirsch, Tobias; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Kolbenschlag, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The therapy of oncological patients has seen tremendous progress in the last decades. For most entities, it has been possible to improve the survival as well as the quality of life of the affected patients. To supply optimal cancer care, a multidisciplinary approach is vital. Together with oncologists, radiotherapists and other physicians, plastic surgeons can contribute to providing such care in all stages of treatment. From biopsies to the resection of advanced tumors, the coverage of the r...

  14. Uptake Carriers and Oncology Drug Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Sprowl, Jason A.; Sparreboom, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Members of the solute carrier (SLC) family of transporters are responsible for the cellular influx of a broad range of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics in multiple tissues. Many of these transporters are highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidney and are considered to be of particular importance in governing drug absorption, elimination, and cellular sensitivity of specific organs to a wide variety of oncology drugs. Although the majority of studies on the interacti...

  15. N-cadherin antagonists as oncology therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Blaschuk, Orest W.

    2015-01-01

    The cell adhesion molecule (CAM), N-cadherin, has emerged as an important oncology therapeutic target. N-cadherin is a transmembrane glycoprotein mediating the formation and structural integrity of blood vessels. Its expression has also been documented in numerous types of poorly differentiated tumours. This CAM is involved in regulating the proliferation, survival, invasiveness and metastasis of cancer cells. Disruption of N-cadherin homophilic intercellular interactions using peptide or sma...

  16. Radiotherapy and immune reaction of oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Represented is a review of data accumulated in literature (1970-1976) on oppression of protection of oncologic patients and more oppression of immune reactions during radiotherapy. Underlined is the significance of studying immune homeostasis in a clinic of radiotherapy to evaluate total resistance of patients before the beginning and in the process of treatment. The prognostic significance of immunodepressive disturbances in patients with malignant tumors is elucidated

  17. Oncology nurses awareness of drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azize Karahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine oncology nurses awareness of drug interactions. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with nurses working in the oncology clinics who are a member of Oncology Nursing Association of Turkey. A total of 115 nurses (response rate %20 were responded to the online survey that consists of 28 questions. Results: The mean age of the nurses was 33 ± 6.8. The majority of nurses work in university hospital (60% as a clinical nurse (62.6% and have a Bachelor Degree in Nursing (63.5%. The mean working years in oncology was 4 years. Half of them stated receiving information on drug interactions mostly through in-service education and courses/congresses in last 5 years. The majority of them (84.3% indicated that they are considering the possibility of drug interactions when they are scheduling the medication administration time. More than half of the responders (59.1% encountered drug interactions; however, few explored drug interactions with food, drinks, and nutritional supplements. Their practices to assess possibility of drug interactions were reviewing the drug prospectus (78.3%; consulting with their colleagues (58.3% and searching on the available website (42.6% and looking at the drug interaction (39.1%. More than half (65.2% stated lack of any system to identify drug interactions in their workplace. Nearly half of them indicated to including the drug interaction into patient education mostly for food-drug (73.9% and drug-drug (63.5% interactions. Conclusions: Almost all indicated the needs for further education on drug interactions and suggested to have guideline/packet guide.

  18. [Multidisciplinary oncology teams: beware of endless discussions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, Raimond W M

    2010-01-01

    The continual and increasing complexity of diagnostic and treatment options in oncology demands careful communication, coordination and decision making. Cancer care could be improved by multidisciplinary teamwork. Although this sort of teamwork has many advantages in theory, we know very little about its effectiveness in practice. We have to answer questions such as how teams can accomplish their task most effectively and how we must manage organizations in such a way that team-based working contributes optimally to organizational effectiveness. PMID:20619056

  19. Osteonecrosis - complication at oncological treatment in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteonecrosis is one of serious complications at oncological treatment of children. The etiopathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, mostly it has a multifactorial character. The incidence is in 1,5 - 9,3 % range. ON affects predominantly the weight bearing joints. It affects mostly the patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and those at adolescent age. The course of disease is unpredictable. The changes at early stages can be reversible, but at some patients the disease progresses and can lead to a disability. At Children oncology clinic of Children teaching hospital in Bratislava during the years 1992 - 2008 we identified 12 patients affected by ON out of 146 children with ALL (8,2 %), 1 out of 42 with NHL (2,4 %) and 1 out of 42 with HL (2,4 %). The age at diagnosis of malignity: 4y7m - 17y, the age at diagnosis ON: 10y5m - 19y. Further course: regression - 2 patients, stabilised state - 6 patients, progression - 3 patients. 3 patients were lost from our follow up. The treatment was conservative, with the exception of one patient, who had to undergo surgery due to the progression of disease. To avoid the risk of inducing ON during the treatment of oncological patient in childhood it is important to optimalize the therapeutical protocols and to diagnose this complication early. (author)

  20. Lymphoscintigraphy in oncology: a rediscovered challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validation of the sentinel node concept in oncology has led to the rediscovery of lymphoscintigraphy. By combining preoperative lymphatic mapping with intraoperative probe detection this nuclear medicine procedure is being increasingly used to identify and detect the sentinel node in melanoma, breast cancer, and in other malignancies such as penile cancer and vulvar cancer. In the past lymphoscintigraphy has been widely applied for various indications in oncology, and in the case of the internal mammary lymph-node chain its current use in breast cancer remains essential to adjust irradiation treatment to the individual findings of each patient. In another diagnostic area, lymphoscintigraphy is also useful to document altered drainage patterns after surgery and/or radiotherapy; its use in breast cancer patients with upper limb oedema after axillary lymph-node dissection or in melanoma patients with lower-extremity oedema after groin dissection can provide information for physiotherapy or reconstructive surgery. Finally, the renewed interest in lymphoscintigraphy in oncology has led not only to the rediscovery of findings from old literature reports, but also to a discussion about methodological aspects such as tracer characteristics, image acquisition or administration routes, as well as to discussion on the study of migration patterns of radiolabelled colloid particles in the context of cancer dissemination. All this makes the need for standardized guidelines for lymphoscintigraphy mandatory. (orig.)

  1. Lymphoscintigraphy in oncology: a rediscovered challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Nieweg, O.E.; Jansen, L.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; Kroon, B.B.R. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Borger, J. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Horenblas, S. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Urology

    1999-04-01

    The validation of the sentinel node concept in oncology has led to the rediscovery of lymphoscintigraphy. By combining preoperative lymphatic mapping with intraoperative probe detection this nuclear medicine procedure is being increasingly used to identify and detect the sentinel node in melanoma, breast cancer, and in other malignancies such as penile cancer and vulvar cancer. In the past lymphoscintigraphy has been widely applied for various indications in oncology, and in the case of the internal mammary lymph-node chain its current use in breast cancer remains essential to adjust irradiation treatment to the individual findings of each patient. In another diagnostic area, lymphoscintigraphy is also useful to document altered drainage patterns after surgery and/or radiotherapy; its use in breast cancer patients with upper limb oedema after axillary lymph-node dissection or in melanoma patients with lower-extremity oedema after groin dissection can provide information for physiotherapy or reconstructive surgery. Finally, the renewed interest in lymphoscintigraphy in oncology has led not only to the rediscovery of findings from old literature reports, but also to a discussion about methodological aspects such as tracer characteristics, image acquisition or administration routes, as well as to discussion on the study of migration patterns of radiolabelled colloid particles in the context of cancer dissemination. All this makes the need for standardized guidelines for lymphoscintigraphy mandatory. (orig.) With 10 figs., 1 tab., 56 refs.

  2. Judicial activism, the Biotech Directive and its institutional implications – Is the Court acting as a legislator or a court when defining the ‘human embryo’?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeh, Andrea Beata

    2015-01-01

    The Court of Justice of the European Union (Court) delivered a preliminary ruling in 2011 in the case of Oliver Brüstle v Greenpeace on the interpretation of Article 6(2) of the Biotech Directive and thereby established an autonomous concept of the term ‘human embryo’. The Brüstle decision raises a...... autonomous interpretation of ‘human embryo’ and the flexibility allowed to the national courts needed further clarification. This clarification was recently given by the Court’s Grand Chamber in International Stem Cell Corporation v Comptroller General Patents where the Court concluded that a non......-fertilised human ovum, not capable of developing into a human being, is not a ‘human embryo’. Hence, ‘where a non-fertilised human ovum does not fulfil that condition [inherent capacity of developing into a human being], the mere fact that that organism commences a process of development is not sufficient for it...

  3. Communication Skills Training Programme to Improve Oncology Nurses' Relationships with Patients: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    ÜNAL, Öğr.Gör.Dr. Satı; ÖZ, Prof.Dr. Fatma

    2008-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the impact of communication skills training programme on patient-nurse interactions in oncology setting. The research consisted of a single group pre-, post-test and non-participant observation. Thirty-six nurses volunteered to participate. In the first evaluation method, the nurses were evaluated both before and after the training using “Empathic Tendency”, “Empathic Skill” and “Communication Ski...

  4. The oncology medical image database (OMI-DB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling-Brown, Mark D.; Looney, P. T.; Patel, M. N.; Warren, L. M.; Mackenzie, A.; Young, K. C.

    2014-03-01

    Many projects to evaluate or conduct research in medical imaging require the large-scale collection of images (both unprocessed and processed) and associated data. This demand has led us to design and implement a flexible oncology image repository, which prospectively collects images and data from multiple sites throughout the UK. This Oncology Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) has been created to support research involving medical imaging and contains unprocessed and processed medical images, associated annotations and data, and where applicable expert-determined ground truths describing features of interest. The process of collection, annotation and storage is almost fully automated and is extremely adaptable, allowing for quick and easy expansion to disparate imaging sites and situations. Initially the database was developed as part of a large research project in digital mammography (OPTIMAM). Hence the initial focus has been digital mammography; as a result, much of the work described will focus on this field. However, the OMI -DB has been designed to support multiple modalities and is extensible and expandable to store any associated data with full anonymisation. Currently, the majority of associated data is made up of radiological, clinical and pathological annotations extracted from the UK's National Breast Screening System (NBSS). In addition to the data, software and systems have been created to allow expert radiologists to annotate the images with interesting clinical features and provide descriptors of these features. The data from OMI-DB has been used in several observer studies and more are planned. To date we have collected 34,104 2D mammography images from 2,623 individuals.

  5. NEURO-ONCOLOGIC PHYSICAL THERAPY FOR THE OLDER PERSON

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Willie; Luhmann, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the course of diagnoses, patients with neuro-oncological malignancies present challenges to the physical therapist. At times, the presentation of impairments and disabilities of these patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses do not necessarily coincide with the involved area of the brain or spinal cord. It is our intention to provide guidance to the physical therapist who will be working with these patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses, in hopes that their encou...

  6. Radiation Oncology in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review the published literature pertaining to radiation oncology in undergraduate medical education. Methods and Materials: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update and EMBASE databases were searched for the 11-year period of January 1, 1998, through the last week of March 2009. A medical librarian used an extensive list of indexed subject headings and text words. Results: The search returned 640 article references, but only seven contained significant information pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates. One article described a comprehensive oncology curriculum including recommended radiation oncology teaching objectives and sample student evaluations, two described integrating radiation oncology teaching into a radiology rotation, two described multidisciplinary anatomy-based courses intended to reinforce principles of tumor biology and radiotherapy planning, one described an exercise designed to test clinical reasoning skills within radiation oncology cases, and one described a Web-based curriculum involving oncologic physics. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review of the literature pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates, and it demonstrates the paucity of published work in this area of medical education. Teaching radiation oncology should begin early in the undergraduate process, should be mandatory for all students, and should impart knowledge relevant to future general practitioners rather than detailed information relevant only to oncologists. Educators should make use of available model curricula and should integrate radiation oncology teaching into existing curricula or construct stand-alone oncology rotations where the principles of radiation oncology can be conveyed. Assessments of student knowledge and curriculum effectiveness are critical.

  7. The Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO) Project

    OpenAIRE

    Pantziarka, Pan; Bouche, Gauthier; Meheus, Lydie; Sukhatme, Vidula; Sukhatme, Vikas P.; Vikas, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO) Project seeks to repurpose well-known and well-characterised non-cancer drugs for new uses in oncology. The rationale for this project is presented, examining current issues in oncological drug development, challenges for health systems, and existing and future patient needs. In addition to discussing the advantages of repurposing, the paper also outlines some of the characteristics used in the selection of drug candidates by this project. Challenges i...

  8. Fluorine-18 radiopharmaceuticals beyond [{sup 18}F]FDG for use in oncology and neurosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, H.H. [Institut fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Elsinga, P.H. [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen (Netherlands); Iwata, R. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kilbourn, M.R. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, 2276 Medical Science I Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pillai, M.R.A., E-mail: m.r.a.pillai@iaea.or [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Rajan, M.G.R. [Radiation Medicine Centre, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, TMH Annexe, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Wagner, H.N. [School of Hygiene and Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2179 (United States); Zaknun, J.J. [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a rapidly expanding clinical modality worldwide thanks to the availability of compact medical cyclotrons and automated chemistry for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. There is an armamentarium of fluorine-18 ({sup 18}F) tracers that can be used for PET studies in the fields of oncology and neurosciences. However, most of the {sup 18}F-tracers other than 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) are in less than optimum human use and there is considerable scope to bring potentially useful {sup 18}F-tracers to clinical investigation stage. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) convened a consultants' group meeting to review the current status of {sup 18}F-based radiotracers and to suggest means for accelerating their use for diagnostic applications. The consultants reviewed the developments including the synthetic approaches for the preparation of {sup 18}F-tracers for oncology and neurosciences. A selection of three groups of {sup 18}F-tracers that are useful either in oncology or in neurosciences was done based on well-defined criteria such as application, lack of toxicity, availability of precursors and ease of synthesis. Based on the recommendations of the consultants' group meeting, IAEA started a coordinated research project on 'Development of {sup 18}F radiopharmaceuticals (beyond [{sup 18}F]FDG) for use in oncology and neurosciences' in which 14 countries are participating in a 3-year collaborative program. The outcomes of the coordinated research project are expected to catalyze the wider application of several more {sup 18}F-radiopharmaceuticals beyond FDG for diagnostic applications in oncology and neurosciences.

  9. Attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine amongst oncology professionals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela, Siegel; Alex, Broom; Vanessa, Bowden; Jon, Adams; Nelson Filice de, Barros

    2016-08-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are popular amongst cancer patients in the Brazilian context, however little is known about oncology health professionals' attitudes toward the role of CAM and their perspectives on the potential for integration into oncological care. In this study, drawing on a series of interviews with oncology professionals (i.e. doctors, nurses, nutritionists, pharmacologists and psychologists), we provide insight into their views on the rise, validity, and role of CAM in cancer care. The results reveal two key dynamics in relation to CAM in cancer care in Brazil. First, that doctors, nurses and other allied professionals hold considerably different views on the value and place of CAM, and in turn ascribe it varying levels of legitimacy potentially limiting integration. Second, that while some health professionals may articulate a degree of support for CAM, this is limited by perceptions of CAM as lacking efficacy and intruding on their respective jurisdictional claims. Further research is needed in the Brazilian context to explore patient and professional perspectives on experiences on CAM in cancer care, including how oncology professionals' varying positions on CAM may influence what patients are prepared to use, or discuss, in the context of cancer care. PMID:27515873

  10. Promoting interprofessional collaboration in oncology through a teamwork skills simulation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ted A; Page, Jenna S; Sprague, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Outcomes in clinical oncology can be improved when care is delivered by high-performance teams. The purpose of the initiative described in this article was to develop interprofessional team training opportunities using simulated cancer care scenarios to enhance collaborative practice skills within clinical oncology. Scenarios were developed based on internal needs assessment and review of patient safety data. Paired teams of haematology-oncology nurses and fellows completed the patient management scenarios, followed by debriefing and performance feedback. Research design consisted of an observational case study and questionnaire of participants in a cross-sectional analysis. Twenty-three learners participated in two separate sessions. All participants responded with scores of 4-5 on a 5-point Likert scale regarding the perceived value of the training programme and its effectiveness in developing skills in teamwork and communication. Simulation-based team training scenarios were successfully implemented into an interprofessional curriculum for haematology-oncology nurses and fellows. Participants valued the experience and indicated that they acquired new knowledge, skills, and attitudes to enhance interprofessional collaboration in cancer care. These types of training programmes have the potential to transform cancer care by creating high-performing teams resulting in improved patient outcomes, enhanced clinical effectiveness, and higher levels of satisfaction among patients, families, and healthcare providers. PMID:27269669

  11. Research Areas - Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about NCI programs and initiatives that sponsor, conduct, develop, or support clinical trials, including NCI’s Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) initiatives.

