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Sample records for biota-sediment accumulation factors

  1. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  2. Biota-sediment accumulation factors for radionuclides and sediment associated biota of the Ottawa River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, D.; Silke, R.; Carr, J., E-mail: rowand@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    As Ottawa River contamination is historical and resides in sediment, ecological risk and trophic transfer depend on linkages between sediment and biota. One of the ways in which this linkage is quantified is through the use of the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF). In this study, we present the first field estimates of BSAF for a number of radionuclides. The strongest and most consistent BSAFs were those for {sup 137}Cs in deposit feeding taxa, suggesting that sediment concentrations rather than dissolved concentrations drive uptake. For crayfish and unionid bivalves that do not feed on sediment, biota radionuclide concentrations were not related to sediment concentrations, but rather reflected concentrations in water. BSAFs would not be appropriate for these non-deposit feeding biota. BSAFs for {sup 137}Cs were not significantly different among deposit feeding taxa, suggesting similar processes for ingestion, assimilation and elimination. These data also show that the concentration factor approach used for guidance would have led to spurious results in this study for deposit feeding benthic invertebrates. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in Hexagenia downstream of the CRL process outfall range by about 2-orders of magnitude, in comparison to relatively uniform water concentrations. The concentration factor approach would have predicted a single value downstream of CRL, underestimating exposure to Hexagenia by almost 2-orders of magnitude at sites close to the CRL process outfall. (author)

  3. Biota sediment concentration ratio (CRs-b) for fishes of Rana Pratap Sagar Lake, Rawatbhata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, S.K.; Srivastava, A.P.; Jain, A.K.; Meenal, Balram; Tiwari, S.N.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Radionuclides dissolved in water can be adsorbed by bottom/shore sediment transferring it to the deep sediment layers. These adsorbed radionuclides can be remobilized and be available again for uptake by freshwater biota. The biota sediment concentration ratio (CR s-b ) is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in an organism (C b ) on a fresh weight basis to the radionuclide concentration measured in the sediment (C sediment ). Using the data of 137 Cs activity in fish and shore sediment, CR s-b was calculated for fish samples of Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) Lake, Rawatbhata. This value can be applied in predictive models to calculate radionuclide concentration in fish samples

  4. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi

    1997-01-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  5. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  6. Factor accumulation story: any unfinished business?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejak, Michal; Vávra, D.

    -, č. 220 (2004), s. 1-46 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK8002119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : human capital * endogenous growth * total factor productivity and growth accounting Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp220.pdf

  7. Factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deemter, Marielle; Bank, Ruud A.; Vehof, Jelle; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    Purpose: To explore factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous. Methods: Vitreous samples were obtained during trans pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Patient characteristics included age, gender, and diabetes mellitus. Ocular

  8. Wealth Accumulation and Factors Accounting for Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawasutipaisit, Anan; Townsend, Robert M

    2011-03-01

    We use detailed income, balance sheet, and cash flow statements constructed for households in a long monthly panel in an emerging market economy, and some recent contributions in economic theory, to document and better understand the factors underlying success in achieving upward mobility in the distribution of net worth. Wealth inequality is decreasing over time, and many households work their way out of poverty and lower wealth over the seven year period. The accounts establish that, mechanically, this is largely due to savings rather than incoming gifts and remittances. In turn, the growth of net worth can be decomposed household by household into the savings rate and how productively that savings is used, the return on assets (ROA). The latter plays the larger role. ROA is, in turn, positively correlated with higher education of household members, younger age of the head, and with a higher debt/asset ratio and lower initial wealth, so it seems from cross-sections that the financial system is imperfectly channeling resources to productive and poor households. Household fixed effects account for the larger part of ROA, and this success is largely persistent, undercutting the story that successful entrepreneurs are those that simply get lucky. Persistence does vary across households, and in at least one province with much change and increasing opportunities, ROA changes as households move over time to higher-return occupations. But for those households with high and persistent ROA, the savings rate is higher, consistent with some micro founded macro models with imperfect credit markets. Indeed, high ROA households save by investing in their own enterprises and adopt consistent financial strategies for smoothing fluctuations. More generally growth of wealth, savings levels and/or rates are correlated with TFP and the household fixed effects that are the larger part of ROA.

  9. Factors Influencing Biogenic Amines Accumulation in Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M.; del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA biosynthesis and accumulation in dairy foods. Improved knowledge of the factors involved in the synthesis and accumulation of BA should lead to a reduction in their incidence in milk products. Synthesis of BA is possible only when three conditions converge: (i) availability of the substrate amino acids; (ii) presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and (iii) environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxylation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization), use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time, and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH, temperature, or post-ripening technological processes, which will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:22783233

  10. Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailović, Aleksandra; Vučinić Vasić, Milica; Todorović, Nataša; Hansman, Jan; Vasin, Jovica; Krmar, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Airborne 210 Pb, daughter of 222 Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210 Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210 Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO 3 , and available phosphorus (P 2 O 5 ) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210 Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210 Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210 Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil. - Highlights: • 210 Pb and 137 Cs were measured in samples of urban soil. • Organic matter, free CaCO 3 content, available phosphorus, and lead were measured in soil samples. • There is no statistically significant correlation between 210 Pb and lead, CaCO 3 and phosphorus. • A strong positive correlation between 210 Pb and organic matter was observed

  11. Mercury accumulation in sediments and seabird feathers from the Antarctic Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle, Paola; Alvarado, Omar; Monserrate, Lorena; Cevallos, Juan Manuel; Calle, Nastenka; Alava, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed mercury bioaccumulation in seabirds in the Antarctic Peninsula. • Levels of Hg were higher in gentoo penguins & brown skuas than chinstrap penguins. • Mercury BMF in the brown skua/penguins relationship was higher than 1. • Long-range environmental transport is the likely mercury route in Antarctic. - Abstract: In an effort to assess the impact of mercury in the Antarctic Peninsula, we conducted ecotoxicological research in this region during the summer of 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to assess: (a) mercury levels in sediment samples; (b) mercury accumulation in Antarctic seabird feathers: Catharacta lonnbergi (brown skua), Pygoscelis papua (gentoo penguin) and Pygoscelis antarctica (chinstrap penguin); and (c) biomagnification (BMF predator/prey) and biota sediment accumulation (BSAF skuas/sediment) factors. Mercury concentrations in sediment were relatively low. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in brown skuas and gentoo penguins than in chinstrap penguins (2012), and significantly higher in brown skuas than in both penguins (2013). BMF indicated 2–7.5 times greater mercury levels in brown skuas than in penguins. BSAF values suggested an apparent temporal decrease of 18.2% of this ratio from 2012 to 2013. Long-range environmental transport is the likely route of entry of mercury into the Antarctic Peninsula

  12. Mercury accumulation in sediments and seabird feathers from the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Paola; Alvarado, Omar; Monserrate, Lorena; Cevallos, Juan Manuel; Calle, Nastenka; Alava, Juan José

    2015-02-28

    In an effort to assess the impact of mercury in the Antarctic Peninsula, we conducted ecotoxicological research in this region during the summer of 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to assess: (a) mercury levels in sediment samples; (b) mercury accumulation in Antarctic seabird feathers: Catharacta lonnbergi (brown skua), Pygoscelis papua (gentoo penguin) and Pygoscelis antarctica (chinstrap penguin); and (c) biomagnification (BMF predator/prey) and biota sediment accumulation (BSAF skuas/sediment) factors. Mercury concentrations in sediment were relatively low. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in brown skuas and gentoo penguins than in chinstrap penguins (2012), and significantly higher in brown skuas than in both penguins (2013). BMF indicated 2-7.5 times greater mercury levels in brown skuas than in penguins. BSAF values suggested an apparent temporal decrease of 18.2% of this ratio from 2012 to 2013. Long-range environmental transport is the likely route of entry of mercury into the Antarctic Peninsula. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial pattern of heavy metals accumulation risk in urban soils of Beijing and its influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Peng, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Accumulations of heavy metals in urban soils are highly spatial heterogeneity and affected by multiple factors including soil properties, land use and pattern, population and climatic conditions. We studied accumulation risks of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in unban soils of Beijing and their influencing based on the regression tree analysis and a GIS-based overlay model. Result shows that Zinc causes the most extensive soil pollution and Cu result in the most acute soil pollution. The soil's organic carbon content and CEC and population growth are the most significant factors affecting heavy metal accumulation. Other influence factors in land use pattern, urban landscape, and wind speed also contributed, but less pronounced. The soils in areas with higher degree of urbanization and surrounded by intense vehicular traffics have higher accumulation risk of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. - Highlights: • Zn accumulations were the most extensive and Cu accumulations were the most acute. • Accumulations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils were caused by different sets of influence factors. • Soil's organic carbon content and CEC and population growth were the most significant factors. • Accumulation risks were highly related with urbanization level and human activities. - A combined approach of employing geographical information systems and regression tree analyses identify the potential risks of accumulation Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban soils according to soil properties, urban land use patterns, urban landscape, demographics, and microclimatic conditions.

  14. Accumulation and partitioning of seven trace metals in mangroves and sediment cores from three estuarine wetlands of Hainan Island, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Yaowen; Yu Kefu; Zhang Gan; Wang Wenxiong

    2011-01-01

    Trace metals in mangrove tissues (leaf, branch, root and fruit) of nine species and sediments of ten cores collected in 2008 from Dongzhai Harbor, Sanya Bay and Yalong Bay, Hainan Island, were analyzed. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg and As in surface sediments were 14.8, 24.1, 57.9, 0.17, 29.6, 0.08 and 9.7 μg g -1 , whereas those in mangrove tissues were 2.8, 1.4, 8.7, 0.03, 1.1, 0.03, and 0.2 μg g -1 , respectively. Compared to those from other typical mangrove wetlands of the world, the metal levels in Hainan were at low- to median-levels, which is consistent with the fact that Hainan Island is still in low exploitation and its mangroves suffer little impact from human activities. Metal concentrations among different tissues of mangroves were different. In general, Zn and Cu were enriched in fruit, Hg was enriched in leaf, Pb, Cd and Cr were enriched in branch, and As was enriched in root. The cycle of trace metals in mangrove species were estimated. The biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) followed the sequence of Hg (0.43) > Cu (0.27) > Cd (0.22) > Zn (0.17) > Pb (0.07) > Cr (0.06) > As (0.02).

  15. Accumulation and partitioning of seven trace metals in mangroves and sediment cores from three estuarine wetlands of Hainan Island, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Yaowen, E-mail: yqiu@scsio.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tropic Marine Environment, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Yu Kefu [State Key Laboratory of Tropic Marine Environment, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Wenxiong [Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-06-15

    Trace metals in mangrove tissues (leaf, branch, root and fruit) of nine species and sediments of ten cores collected in 2008 from Dongzhai Harbor, Sanya Bay and Yalong Bay, Hainan Island, were analyzed. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg and As in surface sediments were 14.8, 24.1, 57.9, 0.17, 29.6, 0.08 and 9.7 {mu}g g{sup -1}, whereas those in mangrove tissues were 2.8, 1.4, 8.7, 0.03, 1.1, 0.03, and 0.2 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. Compared to those from other typical mangrove wetlands of the world, the metal levels in Hainan were at low- to median-levels, which is consistent with the fact that Hainan Island is still in low exploitation and its mangroves suffer little impact from human activities. Metal concentrations among different tissues of mangroves were different. In general, Zn and Cu were enriched in fruit, Hg was enriched in leaf, Pb, Cd and Cr were enriched in branch, and As was enriched in root. The cycle of trace metals in mangrove species were estimated. The biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) followed the sequence of Hg (0.43) > Cu (0.27) > Cd (0.22) > Zn (0.17) > Pb (0.07) > Cr (0.06) > As (0.02).

  16. KABAM Version 1.0 User's Guide and Technical Documentation - Appendix F -Description of Equations Used to Calculate the BCF, BAF, BMF, and BSAF Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes equations for bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, biomagnification and biota-sediment accumulation factors used in KABAM V1.0. KABAM is a simulation model used to predict pesticide concentrations in aquatic regions for use in exposure assessments.

  17. Energy accumulating substances for increase of replacement factor of petroleum from layer on Kumkol deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunusov, U.I.; Ospanov, E.S.; Nurabaev, B.K.; Ajshuakov, K.A.; Tursunkulov, Eh.T.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory researches with using of alloys of energy accumulating substances are carried out with the purpose of petroleum output increase on Kumkol deposit. Factor of petroleum replacement within range from 79.5 to 82.0 % is received by use silico-barium, silico-calcium and ferro-silicium with alkali and aluminium. (author)

  18. Chemical elements in pearl oysters (Paxyodon ponderosus), phytoplankton and estuarine sediments from eastern Amazon (Northern Brazil): Bioaccumulation factors and trophic transfer factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Maria P. S. P.; Costa, Marcondes L.; Berrêdo, José F.; Paiva, Rosildo S.; Souza, Crisvaldo C. S.

    2016-04-01

    The current study was conducted near Barcarena County, which is a mid-sized urban center where aluminum ore processing industries (bauxite) and Vila do Conde cargo terminal are located. It aims to discuss the bioaccumulation factors as well as factors related to the trophic transfer of chemical elements in water, oyster, phytoplankton and bottom sediments from an estuary in the Brazilian Northern coast. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), trophic transfer factor (TTF) and biota-sediment-water were used to correlate the contents of chemical elements found in organisms. The sediment, surface water, phytoplankton and pearl oysters chemical composition was analyzed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Pearl oysters showed K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, Ba and Pb accumulation, which concentration increase is associated with their diet (phytoplankton). Al concentrations are 14 times higher in pearl oysters (Paxyodon ponderosus), assuming that they are associated with wastewater emissions and with industrialization processes in the area. BAF and BSAF values are 1000 times higher than the metal concentrations in water and bioavailable fraction concentrations. The oyster-phytoplankton trophic transfer factor indicates that P, Ba, Ca, Na, Cd and Zn showed the largest transfers (from 5 to 19). These trophic transfers may be sufficient to cause significant ecotoxicological effects on the region biota.

  19. Sucrose-induced anthocyanin accumulation in vegetative tissue of Petunia plants requires anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Trinh Ngoc; Naing, Aung Htay; Arun, Muthukrishnan; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Chang Kil

    2016-11-01

    The effects of three different sucrose concentrations on plant growth and anthocyanin accumulation were examined in non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic (T 2 ) specimens of the Petunia hybrida cultivar 'Mirage rose' that carried the anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors B-Peru+mPAP1 or RsMYB1. Anthocyanin accumulation was not observed in NT plants in any treatments, whereas a range of anthocyanin accumulation was observed in transgenic plants. The anthocyanin content detected in transgenic plants expressing the anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors (B-Peru+mPAP1 or RsMYB1) was higher than that in NT plants. In addition, increasing sucrose concentration strongly enhanced anthocyanin content as shown by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, wherein increased concentrations of sucrose enhanced transcript levels of the transcription factors that are responsible for the induction of biosynthetic genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis; this pattern was not observed in NT plants. In addition, sucrose affected plant growth, although the effects were different between NT and transgenic plants. Taken together, the application of sucrose could enhance anthocyanin production in vegetative tissue of transgenic Petunia carrying anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors, and this study provides insights about interactive effects of sucrose and transcription factors in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the transgenic plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors affecting polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation in mesophyll cells of sugarcane and switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear biodegradable polyesters produced by bacteria as a carbon store and used to produce a range of bioplastics. Widespread polyhydroxyalkanoate production in C4 crops would decrease petroleum dependency by producing a renewable supply of biodegradable plastics along with residual biomass that could be converted into biofuels or energy. Increasing yields to commercial levels in biomass crops however remains a challenge. Previously, lower accumulation levels of the short side chain polyhydroxyalkanoate, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), were observed in the chloroplasts of mesophyll (M) cells compared to bundle sheath (BS) cells in transgenic maize (Zea mays), sugarcane (Saccharum sp.), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) leading to a significant decrease in the theoretical yield potential. Here we explore various factors which might affect polymer accumulation in mesophyll cells, including targeting of the PHB pathway enzymes to the mesophyll plastid and their access to substrate. Results The small subunit of Rubisco from pea effectively targeted the PHB biosynthesis enzymes to both M and BS chloroplasts of sugarcane and switchgrass. PHB enzyme activity was retained following targeting to M plastids and was equivalent to that found in the BS plastids. Leaf total fatty acid content was not affected by PHB production. However, when fatty acid synthesis was chemically inhibited, polymer accumulated in M cells. Conclusions In this study, we provide evidence that access to substrate and neither poor targeting nor insufficient activity of the PHB biosynthetic enzymes may be the limiting factor for polymer production in mesophyll chloroplasts of C4 plants. PMID:25209261

  1. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soil in Urban Area and the Related Impacting Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meie; Zhang, Haizhen

    2018-05-24

    Heavy metal contamination in roadside soil due to traffic emission has been recognized for a long time. However, seldom has been reported regarding identification of critical factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in urban roadside soils due to the frequent disturbances such as the repair of damaged roads and green belt maintanance. Heavy metals in the roadside soils of 45 roads in Xihu district, Hangzhou city were investigated. Results suggested the accumulation of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Zn in roadside soil was affected by human activity. However, only two sites had Pb and Zn excessing the standards for residential areas, respectively, according to Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for soils. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were significantly and positively correlated to soil pH and organic matter. An insignificant correlation between the age of the roads or vegetation cover types and the concentration of heavy metals was found although they were reported closely relating to the accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soils of highways. The highest Pb, Cd, and Cr taking place in sites with heavy traffic and significant differences in the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn among the different categories of roads suggested the contribution of traffic intensity. However, it was difficult to establish a quantitative relationship between traffic intensity and the concentrations of heavy metals in the roadside soil. It could be concluded that impaction of traffic emission on the accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soils in urban area was slight and soil properties such as pH and organic matters were critical factors influencing the retention of heavy metals in soils.

  2. Urban soils as hotspots of anthropogenic carbon accumulation: Review of stocks, mechanisms and factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Urban soils and cultural layers accumulate carbon (C) over centuries and consequently large C stocks are sequestered below the cities. These C stocks as well as the full range of processes and mechanisms leading to high C accumulation in urban soils remain unknown. We collected data on organic (SOC), inorganic (SOC) and black (pyrogenic) (BC) C content in urban and natural soils from 100 papers based on Scopus and Web-of-Knowledge databases. The yielded database includes 770 values on SOC, SIC and BC stocks from 118 cities worldwide. The collected data were analyzed considering the effects of climatic conditions and urban-specific factors: city size, age and functional zoning. For the whole range of climatic conditions, the C contents in urban soils were 1.5-3 times higher than in respective natural soils. This higher C content and much deeper C accumulation in urban soils resulted in 3 to 5 times higher C stocks compared to natural soils. Urban SOC stocks were positively correlated with latitude, whereas SIC stocks were less affected by climate. The city size and age were the main factors controlling intra-city variability of C stocks with higher stocks in small cities compared to megapolises and in medieval compared to new cities. The inter-city variability of C stocks was dominated by functional zoning: large SOC and N stocks in residential areas and large SIC and BC stocks in industrial zones and roadsides were similar for all climates and for cities of different size and age. Substantial stocks of SOC, SIC and N were sequestered for long-term in the subsoils and cultural layers of the sealed soils, which underline the importance of these 'hidden' stocks for C assessments. Typical and specific for urban soils is that the anthropogenic factor overshadows the other five factors of soil formation. Substantial C stocks in urban soils and cultural layers result from specific mechanisms of C accumulation in cities: i) large and long-term C inputs from outside the

  3. Which Factors Determine Metal Accumulation in Agricultural Soils in the Severely Human-Coupled Ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Cao, Shanshan; Wang, Jihua; Lu, Anxiang

    2016-05-17

    Agricultural soil is typically an important component of urban ecosystems, contributing directly or indirectly to the general quality of human life. To understand which factors influence metal accumulation in agricultural soils in urban ecosystems is becoming increasingly important. Land use, soil type and urbanization indicators all account for considerable differences in metal accumulation in agricultural soils, and the interactions between these factors on metal concentrations were also examined. Results showed that Zn, Cu, and Cd concentrations varied significantly among different land use types. Concentrations of all metals, except for Cd, were higher in calcareous cinnamon soil than in fluvo-aquic soil. Expansion distance and road density were adopted as urbanization indicators, and distance from the urban center was significantly negatively correlated with concentrations of Hg, and negatively correlated with concentrations of Zn, and road density was positively correlated with Cd concentrations. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that Hg concentration was significantly influenced by the four-way interaction among all factors. The results in this study provide basic data to support the management of agricultural soils and to help policy makers to plan ahead in Beijing.

  4. Factors affecting the accumulation of curcumin in microrhizomes of Curcuma aromatica Salisb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Sun, Shulan; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Curcuminoids, and mainly curcumin, are potential therapeutic agents for the prevention of various diseases; however, little is known about the factors that influence their accumulation in Curcuma species. In this study, the effects of factors such as sucrose concentration, different ratios of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and light quality on the accumulation of curcumin and other curcuminoids in Curcuma aromatica were investigated. Microrhizomes grown on media containing 3% sucrose produced more curcumin and other curcuminoids than those grown on higher concentrations. Moreover, when compared to other ratios of 6-BA and NAA, microrhizomes induced on 3% sucrose media supplemented with 3.0 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA produced more curcumin and other curcuminoids; however, the amount was less than in microrhizomes grown on 3% sucrose alone. We determined that a 5% sucrose medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of 6-BA and 0.5 mg/L of NAA enhanced the levels of curcumin and curcuminoids and that exposure to red light further increased production.

  5. HFE gene mutation is a risk factor for tissue iron accumulation in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Ercan; Yildirim, Tolga; Yilmaz, Rahmi; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Eldem, Gonca; Yilmaz, Engin; Aybal Kutlugun, Aysun; Altindal, Mahmut; Altun, Bulent

    2017-07-01

    HFE gene mutations are responsible from iron overload in general population. Studies in hemodialysis patients investigated the effect of presence of HFE gene mutations on serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) with conflicting results. However effect of HFE mutations on iron overload in hemodialysis patients was not previously extensively studied. 36 hemodialysis patients (age 51.3 ± 15.6, (18/18) male/female) and 44 healthy control subjects included in this cross sectional study. Hemoglobin, ferritin, TSAT in the preceding 2 years were recorded. Iron and erythropoietin (EPO) administered during this period were calculated. Iron accumulation in heart and liver was detected by MRI. Relationship between HFE gene mutation, hemoglobin, iron parameters and EPO doses, and tissue iron accumulation were determined. Iron overload was detected in nine (25%) patients. Hemoglobin, iron parameters, weekly EPO doses, and monthly iron doses of patients with and without iron overload were similar. There was no difference between control group and hemodialysis patients with respect to the prevalence of HFE gene mutations. Iron overload was detected in five of eight patients who had HFE gene mutations, but iron overload was present in 4 of 28 patients who had no mutations (P = 0.01). Hemoglobin, iron parameters, erythropoietin, and iron doses were similar in patients with and without gene mutations. HFE gene mutations remained the main determinant of iron overload after multivariate logistic regression analysis (P = 0.02; OR, 11.6). Serum iron parameters were not adequate to detect iron overload and HFE gene mutation was found to be an important risk factor for iron accumulation. © 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  6. Factors controlling mud accumulation in the Heuksan mud belt off southwestern Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Soo; Ha, Hun Jun; Chun, Seung Soo

    2015-12-01

    The Heuksan mud belt (hereafter HMB) is 20~50 km wide, ~200 km long, and ~50 m thick, having accumulated in the course of the Holocene transgression on the tide-dominated epicontinental shelf southwest of Korea. The internal architecture of the HMB is characterized by offshore prograding clinoforms. Of particular interest are the depositional processes responsible for this anomalously thick mud accumulation within a relatively short period of time. Tidal currents are important in the dispersal of mud in the HMB, although these alone cannot explain such an enormous mud deposit. In order to understand the formative processes of the HMB, a detailed sedimentary facies analysis, including high-resolution grain-size measurements, has been conducted on more than 30 short cores and three long drill cores recovered from the mud belt. Five major mud facies were identified. Of these, mud sequences showing a thickening-thinning trend of alternating silt and clay laminae suggestive of a tidal origin occur dominantly at inner to mid shelf locations. By contrast, internally structureless muds with sharp bases and no bioturbation, which are interpreted of representing fluid-mud deposits, are widespread at mid to outer shelf locations. Wave-generated mud ripples and storm beds on the inner shelf suggest that storm waves in winter resuspend previously deposited mud to form near-bed fluid-mud suspensions with resulting gravity-driven mud transport across the low-gradient outer shelf. This previously not recognized process is probably a major factor controlling depositional processes on the giant mud belt, enabling rapid accumulation and offshore progradation even during transgression, i.e., at times of sea-level rise.

  7. Sedimentary facies and lithologic characters as main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulations and their critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qing Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking more than 1000 clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs of Bohai Bay Basin, Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin, China as examples, the paper has studied the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoirs and their critical conditions to reveal the hydrocarbon distribution and to optimize the search for favorable targets. The results indicated that the various sedimentary facies and lithologic characters control the critical conditions of hydrocarbon accumulations, which shows that hydrocarbon is distributed mainly in sedimentary facies formed under conditions of a long-lived and relatively strong hydrodynamic environment; 95% of the hydrocarbon reservoirs and reserves in the three basins is distributed in siltstones, fine sandstones, lithified gravels and pebble-bearing sandstones; moreover, the probability of discovering conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs decreases with the grain size of the clastic rock. The main reason is that the low relative porosity and permeability of fine-grained reservoirs lead to small differences in capillary force compared with surrounding rocks small and insufficiency of dynamic force for hydrocarbon accumulation; the critical condition for hydrocarbon entering reservoir is that the interfacial potential in the surrounding rock (Φn must be more than twice of that in the reservoir (Φs; the probability of hydrocarbon reservoirs distribution decreases in cases where the hydrodynamic force is too high or too low and when the rocks have too coarse or too fine grains.

  8. Factors of the accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids at geochemical barriers in urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosheleva, N. E.; Kasimov, N. S.; Vlasov, D. V.

    2015-05-01

    The bulk contents and concentrations of mobile (extracted by an ammonium acetate buffer with EDTA) Cd, Pb, Sb, As, Bi, Zn, and Cu were determined in the surface horizons of urban soils in the Eastern administrative okrug of Moscow. The regression analysis showed that the accumulation of these metals and metalloids in the soils is controlled by the physicochemical soil properties and by number of anthropogenic factors and landscape conditions (geochemical position, type of loose deposits, character of land use, dust load, vehicle emissions, building pattern, percent of green areas, and the extent of sealed soils). The precipitation of studied elements on the geochemical barriers had the following regularities: Cd, Cu, and Zn accumulated on the alkaline barriers; Bi, Sb, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn, on chemisorption barriers; Sb, As, and Pb, on organomineral barriers; and Cd and Cu, on the sorption-sedimentation barriers. Technogenic transformation of the physicochemical properties of urban soils resulted in the increase of the mean bulk contents of heavy metals and metalloids by 33-99%; the portion of elements fixed on the geochemical barriers increased by 26-50%.

  9. Phenylpropanoids accumulation in eggplant fruit: characterization of biosynthetic genes and regulation by a MYB transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eDocimo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenylpropanoids are major secondary metabolites in eggplant (Solanum melongena fruits. Chlorogenic acid (CGA accounts for 70 to 90% of total phenolics in flesh tissues, while anthocyanins are mainly present in the fruit skin. As a contribution to the understanding of the peculiar accumulation of these health-promoting metabolites in eggplant, we report on metabolite abundance, regulation of CGA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, and characterization of candidate CGA biosynthetic genes in S. melongena.Higher contents of CGA, Delphinidin 3-rutinoside and rutin were found in eggplant fruits compared to other tissues, associated to an elevated transcript abundance of structural genes such as PAL, HQT, DFR and ANS, suggesting that active in situ biosynthesis contributes to anthocyanin and CGA accumulation in fruit tissues. Putative orthologs of the two CGA biosynthetic genes PAL and HQT, as well as a variant of a MYB1 transcription factor showing identity with group 6 MYBs, were isolated from an Occidental S. melongena traditional variety and demonstrated to differ from published sequences from Asiatic varieties.In silico analysis of the isolated SmPAL1, SmHQT1, SmANS, and SmMyb1 promoters revealed the presence of several Myb regulatory elements for the biosynthetic genes and unique elements for the TF, suggesting its involvement in other physiological roles beside phenylpropanoid biosynthesis regulation.Transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves of SmMyb1 and of a C-terminal SmMyb1 truncated form (SmMyb1Δ9 resulted in anthocyanin accumulation only of SmMyb1 agro-infiltrated leaves. A yeast two-hybrid assay confirmed the interaction of both SmMyb1 and SmMyb1Δ9 with an anthocyanin-related potato bHLH1 TF. Interestingly, a doubled amount of CGA was detected in both SmMyb1 and SmMyb1Δ9 agro-infiltrated leaves, thus suggesting that the N-terminal region of SmMyb1 is sufficient to activate its synthesis. These data suggest that a deletion of

  10. The Hog1p kinase regulates Aft1p transcription factor to control iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Telma S; Pereira, Clara; Canadell, David; Vilaça, Rita; Teixeira, Vítor; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc; Costa, Vítor

    2018-01-01

    Iron acquisition systems have to be tightly regulated to assure a continuous supply of iron, since it is essential for survival, but simultaneously to prevent iron overload that is toxic to the cells. In budding yeast, the low‑iron sensing transcription factor Aft1p is a master regulator of the iron regulon. Our previous work revealed that bioactive sphingolipids modulate iron homeostasis as yeast cells lacking the sphingomyelinase Isc1p exhibit an upregulation of the iron regulon. In this study, we show that Isc1p impacts on iron accumulation and localization. Notably, Aft1p is activated in isc1Δ cells due to a decrease in its phosphorylation and an increase in its nuclear levels. Consistently, the expression of a phosphomimetic version of Aft1p-S210/S224 that favours its nuclear export abolished iron accumulation in isc1Δ cells. Notably, the Hog1p kinase, homologue of mammalian p38, interacts with and directly phosphorylates Aft1p at residues S210 and S224. However, Hog1p-Aft1p interaction decreases in isc1Δ cells, which likely contributes to Aft1p dephosphorylation and consequently to Aft1p activation and iron overload in isc1Δ cells. These results suggest that alterations in sphingolipid composition in isc1Δ cells may impact on iron homeostasis by disturbing the regulation of Aft1p by Hog1p. To our knowledge, Hog1p is the first kinase reported to directly regulate Aft1p, impacting on iron homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic kidney disease in Spain: Prevalence and impact of accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostidi, Manuel; Sánchez-Martínez, Mercedes; Ruilope, Luis M; Graciani, Auxiliadora; de la Cruz, Juan J; Santamaría, Rafael; Del Pino, María D; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; de Álvaro, Fernando; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas, José R

    2018-06-15

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem worldwide. We aimed to estimate the CKD prevalence in Spain and to examine the impact of the accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). We performed a nationwide, population-based survey evaluating 11,505 individuals representative of the Spanish adult population. Information was collected through standardised questionnaires, physical examination, and analysis of blood and urine samples in a central laboratory. CKD was graded according to current KDIGO definitions. The relationship between CKD and 10CVRF was assessed (age, hypertension, general obesity, abdominal obesity, smoking, high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle). Prevalence of CKD was 15.1% (95%CI: 14.3-16.0%). CKD was more common in men (23.1% vs 7.3% in women), increased with age (4.8% in 18-44 age group, 17.4% in 45-64 age group, and 37.3% in ≥65), and was more common in those with than those without cardiovascular disease (39.8% vs 14.6%); all P<.001. CKD affected 4.5% of subjects with 0-1CVRF, and then progressively increased from 10.4% to 52.3% in subjects with 2 to 8-10CVRF (P trend <.001). CKD affects one in seven adults in Spain. The prevalence is higher than previously reported and similar to that in the United States. CKD was particularly prevalent in men, older people and people with cardiovascular disease. Prevalence of CKD increased considerably with the accumulation of CVRF, suggesting that CKD could be considered as a cardiovascular condition. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors controlling accumulation of soil organic carbon along vegetation succession in a typical karst region in Southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shujuan [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); Wang, Kelin, E-mail: kelin@isa.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); Pan, Fujing [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Shan [Changsha university, Changsha 410003 (China); Shu, Shiyan [Changjiang Project Supervision & Consultancy Co. Ltd, Wuhan 430010 (China); Changjiang Ecology (Hubei) Technology Development LLC, Wuhan 430010 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Vegetation succession enhances the accumulation of carbon in the soil. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in different vegetation types in the karst region of Southwest China. The goal of this study was to identify and prioritize the effects of environmental parameters, including soil physico-chemical properties, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and litter characteristics, on SOC accumulation along a vegetation succession sere (grassland, shrubland, secondary forest, and primary forest) in the karst landscape of Southwest China. Relationships between these parameters and SOC were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The results showed that SOC accumulation was significantly different among vegetation types (P < 0.01) and increased with vegetation succession (from 29.10 g·kg{sup −1} in grassland to 73.92 g·kg{sup −1} in primary forest). Soil biochemistry and physical characteristics significantly affected the accumulation of SOC. Soil microbial biomass showed a predominant effect on SOC in each of the four vegetation types. In addition, the soil physical property (especially the silt content) was another controlling factor in the early stages (grassland), and urease activity and saccharase activity were important controlling factors in the early-middle and middle-late stages, respectively. Litter characteristics only showed mild effects on SOC accumulation. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the contribution of sole main factors to SOC variation decreased, while the interaction effect among parameters increased along the succession gradient. - Highlights: • Vegetation restoration is conducive to soil carbon sequestration in karst areas. • The factors controlling SOC accumulation differed along vegetation succession. • The interaction effect among significant factors became more and more prominent along succession.

  13. Quercetin suppresses hypoxia-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) through inhibiting protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Yong J

    2008-10-01

    Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive plant flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and induce the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in normoxia. In this study, under hypoxic conditions (1% O(2)), we examined the effect of quercetin on the intracellular level of HIF-1alpha and extracellular level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a variety of human cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed that quercetin suppressed the HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia in human prostate cancer LNCaP, colon cancer CX-1, and breast cancer SkBr3 cells. Quercetin treatment also significantly reduced hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF. Suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin in hypoxia was not prevented by treatment with 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Interestingly, hypoxia (1% O(2)) in the presence of 100 microM quercetin inhibited protein synthesis by 94% during incubation for 8 h. Significant quercetin concentration-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis and suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation were observed under hypoxic conditions. Treatment with 100 microM cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, replicated the effect of quercetin by inhibiting HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia. These results suggest that suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin under hypoxic conditions is due to inhibition of protein synthesis. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Accumulation of evidence during sequential decision making: the importance of top-down factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Floris P; Jensen, Ole; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2010-01-13

    In the last decade, great progress has been made in characterizing the accumulation of neural information during simple unitary perceptual decisions. However, much less is known about how sequentially presented evidence is integrated over time for successful decision making. The aim of this study was to study the mechanisms of sequential decision making in humans. In a magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we presented healthy volunteers with sequences of centrally presented arrows. Sequence length varied between one and five arrows, and the accumulated directions of the arrows informed the subject about which hand to use for a button press at the end of the sequence (e.g., LRLRR should result in a right-hand press). Mathematical modeling suggested that nonlinear accumulation was the rational strategy for performing this task in the presence of no or little noise, whereas quasilinear accumulation was optimal in the presence of substantial noise. MEG recordings showed a correlate of evidence integration over parietal and central cortex that was inversely related to the amount of accumulated evidence (i.e., when more evidence was accumulated, neural activity for new stimuli was attenuated). This modulation of activity likely reflects a top-down influence on sensory processing, effectively constraining the influence of sensory information on the decision variable over time. The results indicate that, when making decisions on the basis of sequential information, the human nervous system integrates evidence in a nonlinear manner, using the amount of previously accumulated information to constrain the accumulation of additional evidence.

  15. Heat shock-induced accumulation of translation elongation and termination factors precedes assembly of stress granules in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Grousl

    Full Text Available In response to severe environmental stresses eukaryotic cells shut down translation and accumulate components of the translational machinery in stress granules (SGs. Since they contain mainly mRNA, translation initiation factors and 40S ribosomal subunits, they have been referred to as dominant accumulations of stalled translation preinitiation complexes. Here we present evidence that the robust heat shock-induced SGs of S. cerevisiae also contain translation elongation factors eEF3 (Yef3p and eEF1Bγ2 (Tef4p as well as translation termination factors eRF1 (Sup45p and eRF3 (Sup35p. Despite the presence of the yeast prion protein Sup35 in heat shock-induced SGs, we found out that its prion-like domain is not involved in the SGs assembly. Factors eEF3, eEF1Bγ2 and eRF1 were accumulated and co-localized with Dcp2 foci even upon a milder heat shock at 42°C independently of P-bodies scaffolding proteins. We also show that eEF3 accumulations at 42°C determine sites of the genuine SGs assembly at 46°C. We suggest that identification of translation elongation and termination factors in SGs might help to understand the mechanism of the eIF2α factor phosphorylation-independent repression of translation and SGs assembly.

  16. Risk factors for chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease are related to accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Jasper W. L.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Graaff, Reindert; van Son, Willem J.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; de Jong, Paul E.; Smit, Andries J.

    Background. Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in renal transplant recipients. We aimed to investigate which factors are associated with tissue AGE accumulation in renal

  17. Risk factors for chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease are related to accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Jasper W. L.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Graaff, Reindert; van Son, Willem J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; de Jong, Paul E.; Smit, Andries J.

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in renal transplant recipients. We aimed to investigate which factors are associated with tissue AGE accumulation in renal transplant

  18. Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products as a Molecular Mechanism for Aging as a Risk Factor in Osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J. de; Verzijl, N.; Wenting-Wijk, M.J.G. van; Jacobs, K.M.G.; El, B. van; Roermund, P.M. van; Bank, R.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent and disabling chronic conditions affecting the elderly. Its etiology is largely unknown, but age is the most prominent risk factor. The current study was designed to test whether accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which

  19. Transcription Factor AREB2 Is Involved in Soluble Sugar Accumulation by Activating Sugar Transporter and Amylase Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi-Jun; Sun, Mei-Hong; Lu, Jing; Liu, Ya-Jing; Hu, Da-Gang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Sugars play important roles in plant growth and development, crop yield and quality, as well as responses to abiotic stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a multifunctional hormone. However, the exact mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation is largely unknown in plants. Here, we tested the expression profile of several sugar transporter and amylase genes in response to ABA treatment. MdSUT2 and MdAREB2 were isolated and genetically transformed into apple ( Malus domestica ) to investigate their roles in ABA-induced sugar accumulation. The MdAREB2 transcription factor was found to bind to the promoters of the sugar transporter and amylase genes and activate their expression. Both MdAREB2 and MdSUT2 transgenic plants produced more soluble sugars than controls. Furthermore, MdAREB2 promoted the accumulation of sucrose and soluble sugars in an MdSUT2 -dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that the ABA-responsive transcription factor MdAREB2 directly activates the expression of amylase and sugar transporter genes to promote soluble sugar accumulation, suggesting a mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation in plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Genetic Factors Involved in Fumonisin Accumulation in Maize Kernels and Their Implications in Maize Agronomic Management and Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rogelio; Cao, Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2015-08-20

    Contamination of maize with fumonisins depends on the environmental conditions; the maize resistance to contamination and the interaction between both factors. Although the effect of environmental factors is a determinant for establishing the risk of kernel contamination in a region, there is sufficient genetic variability among maize to develop resistance to fumonisin contamination and to breed varieties with contamination at safe levels. In addition, ascertaining which environmental factors are the most important in a region will allow the implementation of risk monitoring programs and suitable cultural practices to reduce the impact of such environmental variables. The current paper reviews all works done to address the influence of environmental variables on fumonisin accumulation, the genetics of maize resistance to fumonisin accumulation, and the search for the biochemical and/or structural mechanisms of the maize plant that could be involved in resistance to fumonisin contamination. We also explore the outcomes of breeding programs and risk monitoring of undertaken projects.