  12. Research Areas: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about NCI programs and initiatives that sponsor, conduct, develop, or support clinical trials, including NCI’s Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) initiatives.

  13. Clinical practice guidelines and consensus statements in oncology--an assessment of their methodological quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines are widely available for enhancing the care of cancer patients. Despite subtle differences in their definition and purpose, these terms are often used interchangeably. We systematically assessed the methodological quality of consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published in three commonly read, geographically diverse, cancer-specific journals. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. METHODS: Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. FINDINGS: Thirty-four consensus statements and 67 clinical practice guidelines were evaluated. The rigour of development score for consensus statements over the three journals was 32% lower than that of clinical practice guidelines. The editorial independence score was 15% lower for consensus statements than clinical practice

  14. Radiolabelled peptides for oncological diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverman, Peter; Boerman, Otto C.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sosabowski, Jane K. [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides targeting receptors (over)expressed on tumour cells are widely under investigation for tumour diagnosis and therapy. The concept of using radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides to target receptor-expressing tissues in vivo has stimulated a large body of research in nuclear medicine. The {sup 111}In-labelled somatostatin analogue octreotide (OctreoScan trademark) is the most successful radiopeptide for tumour imaging, and was the first to be approved for diagnostic use. Based on the success of these studies, other receptor-targeting peptides such as cholecystokinin/gastrin analogues, glucagon-like peptide-1, bombesin (BN), chemokine receptor CXCR4 targeting peptides, and RGD peptides are currently under development or undergoing clinical trials. In this review, we discuss some of these peptides and their analogues, with regard to their potential for radionuclide imaging of tumours. (orig.)

  15. Treatment of cachexia in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E M Tazi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with many chronic or end-stage diseases, especially cancer, and is characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. The management of cachexia is a complex challenge that should address the different causes underlying this clinical event with an integrated or multimodal treatment approach targeting the different factors involved in its pathophysiology. Aims and Objectives : The purpose of this article was to review the current medical treatment of cancer-related cachexia, in particular focusing on combination therapy and ongoing research. Results : Among the treatments proposed in the literature for cancer-related cachexia, some proved to be ineffective, namely, cyproheptadine, hydrazine, metoclopramide, and pentoxifylline. Among effective treatments, progestagens are currently considered the best available treatment option for cancer-related cachexia, and they are the only drugs approved in Europe. Drugs with a strong rationale that have failed or have not shown univocal results in clinical trials so far include eicosapentaenoic acid, cannabinoids, bortezomib, and anti-TNF-alpha MoAb. Several emerging drugs have shown promising results but are still under clinical investigation (thalidomide, selective cox-2 inhibitors, ghrelin mimetics, insulin, oxandrolone, and olanzapine. Conclusions : To date, despite several years of coordinated efforts in basic and clinical research, practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of cancer-related muscle wasting are lacking, mainly because of the multifactorial pathogenesis of the syndrome. From all the data presented, one can speculate that one single therapy may not be completely successful in the treatment of cachexia. From this point of view, treatments involving different combinations are more likely to be successful.

  16. Transforming Cancer Prevention through Precision Medicine and Immune-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensler, Thomas W; Spira, Avrum; Garber, Judy E; Szabo, Eva; Lee, J Jack; Dong, Zigang; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hait, William N; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Davidson, Nancy E; Foti, Margaret; Lippman, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    We have entered a transformative period in cancer prevention (including early detection). Remarkable progress in precision medicine and immune-oncology, driven by extraordinary recent advances in genome-wide sequencing, big-data analytics, blood-based technologies, and deep understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment (TME), has provided unprecedented possibilities to study the biology of premalignancy. The pace of research and discovery in precision medicine and immunoprevention has been astonishing and includes the following clinical firsts reported in 2015: driver mutations detected in circulating cell-free DNA in patients with premalignant lesions (lung); clonal hematopoiesis shown to be a premalignant state; molecular selection in chemoprevention randomized controlled trial (RCT; oral); striking efficacy in RCT of combination chemoprevention targeting signaling pathway alterations mechanistically linked to germline mutation (duodenum); molecular markers for early detection validated for lung cancer and showing promise for pancreatic, liver, and ovarian cancer. Identification of HPV as the essential cause of a major global cancer burden, including HPV16 as the single driver of an epidemic of oropharyngeal cancer in men, provides unique opportunities for the dissemination and implementation of public health interventions. Important to immunoprevention beyond viral vaccines, genetic drivers of premalignant progression were associated with increasing immunosuppressive TME; and Kras vaccine efficacy in pancreas genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model required an inhibitory adjuvant (Treg depletion). In addition to developing new (e.g., epigenetic) TME regulators, recent mechanistic studies of repurposed drugs (aspirin, metformin, and tamoxifen) have identified potent immune activity. Just as precision medicine and immune-oncology are revolutionizing cancer therapy, these approaches are transforming cancer prevention. Here, we set out a brief agenda for the

  17. Cancer patient-centered home care: a new model for health care in oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Tralongo P; Ferraù F; Borsellino N; Verderame F; Caruso M.; Giuffrida D; Butera A; Gebbia V

    2011-01-01

    Paolo Tralongo1, Francesco Ferraù2, Nicolò Borsellino3, Francesco Verderame4, Michele Caruso5, Dario Giuffrida6, Alfredo Butera7, Vittorio Gebbia81Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale, Siracusa; 2Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale San Vincenzo, Taormina; 3Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale Buccheri La Ferla, Palermo; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale Giovanni Paolo II, Sciacca; 5Medical Oncology Unit, Istituto Humanitas, Catania; 6Medical Oncology Unit, Istituto...

  18. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici). PMID:25282347

  19. The Radiation oncology practice standards trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 2008 the Commonwealth Government approved funding of up to $1.4 million for radiation oncology practice standards (the standards) to be drafted, trialled, finalised and published. A Tripartite Standards Committee comprising representatives from the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR), Australian Insti tute of Radiography (AIR) and Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) coordinated and managed the drafting of the standards. Following public consultation in September 2008, the draft standards were endorsed for trjalling by the Radiation Oncology Reform Implementation Committee (RORIC) of the Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council (AHMAC). In June 2009 the National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia (NATA) was engaged by the Department of Health and Ageing to conduct a trial of the draft standards by collecting feedback on their implementability with a representative sample of radiation oncology facilities. The trial formally commenced in January 20 I 0 and data is being collected via an on-line questionnaire, follow up site visits and a focus group meeting. The results will be used to establish baseline data on compliance and to assess the costs of compliance. A steering committee comprising representatives from the Tripartite Standards Committee is assisting the Commonwealth to oversight the project. The standards trial is due for completion by the end of 20 I 0, subject to facilities completing all components of the trial in the required time. The outcomes of the trial will inform a revision of the standards by the Tripartite Standards Committee for finalisation and publication. At this time consideration will be given to the tools required by facilities to assist their longer term use within the sector. This may include how compliance with the standards might be assessed. This presentation will describe the process and findings to date and describe the next steps

  20. The Brno Quality of Life Longitudinal Study of Pediatric Oncology Patients ( QOLOP): Results from the second year of the study : "Cure is not enough"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kepák, T.; Blatný, Marek; Slezáčková, Alena; Vlčková, I.; Jelínek, Martin; Pilát, M.; Kárová, Š.; Štěrba, J.

    Berlín : International Society of Paediatric Oncology, 2008. [Konference SIOP Berlin, 40th Congres of International Society of Paediatric Oncology. 02.10.2008-06.10.2008, Berlín] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : tumor diseases * late effects of therapy * quality of life Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  1. Patient satisfaction with inpatient care provided by the Sydney Gynecological Oncology Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Arora

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vivek Arora, Shannon Philp, Kathryn Nattress, Selvan Pather, Christopher Dalrymple, Kenneth Atkinson, Sofia Smirnova, Stephen Cotterell, Jonathan CarterSydney Gynecological Oncology Group, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, University of Sydney, Sydney, AustraliaPurpose: Patient satisfaction with the provision of hospital oncology services can have a significant impact on their overall treatment experience.Aims: To assess patient satisfaction with the inpatient hospital services in the gynecological oncology setting using the IN-PATSAT32 questionnaire developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC.Methods: A modified version of the IN-PATSAT32 questionnaire with additional 16 items was administered to 52 adult surgical inpatients admitted with the Sydney Gynecological Oncology Group. All participants were provided with an information leaflet regarding the survey and written consent obtained.Results: A high response rate (100% from patients with varied social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds confirmed the acceptability of the survey. Standard of medical care provided, frequency of doctors’ visits, exchange of information with doctors, friendliness of the staff, and state of the room ranked highly (>95% on the patient satisfaction scales. Problems were identified with ease of access to and within the hospital, quality of food, and exchange of information with other hospital staff.Conclusions: Overall the satisfaction with inpatient care was rated very highly in most areas. Deficiencies in certain elements of provision of medical care to the patients were identified and steps have been taken to improve upon these shortcomings.Keywords: patient satisfaction, EORTC, IN-PATSAT32, gynecological oncology, survey

  2. QUATRO: Comprehensive audit in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation treatment outcome is the result of a multifaceted process that involves complex infrastructure, technology and a multi-disciplinary team of professionals trained in radiation oncology, medical physics, radiotherapy technology, radiobiology, and medical case planning and management. They work together to plan and deliver radiotherapy to cancer patients, integrating the radiation treatment with surgery and chemotherapy as needed. IAEA comprehensive audits assemble teams of professionals (radiation oncologist, medical physicist, radiation therapist) to critically assess radiotherapy practices and management at radiation oncology centres with the aim to improve quality. Called the Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology, or QUATRO, the audits draw on high level experts from IAEA Member States who comprise the auditing team for QUATRO missions. They are supported by a local radiation safety expert. QUATRO audits aim to help radiotherapy centres attain the best level of practice possible for their country. Audits assess the radiotherapy infrastructure; patient and equipment related procedures; radiation protection; staffing levels and professional training programmes for the local radiotherapy staff. A comprehensive audit methodology is available at the IAEA. By 2010, QUATRO has conducted approximately 50 audits on request, in radiotherapy centres from Central and Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Auditors identify gaps in technology, human resources and procedures, allowing the audited centres to document areas for improvement. Some centres have been acknowledged for operating at a high level of competence, while others have received a comprehensive set of recommendations. Overall, the audits have contributed to significant improvements at centres, and to identifying common issues of concern to address internationally. An example of this is the training of radiation therapists in Central and Eastern Europe, now being implemented

  3. [Genetic therapy in oncology: ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, L M; Fazio, V M

    2001-01-01

    The more advanced oncologic therapies are directing toward new frontiers, on account of the remarkable undesirable effects of chemio- and radio-therapies. This new therapeutic experiences are of type biological (vaccines), or genic (substitution again genes with shutters meaning-tumoral). This therapies involve, to be effected, some ethical shrewdnesses: choice of the patient, the engineering modality of the genes, the transfer of the genes in cells of the exclusively somatic line, the elimination of the pathogenic risk of the vector virus, the obligatory use of sterile rooms, the attention to the administration of the drug, a legal issue of the judgment of notoriety. PMID:11725612

  4. Internet utilization by radiation oncology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Studies describing the use of the Internet by radiation oncology patients are lacking. This multi-institutional study of cancer patients presenting to academic (AC), community (CO) and veterans (VA) radiation oncology centers was designed to analyze the use of the Internet, predictive factors for utilization, and barriers to access to the Internet. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire evaluating the use of the Internet was administered to 921 consecutive patients presenting to radiation oncology departments at AC, CO and VA Medical Centers. The study included 436 AC patients (47%), 284 CO patients (31%), and 201 VA patients (22%). A computer was available at home to 427 patients (46%) and 337 patients (37%) had Email access. The mean age of the patient population was 64 years (range=14-93). Males represented 70% of the patient population. The most common diagnoses included prostate cancer (33%), breast cancer (13%), and lung cancer (11%). Results: Overall, 265/921 patients (29%) were using the Internet to find cancer related information. The Internet was used by 42% of AC patients, 25% of CO patients and only 5% of VA patients (p<.0001). A computer was available at home in 62% AC vs. 45% CO vs. 12% VA patients (p<.0001). Patients < 60 years were much more likely to use the Internet than older patients (p<.0001). Most of the Internet users considered the information either very reliable (22%) or somewhat reliable (70%). Most patients were looking for information regarding treatment of their cancer (90%), management of side effects of treatment (74%), alternative/complementary treatments (65%) and clinical trials (51%). Unconventional medical therapies were purchased over the Internet by 12% of computer users. Products or services for the treatment or management of cancer were purchased online by 12% of Internet users. Conclusion: A significant number of cancer patients seen in radiation oncology departments at academic and community medical centers

  5. The Future of Precision Medicine in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Lori M; Strotman, Lindsay N

    2016-09-01

    Precision medicine in oncology focuses on identifying which therapies are most effective for each patient based on genetic characterization of the cancer. Traditional chemotherapy is cytotoxic and destroys all cells that are rapidly dividing. The foundation of precision medicine is targeted therapies and selecting patients who will benefit most from these therapies. One of the newest aspects of precision medicine is liquid biopsy. A liquid biopsy includes analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acid, or exosomes obtained from a peripheral blood draw. These can be studied individually or in combination and collected serially, providing real-time information as a patient's cancer changes. PMID:27514468

  6. Importance of nutrition in pediatric oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P C Rogers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A nutritional perspective within pediatric oncology is usually just related to the supportive care aspect during the management of the underlying malignancy. However, nutrition has a far more fundamental importance with respect to a growing, developing child who has cancer as well as viewing cancer from a nutritional cancer control perspective. Nutrition is relevant to all components of cancer control including prevention, epidemiology, biology, treatment, supportive care, rehabilitation, and survivorship. This article briefly describes this perspective of nutrition within a cancer control context and is a summary of the presentation at the “1st International SIOP-PODC Workshop on Nutrition in Children with Cancer” held in Mumbai.

  7. Oncology of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferret oncology is in full evolution. Many types of tumors are mentioned. They affect all the systems of the organism: the endocrine, hemo-lymphatic, integument, digestive, reproductive, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous, urinary or respiratory systems. Insulinoma, adrenocortical tumors and lymphoma are the three mostly seen tumors. Complementary examination have been developed too. CBC, biochemistry, radiography and ultrasonography can now be completed by cytology, immunohistochemistry, endoscopies, scan, I.R.M. or scintigraphy. Treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy can be associated. They allow recovery or, if not a palliative solution. (author)

  8. Impact of Music on Pediatric Oncology Outpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Kemper, Kathi J; Hamilton, Craig A; McLean, Thomas W.; LOVATO, JAMES

    2008-01-01

    Music is widely used to enhance well-being. We wished to assess music’s effect on pediatric oncology outpatients. Patients who had leukemia and were in maintenance or consolidation outpatient treatment served as their own control at two visits. At visit 1, children rested for 20 min; at visit 2, for 20 min they listened to music designed to increase vitality and improve heart rate variability (HRV). At both visits, parents completed before and after treatment visual analog scales (VAS) of the...

  9. Review of 40-year MD theses in Medical Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and objective: It is almost 40 years since the foundation of the Medical Oncology (MO) Department. We aimed to appraise the clinical research to fulfill the Medical Doctorate (MD) degree in MO at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University (NCI, CU). Methods: This review included 62 MD theses containing 66 studies. They were reviewed regarding aims, type of study, clinical trial phase, design and methodology, statistical tests, results, limitations, consent and IRB approval. Theses were grouped into 3 periods: 1970-1989, 1990-1999 and 2000- 2008. Results: Almost 76% of the studies were interventional and 24% were observational. Informed consent and Institutional Review Board approval were mentioned in 18 and 2 studies, respectively. While all studies mentioned the aims, none, clearly mentioned the research question. Outcomes were mainly efficacy followed by safety. Study design was inadequately considered, especially in 70’s–80’s period (p = 0.038). Median sample size and study duration were almost stable through the three periods (p = 0.441, 0.354, respectively). Most of the studies used both descriptive and analytical statistical methods. In a descending order, researched cancers were lymphoma, breast, leukemia, liver, urinary bladder, lung and colorectal. The commonest stages researched were IV and III. The number of studies focused on assessing biomarkers, biomarkers plus drugs/procedures, drugs and procedures are 20, 20, 16 and 6, respectively. Conclusion: With time, research within MD theses in MO increased quantitatively and qualitatively. Improvements were noticeable in documentation of study design.

  10. Next-Generation Sequencing in Clinical Oncology: Next Steps Towards Clinical Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel C. Bennett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Compelling evidence supports the transition of next generation sequencing (NGS technology from a research environment into clinical practice. Before NGS technologies are fully adopted in the clinic, they should be thoroughly scrutinised for their potential as powerful diagnostic and prognostic tools. The importance placed on generating accurate NGS data, and consequently appropriate clinical interpretation, has stimulated much international discussion regarding the creation and implementation of strict guidelines and regulations for NGS clinical use. In the context of clinical oncology, NGS technologies are currently transitioning from a clinical research background into a setting where they will contribute significantly to individual patient cancer management. This paper explores the steps that have been taken, and those still required, for the transition of NGS into the clinical area, with particular emphasis placed on validation in the setting of clinical oncology.

  11. An overview of viral oncology in Italy - report from the Pavia meeting on solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfetti Vittorio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on some of the research activities currently ongoing in Italy as outlined at the “Viruses and solid tumors” meeting jointly organized by the Oncology Sections of IRCCS Policlinico “San Matteo” (Pavia and IRCCS National Cancer Institute (Aviano, held in Pavia, Italy, on October 2011. Experts from the various disciplines involved in the study of the complex relationships between solid tumors and viruses met to discuss recent developments in the field and to report their personal contributions to the specified topics. Secondary end point was to establish a multidisciplinary work group specifically devoted to solid tumors and infectious agents, aimed to identify areas of common interest, promoting and establishing collaborative projects and programs, and to coordinate clinical and research activities. The group, which will be named IVOG (Italian Viral Oncology Group, will operate under the patronage of the various scientific societies of interest.

  12. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Lundh; S.L. Knijnenburg; A.W. Jørgensen; E.C. van Dalen; L.C.M. Kremer

    2009-01-01

    Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews th

  13. Approaching airways in oncology surgery of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive prospective study was conducted in 'Maria Curie' Oncology Teaching Provincial Hospital during the period from January 2010 to December 2010. The sample included 210 patients studied with the purpose of identifying morbimortality of the difficult airway in Oncology Surgery of the head and neck in our institution

  14. POSSIBILITY OF PLANTS ACTIVE PARTS USAGE FOR ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Goncharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an implementation of plant drugs for oncological diseases treatment. It focuses on multicomponent combination herbal medicinal preparation, its therapeutic action, and supposed efficiency during its implementation with basic therapy for oncological disease.

  15. How radiation oncology emerged as a discipline in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The news about the discovery of Roentgen's new rays spread over Finland quite early, and the first Finnish writing about the rays appeared in February 1896. The first x-ray machine was installed in 1897. Proper training of radiologists began, however, at a comparatively late date. For a long time the position of radiologists remained a subordinate one. Radiology had the nature of a spare time hobby, because in most hospitals surgeons treated x-ray machines as a sideline. Because of this, scientific research work was delayed. The specialty of x-ray diagnosis and therapy was, however, established in 1921, and the Finnish Society of Radiology was founded in 1924. The first radiotherapy department with its own beds was opened in 1936 in Helsinki. In 1950, the first professor of medical radiology was appointed at the University of Helsinki. The Finnish Cancer Society played an important role in developing the radiotherapy net in the country by supplying cobalt devises and auxiliary hospital activities in the 1960s. In the early 1960s roentgen diagnosis and radiotherapy were separated into two distinct disciplines. There are now five medical faculties with chairs in radiation oncology. The country is divided into five regions for cancer care. The managing groups in each region are headed by the professor of radiotherapy and oncology. The radiation oncologists in Finland are involved in diagnosis and staging of cancer and are responsible for radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormones. They are responsible for follow-up of treated patients, their own wards, and the general care of their patients

  16. The differences in aspects of parent-child interactions in healthy and oncologically ill children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slezáčková, Alena; Jamrichová, J.; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Kepák, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2011), s. 59-60. ISSN 0887-0446. [European Health Psychology Conference: Engaging with Other Health Professions: Challenges and Perspectives /25./. 20.09.2011-24.09.2011, Hersonissos, Kréta] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : oncologically ill children * parent-child interactions * family functioning Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  17. Nursing Fatigue: An Evidence-Based Practice Review for Oncology Nurses
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Jordan

    2015-12-01

    Nursing fatigue is a current and well-researched topic. Many negative outcomes and consequences exist for patients and nurses that have been linked to nursing fatigue. Medical errors are one such consequence, and these errors have become one of the top three preventable deaths in the United States. Oncology nurses are not immune to fatigue, and the consequences of their fatigue can be much more harmful to patients. PMID:26583629

  18. The nursing profession facing announcement in oncology: place and stakes for the psychological dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Dany L; Pelletti C; Jeannin N

    2012-01-01

    SummaryAim: This qualitative research which was conducted among nurses (2010), aimed at analyzing the role of the lived experience of the Healthcare Professional’s Caring Time (HPCT) when announcing a cancer in an oncology service; this was in order to understand the importance of the psychological dimension in this process. It was also to examine how nurses’ representations of psychological support can influence the way they consider the appropriate practices (information/orientation) in thi...

  19. Cancer stem cells in basic science and in translational oncology: can we translate into clinical application?

    OpenAIRE

    Schulenburg, Axel; Blatt, Katharina; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Sadovnik, Irina; Herrmann, Harald; Marian, Brigitte; Grunt, Thomas W.; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Valent, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Since their description and identification in leukemias and solid tumors, cancer stem cells (CSC) have been the subject of intensive research in translational oncology. Indeed, recent advances have led to the identification of CSC markers, CSC targets, and the preclinical and clinical evaluation of the CSC-eradicating (curative) potential of various drugs. However, although diverse CSC markers and targets have been identified, several questions remain, such as the origin and evolution of CSC,...

  20. Postmarket policy considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Matthew J; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J; Weymann, Deirdre; Morgan, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Oncology biological products are some of the most expensive drugs on the market and are a growing financial burden on patients and health-care systems. By 2020, numerous major biological cancer drugs will lose their patent protection allowing follow-on competitors, known as biosimilars, to enter the market. Clinical and regulatory considerations for biosimilars have begun to harmonise in Europe and the USA to help to define and streamline the pathway for biosimilar market authorisation. Yet, substantial international variation still exists in the pricing and market uptake of approved biosimilar oncology drugs. Differences in national postmarket policies for biosimilars might explain these disparities in pricing and uptake. In this Policy Review, policy approaches to competition between biosimilars and originators used by seven European countries--Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and the UK--and the USA are discussed, chosen because these countries represent a variety of postmarket policies and build on conclusions from previous work. We discuss these policies within the context of interchangeability, physician prescribing, substitutability, pharmacist dispensing, hospital financing and tendering, and pricing. PMID:26758759

  1. A Study of Layered Learning in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jill S; Buie, Larry W; Lyons, Kayley; Rao, Kamakshi; Pinelli, Nicole R; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Roth, Mary T

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To explore use of pharmacy learners as a means to expand pharmacy services in a layered learning practice model (LLPM), to examine whether an LLPM environment precludes achievement of knowledge-based learning objectives, and to explore learner perception of the experience. Design. An acute care oncology pharmacy practice experience was redesigned to support the LLPM. Specifically, the redesign focused on micro discussion, standardized feedback (eg, rubrics), and cooperative learning to enhance educational gain through performing clinical activities. Assessment. Posttest scores evaluating knowledge-based learning objectives increased in mean percentage compared to pretest values. Learners viewed the newly designed practice experience positively with respect to perceived knowledge attainment, improved clinical time management skills, contributions to patient care, and development of clinical and self-management skills. A fifth theme among students, comfort with learning, was also noted. Conclusion. Layered learning in an oncology practice experience was well-received by pharmacy learners. Data suggest a practice experience in the LLPM environment does not preclude achieving knowledge-based learning objectives and supports further studies of the LLPM. PMID:27293235

  2. Maintenance of Certification for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance of Certification (MOC) recognizes that in addition to medical knowledge, several essential elements involved in delivering quality care must be developed and maintained throughout one's career. The MOC process is designed to facilitate and document professional development of American Board of Radiology (ABR) diplomates in the essential elements of quality care in Radiation Oncology and Radiologic Physics. ABR MOC has been developed in accord with guidelines of the American Board of Medical Specialties. All Radiation Oncology certificates issued since 1995 are 10-year, time-limited certificates; diplomates with time-limited certificates who wish to maintain specialty certification must complete specific requirements of the American Board of Radiology MOC program. Diplomates with lifelong certificates are not required to participate but are strongly encouraged to do so. Maintenance of Certification is based on documentation of participation in the four components of MOC: (1) professional standing, (2) lifelong learning and self-assessment, (3) cognitive expertise, and (4) performance in practice. Through these components, MOC addresses six competencies-medical knowledge, patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Details of requirements for components 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are outlined along with aspects of the fourth component currently under development

  3. Clinical applications of PET in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohren, Eric M; Turkington, Timothy G; Coleman, R Edward

    2004-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides metabolic information that has been documented to be useful in patient care. The properties of positron decay permit accurate imaging of the distribution of positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The wide array of positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals has been used to characterize multiple physiologic and pathologic states. PET is used for characterizing brain disorders such as Alzheimer disease and epilepsy and cardiac disorders such as coronary artery disease and myocardial viability. The neurologic and cardiac applications of PET are not covered in this review. The major utilization of PET clinically is in oncology and consists of imaging the distribution of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). FDG, an analogue of glucose, accumulates in most tumors in a greater amount than it does in normal tissue. FDG PET is being used in diagnosis and follow-up of several malignancies, and the list of articles supporting its use continues to grow. In this review, the physics and instrumentation aspects of PET are described. Many of the clinical applications in oncology are mature and readily covered by third-party payers. Other applications are being used clinically but have not been as carefully evaluated in the literature, and these applications may not be covered by third-party payers. The developing applications of PET are included in this review. PMID:15044750

  4. Radiation oncology. An evidence-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Oncology: An Evidence-Based Approach (ROEBA) is a reference book designed to enable radiation oncologists, including those in training, to make diagnostic and treatment decisions on the basis of the best available scientific evidence. Ease of use is ensured by a structured, reader-friendly format that offers rapid access to evidence-based recommendations. ROEBA's orientation is entirely practical, in that the focus is solely on diagnostic/staging and treatment issues. Detailed diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines are provided for multidisciplinary cancer management as well as radiation therapy techniques. The evidence underlying each recommendation is clearly and concisely explained, and the strength of the recommendations and evidence is systemically graded. Furthermore, diagnostic and treatment algorithms are provided for commonly diagnosed cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer, small-cell lung cancer, most gastrointestinal and genitourinary tumors, and certain head and neck cancers. This ground-breaking text on radiation oncology is an essential tool for physicians in their daily clinical practice. (orig.)

  5. Tumor relapse present in oncologic nasal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Tumor relapse is one of the more fearsome complications of the oncologic course and also to obscure the life prognosis, causing the loss of many reconstructions and of exhausting the repairing surgical possibilities. The aim of this study was to determine the relapse frequency, the repercussion on the repair and the subsequent medical course of patients operated on malign nasal tumors. Methods: We made a retrospective and descriptive study in 20 patients operated on malign nasal tumors with immediate repair using frontal flap. Patients came from National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology (NIOR), where they were seen from 2002 and 2007. Results: There were two relapses in 5 patients (25% of total), and the 80% of these were an epidermoid carcinoma. All patients with relapse lost the repaired tissues and received radiotherapy. Only it was possible to repair the defect in one of the patients; two of remained deceased, and were alive, without tumor relapse but without possibilities of repair. Conclusions: Considering the relapse frequency of nasal epidermoid carcinomas and of its repercussions when the Mhos histography technique is not available, it is advisable to delay the nasal repair until will be possible to confirm completely the histology of tumor exeresis. (author)

  6. [Introduction of emotional labour into oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazányi, Kornélia; Molnár, Péter; Szluha, Kornélia

    2007-06-01

    Health care professionals do not have emotional labour obligations in their employment contract. However, in everyday work it is often inevitable for them to change their true feelings. This is critically true for professionals treating chronic or cancer patients. The suitable emotional state of the treatment staff does not only influence the practitioner-patient relationship but the process of recovery as well. Depending on the way one might get into the appropriate emotional state, the literature distinguishes between surface, deep and genuine acting. While surface and deep emotional labour has numerous negative psychological consequences genuine acting is usually accompanied by positive side effects. For those working in the field of oncology, emotional labour is a part of the role expectations of the professionals. This is how the appropriate attitude is a fundamental part of the professionals' essence. For the in depth analysis of subjects related to emotional labour, the authors adopted ideas from L. Festinger 's cognitive dissonance theory. The best way to alleviate cognitive dissonance and the negative side effects of emotional labour is to prevent the emergence of them. Oncology professionals should fit their role expectations genuinely, without particular efforts. If this was impossible, or the particular life situations did not allow genuine acting, it is the employer's and the workmates' common duty to help professionals, to ease the load of emotional labour, to diminish the occurring cognitive dissonance with the help of appropriate recompense. PMID:17526445

  7. Psycho-oncology in India: Emerging trends from Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswaran Chitra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that around 2.5 million people suffer from cancer at any given time in India. Almost 80% of patients reach hospitals in advanced stages of the disease. The majority needs palliative care, whereas only a minority of the needy receives this input. The challenge in the developing world is to evolve a culturally and socio-economically appropriate and acceptable system of care, while addressing psychosocial issues along with long-term care needs, that is accessible to the majority of those who need it. The evolution of a specific service for psychosocial care for persons and families started in the 1970s, initial work focusing mainly on research. Contributions from persons in varied topics have been outlined. Only a few organized clinical services function as part of large tertiary hospitals, oncology centers or palliative care units. The emerging trend in Northern Kerala is based on an integrated service linking training, clinical services and research activities which are linked at several levels, involving volunteers in the community. Future hopes lie in developing core groups; establishing specific clinical services liaising with cancer care teams, large scale research projects and discussion with policy makers to develop guidelines at national level.

  8. Student Performance in a Pharmacotherapy Oncology Module Before and After Flipping the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaer, John B; Panus, Peter; Stewart, David W; Hagemeier, Nick E; George, Joshua

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To determine if a flipped classroom improved student examination performance in a pharmacotherapy oncology module. Design. Third-year pharmacy students in 2012 experienced the oncology module as interactive lectures with optional case studies as supplemental homework. In 2013, students experienced the same content in a primarily flipped classroom. Students were instructed to watch vodcasts (video podcasts) before in-class case studies but were not held accountable (ie, quizzed) for preclass preparation. Examination questions were identical in both cohorts. Performance on examination questions was compared between the two cohorts using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with prior academic performance variables (grade point average [GPA]) as covariates. Assessment. The students who experienced the flipped classroom approach performed poorer on examination questions than the cohort who experienced interactive lecture, with previous GPA used as a covariate. Conclusion. A flipped classroom does not necessarily improve student performance. Further research is needed to determine optimal classroom flipping techniques. PMID:27073284

  9. A critical appraisal of the clinical utility of proton therapy in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang D

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dongxu WangDepartment of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USAAbstract: Proton therapy is an emerging technology for providing radiation therapy to cancer patients. The depth dose distribution of a proton beam makes it a preferable radiation modality as it reduces radiation to the healthy tissue outside the tumor, compared with conventional photon therapy. While theoretically beneficial, its clinical values are still being demonstrated from the increasing number of patients treated with proton therapy, from several dozen proton therapy centers around the world. High equipment and facility costs are often the major obstacle for its wider adoption. Because of the high cost and lack of definite clinical evidence of its superiority, proton therapy treatment faces criticism on its cost-effectiveness. Technological development is causing a gradual lowering of costs, and research and clinical studies are providing further evidence on its clinical utility.Keywords: proton therapy, radiation, cancer, oncology

  10. Physical sciences and engineering advances in life sciences and oncology a WTEC global assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Daniel; Gerecht, Sharon; Levine, Ross; Mallick, Parag; McCarty, Owen; Munn, Lance; Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) by a panel of experts. It covers the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe and Asia. The book elaborates on the six topics identified by the panel that have the greatest potential to advance understanding and treatment of cancer, each covered by a chapter in the book. The study was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the NIH in the US under a cooperative agreement with the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC).