  1. Flavonoids-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha/2alpha is mediated through chelation of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Soo; Bae, Insoo; Lee, Yong J

    2008-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1 that is the key regulator of cellular response to low oxygen tension. Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is continuously degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein). Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is stabilized and induces the transcription of HIF-1 target genes. Quercetin, a flavonoid with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and kinase modulating properties, has been found to induce HIF-1alpha accumulation and VEGF secretion in normoxia. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of quercetin-mediated HIF-1alpha accumulation were investigated. Previous studies have shown that, in addition to being induced by hypoxia, HIF-1alpha can be induced through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and p53 signaling pathways. But our study revealed, through p53 mutant-type as well as p53 null cell lines, that neither the PI3K/Akt nor the p53 signaling pathway is required for quercetin-induced HIF-1alpha accumulation. And we observed that HIF-1alpha accumulated by quercetin is not ubiquitinated and the interaction of HIF-1alpha with pVHL is reduced, compared with HIF-1alpha accumulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The use of quercetin's analogues showed that only quercetin and galangin induce HIF-1/2alpha accumulation and this effect is completely reversed by additional iron ions. This is because quercetin and galangin are able to chelate cellular iron ions that are cofactors of HIF-1/2alpha proline hydroxylase (PHD). These data suggest that quercetin inhibits the ubiquitination of HIF-1/2alpha in normoxia by hindering PHD through chelating iron ions.

  2. Accumulated damage evaluation for a piping system by the response factor on non-stationary random process, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, Masanori

    1988-01-01

    This paper shows that the average and variance of the accumulated damage caused by earthquakes on the piping system attached to a building are related to the seismic response factor λ. The earthquakes refered to in this paper are of a non-stationary random process kind. The average is proportional to λ 2 and the variance to λ 4 . The analytical values of the average and variance for a single-degree-of-freedom system are compared with those obtained from computer simulations. Here the model of the building is a single-degree-of-freedom system. Both average of accumulated damage are approximately equal. The variance obtained from the analysis does not coincide with that from simulations. The reason is considered to be the forced vibraiton by sinusoidal waves, and the sinusoidal waves included random waves. Taking account of amplitude magnification factor, the values of the variance approach those obtained from simulations. (author)

  3. Environmental and genetic factors associated with solanesol accumulation in potato leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Campbell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solanesol is a high value 45-carbon, unsaturated, all-trans-nonaprenol isoprenoid. Recently solanesol has received particular attention because of its utility, both in its own right and as a precursor in the production of numerous compounds used in the treatment of disease states. Solanesol is found mainly in solanaceous crops such as potato, tomato, tobacco and pepper where it accumulates in the foliage. There is considerable potential to explore the extraction of solanesol from these sources as a valuable co-product. In this study we have characterised the genetic variation in leaf solanesol content in a biparental, segregating diploid potato population. We demonstrate that potato leaf solanesol content is genetically controlled and identify several quantitative trait loci associated with leaf solanesol content. Transient over-expression of genes from the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP and mevalonic acid (MVA pathways, either singly or in combination, resulted in enhanced accumulation of solanesol in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, providing insights for genetically engineering the pathway. We also demonstrate that in potato, leaf solanesol content is enhanced by up to six-fold on exposure to moderately elevated temperature and show corresponding changes in expression patterns of MEP and MVA genes. Our combined approaches offer new insights into solanesol accumulation and strategies for developing a bio-refinery approach to potato production.

  4. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS A FACTOR OF ACCUMULATION OF NOVEL FORMS OF CAPITAL IN THE CONTEMPORARY MARKET ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grazhevska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR is highlighted as an important factor of accumulation of intellectual, social, reputational and cultural capital, ensuring the global competitiveness of modern market economies. The world experience of CSR development in the context of increasing the level of trust in society, accumulation and effective implementation of social capital is analyzed. The peculiarities of CSR development in Ukraine are emphasized, and the state priority actions are grounded in order to promote social responsibility of the business as a factor of accumulation of new forms of capital, namely: institutionally-organizational arrangement of effective interaction of private business and state, state encouragement of private business to implement CSR by providing tax privileges and benefits, informational support for CSR development, promotion of corporate social responsibility principles, spreading the ideas of CSR among employees, customers, communities, deepening of business cooperation with universities and research institutions towards adapting international best practices and training in the field of CSR.

  5. Soybean (Glycine max) WRINKLED1 transcription factor, GmWRI1a, positively regulates seed oil accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zheng, Yuhong; Dong, Zhimin; Meng, Fanfan; Sun, Xingmiao; Fan, Xuhong; Zhang, Yunfeng; Wang, Mingliang; Wang, Shuming

    2018-04-01

    Soybean is the world's most important leguminous crop producing high-quality protein and oil. Elevating oil accumulation in soybean seed is always many researchers' goal. WRINKLED1 (WRI1) encodes a transcription factor of the APETALA2/ethylene responsive element-binding protein (AP2/EREBP) family that plays important roles during plant seed oil accumulation. In this study, we isolated and characterized three distinct orthologues of WRI1 in soybean (Glycine max) that display different organ-specific expression patterns, among which GmWRI1a was highly expressed in maturing soybean seed. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and yeast one-hybrid experiments demonstrated that the GmWRI1a protein was capable of binding to AW-box, a conserved sequence in the proximal upstream regions of many genes involved in various steps of oil biosynthesis. Transgenic soybean seeds overexpressing GmWRI1a under the control of the seed-specific napin promoter showed the increased total oil and fatty acid content and the changed fatty acid composition. Furthermore, basing on the activated expressions in transgenic soybean seeds and existence of AW-box element in the promoter regions, direct downstream genes of GmWRI1a were identified, and their products were responsible for fatty acid production, elongation, desaturation and export from plastid. We conclude that GmWRI1a transcription factor can positively regulate oil accumulation in soybean seed by a complex gene expression network related to fatty acid biosynthesis.

  6. Impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased CPT1b levels as a contributing factor to fat accumulation in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Cecilia; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Kristensen, Line Vildbrad

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize mechanisms responsible for fat accumulation we used a selectively bred obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rat model, where the rats were fed a Western diet for 76 days. Body composition was assessed by MRI scans and as expected the OP rats developed a higher...... likewise had higher RER values indicating that this trait may be a primary and contributing factor to their obese phenotype. When the adult obese rats were exposed to the orexigenic and adipogenic hormone ghrelin, we observed increased RER values in both OP and OR rats, while OR rats were more sensitive...... to ghrelin's orexigenic effects as well as ghrelin-induced attenuation of activity and energy expenditure. Thus, increased fat accumulation characterizing obesity may be caused by impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b levels in the white adipose tissue, while ghrelin...

  7. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the accumulation of radionuclides in Fucus vesiculosus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Lena.

    1990-01-01

    Fucus vesiculosus has been used as an indicator for the occurrence of radionuclides in the marine environment. A prerequisite in using biological organisms as indicators is that the autecology of the organisms in question be well known. Growth, reproduction and individual biomass changes of tissues of different ages were studied in a Fucus vesiculosus population from the Oeresund, southern Sweden. The new vegetative fronds grown during the year accounted for about 80% of the total plant biomass in the autumn and this could affect the total activity concentration of long-lived radionuclides measured in whole plants of F. vesiculosus. Thus, a discharge of long-lived radionuclides during winter or spring gives a higher increase than a discharge during autumn. Differences in uptake and release of 54 Mn and 60 Co were observed between F. vesiculosus and its epiphytes but also between different tissues within the Fucus plant. Highest uptake and release were measured for the filamentous epiphyte Pilayella littoralis followed by the new vegetative fronds of F. vesiculosus after transplantation in situ from an area outside Barsebaeck nuclear power station, southern Sweden, to an area with low concentration of the radionuclides studied and vice versa. Salinity effects on the accumulation of radionuclides in F. vesiculosus were studied experimentally. Accumulation of 137 Cs, 54 Mn, 65 Zn and 60 Co was significantly higher in algae grown at 8 permille than at 15 and 24 permille, respectively. Most pronounced salinity effects were observed for 137 Cs. The impact of the Chernobyl accident was investigated in the Baltic Sea using F. vesiculosus. The Chernobyl accident contributed to the radioactivity in the Baltic Sea primarily concerning radiocaesium. (author)

  8. Study of the role of biotic and abiotic factors in modifying metal accumulation by Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantzberg, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    The author examined the variability in metal bioaccumulation by chironomids collected from sites that differed in the extent of metal and acid loadings. Bioaccumulation by Chironomus was related to both biotic and abiotic factors. Metal accumulation was age and weight dependent. Aluminum, Ca, and Fe concentrations increased with age, Cd and Ni decreased, and Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn remained constant with age. Calcium, Fe, and Ni concentration increased with weight, Cd decrease, and Cu, Mn, and Zn remained constant with weight. Age and weight effects on metal accumulation were identified as a potential source of spacial and temporal variability in tissue concentrations. Metal regulation differed between populations of Chironomus. Lead and Cd were not regulated, Zn was regulated, and larvae from a Cu and Ni contaminated system appeared to regulate Cu and Ni. X-ray probe microanalysis provided further support that metal metabolism differed between population, and results from laboratory experiments suggested that populations differed in relation to metal tolerance. There was evidence that pH modified metal accumulation.

  9. Multiple metal accumulation as a factor in learning achievement within various New Orleans elementary school communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, H.W.; Berry, K.J..; Mielke, P.W.; Powell, E.T.; Gonzales, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    In New Orleans, the elementary school system is divided into attendance districts with established boundaries that define student enrollment among schools. This study concerns environmental quality as defined by amount of soil metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Mn, Cu, Co, Cr, and V) in attendance district elementary school communities (n=111) paired with learning achievement as measured by individual test scores (n=32,741) of students enrolled at each school. The Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) 4th grade scores measure learning achievement for English language arts, social studies, mathematics, and science. The best fit between environmental quality and higher learning achievement is found to be inversely associated with the sum of the metals or multiple metal accumulations (MMA) in New Orleans communities. The P values for MMA partitions for ELA, SOC, MAT, and SCI are 0.57x10 -7 , 0.29x10 -8 , 0.41x10 -6 , and 0.17x10 -8 , respectively. Efforts to prevent childhood metal exposure should improve New Orleanians' learning achievement as measured by the LEAP scores and thereby enhance the socioeconomic situation in contaminated communities. This study establishes global relationships between LEAP scores in schools and soil metal concentrations in school neighborhoods. However, these data do not allow relating of the LEAP scores with metal levels for individual students

  10. Effects of stem cell factor on hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha accumulation in human acute myeloid leukaemia and LAD2 mast cells.

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    Bernhard F Gibbs

    Full Text Available Stem cell factor (SCF is a hematopoietic growth factor that exerts its activity by signalling through the tyrosine kinase receptor known as Kit or CD117. SCF-Kit signalling is crucial for the survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of myeloid lineage. Furthermore, since myeloid leukaemia cells express the Kit receptor, SCF may play an important role in myeloid leukaemia progression too. However, the mechanisms of this pathophysiological effect remain unclear. Recent evidence shows that SCF triggers accumulation of the inducible alpha subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 in hematopoietic cells--a transcription complex that plays a pivotal role in cellular adaptation to low oxygen availability. However, it is unknown how SCF impacts on HIF-1α accumulation in human myeloid leukaemia and mast cells. Here we show that SCF induces HIF-1α accumulation in THP-1 human myeloid leukaemia cells but not in LAD2 mast cells. We demonstrated that LAD2 cells have a more robust glutathione (GSH-dependent antioxidative system compared to THP-1 cells and are therefore protected against the actions of ROS generated in an SCF-dependent manner. BSO-induced GSH depletion led to a significant decrease in HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylase (PHD activity in THP-1 cells and to near attenuation of it in LAD2 cells. In THP-1 cells, SCF-induced HIF-1α accumulation is controlled via ERK, PI3 kinase/PKC-δ/mTOR-dependent and to a certain extent by redox-dependent mechanisms. These results demonstrate for the first time an important cross-talk of signalling pathways associated with HIF-1 activation--an important stage of the myeloid leukaemia cell life cycle.

  11. Distinct mechanisms of nuclear accumulation regulate the functional consequence of E2F transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, K.E.; Luna, S. de la; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Bernards, R.A.; Thangue, N.B. La

    1997-01-01

    Transcription factor E2F plays an important role in coordinating and integrating early cell cycle progression with the transcription apparatus. It is known that physiological E2F arises when a member of two families of proteins, E2F and DP, interact as E2F/DP heterodimers and that transcriptional

  12. A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS LYING BEHIND RECENT PUBLIC DEBT ACCUMULATION IN ROMANIA

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    Irina BILAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Following Romania’s accession to the EU, its public debt expressed as a share of GDP has seen a steep upward trend. Although this situation has not been unprecedented, as public debt massively increased in many other European countries once the economic crisis emerged, and the current level of Romania’s public debt is still well below the European limit of 60% of GDP, the previous experience of other developing countries tells us that this situation cannot be appreciated as a comfortable one. Against this background, it is important to investigate the factors that led to the recent growth of Romania’s public debt, to see if their action is only temporary or, on the contrary, if they persist over time, and to see if, by the promoted public indebtedness policies, prerequisites have been created to foster economic growth, as a rational support of further debt reduction. Thus, the aim of our paper is to identify and critically evaluate the contribution of different factors underlying the growth of Romania’s public debt in 2007-2013. Our analysis is supported by data (on public debt, public budgetary revenues, expenditures and budget balance, inflation rate, GDP growth rate, etc., collected from the reports of the Ministry of Public Finance of Romania or databases of international institutions (European Commission, International Monetary Fund.The main conclusion of our work is that although, like in other European countries, the economic crisis has contributed, through its effects on the GDP growth rate and budget balance, to the increase of Romania’s public debt, other specific and more persistent factors have also had an important contribution (as the pro-cyclical fiscal policy, the tax evasion, the large volume of arrears to public budgets, especially of public companies, the relatively low tax base, the high expenses on goods and services, salaries or even the interests payments on public debt.

  13. Lack of coordination of nonverbal behaviour between patients and interviewers as a potential risk factor to depression recurrence : vulnerability accumulation in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, AL; Sam, MM

    2000-01-01

    Background: Coordination of nonverbal behaviour during interactions is a prerequisite for satisfactory relationships. Lack of coordination may form a risk factor for depression. The 'vulnerability-accumulation hypothesis' assumes that vulnerability to recurrence of depression will increase with

  14. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is a hypertension risk factor in young adulthood: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeoka, Atsushi; Tayama, Jun; Yamasaki, Hironori; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Sayaka; Saigo, Tatsuo; Kawano, Hiroaki; Abiru, Norio; Hayashida, Masaki; Maeda, Takahiro; Shirabe, Susumu

    2016-11-01

    Accumulation of intra-abdominal fat is related to hypertension. Despite this, a relationship between hypertension and intra-abdominal fat in young adulthood is not clear. In this study, we verify whether intra-abdominal fat accumulation increases a hypertension risk in young adult subjects.In a cross-sectional study, intra-abdominal fat area was measured using a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis instrument in 697 university students (20.3 ± 0.7 years, 425 men). Blood pressure and anthropometric factors were measured. Lifestyle variables including smoking, drinking, physical activity, and eating behavior were assessed with questionnaire. High blood pressure risk (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg) with increasing intra-abdominal fat area was evaluated.Participants were divided into 5 groups according to their intra-abdominal fat area (≤24.9, 25-49.9, 50-74.9, 75-99.9, and ≥100 cm). As compared with the values of the smallest intra-abdominal fat area group, the crude and lifestyle-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were elevated in larger intra-abdominal fat area groups [OR 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-2.80; OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.60-7.57; OR 7.71, 95% CI 2.75-22.22; OR 18.74, 95% CI 3.93-105.64, respectively). The risk increase was observed only in men.Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is related to high blood pressure in men around 20 years of age. These results indicate the importance of evaluation and reduction of intra-abdominal fat to prevent hypertension.

  15. Persistent organochlorines in 13 shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea: Species-specific accumulation and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Sang-Jo; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-05-01

    Data on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in sharks are scarce. Concentrations of OCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the muscle tissue of 13 shark species (n=105) collected from offshore (Indian and Pacific Oceans) and coastal waters of Korea, to investigate species-specific accumulation of OCs and to assess the potential health risks associated with consumption of shark meat. Overall OC concentrations were highly variable not only among species but also within the same species of shark. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heptachlor in all shark species ranged from shark in our study were relatively lower than those reported in other studies. Aggressive shark species and species inhabiting the Indian Ocean had the highest levels of OCs. Inter-species differences in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of OCs among shark species could be explained by differences in feeding habit and sampling locations. Several confounding factors such as growth velocity, trophic position, and regional contamination status may affect the bioaccumulation of OCs in sharks. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk for all the OCs were below one, whereas the hazard ratios of lifetime cancer risks of PCBs and DDTs exceeded one, implying potential carcinogenic effects in the general population in Korea. This is the first report to document the occurrence of OCs in sharks from Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The strawberry FaMYB1 transcription factor suppresses anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, A; De Vos, C H; Wein, M; Sun, Z; Greco, R; Kroon, A; Mol, J N; O'Connell, A P

    2001-11-01

    Fruit ripening is characterized by dramatic changes in gene expression, enzymatic activities and metabolism. Although the process of ripening has been studied extensively, we still lack valuable information on how the numerous metabolic pathways are regulated and co-ordinated. In this paper we describe the characterization of FaMYB1, a ripening regulated strawberry gene member of the MYB family of transcription factors. Flowers of transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing FaMYB1 showed a severe reduction in pigmentation. A reduction in the level of cyanidin 3-rutinoside (an anthocyanin) and of quercetin-glycosides (flavonols) was observed. Expression of late flavonoid biosynthesis genes and their enzyme activities were adversely affected by FaMYB1 overexpression. Two-hybrid assays in yeast showed that FaMYB1 could interact with other known anthocyanin regulators, but it does not act as a transcriptional activator. Interestingly, the C-terminus of FaMYB1 contains the motif pdLNL(D)/(E)Lxi(G)/S. This motif is contained in a region recently proposed to be involved in the repression of transcription by AtMYB4, an Arabidopsis MYB protein. Our results suggest that FaMYB1 may play a key role in regulating the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and flavonols in strawberry. It may act to repress transcription in order to balance the levels of anthocyanin pigments produced at the latter stages of strawberry fruit maturation, and/or to regulate metabolite levels in various branches of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

  17. Differential accumulation and distribution of natural gas and its main controlling factors in the Sinian Dengying Fm, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to disclose the genetic relationship between the hydrocarbon reservoirs and the transformation mechanism between ancient and modern gas reservoirs in the Sinian Dengying Fm in the Sichuan Basin, by using the drilling data, and geologic, geophysical and geochemical methods together, the differential accumulation and distribution of natural gas and its main controlling factors in this study area were identified following the idea of corroborating macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic results each other. The results demonstrate as follows. (1 The crude oil in the paleo-oil reservoirs of the Dengying Fm cracked into gas to form the early overpressure paleo-gas reservoirs 100 Ma. From 100 Ma to 20 Ma, the constant uplifting of the Sichuan Basin coupled with the shift of structural highs and the initial occurrence of Weiyuan anticline caused the adjustment of the early overpressure paleo-gas reservoirs into the late overpressure paleo-gas reservoirs. (2 With the increase of uplifting magnitude since 20 Ma, the formations overlying the Dengying Fm in Weiyuan structure experienced rapid erosion, resulting in decline of the caprock sealing ability and damage to the preservation conditions. Therefore, the natural gas in the Dengying Fm started to leak and dissipate from the eroded window of the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Fm located on the top of the Weiyuan anticline, which is the beginning of the differential accumulation and dissipation of the natural gas in the Dengying Fm across the Sichuan Basin. During the process of the differential accumulation and dissipation, the gas below the spill point of the structural gas traps in Ziyang, Jinshi and Longnüsi–Moxi–Anpingdian–Gaoshiti areas migrated to the Weiyuan anticline along the unconformity of the Dengying Fm, and dissipated through the eroded window of the Jialingjiang Fm on the top of the Weiyuan anticline, resulting in a transformation of abnormal high pressure of gas reservoir

  18. Mast cell accumulation in glioblastoma with a potential role for stem cell factor and chemokine CXCL12.

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    Jelena Põlajeva

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common and malignant form of glioma with high mortality and no cure. Many human cancers maintain a complex inflammatory program triggering rapid recruitment of inflammatory cells, including mast cells (MCs, to the tumor site. However, the potential contribution of MCs in glioma has not been addressed previously. Here we report for the first time that MCs infiltrate KRas+Akt-induced gliomas, using the RCAS/TV-a system, where KRas and Akt are transduced by RCAS into the brains of neonatal Gtv-a- or Ntv-a transgenic mice lacking Ink4a or Arf. The most abundant MC infiltration was observed in high-grade gliomas of Arf-/- mice. MC accumulation could be localized to the vicinity of glioma-associated vessels but also within the tumor mass. Importantly, proliferating MCs were detected, suggesting that the MC accumulation was caused by local expansion of the MC population. In line with these findings, strong expression of stem cell factor (SCF, i.e. the main MC growth factor, was detected, in particular around tumor blood vessels. Further, glioma cells expressed the MC chemotaxin CXCL12 and MCs expressed the corresponding receptor, i.e. CXCR4, suggesting that MCs could be attracted to the tumor through the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis. Supporting a role for MCs in glioma, strong MC infiltration was detected in human glioma, where GBMs contained significantly higher MC numbers than grade II tumors did. Moreover, human GBMs were positive for CXCL12 and the infiltrating MCs were positive for CXCR4. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence for a role for MCs in glioma.

  19. Multiple R2R3-MYB transcription factors involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation in peach flower

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    Hui Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin accumulation is responsible for flower coloration in peach. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of eight flavonoid-related R2R3-MYB transcription factors, designated PpMYB10.2, PpMYB9, PpMYBPA1, Peace, PpMYB17, PpMYB18, PpMYB19 and PpMYB20, respectively, in peach flower transcriptome. PpMYB10.2 and PpMYB9 are able to activate transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, whilst PpMYBPA1 and Peace have a strong activation on the promoters of proanthocyanin (PA biosynthetic genes. PpMYB17-20 show a strong repressive effect on transcription of flavonoid pathway genes such as DFR. These results indicate that anthocyanin accumulation in peach flower is coordinately regulated by a set of R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, PpMYB9 and PpMYB10.2 are closely related but separated into two groups, designated MYB9 and MYB10, respectively. PpMYB9 shows a strong activation on the PpUGT78A2 promoter, but with no effect on the promoter of PpUGT78B (commonly called PpUFGT in previous studies. In contrast, PpMYB10.2 is able to activate the PpUFGT promoter, but not for the PpUGT78A2 promoter. Unlike the MYB10 gene that is universally present in plants, the MYB9 gene is lost in most dicot species. Therefore, the PpMYB9 gene represents a novel group of anthocyanin-related MYB activators, which may have diverged in function from the MYB10 genes. Our study will aid in understanding the complex mechanism regulating floral pigmentation in peach and functional divergence of the R2R3-MYB gene family in plants.

  20. In situ bioavailability of DDT and Hg in sediments of the Toce River (Lake Maggiore basin, Northern Italy): accumulation in benthic invertebrates and passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanello, Francesca; Marziali, Laura; Rosignoli, Federica; Poma, Giulia; Roscioli, Claudio; Pozzoni, Fiorenzo; Guzzella, Licia

    2016-06-01

    DDT and mercury (Hg) contamination in the Toce River (Northern Italy) was caused by a factory producing technical DDT and using a mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant. In this study, DDT and Hg contamination and bioavailability were assessed by using different approaches: (1) direct evaluation of sediment contamination, (2) assessment of bioaccumulation in native benthic invertebrates belonging to different taxonomic/functional groups, and (3) evaluation of the in situ bioavailability of DDT and Hg using passive samplers. Sampling sites were selected upstream and downstream the industrial plant along the river axis. Benthic invertebrates (Gammaridae, Heptageniidae, and Diptera) and sediments were collected in three seasons and analyzed for DDT and Hg content and the results were used to calculate the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF). Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) for DDT and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGTs) for Hg were deployed in sediments to estimate the concentration of the toxicants in pore water. Analysis for (DDx) were performed using GC-MS. Accuracy was within ±30 % of the certified values and precision was >20 % relative standard deviation (RSD). Total mercury concentrations were determined using an automated Hg mercury analyzer. Precision was >5 % and accuracy was within ±10 % of certified values. The results of all the approaches (analysis of sediment, biota, and passive samplers) showed an increasing contamination from upstream to downstream sites. BSAF values revealed the bioavailability of both contaminants in the study sites, with values up to 49 for DDx and up to 3.1 for Hg. No correlation was found between values in sediments and the organisms. Concentrations calculated using passive samplers were correlated with values in benthic invertebrates, while no correlation was found with concentrations in sediments. Thus, direct analysis of toxicant in sediments does not provide a measurement of bioavailability. On the contrary

  1. Accumulation of 125I-factor XI in atheroma of rabbit with hereditary hyperlipidemia (WHHL-rabbit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Y.; Masuda, M.; Murakami, T.; Nishikado, H.; Egawa, H.; Nishimura, T.; Morii, S.; Murata, K.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the turnover and accumulation of rabbit factor XI (F.XI) in atherosclerotic lesion in Watanabe-hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL rabbit) to reveal the participation of blood coagulation in atherosclerotic lesion. Rabbit F.XI was iodinated and administered intravenously to WHHL rabbits and Japanese white rabbits. The turnover of 125 I-rabbit F.XI was significantly faster in WHHL rabbits (T1/2 = 2.84 +/- 0.44 days) than in normal rabbits (T1/2 = 4.44 +/- 0.42 days). The thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbit was strongly labelled with 125 I-rabbit F.XI, in sections obtained after 5 days by en-face autoradiography, whereas no radioactivity was detected in normal aorta. By an immunohistochemical study of WHHL rabbit aorta, we confirmed that many F.XI- and fibrin-related compounds existed in the atheroma, whereas albumin did not in these area. These results suggest that the activation of F.XI proceeds on the atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL rabbits

  2. LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L. Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenzo Muzzalupo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs.

  3. The Citrus transcription factor, CitERF13, regulates citric acid accumulation via a protein-protein interaction with the vacuolar proton pump, CitVHA-c4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-jia; Yin, Xue-ren; Xie, Xiu-lan; Allan, Andrew C; Ge, Hang; Shen, Shu-ling; Chen, Kun-song

    2016-02-03

    Organic acids are essential to fruit flavor. The vacuolar H(+) transporting adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in organic acid transport and accumulation. However, less is known of V-ATPase interacting proteins and their relationship with organic acid accumulation. The relationship between V-ATPase and citric acid was investigated, using the citrus tangerine varieties 'Ordinary Ponkan (OPK)' and an early maturing mutant 'Zaoshu Ponkan (ZPK)'. Five V-ATPase genes (CitVHA) were predicted as important to citric acid accumulation. Among the genes, CitVHA-c4 was observed, using a yeast two-hybrid screen, to interact at the protein level with an ethylene response factor, CitERF13. This was verified using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. A similar interaction was also observed between Arabidopsis AtERF017 (a CitERF13 homolog) and AtVHA-c4 (a CitVHA-c4 homolog). A synergistic effect on citric acid levels was observed between V-ATPase proteins and interacting ERFs when analyzed using transient over-expression in tobacco and Arabidopsis mutants. Furthermore, the transcript abundance of CitERF13 was concomitant with CitVHA-c4. CitERF13 or AtERF017 over-expression leads to significant citric acid accumulation. This accumulation was abolished in an AtVHA-c4 mutant background. ERF-VHA interactions appear to be involved in citric acid accumulation, which was observed in both citrus and Arabidopsis.

  4. Increased accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α with reduced transcriptional activity mediates the antitumor effect of triptolide

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    Li Zheng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, a critical transcription factor to reduced O2 availability, has been demonstrated to be extensively involved in tumor survival, aggressive progression, drug resistance and angiogenesis. Thus it has been considered as a potential anticancer target. Triptolide is the main principle responsible for the biological activities of the Traditional Chinese Medicine tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. Triptolide possesses great chemotherapy potential for cancer with its broad-spectrum anticancer, antiangiogenesis, and drug-resistance circumvention activities. Numerous biological molecules inhibited by triptolide have been viewed as its possible targets. However, the anticancer action mechanisms of triptolide remains to be further investigated. Here we used human ovarian SKOV-3 cancer cells as a model to probe the effect of triptolide on HIF-1α. Results Triptolide was observed to inhibit the proliferation of SKOV-3 cells, and meanwhile, to enhance the accumulation of HIF-1α protein in SKOV-3, A549 and DU145 cells under different conditions. Triptolide did not change the kinetics or nuclear localization of HIF-1α protein or the 26 S proteasome activity in SKOV-3 cells. However, triptolide was found to increase the levels of HIF-1α mRNA. Unexpectedly, the HIF-1α protein induced by triptolide appeared to lose its transcriptional activity, as evidenced by the decreased mRNA levels of its target genes including VEGF, BNIP3 and CAIX. The results were further strengthened by the lowered secretion of VEGF protein, the reduced sprout outgrowth from the rat aorta rings and the inhibitory expression of the hypoxia responsive element-driven luciferase reporter gene. Moreover, the silencing of HIF-1α partially prevented the cytotoxicity and apoptosis triggered by triptolide. Conclusions The potent induction of HIF-1α protein involved in its cytotoxicity, together with the suppression of HIF-1 transcriptional

  5. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  6. Accumulation of Trace Metals in Anadara granosa and Anadara inaequivalvis from Pattani Bay and the Setiu Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradit, Siriporn; Shazili, Noor Azhar Mohamed; Towatana, Prawit; Saengmanee, Wuttipong

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the levels of trace metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in two common species of cockles (Anadara granosa and Anadara inaequivalvis) from two coastal areas in Thailand (Pattani Bay) and Malaysia (the Setiu Wetlands). A total of 350 cockles were collected in February and September 2014. Trace metals were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. We observed that cockles in both areas had a higher accumulation of metals in September. Notably, the biota-sediment accumulation (BSAF) of Cd was highest in both areas. A strong positive correlation of Cd with the length of the cockles at Pattani Bay (r(2) = 0.597) and the Setiu Wetlands (r(2) = 0.675) was noted. It was suggested that As could be a limiting element (BSAF Malaysia Food Regulations, mean values of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were within acceptable limits, but the maximum values of Cd and Pb exceeded the limits for both areas. Regular monitoring of trace metals in cockles from both areas is suggested for more definitive contamination determination.

  7. Determinant factors of the severity of carotid atherosclerosis in relation to accumulation of visceral fat in type 2 diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Kazunori

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to verify the possible association of visceral fat accumulation with the severity of carotid atherosclerosis in order to clarify practical and feasible determinants for each parameter of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic subjects. The subjects studied were consecutive 151 diabetic subjects and age-matched 83 nondiabetic subjects, with no history of atherosclerotic disease. All subjects gave written informed consent to participate in the study. Subcutaneous and visceral fat areas on a CT scan at the level of the umbilicus were measured. Ambulatory 24-h blood pressure (BP) was recorded. Pulse pressure (PP) was defined as systolic BP (sBP) minus diastolic BP (dBP). Stiffness index β as a functional change and intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque formation as structural changes were measured by echo-Doppler examinations of the carotid arteries. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Serum levels of adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined. Male gender, HbAlc, HOMA-IR and serum nonHDL-cholesterol (C) were higher, and visceral fat area was larger in the diabetic subjects than in the nondiabetic subjects. Serum adiponectin and TNF-α levels were similar between the two groups, while the TNF-α/adiponectin ratio in the diabetic subjects was significantly higher than that in the nondiabetic subjects. The IMT was thicker, and the stiffness index β was higher in the diabetic subjects than those in the nondiabetic subjects. These differences still remained highly significant after adjusting for age, sex and 24-h sBP. Plaque formation was also severer in the diabetic subjects than in the nondiabetic subjects. Visceral fat areas were correlated negatively with serum adiponectin levels, and positively with TNF-α/adiponectin ratio and serum nonHDL-C in diabetic subjects. The nighttime PP was associated with IMT, stiffness index β and the degree of plaque formation independently

  8. Combination of Medicinal Herbs KIOM-79 Reduces Advanced Glycation End Product Accumulation and the Expression of Inflammatory Factors in the Aorta of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjin Sohn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that KIOM-79 shows a strong inhibitory effect on AGE formation and inhibited a proinflammatory state in a murine macrophage cell line. In the present study, we investigated the effect of KIOM-79 on AGE accumulation and vascular inflammation in the aorta of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats, a commonly used model of type 2 diabetes. Seven-week-old male ZDF rats were treated with KIOM-79 (50 mg/kg once a day orally for 13 weeks. We examined the dissected aortas for AGE accumulation, expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE, and the expression of proinflammatory factors, including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were also measured by Southwestern histochemistry, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. KIOM-79 markedly reduced the accumulation of AGEs and the expression of RAGE in the aorta. We also found that KIOM-79 attenuated the expression of inflammatory factors including NF-κB, MCP-1, VEGF, VCAM-1, and iNOS in the aortas of ZDF rats. These data suggest that KIOM-79 may prevent or retard the development of inflammation in diabetic vascular disease.

  9. Study of the influence of climatic factors on the accumulation of radio-elements in plant tissue (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, J.; Gilly-Heuze, C.; Nizia, J.

    1962-01-01

    1. Here is proposed an appropriate treatment of soil able to promote absorption and accumulation of radioisotopes in aerial parts of young trees. 2. Thanks to such treatment, young trees belonging to several species appropriately selected can probably be used to detect possible contamination of soil by a radioisotope during a whole vegetation cycle. The concentration power of tissues of these trees is considerable: after being cultivated on contaminated soil for only 4 weeks, the concentration rate is about 85 in spruce-needles. Activity measurements of samples of plant tissues may become a routine process in control of soil contamination. (authors) [fr

  10. Transforming growth factor β-induced superficial zone protein accumulation in the surface zone of articular cartilage is dependent on the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNary, Sean M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

    2014-03-01

    The phenotype of articular chondrocytes is dependent on the cytoskeleton, specifically the actin microfilament architecture. Articular chondrocytes in monolayer culture undergo dedifferentiation and assume a fibroblastic phenotype. This process can be reversed by altering the actin cytoskeleton by treatment with cytochalasin. Whereas dedifferentiation has been studied on chondrocytes isolated from the whole cartilage, the effects of cytoskeletal alteration on specific zones of cells such as superficial zone chondrocytes are not known. Chondrocytes from the superficial zone secrete superficial zone protein (SZP), a lubricating proteoglycan that reduces the coefficient of friction of articular cartilage. A better understanding of this phenomenon may be useful in elucidating chondrocyte dedifferentiation in monolayer and accumulation of the cartilage lubricant SZP, with an eye toward tissue engineering functional articular cartilage. In this investigation, the effects of cytoskeletal modulation on the ability of superficial zone chondrocytes to secrete SZP were examined. Primary superficial zone chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer and treated with a combination of cytoskeleton modifying reagents and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) 1, a critical regulator of SZP production. Whereas cytochalasin D maintains the articular chondrocyte phenotype, the hallmark of the superficial zone chondrocyte, SZP, was inhibited in the presence of TGFβ1. A decrease in TGFβ1-induced SZP accumulation was also observed when the microtubule cytoskeleton was modified using paclitaxel. These effects of actin and microtubule alteration were confirmed through the application of jasplakinolide and colchicine, respectively. As Rho GTPases regulate actin organization and microtubule polymerization, we hypothesized that the cytoskeleton is critical for TGFβ-induced SZP accumulation. TGFβ-mediated SZP accumulation was inhibited by small molecule inhibitors ML141 (Cdc42), NSC23766 (Rac1

  11. Soil geochemical factors regulate Cd accumulation by metal hyperaccumulating Noccaea caerulescens (J. Presl & C. Presl) F.K. Mey in field-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Carla E; Chaney, Rufus L; Martínez, Carmen E

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium contamination in soil is a substantial global problem, and of significant concern due to high food-chain transfer. Cadmium hyperaccumulators are of particular interest because of their ability to tolerate and take up significant amounts of heavy metal pollution from soils. One particular plant, Noccaea caerulescens (formerly, Thlaspi caerulescens), has been extensively studied in terms of its capacity to accumulate heavy metals (specifically Zn and Cd), though these studies have primarily utilized hydroponic and metal-spiked model soil systems. We studied Cd and nutrient uptake by two N. caerulescens ecotypes, Prayon (Zn-only hyperaccumulator) and Ganges (Zn- and Cd-hyperaccumulator) in four long-term field-contaminated soils. Our data suggest that individual soil properties such as total soil Cd, Zn:Cd molar ratio, or soil pH do not accurately predict Cd uptake by hyperaccumulating plants. Additionally, total Cd uptake by the hyperaccumulating Ganges ecotype was substantially less than its physiological capacity, which is likely due to Cd-containing solid phases (primarily iron oxides) and pH that play an important role in regulating and limiting Cd solubility. Increased P accumulation in the Ganges leaves, and greater plant Fe accumulation from Cd-containing soils suggests that rhizosphere alterations via proton, and potentially organic acid, secretion may also play a role in nutrient and Cd acquisition by the plant roots. The current study highlights the role that soil geochemical factors play in influencing Cd uptake by hyperaccumulating plants. While these plants may have high physiological potential to accumulate metals from contaminated soils, individual soil geochemical factors and the plant-soil interactions in that soil will dictate the actual amount of phytoextractable metal. This underlines the need for site-specific understanding of metal-containing solid phases and geochemical properties of soils before undertaking phytoextraction efforts

  12. Chronic administration of epidermal growth factor to pigs induces growth, especially of the urinary tract with accumulation of epithelial glycoconjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Juhl, C O; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor hyperstimulation induced by systemically administered EGF or by the development of transgenic mice overexpressing transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) or other EGF-related ligands is known to induce various effects, such as acceleration of developmen...

  13. Comparison of different enrichment factors to assess the natural accumulation of trace elements in sediment cores from Nhecolandia Pantanal, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Levi F.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Barbiero, Laurent; Furian, Sonia M.; Rezende Filho, Ary T.

    2015-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected at different lakes of salty water, commonly known as 'Salinas', in the Nhecolandia Wetland. In the collected cores, Salina A, Salina 6, Salina M and Salina V, the elements As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, U, Zn and rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. Aiming to verify the best criterion to evaluate the enrichment factor of minor and major elements in the sediment cores, three different calculations of the enrichment factor was employed. The first one, EF (Enrichment Factor), compares the normalized element concentrations with Upper Continental Crust normalized values, the second one, GNF (Geochemical Normalization Factor) compares the ratio between the element concentration and the normalizer with the depth in the sediment core; for these both factors the element Sc was used as a normalizer element. The third one factor, BEF (Base Enrichment Factor), compares the concentrations determined throughout the core with the results obtained in the base of it. With the results, it was possible to conclude that the best enrichment factor to evaluate the enhancement of elements in natural environments is the one that takes into account the core element concentration obtained in the base of it, BEF. (author)

  14. Comparison of different enrichment factors to assess the natural accumulation of trace elements in sediment cores from Nhecolandia Pantanal, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Levi F.; Damatto, Sandra R., E-mail: leyi@usp.br, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barbiero, Laurent, E-mail: barbiero@ltmg.obs.mip.fr [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furian, Sonia M., E-mail: furian@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Geografia; Rezende Filho, Ary T., E-mail: ary.rezende@ufms.br [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharias, Arquitetura e Urbanismo e Geografia

    2015-07-01

    Four sediment cores were collected at different lakes of salty water, commonly known as 'Salinas', in the Nhecolandia Wetland. In the collected cores, Salina A, Salina 6, Salina M and Salina V, the elements As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, U, Zn and rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. Aiming to verify the best criterion to evaluate the enrichment factor of minor and major elements in the sediment cores, three different calculations of the enrichment factor was employed. The first one, EF (Enrichment Factor), compares the normalized element concentrations with Upper Continental Crust normalized values, the second one, GNF (Geochemical Normalization Factor) compares the ratio between the element concentration and the normalizer with the depth in the sediment core; for these both factors the element Sc was used as a normalizer element. The third one factor, BEF (Base Enrichment Factor), compares the concentrations determined throughout the core with the results obtained in the base of it. With the results, it was possible to conclude that the best enrichment factor to evaluate the enhancement of elements in natural environments is the one that takes into account the core element concentration obtained in the base of it, BEF. (author)

  15. Activating transcription factor 6 mediates oxidized LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis in macrophages by up-regulating CHOP expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shutong; Zong, Chuanlong; Zhang, Ying; Sang, Hui; Yang, Mingfeng; Jiao, Peng; Fang, Yongqi; Yang, Nana; Song, Guohua; Qin, Shucun

    2013-01-01

    This study was to explore whether activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), an important sensor to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, would mediate oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)- induced cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis in cultured macrophages and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Intracellular lipid droplets and total cholesterol levels were assayed by oil red O staining and enzymatic colorimetry, respectively. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined using MTT assay and AnnexinV-FITC apoptosis detection kit, respectively. The nuclear translocation of ATF6 in cells was detected by immunofluorescence analysis. Protein and mRNA levels were examined by Western blot analysis and real time-PCR, respectively. ATF6 siRNA was transfected to RAW264.7 cells by lipofectamin. Exposure of cells to ox-LDL induced glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a key-signaling component of ER stress-induced apoptosis, was up-regulated in ox-LDL-treated cells. ATF6, a factor that positively regulates CHOP expression, was activated by ox-LDL in a concentration- and time- dependent manner. The role of the ATF6-mediated ER stress pathway was further confirmed through the siRNA-mediated knockdown of ATF6, which attenuated ox-LDL-induced upregulation of CHOP, cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis in macrophages. In addition, the phosphorylation of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), another factor that positively regulates CHOP expression, was induced in the presence of ox-LDL, and PERK-specific siRNA also inhibited the ox-LDL-induced upregulation of CHOP and apoptosis in RAW264.7 cells. These results demonstrate that ER stress-related proteins, particularly ATF6 and its downstream molecule CHOP, are involved in ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis in macrophages.

  16. Schedule-dependent inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein accumulation, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by topotecan in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Annamaria; Zalek, Jessica; Hollingshead, Melinda; Braunschweig, Till; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Bonomi, Carrie A; Borgel, Suzanne D; Carter, John P; Hewitt, Stephen M; Shoemaker, Robert H; Melillo, Giovanni

    2004-10-01

    We have previously shown that topotecan, a topoisomerase I poison, inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha protein accumulation by a DNA damage-independent mechanism. Here, we report that daily administration of topotecan inhibits HIF-1alpha protein expression in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts. Concomitant with HIF-1alpha inhibition, topotecan caused a significant tumor growth inhibition associated with a marked decrease of angiogenesis and expression of HIF-1 target genes in tumor tissue. These results provide a compelling rationale for testing topotecan in clinical trials to target HIF-1 in cancer patients.

  17. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy-induced glioma invasion is associated with accumulation of Tie2-expressing monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad B.; Conrad, Charles A.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Marini, Frank C.; Alonso, Marta M.; Idoate, Miguel Angel; Gilbert, Mark R.; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria

    2014-01-01

    The addition of anti-angiogenic therapy to the few treatments available to patients with malignant gliomas was based on the fact that these tumors are highly vascularized and on encouraging results from preclinical and clinical studies. However, tumors that initially respond to this therapy invariably recur with the acquisition of a highly aggressive and invasive phenotype. Although several myeloid populations have been associated to this pattern of recurrence, a specific targetable population has not been yet identified. Here, we present evidence for the accumulation of Tie2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs) at the tumor/normal brain interface of mice treated with anti-VEGF therapies in regions with heightened tumoral invasion. Furthermore, we describe the presence of TEMs in malignant glioma surgical specimens that recurred after bevacizumab treatment. Our studies showed that TEMs enhanced the invasive properties of glioma cells and secreted high levels of gelatinase enzymatic proteins. Accordingly, Tie2+MMP9+ monocytic cells were consistently detected in the invasive tumor edge upon anti-VEGF therapies. Our results suggest the presence of a specific myeloid/monocytic subpopulation that plays a pivotal role in the mechanism of escape of malignant gliomas from anti-VEGF therapies and therefore constitutes a new cellular target for combination therapies in patients selected for anti-angiogenesis treatment. PMID:24809734

  18. Accumulation of Peptidoglycan O-Acetylation Leads to Altered Cell Wall Biochemistry and Negatively Impacts Pathogenesis Factors of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Reuben; Frirdich, Emilisa; Sychantha, David; Biboy, Jacob; Taveirne, Michael E; Johnson, Jeremiah G; DiRita, Victor J; Vollmer, Waldemar; Clarke, Anthony J; Gaynor, Erin C

    2016-10-21

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite its prevalence, its mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. Peptidoglycan (PG) is important for helical shape, colonization, and host-pathogen interactions in C. jejuni Therefore, changes in PG greatly impact the physiology of this organism. O-acetylation of peptidoglycan (OAP) is a bacterial phenomenon proposed to be important for proper cell growth, characterized by acetylation of the C6 hydroxyl group of N-acetylmuramic acid in the PG glycan backbone. The OAP gene cluster consists of a PG O-acetyltransferase A (patA) for translocation of acetate into the periplasm, a PG O-acetyltransferase B (patB) for O-acetylation, and an O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase (ape1) for de-O-acetylation. In this study, reduced OAP in ΔpatA and ΔpatB had minimal impact on C. jejuni growth and fitness under the conditions tested. However, accumulation of OAP in Δape1 resulted in marked differences in PG biochemistry, including O-acetylation, anhydromuropeptide levels, and changes not expected to result directly from Ape1 activity. This suggests that OAP may be a form of substrate level regulation in PG biosynthesis. Ape1 acetylesterase activity was confirmed in vitro using p-nitrophenyl acetate and O-acetylated PG as substrates. In addition, Δape1 exhibited defects in pathogenesis-associated phenotypes, including cell shape, motility, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and sodium deoxycholate sensitivity. Δape1 was also impaired for chick colonization and adhesion, invasion, intracellular survival, and induction of IL-8 production in INT407 cells in vitro The importance of Ape1 in C. jejuni biology makes it a good candidate as an antimicrobial target. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Heat-induced accumulation of protein synthesis elongation factor 1A indicates an important role in heat tolerance in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat stress substantially reduces crop productivity worldwide, and will become more severe due to global warming. Identification of proteins involved in heat stress response may help develop varieties for heat tolerance. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) is a cytosolic, multifunctional protei...

  20. The role of metformin and resveratrol in the prevention of hypoxia‐inducible factoraccumulation and fibrosis in hypoxic adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaole; Li, Jia; Wang, Lulu; Li, Aiyun; Qiu, Zhixia; Qi, Lian‐wen; Kou, Junping; Liu, Kang; Liu, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hypoxic activation of hypoxia‐inducible factor 1α (HIF‐1α) and fibrosis in adipose tissue contribute to adipose dysfunction. This study was designed to investigate the effects of metformin and resveratrol on the regulation of HIF‐1α and fibrosis in hypoxic adipose tissue. Experimental Approach Mice were fed a high‐fat diet to induce hypoxia and fibrosis in adipose tissue; adipose tissue incubated in vitro in 1% O2 showed a similar change. The effects of metformin and resveratrol on hypoxia, HIF‐1α accumulation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and gene expressions of extracellular matrix components and pro‐inflammatory cytokines were examined. Key Results Oral administration of metformin or resveratrol prevented hypoxia and reduced HIF‐1α accumulation with dephosphorylation of inositol‐requiring enzyme 1α and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, indicative of suppression of hypoxic HIF‐1α activation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Metformin and resveratrol down‐regulated gene expressions of Col3α, Col6α, elastin and lysyl oxidase and thereby reduced collagen deposition in adipose tissue. The increased gene expressions of TNF‐α, IL‐6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and F4/80 were also down‐regulated by metformin and resveratrol. Metformin and resveratrol had similar effects in adipose tissue exposed to 1% O2. Metformin reduced ATP production and prevented the reduction in oxygen tension in 3T3‐L1 cells, suggesting that it prevented hypoxia by limiting oxygen consumption, whereas resveratrol reduced HIF‐1α accumulation by promoting its proteasomal degradation via the regulation of AMPK/SIRT1. Conclusion and Implications Hypoxia and fibrosis are early causes of adipose dysfunction in obesity. Both metformin and resveratrol effectively inhibited HIF‐1α activation‐induced fibrosis and inflammation in adipose tissue, although by different mechanisms. PMID:27059094

  1. The role of metformin and resveratrol in the prevention of hypoxia-inducible factoraccumulation and fibrosis in hypoxic adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaole; Li, Jia; Wang, Lulu; Li, Aiyun; Qiu, Zhixia; Qi, Lian-Wen; Kou, Junping; Liu, Kang; Liu, Baolin; Huang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Hypoxic activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and fibrosis in adipose tissue contribute to adipose dysfunction. This study was designed to investigate the effects of metformin and resveratrol on the regulation of HIF-1α and fibrosis in hypoxic adipose tissue. Mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce hypoxia and fibrosis in adipose tissue; adipose tissue incubated in vitro in 1% O2 showed a similar change. The effects of metformin and resveratrol on hypoxia, HIF-1α accumulation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and gene expressions of extracellular matrix components and pro-inflammatory cytokines were examined. Oral administration of metformin or resveratrol prevented hypoxia and reduced HIF-1α accumulation with dephosphorylation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, indicative of suppression of hypoxic HIF-1α activation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Metformin and resveratrol down-regulated gene expressions of Col3α, Col6α, elastin and lysyl oxidase and thereby reduced collagen deposition in adipose tissue. The increased gene expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and F4/80 were also down-regulated by metformin and resveratrol. Metformin and resveratrol had similar effects in adipose tissue exposed to 1% O2 . Metformin reduced ATP production and prevented the reduction in oxygen tension in 3T3-L1 cells, suggesting that it prevented hypoxia by limiting oxygen consumption, whereas resveratrol reduced HIF-1α accumulation by promoting its proteasomal degradation via the regulation of AMPK/SIRT1. Hypoxia and fibrosis are early causes of adipose dysfunction in obesity. Both metformin and resveratrol effectively inhibited HIF-1α activation-induced fibrosis and inflammation in adipose tissue, although by different mechanisms. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and accumulation of fibronectin in coronary artery restenotic lesions retrieved by atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausell, N.; de Lima, V. C.; Molossi, S.; Liu, P.; Turley, E.; Gotlieb, A. I.; Adelman, A. G.; Rabinovitch, M.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The formation of coronary artery neointima experimentally induced in piglets after cardiac transplantation is related to an immune-inflammatory reaction associated with increased expression of T cells and inflammatory mediators (tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta) and upregulation of fibronectin. In vivo blockade of tumour necrosis factor alpha in rabbits after cardiac transplantation results in reduced neointimal formation. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that coronary restenosis after atherectomy or percutaneous balloon angioplasty is associated with a similar inflammatory cascade initiated by mechanical injury. METHODS--Specimens taken at coronary atherectomy were analysed from 16 patients. Nine had had the procedure performed twice, firstly, to remove a primary lesion, and secondly, to remove a restenotic lesion. Seven had percutaneous balloon angioplasty after removal of restenotic tissue. Coronary atherectomy specimens were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the presence of T cells, macrophages, major histocompatibility complex II, interleukin 1 beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha, fibronectin, and the receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility. RESULTS--The groups were clinically and angiographically similar with equivalent lumens before and after atherectomy. Restenotic lesions had increased expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and fibronectin compared with the primary lesions (P < 0.05 for both). There was also a trend towards a greater number of T cells and increased expression of interleukin 1 beta. CONCLUSIONS--Restenosis is associated with increased expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and fibronectin, suggesting that an immune-inflammatory reaction probably contributes to neointimal formation and may represent a form of wound healing and repair secondary to mechanical injury. Images PMID:7626352

  3. The importance of biological factors affecting trace metal concentration as revealed from accumulation patterns in co-occurring terrestrial invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, Frederik; Maelfait, Jean-Pierre; Bogaert, Nicolas; Tojal, Catarina; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip M.G.; Verloo, Marc G

    2004-02-01

    As physicochemical properties of the soil highly influence the bioavailable fraction of a particular trace metal, measured metal body burdens in a particular species are often assumed to be more reliable estimators of the contamination of the biota. To test this we compared the Cd, Cu and Zn content of three spiders (generalist predators) and two amphipods (detritivores), co-occurring in seven tidal marshes along the river Schelde, between each other and with the total metal concentrations and the concentrations of four sequential extractions of the soils. Correlations were significant in only one case and significant sitexspecies interactions for all metals demonstrate that factors affecting metal concentration were species and site specific and not solely determined by site specific characteristics. These results emphasize that site and species specific biological factors might be of the utmost importance in determining the contamination of the biota, at least for higher trophic levels. A hypothetical example clarifies these findings. - Site and species specific biological factors are important in determining contamination of biota.

  4. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors influencing [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) accumulation in melanoma cells. Is FDG a substrate of multidrug resistance (MDR)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyoshi; Brink, I.; Engelhardt, R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to specify the influence of multidrug-resistance (MDR) on the accumulation of the PET tracer, F-18 FDG ([Fluorine-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, in melanoma cells, both the MDR function and expression of two human melanoma cell lines SK-MEL 23 and 24, were evaluated. The effects of MDR modulators on FDG accumulation and efflux were also investigated. A functional analysis using representative MDR fluorescent substrates and inhibitors clarified the following characteristics: SK-MEL 23 possesses a highly active function of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), but not P-gp. SK-MEL 24 possesses weak functions of both MRP and P-gp. Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibodies for MDR expression demonstrated an exceedingly high MRP expression of SK-MEL 23 and only slight P-gp and MRP expression of SK-MEL 24, corresponding to the functional data. The efflux inhibition assay using F-18 FDG revealed a considerable retention of FDG in SK-MEL 23 in the presence of the MRP inhibitor probenecid. It was also found that the P-gp inhibitor verapamil depressed the FDG efflux of SK-MEL 24. Our present in vitro study suggests that FDG may be a substrate of MDR in some melanoma cells and further MDR may be one of the important factors affecting FDG-PET melanoma imaging. (author)

  6. Nuclear accumulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and acceleration of G1/S stage by Epstein-Barr-encoded oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Yongguang; Song Xing; Deng Xiyun; Xie Daxin; Lee, Leo M.; Liu Yiping; Li Wei; Li Lili; Deng Lin; Wu Qiao; Gong Jianping; Cao Ya

    2005-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is considered to be the major oncogenic protein of EBV-encoded proteins and has always been the core of the oncogenic mechanism of EBV. Advanced studies on nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family have greatly improved our knowledge of the biological function of cell surface receptors. In this study, we used the Tet-on LMP1 HNE2 cell line as a cell model, which is a dual-stable LMP1-integrated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line and the expression of LMP1 which could be regulated by the Tet system. We found that LMP1 could regulate the nuclear accumulation of EGFR in a dose-dependent manner quantitatively and qualitatively. We also demonstrated that the nuclear localization sequence of EGFR played some roles in the location of the protein within the nucleus under LMP1 regulation and EGFR in the nucleus could bind to the promoters of cyclinD1 and cyclinE, respectively. We further demonstrated that EGFR is involved in the acceleration of the G1/S phase transition by LMP1 through binding to cyclinD1 and cyclinE directly. These findings provided a novel view that the acceleration of LMP1 on the G1/S transition via the nuclear accumulation of EGFR was critical in the process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  7. The bHLH transcription factor MdbHLH3 promotes anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration in response to low temperature in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing-Bin; Li, Shen; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Ying-Chun; Zhao, Qiang; Yao, Yu-Xin; You, Chun-Xiang; Zhang, Xian-Sheng; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-11-01

    Low environmental temperatures promote anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration by up-regulating the expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in many fruit trees. However, the molecular mechanism by which fruit trees regulate this process in response to low temperature (LT) remains largely unknown. In this study, the cold-induced bHLH transcription factor gene MdbHLH3 was isolated from an apple tree and was found to interact physically and specifically through two regions (amino acids 1-23 and 186-228) at the N terminus with the MYB partner MdMYB1 (allelic to MdMYB10). Subsequently, MdbHLH3 bound to the promoters of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes MdDFR and MdUFGT and the regulatory gene MdMYB1 to activate their expression. Furthermore, the MdbHLH3 protein was post-translationally modified, possibly involving phosphorylation following exposure to LTs, which enhanced its promoter-binding capacity and transcription activity. Our results demonstrate the molecular mechanism by which MdbHLH3 regulates LT-induced anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration in apple. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Modeling the Long-term Transport and Accumulation of Radionuclides in the Landscape for Derivation of Dose Conversion Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Rodolfo Moreno; Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the radiological impact of potential releases to the biosphere from a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel, it is necessary to assess the long-term dynamics of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. In this paper, we propose an approach for making prognoses of the distribution and fluxes of radionuclides released from the geosphere, in discharges of contaminated groundwater, to an evolving landscape. The biosphere changes during the temperate part (spanning approximately 20,000 years) of an interglacial period are handled by building biosphere models for the projected succession of situations. Radionuclide transport in the landscape is modeled dynamically with a series of interconnected radioecological models of those ecosystem types (sea, lake, running water, mire, agricultural land and forest) that occur at present, and are projected to occur in the future, in a candidate area for a geological repository in Sweden. The transformation between ecosystems is modeled as discrete events occurring every thousand years by substituting one model by another. Examples of predictions of the radionuclide distribution in the landscape are presented for several scenarios with discharge locations varying in time and space. The article also outlines an approach for estimating the exposure of man resulting from all possible reasonable uses of a potentially contaminated landscape, which was used for derivation of Landscape Dose Factors

  9. Deregulation of sucrose-controlled translation of a bZIP-type transcription factor results in sucrose accumulation in leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Thalor

    Full Text Available Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S--stands for small basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT. It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5'-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5'-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3-4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content.

  10. Deregulation of sucrose-controlled translation of a bZIP-type transcription factor results in sucrose accumulation in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalor, Sunil Kumar; Berberich, Thomas; Lee, Sung Shin; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhu, Xujun; Imai, Ryozo; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S--stands for small) basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT). It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF) found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5'-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5'-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3-4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content.

  11. Sediment redistribution and grainsize effects on 230Th-normalized mass accumulation rates and focusing factors in the Panama Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveley, Matthew R.; Marcantonio, Franco; Lyle, Mitchell; Ibrahim, Rami; Hertzberg, Jennifer E.; Schmidt, Matthew W.

    2017-12-01

    Here, we examine how redistribution of differing grain sizes by sediment focusing processes in Panama Basin sediments affects the use of 230Th as a constant-flux proxy. We study representative sediments of Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) time slices from four sediment cores from two different localities close to the ridges that bound the Panama Basin. Each locality contains paired sites that are seismically interpreted to have undergone extremes in sediment redistribution, i.e., focused versus winnowed sites. Both Holocene and LGM samples from sites where winnowing has occurred contain significant amounts (up to 50%) of the 230Th within the >63 μm grain size fraction, which makes up 40-70% of the bulk sediment analyzed. For sites where focusing has occurred, Holocene and LGM samples contain the greatest amounts of 230Th (up to 49%) in the finest grain-sized fraction (winnowed sites. Corrections made using a model by Kretschmer et al. (2010) suggest a maximum change of about 30% in 230Th-derived MARs and focusing factors at focused sites, except for our most focused site which requires an approximate 70% correction in one sample. Our 230Th-corrected 232Th flux results suggest that the boundary between hemipelagically- and pelagically-derived sediments falls between 350 and 600 km from the continental margin.

  12. Screening for microplastics in sediment, water, marine invertebrates and fish: method development and microplastic accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson, Therese; Vethaak, A.D.; Carney Almroth, Bethany; Ariese, Freek; van Velzen, M.J.M.; Hassellöv, Martin; Leslie, H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of microplastics in biota and abiotic matrices are key elements of exposure and risk assessments for this emerging environmental pollutant. We investigated the abundance of microplastics in field-collected biota, sediment and water. An improved sediment extraction method, based on

  13. Fatores de risco comportamentais acumulados para doenças cardiovasculares no sul do Brasil Factores de riesgo conductuales acumulados en enfermedades cardiovasculares en el sur de Brasil Accumulated behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Correa Muniz

    2012-06-01

    de base poblacional con muestra representativa de 2.732 adultos de ambos sexos de Pelotas, Sur de Brasil, en 2010. Los factores de riesgo conductuales investigados fueron: tabaquismo; inactividad física en las horas de ocio; consumo habitual de grasa aparente de la carne, e consumo diario de embutidos, carne roja y leche integral. El desenlace del estudio fue el escore de aglomeración de factores de riesgo conductuales, variando de cero a tres: ningún factor de riesgo conductual para enfermedades cardiovasculares o exposición a 1, 2 o > 3 factores de riesgo conductuales. Se realizó regresión logística multinomial para evaluar el efecto ajustado de las características individuales sobre la acumulación de factores de riesgo conductuales, teniendo como categoría de referencia individuos sin alguno de los factores. RESULTADOS: La inactividad física fue el factor de riesgo más prevaleciente (75,6%, seguido del consumo habitual de grasa aparente de la carne (52,3%. Dos tercios de la población presentaron dos o más factores de riesgo conductuales. La combinación de inactividad física y consumo habitual de grasa aparente de la carne ocurrió en 17,5% de la muestra; e inactividad física, consumo habitual de grasa aparente de la carne y tabaquismo, en 6,7%. Los odds ratios de acumulación de dos o más factores fueron mayores entre hombres y se asociaron inversamente con el indicador económico nacional. CONCLUSIONES: La acumulación de factores de riesgo conductuales en enfermedades cardiovasculares es elevada en la población estudiada. Son necesarias intervenciones públicas capaces de prevenir la ocurrencia simultánea de tales factores.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of, and identify factors associated with, accumulated risky behavior relating to cardiovascular diseases among adults. METHODS: This was a population-based cross-sectional study on a representative sample of 2732 adults of both sexes in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2010. The behavioral

  14. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on "1"3"7Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubina, N.

    2016-01-01

    Levels of soil contamination with "1"3"7Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of "1"3"7Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of "1"3"7Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of "1"3"7Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of "1"3"7Cs specific activity in fungi. - Highlights: • Factors influencing on the "1"3"7Cs accumulation by higher fungi have been studied. • "1"3"7Cs specific activity levels in one species fungi could change to up to 10 times during a vegetation season. • A reliable linear dependence of "1"3"7Cs content in fungi on precipitate quantity has not been determined.

  15. Delayed Accumulation of H3K27me3 on Nascent DNA Is Essential for Recruitment of Transcription Factors at Early Stages of Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, Svetlana; Cai, Jingli; Sussman, Robyn; Sun, Guizhi; Kovermann, Sina K; Mariani, Samanta A; Calabretta, Bruno; McMahon, Steven B; Brock, Hugh W; Iacovitti, Lorraine; Mazo, Alexander

    2017-04-20

    Recruitment of transcription factors (TFs) to repressed genes in euchromatin is essential to activate new transcriptional programs during cell differentiation. However, recruitment of all TFs, including pioneer factors, is impeded by condensed H3K27me3-containing chromatin. Single-cell and gene-specific analyses revealed that, during the first hours of induction of differentiation of mammalian embryonic stem cells (ESCs), accumulation of the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 is delayed after DNA replication, indicative of a decondensed chromatin structure in all regions of the replicating genome. This delay provides a critical "window of opportunity" for recruitment of lineage-specific TFs to DNA. Increasing the levels of post-replicative H3K27me3 or preventing S phase entry inhibited recruitment of new TFs to DNA and significantly blocked cell differentiation. These findings suggest that recruitment of lineage-specifying TFs occurs soon after replication and is facilitated by a decondensed chromatin structure. This insight may explain the developmental plasticity of stem cells and facilitate their exploitation for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adverse life events, area socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychopathology and resilience in young children: the importance of risk factors' accumulation and protective factors' specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-06-01

    Few studies on resilience in young children model risk appropriately and test theory-led hypotheses about its moderation. This study addressed both issues. Our hypothesis was that for preschool children's emotional/behavioral adjustment in the face of contextual risk protective factors should be located in the cognitive domain. Data were from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study. The final study sample was 4,748 three-year-old children clustered in 1,549 Lower layer Super Output Areas in nine strata. Contextual risk was measured at both area (with the Index of Multiple Deprivation) and family (with proximal and distal adverse life events experienced) level. Moderator variables were parenting, verbal and non-verbal ability, developmental milestones, and temperament. Multivariate multilevel models-that allowed for correlated residuals at both individual and area level-and univariate multilevel models estimated risk effects on specific and broad psychopathology. At baseline, proximal family risk, distal family risk and area risk were all associated with broad psychopathology, although the most parsimonious was the proximal family risk model. The area risk/broad psychopathology association remained significant even after family risk was controlled but not after family level socioeconomic disadvantage was controlled. The cumulative family risk was more parsimonious than the specific family risks model. Non-verbal ability moderated the effect of proximal family risk on conduct and emotional problems, and developmental milestones moderated the effect of proximal family risk on conduct problems. The findings highlight the importance of modeling contextual risk appropriately and of locating in the cognitive domain factors that buffer its effect on young children's adjustment.

  17. A WRKY transcription factor from Withania somnifera regulates triterpenoid withanolide accumulation and biotic stress tolerance through modulation of phytosterol and defense pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Kumar, Sarma Rajeev; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Shasany, Ajit K; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2017-08-01

    Withania somnifera produces pharmacologically important triterpenoid withanolides that are derived via phytosterol pathway; however, their biosynthesis and regulation remain to be elucidated. A jasmonate- and salicin-inducible WRKY transcription factor from W. somnifera (WsWRKY1) exhibiting correlation with withaferin A accumulation was functionally characterized employing virus-induced gene silencing and overexpression studies combined with transcript and metabolite analyses, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. WsWRKY1 silencing resulted in stunted plant growth, reduced transcripts of phytosterol pathway genes with corresponding reduction in phytosterols and withanolides in W. somnifera. Its overexpression elevated the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in W. somnifera (phytosterols and withanolides), as well as tobacco and tomato (phytosterols). Moreover, WsWRKY1 binds to W-box sequences in promoters of W. somnifera genes encoding squalene synthase and squalene epoxidase, indicating its direct regulation of triterpenoid pathway. Furthermore, while WsWRKY1 silencing in W. somnifera compromised the tolerance to bacterial growth, fungal infection, and insect feeding, its overexpression in tobacco led to improved biotic stress tolerance. Together these findings demonstrate that WsWRKY1 has a positive regulatory role on phytosterol and withanolides biosynthesis, and defense against biotic stress, highlighting its importance as a metabolic engineering tool for simultaneous improvement of triterpenoid biosynthesis and plant defense. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contamination Levels of Balok River Sediments in Pahang, Malaysia Based on Geo accumulation Index and Supported with Enrichment Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zahari Abdullah; Nur Rashidah Abd Manap; Ahmad Saat; Zaini Hamzah; Mohd Tahir Abas

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to assess the level of metal pollution in river sediment samples, which indirectly representing the general quality of the Balok River. The samples of river sediment have been collected at nine sampling stations from the particular river. The total content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after an acid extraction. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) were found at 0.49, 16.16, 42.93, 24.31, 2734.69, 155.61, 16.04, 29.31, 50.71 and 159.40 for the respective metals. The assessment of the river quality was done based on the information showed by the enrichment factor (EF) and geo accumulation index (I geo ). Analysis of the I geo indexes clearly indicate that most of the sediment samples analyzed in this study contained the selected heavy metals in the levels of unpolluted to moderately pollute. Based on the low EF values recorded in this study, it can be concluded that the Balok River sediments is not significantly contaminated with the studied heavy metals. (author)

  19. Study of the influence of climatic factors on the accumulation of radio-elements in plant tissue (1962); Etude de l'influence des facteurs climatiques sur l'accumulation des radioelements dans les tissus vegetaux (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, J; Gilly-Heuze, C; Nizia, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    1. Here is proposed an appropriate treatment of soil able to promote absorption and accumulation of radioisotopes in aerial parts of young trees. 2. Thanks to such treatment, young trees belonging to several species appropriately selected can probably be used to detect possible contamination of soil by a radioisotope during a whole vegetation cycle. The concentration power of tissues of these trees is considerable: after being cultivated on contaminated soil for only 4 weeks, the concentration rate is about 85 in spruce-needles. Activity measurements of samples of plant tissues may become a routine process in control of soil contamination. (authors) [French] 1. Nous proposons un traitement special du sol pour favoriser l'absorption et l'accumulation de radioelements dans les parties aeriennes de jeunes arbres. 2. Grace a ce traitement, il semble possible d'utiliser de jeunes arbres appartenant a plusieurs especes convenablement choisies pour detecter une contamination eventuelle du sol par un radioelement pendant un cycle vegetatif complet. Le pouvoir de concentration de leurs tissus est important: apres quatre semaines seulement de culture sur sol contamine, le facteur de concentration (FC) est de l'ordre de 85 dans les aiguilles d'epiceas. Les mesures d'activite sur des echantillons de tissus vegetaux peuvent devenir une methode de routine pour un controle de contamination des sols. (auteurs)

  20. Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odumo, Benjamin Okang'; Carbonell, Gregoria; Angeyo, Hudson Kalambuka; Patel, Jayanti Purshottam; Torrijos, Manuel; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori-Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 μg kg(-1)), sediment (430 μg kg(-1)) and tailings (8,900 μg kg(-1)), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori-Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment.

  1. TaMYB13-1, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor, regulates the fructan synthetic pathway and contributes to enhanced fructan accumulation in bread wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooiker, Maarten; Drenth, Janneke; Glassop, Donna; McIntyre, C. Lynne; Xue, Gang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Fructans are the major component of temporary carbon reserve in the stem of temperate cereals, which is used for grain filling. Three families of fructosyltransferases are directly involved in fructan synthesis in the vacuole of Triticum aestivum. The regulatory network of the fructan synthetic pathway is largely unknown. Recently, a sucrose-upregulated wheat MYB transcription factor (TaMYB13-1) was shown to be capable of activating the promoter activities of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) in transient transactivation assays. This work investigated TaMYB13-1 target genes and their influence on fructan synthesis in transgenic wheat. TaMYB13-1 overexpression resulted in upregulation of all three families of fructosyltransferases including fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT). A γ-vacuolar processing enzyme (γ-VPE1), potentially involved in processing the maturation of fructosyltransferases in the vacuole, was also upregulated by TaMYB13-1 overexpression. Multiple TaMYB13 DNA-binding motifs were identified in the Ta1-FFT1 and Taγ-VPE1 promoters and were bound strongly by TaMYB13-1. The expression profiles of these target genes and TaMYB13-1 were highly correlated in recombinant inbred lines and during stem development as well as the transgenic and non-transgenic wheat dataset, further supporting a direct regulation of these genes by TaMYB13-1. TaMYB13-1 overexpression in wheat led to enhanced fructan accumulation in the leaves and stems and also increased spike weight and grain weight per spike in transgenic plants under water-limited conditions. These data suggest that TaMYB13-1 plays an important role in coordinated upregulation of genes necessary for fructan synthesis and can be used as a molecular tool to improve the high fructan trait. PMID:23873993

  2. Ectopic Expression of the Grape Hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Gene, MaAN2, Induces Anthocyanin Accumulation in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaili Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are responsible for the different colors of ornamental plants. Grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum, a monocot plant with bulbous flowers, is popular for its fascinating blue color. In the present study, we functionally characterized an R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene MaAN2 from M. armeniacum. Our results indicated that MaAN2 participates in controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggested that MaAN2 belonged to the R2R3-MYB family AN2 subgroup. The anthocyanin accumulation of grape hyacinth flowers was positively correlated with the expression of MaAN2. And the transcriptional expression of MaAN2 was also consistent with that of M. armeniacum dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (MaDFR and M. armeniacum anthocyanidin synthase (MaANS in flowers. A dual luciferase transient expression assay indicated that when MaAN2 was co-inflitrated with Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA8 (AtTT8, it strongly activated the promoters of MaDFR and MaANS, but not the promoters of M. armeniacum chalcone synthase (MaCHS, M. armeniacum chalcone isomerase (MaCHI, and M. armeniacum flavanone 3-hydroxylase (MaF3H. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay confirmed that MaAN2 interacted with AtTT8 in vivo. The ectopic expression of MaAN2 in Nicotiana tabacum resulted in obvious red coloration of the leaves and much redder flowers. Almost all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were remarkably upregulated in the leaves and flowers of the transgenic tobacco, and NtAn1a and NtAn1b (two basic helix–loop–helix anthocyanin regulatory genes were highly expressed in the transformed leaves, compared to the empty vector transformants. Collectively, our results suggest that MaAN2 plays a role in anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  3. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  4. p53 nuclear accumulation and multiploidy are adverse prognostic factors in surgically resected stage II colorectal cancers independent of fluorouracil-based adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglioni, S; D'Agnano, I; Vasselli, S; Perrone Donnorso, R; D'Angelo, C; Brenna, A; Benevolo, M; Cosimelli, M; Zupi, G; Mottolese, M

    2001-09-01

    To identify the prognostically highest risk patients, DNA content and p53 nuclear or cytoplasmic accumulation, evaluated by monoclonal antibody DO7 and polyclonal antibody CM1, were determined in 94 surgically resected stage II (Dukes B2) colorectal cancers, treated or not with adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Sixty-one (65%) of the tumors were aneuploid, 16 (17%) of which had a multiploid DNA content; 50 (53%) displayed DO7 nuclear p53 accumulation, and 44 (47%) showed cytoplasmic CM1 positivity. In multivariate analysis, only multiploidy and p53 nuclear positivity emerged as independent prognostic indicators of a poorer outcome. Positivity for p53 was associated with shorter survival in 5-fluorouracil-treated and untreated patients. Therefore, in patients with Dukes B2 colorectal cancer, a biologic profile based on the combined evaluation of DNA multiploidy and p53 status can provide valuable prognostic information, identifying patients to be enrolled in alternative, more aggressive therapeutic trials.

  5. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Sahana

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya. We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (α1 subunit of the 20S proteasome, but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (α5 subunit of the 20S proteasome, associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54, which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

  6. Two LcbHLH transcription factors interacting with LcMYB1 in regulating late structural genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Nicotiana and Litchi chinensis during anthocyanin accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao eLai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin biosynthesis requires the MYB-bHLH-WD40 protein complex to activate the late biosynthetic genes. LcMYB1 was thought to act as key regulator in anthocyanin biosynthesis of litchi. However, basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLHs as partners have not been identified yet. The present study describes the functional characterization of three litchi bHLH candidate anthocyanin regulators, LcbHLH1, LcbHLH2 and LcbHLH3. Although these three litchi bHLHs phylogenetically clustered with bHLH proteins involved in anthcoyanin biosynthesis in other plant, only LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 were found to localize in the nucleus and physically interact with LcMYB1. The transcription levels of all these bHLHs were not coordinated with anthocyanin accumulation in different tissues and during development. However, when co-infiltrated with LcMYB1, both LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves with LcbHLH3 being the best inducer. Significant accumulation of anthocyanins in leaves transformed with the combination of LcMYB1 and LcbHLH3 were noticed, And this was associated with the up-regulation of two tobacco endogenous bHLH regulators, NtAn1a and NtAn1b, and late structural genes, like NtDFR and NtANS. Significant activity of the ANS promoter was observed in transient expression assays either with LcMYB1-LcbHLH1 or LcMYB1-LcbHLH3, while only minute activity was detected after transformation with only LcMYB1. In contrast, no activity was measured after induction with the combination of LcbHLH2 and LcMYB1. Higher DFR expression was also oberseved in paralleling with higher anthocyanins in co-transformed lines. LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 are essential partner of LcMYB1 in regulating the anthocyanin production in tobacco and probably also in litchi. The LcMYB1-LcbHLH complex enhanced anthocyanin accumulation may associate with activating the transcription of DFR and ANS.