  11. Molecular Profiling to Optimize Treatment in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Review of Potential Molecular Targets for Radiation Therapy by the Translational Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therapeutic decisions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been mainly based on disease stage, performance status, and co-morbidities, and rarely on histological or molecular classification. Rather than applying broad treatments to unselected patients that may result in survival increase of only weeks to months, research efforts should be, and are being, focused on identifying predictive markers for molecularly targeted therapy and determining genomic signatures that predict survival and response to specific therapies. The availability of such targeted biologics requires their use to be matched to tumors of corresponding molecular vulnerability for maximum efficacy. Molecular markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), K-ras, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) represent potential parameters guide treatment decisions. Ultimately, identifying patients who will respond to specific therapies will allow optimal efficacy with minimal toxicity, which will result in more judicious and effective application of expensive targeted therapy as the new paradigm of personalized medicine develops.

  12. Molecular Profiling to Optimize Treatment in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Review of Potential Molecular Targets for Radiation Therapy by the Translational Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausborn, Natalie L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Le, Quynh Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Saha, Debabrata [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Simko, Jeff [Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Story, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Torossian, Artour [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Lu, Bo, E-mail: bo.lu@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Therapeutic decisions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been mainly based on disease stage, performance status, and co-morbidities, and rarely on histological or molecular classification. Rather than applying broad treatments to unselected patients that may result in survival increase of only weeks to months, research efforts should be, and are being, focused on identifying predictive markers for molecularly targeted therapy and determining genomic signatures that predict survival and response to specific therapies. The availability of such targeted biologics requires their use to be matched to tumors of corresponding molecular vulnerability for maximum efficacy. Molecular markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), K-ras, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) represent potential parameters guide treatment decisions. Ultimately, identifying patients who will respond to specific therapies will allow optimal efficacy with minimal toxicity, which will result in more judicious and effective application of expensive targeted therapy as the new paradigm of personalized medicine develops.

  13. Comparative oncology: what dogs and other species can teach us about humans with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Joshua D; Breen, Matthew

    2015-07-19

    Over 1.66 million humans (approx. 500/100,000 population rate) and over 4.2 million dogs (approx. 5300/100,000 population rate) are diagnosed with cancer annually in the USA. The interdisciplinary field of comparative oncology offers a unique and strong opportunity to learn more about universal cancer risk and development through epidemiology, genetic and genomic investigations. Working across species, researchers from human and veterinary medicine can combine scientific findings to understand more quickly the origins of cancer and translate these findings to novel therapies to benefit both human and animals. This review begins with the genetic origins of canines and their advantage in cancer research. We next focus on recent findings in comparative oncology related to inherited, or genetic, risk for tumour development. We then detail the somatic, or genomic, changes within tumours and the similarities between species. The shared cancers between humans and dogs that we discuss include sarcoma (osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma, hemangiosarcoma), haematological malignancies (lymphoma, leukaemia), bladder cancer, intracranial neoplasms (meningioma, glioma) and melanoma. Tumour risk in other animal species is also briefly discussed. As the field of genomics advances, we predict that comparative oncology will continue to benefit both humans and the animals that live among us. PMID:26056372

  14. Clinical oncology - comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional acquisition in oncological patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 3D acquisition mode presents the possibility of shorter scan times with decreased injection dose. In the present study, the clinical results in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) acquisition mode were compared. We report our data of 3D PET imaging for clinical oncological patients using a Siemens ECAT Exact 47. 50 oncological patients were observed with F-18-FDG in a 2D whole body (WB) routine scan (5 or 6 bed positions). The 2D-FDG-PET studies are performed in 2D emission for 8 min and in 2D transmission for 2 min followed by one bedposition scan in 3D technique (5 min 3D emission scan and a 2 min transmission scan ) in a region with detected lesion. Both 2D and 3D data were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction (2 iterations with 8 subsets). A visual interpretation of contrast, identifiability, geometrical form and a quantitative evaluation (SUV and metabolic extension) was performed. No clinically relevant differences in detection of lesions between 2D and 3D mode were found by the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The contrast, geometrical form and the SUV compared side by side showed small differences. Based on this preliminary results, it seems that 3D technique is equal with 2D in clinical oncological PET with reduction in WB scan time. (author)

  15. Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise in Radiation Oncology Plug and Play-The Future of Radiation Oncology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the processes and benefits of the integrating healthcare enterprises in radiation oncology (IHE-RO). Methods: The IHE-RO process includes five basic steps. The first step is to identify common interoperability issues encountered in radiation treatment planning and the delivery process. IHE-RO committees partner with vendors to develop solutions (integration profiles) to interoperability problems. The broad application of these integration profiles across a variety of vender platforms is tested annually at the Connectathon event. Demonstration of the seamless integration and transfer of patient data to the potential users are then presented by vendors at the public demonstration event. Users can then integrate these profiles into requests for proposals and vendor contracts by institutions. Results: Incorporation of completed integration profiles into requests for proposals can be done when purchasing new equipment. Vendors can publish IHE integration statements to document the integration profiles supported by their products. As a result, users can reference integration profiles in requests for proposals, simplifying the systems acquisition process. These IHE-RO solutions are now available in many of the commercial radiation oncology-related treatment planning, delivery, and information systems. They are also implemented at cancer care sites around the world. Conclusions: IHE-RO serves an important purpose for the radiation oncology community at large.

  16. Not only PET for oncological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Our data with oncological patients evaluated through planar and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) gamma cameras over a period of more than 20 years, confirms the value of this technique, although PET is superior in sensitivity. The greater availability of radiotracers labeled with In-111 and Tc-99m has helped in identifying malignant tissue more accurately. In Latin America availability of PET is restricted to one or two Nuclear Medicine Departments in few countries of the Region. Our aim was to reaffirm the value of planar and SPECT imaging in early diagnosis, in the oncological follow-up and determining response to treatment. Bone scan, a well established imaging modality for search of metastatic pathologies (breast, prostate, lung and kidney) forms more than 56% of the studies requested monthly in our Nuclear Medicine Departments. When solitary peripheral lesions are detected in ribs and long bones the orthopedic surgeon sometimes requires external skin marking for biopsy procedure (1-2%). Twenty-six percent of consultations are thyroid cancer, where different therapeutic doses of I-131 are administered. Gallium-67 scanning constitutes 8-10% of our workload. About 10 mCi (370 MBq) of radioactivity is administered, mainly for stratification and monitoring response of Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Sentinel node detection (5-6% of patients) with different colloid preparations and hand-held probes is used in breast, melanoma, neck and head cancers. In our center we have achieved an accuracy rate of 92-94% in detecting Sentinel Lymph Nodes after three years of practice. The demand for scintimammography (in dense breasts and breast implants) for palpable masses, through planar scans is increasing. In-111 labeled somatostatin an analogue imaging for detection of neuro-endocrine tumors was seldom requested in our country because of their high cost, until the labeling methods were developed locally and transferred to private commercial

  17. Oncological hadrontherapy and the TERA project

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    1996-01-01

    The first hour is devoted to a review of the techniques of conventional radiotherapy and of the European statistics on cancer treated and cured with the various techniques. In the second lesson the most recent applications of hadron accelerators to t Italian "Hadrontherapy Project" is introduced. This project (described in detail in the last lesson) foresees three independent but coherent activities :i) the construction of a large National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherary; (ii) the design and development of relatively small and "cheap" proton accelerators ("compact accelerators"), with which various centres could be equipped within reasonable cost boundaries; (iii) a multimedia information network (RITA) connecting a large number of Associated Centres with the Centres having hadron beams, so to select before any travelling the patients to be irradiated.

  18. The oncologic and the geriatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oncologic and the geriatric patient have special needs in the nuclear medicine department. The nuclear medicine technologists must be knowledgeable and compassionate when dealing with these patients. The diagnosis of cancer will have a sociological and psychological impact on the patient, to which the technologist must relate in an empathetic way. Furthermore, the technologist should take cognisance of the patient's physical condition and be able to modify the examination accordingly. Dealing with the geriatric patient should be correctly placed on the continuum between a gerontological and geriatric approach taking into consideration normal changes due to aging. The patient experience when undergoing the high technology nuclear medicine diagnostic procedure is unique and all effort must be made to ensure the success of the examination and the satisfaction of the patient (Au)

  19. Complications of radiotherapy in oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasons, mechanisms of development and features of clinical course of radiation response (injuries) in different organs and systems in patients with lung, uterus neck, mammary and thyroid gland cancer are described. Their clinical classification is presented. Dependences of frequency, severity and time of occurrence of radiation reactions (injuries) on the absorbed radiation dose value, time-dose-fractioning factor, localization and size of the neoplasm and on other parameters are demonstrated. Results of complex examination of oncologic patients with radiation reactions and injuries are presented. Principles of prophylactic medical examination of patients subjected to radiotherapy are described. Recommendation on the optimization of radiotherapy methods and prophylaxis of its complications are given. 56 refs.; 22 figs.; 4 tabs

  20. It takes chutzpah: oncology nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, E

    1999-01-01

    Chutzpah, according to the Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1996) is a slang term from the Yiddish language which means shameless audacity. Chutzpah has been used to identify people with courage who take on situations that others avoid and somehow achieve the impossible. Tim Porter-O'Grady (1997) recently wrote that management is dead, and has been replaced by process leadership. Health care organizations have made shifts from hierarchical structures to process or program models where people have dual/multiple reporting/communication relationship. In this new orientation, management functions of controlling, directing, organizing and disciplining are replaced by process leadership functions of coordinating, facilitating, linking and sustaining (Porter O'Grady, 1997). Herein lies the challenge for oncology nurse leaders: "what lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us" (Ralph Waldo Emerson). Leadership is not a function of job title. The evidence for this is clear in current practice.... There are no/few positions of nurse leaders. Titles have changed to eliminate the professional discipline, and reflect a non-descript orientation. The new titles are process leaders, program leaders, professional practice leaders. Nurse leaders need new points of reference to take in the challenges of influencing, facilitating and linking. Those points of reference are: principle-centered leadership, integrity and chutzpah. This presentation will focus on examining current thinking, defining key characteristics and attributes, and using scenarios to illustrate the impact of leadership. We, as leaders in oncology nursing, must use chutzpah to make positive change and long-term gains for patient care and the profession of nursing. PMID:10232143

  1. Identification of the factors that result in obviousness rulings for biotech patents: an updated analysis of the US Federal Circuit decisions after KSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fangyu; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2013-11-01

    To demonstrate the influence of the US Supreme Court's KSR case, our analysis has shown that the ratio of obvious ruling increased from 0.42 to 0.62 after this case, whereas the ratio of non-obvious ruling decreased from 0.47 to 0.28. Therefore, without the rigid application of a "teaching, suggestion or motivation" test, the trends of obvious and non-obvious CAFC rulings significantly increased and decreased, respectively.   Based on this analysis, biotech inventors should contemplate the factors that have resulted in ruling of obviousness, which include claims that are too broad, the lack of secondary considerations, the reasonable expectation of success, and the reason or motivation to create a structure based on structural similarity. The presence of these factors most likely would result in the rejection of the claim during patent prosecution or the invalidation of the claim in patent litigation. Two immunotherapy and vaccine cases have applied these factors to overcome the obvious rejections. PMID:23899509

  2. Requirements for radiation oncology physics in Australia and New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Position Paper reviews the role, standards of practice, education, training and staffing requirements for radiation oncology physics. The role and standard of practice for an expert in radiation oncology physics, as defined by the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM), are consistent with the IAEA recommendations. International standards of safe practice recommend that this physics expert be authorised by a Regulatory Authority (in consultation with the professional organisation). In order to accommodate the international and AHTAC recommendations or any requirements that may be set by a Regulatory Authority, the ACPSEM has defined the criteria for a physicist-in-training, a base level physicist, an advanced level physicist and an expert radiation oncology physicist. The ACPSEM shall compile separate registers for these different radiation oncology physicist categories. What constitutes a satisfactory means of establishing the number of physicists and support physics staff that is required in radiation oncology continues to be debated. The new ACPSEM workforce formula (Formula 2000) yields similar numbers to other international professional body recommendations. The ACPSEM recommends that Australian and New Zealand radiation oncology centres should aim to employ 223 and 46 radiation oncology physics staff respectively. At least 75% of this workforce should be physicists ( 168 in Australia and 35 in New Zealand). An additional 41 registrar physicist positions (34 in Australia and 7 in New Zealand) should be specifically created for training purposes. These registrar positions cater for the present physicist shortfall, the future expansion of radiation oncology and the expected attrition of radiation oncology physicists in the workforce. Registrar physicists shall undertake suitable tertiary education in medical physics with an organised in-house training program.The rapid advances in the theory and methodology of the new

  3. DEGRO 2009. Radiation oncology - medical physics - radiation biology. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The special volume of the journal covers the abstracts of the DEGRO 2009 meeting on radiation oncology, medical physics, and radiation biology, covering the following topics: seldom diseases, gastrointestinal tumors, radiation reactions and radiation protection, medical care and science, central nervous system, medical physics, the non-parvicellular lung carcinomas, ear-nose-and throat, target-oriented radiotherapy plus ''X'', radio-oncology - young academics, lymphomas, mammary glands, modern radiotherapy, life quality and palliative radiotherapy, radiotherapy of the prostate carcinoma, imaging for planning and therapy, the digital documentation in clinics and practical experiences, NMR imaging and tomography, hadrons - actual status in Germany, urinal tract oncology, radiotoxicity

  4. An Increase in Medical Student Knowledge of Radiation Oncology: A Pre-Post Examination Analysis of the Oncology Education Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Results: Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p ≤ 0.03) was seen in the questions regarding acute and late side effects of radiation, brachytherapy for prostate cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Conclusions: Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology

  5. Identifying Local Determinants Of Research Commercialization Strategies In Iranian Biotechnology Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangir Yadollahi Fars; Zahra Kalatehaei

    2012-01-01

    Biotechnology industry has a special place among novel industries. The majority of biotech companies are start-ups or small companies that have been working for several years yet are not profitable. Evidences showed that firms and researchers have problems in turning academic findings to commercial revenue and there is problem in commercialization process and choosing method of the exploitation academic opportunities or choosing proper commercialization strategy in this industry. In this stud...

  6. Phase 0 clinical trials in oncology new drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Chandra Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research focus of pharmaceutical industry has expanded to a larger extent in last few decades putting many more new molecules, particularly targeted agents, for the clinical development. On the other hand, researchers are facing serious challenges due to high failure rates of new molecules in clinical studies. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA in combination with academia and industry experts identified many factors responsible for failures of new molecules, and with a vision of taking traditional drug development model toward an innovative paradigm shift, issued regulatory guidance on conduct of exploratory investigational new drug (exploratory IND studies, often called as phase 0 clinical trials, requiring reduced preclinical testing, which has special relevance to life-threatening diseases such as cancer. Phase 0 trials, utilizing much lower drug doses, provide an opportunity to explore the clinical behavior of new molecules very early in the drug development pathway, helping to identify the promising candidates and eliminating non-promising molecules, thus improving the efficiency of overall drug development with significant savings of resources. Being non-therapeutic in nature, these studies, however, pose certain ethical challenges requiring careful study designing and informed consent process. This article reviews the insights and perspectives for the feasibility, utility, planning, designing and conduct of phase 0 clinical trials, in addition to ethical issues and industrial perspective focused at oncology new drug development.

  7. Quantitative imaging features: extension of the oncology medical image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M. N.; Looney, P. T.; Young, K. C.; Halling-Brown, M. D.

    2015-03-01

    Radiological imaging is fundamental within the healthcare industry and has become routinely adopted for diagnosis, disease monitoring and treatment planning. With the advent of digital imaging modalities and the rapid growth in both diagnostic and therapeutic imaging, the ability to be able to harness this large influx of data is of paramount importance. The Oncology Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) was created to provide a centralized, fully annotated dataset for research. The database contains both processed and unprocessed images, associated data, and annotations and where applicable expert determined ground truths describing features of interest. Medical imaging provides the ability to detect and localize many changes that are important to determine whether a disease is present or a therapy is effective by depicting alterations in anatomic, physiologic, biochemical or molecular processes. Quantitative imaging features are sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible imaging measures of these changes. Here, we describe an extension to the OMI-DB whereby a range of imaging features and descriptors are pre-calculated using a high throughput approach. The ability to calculate multiple imaging features and data from the acquired images would be valuable and facilitate further research applications investigating detection, prognosis, and classification. The resultant data store contains more than 10 million quantitative features as well as features derived from CAD predictions. Theses data can be used to build predictive models to aid image classification, treatment response assessment as well as to identify prognostic imaging biomarkers.