  7. Advanced accumulator for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Taiki; Chikahata, Hideyuki

    1997-01-01

    Advanced accumulators have been incorporated into the APWR design in order to simplify the safety system configuration and to improve reliability. The advanced accumulators refill the reactor vessel with a large discharge flow rate in a large LOCA, then switch to a small flow rate to continue safety injection for core reflooding. The functions of the conventional accumulator and the low head safety injection pump are integrated into this advanced accumulator. Injection performance tests simulating LOCA conditions and visualization tests for new designs have been carried out. This paper describes the APWR ECCS configuration, the advanced accumulator design and some of the injection performance and visualization test results. It was verified that the flow resistance of the advanced accumulator is independent of the model scale. The similarity law and performance data of the advanced accumulator for applying APWR was established. (author)

  8. Detection of long-term trends in carbon accumulation by forests in Northeastern U. S. and determination of causal factors: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. William Munger; Steven C. Wofsy; David R. Foster

    2012-01-31

    The overall project goal was to quantify the trends and variability for Net ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and energy by northeastern forests, with particular attention to the role of succession, differences in species composition, legacies of past land use, and disturbances. Measurements included flux measurements and observations of biomass accumulation using ecosystem modeling as a framework for data interpretation. Continuation of the long-term record at the Environmental Measurement Site (EMS) Tower was a priority. The final quality-assured CO{sub 2}-flux data now extend through 2010. Data through 2011 are collected but not yet finalized. Biomass observations on the plot array centered on the tower are extended to 2011. Two additional towers in a hemlock stand (HEM) and a younger deciduous stand (LPH) complement the EMS tower by focusing on stands with different species composition or age distribution and disturbance history, but comparable climate and soil type. Over the period since 1993 the forest has added 24.4 Mg-C ha{sup -1} in the living trees. Annual net carbon uptake had been increasing from about 2 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} in the early 1990s to nearly 6 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} by 2008, but declined in 2009-2010. We attribute the increasing carbon uptake to a combination of warmer temperatures, increased photosynthetic efficiency, and increased influence by subcanopy hemlocks that are active in the early spring and late autumn when temperatures are above freezing but the deciduous canopy is bare. Not all of the increased carbon accumulation was found in woody biomass. Results from a study using data to optimize parameters in an ecosystem process model indicate that significant changes in model parameters for photosynthetic capacity and shifts in allocation to slow cycling soil organic matter are necessary for the model to match the observed trends. The emerging working hypothesis is that the pattern of increasing carbon uptake over the

  9. Illness Progression as a Function of Independent and Accumulating Poor Prognosis Factors in Outpatients With Bipolar Disorder in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Lori L.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Grunze, Heinz; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Keck, Paul E.; Rowe, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many patients with bipolar disorder in the United States experience a deteriorating course of illness despite naturalistic treatment in the community. We examined a variety of factors associated with this pattern of illness progression. Method: From 1995 to 2002, we studied 634 adult outpatients with bipolar disorder (mean age of 40 years) emanating from 4 sites in the United States. Patients gave informed consent and completed a detailed questionnaire about demographic, vulnerability, and course-of-illness factors and indicated whether their illness had shown a pattern of increasing frequency or severity of manic or depressive episodes. Fifteen factors previously linked in the literature to a poor outcome were examined for their relationship to illness progression using Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by a 2-sample Wilcoxon rank sum (Mann-Whitney) test, χ2, and logistical regression. Results: All of the putative poor prognosis factors occurred with a high incidence, and, with the exception of obesity, were significantly (P bipolar disorder from onset to study entry in adulthood. The identification of these factors provides important targets for earlier and more effective therapeutic intervention in the hope of achieving a more benign course of bipolar disorder. PMID:25834764

  10. Identification and characterization of finger millet OPAQUE2 transcription factor gene under different nitrogen inputs for understanding their role during accumulation of prolamin seed storage protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Vikram Singh; Kumar, Lallan; Gupta, Supriya; Jaiswal, J P; Pandey, Dinesh; Kumar, Anil

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of the mRNA encoding OPAQUE2 (O2) like TF of finger millet (FM) ( Eleusine coracana) ( EcO2 ). Full-length EcO2 mRNA was isolated using conserved primers designed by aligning O2 mRNAs of different cereals followed by 3' and 5' RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The assembled full-length EcO2 mRNA was found to contain an ORF of 1248-nt coding the 416 amino acids O2 protein. Domain analysis revealed the presence of the BLZ and bZIP-C domains which is a characteristic feature of O2 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of EcO2 protein with other bZIP proteins identified using finger millet transcriptome data and O2 proteins of other cereals showed that EcO2 shared high sequence similarity with barley BLZ1 protein. Transcripts of EcO2 were detected in root, stem, leaves, and seed development stages. Furthermore, to investigate nitrogen responsiveness and the role of EcO2 in regulating seed storage protein gene expression, the expression profiles of EcO2 along with an α-prolamin gene were studied during the seed development stages of two FM genotypes (GE-3885 and GE-1437) differing in grain protein content (13.8 and 6.2%, respectively) grown under increasing nitrogen inputs. Compared to GE-1437, the EcO2 was relatively highly expressed during the S2 stage of seed development which further increased as nitrogen input was increased. The Ecα - prolamin gene was strongly induced in the high protein genotype (GE-3885) at all nitrogen inputs. These results indicate the presence of nitrogen responsiveness regulatory elements which might play an important role in accumulating protein in FM genotypes through modulating EcO2 expression by sensing plant nitrogen status.

  11. Illness Progression as a Function of Independent and Accumulating Poor Prognosis Factors in Outpatients With Bipolar Disorder in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.M.; Altshuler, L.L.; Leverich, G.S.; Nolen, W.A.; Kupka, R.W.; Grunze, H.; Frye, M.A.; Suppes, T.; McElroy, S.L.; Keck, P.E.; Rowe, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many patients with bipolar disorder in the United States experience a deteriorating course of illness despite naturalistic treatment in the community. We examined a variety of factors associated with this pattern of illness progression. Method: From 1995 to 2002, we studied 634 adult

  12. Herpes simplex virus 1 regulatory protein ICP22 interacts with a new cell cycle-regulated factor and accumulates in a cell cycle-dependent fashion in infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, R; Roizman, B

    1998-11-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 infected cell protein 22 (ICP22), the product of the alpha22 gene, is a nucleotidylylated and phosphorylated nuclear protein with properties of a transcriptional factor required for the expression of a subset of viral genes. Here, we report the following. (i) ICP22 interacts with a previously unknown cellular factor designated p78 in the yeast two-hybrid system. The p78 cDNA encodes a polypeptide with a distribution of leucines reminiscent of a leucine zipper. (ii) In uninfected and infected cells, antibody to p78 reacts with two major bands with an apparent Mr of 78,000 and two minor bands with apparent Mrs of 62, 000 and 55,000. (ii) p78 also interacts with ICP22 in vitro. (iii) In uninfected cells, p78 was dispersed largely in the nucleoplasm in HeLa cells and in the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm in HEp-2 cells. After infection, p78 formed large dense bodies which did not colocalize with the viral regulatory protein ICP0. (iv) Accumulation of p78 was cell cycle dependent, being highest very early in S phase. (v) The accumulation of ICP22 in synchronized cells was highest in early S phase, in contrast to the accumulation of another protein, ICP27, which was relatively independent of the cell cycle. (vi) In the course of the cell cycle, ICP22 was transiently modified in an aberrant fashion, and this modification coincided with expression of p78. The results suggest that ICP22 interacts with and may be stabilized by cell cycle-dependent proteins.

  13. Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-01

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  14. Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesia Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  15. Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34

  16. The barley HvNAC6 transcription factor affects ABA accumulation and promotes basal resistance against powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yan-Jun; Perera, Venura; Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Barley HvNAC6 is a member of the plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, CUC2) transcription factor family and we have shown previously that it acts as a positive regulator of basal resistance in barley against the biotrophic pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). In this study, we use a trans...

  17. Accumulation and localization of secondary metabolites with protective function in grain crops growing under elevated CO2 concentration and selected stress factors of climate change.

    OpenAIRE

    Mastiláková, Monika

    2017-01-01

    An ongoing climate change exposes plants to a whole range of environmental factors contributing to ever-increasing stressful conditions. The stress response of plants can reduce the yield of cereals, which make up a large part of food, thus increasing a threat to food security. It is therefore important to cultivate stress-resistant plants to ensure food security. The ability to cultivate resistant plants requires to understand their defensive mechanisms. Non-specific stress indicators with a...

  18. Accumulation of sunscreen in human skin after daily applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Akerström, Ulf; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF....

  19. Radioactivity and Natural Radio nuclides Distribution in River Water, Coastal Water, Sediment and Eichornia Crassipes (Mart) Sloms and Their Accumulation Factor at Surabaya Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani; Sumining; Muzakky

    2002-01-01

    Distribution of radioactivity and natural radionuclide in water, sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms from Surabaya river and coastal area have been evaluated. Five sampling locations were selected to represent fresh water and coastal water environment. The samples consist of water (fresh and coastal), bottom surface sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms The result showed that the gross-β activity from water environment were lower than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (1000 mBq/L) and indicated that β-radioecological quality of water were still good. But the activity of the gross-α of water environment were higher than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (100 mBq/L). The eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms (gross) activity were higher than water and sediment activities and indicated that transfer of radionuclides from water to sediment and organism can be detected in water environment. Two natural radionuclides can be identified by γ-Spectrometric technique, they were K-40 and TI-208. Generally the distribution factor F D were smaller than bioaccumulation factor F B . (author)

  20. Radioactivity and natural radionuclides distribution in river water, coastal water, sediment and Eichornia Crassipes (Mart) solms and their accumulation factor at Surabaya area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani; Sumining; Muzakky

    2002-01-01

    Distributions of radioactivity and natural radionuclides in water, sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) solms from Surabaya River and coastal area have been evaluated. Five sampling locations were selected to represent fresh water and coastal water environment. The samples consist of water (fresh & coastal), bottom surface sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) solms. The result showed that the gross-β activity from water environment were lower than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (1000 mBq/L) and indicated that β-radio ecological quality of water were still good. But the activity of the gross-α of water environment were higher than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (100 mBq/L). The eichornia crassipes (mart) solms (gross) activity were higher than water and sediment activities and indicated that transfer of radio nuclides from water to sediment and organism can be detected in water environment. Two natural radionuclide can be identified by γ-Spectrometric technique, they were K"4"0 and Tl"2"0"8. Generally the distribution factors F_D were smaller than bioaccumulation factor F_B. (author)

  1. Light and the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA control the protein stability of the MYB transcription factors PAP1 and PAP2 involved in anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Schrader, Andrea; Kokkelink, Leonie; Falke, Christian; Welter, Bastian; Iniesto, Elisa; Rubio, Vicente; Uhrig, Joachim F; Hülskamp, Martin; Hoecker, Ute

    2013-05-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments that accumulate only in light-grown and not in dark-grown Arabidopsis plants. Repression of anthocyanin accumulation in darkness requires the CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1/SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (COP1/SPA) ubiquitin ligase, as cop1 and spa mutants produce anthocyanins also in the dark. Here, we show that COP1 and SPA proteins interact with the myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factors PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP)1 and PAP2, two members of a small protein family that is required for anthocyanin accumulation and for the expression of structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. The increased anthocyanin levels in cop1 mutants requires the PAP1 gene family, indicating that COP1 functions upstream of the PAP1 gene family. PAP1 and PAP2 proteins are degraded in the dark and this degradation is dependent on the proteasome and on COP1. Hence, the light requirement for anthocyanin biosynthesis results, at least in part, from the light-mediated stabilization of PAP1 and PAP2. Consistent with this conclusion, moderate overexpression of PAP1 leads to an increase in anthocyanin levels only in the light and not in darkness. Here we show that SPA genes are also required for reducing PAP1 and PAP2 transcript levels in dark-grown seedlings. Taken together, these results indicate that the COP1/SPA complex affects PAP1 and PAP2 both transcriptionally and post-translationally. Thus, our findings have identified mechanisms via which the COP1/SPA complex controls anthocyanin levels in Arabidopsis that may be useful for applications in biotechnology directed towards increasing anthocyanin content in plants. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Impairment of the nerve growth factor pathway driving amyloid accumulation in cholinergic neurons: the incipit of the Alzheimer′s disease story?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Triaca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current idea behind brain pathology is that disease is initiated by mild disturbances of common physiological processes. Overtime, the disruption of the neuronal homeostasis will determine irreversible degeneration and neuronal apoptosis. This could be also true in the case of nerve growth factor (NGF alterations in sporadic Alzheimer′s disease (AD, an age-related pathology characterized by cholinergic loss, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In fact, the pathway activated by NGF, a key neurotrophin for the metabolism of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN, is one of the first homeostatic systems affected in prodromal AD. NGF signaling dysfunctions have been thought for decades to occur in AD late stages, as a mere consequence of amyloid-driven disruption of the retrograde axonal transport of neurotrophins to BFCN. Nowadays, a wealth of knowledge is potentially opening a new scenario: NGF signaling impairment occurs at the onset of AD and correlates better than amyloid load with cognitive decline. The recent acceleration in the characterization of anatomical, functional and molecular profiles of early AD is aimed at maximizing the efficacy of existing treatments and setting novel therapies. Accordingly, the elucidation of the molecular events underlying APP metabolism regulation by the NGF pathway in the septo-hippocampal system is crucial for the identification of new target molecules to slow and eventually halt mild cognitive impairment (MCI and its progression toward AD.

  3. Organotin compounds in surface sediments of the Southern Baltic coastal zone: a study on the main factors for their accumulation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipkowska, Anna; Kowalewska, Grażyna; Pavoni, Bruno

    2014-02-01

    Sediment samples were collected in the Gulf of Gdańsk, and the Vistula and Szczecin Lagoons-all located in the coastal zone of the Southern Baltic Sea-just after the total ban on using harmful organotins in antifouling paints on ships came into force, to assess their butyltin and phenyltin contamination extent. Altogether, 26 sampling stations were chosen to account for different potential exposure to organotin pollution and environmental conditions: from shallow and well-oxygenated waters, shipping routes and river mouths, to deep and anoxic sites. Additionally, the organic carbon content, pigment content, and grain size of all the sediment samples were determined, and some parameters of the near-bottom water (oxygen content, salinity, temperature) were measured as well. Total concentrations of butyltin compounds ranged between 2 and 182 ng Sn g(-1) d.w., whereas phenyltins were below the detection limit. Sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk and Vistula Lagoon were found moderately contaminated with tributyltin, whereas those from the Szczecin Lagoon were ranked as highly contaminated. Butyltin degradation indices prove a recent tributyltin input into the sediments adjacent to sites used for dumping for dredged harbor materials and for anchorage in the Gulf of Gdańsk (where two big international ports are located), and into those collected in the Szczecin Lagoon. Essential factors affecting the degradation and distribution of organotins, based on significant correlations between butyltins and environmental variables, were found in the study area.

  4. Biochemical and ultrastructural processing of [125I]epidermal growth factor in rat epidermis and hair follicles: accumulation of nuclear label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.R.; Mycock, C.; Smith, C.G.; Couchman, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Although the intracellular ultrastructural processing of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor have been described in cell culture systems, very few studies have examined this phenomenon in intact tissues. We have examined the ultrastructural and biochemical handling of [ 125 I]EGF in the epidermis and hair follicle bulb of intact, viable, 3- to 5-day-old rat skin the EGF receptor distribution of which has already been documented and in which EGF has been shown to be biologically active. After incubation of explants with 10 nM [ 125 I]EGF for 2.5 h at 25 degrees or 37 degrees C, radiolabel was detected over the basal cells of the epidermis and hair follicle outer root sheath, confirming previous light microscope observations. More specifically, silver grains were observed near coated and uncoated plasma membrane and coated membrane invaginations, Golgi apparatus, lysosomal structures, and nuclei. Sodium azide inhibited internalization of label, whereas a series of lysosomal inhibitors (chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide) caused a slight increase in silver grains associated with lysosomal vesicles and a decrease in nuclear label. Biochemical analysis indicated that greater than 35% of radioactivity following incubation at 37 degrees C was in the form of degraded [ 125 I]EGF fragments and that inclusion of chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide reduced this value to 20.8%, 8.6%, and 4.0%, respectively. In addition, chloramine T-prepared [ 125 I]EGF was found to be covalently cross-linked with low efficiency to a protein having the molecular weight of the EGF receptor. These data are discussed in the light of the effects of EGF on epithelial cell proliferation in skin

  5. Rate of ice accumulation during ice storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The rate of glaze ice accumulation is the result of a complex process dependent on numerous meteorological and physical factors. The aim of this paper was to estimate the distribution rate of glaze ice accumulation on conductors in southern Quebec for use in the design of mechanical and electrical de-icing devices. The analysis was based on direct observations of ice accumulation collected on passive ice meters. The historical database of Hydro-Quebec, which contains observations at over 140 stations over period of 25 years, was used to compute accumulation rates. Data was processed so that each glaze ice event was numbered in a chronological sequence. Each event consisted of the time series of ice accumulations on each of the 8 cylinders of the ice meters, as well as on 5 of its surfaces. Observed rates were converted to represent the average ice on a 30 mm diameter conductor at 30 m above ground with a span of 300 m. Observations were corrected to account for the water content of the glaze ice as evidenced by the presence of icicles. Results indicated that despite significant spatial variations in the expected severity of ice storms as a function of location, the distribution function for rates of accumulation were fairly similar and could be assumed to be independent of location. It was concluded that the observations from several sites could be combined in order to obtain better estimates of the distribution of hourly rates of ice accumulation. However, the rates were highly variable. For de-icing strategies, it was suggested that average accumulation rates over 12 hour periods were preferable, and that analyses should be performed for other time intervals to account for the variability in ice accumulation rates over time. In addition, accumulation rates did not appear to be highly correlated with average wind speed for maximum hourly accumulation rates. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  6. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  7. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  8. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  9. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  10. Creation / accumulation city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between basic archetypes of urban form was made by Bruno Fortier: the accumulation city as opposed to the creation city. These archetypes derive from archaeology - being based on the Roman and the Egyptian city - but are interpreted as morphological paradigms, as a set of assumptions

  11. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were selected from the five divisions of Kampala city using stratified random sampling. Data collected ... of the population having access to pit latrines (UBOS, 2012). The majority ... been reported that household refuse can contribute, on average, to a 15% .... and used to estimate the rate of degradation in the pit latrines.

  12. A new tomato NAC (NAM/ATAF1/2/CUC2) transcription factor, SlNAC4, functions as a positive regulator of fruit ripening and carotenoid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingku; Chen, Guoping; Zhou, Shuang; Tu, Yun; Wang, Yi; Dong, Tingting; Hu, Zongli

    2014-01-01

    Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a complicated development process affected by both endogenous hormonal and genetic regulators and external signals. Although the role of NOR, a member of the NAC domain family, in mediating tomato fruit ripening has been established, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To explore further the role of NAC transcription factors in fruit ripening, we characterized a new tomato NAC domain protein, named SlNAC4, which shows high accumulation in sepal and at the onset of fruit ripening. Various stress treatments including wounding, NaCl, dehydration and low temperature significantly increased the expression of SlNAC4. Reduced expression of SlNAC4 by RNA interference (RNAi) in tomato resulted in delayed fruit ripening, suppressed Chl breakdown and decreased ethylene synthesis mediated mainly through reduced expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes of system-2, and reduced carotenoids by alteration of the carotenoid pathway flux. Transgenic tomato fruits also displayed significant down-regulation of multiple ripening-associated genes, indicating that SlNAC4 functions as a positive regulator of fruit ripening by affecting ethylene synthesis and carotenoid accumulation. Moreover, we also noted that SlNAC4 could not be induced by ethylene and may function upstream of the ripening regulator RIN and positively regulate its expression. Yeast two-hybrid assay further revealed that SlNAC4 could interact with both RIN and NOR protein. These results suggested that ethylene-dependent and -independent processes are regulated by SlNAC4 in the fruit ripening regulatory network.

  13. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  14. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  15. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  16. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  17. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  18. Coagulation factor VIIa-mediated protease-activated receptor 2 activation leads to β-catenin accumulation via the AKT/GSK3β pathway and contributes to breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhishek; Ansari, Shabbir A; Das, Kaushik; Prasad, Ramesh; Bhattacharya, Anindita; Mallik, Suman; Mukherjee, Ashis; Sen, Prosenjit

    2017-08-18

    Cell migration and invasion are very characteristic features of cancer cells that promote metastasis, which is one of the most common causes of mortality among cancer patients. Emerging evidence has shown that coagulation factors can directly mediate cancer-associated complications either by enhancing thrombus formation or by initiating various signaling events leading to metastatic cancer progression. It is well established that, apart from its distinct role in blood coagulation, coagulation factor FVIIa enhances aggressive behaviors of breast cancer cells, but the underlying signaling mechanisms still remain elusive. To this end, we investigated FVIIa's role in the migration and invasiveness of the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Consistent with previous observations, we observed that FVIIa increased the migratory and invasive potential of these cells. We also provide molecular evidence that protease-activated receptor 2 activation followed by PI3K-AKT activation and GSK3β inactivation is involved in these processes and that β-catenin, a well known tumor-regulatory protein, contributes to this signaling pathway. The pivotal role of β-catenin was further indicated by the up-regulation of its downstream targets cyclin D1, c-Myc, COX-2, MMP-7, MMP-14, and Claudin-1. β-Catenin knockdown almost completely attenuated the FVIIa-induced enhancement of breast cancer migration and invasion. These findings provide a new perspective to counteract the invasive behavior of breast cancer, indicating that blocking PI3K-AKT pathway-dependent β-catenin accumulation may represent a potential therapeutic approach to control breast cancer. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. The study of accumulation of Sr 90 by plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusov, G.D.; Kudryashova, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the absorption and desorption of ions Sr 90 by plant cells and influence of different physical and chemical factors of environment on that processes were investigated. The kinetics of strontium accumulation have been obtained and the factors of accumulation of Sr 90 have been determined for a plant cell itself and its separate compartments

  20. Long-term intravenous administration of carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes induces persistent accumulation in the lungs and pulmonary fibrosis via the nuclear factor-kappa B pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yue Qin,1,* Suning Li,2,* Gan Zhao,2,* Xuanhao Fu,1 Xueping Xie,1 Yiyi Huang,1 Xiaojing Cheng,3 Jinbin Wei,1 Huagang Liu,1 Zefeng Lai1 1Pharmaceutical College, Guangxi Medical University, 2Department of Pharmacy, The Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 3Life Sciences Institute, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Numerous studies have demonstrated promising application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs in drug delivery, diagnosis, and targeted therapy. However, the adverse health effects resulting from intravenous injection of SWNTs are not completely understood. Studies have shown that levels of “pristine” or carboxylated carbon nanotubes are very high in mouse lungs after intravenous injection. We hypothesized that long-term and repeated intravenous administration of carboxylated SWNTs (c-SWNTs can result in persistent accumulation and induce histopathologic changes in rat lungs. Here, c-SWNTs were administered repeatedly to rats via tail-vein injection for 90 days. Long-term intravenous injection of c-SWNTs caused sustained embolization in lung capillaries and granuloma formation. It also induced a persistent inflammatory response that was regulated by the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, and which resulted in pulmonary fibrogenesis. c-SWNTs trapped within lung capillaries traversed capillary walls and injured alveolar epithelial cells, thereby stimulating production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta and pro-fibrotic growth factors (transforming growth factor-beta 1. Protein levels of type-I and type-III collagens, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 were upregulated after intravenous exposure to c-SWNTs as determined by immunohistochemical assays and Western blotting, which suggested collagen deposition

  1. Uptake, accumulation and some biochemical responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under the conditions of these increasing zinc concentrations, the highest zinc accumulation was obtained in the roots of the plants treated with 10 mM applications. The zinc concentration in the vegetative parts, was highest in the root and was lowest in the cotyledons. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) value was ...

  2. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  3. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  4. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from sediment matrices in mudflat ecosystem of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-06-01

    The bioaccumulation and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were characterized in sediment and Paphia undulata (short-neck clam) from six mudflat areas in the west coasts of Peninsular Malaysia. The concentrations of total PAHs varied from 357.1 to 6257.1 and 179.9 ± 7.6 to 1657.5 ± 53.9 ng g -1 dry weight in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. PAHs can be classified as moderate to very high level of pollution in sediments and moderate to high level of pollution in short-neck clams. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs and principal component analysis indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources with significant dominance of pyrogenic source. The first PAHs biota-sediment accumulation factors and relative biota-sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. Evaluation of PAH levels in sediments and short-neck clams indicates that short-neck clam could be introduced as a good biomonitor in mudflats. The results also demonstrated that under environmental conditions, the sedimentary load of hydrocarbons appears to be one of the factors controlling their bioavailability to biota.

  5. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  6. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  7. Accumulation Characteristics of Pb by Zea Mays of Different Genotyoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Rong-lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine the characteristics of lead(Pb accumulation by different maize genotypes, two low accumulation genotypes(Quchen 11, Quchen 3 and two high accumulation maize genotypes(Jingfeng 8, Xuyu 1446 were used in a field experiment under Pb stress(2 000 mg·kg-1. The following parameters were measured including the change of plant biomass , Pb contents in different plant parts, total Pb uptake,Pb accumulation and translocation of different maize varieties,soil pH value and available Pb contents in soils. The results showed that: (1Compared with the control, the Pb stress caused a decrease at differnet levels on the biomass of roots, stems, leaves and grains of the four maize genotypes. The plant biomass decreased by 9.65%~20.46%. And the decrease level on the plant biomass of the low accumulation maize genotypes was less than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (2The Pb contents were found highest in the roots(95.39~121.02 mg·kg-1, followed by the leaves(25.56~43.21 mg·kg-1 and stems(14.06~25.41 mg·kg-1, and lest in the grains(2.52~5.38 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the Pb contents in roots were higher of low accumulation maize genotypes than high accumulation maize genotypes. In contrast, the Pb contents in the stems, leaves and grains were less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. The total Pb accumulation of maize was 4.46~7.94 mg per plant, and which was significant less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (3For the four maize genotypes, both the accumulation factor and translocation factor of Pb were less than 1, and were smaller of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (4The pH values in soils were 6.60~6.82, which were significant higher of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes, the available Pb contents in soils were 969.86~1 116.15 mg·kg-1。

  8. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  9. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.

    2011-07-01

    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  10. Organic carbon accumulation in Brazilian mangal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Luciana M.; Sathy Naidu, A.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) accumulation rates in mangrove forests, margins and intertidal mudflats in geographically distinct areas along the Brazilian coastline (Northeastern to Southern). Our initial results indicate that the mangrove forests in the Northeastern region of Brazil are accumulating more OC (353 g/m 2/y) than in the Southeastern areas (192 g/m 2/y) being that the sediment accumulation rates, 2.8 and 2.5 mm/y, and OC content ˜7.1% and ˜5.8% (dry sediment weight) were contributing factors to the discrepancies between the forests. The intertidal mudflats on the other hand showed substantially greater OC accumulation rates, sedimentation rates and content 1129 g/m 2/y and 234 g/m 2/y; 7.3 and 3.4 mm/y; 10.3% and ˜2.7% (OC of dry sediment weight content), respectively, in the Northeastern compared to the Southeastern region. Mangrove forests in the South-Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to the rising sea level, as they are geographically constricted by the vast mountain ranges along the coastline.

  11. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Ronchetti, M.; Elser, V.

    1988-01-01

    We study the relaxation of 2D quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously. Whereas ideal, quasiperiodic networks are stable against such perturbations, we find significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation we observe in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, we find a dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate

  12. Influence of environmental factors on mineral elements transport and accumulation in leaves and fruits of kiwifruit plants [Actinidia deliciosa (A.Chev.) C.F.Liang et A.R.Ferguson; Basilicata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanaro, G.; Dichio, B.; Palese, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effect of light availability on actinidia leaf and fruit N, P, K, Ca and Mg accumulation is reported. At fruit-set, exposed and shaded treatments were imposed. Fruit and leaf transpiration was measured using a portable gas exchanges analyser (ADC-LCA4). Sap flow was monitored on whole canes using the Dynagage Sap-Flow (heat balance method). Transpiration of exposed leaves was on average 66% higher than the one of shaded leaves. Sap flow of exposed canes was on average 53 g mE-2 per day; the shadow treatment determined a 60% decrease of sap flow. These differences affected the accumulation of those minerals, notably calcium, which are transported mainly via xylem. Fruit calcium content reached approximately 40 mg fruitE-1 in exposed fruits, while in the shaded ones it was 23 mg fruitE-1. Our results suggest that a greater light availability can promote calcium accumulation. Therefore, the accurate training system management, favouring light interception by canopy and fruits, could be a tool for fruit quality improvement [it

  13. Kinetic and energetic analysis of lipid accumulation in batch culture of Rhodotorula glutinis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, J.G.; Rhee, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Kinetic and energetic analyses were made to describe the accumulation of lipid Rhodotorula glutinis more quantitatively. Accumulation of lipid in yeast was controlled by kinetic factors. The energetic efficiency of lipid formation was higher than that of growth. 18 references.

  14. Choice Rules and Accumulator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a preference accumulation model that can be used to implement a number of different multi-attribute heuristic choice rules, including the lexicographic rule, the majority of confirming dimensions (tallying) rule and the equal weights rule. The proposed model differs from existing accumulators in terms of attribute representation: Leakage and competition, typically applied only to preference accumulation, are also assumed to be involved in processing attribute values. This allows the model to perform a range of sophisticated attribute-wise comparisons, including comparisons that compute relative rank. The ability of a preference accumulation model composed of leaky competitive networks to mimic symbolic models of heuristic choice suggests that these 2 approaches are not incompatible, and that a unitary cognitive model of preferential choice, based on insights from both these approaches, may be feasible. PMID:28670592

  15. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  16. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K; Turunen, J; Alm, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  17. Investigation of the gallium-67 citrate hilar accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yuji

    1987-01-01

    To study the 67 Ga hilar accumulation, author quantitatively analyzed 67 Ga scintigrams of patients having no chest disease and normal chest roentgenograms. Relationship between hilar accumulation and smoking was quantitatively and experimentally studied. The conclusions were as follows: 1. There was significant relationship between smoking and 67 Ga hilar accumulation but there was no significant relationship between aging and the hilar accumulation. 2. The 67 Ga uptake of the hilar lymph node of smoked rat was higher than that of control group on microautoradiogram. The histological finding of the hilar lymph node of smoked rat was sinus histiocytosis. 3. Activated histiocytosis of hilar lymphatic sinus by some factors including smoking seemed to be responsible for 67 Ga hilar accumulation, of which mechanism was unknown. (author)

  18. Induced Plant Accumulation of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kavanagh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium’s (Li value has grown exponentially since the development of Li-ion batteries. It is usually accessed in one of two ways: hard rock mineral mining or extraction from mineral-rich brines. Both methods are expensive and require a rich source of Li. This paper examines the potential of agro-mining as an environmentally friendly, economically viable process for extracting Li from low grade ore. Agro-mining exploits an ability found in few plant species, to accumulate substantial amounts of metals in the above ground parts of the plant. Phyto-mined metals are then retrieved from the incinerated plants. Although the actual amount of metal collected from a crop may be low, the process has been shown to be profitable. We have investigated the suitability of several plant species including: Brassica napus and Helianthus annuus, as Li-accumulators under controlled conditions. Large plant trials were carried out with/without chelating agents to encourage Li accumulation. The question we sought to answer was, can any of the plant species investigated accumulate Li at levels high enough to justify using them to agro-mine Li. Results show maximum accumulated levels of >4000 mg/kg Li in some species. Our data suggests that agro-mining of Li is a potentially viable process.

  19. An oilseed rape WRKY-type transcription factor regulates ROS accumulation and leaf senescence in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis through modulating transcription of RbohD and RbohF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Ye, Chaofei; Zhao, Yuting; Cheng, Xiaolin; Wang, Yiqiao; Jiang, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Bo

    2018-06-01

    Overexpression of BnaWGR1 causes ROS accumulation and promotes leaf senescence. BnaWGR1 binds to promoters of RbohD and RbohF and regulates their expression. Manipulation of leaf senescence process affects agricultural traits of crop plants, including biomass, seed yield and stress resistance. Since delayed leaf senescence usually enhances tolerance to multiple stresses, we analyzed the function of specific MAPK-WRKY cascades in abiotic and biotic stress tolerance as well as leaf senescence in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), one of the important oil crops. In the present study, we showed that expression of one WRKY gene from oilseed rape, BnaWGR1, induced an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell death and precocious leaf senescence both in Nicotiana benthamiana and transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). BnaWGR1 regulates the transcription of two genes encoding key enzymes implicated in production of ROS, that is, respiratory burst oxidase homolog (Rboh) D and RbohF. A dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed the transcriptional regulation of RbohD and RbohF by BnaWGR1. In vitro electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that BnaWGR1 could bind to W-box cis-elements within promoters of RbohD and RbohF. Moreover, RbohD and RbohF were significantly upregulated in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing BnaWGR1. In summary, these results suggest that BnaWGR1 could positively regulate leaf senescence through regulating the expression of RbohD and RbohF genes.

  20. Seasonal dynamics of Co60 accumulation by Elodea canadensis Rich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochenin, V.F.; Chebotina, M.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of Co 60 accumulation by one of the most widely distributed fresh-water plants, elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich), were studied. Accumulation was shown to vary with the season. A very low coefficient of accumulation (500-700 units) was typical for the summer period (June to August). It increased in the fall, reached its highest values (3500-4000) in mid-winter (January), and dropped sharply in the spring. Radioisotope concentrations in the plant varied similarly. The cumulative capacity of plants for Co 60 may vary by a factor of 6 to 7 during the year. It is suggested that the seasonal changes in Co 60 accumulation may be caused by both differences in the physiological state of the plants at different times of the year, and by seasonal variations in the hydrochemical regime of the water reservoir. Experiments were done to clarify which of these mechanisms is the determining factor. (V.A.P.)

  1. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. BPA and BSH accumulation in experimental tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, H.; Sedgwick, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    The accumulation of boronated compounds into tumors is a critical component to the success of BNCT. To date, great variability has been demonstrated in the tumor:blood ratio achieved in samples both from different patients and within samples taken from the same patient. The factors that probably influence the level of uptake include the vascular perfusion within the tumor, the permeability of these vessels and the viability of the tumor cells themselves. These experiments were designed to measure these various factors in different experimental tumor models and to relate these measurements to the uptake of both BPA (Boronophenylalanine) and BSH (Sodiumborocaptate). They demonstrate that within different tumors there can be wide variations in the vascular parameters. In addition, the viability of the tumor cells may also be an important determinant of tumor uptake. (author)

  3. Corporate taxation and capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Bond; Jing Xing

    2010-01-01

    We present new empirical evidence that aggregate capital accumulation is strongly influenced by the user cost of capital and, in particular, by corporate tax incentives summarised in the tax-adjusted user cost. We use sectoral panel data for the USA, Japan, Australia and ten EU countries over the period 1982-2007. Our panel combines data on capital stocks, value-added and relative prices from the EU KLEMS database with measures of effective corporate tax rates from the Oxford University Centr...

  4. WEALTH TAXATION AND WEALTH ACCUMULATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Katrine Marie Tofthøj; Jakobsen, Kristian Thor; Kleven, Henrik

    Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific d...... on wealth accumulation. Our simulations show that the long-run elasticity of wealth with respect to the net-of-tax return is sizeable at the top of distribution. Our paper provides the type of evidence needed to assess optimal capital taxation.......Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific...... design of the wealth tax, these changes provide a compelling quasi-experiment for understanding behavioral responses among the wealthiest segments of the population. We find clear reduced-form effects of wealth taxes in the short and medium run, with larger effects on the very wealthy than...

  5. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  6. Stability of 2 ',3 ' and 3 ',5 ' cyclic nucleotides in formamide and in water: a theoretical insight into the factors controlling the accumulation of nucleic acid building blocks in a prebiotic pool

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassone, Giuseppe; Šponer, Jiří; Saija, F.; Di Mauro, E.; Saitta, A. M.; Šponer, Judit E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2017), s. 1817-1825 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12010S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : density- functional theory * liquid formamide * 2,3-cyclic nucleotides * molecular-dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  7. Asset Stock Accumulation and Sustainability of Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Ingemar Dierickx; Karel Cool

    1989-01-01

    Given incomplete factor markets, appropriate time paths of flow variables must be chosen to build required stocks of assets. That is, critical resources are accumulated rather than acquired in "strategic factor markets" (Barney [Barney, J. 1986. Strategic factor markets: Expectations, luck, and business strategy. Management Sci. (October) 1231--1241.]). Sustainability of a firm's asset position hinges on how easily assets can be substituted or imitated. Imitability is linked to the characteri...

  8. Bioaccumulation of perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates and polychlorinated biphenyls in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from field-collected sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosser, R.S., E-mail: prosserr@uoguelph.ca [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Mahon, K. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sibley, P.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Poirier, D.; Watson-Leung, T. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates (PFASs) are persistent pollutants in sediment that can potentially bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. The current study investigates variation in the accumulation of PCBs and PFASs in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from contaminated field-collected sediment using 28-day tests. BSAF{sup lipid} (lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for total concentration of PCBs were greater in Hexagenia spp. relative to L. variegatus and P. promelas. The distribution of congeners contributing to the total concentration of PCBs in tissue varied among the three species. Trichlorobiphenyl congeners composed the greatest proportion of the total concentration of PCBs in L. variegatus while tetra- and pentabiphenyl congeners dominated in Hexagenia spp. and P. promelas. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was present in all three species at concentrations greater than all other PFASs analyzed. Hexagenia spp. also produced the greatest BSAF{sup lipid} and BSAF{sup ww} (non-lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for PFOS relative to the other two species. However, this was not the case for all PFASs. The trend of BSAF values and number of carbon atoms in the perfluoroalkyl chain of perfluorinated carboxylates varied among the three species but was similar for perfluorinated sulfonates. Differences in the dominant pathways of exposure (e.g., water, sediment ingestion) likely explain a large proportion of the variation in accumulation observed across the three species. - Highlights: • BSAF values for total PCBs and PFOS greatest in Hexagenia spp. • BSAF values for other PFASs not consistently greatest in Hexagenia spp. • Trends in BSAF values for PFASs varied as a function of carbon chain length among species. • Differences in exposure pathways likely explain variation in accumulation across species.

  9. Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopod mollusca was investigated by radiotracer experiments and elemental analysis. In the radiotracer experiments, Octopus vulgaris took up cobalt-60 from seawater fairly well and the concentration of the nuclide in whole body attained about 150 times the level of seawater at 25th day at 20 0 C. Among the tissues and organs measured, branchial heart which is the specific organ of cephalopods showed the highest affinity for the nuclide. The organ accumulated about 50% of the radioactivity in whole body in spite of its little mass as 0.2% of total body weight. On the other hand, more than 90% of the radioactivity taken up from food (soft parts of Gomphina melanaegis labelled with cobalt-60 previously in an aquarium) was accumulated in liver at 3rd day after the single administration and then the radioactivity in the liver seemed to be distributed to other organs and tissues. The characteristic elution profiles of cobalt-60 was observed for each of the organs and tissues in Sephadex gel-filtration experiment. It was confirmed by the gel-filtration that most of cobalt-60 in the branchial heart was combined with the constituents of low molecular weights. The average concentration of stable cobalt in muscle of several species of cephalopods was 5.3 +- 3.0 μg/kg wet and it was almost comparable to the fish muscle. On the basis of soft parts, concentration of the nuclide closed association among bivalve, gastropod and cephalopod except squid that gave lower values than the others. (author)

  10. 10Be accumulation in a soil chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavich, M.J.; Brown, L.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the concentration of the cosmogenic isotope 10Be in soil samples from various horizons at six sites, including three independently dated Rappahannock River terraces and a previously undated Piedmont soil to which we have assigned an age. All of the incident 10Be can be accounted for in one of these soils and a second is within a factor of two. In three soils, whose concentrations vary widely with depth, a significant fraction of the incident 10Be cannot be accounted for. Incomplete sampling, and enhanced Be mobility caused by organic components, are the probable reasons for the low inventory of Be from these three soils. Overall, the data from these six sites indicate that 10Be accumulation could be used to assign ages to soils if Be is not mobilized and lost from the soil profile. ?? 1984.

  11. Charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen Knøster; McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1999-01-01

    At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries such that the mat......At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries...

  12. Accumulation of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in some hydrobionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, A.; Keslev, D.; Kerteva, A.; Novakova, E.

    1974-01-01

    Factors responsible for the accumulation of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in some plant organisms, characteristic for fishes in Bulgarian fresh-water reservoirs and in Black Seawater, were examined. The investigated samples were taken during spring, summer and autumn-winter seasons 1967/1968. Each sample burnt to ashes at 450 0 C was examined for strontium 90 and cesium 137 content as well as stable isotopes of calcuim and potassium. Accumulation factors for strontium 90 and cesium 137 were significantly higher in freshwater hydrobionts than in seawater hydrobionts. This could be explained by variations in the concentration of stable isotopes of calcium and potassium from freshwater reservoirs and from seawater. Potassium and calcium concentrations were relatively constant in seawater while in freshwater they were significantly variable. Accumulation factors for these radionuclides increased according to the amount of rain and the altitude above sea level. Strontium 90 was deposited mostly in fins, less in scales and least in the meat of fishes; cesium 137 was mainly deposited in the meat and less in the other parts of fishes. The highest accumulation factors for strontium 90 were determined in fishes and for cesium 137 in plant organisms. The most convenient plant and fish species for tracing radioactive contamination of freshwater reservoirs and in the Black Sea were indicated. (A.B.)

  13. Effect of progressive water deficit stress on proline accumulation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water deficit stress is one of the important factors limiting chickpea production in arid and semi-arid regions of West Asia and North Africa. When water deficit stress is imposed, different molecular and biochemical responses take place. This study was carried out to investigate proline accumulation and protein profiles of ...

  14. Radiocaesium accumulation by different plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filiptsova, G.G.

    2000-01-01

    Using the model object influence of mineral nutritions level on radiocaesium accumulation by different plant species has been studied. It was shown the wheat roots accumulation the minimal value on radiocaesium on normal potassium level, the rye roots accumulation maximal level radiocaesium. (authors)

  15. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation expense—telecommunications...

  16. Nickel-accumulating plant from Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C; Brooks, R R

    1972-01-01

    A small shrub Hybanthus floribundus (Lindl.) F. Muell. Violaceae growing in Western Australia accumulates nickel and cobalt to a very high degree. Values of up to 23% nickel in leaf ash may represent the highest relative accumulation of a metal on record. The high accumulation of nickel poses interesting problems in plant physiology and plant biochemistry. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Energy Accumulation by Hydrogen Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Čermáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic power plants as a renewable energy source have been receiving rapidly growing attention in the Czech Republic and in the other EU countries. This rapid development of photovoltaic sources is having a negative effect on the electricity power system control, because they depend on the weather conditions and provide a variable and unreliable supply of electric power. One way to reduce this effect is by accumulating electricity in hydrogen. The aim of this paper is to introduce hydrogen as a tool for regulating photovoltaic energy in island mode. A configuration has been designed for connecting households with the photovoltaic hybrid system, and a simulation model has been made in order to check the validity of this system. The simulation results provide energy flows and have been used for optimal sizing of real devices. An appropriate system can deliver energy in a stand-alone installation.

  18. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  19. Nickel accumulation by Hybanthus floribundus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C

    1974-04-26

    Several ecotypes of Hybanthus floribundus are found across the southern part of Australia. However, the three nickel accumulating ecotypes are restricted to a broad belt in Western Australia. Nickel concentrations in this shrub were observed to decrease southwards (from 8000 to 1000 p.p.m.) as the annual rainfall increased from 7 inches to more than 30 inches. Studies have shown that nickel concentrations increase from the roots through the rootstock, into the stems and reach maximum towards the leaf tips. High nickel concentrations are also seen in seed capsules (1500 p.p.m.), seeds (2000 p.p.m.) and flowers. The maximum nickel concentration recorded is 1.6% (26% nickel in ash) in mature leaf tissue. 16 references, 2 tables.

  20. Accumulation of radioactive iron in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of radioactive iron in some marine organisms was investigated by radio-tracer experiments. The concentration factor, biological half-life, distribution in body, and combining form in some organs, are compared and discussed between mollusks and fishes. The results obtained are: 1) The concentration factor of seaweed was higher than those of worm and fish in uptake from seawater. Abalone showed a higher concentration factor than fish. 2) The first component of excretion curve was small in case of a longer period of uptake from seawater. 3) Abalone and octopus showed a higher radioactivity retention than flounder and black-fish. 4) The fish fed labelled seaweed showed a lower radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled worm. 5) The fish fed radioisotopes with prey showed a higher radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled prey. 6) Biological half-lives were longer in abalone and octopus than in fishes. The biological half-lives of radioactive iron in fishes varied according to the uptake modes. 7) The distribution ratio of radioactive iron in organisms were large in the liver and degestive tract. 8) The GFC profile of 59 Fe in some organs of organisms showed combining form of same molecular weight of proteinous matter. (author)

  1. Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2013-03-15

    Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham

  2. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  3. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs

  4. Bidens tripartite L.: A Cd-accumulator confirmed by pot culture and site sampling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Niu Rongcheng; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Zhou Qixing; Wu Zhijie; Sun Tieheng; Hu Yahu; Li Yunmeng

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of cadmium (Cd) in Bidens tripartite L. were investigated to identify Cd-accumulating properties. In this study, pot culture experiment and site sampling experiments were conducted to assess whether this plant is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator or accumulator. The results indicated that the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of B. tripartite was principally >1 in pot culture and concentration gradient experiments. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1 , the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. In the site sampling experiment, B. tripartite also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, B. tripartite could be identified as a Cd-accumulator. Thus, B. tripartite should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator.

  5. Intestinal mucus accumulation in a child with acutemyeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık Özbek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal mucus accumulation is a very rare situation observed in some solid tumors, intestinal inflammation, mucosal hyperplasia, elevated intestinal pressure, and various other diseases. However, it has never been described in acute myeloblastic leukemia. The pathogenesis of intestinal mucus accumulation is still not clear. Here, we report a 14-year-old girl with acute myeloblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia in addition to typhlitis. She was also immobilized due to joint contractures of the lower extremities and had intestinal mucus accumulation, which was, at first, misdiagnosed as intestinal parasitosis. We speculate that typhlitis, immobilization and decreased intestinal motility due to usage of antiemetic drugs might have been the potential etiologic factors in this case. However, its impact on prognosis of the primary disease is unknown.

  6. Accumulation and loss of technetium by macrophytic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benco, C.; Cannarsa, S.; Ceppodomo, I.; Zattera, A.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a study of the accumulation of Tc by four species of brown algae (Sargassum vulgare, Cystoseira complexa, Dictyopteris membranacea, Dictyota dichotama implexa) and one species of green algae (Chlorophyta, Ulva rigida). With the exception of Cystoseira complexa, the accumulation was very rapid, and concentration factors decreased from Sargassum vulgare to Ulva rigida. Young stipes of Cystoseira complexa concentrated twice as much more Tc than cylindrical main axes. Attempts were made to understand the mechanism of Tc accumulation by brown seaweed. Fucoidan, a pool of high molecular weight polysaccharides extracted from Fucus sp. was put with sup(95m)Tc in seawater for 48 h and then dialysed, but no activity was retained by Fucoidan. (UK)

  7. Comparison of accumulation of four metalloids in Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Awaya, Yumi; Anan, Yasumi

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the accumulation and metabolism of four metalloids: arsenic (As), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), and tellurium (Te) in garlic to determine whether garlic can be used for the phytoremediation of those metalloids. Garlic was able to efficiently accumulate As and Se, the two-fourth-period metalloids. However, it was not able to accumulate Sb and Te, the two-fifth-period metalloids, because their bioaccumulation factors were below one. Speciation analyses revealed that four metalloids could be metabolized in garlic, although their metabolites could not be identified yet. Results also suggested that garlic was able to distinguish the metalloids in groups 15 and 16 and the fourth and fifth periods, i.e., As, Se, Sb, and Te. Therefore, garlic is one of the potential plants for the phytoremediation of the fourth-period metalloids.

  8. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Grewal, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.grewal@sydney.edu.au [Faculty of Pharmacy A15, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Heeren, Joerg, E-mail: heeren@uke.de [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  9. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15771 Athens (Greece); Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: sdcqam@cid.csic.es [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, C/ Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification.

  10. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification

  11. Accumulation factors of mercury by King Bolete Boletus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Frankowska, A.

    2003-05-01

    To understand pollution picture with mercury and to examine suitability of King Bolete Boletits edulis Bull.: Fr. as possible bioindicator the total mercurv concentrations were determined both in the fruiting bodies and underlying soil substrate collected from various regions of Poland. There were quite large spatial variations of mercury concentration and some seasonal also were noted. Mercury content of the caps exceeded that of stalks (p<0.05), Nvhile Hg BCF values varied between 9 and 40, and 4 and 40, respectively.

  12. ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION IN MICROECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main processes are common for an economic system. They are consumption and accumulation. The first one is described by utility function, either cardinal or ordinal one. The mathematical model for accumulation process can be constructed using wealth function introduced within the frame of irreversible microeconomics. Characteristics of utility and wealth functions are compared and a problem of extreme performance of resources exchange process is solved for a case when both the consumption and accumulation exist.

  13. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Taraxacum mongolicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Zhou Qixing; Mathews, Shiny

    2008-01-01

    Identification of hyperaccumulator and accumulator is still key step of phytoextracting-contaminated soils by heavy metals. In a former published experiment, Taraxacum mongolicum showed basic characteristics of hyperaccumulators. In order to confirm if this plant was a Cd-hyperaccumulator, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were designed and performed. The results showed that Cd enrichment factor and Cd transformation factor of T. mongolicum were all higher than 1 in concentration gradient experiment. The shoot biomasses did not reduced significantly (p -1 Cd spiked into soil. However, Cd concentration in shoot of T. mongolicum was not higher than 100 mg kg -1 the minimum a Cd-hyperaccumulator should have under the conditions of any concentration level of Cd spiked. Thus, T. mongolicum should be a Cd-accumulator. In the sample-analyzing experiments settled in a Pb-Zn mine area and Shenyang wastewater irrigation region, T. mongolicum also showed that Cd-accumulator characteristics. Based on these results, T. mongolicum could be identified as a Cd-accumulator, which may have important implication in plant physiology and gene engineering

  14. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands.

  15. Carbon dioxide gas hydrates accumulation in freezing and frozen sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuvilin, E.; Guryeva, O. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Geology

    2008-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrates and methane hydrates can be formed, and exist under natural conditions. The permafrost area has been considered as an environment for the potential disposal of CO{sub 2}. The favorable factors for preserving CO{sub 2} in liquid and gas hydrate states in frozen sediments and under permafrost horizons are great thickness of frozen sediments; low permeability in comparison with thawed sediments; and favourable conditions for hydrates formation. Therefore, research on the formation and existence conditions of CO{sub 2} gas hydrates in permafrost and under permafrost sediments are of great importance for estimation of CO{sub 2} disposal conditions in permafrost, and for working out specific sequestration schemes. This paper presented the results of an experimental study on the process of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas hydrates formation in the porous media of sediments under positive and negative temperatures. Sediment samples of various compositions including those selected in the permafrost area were used. The research was conducted in a special pressure chamber, which allowed to monitor pressure and temperature. The study used the monitoring results in order to make quantitative estimation of the kinetics of CO{sub 2} hydrates accumulation in the model sediments. Results were presented in terms of kinetics of CO{sub 2} hydrates accumulation in the porous media at positive and negative temperatures; kinetics of CO{sub 2} hydrates accumulation in various porous media; gas hydrate-former influence on kinetics of hydrates accumulation in frozen sediments; and influence of freezing on CO{sub 2} hydrates accumulation in porous media. It was concluded that hydrate accumulation took an active place in porous media not only under positive, but also under high negative temperatures, when the water was mainly in the form of ice in porous media. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1.3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1/3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Clam bioaccumulation of Alkylphenols and Polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Venice lagoon under different pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademollo, N; Patrolecco, L; Matozzo, V; Marin, M G; Valsecchi, S; Polesello, S

    2017-11-15

    Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs) of nonylphenols (NPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Ruditapes philippinarum from the Venice Lagoon (Italy) were determined with the aim to verify whether the routine biomonitoring studies are reliable in contaminated sites. Clams and sediments were collected in field campaigns (October 2003 to June 2004) in three sites of the Venice Lagoon. Results showed that Marghera and Campalto sediments were more contaminated by NPs and PAHs than Poveglia. Different trends were observed in the contamination of clams with the highest BSAFs found at Poveglia. BSAF trend appeared to be inversely related to the contaminant pressure on the sites. These results suggest that clam bioaccumulation is not always representative of the chemical pressure on aquatic biota. The direct correlation between sediment and biota concentrations in contaminated sites can be lost as a function of the site-specific conditions such as sediment toxicity and food availability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments – Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations (cfree) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium...... with the sediment (Clip⇔sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven ‘indicator’ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along...... bioaccumulation and the thermodynamic potential of sediment-associated HOCs for partitioning into lipids. This novel approach gives clearer and more consistent results compared to conventional approaches that are based on total concentrations in sediment and biota-sediment accumulation factors. We propose...

  20. Bridging the Barriers: Knowledge Connections, Productivity, and Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    R. Quentin Grafton; Tom Kompas; P. Dorian Owen

    2004-01-01

    The paper explains the large differences in cross-country productivity performance by modeling and testing the effects of social barriers to communication on productivity and capital accumulation. In an optimal growth model, social barriers to communication that impede the formation of knowledge connections are shown to reduce both transitory and steady-state levels of total factor productivity (TFP), per capita consumption, and reproducible capital. A ‘bridging’ parameter in the growth model...

  1. Aflatoxin Accumulation in a Maize Diallel Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Paul Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimination of aflatoxin in maize grain. In this investigation, a diallel cross was produced by crossing 10 inbred lines with varying degrees of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in all possible combinations. Three lines that previously developed and released as sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation were included as parents. The 10 parental inbred lines and the 45 single crosses making up the diallel cross were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation in field tests conducted in 2013 and 2014. Plants were inoculated with an A. flavus spore suspension seven days after silk emergence. Ears were harvested approximately 60 days later and concentration of aflatoxin in the grain determined. Parental inbred lines Mp717, Mp313E, and Mp719 exhibited low levels (3–12 ng/g of aflatoxin accumulation. In the diallel analysis, both general and specific combining ability were significant sources of variation in the inheritance of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. General combining ability effects for reduced aflatoxin accumulation were greatest for Mp494, Mp719, and Mp717. These lines should be especially useful in breeding for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Breeding strategies, such as reciprocal recurrent selection, would be appropriate.

  2. Accumulation of 65Zn by octopus Octopus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taiji; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Shimizu, Chiaki.

    1985-01-01

    In order to aim the prevention of the radiation hazard to human beings through sea food, the accumulation and excretion of 65 Zn by octopus Octopus vulgaris was examined by the radioisotope tracer experiment. The concentration factor of 65 Zn for whole body of the octopus that take up the nuclide from sea water and food was estimated as 9,900, by assuming that the octopus feeds on clams alone. In that case the contribution of food was about twenty times greater than that of sea water on the accumulation of the nuclide. The biological half-life of 65 Zn accumulated through sea water was 74 days. High accumulation of 65 Zn in the branchial heart of the octopus, as in the case of Co, was not observed. In the liver, 65 Zn combined with three constituents which have a molecular weight of more than 80,000, 7,000 - 8,000 and less than 5,000. In the kidney, 65 Zn combined with three constituents of a molecular weight of more than 80,000, 10,000 - 20,000 and less than 5,000. (author)

  3. Selective accumulation may account for shellfish-associated viral illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, W; Calci, K R

    2000-04-01

    From 1991 through 1998, 1,266 cases of shellfish-related illnesses were attributed to Norwalk-like viruses. Seventy-eight percent of these illnesses occurred following consumption of oysters harvested from the Gulf Coast during the months of November through January. This study investigated the ability of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to accumulate indicator microorganisms (i.e., fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F(+) coliphage) from estuarine water. One-week trials over a 1-year period were used to determine if these indicator organisms could provide insight into the seasonal occurrence of these gastrointestinal illnesses. The results demonstrate that oysters preferentially accumulated F(+) coliphage, an enteric viral surrogate, to their greatest levels from late November through January, with a concentration factor of up to 99-fold. However, similar increases in accumulation of the other indicator microorganisms were not observed. These findings suggest that the seasonal occurrence of shellfish-related illnesses by enteric viruses is, in part, the result of seasonal physiological changes undergone by the oysters that affect their ability to accumulate viral particles from estuarine waters.

  4. Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhainsa, K.C.; D'Souza, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes from aqueous solution was investigated in laboratory condition. The objective was to evaluate the uranium accumulation potential and adopt the plant in uranium containing medium to improve its uptake capacity. The plant was found to tolerate and grow in the pH range of 3-7. Accumulation of uranium improved with increasing pH and the plant could remove 70% uranium from the medium (20 mg/L) within 24 hours of incubation at pH 5-6. Uptake of uranium on either side of this pH range decreased

  5. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrabi, K.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  6. Manganese accumulation in the brain: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Nomiyama, K.; Takase, Y.; Nakazono, T.; Nojiri, J.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan); Noguchi, T. [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Manganese (Mn) accumulation in the brain is detected as symmetrical high signal intensity in the globus pallidi on T1-weighted MR images without an abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. In this review, we present several cases of Mn accumulation in the brain due to acquired or congenital diseases of the abdomen including hepatic cirrhosis with a portosystemic shunt, congenital biliary atresia, primary biliary cirrhosis, congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt without liver dysfunction, Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome with a diffuse intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and patent ductus venosus. Other causes of Mn accumulation in the brain are Mn overload from total parenteral nutrition and welding-related Mn intoxication. (orig.)

  7. Heat and cold accumulators in vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauranen, P.; Wikstroem, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Advanced Materials, Tampere (Finland)); Heikkinen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Building Services and Indoor Environment, Espoo (Finland)); Laurikko, J.; Elonen, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Emission Control, Espoo (Finland)); Seppaelae, A. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Applied Thermodynamics, Espoo (Finland)). Email: ari.seppala@tkk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Phase Change Material (PCM) based heat and cold accumulators have been tailored for transport applications including a mail delivery van as well as the cold chains of foodstuff and blood products. The PCMs can store relative large amount of thermal energy in a narrow temperature interval as latent heat of fusion of their melting and crystallization processes. Compact heat and cold accumulators can be designed using PCMs. The aim of the project has been to reduce the exhaust gas and noise emissions and improve the fuel economy of the transport systems and to improve the reliability of the cold chains studied by storing thermal energy in PCM accumulators. (orig.)

  8. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  9. HORMONAL REGULATION OF SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal regulation is considered to be a unique mechanism controlling growth and development of living organism. The review discusses the correlations between pant hormonal status of non-accumulators and hyper-accumulators of Se with the accumulation levels of this microelement. The phenomenon of stimulation and redistribution of selenium as a result of phytohormone treatment, the peculiarities of phytohormones effect among different species and cultivars, and influence of plant sexualization on selenium accumulation are described in article. Data of hormonal regulation of selenium level for spinach, garlic, perennial onion, Brassica chinenesis and Valeriana officialis are presented in the review.

  10. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rasika M Potdukhe

    2018-02-06

    Feb 6, 2018 ... an option for development of a sustainable phytoremediation process for As mitigation. Accumulation of ... People living in areas contaminated with. As suffer .... RNA was used to enrich mRNA and cDNA library construc- tion.

  11. Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) consists of 8 dipole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized via one 12-pulse dc power supply. The power supply consists of four phase controlled half-wave wye group converters. Each of the two half-wave converters are connected through an interphase transformer to obtain a full-wave converter with 120 degrees conduction. The input voltage for these two half-wave converters are 180 degrees apart. The two full-wave converters are connected in parallel through a third interphase transformer. This type of connection of the converters not only provides the required output current, it also improves the input power factor of the power supply. The output of the wye group converters is filtered through a passive L-R-C filter to reduce the ripple content of the output current. At low current values of the power supply the current ripple is high, thus a large filter is needed, which adds to the cost of the power supply, however at high output current levels, the current ripple is less severe. The large size of the filter can be reduced by adding an anti-parallel rectifier diode(D1) to the output of the power supply. A freewheeling diode(D2) is connected before the choke to circulate the current once the power supply is turned off. In order to measure the current in the magnet a high precision, low drift, zero flux current transductor is used. This transductor senses the magnet current which provides a feedback signal to control the gating of the converter's thyristors. A true 14 bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) is programmed by the control computer for the required current value, providing a reference for the current regulator. Fast correction of the line transients is provided by a relatively fast voltage loop controlled by a high gain slow response current loop

  12. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    C?zar, Andr?s; Sanz-Mart?n, Marina; Mart?, Elisa; Gonz?lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, B?rbara; G?lvez, Jos? ?.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  13. Credit Constraints, Political Instability, and Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Herrala; Rima Turk-Ariss

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between credit constraints, political instability, and capital accumulation using a novel approach based on Kiyotaki and Moore’s (1997) theoretical framework. Drawing on a unique firm-level data set from Middle-East and North Africa (MENA), empirical findings point to a large and significant effect of credit conditions on capital accumulation and suggest that continued political unrest worsens credit constraints. The results support the view that financ...

  14. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alterna...

  15. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M G; Kulikov, N V [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  16. Effect of transpiration on plant accumulation and translocation of PPCP/EDCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodgen, Laurel K.; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R.; Gan, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common. - Highlights: • Leaf accumulation of PPCP/EDCs is related on plant transpiration. • Cationic and neutral PPCP/EDCs have similar leaf and root accumulation. • Anionic PPCP/EDCs have greater root accumulation and lesser leaf accumulation. • PPCP/EDCs are extensively metabolized in plant tissue and hydroponic solution. - High plant transpiration in arid and hot areas may lead to increased foliar accumulation of PPCP/EDCs from treated wastewater irrigation

  17. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaochuan; Zhang Shirong; Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting; Gong Guoshu; Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji

    2010-01-01

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg -1 ) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L -1 ) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations ≤ 90 mg kg -1 and ≤ 20 mg L -1 in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg -1 and 1006.95 μg pot -1 in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg -1 and 668.42 μg pot -1 in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  18. Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC.: An accumulator of Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Zhou Qixing; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Xiao Hong; Yang Chuanjie; Zhang Qianru

    2009-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a traditional technique that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil and sediments. This is a solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective technology. In a former published article, Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC. indicated some basic properties of hyperaccumulators for cadmium (Cd). In this study, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were used to assess whether this plant is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The results showed the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of K. integrifolia was basically >1 in concentration gradient experiment. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1 , the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. Thus, K. integrifolia should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator. In the sample-analyzing experiments conducted in a Pb-Zn mine area and a wastewater irrigation region, K. integrifolia also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, K. integrifolia could be identified as a Cd-accumulator

  19. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Malva sinensis Cavan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shirong; Chen Mingying; Li Ting; Xu Xiaoxun; Deng Liangji

    2010-01-01

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg -1 ) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg -1 , respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg -1 . The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 μg pot -1 , respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  20. Hepatic accumulation of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Sanshin; Oyama, Kazuyuki; Hirakawa, Ken; Akaike, Akira; Kogure, Takashi

    1977-01-01

    Six cases of hepatic accumulation of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-EHDP (ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate) were encountered among 31 cases of bone scintigram. There were no uniformly common factors in sex, age, disease, liver function, or other laboratory data in these six patients. Colloidal formation was suspected since sup(99m)Tc-Sn-EHDP accumulated in the liver and spleen. EHDP vials from the same kit were analyzed and nothing abnormal was detected. EHDP vials of the same lot number were used in all of 31 cases. Samples of sup(99m)Tc eluate obtained from the same generator used to prepare EHDP and saline eluent from the same stock material used to elute the generator were analyzed. A small amount of aluminum ion and other oxidizer were found but they were thought to be insufficient as factors in the high liver uptake of EHDP because of too small a quantity. pH of sup(99m)Tc eluate was not unusual. Colloidal formation at the time of preparation of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-EHDP is not conceivable since most of the patients undergo bone scintigram without hepatic accumulation. It was assumed that somatic metallic ion substance, serum protein, or other endogeneous matter was responsible for the high liver uptake of EHDP. (auth.)

  1. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Malva sinensis Cavan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Chen Mingying; Li Ting; Xu Xiaoxun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg{sup -1}) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg{sup -1}. The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 {mu}g pot{sup -1}, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  2. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaochuan [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Gong Guoshu [Agricultural College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg{sup -1}) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L{sup -1}) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations {<=} 90 mg kg{sup -1} and {<=} 20 mg L{sup -1} in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 1006.95 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 668.42 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  3. Assessment of soil contamination by potentially toxic trace elements (PTSD) (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) in a lower plain of the Hron River according to Law no. 219/2008 Coll., by geo-accumulation index, anthropogenic factor and Tomlinson index; Zhodnotenie kontaminacie pod potencialne toxickymi stopovymi prvkami (PTSP) (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) v dolnej casti nivy Hrona podla zakona c. 219/2008 Z.z., indexu geoakumulacie, antropogenneho faktora a Tomlinsonovho indexu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlodak, M [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Ustav laboratorneho vyskumu geomaterialov, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Soil contamination by different PTSD may have different geogenic and anthropogenic origin and occurs in all countries of the world. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the soils contamination of a lower plain of the Hron River. This paper used the results of the thesis Soil contamination of the Hron River floodplain by trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) [1]. Soil contamination was evaluated by: Act. 219/2008 Coll. on the protection and use of agricultural land, by anthropogenic factor (AF), geo-accumulation index (IgeoE) and Tomlinson index - the index of the pollution load (PLI). (author)

  4. Simulation of advanced accumulator and its application in CPR1000 LBLOCA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hongwei; Shan, Jianqiang; Gou, Junli; Cao, Jianhua; Shen, Yonggang; Fu, Xiangang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis model was developed for advanced accumulator. • The sensitivity analysis of each key parameter was performed. • The LBLOCA was analyzed for the CPR1000 with advanced accumulator. • The analysis shows that advanced accumulator can improve CPR1000 safety performance. - Abstract: The advanced accumulator is designed to improve the safety and reliability of CPR1000 by providing a small injection flow to keep the reactor core in flooded condition. Thus, the core still stays in a cooling state without the intervention of low pressure safety injection and the startup grace time of the low pressure safety injection pump can be greatly extended. A new model for the advanced accumulator, which is based on the basic conservation equations, is developed and incorporated into RELAP5/MOD 3.3. The simulation of the advanced accumulator can be carried out and results show that the behavior of the advanced accumulator satisfied its primary design target. There is a large flow in the advanced accumulator at the initial stage. When the accumulator water level is lower than the stand pipe, a vortex appears in the damper, which results in a large pressure drop and a small flow. And then the sensitivity analysis is performed and the major factors which affected the flow rate of the advanced accumulator were obtained, including the damper diameter, the initial volume ratio of the water and the nitrogen and the diameter ratio of the standpipe and the small pipe. Additionally, the primary coolant loop cold leg double-ended guillotine break LBLOCA in CPR1000 with advanced accumulator is analyzed. The results show that the criterion for maximum cladding temperature limit (1477 K) (NRC, 1992) can be met ever with 200 s after the startup of the low pressure safety injection. From this point of view, passive advanced accumulator can strive a longer grace time for LPSI. Thus the reliability, safety and economy of the reactor system can be improved

  5. Defect accumulation behaviour in hcp metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of displacement damage on the physical and mechanical properties of metals and alloys, caused by the bombardment of energetic particles, have been investigated for several decades. Besides the obvious technical and industrial implications, an important motive of such investigations is to understand the factors that differentiate the response of different metals under different irradiation conditions. Recently, much interest is shown in the possible effects of the crystal lattice structure on variations in the damage accumulation behaviour of metals and alloys. In this paper we focus on the case of metals and alloys that crystallize in the hexagonal close pack (hcp) structure, and describe recent understanding of the damage production, accumulation and its consequences in these metals

  6. Local financial development and capital accumulations: Evidence from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryiğit Sibel Balı

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable importance of financial markets in the economy, the factors promoting financial development have just recently begun to be researched intensively. In this context, the aim of the study is to explain the reasons for the financial development gaps among provinces in Turkey on the basis of capital accumulations. According to the results of the spatial panel data model estimates based on indices of 81 provinces in Turkey for the period 2005-2009, it was found that the level of social capital best explained the level of financial development, followed by physical capital and human capital. Additionally, it was found that capital accumulations contributed above average not only to the financial development of that province, but also to that of the surrounding provinces.

  7. APS-U LATTICE DESIGN FOR OFF-AXIS ACCUMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yipeng; Borland, M.; Lindberg, R.; Sajaev, V.

    2017-06-25

    A 67-pm hybrid-seven-bend achromat (H7BA) lattice is being proposed for a future Advanced Photon Source (APS) multi-bend-achromat (MBA) upgrade project. This lattice design pushes for smaller emittance and requires use of a swap-out (on-axis) injection scheme due to limited dynamic acceptance. Alternate lattice design work has also been performed for the APS upgrade to achieve better beam dynamics performance than the nominal APS MBA lattice, in order to allow off-axis accumulation. Two such alternate H7BA lattice designs, which target a still-low emittance of 90 pm, are discussed in detail in this paper. Although the single-particle-dynamics performance is good, simulations of collective effects indicate that surprising difficulty would be expected accumulating high single-bunch charge in this lattice. The brightness of the 90-pm lattice is also a factor of two lower than the 67-pm H7BA lattice.

  8. Low energy current accumulator for high-energy proton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1977-01-01

    Building current in high-energy p-p colliding beam machines is most appropriately done in a low-energy (small circumference) current accumulator. Three significant factors favor such a procedure: First, large rings tend to be susceptible to unstable longitudinal density oscillations. These can be avoided by pumping up the beam in the accumulator. When the current stack is injected into the storage ring, potentially harmful instability is essentially neutralized. Second, high-field magnets characteristic of future high energy proton rings are designed with superconducting coils within the iron magnetic shield. This means coil construction and placement errors propagate rapidly within the beam aperture. An intermediate ''stacking ring'' allows the minimum use of the superconducting ring aperture. Finally, the coils are vulnerable to radiation heating and possible magnet quenching. By minimizing beam manipulaion in the superconducting environment and using only the central portion of the beam aperture, coil vulnerability can be put at a minimum

  9. Norepinephrine accumulation by the rat caudal artery in the presence of hypertensive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freas, W.; Thompson, D.A.; Hart, J.L.; Muldoon, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    We have partially isolated endogenous factors from canine plasma which inhibit 3 H-norepinephrine (NE) accumulation by the canine saphenous vein. The purpose of this study is to determine if these circulating factors may account for the observed differences in 3 H-NE uptake by hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels. Three models of hypertension were examined in this study. Blood vessels were compared from SHR and WKY rats, deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and control rats, and reduced renal mass (RRM) and control rats. There was no significant difference in 3 H-NE accumulation between blood vessels obtained from RRM and paired control rats. However, both the SHR and DOCA hypertensive caudal arteries and aorta accumulated significantly more 3 H-NE than their corresponding control tissues. There was not a significant change in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and control vena cava and mesenteric arteries. Normotensive and hypertensive plasma inhibited 3 H-NE accumulation by the rat caudal artery. However, there was not a correlation between blood pressure of plasma donor rats and accumulation of 3 H-NE. Therefore, although there are differences in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels, plasma does not contain a factor responsible for this observed difference

  10. User's manual for the radioactive decay and accumulation code RADAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Ashline, R.C.

    1995-11-01

    The RADAC computer code calculates radioactive decay and accumulation of decayed products using an algorithm based on the direct use of the Bateman equations and referred to here as the yield factor method. This report explains the yield factor method, gives an overview of the various modules in the RADAC code system, and describes the decay and accumulation code in detail. The RADAC code has capacity for two waste types and can accommodate up to 60 years of annual waste inputs. Decay times as high as 1 million years can be calculated. The user supplies the undecayed composition and radioactivity of the waste placed in storage each year. The code calculates the decayed composition, radioactivity, and thermal power of the accumulated waste at the end of each year and gives the results in terms of grams and curies of individual radionuclides. Calculations can be made for up to 19 waste storage sites in a single run. For each site and each waste type, calculations can be made by 1-year steps up to 60 years, by 10-year steps to 160 years, and by 6 discrete steps to 1 million years. Detailed outputs can be printed for each waste site and each time step by individual radionuclides. Summarized outputs are also available. Excluding data-preparation time, RADAC requires about 2 min to run 19 waste sites with two types of transuranic waste at each site, using a 486 DX computer with a clock speed of 33 MHz. Because RADAC uses a preselected set of decay times and does not make in-reactor calculations, it should not be viewed as a substitute for ORIGEN2. RADAC is intended for use in applications in which accumulations at the decay times provided by the code are sufficient for the user's purposes

  11. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  12. Variation in copper and zinc tolerance and accumulation in 12 willow clones: implications for phytoextraction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-dong; Wang, Yu-yan; Zhao, Feng-liang; Ding, Zhe-li; Zhang, Xin-cheng; Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) have shown high potential for the phytoextraction of heavy metals. This study compares variations in copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) tolerance and accumulation potential among 12 willow clones grown in a nutrient solution treated with 50 μmol/L of Cu or Zn, respectively. The results showed differences in the tolerance and accumulation of Cu and Zn with respect to different species/clones. The biomass variation among clones in response to Cu or Zn exposure ranged from the stimulation of growth to inhibition, and all of the clones tested showed higher tolerance to Cu than to Zn. The clones exhibited less variation in Cu accumulation but larger variation in Zn accumulation. Based on translocation factors, it was found that most of the Cu was retained in the roots and that Zn was more mobile than Cu for all clones. It is concluded that most willow clones are good accumulators of Zn and Cu. PMID:25183033

  13. Nickel accumulation and storage in bradyrhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, R.J.; Pihl, T.D.; Stults, L.; Sray, W.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogenase-depressed (chemolithotrophic growth conditions) and heterotrophically grown cultures of Bradyrhizobium japonicum accumulated nickel about equally over a 3-h period. Both types of cultures accumulated nickel primarily in a form that was not exchangeable with NiCl 2 , and they accumulated much more Ni than would be needed for the Ni-containing hydrogenase. The nickel accumulated by heterotrophically incubated cultures could later be mobilized to allow active hydrogenase synthesis during derepression in the absence of nickel, while cells both grown with Ni and the derepressed without nickel had low hydrogenase activities. The level of activity in cells grown with Ni and then derepressed without nickel was about the same as that in cultures derepressed in the presence of nickel. The Ni accumulated by heterotrophically grown cultures was associated principally with soluble proteins rather than particulate material, and this Ni was not lost upon dialyzing an extract containing the soluble proteins against either Ni-containing or EDTA-containing buffer. However, this Ni was lost upon pronase or low pH treatments. The soluble Ni-binding proteins were partially purified by gel filtration and DEAE chromatography. They were not antigenically related to hydrogenase peptides. Much of the 63 Ni eluted as a single peak of 48 kilodaltons. Experiments involving immunuprecipitation of 63 Ni-containing hydrogenase suggested that the stored source of Ni in heterotrophic cultures that could later be mobilized into hydrogenase resided in the nonexchangeable Ni-containing fraction rather than in loosely bound or ionic forms

  14. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  15. Ordinary differential equation for local accumulation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M

    2011-08-21

    Cell differentiation in a developing tissue is controlled by the concentration fields of signaling molecules called morphogens. Formation of these concentration fields can be described by the reaction-diffusion mechanism in which locally produced molecules diffuse through the patterned tissue and are degraded. The formation kinetics at a given point of the patterned tissue can be characterized by the local accumulation time, defined in terms of the local relaxation function. Here, we show that this time satisfies an ordinary differential equation. Using this equation one can straightforwardly determine the local accumulation time, i.e., without preliminary calculation of the relaxation function by solving the partial differential equation, as was done in previous studies. We derive this ordinary differential equation together with the accompanying boundary conditions and demonstrate that the earlier obtained results for the local accumulation time can be recovered by solving this equation. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  16. Selenium accumulation in the cockle Anadara trapezia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, Dianne F.; Maher, William A.; Kyd, Jennelle

    2004-01-01

    An extensive study on Se accumulation in a population of Anadara trapezia from a marine lake is reported. The effects of organism mass, gender, reproductive cycle, and season on Se accumulation and tissue distribution were investigated. Analyses showed that gender and reproductive cycle had no significant effect on Se accumulation. A. trapezia showed a strong positive correlation between Se burden and tissue mass. Constant Se concentrations were observed within individual populations but varied spatially with sediment Se concentrations. Se concentrations in tissues decreased from gills > gonad/intestine > mantle > muscle > foot, which remained constant over 12 months, however, significantly lower concentrations were observed in the summer compared to winter. A. trapezia is a good biomonitor for Se, as gender and size do not effect concentration, however, season of collection must be reported if changes in Se bioavailability are to be identified in short term studies, or during intersite comparisons. - Capsule: The marine bivalve Anadara trapezia is a good bioindicator for marine selenium contamination

  17. Accumulation of fluoride by plants and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njenga, L.W.; Kariuki, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    Fluoride in plant and vegetable samples has been determined using ion selective electrode. The analysis was carried out after ashing the sample on an open flame, adding perchloric acid and allowing the hydrogen fluoride to diffuse into sodium hydroxide layer.The results obtained show that kale and pumpkins can accumulate more than ten times their normal values of fluoride while plants were found to accumulate upto 100μg/g fluoride when exposed to highlevels of fluoride in water or soil. (author)

  18. Thermal energy accumulators. A bibliographical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlety, Paul

    1971-01-01

    Energy storage is a challenge, notably for spacecraft, submarines and non-polluting automotive vehicles. After a comparison of mass energies of different principles of energy accumulation (magnetic, electrostatic, solid elasticity, kinetic energy, gaseous elasticity, electro-chemistry, sensitive heat, freezing heat, fuels, radioactivity, nuclear fission or fusion, mass energy), the author discusses the choice of thermal storage, presents the main bodies used for thermal energy accumulation (molten salts such as lithium hydride or lithium salt eutectics, or other compounds such as alumina, paraffins), and gives an overview of the main theoretical problems [fr

  19. Difference in initial dental biofilm accumulation between night and day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dige, Irene; Schlafer, Sebastian; Nyvad, Bente

    2012-12-01

    The study of initial microbial colonization on dental surfaces is a field of intensive research because of the aetiological role of biofilms in oral diseases. Most previous studies of de novo accumulation and composition of dental biofilms in vivo do not differentiate between biofilms formed during day and night. This study hypothesized that there is a diurnal variation in the rate of accumulation of bacteria on solid surfaces in the oral cavity. In situ biofilm from healthy individuals was collected for 12 h during day and night, respectively, subjected to fluorescent in situ hybridization and visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Analysis of the biofilms using stereological methods and digital image analysis revealed a consistent statistically significant difference between both the total number of bacteria and the biovolume in the two 12-h groups (p = 0.012), with the highest accumulation of bacteria during daytime (a factor of 8.8 and 6.1 higher, respectively). Hybridization with probes specific for streptococci and Actinomyces naeslundii indicated a higher proportion of streptococci in biofilms grown during daytime as compared to night-time. No differences could be observed for A. naeslundii. The degree of microbial coverage and the bacterial composition varied considerably between different individuals. The data provide firm evidence that initial biofilm formation decreases during the night, which may reflect differences in the availability of salivary nutrients. This finding is of significant importance when studying population dynamics during experimental dental biofilm formation.