  8. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    high-impact oncology and medicine literature. Further research and attention are necessary to guide efforts promoting appropriate representation of all oncology studies in high-impact, broad-readership journals

  9. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ahmed, Awad A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Yoo, Stella K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E., E-mail: KHoffman1@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-07-15

    high-impact oncology and medicine literature. Further research and attention are necessary to guide efforts promoting appropriate representation of all oncology studies in high-impact, broad-readership journals.

  10. IV. South-Bohemian Oncology Days. Survey of lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oncology Days dealt with carcinomas in the urology field, particularly carcinomas of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and prostate. From among the contributions presented, 5 lectures devoted to the radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma were input to INIS. (P.A.)

  11. Subspecialist training in surgical gynecological oncology in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Sofie L; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B;

    2011-01-01

    gynecological centers in charge of surgical treatment of cancer patients. Twenty centers (91%) participated. Four centers reported to be accredited European subspecialty training centers, a further six were interested in being accredited, and 11 centers were accredited by the respective National Board. Fourteen......To survey the centers that can provide subspecialty surgical training and education in gynecological oncology in the Nordic countries we developed an online questionnaire in cooperation with the Nordic Society of Gynecological Oncology. The link to the survey was mailed to 22 Scandinavian...... (74%) centers were interested in being listed for exchange of fellows. Our data show a large Nordic potential and interest in improving the gynecologic oncology standards and can be used to enhance the awareness of gynecological oncology training in Scandinavia and to facilitate the exchange of...

  12. Laparoscopic resection for low rectal cancer: evaluation of oncological efficacy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Diarmaid C

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopic resection of low rectal cancer poses significant technical difficulties for the surgeon. There is a lack of published follow-up data in relation to the surgical, oncological and survival outcomes in these patients.

  13. Overview of Accountable Care Organizations for Oncology Specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Anish J.; Macklis, Roger M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the economic factors leading to the growth of accountable care organizations and describe how oncology specialists may participate in the model to ensure success for physicians and patients.

  14. Regulatory and clinical considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L; Chen, Brian; Hermanson, Terhi; Wyatt, Michael D; Schulz, Richard M; Georgantopoulos, Peter; Kessler, Samuel; Raisch, Dennis W; Qureshi, Zaina P; Lu, Z Kevin; Love, Bryan L; Noxon, Virginia; Bobolts, Laura; Armitage, Melissa; Bian, John; Ray, Paul; Ablin, Richard J; Hrushesky, William J; Macdougall, Iain C; Sartor, Oliver; Armitage, James O

    2015-01-01

    Biological oncology products are integral to cancer treatment, but their high costs pose challenges to patients, families, providers, and insurers. The introduction of biosimilar agents—molecules that are similar in structure, function, activity, immunogenicity, and safety to the original biological drugs—provide opportunities both to improve healthcare access and outcomes, and to reduce costs. Several international regulatory pathways have been developed to expedite entry of biosimilars into global marketplaces. The first wave of oncology biosimilar use was in Europe and India in 2007. Oncology biosimilars are now widely marketed in several countries in Europe, and in Australia, Japan, China, Russia, India, and South Korea. Their use is emerging worldwide, with the notable exception of the USA, where several regulatory and cost barriers to biosimilar approval exist. In this Review, we discuss oncology biosimilars and summarise their regulatory frameworks, clinical experiences, and safety concerns. PMID:25456378

  15. NEURO-ONCOLOGIC PHYSICAL THERAPY FOR THE OLDER PERSON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Willie; Luhmann, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the course of diagnoses, patients with neuro-oncological malignancies present challenges to the physical therapist. At times, the presentation of impairments and disabilities of these patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses do not necessarily coincide with the involved area of the brain or spinal cord. It is our intention to provide guidance to the physical therapist who will be working with these patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses, in hopes that their encounters will be more productive and meaningful. This article describes a brief overview of common central nervous system malignancies, its medical treatment, as well as possible complications and side effects that would need to be considered in rehabilitating these patients. Special consideration is given to the elderly patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses. Pertinent physical therapy assessments and interventions are discussed. PMID:22049262

  16. Increasing Minority Enrollment Onto Clinical Trials: Practical Strategies and Challenges Emerge From the NRG Oncology Accrual Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sandra E; Muller, Carolyn Y; Robinson, William; Walker, Eleanor M; Yeager, Kate; Cook, Elise D; Friedman, Sue; Somkin, Carol P; Brown, Carol Leslie; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2015-11-01

    Racial and ethnic diversity has historically been difficult to achieve in National Cancer Institute-sponsored clinical trials, even while as many as 80% of those trials have faced difficulty in meeting overall recruitment targets. In an attempt to address these issues, NRG Oncology recently convened a comprehensive workshop titled "Clinical Trials Enrollment: Challenges and Opportunities." Discussants at the workshop included representatives of the three legacy groups of the NRG (ie, Gynecologic Oncology Group, National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Program, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group), a minority-based community clinical oncology program, a large integrated health care system, the leadership of the National Cancer Institute, and a large patient advocacy group. This article summarizes the concepts discussed at the workshop, which included: needs assessments, infrastructural support, training of investigators and research staff, specific clinical trial recruitment strategies (both system and community based), and development and mentoring of young investigators. Many new, more specific tactics, including use of diverse cancer care settings, direct-to-consumer communication, and the need for centralized information technology such as the use of software to match trials to special populations, are presented. It was concluded that new, innovative trial designs and the realities of limited funding would require the adoption of effective and efficient recruiting strategies, specialized training, and stakeholder engagement. US clinical research programs must generate and embrace new ideas and pilot test novel recruitment strategies if they are to maintain their historic role as world leaders in cancer care innovation and delivery. PMID:26464496

  17. Role of American Society of Clinical Oncology in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jyoti D; Galsky, Matthew D; Chagpar, Anees B; Pyle, Doug; Loehrer, Patrick J

    2011-08-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a global community of health care professionals whose stated purpose is to "make a world of difference" by improving cancer care around the world. Unfortunately, cancer survival rates vary significantly among countries with differing financial and infrastructural resources. Because ASCO is a professional oncology society committed to conquering cancer through research, education, prevention, and delivery of high-quality patient care, it is ideally suited to address this issue. ASCO could bring together oncology professionals and other necessary stakeholders from around the world to improve cancer care and lessen suffering for patients worldwide. As part of the ongoing commitment of ASCO to the future of cancer care, the Leadership Development Program was created to foster the leadership skills of early and midcareer oncologists and provide these participants with a working knowledge of the depth and breadth of the organization. As participants in the inaugural class of the ASCO Leadership Development Program, we were charged with investigating how ASCO might favorably affect cancer prevention and treatment in resource-poor countries in a cost-effective, scalable, and sustainable fashion. ASCO can significantly influence cancer care in low- and middle-income countries through a comprehensive approach that promotes cancer awareness and education, improves clinical practice by identifying and removing barriers to delivery of quality cancer care, and fosters innovation to initiate novel solutions to complex problems. PMID:21709190

  18. Animal-Assisted Activities: Results From a Survey of Top-Ranked Pediatric Oncology Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubak, Jessica; Hawkes, Rene

    2016-07-01

    Animal-assisted activities (AAA) are increasingly common, yet little is known about practices in pediatric oncology. To address this gap, we surveyed the top 20 pediatric oncology hospitals in the United States in May and June of 2014. Questionnaires were sent via e-mail and generally returned by e-mail or postal mail. Among the 19 responding hospitals, the 18 that offered AAA to pediatric patients formed the basis of our analysis. All sites had written AAA policies. Most programs were restricted to dogs. At 11 hospitals, children with cancer could participate in AAA activities. Outpatient waiting rooms and individual inpatient rooms were the most common locations for AAA with pediatric oncology patients. Safety precautions varied by hospital, but all required hand sanitation after visits and that animals receive an annual health examination, be on a leash or in a carrier, be ≥1 year old, and not be directly from a shelter. Our findings reveal consistencies and variations in practice that may help other hospitals develop their own programs and researchers identify areas of future study. PMID:26589356

  19. International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): Outcomes of an IAEA Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment with photons or particles) in current clinical practice and future scenarios were discussed. ICARO was organized by the IAEA at the request of the Member States and co-sponsored and supported by other international organizations to assess advances in technologies in radiation oncology in the face of economic challenges that most countries confront. Participants submitted research contributions, which were reviewed by a scientific committee and presented via 46 lectures and 103 posters. There were 327 participants from 70 Member States as well as participants from industry and government. The ICARO meeting provided an independent forum for the interaction of participants from developed and developing countries on current and developing issues related to radiation oncology

  20. OECI accreditation of the European Institute of Oncology of Milan: strengths and weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriu, Pietro L; Basso, Silvia; Mastrilli, Fabrizio; Orecchia, Roberto

    2015-12-31

    The European Institute of Oncology began the process to reach the accreditation promoted by the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) in 2012. This accreditation integrates the quality and safety path started in 2001 with accreditation by the Joint Commission International. Despite the presence of diversified accreditations and certifications and the clear need of time, effort, and commitment, the models are complementary. Each model is not to be considered as an end but as a tool for improvement: e.g., mixing accreditation standards led to an improvement in the quality and safety of processes. The present article details the OECI accreditation experience of the European Institute of Oncology, in particular the following strengths of OECI standards: collaboration among several involved parties (patient, volunteer, patient's general practitioner) in the clinical and quality/safety processes; a larger involvement of support personnel (psycho-oncologists, dieticians, physical therapists); and the development of clinical/translational research and innovation in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment to guarantee the best available practice in diagnosis and treatment. The OECI accreditation is specific to oncology and therefore its standards are tailored to a cancer center, both in terms of language used in the standards manual and in terms of patient needs. The OECI accreditation system puts an auditor team with a standards manual in charge of verifying quality and confirms the definition of IEO as a Comprehensive Cancer Center. PMID:27096268

  1. Diabetology and oncology meet in a network model: union is strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Marco; Gentile, Luigi; Arvat, Emanuela; Bertetto, Oscar; Clemente, Gennaro

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes and cancer are increasingly common conditions, and the management of cancer patients with diabetes is often challenging. Diabetes in cancer patients poses several complex clinical issues, including which treatment is suitable to control hyperglycemia, how to better counteract glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia, and how to manage nutritional problems of cachectic patients and glucose variability linked to artificial nutrition. A key aspect to consider is the patients' position on the trajectory of the oncologic disease, both to establish which level of glycemic control should be pursued and to decide the most suitable antidiabetic treatment to recommend. Endocrinologists are rarely involved in the management of patients with advanced cancer. Furthermore, lack of guidelines results in a "trial-and-error" approach, often with suboptimal disease management. Lastly, cancer survivors represent a frequently underestimated category of patients at higher cardiometabolic risk. A practical solution for these challenges lies in the implementation of care networks based on a close partnership and ongoing communication between oncologists, endocrinologists, and nutritionists, placing the patient at the center of the care process. At the same time, universities and scientific societies should play a key role in promoting research into areas of intersection of oncology and endocrinology, in raising awareness of common possibilities of primary and secondary prevention of metabolic and oncologic diseases, as well as specific challenges of managing diabetes and cancer, and proper training of health workers, while also supporting the shared implementation of effective management strategies. PMID:26862082

  2. Paediatric oncology and intensive care treatments: changing trends

    OpenAIRE

    Keengwe, I.; Stansfield, F.; EDEN, O; Nelhans, N.; Dearlove, O.; Sharples, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To review the outcome of patients with childhood malignancy requiring intensive care treatment and to assess whether there is any secular trend for improved outcome.
DESIGN—Retrospective chart reviews of 74 consecutive admissions to a paediatric intensive care unit from a regional paediatric oncology centre between 1990 and 1997. During the same period there were 6419 admissions to the oncology unit, 814 of whom were new cases.
RESULTS—The overall survival a...

  3. Accessibility of radiation oncology centers in Turkey through the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    YİRMİBEŞOĞLU, Eda; ÖZTÜRK, Ayşen Sevgi; Erkal, Haldun Şükrü; EGEHAN, İbrahim

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The contents of web pages from radiation oncology centers in Turkey were evaluated. Accessibility of the web pages through search engines was also assessed. METHODS A search was made for the presence of web sites for radiation oncology centers of 44 hospitals and for the accessibility of these sites through actively forwarding links using the “Google” search engine. RESULTS All centers had web sites. Twenty-nine centers had actively forwarding links. Web pages from 23 centers incl...

  4. Exploring the role of educational videos in radiation oncology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient, staff, and medical student education are essential components of modern radiation oncology practice. Greater involvement of patients in the clinical decision-making process, and the need for other health professionals to be more informed about radiation oncology, provided further demand on resources, despite ever increasing logistic constraints. Videos made by individual departments may augment traditional teaching methods and have applications in documenting clinical practice and response. 8 refs., 1 tab

  5. Nurses’ Burnout in Oncology Hospital Critical Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz İrem Tunçel; Menşure Kaya; Rukiye Neslihan Kuru; Saadet Menteş; Süheyla Ünver

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Burnout is common in intensive care units (ICU) because of high demands and difficult working conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse nurses’ burnout in our oncology ICU and to determine which factors are associated with. Material and Method: The study was carried out in Ankara Oncology Hospital ICU. A self- reporting questionnaire in an envelope was used for the evaluation of burnout (Turkish- language version of Maslach Burnout Inventory) and depression (Beck Depressi...

  6. Characteristics of potential drug-related problems among oncology patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bulsink, Arjan; Imholz, Alex L. T.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Jansman, Frank G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Oncology patients are more at risk for drug related problems because of treatment with (combinations of) anticancer drugs, as they have a higher risk for organ failure or altered metabolism with progression of their disease. Objective The aim of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the frequency of potential drug related problems (pDRPs) among oncology patients. Setting Outpatient- and day-care centres for Internal and Pulmonary Medicine at the Deventer Hospital, Deventer...

  7. Drug interactions in female oncologic inpatients: differences among databases

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Moriel; Jorge Augusto Siqueira; Renata Cavalcanti Carnevale; Caroline de Godoi Rezende Costa; Aline Aparecida da Cruz; Nice Maria Oliveira da Silva; Adélia Corina Bernardes; Roberta Paro Carvalho; Priscila Gava Mazzola

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantify drug interactions in prescriptions for women undergoing supportive therapy in an oncology setting at a women’s hospital in Brazil and compare the information provided by different databases regarding these drug interactions. A convenience sample was selected of prescriptions for patients diagnosed with breast or gynecological tumors hospitalized in the clinical oncology and surgery wards from April to June 2009. DRUGDEX/M...

  8. The Need for Communication Skills Training in Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Hilaire, Dany Michaella

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health-care professionals and their patients is an element that can make all the difference in how those patients navigate their cancer journey. In a 2011 issue of the Annals of Oncology, Barth and Lannen reported on their systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of communication skills training courses in oncology. In this issue of JADPRO, two authors share their perspectives on the findings of Barth and Lannen and what advanced practitioners (APs) can learn ...

  9. Development of new on line statistical program for the Korean society for radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Si Yeol; Ahn, Seung Do; Choi, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Weon Kuu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Kangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwan Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To develop new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology (KOSRO) to collect and extract medical data in radiation oncology more efficiently. The statistical program is a web-based program. The directory was placed in a sub-folder of the homepage of KOSRO and its web address is http://www.kosro.or.kr/asda. The operating systems server is Linux and the webserver is the Apache HTTP server. For database (DB) server, MySQL is adopted and dedicated scripting language is the PHP. Each ID and password are controlled independently and all screen pages for data input or analysis are made to be friendly to users. Scroll-down menu is actively used for the convenience of user and the consistence of data analysis. Year of data is one of top categories and main topics include human resource, equipment, clinical statistics, specialized treatment and research achievement. Each topic or category has several subcategorized topics. Real-time on-line report of analysis is produced immediately after entering each data and the administrator is able to monitor status of data input of each hospital. Backup of data as spread sheets can be accessed by the administrator and be used for academic works by any members of the KOSRO. The new on-line statistical program was developed to collect data from nationwide departments of radiation oncology. Intuitive screen and consistent input structure are expected to promote entering data of member hospitals and annual statistics should be a cornerstone of advance in radiation oncology.