  20. Yield accumulation in irrigated sugarcane. II. Utilization of intercepted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchow, R.C.; Evensen, C.I.; Osgood, R.V.; Robertson, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Intercepted radiation is a major driving variable of crop production under high-input irrigated conditions. Quantitative information on the utilization of radiation in yield accumulation allows extrapolation beyond the current season and location, and when this information is incorporated into crop growth simulation models, the effect of crop age on the productivity of different cultivars can be examined under different climatic conditions. This paper examines the differential performance of high-yielding sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) crops in terms of the amount of short-wave solar radiation intercepted (Si) and the efficiency of use of intercepted radiation (RUE) in biomass production. Biomass accumulation during the 12- to 24-mo crop cycle was examined for two experiments conducted in Hawaii, and three experiments conducted in tropical Australia from 1991 to 1993. The analysis showed that (i) RUE was much less for growth after 12 mo than in the first 12 mo; (ii) maximum RUE of sugarcane approaches 2.0 g MJ(-1); (iii) biomass accumulation beyond 12 mo was not related directly to radiation utilization; and (iv) cultivars differed in Si, but differences in RUE could not be unequivocally assessed due to the confounding effect of variable recovery of trash in biomass estimates. It is concluded that stalk death and consequent biomass loss are important factors contributing to yield variation in sugarcane crops growing for 12 to 24 mo, with a yield plateau occurring at variable crop ages during the second year of growth

  1. Accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato skin extends shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolino, Laura; Zhang, Yang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico; Martin, Cathie

    2013-11-01

    Shelf life is one of the most important traits for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) industry. Two key factors, post-harvest over-ripening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogen infection, determine tomato shelf life. Anthocyanins accumulate in the skin of Aft/Aft atv/atv tomatoes, the result of introgressing alleles affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit from two wild relatives of tomato, which results in extended fruit shelf life. Compared with ordinary, anthocyanin-less tomatoes, the fruits of Aft/Aft atv/atv keep longer during storage and are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, a major tomato pathogen, post-harvest. Using genetically modified tomatoes over-producing anthocyanins, we confirmed that skin-specific accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato is sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Our data indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit, achieved either by traditional breeding or genetic engineering can be an effective way to extend tomato shelf life. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Bayesian inference method for stochastic damage accumulation modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xiaomo; Yuan, Yong; Liu, Xian

    2013-01-01

    Damage accumulation based reliability model plays an increasingly important role in successful realization of condition based maintenance for complicated engineering systems. This paper developed a Bayesian framework to establish stochastic damage accumulation model from historical inspection data, considering data uncertainty. Proportional hazards modeling technique is developed to model the nonlinear effect of multiple influencing factors on system reliability. Different from other hazard modeling techniques such as normal linear regression model, the approach does not require any distribution assumption for the hazard model, and can be applied for a wide variety of distribution models. A Bayesian network is created to represent the nonlinear proportional hazards models and to estimate model parameters by Bayesian inference with Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are developed to assess the validity of the established damage accumulation model. Anderson–Darling goodness-of-fit test is employed to perform the normality test, and Box–Cox transformation approach is utilized to convert the non-normality data into normal distribution for hypothesis testing in quantitative model validation. The methodology is illustrated with the seepage data collected from real-world subway tunnels.

  3. The Competence Accumulation Process in the Technology Transference Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Silva de Souza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article evaluates and measures the technological competence accumulation in an automation area enterprise to distribution centers, Knapp Sudamérica Logistic and Automation Ltd, in the interval of the technology transference process previous period (1998-2001 and during the technology transference process(2002-2005. Therefore, based on an individual case study, the study identified the technology transference strategy and mechanism accorded between the head office and the branch office, the technological functions and activities developed by the receiver and, at last, the critical factors present in this process. The echnological competences accumulation exam was accomplished based on an analytical structure existent in the literature that was adapted to the researched segment analysis. The obtained results showed that the planed, organized, controlled and continuous effort to generating and disseminating knowledge allowed the enterprise to speed up the accumulation process of technological competences promoting the converting of this process from individual level to the organizational one: besides, it also allowed the identification of barriers and facilitators involved in this process.

  4. Partitioning behaviour of perfluorinated alkyl contaminants between water, sediment and fish in the Orge River (nearby Paris, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labadie, Pierre; Chevreuil, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the partitioning behaviour of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including C 4 -C 10 sulfonates and C 5 -C 14 carboxylic acids, between water, sediment and fish (European chub, Leuciscus cephalus) in the Orge River (nearby Paris). Total PFC levels were 73.0 ± 3.0 ng L -1 in water and 8.4 ± 0.5 ng g -1 in sediment. They were in the range 43.1-4997.2 ng g -1 in fish, in which PFC tissue distribution followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. Sediment-water distribution coefficients (log K d ) and bioaccumulation factors (log BAF) were in the range 0.8-4.3 and 0.9-6.7, respectively. Both distribution coefficients positively correlated with perfluoroalkyl chain length. Field-based biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) are also reported, for the first time for PFCs other than perfluorooctane sulfonate. log BSAF ranged between -1.3 and 1.5 and was negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. - Research highlights: → PFC tissue distribution in European chub followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. → K d and BAF correlated with PFC alkyl chain length. → BSAF negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. → BSAF did not correlate with alkyl chain length of sulfonates. - Sediment-water, biota-water and biota-sediment partitioning coefficients were determined for perfluorinated acids and sulfonates and were generally correlated with alkyl chain length.

  5. Peat growth and carbon accumulation rates during the holocene in boreal mires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klarqvist, M.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis is based on accumulation processes in northern mires. In the first study, problems concerning carbon 14 dating of peat were examined by fractionation of bulk peat samples and 14 C AMS dating of the separate fractions. In the following studies, peat cores from twelve Swedish mire sites were investigated. Macrofossil analysis was performed on the sampled cores to describe and classify the plant communities during mire development. Between 6 to 18 14 C AMS datings were performed on one core from each mire in order to estimate the peat growth and carbon accumulation rates for the identified plant communities. Different fractions within single peat bulk samples gave considerably differing 14 C ages. The range in age differed between mire types and depth. For accurate 14 C dating, moss-stems, preferably of Sphagnum spp. are recommended. Both autogenic and allogenic factors, e.g. climate and developmental stage, respectively, were identified as important influences on carbon accumulation. Both peat growth and carbon accumulation rates differed between plant communities. The major factors explaining the variations in accumulation rates of the different plant communities were the amount of Carex and Sphagnum remains and the geographical position of the mire. Carbon accumulation rates decrease along with development in most mires. The results indicate that some mires may have alternated between being carbon sinks and sources, at least over the last several hundred years. The inter-annual variation in carbon accumulation is probably explained by climatic variations

  6. Implications of metal accumulation mechanisms to phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul R; Schröder, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Trace elements (heavy metals and metalloids) are important environmental pollutants, and many of them are toxic even at very low concentrations. Pollution of the biosphere with trace elements has accelerated dramatically since the Industrial Revolution. Primary sources are the burning of fossil fuels, mining and smelting of metalliferous ores, municipal wastes, agrochemicals, and sewage. In addition, natural mineral deposits containing particularly large quantities of heavy metals are found in many regions. These areas often support characteristic plant species thriving in metal-enriched environments. Whereas many species avoid the uptake of heavy metals from these soils, some of them can accumulate significantly high concentrations of toxic metals, to levels which by far exceed the soil levels. The natural phenomenon of heavy metal tolerance has enhanced the interest of plant ecologists, plant physiologists, and plant biologists to investigate the physiology and genetics of metal tolerance in specialized hyperaccumulator plants such as Arabidopsis halleri and Thlaspi caerulescens. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the genetic and molecular basis of metal tolerance in plants with special reference to transcriptomics of heavy metal accumulator plants and the identification of functional genes implied in tolerance and detoxification. Plants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity and respond to avoid detrimental effects in a variety of different ways. The toxic dose depends on the type of ion, ion concentration, plant species, and stage of plant growth. Tolerance to metals is based on multiple mechanisms such as cell wall binding, active transport of ions into the vacuole, and formation of complexes with organic acids or peptides. One of the most important mechanisms for metal detoxification in plants appears to be chelation of metals by low-molecular-weight proteins such as metallothioneins and peptide ligands, the phytochelatins. For

  7. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  8. Cytokine accumulation in osteitis fibrosa of renal osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte M.E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow fibrosis occurs in association with a number of pathological states. Despite the extensive fibrosis that sometimes characterizes renal osteodystrophy, little is known about the factors that contribute to marrow accumulation of fibrous tissue. Because circulating cytokines are elevated in uremia, possibly in response to elevated parathyroid hormone levels, we have examined bone biopsies from 21 patients with end-stage renal disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Bone sections were stained with antibodies to human interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-11, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß using an undecalcified plastic embedding method. Intense staining for IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha and TGF-ß was evident within the fibrotic tissue of the bone marrow while minimal IL-11 was detected. The extent of cytokine deposition corresponded to the severity of fibrosis, suggesting their possible involvement in the local regulation of the fibrotic response. Because immunoreactive TGF-ß and IL-6 were also detected in osteoblasts and osteocytes, we conclude that selective cytokine accumulation may have a role in modulating bone and marrow cell function in parathyroid-mediated uremic bone disease.

  9. Upgraded cavities for the positron accumulator ring of the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.W.; Jiang, X.; Mangra, D.

    1997-01-01

    Upgraded versions of cavities for the APS positron accumulator ring (PAR) have been built and are being tested. Two cavities are in the PAR: a fundamental 9.8-MHz cavity and a twelfth harmonic 117.3-MHz cavity. Both cavities have been manufactured for higher voltage operation with improved Q-factors, reliability, and tuning capability. Both cavities employ current-controlled ferrite tuners for control of the resonant frequency. The harmonic cavity can be operated in either a pulsed mode or a CW mode. The rf properties of the cavities are presented

  10. Accumulation of 210Po by benthic marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouvea, R.C.; Branco, M.E.C.; Santos, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of polonium 210 Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of 210 Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of 210 Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium. (author)

  11. Heavy metals accumulation affects bone microarchitecture in osteoporotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Manuel; Feola, Maurizio; Romano, Lorenzo; Rao, Cecilia; Gasbarra, Elena; Bonanno, Elena; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Tarantino, Umberto

    2017-04-01

    Bone metabolism is affected by mechanical, genetic, and environmental factors and plays a major role in osteoporosis. Nevertheless, the influence of environmental pollution on the occurrence of osteoporosis is still unclear and controversial. In this context, heavy metals are the most important pollutants capable to affect bone mass. The aim of this study was to investigate whether heavy metals accumulation in bone tissues could be related to the altered bone metabolism and architecture of osteoporotic patients. To this end, we analyzed 25 bone head biopsies osteoporotic patients and 25 bone head biopsies of osteoarthritic patients. Moreover we enrolled 15 patients underwent hip arthroplasty for high-energy hip fracture or osteonecrosis of the femoral head as a control group. Bone head biopsies were studied by BioQuant-osteo software, scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis. We found a prevalence of lead, cadmium and chromium accumulation in osteoporotic patients. Noteworthy, high levels of sclerostin, detected by immunohistochemistry, correlate with the accumulation of heavy metal found in the bone of osteoporotic patients, suggesting a molecular link between heavy metal accumulation and bone metabolism impairment. In conclusion, the presence of heavy metals into bone shed new light on the comprehension of the pathogenesis of osteoporosis since these elements could play a non redundant role in the development of osteoporosis at cellular/molecular and epigenetic level. Nevertheless, in vivo and in vitro studies need to better elucidate the molecular mechanism in which heavy metals can participate to osteoporosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1333-1342, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Accumulative pollution, "clean technology," and policy design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toman, M.A.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the optimal long-term management of an accumulative but assimilable pollutant through economic incentive policies that restrict more damaging production processes and induce more benign alternatives. Using a simple general equilibrium approach, we consider the possibility that

  13. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  14. Capital accumulation and embodied technological progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.

    This paper combines technology adoption with capital accumulation taking into account technological progress. We model this as a multi-stage optimal control problem and solve it using the corresponding maximum principle. The model with linear revenue can be solved analytically, while the model with

  15. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Có zar, André s; Sanz-Martí n, Marina; Martí , Elisa; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bá rbara; Gá lvez, José Á .; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  16. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  17. Curriculum Development through YTS Modular Credit Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document reports the evaluation of the collaborately developed Modular Training Framework (MainFrame), a British curriculum development project, built around a commitment to a competency-based, modular credit accumulation program. The collaborators were three local education authorities (LEAs), those of Bedfordshire, Haringey, and Sheffield,…

  18. Immunohistochemical evaluation of iron accumulation in term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical immunohistochemical studies on placenta have shown that there is a linear increase in iron storage in the placenta in the first half of a normal pregnancy, however, these stocks are decreased in normal 3rd trimester placenta. Iron accumulation in term placentas of preeclamptic and normal pregnancies were ...

  19. NUTRIENTS ACCUMULATION IN FRUITS OF BERRY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Parascovia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of observations and biochemical analysis of the berries made during the years 2013-2014 in Republic of Moldova, it was found that bacciferous species included in the study had a wide spectrum of colors, from white, orange, red to blue and black. The possibility to extend the consumption of fresh berries is because these species ripen in series starting with honeysuckle in May, then one by one until September: strawberry, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, barberry, jostaberry, blueberry, sea buckthorn, blackberry, chokeberry, guilder rose. Chokeberries accumulated the highest average amount of soluble solids - 18.02%, jostaberries highlighted with the highest average amount of accumulated sugars - 9.56%. Red currant highlighted with the highest acidity - 5.22%, while blueberries with low acidity - 1.43%. Rosehip has accumulated the highest average amount of tannins and coloring substances - 546.65 mg%. Rosehip berries accumulated the highest amount of vitamin C average - 292.38 mg%, the black currant - 179.69 mg%, jostaberry - 112.86 mg%, and sea buckthorn - 96.7 mg%. The highest average values of the coefficient sugar / acid certifying good qualities were found in: blueberries - 4.39, guelder rose - 3.93, gooseberry - 3.55.

  20. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  1. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-01-01

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed

  2. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T

    1996-01-01

    .01)). This decline was significantly higher in the six patients who had a postoperative infection (median 3.02 (range -0.06 to 6.14) versus 0.36 (range -1.56 to 12.60) micrograms/cm, P = 0.02). This study shows that major surgery is associated with impairment of subcutaneous collagen accumulation in a test wound...

  3. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  4. Capital accumulation in private information economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-22 ISSN 1534-5998 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : moral hazard * capital accumulation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1172&context=bejm

  5. Accumulating Project Management Knowledge Using Process Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederman, Fred; March, Salvatore T.; Mueller, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Process theory has become an important mechanism for the accumulation of knowledge in a number of disciplines. In contrast with variance theory, which focuses on co-variation of dependent and independent variables, process theory focuses on sequences of activities, their duration and the intervals

  6. Temporal accumulation of oriented visual features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel ...

  7. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  8. Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schädlich, Andreas; Hoffmann, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Several nanocarrier systems are frequently used in modern pharmaceutical therapies. Within this study a potential toxicity risk of all nanoscaled drug delivery systems was found. An accumulation of several structurally different nanocarriers but not of soluble polymers was detected in rodent ovar...... but the results might as well open a new field of targeted ovarian therapies....

  9. Phytochelatin and cadmium accumulation in wheat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolt, J.P.; Sneller, F.E.C.; Bryngelson, T.; Lundborg, T.; Schat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential heavy metal that can be harmful at low concentrations in organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease Cd accumulation in the grains of wheats aimed for human consumption. In response to Cd, higher plants synthesize sulphur-rich peptides, phytochelatins (PCs).

  10. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  11. Snow as an accumulator of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brown

    1976-01-01

    Using simple analytical techniques, the amounts of air pollutants accumulated in winter snow were determined and the results correlated with lichen survival on trees. Pollutants measured were particulate matter, sulfate, and chloride. An inverse relationship was found between amounts of each of these pollutants and the abundance of various lichens.

  12. Electric charger for an accumulator or battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robers, E.W.J.; Molenaar, B.A.M.; Smit, W.; Bech, L.P.; Bouman, C.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to an electric charger for an accumulator or a battery or the like, which is adapted for rapid charging during an on-period and comprises for this purpose control means for starting and ending the on-period. The charger is provided with a circuit for converting a supply voltage

  13. Mitochondrial accumulation of APP and Abeta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Pavel F; Petersen, Anna Camilla Hansson; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that alterations in energy metabolism are among the earliest events that occur in the Alzheimer disease (AD) affected brain. Energy consumption is drastically decreased in the AD-affected regions of cerebral cortex and hippocampus pointing towards compromised mitocho...

  14. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Y.; Takenaka, C.; Kanasashi, T. [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, 464-8601, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture (Japan); Deguchi, S. [School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture, 464-8601 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, 514-0102 (Japan); Ozawa, H. [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Koriyama City Fukushima Prefecture, 963-0112 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of {sup 137}Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for {sup 137}Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. {sup 137}Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO{sub 3}. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained {sup 137}Cs at high concentration due to the deposited {sup 137}Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated {sup 137}Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate {sup 137}Cs. The {sup 137}Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of

  15. Determinants of iron accumulation in the normal aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Gesierich, Benno; De Guio, François; Freudenberger, Paul; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Duchesnay, Edouard; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2016-07-01

    In a recent postmortem study, R2* relaxometry in gray matter (GM) of the brain has been validated as a noninvasive measure for iron content in brain tissue. Iron accumulation in the normal aging brain is a common finding and relates to brain maturation and degeneration. The goal of this study was to assess the determinants of iron accumulation during brain aging. The study cohort consisted of 314 healthy community-dwelling participants of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. Their age ranged from 38-82 years. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 3T and included R2* mapping, based on a 3D multi-echo gradient echo sequence. The median of R2* values was measured in all GM regions, which were segmented automatically using FreeSurfer. We investigated 25 possible determinants for cerebral iron deposition. These included demographics, brain volume, lifestyle factors, cerebrovascular risk factors, serum levels of iron, and single nucleotide polymorphisms related to iron regulating genes (rs1800562, rs3811647, rs1799945, and rs1049296). The body mass index (BMI) was significantly related to R2* in 15/32 analyzed brain regions with the strongest correlations found in the amygdala (p = 0.0091), medial temporal lobe (p = 0.0002), and hippocampus (p ≤ 0.0001). Further associations to R2* values were found in deep GM for age and smoking. No significant associations were found for gender, GM volume, serum levels of iron, or iron-associated genetic polymorphisms. In conclusion, besides age, the BMI and smoking are the only significant determinants of brain iron accumulation in normally aging subjects. Smoking relates to iron deposition in the basal ganglia, whereas higher BMI is associated with iron content in the neocortex following an Alzheimer-like distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cortisol and testosterone accumulation in a low pH recirculating aquaculture system for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, Vasco C.; Martins, Catarina I.M.; Eding, Ep H.; Canário, Adelino V.M.; Verreth, Johan A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Steroids accumulate in recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), although explanatory factors for such accumulation are still poorly explored. This study investigated the effect of water exchange rate and pH in six replicated RAS on the concentration of the stress hormone cortisol in rainbow trout

  17. Unknown and abnormal accumulation in the chest in bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiaki; Takeuchi, Masashi; Tokunaga, Koji; Maeda, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Kazuhiko.

    1979-01-01

    In scintigraphies of forty patients with hemiplegia following appoplexia, focal abnormal accumulations in the chest region were seen in bone scintigraphies of four patients. These hot accumulations could be neither rib fracture, rib metastases, nor abnormal calcium accumulation. A mechanism of these accumulation remains to undicided. We believe that this phenomena is related to abnormal bone metabolism in hemiplegial condition. (author)

  18. Features of accumulation of radiation defects in metal with impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskakov, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    The processes of accumulation and annealing of radiation defects in solids are being studied for the last fifty years quite intensively. Many regularities of these processes are fixed, but there are more unsolved problems. The computer simulation is one of the effective tools in finding the mechanisms of accumulation and annealing of radiation defects in solids. The numerical solution of the system of the differential equations by means of computers describing kinetics of accumulation of radiation point defects in metals with impurity, has allowed to receive a number of new outcomes. It was revealed, that a determinative factor influential in concentration of point defects (vacancies and interstitial atoms), formed during an exposure of metal, is the correlation a speed of Frenkel twins recombination, the capture of defects by impurity atoms and absorption of defects by other drainage, for example by dislocations. If the speed of capture of interstitial atoms by impurity atoms for two - three order is lower than the recombination speed of Frenkel twins and on two - three order exceeds the speed of capture of vacancies by impurity atoms, the concentration of interstitial atoms within the first seconds of an exposure passes through a maximum, then quickly decreases in some times and after that starts slowly to grow. The change of concentration of interstitial atoms in an initial period of an exposure does not influence on the change of a vacancy concentration. Within the whole period of an exposure, during which the concentration of interstitial atoms achieves a maximum and then is reduced, the vacancy concentration is steadily enlarged. However subsequent sluggish rise of concentration of interstitial atoms during an exposure is followed by the decrease of the vacancy concentration. The most remarkable feature of the kinetics of accumulation of interstitial atoms in metals with impurity is the presence of two extremum on curve dependence of interstitial atoms on a

  19. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed

  20. The future of the antiproton accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autin, B.

    1983-01-01

    When the Antiproton Accumulator was designed in 1977, it was considered as an element of the high energy proton-antiproton collision experiments in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Since that time, antiproton physics has become more and more popular: a second experimental area was built in the SPS, the Intersecting Storage Rings started a special antiproton programme and a considerable interest has bloomed in the energy range of nuclear physics with the LEAR machine. Moreover, any projection on hadron physics in the coming years shows an insatiable appetite of experimentalists for more antiprotons. Therefore, basic studies have been pursued since the beginning of last year to transform the accumulator into an abundant source of antiprotons

  1. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Ferro Vázquez, Cruz; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Costa Casais, Manuela; Taboada Rodríguez, Teresa; Rodríguez Lado, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  2. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T. [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1986-03-15

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed.

  3. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  4. The Antiproton Accumulator becomes Antiproton Decelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The photos show the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) transformed into Antiproton Decelerator. The AA was used at CERN between 1981 and 1999 before being replaced by the Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The AA was used to collect and stochastically cool antiprotons used in proton-antiproton collisions in the SPS collider. This lead to the discovery of the W and Z bosons in 1983 and the Nobel Prize for Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer in 1984.

  5. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predic...

  6. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, W. Tyler; Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated

  7. Child Benefit Payments and Household Wealth Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin Stephens Jr.; Takashi Unayama

    2014-01-01

    Using the life-cycle/permanent income hypothesis, we theoretically and empirically assess the impact of child benefit payments on household wealth accumulation. Consistent with the predictions of the model, we find that higher cumulative benefits received increase current assets, higher future benefit payments lower asset holding, and that these effects systematically vary over the life-cycle. We find different wealth responses to child benefit payments for liquidity constrained and unconstra...

  8. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  9. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, W Tyler; Moore, Joseph A; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  10. Credit Market Development and Human Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Wai-Hong

    2008-01-01

    In a two period overlapping generations economy with asymmetric information, we investigate the interaction between credit market development and human capital accumulation. As is typical, young borrowers supply their endowed unit of labor time to earn wage income which is used as internal funds. In contrast to conventional setups, young lenders distribute theirs between acquiring education and working for earnings. Through identifying the risk types of borrowers by a costly screening tech...

  11. Cadmium accumulation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs is modulated by dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnison, B. Kent; Meinelt, Thomas; Playle, Richard; Pietrock, Michael; Wienke, Andreas; Steinberg, Christian E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate factors influencing the accumulation of cadmium (Cd 2+ ) into zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs. The accumulation of 109 Cd was affected by: (1) concentration, (2) time, (3) presence of dissolved organic material (DOM), (4) different origin of DOM and (5) different parts of fish eggs. Over a 5-h exposure, zebrafish eggs showed a steady increase in Cd-accumulation. DOM-concentrations over 15 ppm carbon (C) decreased Cd-uptake significantly. Both samples of DOM, brown water marsh (LM) and a eutrophic pond (SP), at 16.9 ppm C, reduced the Cd-accumulation in the chorion, perivitelline liquid and the embryo. Cd was mainly accumulated in the egg's outer shell chorion (61%) and only small amounts passed through the chorion into the perivitelline liquid (38%) and embryo (1%). In the presence of LM-DOM, the accumulation of Cd into the egg components was decreased by 43% (chorion), 52% (perivitelline liquid) and 52% (embryo), respectively, compared with the control group. Similarly, the presence of SP-DOM reduced the Cd-accumulation by 29% (chorion), 61% (perivitelline liquid) and 60% (embryo), respectively, compared with the controls. DOM-concentration should be taken into consideration when determining ecotoxicological effects of Cd on fish populations

  12. The accumulation of metals in lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâșu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to accumulate metal in the lichen communities has been used to identify the level of air pollution due road traffic. Several analyses have been conducted in the study, on tissue from lichens collected from six areas: the park of a town, various sites on the town’s freeway and on a county road segment with moderate traffic. The analyzed lichens were from the Parmelia spp. species which grow naturally on trees found in borderline lanes of motorways. Based on the degree of heavy metal accumulation such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in the Parmelia spp. lichens, a correlation has been made, with the road traffic. According to the metal bioaccumulation degree in lichens tissue, it has been established that the sources such as traffic from the outskirts of cities, from the perimeter of gas stations and of county roads continuously spread products which contain these elements, into the atmosphere. The fast information regarding the quality of the air in the environment allows the use of lichens as organism which can indicate environmental conditions and their modification by accumulating substances.

  13. Plume residence and toxic material accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Holpuch, R.

    1975-01-01

    Increased growth rates and 137 Cs concentrations in plume resident trout are thought to be the result of increased metabolism, food consumption, and activity caused by exposure to increased water temperature and flow in thermal discharges. These exposure conditions could contribute to increased accumulation of biologically active, toxic substances by primary forage and predator fish species in the Great Lakes. Uptake and retention of various toxic substances by predators depend on concentrations in forage species (trophic transfer), ambient water, and point source effluents (direct uptake). Contaminants of immediate concern in Great Lakes systems (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons) accumulate in adipose tissue, and body concentrations have been correlated with total lipid content in fish. In addition to direct toxic effects on fish, many lipophilic contaminants are known to cause severe human health problems when ingested at concentrations commonly found in Lake Michigan salmonids. Although power plants may or may not be the direct source of a toxic substance, the thermal discharge environment may contribute to the accumulation of toxic substances in fish and the transfer of these materials to man

  14. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  15. Evaluating the role of desorption in bioavailability of sediment-associated contaminants using oligochaetes, semipermeable membrane devices and Tenax extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppaenen, Matti T.; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K.

    2006-01-01

    The success of the rapidly desorbing fraction as an available fraction was challenged by using sediment ingesting and non-ingesting oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) together with passive samplers (semipermeable membrane devices, SPMDs) in accumulation and kinetic modelling exercises for carbon-14 labelled model compounds (pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl). Passive samplers clearly produced lower uptake rate constants and steady state factors than either of the oligochaete treatments when residue concentrations were based on animal lipid or total SPMD weight. The rapidly desorbing chemical fractions in sediments did not show a significant relationship with the biota sediment accumulation factors or SPMD accumulation factors. A distinctly better relationship was observed between the accumulation factors and the desorption rate constants. The results support the assumption that desorption plays an important role in bioavailability, although animal behaviour and the diffusional limitations of hydrophobic contaminants in sediment together probably affect the actual available pool. - Desorption and animal behaviour play major roles in the availability of hydrophobic organics in sediments

  16. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from creosote-contaminated soil in selected plants and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann-Sofie Allard; Marianne Malmberg; Alasdair H. Neilson; Mikael Remberger [IVL, Stockholm (Sweden). Swedish Environmental Research Institute

    2005-07-01

    The accumulation of PAHs from a creosote-contaminated soil was examined in laboratory experiments using English ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens) and radish (Raphanus sativus), and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus. Toxicity to the plants and the worms was assessed, and a soil sample mixed with calcined sand was used for accumulation experiments to avoid interference from toxicity in the soil. Accumulation of potentially carcinogenic PAHs varied among the plants, and there was a linear relation between concentrations of PAHs in the soil and in the plants. Correlations between values of the biota-soil accumulation factors and octanol-water partition coefficients, or water solubility varied among the plants and were rather weak, so that lipophilic character or water solubility of the PAHs alone cannot explain PAH accumulation. Accumulation of carcinogenic PAHs from the soil, in the presence of the other PAHs was greatest for Trifolium repens. PAHs were accumulated in the oligochaete worm (Enchytraeus crypticus), and biota-soil accumulation factors exceeded those for the plants. It is suggested that site-specific evaluation of contaminated sites should include not only chemical analysis and evaluation of toxicity but also accumulation of contaminants into biota such as plants and worms.

  17. Mercury accumulation plant Cyrtomium macrophyllum and its potential for phytoremediation of mercury polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Yu; Feng, Liu; Li, Youdan; Dong, Haochen

    2017-12-01

    Cyrtomium macrophyllum naturally grown in 225.73 mg kg -1 of soil mercury in mining area was found to be a potential mercury accumulator plant with the translocation factor of 2.62 and the high mercury concentration of 36.44 mg kg -1 accumulated in its aerial parts. Pot experiments indicated that Cyrtomium macrophyllum could even grow in 500 mg kg -1 of soil mercury with observed inhibition on growth but no obvious toxic effects, and showed excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities with both translocation and bioconcentration factors greater than 1 when exposed to 200 mg kg -1 and lower soil mercury, indicating that it could be considered as a great mercury accumulating species. Furthermore, the leaf tissue of Cyrtomium macrophyllum showed high resistance to mercury stress because of both the increased superoxide dismutase activity and the accumulation of glutathione and proline induced by mercury stress, which favorited mercury translocation from the roots to the aerial parts, revealing the possible reason for Cyrtomium macrophyllum to tolerate high concentration of soil mercury. In sum, due to its excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities as well as its high resistance to mercury stress, the use of Cyrtomium macrophyllum should be a promising approach to remediating mercury polluted soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal changes of metal accumulation and distribution in common club rush (Schoenoplectus lacustris) and common reed (Phragmites australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Fatih; Cicek, Mehmet; Sezen, Goksal

    2007-08-01

    In this study, two aquatic macrophytes Phragmites australis and Schoenoplectus lacustris and corresponding sediment samples were collected every three months from Lake Sapanca (Turkey) and analysed for their heavy-metal contents (Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn and Cd). Accumulation factor ratios of plant parts were calculated for all metals, and the two species were compared in terms of accumulation properties. The highest concentrations were measured in the root systems while relatively low concentrations were found in the rhizome and above-ground parts of the plants. The accumulation ratios of root for P. australis were usually higher than the ratios for S. lacustris. While the accumulation ratios of root were higher in winter than in the other seasons for P. australis, for S. lacustris the highest accumulation ratios were found in the autumn. Both plant species were found to be root accumulators of Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn and Cd.

  19. Clinical evaluation of 67Ga gut accumulation in 67Ga scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Ohno, Akiko; Watanabe, Youichi; Ishigaki, Takeo.

    1994-01-01

    Accumulation of 67 Ga in gut was evaluated in 67 Ga scintigraphy retrospectively in 30 patients (32 examinations). TIBC and UIBC were examined in all patients on the day when their scintigraphies were performed. Blood transfusion or Fe administration 2 months before 67 Ga scintigraphies were not carried out in any patient. Fifty percents (6/12) of male, and 40% (8/20) of female patients showed 67 Ga accumulation in gut. There was significant correlation between 67 Ga accumulation in gut and low ion-saturation ratio for transferrin. Excretion of 67 Ga bound with transferrin from liver was thought to be an important factor of 67 ga accumulation in gut. (author)

  20. The effect of technogenic emissions on the heavy metals accumulation by herbaceous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplygin, Victor; Minkina, Tatiana; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Burachevskaya, Marina; Sushkova, Svetlana; Poluektov, Evgeniy; Antonenko, Elena; Kumacheva, Valentina

    2018-02-07

    The effect of technogenic emissions on the input of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Cr, and Ni into plants from the Poaceae and Asteraceae families has been studied. Soil and plant contamination by anthropogenic emissions from industrial enterprises leads the decreasing of crop quality; therefore, the monitoring investigation of plants and soils acquires special importance. The herbaceous plants may be used as bioindicators for main environmental changes. It was found that the high level of anthropogenic load related to atmospheric emissions from the power plant favors the heavy metal (HM) accumulation in herbaceous plants. Contamination with Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni was revealed in plants growing near the power plant. Heavy metals arrive to plants from the soil in the form of mobile compounds. Plant family is one of the main factors affecting the HM distribution in the above- and underground parts of plants. Plants from the Poaceae family accumulate less chemical elements in their aboveground parts than the Asteraceae plants. Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Artemisia austriaca are HM accumulators. For assessing the stability of plants under contamination with HMs, metal accumulation by plants from soil (the bioconcentration factor) and metal phytoavailability from plants above- and underground parts (the acropetal coefficient) were calculated. According to the bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values, Poaceae species are most resistant to technogenic contamination with HMs. The translocation factor highest values were found for Tanacetum vulgare; the lowest bioconcentration factor values were typical for Poa pratensis.

  1. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    Toxic metal pollution of waters and soils is a major environmental problem, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide acceptable solutions. The use of plants or plant products to restore or stabilize contaminated sites, collectively known as phytoremediation, takes advantage of the natural abilities of plants to take up, accumulate, store, or degrade organic and inorganic substances. Although not a new concept, phytoremediation is currently being re-examined as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective means of reducing metal contaminated soil. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this regard, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations and have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Processes include using plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels (phytoextraction) and using plants that can grow under conditions that are toxic to other plants while preventing, for example, soil erosion (phytostabilization). Soil and plant samples were taken at polymetallic mines in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. It is suggested that Plantago orbignyana Steinheil is a Pb hyperaccumulator. Moreover, unusually elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg-1) and Translocation Factor (TF) greater than one were also detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens) of a Caroline mine in Perú. Among the grass species (Poaceae), the highest shoot As concentration were found in Paspalum sp. (>1000 μg g-1) and Eriochola ramose (460 μg g-1) from the Cu mine in Peru and in Holcus lanatus and Pennisetum clandestinum (>200 μg g-1) from the silver mine in Ecuador. The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). Paspalum racemosum also

  2. The association between various smoking behaviors, cotinine biomarkers and skin autofluorescence, a marker for advanced glycation end product accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waateringe, Robert P.; Mook-Kanamori, Marjonneke J.; Slagter, Sandra N.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Graaff, Reindert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Suhre, Karsten; Selim, Mohammed M. El-Din; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin autofluorescence, a biomarker for advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulation, has been shown to predict diabetes-related cardiovascular complications and is associated with several environmental and lifestyle factors. In the present study, we examined the association

  3. Deciphering the relationship among phosphate dynamics, electron-dense body and lipid accumulation in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ota, S.; Yoshihara, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Takeshita, T.; Hirata, A.; Konomi, M.; Oshima, K.; Hattori, M.; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, MAY 16 (2016), s. 25731 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : electron-dense body * lipid accumulation * Parachlorella kessleri Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  4. Soil Organic Matter Accumulation and Carbon Fractions along a Moisture Gradient of Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Błońska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present effects of soil properties, especially moisture, on the quantity and quality of soil organic matter. The investigation was performed in the Czarna Rózga Reserve in Central Poland. Forty circular test areas were located in a regular grid of points (100 × 300 m. Each plot was represented by one soil profile located at the plot’s center. Sample plots were located in the area with Gleysols, Cambisols and Podzols with the water table from 0 to 100 cm. In each soil sample, particle size, total carbon and nitrogen content, acidity, base cations content and fractions of soil organic matter were determined. The organic carbon stock (SOCs was calculated based on its total content at particular genetic soil horizons. A Carbon Distribution Index (CDI was calculated from the ratio of the carbon accumulation in organic horizons and the amount of organic carbon accumulation in the mineral horizons, up to 60 cm. In the soils under study, in the temperate zone, moisture is an important factor in the accumulation of organic carbon in the soil. The highest accumulation of carbon was observed in soils of swampy variant, while the lowest was in the soils of moist variant. Large accumulation of C in the soils with water table 80–100 cm results from the thick organic horizons that are characterized by lower organic matter decomposition and higher acidity. The proportion of carbon accumulation in the organic horizons to the total accumulation in the mineral horizons expresses the distribution of carbon accumulated in the soil profile, and is a measure of quality of the organic matter accumulated. Studies have confirmed the importance of moisture content in the formation of the fractional organic matter. With greater soil moisture, the ratio of humic to fulvic acids (HA/FA decreases, which may suggest an increase in carbon mobility in soils.

  5. Identification of Genes Associated with Chlorophyll Accumulation in Flower Petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:25470367

  6. Metabolic Memory Phenomenon and Accumulation of Peroxynitrite in Retinal Capillaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu A. Kowluru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Diabetic retinopathy resists reversal after good glycemic control (GC is reinitiated, and preexisting damage at the time of intervention is considered as the major factor in determining the outcome of the GC. This study is to investigate the role of peroxynitrite accumulation in the retinal capillaries in the failure of retinopathy to reverse after reestablishment of GC, and to determine the effect of this reversal on the activity of the enzyme responsible for scavenging mitochondrial superoxide, MnSOD. Methods. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, 6 months of poor glycemic control (PC, glycated hemoglobin, GHb>12.0% was followed by 6 additional months of GC (GHb about 6%. The trypsin-digested retinal microvessels were prepared for immunostaining of nitrotyrosine (a measure of peroxynitrite and for counting the number of acellular capillaries (a measure of histopathology. The retina from the other eye was used to quantify nitrotyrosine concentration, MnSOD activity and the total antioxidant capacity. Results. Reversal of hyperglycemia after 6 months of PC had no significant effect on nitrotyrosine concentration in the retina, on the nitrotyrosine-positive retinal capillary cells and on the number of acellular capillaries; the values were similar in PC-GC and PC groups. In the same rats retinal MnSOD activity remained inhibited and the total antioxidant capacity was subnormal 6 months after cessation of PC. Conclusions. Peroxynitrite accumulation in the retinal microvasculature, the site of histopathology, fails to normalize after reversal of hyperglycemia, and superoxide remains inadequately scavenged. This failure of reversal of peroxynitrite accumulation could be, in part, responsible for the resistance of diabetic retinopathy to reverse after termination of PC.

  7. Inference and interrogation of a coregulatory network in the context of lipid accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trébulle, Pauline; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Leplat, Christophe; Elati, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Complex phenotypes, such as lipid accumulation, result from cooperativity between regulators and the integration of multiscale information. However, the elucidation of such regulatory programs by experimental approaches may be challenging, particularly in context-specific conditions. In particular, we know very little about the regulators of lipid accumulation in the oleaginous yeast of industrial interest Yarrowia lipolytica . This lack of knowledge limits the development of this yeast as an industrial platform, due to the time-consuming and costly laboratory efforts required to design strains with the desired phenotypes. In this study, we aimed to identify context-specific regulators and mechanisms, to guide explorations of the regulation of lipid accumulation in Y. lipolytica . Using gene regulatory network inference, and considering the expression of 6539 genes over 26 time points from GSE35447 for biolipid production and a list of 151 transcription factors, we reconstructed a gene regulatory network comprising 111 transcription factors, 4451 target genes and 17048 regulatory interactions (YL-GRN-1) supported by evidence of protein-protein interactions. This study, based on network interrogation and wet laboratory validation (a) highlights the relevance of our proposed measure, the transcription factors influence, for identifying phases corresponding to changes in physiological state without prior knowledge (b) suggests new potential regulators and drivers of lipid accumulation and (c) experimentally validates the impact of six of the nine regulators identified on lipid accumulation, with variations in lipid content from +43.2% to -31.2% on glucose or glycerol.

  8. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F; Castillo, S; Laberty- Robert, C; Pellizon-Birelli, M [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  11. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax

  12. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R; Mitchell, Olivia S; Soo, Cindy K; Bravo, David

    2012-05-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs.

  13. Radionuclide accumulations in Clinch River fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fish samples were collected from several locations above Melton Hill Dam, which is upstream from the liquid effluent release point of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The sampling locations were chosen to determine the accumulation of natural and man-made radionuclides in fish from areas in the Clinch River not influenced by the Laboratory's liquid effluents. Bass, carp, crappie, shad, bluegill, and other sunfish were collected; ten fish per species were composited to form a single sample for each location. The gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Estimates of radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fish are made

  14. Rapid charging of nickel-cadmium accumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, F

    1972-01-01

    Four types of charging of gas-tight Ni-Cd accumulators (a) normal; (b) accelerated; (c) rapid; and (d) ultra-rapid are described. For rapid charging, a built-in temperature sensor cuts off charging current at a prescribed point. In ultra-rapid charging, 50% charge can be attained in 3.5 min. and 25% charge within 50 sec. In the second phase of ultra-rapid charging, a surplus of oxygen is released at the positive electrode and a safety valve is provided for pressure reduction. Characteristic curves are given for various rates of charging and some data on discharge rates is also given.

  15. Accumulator ring design for the NSNS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.; Alessi, J.; Beebe-Wang, J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the proposed National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5 μs with average beam power of 1 MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60 Hz with 1 x 10 14 protons per pulse at 1 GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1 msec long H - beam bunches of 28 mA from a 1 GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented, other possible technological choices and design options considered, but not adopted, are also briefly reviewed

  16. Evaluation of two models for predicting elemental accumulation by arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, J.R.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Two different models have been proposed for predicting elemental accumulation by arthropods. Parameters of both models can be quantified from radioisotope elimination experiments. Our analysis of the 2 models shows that both predict identical elemental accumulation for a whole organism, though differing in the accumulation in body and gut. We quantified both models with experimental data from 134 Cs and 85 Sr elimination by crickets. Computer simulations of radioisotope accumulation were then compared with actual accumulation experiments. Neither model showed exact fit to the experimental data, though both showed the general pattern of elemental accumulation

  17. Accumulation of senescent cells in mitotic tissue of aging primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Jessie C; Ferreira, Mark; Sedivy, John M; Herbig, Utz

    2007-01-01

    Cellular senescence, a stress induced growth arrest of somatic cells, was first documented in cell cultures over 40 years ago, however its physiological significance has only recently been demonstrated. Using novel biomarkers of cellular senescence we examined whether senescent cells accumulate in tissues from baboons of ages encompassing the entire lifespan of this species. We show that dermal fibroblasts, displaying markers of senescence such as telomere damage, active checkpoint kinase ATM, high levels of heterochromatin proteins and elevated levels of p16, accumulate in skin biopsies from baboons with advancing age. The number of dermal fibroblasts containing damaged telomeres reaches a value of over 15% of total fibroblasts, whereas 80% of cells contain high levels of the heterochromatin protein HIRA. In skeletal muscle, a postmitotic tissue, only a small percentage of myonuclei containing damaged telomeres were detected regardless of animal age. The presence of senescent cells in mitotic tissues might therefore be a contributing factor to aging and age related pathology and provides further evidence that cellular senescence is a physiological event.

  18. Iron deficiency stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in grapevine apical leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramanico, Leila; Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella

    2017-10-01

    Iron chlorosis is a diffuse disorder affecting Mediterranean vineyards. Beside the commonly described symptom of chlorophyll decrease, an apex reddening was recently observed. Secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, are often synthetized to cope with stresses in plants. The present work aimed to evaluate grapevine responses to iron deficiency, in terms of anthocyanin metabolism (reflectance spectrum, total anthocyanin content, HPLC profile and gene expression) in apical leaves of Cabernet sauvignon and Sangiovese grown in hydroponic conditions. Iron supply interruption produced after one month an increasing of anthocyanin content associated to a more stable profile in both cultivars. In Cabernet sauvignon, the higher red pigment accumulation was associated to a lower intensity of chlorotic symptoms, while in Sangiovese, despite the activation of the metabolism, the lower anthocyanin accumulation was associated to a stronger decrease in chlorophyll concentration. Gene expression data showed a significant increase of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The effects on the expression of structural and transcription factor genes of phenylpropanoid pathway were cultivar dependent. F3H, F3'H, F3'5'H and LDOX genes, in Cabernet sauvignon, and AOMT1 and AOMT genes, in Sangiovese, were positively affected by the treatment in response to iron deficiency. All data support the hypothesis of an anthocyanin biosynthesis stimulation rather than a decreased degradation of them due to iron chlorosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Metal accumulation and evaluation of effects in a freshwater turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuangying; Halbrook, Richard S; Sparling, Donald W; Colombo, Robert

    2011-11-01

    A variety of contaminants have been detected in aquatic and terrestrial environments around the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky. The presence of these contaminants at the PGDP may pose a risk to biota, yet little is known about the bioaccumulation of contaminants and associated effects in wildlife, especially in aquatic turtles. The current study was initiated to evaluate: (1) the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Hg) in aquatic ecosystems associated with the PGDP using red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) as biomonitors; (2) maternal transfer of heavy metals; and (3) potential hematological and immunological effects resulting from metal accumulation. A total of 26 turtles were collected from 7 ponds located south, adjacent, and north of the PGDP. Liver Cu concentrations were significantly different among ponds and Cu concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with female Cu concentrations in kidney. The concentrations of heavy metals measured in turtle tissues and eggs were low and, based on previous studies of reptiles and established avian threshold levels of heavy metals, did not appear to have adverse effects on aquatic turtles inhabiting ponds near the PGDP. However, total white blood cell counts, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and phytohemagglutinin stimulation index were correlated with metal concentrations. Because other factors may affect the hematological and immunological indices, further investigation is needed to determine if these effects are associated with metal exposure, other contaminants, or disease.

  20. Accumulation of mercury in Typha domingensis under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lominchar, M A; Sierra, M J; Millán, R

    2015-01-01

    Typha species is a common wetland plant used in the treatment of urban and industrial effluents. But, despite their widespread implementation, there are not many studies based on the behaviour of this plant growing in an areas affected by mercury. The present work investigates the ability of Typha domingensis to accumulate mercury under field conditions. The study area was along the Valdeazogues river which flows through the Almadén mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain) that is considered the largest mercury reservoir in the world. The mercury concentration in different plant fractions was measured as well as the available and total concentration in the bottom sediments. The results showed that the highest mercury concentrations were found in the belowground organs. T. domingensis had a high efficiency to accumulate mercury in their organs although available metal concentrations in the environment did not exceed 0.16 mg kg(-1). Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged between 121 and 3168 in roots. Furthermore, significant correlations were found between mercury concentration in all plant organs and Hg in sediments (both total and available). These results demonstrated that T. domingensis could be used as a biomonitor as well as in phytoextraction technology in areas affected by mercury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ACCUMULATED DEFORMATION MODELING OF PERMANENT WAY BASED ON ENTROPY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kurhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work provides a theoretical research about the possibility of using methods that determine the lifetime of a railway track not only in terms of total stresses, and accounting its structure and dynamic characteristics. The aim of these studies is creation the model of deformations accumulation for assessment of service life of a railway track taking into account these features. Methodology. To simulate a gradual change state during the operation (accumulation of deformations the railway track is presented as a system that consists of many particles of different materials collected in a coherent design. It is appropriate to speak not about the appearance of deformations of a certain size in a certain section of the track, and the probability of such event on the site. If to operate the probability of occurrence of deviations, comfortable state of the system is characterized by the number of breaks of the conditional internal connections. The same state of the system may correspond to different combinations of breaks. The more breaks, the more the number of options changes in the structure of the system appropriate to its current state. Such a process can be represented as a gradual transition from an ordered state to a chaotic one. To describe the characteristics of the system used the numerical value of the entropy. Findings. Its entropy is constantly increasing at system aging. The growth of entropy is expressed by changes in the internal energy of the system, which can be determined using mechanical work forces, which leads to deformation. This gives the opportunity to show quantitative indication of breaking the bonds in the system as a consequence of performing mechanical work. According to the results of theoretical research methods for estimation of the timing of life cycles of railway operation considering such factors as the structure of the flow of trains, construction of the permanent way, the movement of trains at high

  2. Accumulation and metabolism of radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1981-01-01

    After the injection of RI into the mantle cavity of Iidako (Octopus ocellatus), changes of whole body radioactivity were examined. Both the inorganic and organic forms of cobalt were most heavily distributed in the branchial heart. Cyanocobalamin was distributed in an extremely small amount in the liver, but was more distributed in the arms, or gonad. Mn and Zn were almost equally distributed in most portions, but were scarcely accumulated in the branchial heart. Like Co, Fe was ubiquitous in the branchial heart. In relation to the gel filtration pattern of the branchial heart extract, Co-chloride mostly flowed out into the small molecular zone, and cyano-cobalamin into the heavy molecular zone. Mn, Zn and Fe flowed out into similar portions, and the outflux of protein in absorption spectrum was also similar. Only Co and Fe were concentrated in the branchial heart, suggesting not only that their forms of accumulation were similar, but also that Mn and Zn were present in similar forms. (Chiba, N.)

  3. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Primitive Accumulation and Temporalities of Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of the article is the statement that capitalism is composed of many different, incoherent temporalities, as well as that apprehension of capitalism from the angle of primitive accumulation enables the more accurate grasp of the modes of its functioning, including the complexity created by the interactions of the temporalities mentionned. The problem of primitive accumulation is, as Sandro Mezzadra proves, a good starting point for analysing this issue. It allows us to pose two questions: first, the question of the relation between the historical dimension and the structural logic of capitalism; second, the question of hierarchical relation between the center and the periphery of the capitalist system.Dipesh Chakrabarty’s project of ‘provincializing Europe’ proves helpful here, as it’s goal is deconstruction of the categories of progress, modernization and the capital with its abstract structure. The aim is not to negate the fact that capitalist abstraction is a real force, but to show that this force develops by means of constant assimiliation of the other – redefined as ‘backward’ or archaic. The linear scheme is in force, because it is the main mechanism of imposing the power of capital; as such, it is not politically neutral.

  5. Beam accumulation with the SIS electron cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, M.; Groening, L.; Blasche, K.; Franczak, B.; Franzke, B.; Winkler, T.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    An electron cooling system has started operation in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS which is used to increase the intensity for highly charged ions. Fast transverse cooling of the hot ion beam after horizontal multiturn injection allows beam accumulation at the injection energy. After optimization of the accumulation process an intensity increase in a synchrotron pulse by more than one order of magnitude has been achieved. For highly charged ions the maximum number of particles has been increased from 1x10 8 to 1x10 9 . For lighter ions intensity limitations have been encountered which are caused by the high phase space density of the cooled ion beam. Momentum spreads in the 10 -4 range and emittances well below 10 π mm mrad have been demonstrated. Recombination losses both in the residual gas and with the free cooler electrons determine the maximum intensity for highly charged ions. Systematic measurements of the recombination rates have been performed providing data for an optimum choice of the charge state. Strong enhancement of the recombination rate with free electrons compared to theoretical calculations of radiative electron capture have been observed

  6. Injection and accumulation method in the TARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.; Katayama, T.

    1979-03-01

    The test accumulation ring for NUMATRON (TARN) is being constructed at INS, University of Tokyo. The main purpose of the TARN is to establish some techniques related to beam injection and RF stacking, ultrahigh vacuum, and beam monitoring and handling. In this paper, the injection and accumulation methods in the TARN are described. The combination of multiturn injection and RF stacking is applied to the TARN. Heavy ions from the INS sector focusing (SF) cyclotron are injection through a magnetic and an electrostatic inflectors. Two pulse magnets and a bump field excited by square wave current are used for the multiturn injection method. The procedure of the RF stacking is as follows. The beam from the cyclotron is transported to the ring, and is injected by a multiturn method. Then, the RF accelerating voltage is put on, and the beam is captured in the stable region of the RF acceleration. The RF voltage and the frequency are adiabatically changed, and the beam is moved to the stacking orbit. The RF voltage is put off, and the beam remains on the stacking orbit. In the present system, a repetitive stacking scheme is applied for the RF stacking. The momentum spread after the RF stacking is approximately proportional to the stacking number in synchrotron phase space. The stacking number is chosen so that the total aperture required for the combined method may not exceed the available aperture in the ring doughnut. (Kato, T.)

  7. Technetium accumulation, fate, and behavior in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium, a product of the nuclear fuel cycle, is highly soluble in water and mobile in soils as the pertechnetate ion (TcO - 4 ). Soluble ions in soil have the potential for competing with nutrient ions for membrane carrier sites involved in ion uptake by plants. A study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the availability, toxicity, and mechanism of pertechnetate uptake by soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams). Technetium was effectively accumulated by plants at soil concentrations of 0.01 to 0.1 μg/g and in nutrient culture at levels as low as 0.02 pg/ml. Plants grown on soils containing technetium at levels below 0.1 μg/g effectively removed up to 90% of the technetium from soil. Minimal mobilization of technetium from vegetative tissues to the seed occurred during senescence. Chemical analyses indicated that the xylem-mobile form of technetium was TcO 4 - . The uptake rate of technetium by intact plants was multiphasic over the concentration range of 0.01 to 10μM; this suggests active uptake and a specificity for technetium in the root absorption process. Because of the efficiency of technetium accumulation and the probability of its chemical toxicity, competition kinetic studies were undertaken to identify possible nutrient analogs. Nutrients effective in reducing technetium uptake included the Mn 2+ , SO 4 2- , H 2 PO 4 - , and MoO 4 2- ions

  8. Deleterious mutation accumulation in organelle genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M; Blanchard, J L

    1998-01-01

    It is well established on theoretical grounds that the accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations in nonrecombining genomes is a major extinction risk in obligately asexual populations. Sexual populations can also incur mutational deterioration in genomic regions that experience little or no recombination, i.e., autosomal regions near centromeres, Y chromosomes, and organelle genomes. Our results suggest, for a wide array of genes (transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and proteins) in a diverse collection of species (animals, plants, and fungi), an almost universal increase in the fixation probabilities of mildly deleterious mutations arising in mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes relative to those arising in the recombining nuclear genome. This enhanced width of the selective sieve in organelle genomes does not appear to be a consequence of relaxed selection, but can be explained by the decline in the efficiency of selection that results from the reduction of effective population size induced by uniparental inheritance. Because of the very low mutation rates of organelle genomes (on the order of 10(-4) per genome per year), the reduction in fitness resulting from mutation accumulation in such genomes is a very long-term process, not likely to imperil many species on time scales of less than a million years, but perhaps playing some role in phylogenetic lineage sorting on time scales of 10 to 100 million years.

  9. Stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation and its by-product accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Raw materials and pollution control are key issues for the ethanol fermentation industry. To address these concerns, food waste was selected as fermentation substrate, and stillage reflux was carried out in this study. Reflux was used seven times during fermentation. Corresponding ethanol and reducing sugar were detected. Accumulation of by-products, such as organic acid, sodium chloride, and glycerol, was investigated. Lactic acid was observed to accumulate up to 120g/L, and sodium chloride reached 0.14mol/L. Other by-products did not accumulate. The first five cycles of reflux increased ethanol concentration, which prolonged fermentation time. Further increases in reflux time negatively influenced ethanol fermentation. Single-factor analysis with lactic acid and sodium chloride demonstrated that both factors affected ethanol fermentation, but lactic acid induced more effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitivity of Personal Account Accumulated Value of New Rural Social Pension Insurance to Variation of Uncertainties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The personal account of new rural social pension insurance raises funds in the form of individual premium-paying,collectively pooled subsidy and government subsidy.The personal account accumulated value has a decisive influence on the payment level of personal account pension.The personal account accumulated value has a direct or indirect relationship with the income level of farmers,premium-paying level,the insured period,investment return rate of funds and other factors.Analysing the impact of infinitesimal variation of these factors on accumulated value of personal account pension,is of great significance to improving and consolidating personal account,and achieving sustainable development of new rural social pension insurance.

  11. Metal accumulation in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Model predictions compared to field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, K.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Vijver, M.G.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; van Vliet, P.C.J.; Jan, Hendriks A.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanistic bioaccumulation model OMEGA (Optimal Modeling for Ecotoxicological Applications) is used to estimate accumulation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Our validation to field accumulation data shows that the model accurately predicts internal cadmium concentrations. In addition, our results show that internal metal concentrations in the earthworm are less than linearly (slope < 1) related to the total concentration in soil, while risk assessment procedures often assume the biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) to be constant. Although predicted internal concentrations of all metals are generally within a factor 5 compared to field data, incorporation of regulation in the model is necessary to improve predictability of the essential metals such as zinc and copper. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance Comparisons of Improved Regular Repeat Accumulate (RA and Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA Turbo Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulkadhim Hamad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different techniques are used to improve the turbo decoding of regular repeat accumulate (RA and irregular repeat accumulate (IRA codes. The adaptive scaling of a-posteriori information produced by Soft-output Viterbi decoder (SOVA is proposed. The encoded pilots are another scheme that applied for short length RA codes. This work also suggests a simple and a fast method to generate a random interleaver having a free 4 cycle Tanner graph. Progressive edge growth algorithm (PEG is also studied and simulated to create the Tanner graphs which have a great girth.

  13. The accumulation and elimination of 89Sr in tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxi; Wang Shouxiang; Chen Chuanqun; Sun Zhiming; Hu Bingmin; Huang Dan

    1995-01-01

    The 89 Sr was added to the tea tree-soil system by different ways. The 89 Sr in the system through the over-ground part of tea tree, was much more than that through soil. The 89 Sr concentration in older leaves was higher than in shoot for a definite treatment. The accumulation elimination law of 89 Sr in leaves varied with the treatments. For the treatment through the over-ground part, the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves and shoot was monotonously decreased with time increasing. But for the treatment through soil the 89 Sr concentration in shoot was increased to reach a peak value, and then decreased slowly; while the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves increased quickly in a period, then increased slowly to attain a saturated value. In addition, the concentration factor of 89 Sr in older leaves and shoot were determined

  14. Specific 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation in living soil cover plants of forest cenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakova, O.O.; Kuz'mich, O.T.; Kazej, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    Observations of the radionuclide content in 38 species of living soil cover plants were carried out in Pinetum myrtillosum, pleuroziosum; Quercetum pteridiosum; Betuletum myrtillosum; Glutinoso-Alnetum filipendulosum, Glutinoso-Alnetum. Radiological monitoring for the 137 Cs and 90 Sr content in living cover plants of forest cenosis in Belarus allows 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation to be predicted for the plants of lower circles of forest cenosis. a obtained one can notice that the radionuclide accumulation intensity depends on the contamination density of the accumulation soil layer, forest growing conditions, species and first of all on the weather conditions of the year of observation. Unfavourable conditions (drought) lead to an increase in 137 Cs accumulation by a factor of 3-5 depending on the plant species. The maximum values was obtained in ferns which grow under all the controlled forest growing conditions. The species specific character of 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation is due to their ecological-physiological peculiarities. The relationship was found between the caesium-137 accumulation and macro element quantity in overground organs of living soil cover plants. (authors)

  15. Impact Of Particle Agglomeration On Accumulation Rates In The Glass Discharge Riser Of HLW Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A. A.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Matyas, J.; Owen, A. T.; Jansik, D. P.; Lang, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    The major factor limiting waste loading in continuous high-level radioactive waste (HLW) melters is an accumulation of particles in the glass discharge riser during a frequent and periodic idling of more than 20 days. An excessive accumulation can produce robust layers a few centimeters thick, which may clog the riser, preventing molten glass from being poured into canisters. Since the accumulation rate is driven by the size of particles we investigated with x-ray microtomography, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis the impact of spinel forming components, noble metals, and alumina on the size, concentration, and spatial distribution of particles, and on the accumulation rate. Increased concentrations of Fe and Ni in the baseline glass resulted in the formation of large agglomerates that grew over the time to an average size of ∼185+-155 μm, and produced >3 mm thick layer after 120 h at 850 deg C. The noble metals decreased the particle size, and therefore significantly slowed down the accumulation rate. Addition of alumina resulted in the formation of a network of spinel dendrites which prevented accumulation of particles into compact layers

  16. Changing Patterns of Publication Productivity: Accumulative Advantage or Institutional Isomorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Eric L.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates two competing perspectives, accumulated advantage and institutional isomorphism, on the relationship between publication productivity and institutional hierarchy. Accumulated advantage refers to the continuing attraction of students, faculty, and research dollars to prestige universities. Institutional isomorphism denotes the tendency…

  17. Adipocyte and leptin accumulation in tumor-induced thymic involution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Alejandro; Lopez, Elena; Carrio, Roberto; Lopez, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is an important defense mechanism against pathogens and developing tumor cells. The thymus is the main lymphoid organ involved in the formation of the cell-mediated immune response by the maturation and differentiation of lymphocytes that travel from the bone marrow, through the lymphatic ducts, to become T lymphocytes. Thymic involution has been associated with aging; however, other factors such as obesity, viral infection and tumor development have been shown to increase the rate of shrinkage of this organ. The heavy infiltration of adipocyte fat cells has been reported in the involuted thymuses of aged mice. In the present study, the possible accumulation of such cells in the thymus during tumorigenesis was examined by immunohistochemistry. A significant number of adipocytes around and infiltrating the thymuses of tumor-bearing mice was observed. Leptin is a pro-inflammatory adipocytokine that enhances thymopoiesis and modulates T cell immune responses. The levels of leptin and adiponectin, another adipocytokine that has anti-inflammatory properties, were examined by western blot analysis. While no changes were observed in the amounts of adiponectin present in the thymuses of the normal and tumor-bearing mice, significantly higher levels of leptin were detected in the thymocytes of the tumor-bearing mice. This correlated with an increase in the expression of certain cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The co-culture of thymocytes isolated from normal mice with ex vivo isolated adipocytes from tumor-bearing mice yielded similar results. Our findings suggest that the infiltration and accumulation of adipocytes in the thymuses of tumor-bearing mice play an important role in their altered morphology and functions.

  18. Uncertainty on Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented.......In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented....

  19. Amiodarone increases the accumulation of DEA in a human alveolar epithelium-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Satoru; Itagaki, Shirou; Kobayashi, Masaki; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2008-07-01

    Amiodarone (AMD)-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT) is the most life-threatening side-effect of AMD treatment. N-Monodesethylamiodarone (DEA), an active metabolite of AMD, also exhibits cytotoxicity and tends to accumulate in the lung more intensively than AMD. In this study, we characterized the mechanism of DEA accumulation using A549 cells as a model of the alveolar epithelium. Typical ATP-depletion compounds caused an approximately 30% increase in the accumulation of DEA in A549 cells, although these effects were less than those in Caco-2 cells. Triiodothyronine (T(3)), which exhibited an inhibitory effect on DEA efflux in Caco-2 cells, did not affect the accumulation of DEA in A549 cells. On the other hand, 100 microM AMD caused an approximately 200% increase in DEA content in A549 cells, although AMD accumulation was not affected by 100 microM DEA. Since the reducing effect of AMD on cellular ATP levels and that of FCCP were similar, the mechanism by which DEA accumulation is increased by AMD might be different from the ATP-dependent DEA efflux mechanism. The decrease in cell viability by DEA in the presence of AMD (IC(50) value of DEA for A549 cell viability: 25.4+/-2.4 microM) was more pronounced than that by DEA alone (IC(50) value: 11.5+/-3.0 microM). This further DEA accumulation by AMD might be a factor responsible for the greater accumulation of DEA than that of AMD in the lung in long-term AMD-treated patients.

  20. Formation and Accumulation of Acetaldehyde and Strecker Aldehydes during Red Wine Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bueno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present work is to study the accumulation of acetaldehyde and Strecker aldehydes (isobutyraldehyde, 2-methylbutanal, isovaleraldehyde, methional, phenylacetaldehyde during the oxidation of red wines, and to relate the patterns of accumulation to the wine chemical composition. For that, eight different wines, extensively chemically characterized, were subjected at 25°C to three different controlled O2 exposure conditions: low (10 mg L−1 and medium or high (the stoichiometrically required amount to oxidize all wine total SO2 plus 18 or 32 mg L−1, respectively. Levels of volatile aldehydes and carbonyls were then determined and processed by different statistical techniques. Results showed that young wines (<2 years-old bottled wines hardly accumulate any acetaldehyde regardless of the O2 consumed. In contrast, aged wines (>3 years-old bottled wines accumulated acetaldehyde while their content in SO2 was not null, and the aged wine containing lowest polyphenols accumulated it throughout the whole process. Models suggest that the ability of a wine to accumulate acetaldehyde is positively related to its content in combined SO2, in epigallocatechin and to the mean degree of polymerization, and negatively to its content in Aldehyde Reactive Polyphenols (ARPs which, attending to our models, are anthocyanins and small tannins. The accumulation of Strecker aldehydes is directly proportional to the wine content in the amino acid precursor, being the proportionality factor much higher for aged wines, except for phenylacetaldehyde, for which the opposite pattern was observed. Models suggest that non-aromatic Strecker aldehydes share with acetaldehyde a strong affinity toward ARPs and that the specific pattern of phenylacetaldehyde is likely due to a much reduced reactivity toward ARPs, to the possibility that diacetyl induces Strecker degradation of phenyl alanine and to the potential higher reactivity of this amino acid to some

  1. Formation and accumulation of acetaldehyde and Strecker aldehydes during red wine oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mónica; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Carrascón, Vanesa; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Escudero, Ana; Ferreira, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    The main aim of the present work is to study the accumulation of acetaldehyde and Strecker aldehydes (isobutyraldehyde, 2-methylbutanal, isovaleraldehyde, methional, phenylacetaldehyde) during the oxidation of red wines, and to relate the patterns of accumulation to the wine chemical composition. For that, eight different wines, extensively chemically characterized, were subjected at 25°C to three different controlled O2 exposure conditions: low (10 mg L-1) and medium or high (the stoichiometrically required amount to oxidize all wine total SO2 plus 18 or 32 mg L-1, respectively). Levels of volatile aldehydes and carbonyls were then determined and processed by different statistical techniques. Results showed that young wines (wines) hardly accumulate any acetaldehyde regardless of the O2 consumed. In contrast, aged wines (>3 years-old bottled wines) accumulated acetaldehyde while their content in SO2 was not null, and the aged wine containing lowest polyphenols accumulated it throughout the whole process. Models suggest that the ability of a wine to accumulate acetaldehyde is positively related to its content in combined SO2, in epigallocatechin and to the mean degree of polymerization, and negatively to its content in Aldehyde Reactive Polyphenols (ARPs) which, attending to our models, are anthocyanins and small tannins. The accumulation of Strecker aldehydes is directly proportional to the wine content in the amino acid precursor, being the proportionality factor much higher for aged wines, except for phenylacetaldehyde, for which the opposite pattern was observed. Models suggest that non-aromatic Strecker aldehydes share with acetaldehyde a strong affinity towards ARPs and that the specific pattern of phenylacetaldehyde is likely due to a much reduced reactivity towards ARPs, to the possibility that diacetyl induces Strecker degradation of phenyl alanine and to the potential higher reactivity of this amino acid to some quinones derived from catechin. All this

  2. Radiocarbon dating, chronologic framework, and changes in accumulation rates of holocene estuarine sediments from Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.; Baucom, P.C.; Bratton, J.F.; Cronin, T. M.; McGeehin, J.P.; Willard, D.; Zimmerman, A.R.; Vogt, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Rapidly accumulating Holocene sediments in estuaries commonly are difficult to sample and date. In Chesapeake Bay, we obtained sediment cores as much as 20 m in length and used numerous radiocarbon ages measured by accelarator mass spectrometry methods to provide the first detailed chronologies of Holocene sediment accumulation in the bay. Carbon in these sediments is a complex mixture of materials from a variety of sources. Analyses of different components of the sediments show that total organic carbon ages are largely unreliable, because much of the carbon (including coal) has been transported to the bay from upstream sources and is older than sediments in which it was deposited. Mollusk shells (clams, oysters) and foraminifera appear to give reliable results, although reworking and burrowing are potential problems. Analyses of museum specimens collected alive before atmospheric nuclear testing suggest that the standard reservoir correction for marine samples is appropriate for middle to lower Chesapeake Bay. The biogenic carbonate radiocarbon ages are compatible with 210 Pb and 137 Cs data and pollen stratigraphy from the same sites. Post-settlement changes in sediment transport and accumulation is an important environmental issue in many estuaries, including the Chesapeake. Our data show that large variations in sediment mass accumulation rates occur among sites. At shallow water sites, local factors seem to control changes in accumulation rates with time. Our two relatively deep-water sites in the axial channel of the bay have different long-term average accumulation rates, but the history of sediment accumulation at these sites appears to reflect overall conditions in the bay. Mass accumulation rates at the two deep-water sites rapidly increased by about fourfold coincident with widespread land clearance for agriculture in the Chesapeake watershed.

  3. Forest influences on snow accumulation and snowmelt at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin A. Penn; Beverley C. Wemple; John L. Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Many factors influence snow depth, water content and duration in forest ecosystems. The effects of forest cover and canopy gap geometry on snow accumulation has been well documented in coniferous forests of western North America and other regions; however, few studies have evaluated these effects on snowpack dynamics in mixed deciduous forests of the northeastern USA....

  4. Creep damage index as a sensitive indicator of damage accumulation in thermoplastic laminates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minster, Jiří; Šperl, Martin; Šepitka, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2018), s. 147-154 ISSN 0731-6844 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : damage accumulation * thermoplastic laminate * cyclic tensile loading * time-dependent properties * microindentation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 1.086, year: 2016 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0731684417735184

  5. Financial Literacy, Schooling, and Wealth Accumulation. NBER Working Paper No. 16452

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy; Bravo, David

    2010-01-01

    Financial literacy and schooling attainment have been linked to household wealth accumulation. Yet prior findings may be biased due to noisy measures of financial literacy and schooling, as well as unobserved factors such as ability, intelligence, and motivation that could enhance financial literacy and schooling but also directly affect wealth…

  6. Accumulation of phosphorus in nests of red wood ants .i.Formica s. str../i

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Kalčík, Jiří; Cudlín, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2005), s. 269-275 ISSN 0003-455X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : accumulation of phosphorus * nests of ants * red wood ants Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.992, year: 2005

  7. Peer Effects and Human Capital Accumulation: the Externalities of ADD. NBER Working Paper No. 14354

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Although recent work has shown that peers affect human capital accumulation, the mechanisms are not well understood. Knowing why high achieving peers matter, because of their innate ability, disciplined behavior or some other factor, has important implications for our understanding of the education production function and for how we organize…

  8. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of and Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marilyn L. Warburton; Juliet D. Tang; Gary L. Windham; Leigh K. Hawkins; Seth C. Murray; Wenwei Xu; Debbie Boykin; Andy Perkins; W. Paul Williams

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link, has severe health and economic consequences. Efforts to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize have focused on identifying and selecting germplasm with natural host resistance factors, and several maize lines with significantly...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated adjustments account (AAA). 1.1368-2... adjustments account (AAA). (a) Accumulated adjustments account—(1) In general. The accumulated adjustments account is an account of the S corporation and is not apportioned among shareholders. The AAA is relevant...

  10. 47 CFR 32.3300 - Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating. 32.3300....3300 Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating. (a) This account shall include the accumulated amortization and depreciation associated with the investment contained in Account 2006, Nonoperating Plant. (b...

  11. Environmentally responsive genome-wide accumulation of de novo Arabidopsis thaliana mutations and epimutations

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu

    2014-10-14

    Evolution is fueled by phenotypic diversity, which is in turn due to underlying heritable genetic (and potentially epigenetic) variation. While environmental factors are well known to influence the accumulation of novel variation in microorganisms and human cancer cells, the extent to which the natural environment influences the accumulation of novel variation in plants is relatively unknown. Here we use whole-genome and whole-methylome sequencing to test if a specific environmental stress (high-salinity soil) changes the frequency and molecular profile of accumulated mutations and epimutations (changes in cytosine methylation status) in mutation accumulation (MA) lineages of Arabidopsis thaliana. We first show that stressed lineages accumulate ∼100% more mutations, and that these mutations exhibit a distinctive molecular mutational spectrum (specific increases in relative frequency of transversion and insertion/deletion [indel] mutations). We next show that stressed lineages accumulate ∼45% more differentially methylated cytosine positions (DMPs) at CG sites (CG-DMPs) than controls, and also show that while many (∼75%) of these CG-DMPs are inherited, some can be lost in subsequent generations. Finally, we show that stress-associated CG-DMPs arise more frequently in genic than in nongenic regions of the genome. We suggest that commonly encountered natural environmental stresses can accelerate the accumulation and change the profiles of novel inherited variants in plants. Our findings are significant because stress exposure is common among plants in the wild, and they suggest that environmental factors may significantly alter the rates and patterns of incidence of the inherited novel variants that fuel plant evolution.

  12. Environmentally responsive genome-wide accumulation of de novo Arabidopsis thaliana mutations and epimutations

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu; Mithani, Aziz; Belfield, Eric J.; Mott, Richard; Hurst, Laurence D.; Harberd, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution is fueled by phenotypic diversity, which is in turn due to underlying heritable genetic (and potentially epigenetic) variation. While environmental factors are well known to influence the accumulation of novel variation in microorganisms and human cancer cells, the extent to which the natural environment influences the accumulation of novel variation in plants is relatively unknown. Here we use whole-genome and whole-methylome sequencing to test if a specific environmental stress (high-salinity soil) changes the frequency and molecular profile of accumulated mutations and epimutations (changes in cytosine methylation status) in mutation accumulation (MA) lineages of Arabidopsis thaliana. We first show that stressed lineages accumulate ∼100% more mutations, and that these mutations exhibit a distinctive molecular mutational spectrum (specific increases in relative frequency of transversion and insertion/deletion [indel] mutations). We next show that stressed lineages accumulate ∼45% more differentially methylated cytosine positions (DMPs) at CG sites (CG-DMPs) than controls, and also show that while many (∼75%) of these CG-DMPs are inherited, some can be lost in subsequent generations. Finally, we show that stress-associated CG-DMPs arise more frequently in genic than in nongenic regions of the genome. We suggest that commonly encountered natural environmental stresses can accelerate the accumulation and change the profiles of novel inherited variants in plants. Our findings are significant because stress exposure is common among plants in the wild, and they suggest that environmental factors may significantly alter the rates and patterns of incidence of the inherited novel variants that fuel plant evolution.

  13. Vegetative cover and PAHs accumulation in soils of urban green space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chi; Ouyang Zhiyun; Wang Meie; Chen Weiping; Jiao Wentao

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how urban land uses influence soil accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban green spaces composed of different vegetative cover. How did soil properties, urbanization history, and population density affect the outcomes were also considered. Soils examined were obtained at 97 green spaces inside the Beijing metropolis. PAH contents of the soils were influenced most significantly by their proximity to point source of industries such as the coal combustion installations. Beyond the influence circle of industrial emissions, land use classifications had no significant effect on the extent of PAH accumulation in soils. Instead, the nature of vegetative covers affected PAH contents of the soils. Tree–shrub–herb and woodland settings trapped more airborne PAH and soils under these vegetative patterns accumulated more PAHs than those of the grassland. Urbanization history, population density and soil properties had no apparent impact on PAHs accumulations in soils of urban green space. - Highlights: ► Land use did not affect PAHs in soils except for areas adjacent to industrial sources. ► Tree–shrub–herb and woodland cover amass more PAHs in soils than grassland cover. ► Urban development and soil property factors had little effect on PAHs in soils. - Industrial emissions aside, vegetative cover is the dominant factor controlling accumulation of PAHs in urban green space soils.

  14. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 2: Plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Arid agricultural regions often turn to using treated wastewater (reclaimed water) to irrigate food crops. Concerns arise, however, when considering the potential for persistent contaminants of emerging concern to accumulate into plants intended for human consumption. The present study examined the accumulation of a suite of 9 contaminants of emerging concern into 2 representative food crops, lettuce and strawberry, following uptake via the roots and subsequent distribution to other plant tissues. Calculating accumulation metrics (concentration factors) allowed for comparison of the compartmental affinity of each chemical for each plant tissue compartment. The root concentration factor was found to exhibit a positive linear correlation with the pH-adjusted octanol-water partition coefficient (DOW ) for the target contaminants of emerging concern. Coupled with the concentration-dependent accumulation observed in the roots, this result implies that accumulation of these contaminants of emerging concern into plant roots is driven by passive partitioning. Of the contaminants of emerging concern examined, nonionizable contaminants, such as triclocarban, carbamazepine, and organophosphate flame retardants displayed the greatest potential for translocation from the roots to above-ground plant compartments. In particular, the organophosphate flame retardants displayed increasing affinity for shoots and fruits with decreasing size/octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ). Cationic diphenhydramine and anionic sulfamethoxazole, once transported to the shoots of the strawberry plant, demonstrated the greatest potential of the contaminants examined to be then carried to the edible fruit portion. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls in alfalfa: Accumulation, sorption and speciation in different plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ying; Sun, Xianghui; Zhu, Lingjia; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2017-08-03

    The accumulation, chemical speciation and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in various parts of alfalfa. Moreover, the adsorption characteristics for PCB 28 by alfalfa and the influencing factors of the adsorption characteristics were studied. There were different degrees of PCB accumulation in alfalfa roots, root nodules and shoots. The decreasing order of the accumulation of PCBs in plant tissues was root nodules > roots > shoots, and the decreasing order of the total PCB contents was roots > shoots > root nodules, indicating that the roots were the main sink for PCB accumulation. There were three modes of PCB speciation in alfalfa roots and root nodules, comprising strong sorption (78%) and weak sorption (19%) on tissue surfaces and absorption within tissues (2%). The adsorption isotherms of PCB 28 indicate that the adsorption capacities of root nodules and shoots were both significantly higher than that of the roots. Both lipids and carbohydrates, and especially lipids, affected the PCB adsorption capacities of the tissues. These results may help in the elucidation of the mechanisms of sorption and accumulation of PCBs in the plants and their main influencing factors and thus contribute to the development of phytoremediation technologies for PCB-contaminated soils.

  16. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from...... a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  17. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index....... The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation...... for pursuing development projects similar to those implemented previously and the degree of social capital. The paper concludes that there are indications that projects hosted by municipalities tend to show the most social capital, there is no connection between the amount of project financing and social...

  18. Defect accumulation under cascade damage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, B.N.; Woo, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    in terms of this reaction kinetics taking into account cluster production, dissociation, migration and annihilation at extended sinks. Microstructural features which are characteristic of cascade damage and cannot be explained in terms of the conventional single defect reaction kinetics are emphasized......There is now ample evidence from both experimental and computer simulation studies that in displacement cascades not only intense recombination takes place but also efficient clustering of both self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancies. The size distributions of the two types of defects produced...... reactions kinetics associated with the specific features of cascade damage is described, with emphasis on asymmetries between SIA and vacancy type defects concerning their production, stability, mobility and interactions with other defects. Defect accumulation under cascade damage conditions is discussed...

  19. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilsholm, Sissi; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Dethloff, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution (50 km) climate change simulations for an area covering the entire Arctic have been conducted with the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM. The experiments were forced at the lateral boundary by large-scale atmospheric conditions from transient climate change scenario simulations...... with HIRHAM for periods representing present-day (1961-1990) and the future (2071-2100) in the two scenarios. We find that due to a much better representation of the surface topography in the RCM, the geographical distribution of present-day accumulation rates simulated by the RCM represents a substantial...... improvement compared to the driving OAGCM. Estimates of the regional net balance are also better represented by the RCM. In the future climate the net balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet is reduced in all the simulation, but discrepancies between the amounts when based on ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HIRHAM are found...