  10. Development of new on line statistical program for the Korean society for radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology (KOSRO) to collect and extract medical data in radiation oncology more efficiently. The statistical program is a web-based program. The directory was placed in a sub-folder of the homepage of KOSRO and its web address is http://www.kosro.or.kr/asda. The operating systems server is Linux and the webserver is the Apache HTTP server. For database (DB) server, MySQL is adopted and dedicated scripting language is the PHP. Each ID and password are controlled independently and all screen pages for data input or analysis are made to be friendly to users. Scroll-down menu is actively used for the convenience of user and the consistence of data analysis. Year of data is one of top categories and main topics include human resource, equipment, clinical statistics, specialized treatment and research achievement. Each topic or category has several subcategorized topics. Real-time on-line report of analysis is produced immediately after entering each data and the administrator is able to monitor status of data input of each hospital. Backup of data as spread sheets can be accessed by the administrator and be used for academic works by any members of the KOSRO. The new on-line statistical program was developed to collect data from nationwide departments of radiation oncology. Intuitive screen and consistent input structure are expected to promote entering data of member hospitals and annual statistics should be a cornerstone of advance in radiation oncology

  11. Psycho-Oncology, Psychosocial Problems and Measurement Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyhan Bag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is not possible to conceive psycho-oncology separately from modern oncology. It is expected from medical personnel to realize patients’ psycho-social needs and to possess knowledge about the demanding psycho-oncologic treatment for patients if it is needed. According to World Cancer Report statistics, the oncology personnel lack ability to determine the psycho-social needs of cancer patients and their families. For the medical personnel that work in oncology services, it is inevitable to raise the awareness of the cancer patients’ psychosocial needs and to arrange in-service trainings about therapeutic negotiation techniques. The other step in the process of determining the psychological treatment and care requirements could be the improvement and execution of the standard psychological scanning tests applied to the cancer patients who are on the first level of diagnosis and treatment. It is important for the medical staff working with cancer patients to have a certain point of view concerning these issues. For this purpose, the present study focuses on the psychosocial problems that cancer patients might experience and on the evaluation techniques which are used in psycho-oncology.

  12. The efficacy of hypnosis in the reduction of procedural pain and distress in pediatric oncology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Matt R; Espie, Colin A

    2004-06-01

    Children who suffer from cancer have to endure regular, painful medical procedures that are associated with a considerable degree of psychosocial distress. Hypnosis has been successfully employed in the management of pain and distress in the adult population, but is not well studied in pediatric populations. This review systematically evaluates the systematic research conducted in the field of procedure-related pain management in pediatric oncology within the context of a nationally agreed framework for the assessment of research evidence. It is concluded that there is not currently enough robust research evidence to recommend that hypnosis should form part of best practice guidelines for the management of procedure-related pain in pediatric oncology. However, there is sufficient evidence to justify larger-scale, appropriately controlled studies. A number of recommendations are made regarding future research. PMID:15194906

  13. Metformin and Other Biguanides in Oncology: Advancing the Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Pollak, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Retrospective studies suggest that diabetics treated with metformin have a substantially reduced cancer burden compared with other diabetics, studies that may be impractical to confirm prospectively. It is unclear if this reflects a chemopreventive effect, an effect on transformed cells, or both. It also remains to be established if these data have relevance to people without diabetes. Laboratory models, however, provide independent impressive evidence for activity of metformin and other bigu...

  14. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the poultry industry. The fear of MD is further enhanced by unpredictable vaccine breaks that result in ...

  15. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  16. Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) research update

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENOMICS To meet the growing demands of consumers, the poultry industry will need to continue to improve methods of selection in breeding programs for production and associated traits. One possible solution is genome-wide marker-assisted selection (GWMAS). In brief, evenly-spaced genetic markers s...

  17. A clinical intranet model for radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A new paradigm in computing is being formulated from advances in client-server technology. This new way of accessing data in a network is referred to variously as Web-based computing, Internet computing, or Intranet computing. The difference between an internet and intranet being that the former is for global access and the later is only for intra-departmental access. Our purpose with this work is to develop a clinically useful radiation oncology intranet for accessing physically disparate data sources. Materials and Methods: We have developed an intranet client-server system using Windows-NT Server 4.0 running Internet Information Server (IIS) on the back-end and client PCs using a typical World Wide Web (WWW) browser. The clients also take advantage of the Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) standard for accessing commercial database systems. The various data sources used include: a traditional Radiation Oncology Information (ROIS) System (VARiS 1.3tm); a 3-D treatment planning system (CAD Plantm); a beam scanning system (Wellhoffertm); as well as an electronic portal imaging device (PortalVisiontm) and a CT-Simulator providing digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) (Picker AcQsimtm). We were able to leverage previously developed Microsoft Visual C++ applications without major re-writing of source code for this. Results: With the data sources and development materials used, we were able to develop a series of WWW-based clinical tool kits. The tool kits were designed to provide profession-specific clinical information. The physician's tool kit provides a treatment schedule for daily patients along with a dose summary from VARiS and the ability to review portal images and prescription images from the EPID and Picker. The physicists tool kit compares dose summaries from VARiS with an independent check against RTP beam data and serves as a quick 'chart-checker'. Finally, an administrator tool kit provides a summary of periodic charging

  18. Challenge of pediatric oncology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Larry G P; Rouma, Bankole S; Saad-Eldin, Yasser

    2012-05-01

    The care of children with malignant solid tumors in sub-Saharan Africa is compromised by resource deficiencies that range from inadequate healthcare budgets and a paucity of appropriately trained personnel, to scarce laboratory facilities and inconsistent drug supplies. Patients face difficulties accessing healthcare, affording investigational and treatment protocols, and attending follow-up. Children routinely present with advanced local and metastatic disease and many children cannot be offered any effective treatment. Additionally, multiple comorbidities, including malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV when added to acute on chronic malnutrition, compound treatment-related toxicities. Survival rates are poor. Pediatric surgical oncology is not yet regarded as a health care priority by governments struggling to achieve their millennium goals. The patterns of childhood solid malignant tumors in Africa are discussed, and the difficulties encountered in their management are highlighted. Three pediatric surgeons from different regions of Africa reflect on their experiences and review the available literature. The overall incidence of pediatric solid malignant tumor is difficult to estimate in Africa because of lack of vital hospital statistics and national cancer registries in most of countries. The reported incidences vary between 5% and 15.5% of all malignant tumors. Throughout the continent, patterns of malignant disease vary with an obvious increase in the prevalence of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and Kaposi sarcoma in response-increased prevalence of HIV disease. In northern Africa, the most common malignant tumor is leukemia, followed by brain tumors and nephroblastoma or neuroblastoma. In sub-Saharan countries, BL is the commonest tumor followed by nephroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. The overall 5-years survival varied between 5% (in Côte d'Ivoire before 2001) to 34% in Egypt and up to 70% in South Africa. In many reports, the survival rate of

  19. Oncologic Outcomes After Transoral Robotic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, J. Scott; Smith, Richard V.; Moore, Eric; Lawson, Georges; Remacle, Marc; Ganly, Ian; Kraus, Dennis H.; Teng, Marita S.; Miles, Brett A.; White, Hilliary; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Ferris, Robert L.; Mehta, Vikas; Kiyosaki, Krista; Damrose, Edward J.; Wang, Steven J.; Kupferman, Michael E.; Koh, Yoon Woo; Genden, Eric M.; Holsinger, F. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Large patient cohorts are necessary to validate the efficacy of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the management of head and neck cancer. OBJECTIVES To review oncologic outcomes of TORS from a large multi-institutional collaboration and to identify predictors of disease recurrence and disease-specific mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective review of records from 410 patients undergoing TORS for laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2012, was performed. Pertinent data were obtained from 11 participating medical institutions. INTERVENTIONS Select patients received radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy before or after TORS. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Locoregional control, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were calculated. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank testing to evaluate individual variable association with these outcomes, followed by multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression modeling to identify independent predictors. RESULTS Of the 410 patients treated with TORS in this study, 364 (88.8%) had oropharyngeal cancer. Of these 364 patients, information about post-operative adjuvant therapy was known about 338: 106 (31.3) received radiation therapy alone, and 72 (21.3%) received radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. Neck dissection was performed in 323 patients (78.8%). Mean follow-up time was 20 months. Local, regional, and distant recurrence occurred in 18 (4.4%), 15 (3.7%), and 10 (2.4%) of 410 patients, respectively. Seventeen (4.1%) died of disease, and 13 (3.2%) died of other causes. The 2-year locoregional control rate was 91.8% (95% CI, 87.6%-94.7%), disease-specific survival 94.5% (95% CI, 90.6%-96.8%), and overall survival 91% (95% CI, 86.5%-94.0%). Multivariate analysis identified improved survival among women (P = .05) and for patients with tumors arising in tonsil (P = .01). Smoking was associated with worse overall

  20. CNAM: care and treatment aboard in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tunisian National Health Insurance Fund (TNHIF) has 186 practitioners and advisers (physicians, dentists and pharmacists) in the service of medical supervision. These advisers are distributed on three levels (regional, district and national). In the present paper we have discussed the CNAM support in the different types of oncology (FSD (Fully Supported Disorders), Hospitalization, the scans, the radiation therapy, specific drugs and treatment abroad). We begin by presenting expenditures by year and age group for FSD and hospitalization in the private and the public sectors. We then give the conventional packages for scans, radiotherapy: either for CLAM or CRAM. Daily benefits for the sickness leave and the disability will be presented briefly. Then we will give the administrative process for the approval of the commission for specific medication. The medical advice is based on certain criteria that will be explained in the paper. In certain cases definitive medical advice needs to call for the recommendation of a national commission and oncology or different experts. The spending trend of the TNHIF from 2001 to 2012 will be discussed. TNHIF generally considered Herceptin, Nexavar Erbitaux as the main drugs for targeted therapies. We present for the treatment cost and expenditure trends for the first drug from 2008 to 2012 as well as the estimation for 2013, which increases from one year to year. For the treatment with the second and the third drug we give the evolution of expenditure between 2010 and 2012. Cancer is a serious disease that requires a costly multidisciplinary support for the patients. This support has changed the prognosis survival (see cases of healing). The financial coverage of this support can never be supported by the family (whatever the wealth level) without any TNHIF support. The real gain in survival and expenditure control are closely related to awareness and early detection of the disease. TNHIF usually intervenes in the financing of

  1. Radiation oncology physics: A handbook for teachers and students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy, also referred to as radiation therapy, radiation oncology or therapeutic radiology, is one of the three principal modalities used in the treatment of malignant disease (cancer), the other two being surgery and chemotherapy. In contrast to other medical specialties that rely mainly on the clinical knowledge and experience of medical specialists, radiotherapy, with its use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer, relies heavily on modern technology and the collaborative efforts of several professionals whose coordinated team approach greatly influences the outcome of the treatment. The radiotherapy team consists of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists and radiation therapy technologists: all professionals characterized by widely differing educational backgrounds and one common link - the need to understand the basic elements of radiation physics, and the interaction of ionizing radiation with human tissue in particular. This specialized area of physics is referred to as radiation oncology physics, and proficiency in this branch of physics is an absolute necessity for anyone who aspires to achieve excellence in any of the four professions constituting the radiotherapy team. Current advances in radiation oncology are driven mainly by technological development of equipment for radiotherapy procedures and imaging; however, as in the past, these advances rely heavily on the underlying physics. This book is dedicated to students and teachers involved in programmes that train professionals for work in radiation oncology. It provides a compilation of facts on the physics as applied to radiation oncology and as such will be useful to graduate students and residents in medical physics programmes, to residents in radiation oncology, and to students in dosimetry and radiotherapy technology programmes. The level of understanding of the material covered will, of course, be different for the various student groups; however, the basic

  2. Cancer-related fatigue. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    increase support, restorative therapies to decrease cognitive alterations and improve mood state, and nutritional and sleep interventions for patients with disturbances in eating or sleeping. Pharmacologic therapy may include drugs, such as antidepressants for depression or erythropoietin for anemia. A few clinical reports of the use of psychostimulants suggest the need for further research on these agents as potential treatment modalities in managing fatigue. Effective management of cancer-related fatigue involves an informed and supportive oncology care team that assesses patients' fatigue levels regularly and systematically, educates and counsels patients regarding strategies for coping with fatigue, and uses institutional fatigue management experts for referral of patients with unresolved fatigue. PMID:19761067

  3. Positron Emission Tomography (PET in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gallamini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG. FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later.

  4. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG). FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later

  5. Theragnostic oncology - integrated surgery and radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present paper is the review of actual knowledge in the field of molecular biology, radiobiology and therapy of malignant tumours and individual heterogeneity of molecular signatures, and chemo- and radiosensitivity is documented. Clinical applicability some of the evidence based standards protocols and dogmas is questioned. It is pointed out that equal doses of radiation or chemotherapeutic agents do always not kill the same rate of cancer cells and a large variations in the initial tumours volume within a given TNM stage of disease need different, but not the same, doses of radiation or chemotherapy. Actual knowledge and experience lead to the suggestion that a key factor for effective therapy is its intensity. Classic sequential treatment modalities with unprogrammed time intervals between respective methods of therapy should be replaced by individually planned integrated combined therapy with a known sequence and timing. This is called theragnostic oncology, which means the use of knowledge and experience to establish individual combined therapy producing the highest therapeutic gain and the lowest risk of serious late complications. (authors)

  6. Lean oncology: a new model for oncologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montesarchio Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The history of the term Lean is relatively recent and originates from the Toyota Production System (TPS. The term "Lean" means "thin", which refers to a mental process, operational, productive, no-frills, quick but not hasty, consequential to the previous event. The Lean process flows seamlessly into the result, eliminates unnecessary complications to the effect, prevents unnecessary equipment processes. The idea is to 'do more with less', like using the (few available resources in the most productive way possible, through the elimination of all types of waste that inevitably accompanies every stage of a production process. Lean management is primarily a management philosophy, a system of values and behaviors that goes beyond the mere application of the instrument and that, once internalized, will form the nucleus of the corporate culture. "Lean Oncology" is a term coined to identify a methodology of care and treatment to cancer patients, consisting on process simplification, streamlining of the organizational and routes of drug treatment, detection and elimination of waste. Its main objective is the centrality of the patient.

  7. Functional MRI and CT biomarkers in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, J.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, MRI Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Payne, G.S.; DeSouza, N.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Imaging biomarkers derived from MRI or CT describe functional properties of tumours and normal tissues. They are finding increasing numbers of applications in diagnosis, monitoring of response to treatment and assessment of progression or recurrence. Imaging biomarkers also provide scope for assessment of heterogeneity within and between lesions. A wide variety of functional parameters have been investigated for use as biomarkers in oncology. Some imaging techniques are used routinely in clinical applications while others are currently restricted to clinical trials or preclinical studies. Apparent diffusion coefficient, magnetization transfer ratio and native T{sub 1} relaxation time provide information about structure and organization of tissues. Vascular properties may be described using parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, transverse relaxation rate (R{sub 2}*), vessel size index and relative blood volume, while magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be used to probe the metabolic profile of tumours. This review describes the mechanisms of contrast underpinning each technique and the technical requirements for robust and reproducible imaging. The current status of each biomarker is described in terms of its validation, qualification and clinical applications, followed by a discussion of the current limitations and future perspectives. (orig.)

  8. [Update in medical informatics in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Jean-François

    2002-01-01

    Through the implementation of the French reform of resources allocation, according to the French DRG system (PMSI), all the medical records of French hospitals are currently indexed according to the same rules and classifications. As a by-product, these discharge summaries are merged into huge administrative databases covering both public and private settings. Statistical analysis of these data have begun, and seems to be worthwhile in oncology, e.g. for assessing the burden of cancer treatments in hospitals, for revealing the regional variations in practice or for estimating the incidence of melanoma. However, fully anonymous data leading to double counts, questionable quality of summaries and lack of complete covering in radiotherapy centres, still impede from using the data for epidemiological purpose. Short term improvements are under way: changes in quality assessment and control, possibility of linking successive stays of a patient while respecting privacy, implementation of new classification of procedures and new descriptions of "casemix". The French DRG could then have a place in the monitoring of cancer both at national and regional levels. PMID:11847036

  9. Lean oncology: a new model for oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesarchio, Vincenzo; Grimaldi, Antonio Maria; Fox, Bernard A; Rea, Antonio; Marincola, Francesco M; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2012-01-01

    The history of the term Lean is relatively recent and originates from the Toyota Production System (TPS). The term "Lean" means "thin", which refers to a mental process, operational, productive, no-frills, quick but not hasty, consequential to the previous event. The Lean process flows seamlessly into the result, eliminates unnecessary complications to the effect, prevents unnecessary equipment processes. The idea is to 'do more with less', like using the (few) available resources in the most productive way possible, through the elimination of all types of waste that inevitably accompanies every stage of a production process. Lean management is primarily a management philosophy, a system of values and behaviors that goes beyond the mere application of the instrument and that, once internalized, will form the nucleus of the corporate culture. "Lean Oncology" is a term coined to identify a methodology of care and treatment to cancer patients, consisting on process simplification, streamlining of the organizational and routes of drug treatment, detection and elimination of waste. Its main objective is the centrality of the patient. PMID:22533796

  10. 2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

  11. The role of nuclear medicine in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Medicine offers screening methods for oncology such as bone and bone marrow scintigraphy. During the last two decades, special procedures have gained widespread application. This paper is centered around the 'tumor-specific' radiopharmaceuticals. In patients with thyroid cancer, I-131 still plays a significant role. Ga-67 still has its indications in lymphoma, while in other diseases Tl-201 cloride is now the agent of choice. Especially in thyroid cancer, Tl-201 has proved to be a reliable tumor imaging radiopharmaceutical. More recently, Tc-99m MIBI was introduced for tumor imaging. Tc-99m HMPAO may also be used for tumor scintigraphy, especially in brain lesions. In addition, I-123 IMP has successfully been used for imaging malignant melanoma. Another promising field of tumor diagnosis is receptor imaging. In neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma, I-131/123 mIBG is the radiopharmaceutical of choice and may be considered as a receptor imaging agent also. First clinical results with In-111 octreotide show potentials as somatostatine-receptor radiopharmaceutical in insulinoma, islet cell carcinoma, medullary and lung cancer, while I-123 estradiol needs some improvement until it may be recommended as diagnostic tool in breast cancer. Since 1978, radiolabeled poly- or monoclonal tumor antibodies and their fragments have gained widespread application. Especially the Tc-99m 225.28S melanoma antibody, I-131 or Tc-99m CEA and In-111/I-131 labeled OC-125 antibodies have proven to be of clinical significance in melanoma, colorectal and ovarian cancer. (author)

  12. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallamini, Andrea, E-mail: gallamini.a@ospedale.cuneo.it [Department of Research and Medical Innovation, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice University, Nice Cedex 2-06189 Nice (France); Zwarthoed, Colette [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice University, Nice Cedex 2-06189 Nice (France); Borra, Anna [Hematology Department S. Croce Hospital, Via M. Coppino 26, Cuneo 12100 (Italy)

    2014-09-29

    Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG). FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later.

  13. Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy in interventional oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a well-investigated locoregional cancer treatment in which a systemically administered photosensitizer is activated locally by illuminating the diseased tissue with light of a suitable wavelength. PDT offers various treatment strategies in oncology, especially palliative ones. This article focuses on the development and evaluation of interstitial PDT for the treatment of solid tumors, particularly liver tumors. The PDT is mostly used for superficial and endoluminal lesions like skin or bladder malignancies and also more frequently applied for the treatment of lung, esophageal, and head and neck cancer. With the help of specially designed application systems, PDT is now becoming a practicable option for solid lesions, including those in parenchymal organs such as the liver. After intravenous treatment with the photosensitizer followed by interstitial light activation, contrast-enhanced computed tomography shows the development of therapy-induced necrosis around the light-guiding device. With the use of multiple devices, ablation of liver tumors seems to be possible, and no severe side effects or toxicities related to the treatment are reported. PDT can become a clinically relevant adjunct in the locoregional therapy strategies. (orig.)

  14. Provider volume and outcomes for oncological procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Oncological procedures may have better outcomes if performed by high-volume providers. METHODS: A review of the English language literature incorporating searches of the Medline, Embase and Cochrane collaboration databases was performed. Studies were included if they involved a patient cohort from 1984 onwards, were community or population based, and assessed health outcome as a dependent variable and volume as an independent variable. The studies were also scored quantifiably to assess generalizability with respect to any observed volume-outcome relationship and analysed according to organ system; numbers needed to treat were estimated where possible. RESULTS: Sixty-eight relevant studies were identified and a total of 41 were included, of which 13 were based on clinical data. All showed either an inverse relationship, of variable magnitude, between provider volume and mortality, or no volume-outcome effect. All but two clinical reports revealed a statistically significant positive relationship between volume and outcome; none demonstrated the opposite. CONCLUSION: High-volume providers have a significantly better outcome for complex cancer surgery, specifically for pancreatectomy, oesphagectomy, gastrectomy and rectal resection.

  15. Rationale and design of the Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research Trial (MANTICORE 101 - Breast): a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer using cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANTICORE 101 - Breast (Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research) is a randomized trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or beta-blocker) can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling, measured with cardiac MRI, among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. One hundred and fifty-nine patients with histologically confirmed HER2+ breast cancer will be enrolled in a parallel 3-arm, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind design. After baseline assessments, participants will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (perindopril), beta-blocker (bisoprolol), or placebo. Participants will receive drug or placebo for 1 year beginning 7 days before trastuzumab therapy. Dosages for all groups will be systematically up-titrated, as tolerated, at 1 week intervals for a total of 3 weeks. The primary objective of this randomized clinical trial is to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, as measured by 12 month change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume using cardiac MRI. Secondary objectives include 1) determine the evolution of left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, 2) understand the mechanism of trastuzumab mediated cardiac toxicity by assessing for the presence of myocardial injury and apoptosis on serum biomarkers and cardiac MRI, and 3) correlate cardiac biomarkers of myocyte injury and extra-cellular matrix remodeling with left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. Cardiac toxicity as a result of cancer therapies is now recognized as a significant health problem of increasing prevalence. To our knowledge, MANTICORE will be the first randomized trial testing proven heart failure pharmacotherapy in

  16. The effect of short term neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation on erectile function in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer: An analysis of the 4- versus 8-month randomised trial (Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Erectile dysfunction is a common consequence of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. The addition of neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation (NAD) has an indeterminate additive effect. We examined the long-term effect on erectile function (EF) of two durations (4 months: arm 1 and 8 months: arm 2) of NAD prior to radiation (RT) for patients with localised prostate cancer from the Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group (ICORG 97-01) 4- versus 8-month trial. In this study we aimed to (1) analyse the overall effect on EF of NAD in an EBRT population, (2) compare the probability of retained EF over time in an EBRT population treated with either 4 or 8 months of NAD and (3) identify any variables such as risk group and age which may have an additive detrimental effect. This analysis provides unique long term follow up data. Materials and methods: From 1997 to 2001, 276 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate were randomised to 4 or 8 months of NAD before RT. EF data were recorded at baseline and at each follow-up visit by physician directed questions, using a 4-point grading system. Results: Two hundred and thirty patients were included in the analysis of EF and were followed for a median of 80 months. One hundred and forty-one patients had EF at baseline. Neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation in addition to radiation therapy caused a significant reduction in EF. The most significant reduction in EF happens within the first year. The median time to grade 3–4 EF toxicity was 14.6 months, 17.6 months in arm 1 and 13.7 in arm 2. Freedom from late EF toxicity did not differ significantly between arms, overall or at 5 years (n = 141). The cumulative probability of EF preservation at 5 years was 28% (22–34) in arm 1 and 24% (19–30) in arm 2. Age was a significant predictor of post-treatment EF. Conclusions: The first year post ADT and EBRT poses the greatest risk to sexual function and a continued decline may be expected. However, 26

  17. Rationale and design of the Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research Trial (MANTICORE 101 - Breast: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer using cardiac MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekowitz Justin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MANTICORE 101 - Breast (Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research is a randomized trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or beta-blocker can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling, measured with cardiac MRI, among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty-nine patients with histologically confirmed HER2+ breast cancer will be enrolled in a parallel 3-arm, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind design. After baseline assessments, participants will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (perindopril, beta-blocker (bisoprolol, or placebo. Participants will receive drug or placebo for 1 year beginning 7 days before trastuzumab therapy. Dosages for all groups will be systematically up-titrated, as tolerated, at 1 week intervals for a total of 3 weeks. The primary objective of this randomized clinical trial is to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, as measured by 12 month change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume using cardiac MRI. Secondary objectives include 1 determine the evolution of left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, 2 understand the mechanism of trastuzumab mediated cardiac toxicity by assessing for the presence of myocardial injury and apoptosis on serum biomarkers and cardiac MRI, and 3 correlate cardiac biomarkers of myocyte injury and extra-cellular matrix remodeling with left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. Discussion Cardiac toxicity as a result of cancer therapies is now recognized as a significant health problem of increasing prevalence. To our knowledge, MANTICORE will be the first

  18. POND4Kids: a global web-based database for pediatric hematology and oncology outcome evaluation and collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Yuri; Patel, Aman N; Arreola, Magada; Antillon, Federico G; Ribeiro, Raul C; Howard, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    The Pediatric Oncology Network Database, (www.pond4kids.org, POND), is a secure, web-based, multilingual pediatric hematology/oncology database created for use in countries with limited resources to meet various clinical data management needs including cancer registration, delivery of protocol-based care, outcome evaluation, and assessment of psychosocial support programs. Established as a part of the International Outreach Program at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, POND serves as a tool for oncology units to store patient data for easy retrieval and analysis and to achieve uniform data collection to facilitate meaningful comparison of information among centers. Launched in 2003, POND now has 233 sites registered with over 1,000 users in 66 countries. However, adoption and usage of POND varies widely among sites. This paper reviews some of the challenges to developing a global collaborative clinical platform based on the experiences of developing POND. The paper also presents a case study of POND use in Guatemala, where the Guatemalan National Oncology Unit (UNOP) has developed extensive internal and external global collaborations using POND. PMID:23388293

  19. Survey of Radiation Oncology Centres in Australia: report of the radiation oncology treatment quality program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the first steps towards the development of a comprehensive quality program for radiation oncology in Australia has been a survey of practice. This paper reports on the results of the survey that should inform the development of standards for radiation oncology in Australia. A questionnaire of 108 questions spanning aspects of treatment services, equipment, staff, infrastructure and available quality systems was mailed to all facilities providing radiation treatment services in Australia (n = 45). Information of 42 sites was received by June 2006 providing data on 113 operational linear accelerators of which approximately 2/3 are equipped with multi-leaf collimators. More than 75% of facilities were participating in a formal quality assurance (QA) system, with 63% following a nationally or internationally recognised system. However, there was considerable variation in the availability of policies and procedures specific to quality aspects, and the review of these. Policies for monitoring patient waiting times for treatment were documented at just 71% of all facilities. Although 85% of all centres do, in fact, monitor machine throughput, the number and types of efficiency measures varied markedly, thereby limiting the comparative use of these results. Centres identified workload as the single most common factor responsible for limiting staff involvement in both QA processes and clinical trial participation. The data collected in this 'snapshot' survey provide a unique and comprehensive baseline for future comparisons and evaluation of changes

  20. Next steps for adolescent and young adult oncology workshop: An update on progress and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley Wilder; Seibel, Nita L; Lewis, Denise R; Albritton, Karen H; Blair, Donald F; Blanke, Charles D; Bleyer, W Archie; Freyer, David R; Geiger, Ann M; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Tricoli, James V; Wagner, Lynne I; Zebrack, Bradley J

    2016-04-01

    Each year, 70,000 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) between ages 15 and 39 years in the United States are diagnosed with cancer. In 2006, a National Cancer Institute (NCI) Progress Review Group (PRG) examined the state of science associated with cancer among AYAs. To assess the impact of the PRG and examine the current state of AYA oncology research, the NCI, with support from the LIVESTRONG Foundation, sponsored a workshop entitled "Next Steps in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology" on September 16 and 17, 2013, in Bethesda, Maryland. This report summarizes the findings from the workshop, opportunities to leverage existing data, and suggestions for future research priorities. Multidisciplinary teams that include basic scientists, epidemiologists, trialists, biostatisticians, clinicians, behavioral scientists, and health services researchers will be essential for future advances for AYAs with cancer. Cancer 2016;122:988-999. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26849003

  1. Attitudes of Chinese Oncology Physicians Toward Death with Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-ping; Huang, Bo-yan; Yi, Ting-wu; Deng, Yao-Tiao; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yu-qing; Zhang, Zong-yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Death with dignity (DWD) refers to the refusal of life-prolonging measures for terminally ill patients by “living wills” forms in advance. More and more oncology physicians are receiving DWD requests from advance cancer patients in mainland China. Objective: The study objective was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese oncology physicians toward the legalization and implementation of DWD. Methods: A questionnaire investigating the understanding and attitudes toward DWD was administered to 257 oncology physicians from 11 hospitals in mainland China. Results: The effective response rate was 86.8% (223/257). The majority of oncology physicians (69.1%) had received DWD requests from patients. Half of the participants (52.5%) thought that the most important reason was the patients' unwillingness to maintain survival through machines. One-third of participants (33.0%) attributed the most important reason to suffering from painful symptoms. Most oncology physicians (78.9%) had knowledge about DWD. A fifth of respondents did not know the difference between DWD and euthanasia, and a few even considered DWD as euthanasia. The majority of oncology physicians supported the legalization (88.3%) and implementation (83.9%) of DWD. Conclusions: Many Chinese oncology physicians have received advanced cancer patients' DWD requests and think that DWD should be legalized and implemented. Chinese health management departments should consider the demands of physicians and patients. It is important to inform physicians about the difference between DWD and euthanasia, as one-fifth of them were confused about it. PMID:27022774

  2. Radiation oncology career decision variables for graduating trainees seeking positions in 2003-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation oncology trainees must consider an array of variables when deciding upon an academic or private practice career path. This prospective evaluation of the 2004 graduating radiation oncology trainees, evaluates such variables and provides additional descriptive data. Methods: A survey that included 15 questions (one subjective, eleven categorical, and 3 continuous variables) was mailed to the 144 graduating radiation oncology trainees in United States programs in January of 2004. Questions were designed to gather information regarding factors that may have influenced career path choices. The responses were anonymous, and no identifying information was sought. Survey data were collated and analyzed for differences in both categorical and continuous variables as they related to choice of academic or private practice career path. Results: Sixty seven (47%) of the surveys were returned. Forty-five percent of respondents indicated pursuit of an academic career. All respondents participated in research during training with 73% participating in research publication authorship. Post graduate year-3 was the median in which career path was chosen, and 20% thought that a fellowship position was 'perhaps' necessary to secure an academic position. Thirty percent of the respondents revealed that the timing of the American Board of Radiology examination influenced their career path decision. Eighteen variables were offered as possibly influencing career path choice within the survey, and the top five identified by those seeking an academic path were: (1) colleagues, (2) clinical research, (3) teaching, (4) geography, (5) and support staff. For those seeking private practice, the top choices were: (1) lifestyle, (2) practice environment, (3) patient care, (4) geography, (5) colleagues. Female gender (p = 0.064), oral meeting presentation (p = 0.053), and international meeting presentation (p 0.066) were the variables most significantly associated with pursuing an

  3. R&D and knowledge dynamics in university-industry relationships in biotech and pharmaceuticals: An agent-based model

    OpenAIRE

    Triulzi, Giorgio; Scholz, Ramon; Pyka, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades, University-Industry Relationships have played an outstanding role in shaping innovation activities in Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals. Despite the growing importance and the considerable scope of these relationships, there still is an intensive and open debate on their short and long term effects on the research system in life sciences. So far, the extensive literature on this topic has not been able to provide a widely accepted answer. This work introduces a new wa...

  4. Evolución de la terapia ocupacional en el campo de la oncología = Occupational therapy evolution in oncology field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarrete Salas, E

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El objetivo de lasiguiente revisión bibliográfica fue conocer la trayectoria de la Terapia Ocupacional (T.O. en el área oncológica durante las últimas 4 décadas. Para ello se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH y AMED, con los descriptores Terapia Ocupacional, oncología y cáncer, tanto en el título como en el abstract; se excluyeron los artículos que no estuviesen en idioma inglés o español.Los resultados arrojaron un total de 68 publicaciones de T.O. y cáncer, con una curva sostenida de crecimiento en el número de trabajos publicados. En cuanto a tipo de cáncer predominan las publicaciones que aluden a cáncer en general, aunque destaca el interés por estudiar pacientes con cáncer mamario. La metodología predominante es descriptiva aunque en las últimas 2 décadas los trabajos publicados con metodología cualitativa alcanzaron un 30% del total. Destaca el foco puesto en los pacientes (86% de las publicaciones, aunque también hay trabajos referidos al equipo de salud oncológica (14%. Se comprueba además que la gran mayoría de las publicaciones corresponde a intervenciones de T.O. (80%. En conclusión, pese a que el número total de publicaciones de T.O. en oncología es reducido, nuestra revisión bibliográfica permite afirmar que existe un creciente y sostenido interés por explorar este tipo de patologías e integrar activamente los equipos de salud oncológica Abstract:The aim of following bibliographical review was to know which path of the Occupational Therapy (O.T. has been in the oncology area during the last 4 decades. A research was carried out in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH and AMED, with key words Occupational Therapy, oncology and cancer, as much in the title as in the abstract; only articles in English or Spanishwere included. Results threw a total of 68 publications of O.T. and cancer, with a sustained curve of growth in the number of published papers

  5. [What is new in pediatric oncology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, O; Brugières, L; Patte, C; Kalifa, C; Vassal, G; Valteau-Couanet, D; Hartmann, O

    2000-08-01

    The significant progress made in pediatric oncology during recent years has been due to a major breakthrough in the field of molecular biology and the introduction of new therapeutic strategies that take into account both the quality and the duration of life. Molecular biology has already been instrumental in more fully categorizing the 'small round-cell tumor' group, and in reclassifying the 'Ewing family' tumors. It also provides a valuable tool for the prognostic evaluation of neuroblastomas through the analysis of the N-myc oncogene. In addition, it has permitted the identification of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome of predisposition to cancer in the child, thereby raising the problematical ethical issue of communicating relevant information to subjects at risk. Two examples illustrate innovative strategic concepts: 1) Burkitt's lymphoma, or an example of the successful de-intensification of treatment; and 2) brain tumors in young children, regarding which the desire to improve the quality of life has led to innovative attempts to replace radiotherapy by chemotherapy. Considerable progress has been made in the field of neuropsychology, thereby permitting an improved assessment of disorders and a better management of rehabilitation programs. New anti-cancer agents and also chemo- and radiotherapy that spare healthy tissue are also being developed. Gene therapy and molecular biology will play a major role in future therapeutic strategies; and are now at the preclinical trial stage. This significant overall progress leads to a reconsideration of the organizational approach toward treatment of the pediatric patient population suffering from cancer, and a critical assessment of disease management, which should take into account not only the technical aspects of the disease but also familial and social considerations. PMID:10985189

  6. Informal patient payments in oncology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomenko, Tetiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Europe, new cases of cancer are diagnosed in 4 million people yearly, of whom 837 000 die. In Ukraine of 160 000 new cases almost 100 000 die. With proper treatment, one third of cancer cases is curable, but informal payments (IPP in health care limit access to treatment. We aimed to explore the experience of people treated for cancer to identify obstacles in obtaining health care and the expert opinion about health care for cancer patients in Ukraine.METHODS: The study is exploratory. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 convenience sample patients or their relatives as well as with three experts between October 2011 – April 2012. RESULTS. Solicitation or receipt of IPP depends on the organizational culture. Respondents do not mind about IPP, but want this to be their own decision. IPP are often considered a “thank” to the medical staff for the service. The significant percentage of expenditures while in treatment for patients is due to purchases of medicines at their own expense. The problem of a long process of diagnostics and incomplete information by the medical staff about the stage of cancer and possible prognoses are essential for the respondents. According to experts not sufficient number of specialists and equipment for proper diagnosis and treatment is another problem. The attitude of medical staff to the patient with cancer largely depends on the personal features of the staff.CONCLUSIONS: Significant problems perceived by cancer patients are related to purchase of medicines at their own expense, structural and organizational features of hospitals, where they are staying for the treatment. Informal payments largely depend on the personal qualities of medical staff. The government must ensure fairness and equal access in getting care in oncology practice because it mainly affects the health of the nation.

  7. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  8. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneja, Sanjay [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Roberts, Kenneth [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  9. Use of imaging techniques in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging techniques are used in radiation oncology for: disease diagnosis, tumor localization and staging, treatment simulation, treatment planning, clinical dosimetry displays, treatment verification and patient follow up. In industrialized countries, up to the 1970's, conventional radiology was used for diagnosis, simulation and planning. Gamma cameras helped tumor staging by detecting metastases. In the 1970's, simulators were developed for exclusive use in radiation oncology departments. Clinical dosimetry displays consisted mainly in axial dose distributions. Treatment verification was done placing films in the radiation beam with the patient under treatment. In the 1980's, 2-D imaging was replaced by 3-D displays with the incorporation of computerized tomography (CT) scanners, and in the 1990's of magnetic resonance imagers (MRI). Ultrasound units, briefly used in the 1960's for treatment planning purposes, were found again useful, mainly for brachytherapy dosimetry. Digital portal imagers allowed accurate treatment field verification. Treatment planning systems incorporated the capability of 'inverse planning', i.e. once the desired dose distribution is decided, the field size, gantry, collimator and couch angles, etc, can be automatically selected. At the end of the millennium, image fusion permitted excellent anatomical display of tumors and adjacent sensitive structures. The 2000's are seeing a change from anatomical to functional imaging with the advent of MRI units capable of spectroscopy at 3 Tesla and positron emission tomography (PET) units. In 2001 combined CT/PET units appeared in RT departments. In 2002, fusion of CT, MRI and PET images became available. Molecular imaging is being developed. The situation in developing countries is quite different. To start with, cancer incidence is different in developing and in industrialized countries. In addition, the health services pattern is different: Cancer treatment is mostly done in public institutions

  10. Monitoring cancer stem cells: insights into clinical oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin SC

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ShuChen Lin,1,* YingChun Xu,2,* ZhiHua Gan,1 Kun Han,1 HaiYan Hu,3 Yang Yao,3 MingZhu Huang,4 DaLiu Min1 1Department of Oncology, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital East Campus, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2Department of Oncology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 3Department of Oncology, The Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 4Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs are a small, characteristically distinctive subset of tumor cells responsible for tumor initiation and progression. Several treatment modalities, such as surgery, glycolytic inhibition, driving CSC proliferation, immunotherapy, and hypofractionated radiotherapy, may have the potential to eradicate CSCs. We propose that monitoring CSCs is important in clinical oncology as CSC populations may reflect true treatment response and assist with managing treatment strategies, such as defining optimal chemotherapy cycles, permitting pretreatment cancer surveillance, conducting a comprehensive treatment plan, modifying radiation treatment, and deploying rechallenge chemotherapy. Then, we describe methods for monitoring CSCs. Keywords: cancer stem cells, glycolytic inhibition, watchful waiting, rechallenge, immunotherapy

  11. Distance learning in the Applied Sciences of Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The major impediment to the expansion of oncology services is a shortage of personnel. Purpose: To develop a distance learning course for radiation oncology trainees. Materials: Under the sponsorship of the Asia Pacific Regional Cooperative Agreement administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a CD ROM-based Applied Sciences of Oncology (ASOC) distance learning course of 71 modules was created. The course covers communications, critical appraisal, functional anatomy, molecular biology, pathology. The materials include interactive text and illustrations that require students to answer questions before they can progress. The course aims to supplement existing oncology curricula and does not provide a qualification. It aims to assist students in acquiring their own profession's qualification. The course was piloted in seven countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America during 2004. After feedback from the pilot course, a further nine modules were added to cover imaging physics (three modules), informed consent, burnout and coping with death and dying, Economic analysis and cancer care, Nutrition, cachexia and fatigue, radiation-induced second cancers and mathematical tools and background for radiation oncology. The course was widely distributed and can be downloaded from (http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Training/Aso/register.html). ASOC has been downloaded over 1100 times in the first year after it was posted. There is a huge demand for educational materials but the interactive approach is labour-intensive and expensive to compile. The course must be maintained to remain relevant.

  12. The need for more workshops in laparoscopic surgery and surgical anatomy for European gynaecological oncology trainees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Halaska, Michael J; Piek, Jurgen M;

    2013-01-01

    to the survey, giving a 21% response rate. The 3 most important topics reported were laparoscopic surgery; surgical anatomy, and imaging techniques in gynecologic oncology. The Dendron plot indicated 4 different clusters of workshops (research related skills, supportive ancillary skills, related nonsurgical...... subspecialties, and core surgical skills) reflecting different competencies trainees need to meet. There was no significant association between individual country of training and workshop preference. The mean duration of the workshop preferred by 71% of respondents was 2 days. Cronbach α of the 13-item...

  13. Informal Financial Assistance for Patients With a Hematological Malignancy: Implications for Oncology Social Work Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Pam

    2015-01-01

    The article presents original research findings on informal financial assistance for hematological patients; that is, the gifts from family, friends, and communities that help patients cope with the financial hardship associated with cancer. The qualitative study involved interviews with 45 hematology patients that were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and then thematically analyzed. The findings examine the differing perspectives that individuals and families bring to the notion of informal financial aid, provide examples of individuals who require and receive informal financial assistance, and conclude with descriptions of those who require informal financial assistance but it is not available. The implications of the findings for oncology social work practice are explored. PMID:26671243

  14. Scattering of laser radiation as a method for diagnosing widespread diseases including oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Galina P.; Petrusevich, Yurii M.; Evseevicheva, Anastasya N.

    1996-11-01

    Rayleigh light scattering brings a very rich information about static and dynamic parameters of macromolecules in the solutions including aqueous solutions of proteins. It is known that protein molecule have a big electric charge and great dipole moment connected with it. In our investigation it was shown that optic anisotropy, molecular mass, coefficient of molecular interaction, molecular mobility are varied non-linearly with changing of net charge of macromolecules. On the base of our researches we proposed a simple, affordable optical method of diagnostic of oncological diseases and predisposition.

  15. Approval procedures for clinical trials in the field of radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of ionizing radiation for the purpose of medical research in Germany needs to be approved by the national authority for radiation protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS). For studies in the field of radiation oncology, differentiation between use of radiation for ''medical care (Heilkunde)'' versus ''medical research'' frequently leads to contradictions. The aim of this article is to provide principle investigators, individuals, and institutions involved in the process, as well as institutional review or ethics committees, with the necessary information for this assessment. Information on the legal frame and the approval procedures are also provided. A workshop was co-organized by the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO), the Working Party for Radiation Oncology (ARO) of the German Cancer Society (DKG), the German Society for Medical Physics (DGMP), and the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) in October 2013. This paper summarizes the results of the workshop and the follow-up discussions between the organizers and the BfS. Differentiating between ''Heilkunde'' which does not need to be approved by the BfS and ''medical research'' is whether the specific application of radiation (beam quality, dose, schedule, target volume, etc.) is a clinically established and recognized procedure. This must be answered by the qualified physician(s) (''fachkundiger Arzt'' according to German radiation protection law) in charge of the study and the treatments of the patients within the study, taking into consideration of the best available evidence from clinical studies, guidelines and consensus papers. Among the important parameters for assessment are indication, total dose, and fractionation. Radiation treatments applied outside clinical trials do not require approval by the BfS, even if they are applied within a randomized or nonrandomized clinical trial

  16. Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2012 trainee survey: perspectives on choice of speciality training and future work practice preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the key findings of the first Faculty of Radiation Oncology survey of trainees dealing with experiences and perceptions on work practices and choice of specialty. The survey was conducted in mid 2012 using a 37-question instrument. This was distributed by email to 159 current trainees and advertised through the Radiation Oncology Trainees Committee and other channels. There were six email reminders. Respondents were reassured that their responses were anonymous. The overall response rate was 82.8%. Gender was balanced among respondents with 67 (51.5%) being male and 63 (48.5%) being female. The most common age bracket was the 31 to 35 years range. There were similar proportions of trainee responders in each of the five years of training. A substantial number of trainees held other degrees besides medical degrees. The large majority were satisfied with radiation oncology as a career choice and with the Training Network within which they were training. Interest in oncology patients, lifestyle after training and work hours were given as the major reasons for choosing radiation oncology as a career. Nearly half of trainees were interested in undertaking some of their training in a part-time capacity and working part time as a radiation oncologist in the future. Over 70% of trainees stated they were working 36–55 clinical hours per week with additional non-clinical tasks, after-hours work and on-call duties. Nearly half of all trainees reported having one or less hours of protected time per week. Nonetheless, 40% of respondents indicated they had enough time to pursue outside interests. Radiation treatment planning and maintaining currency in general medicine were considered the most difficult aspects of training in radiation oncology. Most respondents were keen on the concept of fostering a research mentor. In terms of views on practice after completion of training, the majority were interested in pursuing a fellowship, and nearly all expressed an

  17. The value of trust in biotech crop development: a case study of Bt cotton in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural biotechnology public-private partnerships (PPPs have been recognized as having great potential in improving agricultural productivity and increasing food production in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is much public skepticism about the use of GM (genetically modified crops and suspicion about private sector involvement in agbiotech projects. This case study sought to understand the role of trust in the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton in Burkina Faso project by exploring practices and challenges associated with trust-building, and determining what makes these practices effective from the perspective of multiple stakeholders. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ understanding of trust in general as well as in the context of agbiotech PPPs. Relevant documents and articles were analyzed to generate descriptions of how trust was operationalized in this evolving agbiotech PPP. Data was analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We derived four key lessons from our findings. First, strong collaboration between research, industry and farmers greatly contributes to both the success of, and fostering of trust in, the partnership. Second, this case study also revealed the important, though often unrecognized, role of researchers as players in the communication strategy of the project. Third, effective and comprehensive communication takes into account issues such as illiteracy and diversity. Fourth, follow-up at the field level and the need for a multifaceted communications strategy is important for helping push the project forward. Conclusions Burkina Faso’s well-established and effective cotton selling system laid the foundation for the implementation of the Bt cotton project – particularly, the strong dialogue and the receptivity to collaboration

  18. Practice of geriatric oncology in the setting of a comprehensive cancer center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geriatric oncology is defined by the multidimensional and multidisciplinary approach of the elderly cancer patients. Autonomy, beneficence, non maleficence and justice are the four fundamental principles on which are based the treatment objectives and practical management of these patients. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is the most used tool to detect the functional problems in these elderly patients. The standard oncologic managements of cancer is applies to these patients. However treatment plan and geriatric interventions must be adapted to each individual characteristics of the patients.Thus a strong interdependence between oncologic and geriatric teams is warranted. This implies specific teaching programs during initial medical studies and in the setting of continuous medical education. Furthermore, such wold wide teaching programs may help to the implementation of Geriatric Oncology. In the Geriatric Oncology Program in Lyon we have developed a specific miniassessement to be practiced in an oncologic setting. Geriatric data were obtained by the version of the geriatric multidimensional assessment tool, which we have called minimal comprehensive geriatric assessment” or mini-CGA. This procedure has been designed to collect information on several major domains including medical (co-morbidity), functional, cognitive, affective, social, and environmental aspects. It is essentially based on a very careful medical examination. We also used other evaluation tools previously validated in elderly people. Dependence was measured using three tools: Katz’s Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) scale that focuses on six basic activities of daily living (bathing, dressing, toile ting, transferring, continence, and feeding); Lawton’s Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) scale that appraises more complex activities essential for independence in community residence; and the Karnofsky Performance scale (KPS) that is widely used in the oncology setting to

  19. [Frequency, cause, and awareness of pulmonary embolism in oncologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Neumann, Johanna; Taute, Bettina-Maria; Surov, Alexey

    2016-05-01

    The frequency of pulmonary embolism (PE) in oncologic patients ranges from 1.1 % to 7.3 % depending on whether not only symptomatic findings but also incidental and initially overseen events are considered. The frequency of PE is tumor-specific. Most frequently PE occurs in patients with malignancy of the ovary (25 %), pancreas, brain, uterus, and multiple myeloma. Most rarely is PE found in patients with malignancy of the testis.The tumor-specific frequency shows that the association of malignancy and PE is not equally true for alle malignancies. A number of arguments that support the above association are also valid in non-oncologic patients.The awareness of the diagnosing radiologist and the thrombus mass decide whether or not an unexpected PE is detected. An increased awareness is suggested in patients with malignancies with high PE frequency and in patients with advanced oncologic disease. PMID:27176066

  20. Using big data for quality assessment in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughman, James R; Chen, Ronald C

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing attention in the US healthcare system on the delivery of high-quality care, an issue central to oncology. In the report 'Crossing the Quality Chasm', the Institute of Medicine identified six aims for improving healthcare quality: safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient and equitable. This article describes how current big data resources can be used to assess these six dimensions, and provides examples of published studies in oncology. Strengths and limitations of current big data resources for the evaluation of quality of care are also discussed. Finally, this article outlines a vision where big data can be used not only to retrospectively assess the quality of oncologic care, but help physicians deliver high-quality care in real time. PMID:27090300