  20. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, P.; Mulvad, G.; Pedersen, H. S.

    2007-01-01

    a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i......In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  1. Scalar Similarity for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method allows the measurement of trace gas fluxes when no fast sensors are available for eddy covariance measurements. The flux parameterisation used in REA is based on the assumption of scalar similarity, i.e., similarity of the turbulent exchange of two scalar quantities. In this study changes in scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour were assessed using scalar correlation coefficients and spectral analysis. The influence on REA measurements was assessed by simulation. The evaluation is based on observations over grassland, irrigated cotton plantation and spruce forest. Scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour showed a distinct diurnal pattern and change within the day. Poor scalar similarity was found to be linked to dissimilarities in the energy contained in the low frequency part of the turbulent spectra ( definition.

  2. Accumulation of Co by abalone, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taiji; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Nakahara, Motokazu; Shimizu, Chiaki.

    1982-01-01

    The appearance of radioactive Co in the liver of abalone from sea water was examined to consider the effect of chemical forms of Co(CoCl 2 and cyanocobalamin; vitamin B 12 ) in sea water upon the metabolisms in marine organisms. Organic 57 Co(cyanocobalamin) from sea water appeared in the liver of abalone combining with a constituent with a molecular weight of 4 x 10 4 . The constituent had the activity of vitamin B 12 , while inorganic 60 Co(CoCl 2 ) appeared combining with three constituents with molecular weights more than or equal to 1.5 x 10 6 , 7 x 10 3 and less than or equal to 1.5 x 10 3 which did not show the activities of vitamin B 12 . The effect of chemical forms of Co in sea water is significant in its accumulation by some species of marine organisms. (author)

  3. Himalayan Strain Accumulation 100 ka Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, J. M.; Murphy, M. A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal scale fault systems and tectonostratigraphic units in the Himalaya can be traced for 2500 km along strike. However regional studies have shown that there is variability in the location and rate of strain accumulation which appears to be driven by Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) geometry and convergence obliquity. GPS illuminates the modern interseismic strain rate and the historical record of great earthquakes elucidates variations in strain accumulation over 103 years. To connect these patterns with the 106 year structural and thermochronometric geologic record we examine normalized river channel steepness (ksn), a proxy for rock uplift rate, which develops over 104 - 105 years. Here we present a ksn map of the Himalaya and compare it with bedrock geology, precipitation, the historic earthquake record, GPS, seismicity, and seismotectonic models. Our map shows significant along strike changes in the magnitude of channel steepness, the areal extent of swaths of high ksn channels, and their location with respect to the range front. Differences include the juxtaposition of two narrow (30 - 40 km) range parallel belts of high ksn in west Nepal and Bhutan coincident with MHT duplexes and belts of microseismcity, with a single broad (70 km) swath of high ksn and microseismicity in central and eastern Nepal. Separating west and central Nepal a band of low ksn crosses the range coincident with the West Nepal Fault (WNF) and the lowest rate of microseismicity in Nepal. To the west the orogen is obliquely convergent and has less high ksn channels, while the orthogonally convergent region to the east contains the highest concentration of oversteepened channels in the Himalaya supporting the idea that the WNF is a strain partitioning boundary. The syntaxes are characterized by locally high channel steepness surrounded by low to moderate ksn channels consistent with the hypothesis that rapid exhumation within the syntaxes is sustained by an influx of lower crust.

  4. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  5. Tipping news in information accumulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J. K.

    2010-05-01

    As a continuous opinion dynamics model, the information accumulation system (IAS) includes three basic mechanisms of the news, the inheritance and the diffusion as contributing to the information accumulation process of a system. A system is composed of agents who diffuse information through internal interaction, while each of them has incomplete memory or inheritance rate. The news comes from external sources of information, such as mass media. Previously the model IAS was studied only for the small news problems. In this study, a tipping news problem is considered. A key question of the problem is: what is the minimum strength of advertisement that can tip the minority opinion to a majority one? Dynamics of the IAS is briefly revisited with a special interest on nonlinear behavior of the model. In particular, it is shown that a discrete map of the IAS for a single color problem can be transformed into a logistic map, from which the dynamics of the IAS can be better understood. To show the applicability of the IAS model, the result is applied to explain the concept of the critical population size, which claims that there is a minimum population size for a social knowledge system to be continuously inherited without being lost. And critical size of the tipping news is found analytically in terms of IAS parameters. Some of the key results from the present study are compared in detail with the results from the Brownian particle model, which is believed to be the most similar model to the IAS. The concept of tipping news is used to show that a traditional society can tip at an exceptionally low inter-community exposure. Finally, the result was applied to the language competition problem.

  6. Accumulation of metal ions by pectinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, S.; Deiana, L.; Palma, A.; Premoli, A.; Senette, C.

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanisms which regulate the interactions of metal ions with partially methyl esterified linear polymers of α-1,4 linked D-galacturonic acid units (pectinates), well represented in the root inner and outer apoplasm, is of great relevance to understand the processes which control their accumulation at the soil-root interface as well as their mobilization by plant metabolites. Accumulation of a metal by pectinates can be affected by the presence of other metals so that competition or distribution could be expected depending on the similar or different affinity of the metal ions towards the binding sites, mainly represented by the carboxylate groups. In order to better understand the mechanism of accumulation in the apoplasm of several metal ions, the sorption of Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) by a Ca-polygalacturonate gel, used as model of the soil-root interface, with a degree of esterification of 18% (PGAE1) and 65% (PGAE2) was studied at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 in the presence of CaCl2 2.5 mM.. The results show that sorption increases with increasing both the initial metal concentration and pH. A similar sorption trend was evidenced for Cu(II) and Pb(II) and for Zn(II) and Cd(II), indicating that the mechanism of sorption for these two ionic couples is quite different. As an example, at pH 6.0 and an initial metal concentration equal to 2.0 mM, the amount of Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorbed was about 1.98 mg-1 of PGAE1 while that of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was about 1.2 mg-1. Cr(III) showed a rather different sorption trend and a much higher amount (2.8 mg-1of PGAE1 at pH 6.0) was recorded. The higher affinity of Cr(III) for the polysaccharidic matrix is attributable to the formation of Cr(III) polynuclear species in solution, as shown by the distribution diagrams obtained through the MEDUSA software. On the basis of these findings, the following affinity towards the PGAE1 can be assessed: Cr(III) > Cu(II) ? Pb(II) > Zn (II) ? Cd

  7. Mobile heat accumulators for lorry or train transport?; Mobile Waermespeicher fuer den LKW- oder Zugtransport?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldenberg, Philipp

    2013-07-01

    Where heat grids cannot be laid for geographic reasons, mobile heat accumulators may be appropriate. The mobile heat accumulators are transported by lorry or train between the heat source and the heat sink. The waste heat can be decoupled from biogas plants, waste incineration plants or industrial sites. Existing road or rail networks can be used for transportation. Decisive factors to achieve low heat production costs are: free waste heat, large and continuous heat quantities as well as a short distance between the heat source and the heat sink. (orig.)

  8. Relative importance of food and water pathways in the bio-accumulation of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, W.C.; Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.; LaRosa, J.

    1974-01-01

    The relative importance of the food versus water pathway as a source of radionuclides to aquatic organisms is studied through laboratory experiments allowing groups of animals to accumulate 65 Zn from the two pathways simultaneously in the same simulated ecosystem. Mean whole body concentration factors of 65 Zn and stable zinc in shrimp, crab, fish and mussels are recorded. In shrimp and fish accumulation of 65 Zn through the food pathway is reported more than the water pathway though fluctuations in food quality and feeding rates could alter zinc absorption kinetics

  9. The main regularities of 137Cs accumulation by medicinal plants after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.A.; Krasnov, V.P.; Get'manchuk, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    The main regularities of 137 Cs accumulation by medicinal plants after nuclear accidents have been analyzed. Tendencies in study of this problem have been underlined on literary data. The mean values of transfer factor of 137 Cs from soil to medicinal row in different habitat types have been elucidated for Ukrainian Polessye. It was found that species with the wide ecological amplitude were characterized by the highest intensity of 137 Cs accumulation in forest habitats in comparison with non-forest ones. For some species of medicinal plants multiyear dynamics of 137 Cs specific activity has been shown on stationary experimental plots. (author)

  10. Design study of an Antiproton Collector for the Antiproton Accumulator (ACOL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The Report gives a full description of an Antiproton Collector Ring which, placed around the existing Antiproton Accumulator at CERN, would enhance the antiproton flux available to both the SPS and LEAR by a factor of ten. The new ring and the focusing devices which precede it are designed to accept a much larger fraction of the antiproton production cone from the target. Each pulse of particles will be pre-cooled before being fed to the Antiproton Accumulator, where improved stochastic cooling systems will build up the stack. A full list of parameters is included. (orig.)

  11. Increased superoxide accumulation in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficient fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Judge, Sharon; Cruz, Alex; Pourang, Deena; Mathews, Clayton E; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2011-11-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) oxidizes pyruvate to acetyl CoA and is critically important in maintaining normal cellular energy homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations in PDC give rise to congenital lactic acidosis and to progressive cellular energy failure. However, the subsequent biochemical consequences of PDC deficiency that may contribute to the clinical manifestations of the disorder are poorly understood. We postulated that altered flux through PDC would disrupt mitochondrial electron transport, resulting in oxidative stress. Compared to cells from 4 healthy subjects, primary cultures of skin fibroblasts from 9 patients with variable mutations in the gene encoding the alpha subunit (E1α) of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDA1) demonstrated reduced growth and viability. Superoxide (O(2)(.-)) from the Qo site of complex III of the electron transport chain accumulated in these cells and was associated with decreased activity of manganese superoxide dismutase. The expression of uncoupling protein 2 was also decreased in patient cells, but there were no significant changes in the expression of cellular markers of protein or DNA oxidative damage. The expression of hypoxia transcription factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) also increased in PDC deficient fibroblasts. We conclude that PDC deficiency is associated with an increase in O(2)(.-) accumulation coupled to a decrease in mechanisms responsible for its removal. Increased HIF1α expression may contribute to the increase in glycolytic flux and lactate production in PDC deficiency and, by trans-activating pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, may further suppress residual PDC activity through phosphorylation of the E1α subunit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Arsenic Accumulation in Rice and Probable Mitigation Approaches: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindita Mitra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available According to recent reports, millions of people across the globe are suffering from arsenic (As toxicity. Arsenic is present in different oxidative states in the environment and enters in the food chain through soil and water. In the agricultural field, irrigation with arsenic contaminated water, that is, having a higher level of arsenic contamination on the top soil, which may affects the quality of crop production. The major crop like rice (Oryza sativa L. requires a considerable amount of water to complete its lifecycle. Rice plants potentially accumulate arsenic, particularly inorganic arsenic (iAs from the field, in different body parts including grains. Different transporters have been reported in assisting the accumulation of arsenic in plant cells; for example, arsenate (AsV is absorbed with the help of phosphate transporters, and arsenite (AsIII through nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP by the silicon transport pathway and plasma membrane intrinsic protein aquaporins. Researchers and practitioners are trying their level best to mitigate the problem of As contamination in rice. However, the solution strategies vary considerably with various factors, such as cultural practices, soil, water, and environmental/economic conditions, etc. The contemporary work on rice to explain arsenic uptake, transport, and metabolism processes at rhizosphere, may help to formulate better plans. Common agronomical practices like rain water harvesting for crop irrigation, use of natural components that help in arsenic methylation, and biotechnological approaches may explore how to reduce arsenic uptake by food crops. This review will encompass the research advances and practical agronomic strategies on arsenic contamination in rice crop.

  13. Excessive visceral fat accumulation in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furutate R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ryuko Furutate1, Takeo Ishii1,2, Ritsuko Wakabayashi1, Takashi Motegi1,2, Kouichi Yamada1,2, Akihiko Gemma2, Kozui Kida1,21Respiratory Care Clinic, Nippon Medical School, Kudan-Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Oncology, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Previous studies have suggested links between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cardiovascular disease, and abdominal obesity. Although abdominal visceral fat is thought to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors, the degree of visceral fat accumulation in patients with COPD has not been directly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the abdominal visceral fat accumulation and the association between visceral fat and the severity and changes in emphysema in COPD patients.Methods: We performed clinical and laboratory tests, including pulmonary function, dyspnea score, and the six-minute walking test in COPD patients (n = 101 and control, which included subjects with a smoking history but without airflow obstruction (n = 62. We used computed tomography to evaluate the abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and the extent of emphysema.Results: The COPD group had a larger VFA than the control group. The prevalence of non-obese subjects with an increased VFA was greater in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Stages III and IV than in the other stages of COPD. The extent of emphysema was inversely correlated with waist circumference and SFA. However, VFA did not decrease with the severity of emphysema. VFA was positively correlated with the degree of dyspnea.Conclusion: COPD patients have excessive visceral fat, which is retained in patients with more advanced stages of COPD or severe emphysema despite the absence of obesity.Keywords: abdominal obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema

  14. Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, D O; Dellow, W J; Lever, M; George, P M; Robson, R A; Chambers, S T

    2001-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis that is common in chronic renal failure (CRF), but its cause is unknown. Homocysteine metabolism is linked to betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT), a zinc metalloenzyme that converts glycine betaine (GB) to N,N dimethylglycine (DMG). DMG is a known feedback inhibitor of BHMT. We postulated that DMG might accumulate in CRF and contribute to hyperhomocysteinemia by inhibiting BHMT activity. Plasma and urine concentrations of GB and DMG were measured in 33 dialysis patients (15 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 18 hemodialysis), 33 patients with CRF, and 33 age-matched controls. Concentrations of fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), red cell and serum folate, vitamins B(6) and B(12), serum zinc, and routine biochemistry were also measured. Groups were compared, and determinants of plasma tHcy were identified by correlations and stepwise linear regression. Plasma DMG increased as renal function declined and was twofold to threefold elevated in dialysis patients. Plasma GB did not differ between groups. The fractional excretion of GB (FE(GB)) was increased tenfold, and FED(MG) was doubled in CRF patients compared with controls. Plasma tHcy correlated positively with plasma DMG, the plasma DMG:GB ratio, plasma creatinine, and FE(GB) and negatively with serum folate, zinc, and plasma GB. In the multiple regression model, only plasma creatinine, plasma DMG, or the DMG:GB ratio was independent predictors of tHcy. DMG accumulates in CRF and independently predicts plasma tHcy concentrations. These findings suggest that reduced BHMT activity is important in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia in CRF.

  15. Cytotoxicity and accumulation of ergot alkaloids in human primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Dennis; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-04-11

    Ergot alkaloids are secondary metabolites produced by fungi of the species Claviceps. Toxic effects after consumption of contaminated grains are described since mediaeval times. Of the more than 40 known ergot alkaloids six are found predominantly. These are ergotamine, ergocornine, ergocryptine, ergocristine, ergosine and ergometrine, along with their corresponding isomeric forms (-inine-forms). Toxic effects are known to be induced by an interaction of the ergot alkaloids as neurotransmitters, like dopamine or serotonin. Nevertheless data concerning cytotoxic effects are missing and therefore a screening of the six main ergot alkaloids was performed in human primary cells in order to evaluate the toxic potential. As it is well known that ergot alkaloids isomerize easily the stability was tested in the cell medium. Based on these results factors were calculated to correct the used concentration values to the biologically active lysergic (-ine) form. These factors range from 1.4 for the most stable compound ergometrine to 5.0 for the most unstable ergot alkaloid ergocristine. With these factors, reflecting the instability, several controverse literature data concerning the toxicity could be explained. To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of ergot alkaloids, human cells in primary culture were used. These cells remain unchanged in contrast to cell lines and the data allow a better comparison to the in vivo situation than using immortalized cell lines. To characterize the effects on primary cells, renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) and normal human astrocytes (NHA) were used. The parameters necrosis (LDH-release) and apoptosis (caspase-3-activation, DNA condensation and fragmentation) were distinguished. The results show that depending on the individual structure of the peptide ergot alkaloids the toxic properties change. While ergometrine as a lysergic acid amide did not show any effect, the peptide ergot alkaloids revealed a different toxic potential. Of

  16. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis

  17. ISABELLE, accumulators, bunched beams and cosmictrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1977-01-01

    An elaboration of the ISABELLE concept as the model for a high energy, high luminosity proton-proton facility is given. Its place in the total high energy physics program is discussed. Certain features of the ISABELLE design which have not been consolidated, in particular injection and modes of beam operation, are considered. A new scheme is reviewed, one which could provide quick beam turn-on after construction, one in which there is a high probability of reaching and perhaps even exceeding the design objectives, one which should provide comparatively more flexible and reliable operation for physics, and finally one whose presence opens up a window to a much higher energy region. The new system involves the use of a physically separate current accumulator, allowing, therefore, the optimal utilization of the superconducting structures. The fact that an obvious addition to the complex will permit pp collisions in the 4 TeV center-of-mass energy region, which corresponds to an equivalent lab energy of approximately 10 16 eV, i.e., cosmic ray energies, prompts the added structure to be referred to as the COSMICTRON. The facility operated in the ''new'' manner proposed is considered to be ''the best ISABELLE that can be built.''

  18. Radionuclide accumulation in fruit bodies of macromycetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.N.; Eliashevich, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    By materials of the observation net within the limits of the Byelorussian sector of the ChNPP 30-rm zone (contamination up to 16.65 MBq/m 2 ) the radioactivity was considered at the territories with the background contamination (up to 37 kBq/m 2 ), at the South-Bobrujsk (up to 185 kBq/m 2 ) and Volozhinsk (up to 555 kBq/m 2 ) fallout spots. The accumulation and proportionality coefficients of 137 Cs in 36 species and 90 Sr in 19 species of macromycetes of various tropic groups under the drought y year conditions, their changeability by forest formations and in the time within the range of 1992-1998 are determined. The average two-fold increase in the species contamination a year with increased atmospheric humidity (1998) is indicated. The closer contamination correlation of the Boletus edulis with photosynthetically active part of the Betula pendula and Pinus sylvestris, as compared to the soil pollution, shows the possibility of indicating the pollution of short-living fruit bodies of fungi by the pollution of the plants-symbiotrophs [ru

  19. Novel method of charging an accumulator ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    For high power fusion applications, a circular accelerator for heavy ions is not likely to be competitive with a linear accelerator. This is principally because one requires rather high accelerator efficiencies, and quite large average power. Efficiencies greater than or equal to 10 percent, and perhaps 30 and 50 MW of average beam power are needed. On the other hand, the linear accelerator can be built to satisfy these constraints, and in addition, it is ideally suited for multi-turn injection. A difficulty with multi-turn injection is that in typical application it is rather lossy. With care, and sufficient phase space dilution, one might hope to obtain greater than or equal to 90 percent injection efficiency, but even at these levels the large amount of beam power lost in the accumulator might have serious consequences for the machine operation. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to use ''box car'' stacking, which is essentially 100 percent without particle loss. A method of operating the linear accelerator so that the output beam is of suitable instantaneous current to permit box-car stacking with the linac output is proposed

  20. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, David E.; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J.; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W.; Baum, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  1. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Maldonado-Bascón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

  2. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  3. Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (alanine that was significantly upregulated in all tested species. Alanine was the most important FAA reaching 250-650μmolg(-1) dry weight in dehydrated Aporrectodea species and 300μmolg(-1) dry weight in L. rubellus. Proline was only weakly upregulated in some species as were a few other FAAs. Species forming estivation chambers (Aporrectodea spp.) did not show a better ability to conserve body water than the non-estivating species (L. rubellus) at the same drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cobalt accumulation and circulation by blackgum trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    Blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.) trees accumulate far greater concentrations of cobalt in mature foliage than do other species on the same site (363 ppM in ash of blackgum, compared with about 3 ppM by mockernut hickory and about 1 ppM by red maple, tulip tree, and white oak). Cobalt concentrations in dormant woody tissues of blackgum also significantly exceed those in the other four species. Inoculation of six blackgums with 60 Co revealed that cobalt remains mobile in the trees for at least 3 years. Foliar concentrations of stable cobalt increase uniformly until senescence. In late August, foliage accounts for only 9 percent of total tree weight but 57 percent of total tree cobalt. Losses of cobalt from trees occur almost entirely by leaf abscission, and the loss rates of weight and cobalt from decomposing litter are similar. Retention of cobalt in the biologically active soil layers perpetuates zones of cobalt concentration created by this species in woodlands

  5. Tau hyperphosphorylation induces oligomeric insulin accumulation and insulin resistance in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Patricia; Sandebring-Matton, Anna; Merino-Serrais, Paula; Parrado-Fernandez, Cristina; Rabano, Alberto; Winblad, Bengt; Ávila, Jesús; Ferrer, Isidre; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel

    2017-12-01

    Insulin signalling deficiencies and insulin resistance have been directly linked to the progression of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. However, to date little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms or insulin state and distribution in the brain under pathological conditions. Here, we report that insulin is accumulated and retained as oligomers in hyperphosphorylated tau-bearing neurons in Alzheimer's disease and in several of the most prevalent human tauopathies. The intraneuronal accumulation of insulin is directly dependent on tau hyperphosphorylation, and follows the tauopathy progression. Furthermore, cells accumulating insulin show signs of insulin resistance and decreased insulin receptor levels. These results suggest that insulin retention in hyperphosphorylated tau-bearing neurons is a causative factor for the insulin resistance observed in tauopathies, and describe a novel neuropathological concept with important therapeutic implications. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The accumulation and retention of 95mTc by the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to study bioaccumulation and determine a concentration factor (CF) for technetium ( 95m Tc) in the homarid crustacean Nephrops norvegicus L. The steady state CF for accumulation from seawater was estimated to be about 2000 and the biological half-time was about 50 days. The highest tissue Tc concentrations were found in the green gland and the digestive gland. Depuration following accumulation from water was slow with a half-time of about 165 days. Tc accumulation from labelled food followed a biphasic model with one compartment containing about 94 percent of the ingested activity and with a half-time of about 1 day and the second compartment containing about 6 percent of the ingested activity with a half-time of about 56 days. Most retained activity was found in the digestive gland

  7. [Experimental investigations of 211Am accumulation by macrophytes of the Yenisei River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia; Zotina, T A

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in which 241Am was added to water samples containing macrophytes of the Yenisei River, and the radionuclide absorption rates and concentration factors were determined for the plants. It has been shown that the water moss (Fontinalis antipyretica) has a higher capacity to accumulate 241Am than the Canadian pondweed (Elodea canadensis) does. The laboratory experiments revealed that the capacity of dead biomass of the Canadian pondweed to accumulate 241Am is twice higher than that of living biomass. In contrast, no significant increase in 241Am accumulation by dead biomass of the water moss has been recorded. The transuranic element 241Am was firmly fixed by the plant biomass and was not released into water in the course of long-duration experiments.

  8. Field study comparing the effect of hydraulic mixing on septic tank performance and sludge accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, Fares

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of hydraulic mixing on anaerobic digestion and sludge accumulation in a septic tank. The performance of a septic tank equipped with a hydraulic mixer was compared with that of a similar standard septic tank over a period of 10 months. The study was conducted in two phases: Phase-I--from May to November 2013 (6 months); Phase-II--from January to May 2014 (4 months). Hydraulic mixing effectively reduced the effluent biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids, and reduced the sludge accumulation rate in the septic tank. The BOD removal efficiencies during Phase-II were 65% and 75% in the standard septic tank and a septic tank equipped with hydraulic mixer (Smart Digester™), respectively. The effect of hydraulic mixing reduced the rate of sludge accumulation from 0.64 cm/day to 0.27 cm/day, and increased the pump-out interval by a factor of 3.

  9. Association of Fluid Accumulation with Clinical Outcomes in Critically Ill Children with Severe Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Li, Xiaozhong; Bai, Zhenjiang; Fang, Fang; Hua, Jun; Li, Ying; Pan, Jian; Wang, Jian; Feng, Xing; Li, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether early and acquired daily fluid overload (FO), as well as fluctuations in fluid accumulation, were associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill children with severe sepsis. Methods This study enrolled 202 children in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with severe sepsis. Early fluid overload was defined as ≥5% fluid accumulation occurring in the first 24 hours of PICU admission. The maximum daily fluid accumulation ≥5% occurring during the next 6 days in patients with at least 48 hours of PICU stay was defined as PICU-acquired daily fluid overload. The fluctuation in fluid accumulation was calculated as the difference between the maximum and the minimum daily fluid accumulation obtained during the first 7 days after admission. Results Of the 202 patients, 61 (30.2%) died during PICU stay. Among all patients, 41 (20.3%) experienced early fluid overload, including 9 with a FO ≥10%. Among patients with at least 48 hours of PICU stay (n = 154), 36 (23.4%) developed PICU-acquired daily fluid overload, including 2 with a FO ≥10%. Both early fluid overload (AOR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.08–1.33; P = 0.001; n = 202) and PICU-acquired daily fluid overload (AOR = 5.47 per log increase; 95% CI 1.15–25.96; P = 0.032; n = 154) were independent risk factors associated with mortality after adjusting for age, illness severity, etc. However, fluctuations in fluid accumulation were not associated with mortality after adjustment. Length of PICU stay increased with greater fluctuations in fluid accumulation in all patients with at least 48 hours of PICU stay (FO fluid overload achieved an area under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.74 (95% CI 0.65–0.82; P fluid overload were independently associated with PICU mortality in children with severe sepsis. PMID:27467522

  10. Effects of Feeding Strategy, Sediment Characteristics, and Chemical Properties on Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Bioaccumulation from Marine Sediments in Two Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, H; Jackman, P; Dangerfield, N D; Ross, P S

    2017-08-01

    Shellfish and sediment invertebrates have been widely used to assess pollution trends over space and time in coastal environments around the world. However, few studies have compared the bioaccumulation potential of different test species over a range of sediment-contaminant concentrations and profiles. The bioavailability of sediment-related contaminants was evaluated using sediments collected from sites (n = 12) throughout the Salish Sea, British Columbia, Canada. Two benthic marine invertebrates-the Baltic clam Macoma balthica and the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata-were exposed for 28 days in a controlled environment to these field-collected coastal sediments. The congener-specific uptake of legacy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and emergent polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was determined using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in sediments and in invertebrates after the experimental exposure. The polychaete Neanthes accumulated lower concentrations of PCBs but higher concentrations of PBDEs. The present study indicates that differences in bioaccumulation between these two invertebrates shape the accumulation of PCB and PBDE congeners, reflect differences in feeding strategies, and reveal the physicochemical properties of the contaminants and sediment properties. Because biota-sediment accumulation factor values are often calculated for environmental monitoring or site-specific impact assessments, our results provide insight into potentially confounding factors and the need for caution when selecting indicator species for coastal marine pollution.

  11. Leucine Biosynthesis Is Involved in Regulating High Lipid Accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Kim, Young-Mo; Wei, Siwei; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Scott E.; Metz, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jens; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-06-20

    ABSTRACT

    The yeastYarrowia lipolyticais a potent accumulator of lipids, and lipogenesis in this organism can be influenced by a variety of factors, such as genetics and environmental conditions. Using a multifactorial study, we elucidated the effects of both genetic and environmental factors on regulation of lipogenesis inY. lipolyticaand identified how two opposite regulatory states both result in lipid accumulation. This study involved comparison of a strain overexpressing diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGA1) with a control strain grown under either nitrogen or carbon limitation conditions. A strong correlation was observed between the responses on the transcript and protein levels. Combination ofDGA1overexpression with nitrogen limitation resulted in a high level of lipid accumulation accompanied by downregulation of several amino acid biosynthetic pathways, including that of leucine in particular, and these changes were further correlated with a decrease in metabolic fluxes. This downregulation was supported by the measured decrease in the level of 2-isopropylmalate, an intermediate of leucine biosynthesis. Combining the multi-omics data with putative transcription factor binding motifs uncovered a contradictory role for TORC1 in controlling lipid accumulation, likely mediated through 2-isopropylmalate and a Leu3-like transcription factor.

    IMPORTANCEThe ubiquitous metabolism of lipids involves refined regulation, and an enriched understanding of this regulation would have wide implications. Various factors can influence lipid metabolism, including the environment and genetics. We demonstrated, using a multi-omics and multifactorial experimental setup, that multiple factors affect lipid accumulation in the yeastYarrowia lipolytica. Using integrative analysis, we identified novel interactions between nutrient restriction and genetic factors

  12. Effects of Aeration Treatment on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the optimum condition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat, effects of some factors including aeration treatment, physiological indexes, air flow rate, culture temperature, and pH value of cultivating solution under hypoxia on GABA in germinated tartary buckwheat were investigated. The results showed that the dark cultures with distilled water at 30°C, 2 days, and aeration stress with 1.0 L/min air flow rate at 30°C were optimal for GABA accumulation. Under these conditions, the predicted content of GABA was up to 371.98 μg/g DW. The analysis of correlation indicated that there was a significant correlation (P<0.01 between GABA accumulation and physiological indexes. Box-Behnken experimental analysis revealed that optimal conditions with aeration treatment for GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat were air flow rate of 1.04 L/min, culture temperature of 31.25°C, and a pH value of 4.21. Under these conditions, the GABA content was predicted as high as 386.20 μg/g DW, which was close to the measured value (379.00±9.30 μg/g DW. The variance analysis and validation test suggested that this established regression model could predict GABA accumulation in tartary buckwheat during germination.

  13. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil-crop systems: a review for wheat and corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyu; Wu, Wenyong; Liu, Fei; Liao, Renkuan; Hu, Yaqi

    2017-06-01

    The health risks arising from heavy metal pollution (HMP) in agricultural soils have attracted global attention, and research on the accumulation of heavy metals in soil-plant systems is the basis for human health risk assessments. This review studied the accumulation of seven typical heavy metals-Cd, Cr, As, Pb, Hg, Cu, and Zn-in soil-corn and soil-wheat systems. The findings indicated that, in general, wheat was more likely to accumulate heavy metals than corn. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the seven heavy metals in wheat and corn grains decreased exponentially with their average concentrations in soil. The seven heavy metals were ranked as follows, in ascending order of accumulation in corn grains: Pb < Cr < Zn < As < Cu < Cd accumulation in wheat grains, their ranking was as follows: Zn < Pb < Cr < Cu < As < Hg

  14. Heavy metal accumulation in trees growing on contaminated sites in Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterbrunner, R.; Puschenreiter, M.; Sommer, P.; Wieshammer, G.; Tlustos, P.; Zupan, M.; Wenzel, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Metal-accumulating woody species have been considered for phytoextraction of metal-contaminated sites. We investigated Zn and Cd accumulation in tissues of adult trees and associated herbaceous species collected from contaminated areas in Central Europe. We found considerable Cd and Zn accumulation in various willow, poplar and birch species with up to 116 mg Cd kg -1 and 4680 mg Zn kg -1 in leaves of Salix caprea. Annual variation of Cd and Zn concentrations in leaves of Salix caprea were small, indicating that data obtained in different years can be compared. Metal concentrations in leaves were not related to total (aqua regia) or labile (1 M NH 4 NO 3 extract) concentrations in soil but the accumulation factors (leaf concentration: soil concentration) for Cd and Zn followed an inverse log type function. Metal partitioning between tissues showed a minimum in the wood, with increasing concentrations of Cd and Zn towards the leaves and fine roots. - Adult field-grown Salix caprea, Populus tremula and other tree species accumulate up to 4680 mg Zn kg -1 and 116 mg Cd kg -1 in their leaves

  15. Heavy metal accumulation in trees growing on contaminated sites in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterbrunner, R. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Puschenreiter, M. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.puschenreiter@boku.ac.at; Sommer, P. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wieshammer, G. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Tlustos, P. [Czech University of Agriculture Prague, 165 21 Praha 6-Suchdol (Czech Republic); Zupan, M. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Agronomy department, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Wenzel, W.W. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-15

    Metal-accumulating woody species have been considered for phytoextraction of metal-contaminated sites. We investigated Zn and Cd accumulation in tissues of adult trees and associated herbaceous species collected from contaminated areas in Central Europe. We found considerable Cd and Zn accumulation in various willow, poplar and birch species with up to 116 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 4680 mg Zn kg{sup -1} in leaves of Salix caprea. Annual variation of Cd and Zn concentrations in leaves of Salix caprea were small, indicating that data obtained in different years can be compared. Metal concentrations in leaves were not related to total (aqua regia) or labile (1 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} extract) concentrations in soil but the accumulation factors (leaf concentration: soil concentration) for Cd and Zn followed an inverse log type function. Metal partitioning between tissues showed a minimum in the wood, with increasing concentrations of Cd and Zn towards the leaves and fine roots. - Adult field-grown Salix caprea, Populus tremula and other tree species accumulate up to 4680 mg Zn kg{sup -1} and 116 mg Cd kg{sup -1} in their leaves.

  16. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species

  17. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research.

  18. Evidence accumulation in the magnitude system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lambrechts

    Full Text Available Perceptual interferences in the estimation of quantities (time, space and numbers have been interpreted as evidence for a common magnitude system. However, if duration estimation has appears sensitive to spatial and numerical interferences, space and number estimation tend to be resilient to temporal manipulations. These observations question the relative contribution of each quantity in the elaboration of a representation in a common mental metric. Here, we elaborated a task in which perceptual evidence accumulated over time for all tested quantities (space, time and number in order to match the natural requirement for building a duration percept. For this, we used a bisection task. Experimental trials consisted of dynamic dots of different sizes appearing progressively on the screen. Participants were asked to judge the duration, the cumulative surface or the number of dots in the display while the two non-target dimensions varied independently. In a prospective experiment, participants were informed before the trial which dimension was the target; in a retrospective experiment, participants had to attend to all dimensions and were informed only after a given trial which dimension was the target. Surprisingly, we found that duration was resilient to spatial and numerical interferences whereas space and number estimation were affected by time. Specifically, and counter-intuitively, results revealed that longer durations lead to smaller number and space estimates whether participants knew before (prospectively or after (retrospectively a given trial which quantity they had to estimate. Altogether, our results support a magnitude system in which perceptual evidence for time, space and numbers integrate following Bayesian cue-combination rules.

  19. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  20. Diatom. A potential bio-accumulator of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pal, R.; Ramaswami, A.; Nayak, D.; Lahiri, S.

    2006-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of gold in trace concentration by Nitzschia obtusa and Navicula minima, two members of bacillariophyceae, has been studied. It has been observed that Nitzschia obtusa showed better accumulation of gold in acidic pH in comparison to neutral and basic pH. Maximum accumulation was observed with 1 mg x kg -1 or less gold concentration. However, the accumulation by the living cells was reduced when the matrix concentration was higher. Navicula minima, on the other hand, found to be a better accumulator of gold in wide ranges of pH and substrate concentration of the media. It was also inferred that the gold accumulation by diatom was mainly due to adsorption by biosilica (siliceous frustules of dead diatom cells). Accumulated gold was recovered with conc. HNO 3 . (author)

  1. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  2. Arsenic accumulation and speciation in plants from different habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Bergqvist, Claes; Greger, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This is the postprint version of the article. The published version of the article can be located here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0883292711004914 Understanding As accumulation in plants is necessary in order to alleviate problems with As in the environment and to improve sustainable As phytotechnologies. To find suitable candidates for phytoremediation purposes and to investigate specific accumulation patterns due to growth habitat and plant groups, As accumulation...

  3. Accumulation of cesium-137 by useful mollusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi

    1978-01-01

    There are few data available on the radioactive contamination of marine mollusca, especially cephalopoda. Therefore, in this paper, data obtained on the radioactive contamination of cephalopoda were compared with those on pelecypoda and gastropoda. The uptake and elimination experiments were carried out by means of radioisotope tracer methods, and the concentration factors of 137 Cs due to radioactive fallout were estimated. The contamination of cephalopoda was also compared with those of other marine organisms in terms of concentration factor. The activity ratios in the organs or tissues of octopus were in the range of 3.5 and 12.8 on the 14th day after the beginning of exposure and those of squid were in the range of 8.8 and 10.9 on the 6th day after the commencement of the experiment. The biological half time was 90 days for octopus from the observation over 75 days, while it was 31 days for clam from the results of 75 days' experiment. The concentration factors of 137 Cs due to radioactive fallout were in the range of 3 and 23 for cephalopoda, 7 and 28 for pelecypoda and 24 and 30 for gastropoda, respectively. It was concluded that no difference in the concentration factors was clearly observable among the classes of mollusca, but the values were substantially similar to those of crustaceans and slightly lower than those of marine fish. (auth.)

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals using Sorghum sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Vaňková, Radomíra; Song, J.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, JUN 2014 (2014), s. 15-24 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12162; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13029 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Sorghum * Cadmium * Zinc Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.340, year: 2014

  5. Capital accumulation, social reproduction and social struggle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    land usage currently and in the future to enable social equity, promote the efficient use of resources ... The options of how land is to be used are limited by factors ... 4 Indications are a $681 trillion global derivatives market, i.e. more than 10 ...

  6. Drug accumulation in the presence of the multidrug resistance pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayesh, S; Litman, Thomas; Stein, W D

    1997-01-01

    We studied the interaction between the multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein, and two compounds that interact with it: vinblastine, a classical substrate of the pump, and verapamil, a classical reverser. Steady-state levels of accumulation of these two drugs were determined in a multidrug resistant...... P388 leukemia cell line, P388/ADR. The time course of accumulation of these drugs, and the effect of energy starvation and the presence of chloroquine on the level of their steady-state accumulation were quite disparate. Vinblastine inhibited the accumulation of verapamil whereas it enhanced...

  7. Accumulation of sup(95m)Tc from sea water by juvenile lobsters (Homarus gammarus L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.J. (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (UK). Directorate of Fisheries Research)

    1985-01-01

    The uptake and retention of technetium from sea water by juvenile lobsters, and the effects of moulting on these processes, has been studied using sup(95m)Tc as a tracer. Accumulation was rapid with whole body concentration factors of over 2000 being measured in some lobsters. Uptake was highest immediately before a moult; post-moult there was a fall in accumulation. No simple mathematical equation for technetium accumulation with time was found. The technetium concentration in the moulted exoskeleton increased with time of exposure of the lobsters but never exceeded 2% of the whole body value. The highest percentage of the whole body activity was found in the digestive gland; the green gland had the highest concentration factor. Technetium excretion, following 64 d of accumulation, could be expressed as an exponential rate of loss. The biological half-time was calculated as 53 d. Moulted exoskeletons from these lobsters contained approximately 0.6% of the day zero whole body activity.

  8. Kaempferol Isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and Increases Fatty Acid Oxidation Signaling in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonggi; Kwon, Misung; Choi, Jae Sue; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-12-01

    Stamens of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn have been used as a Chinese medicine due to its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and antiatherogenic activity. However, the effects of kaempferol, a main component of N. nucifera, on obesity are not fully understood. We examined the effect of kaempferol on adipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Kaempferol reduced cytoplasmic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in dose and time-dependent manners during adipocyte differentiation. Accumulation of TG was rapidly reversed by retrieving kaempferol treatment. Kaempferol broadly decreased mRNA or protein levels of adipogenic transcription factors and their target genes related to lipid accumulation. Kaempferol also suppressed glucose uptake and glucose transporter GLUT4 mRNA expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, protein docking simulation suggests that Kaempferol can directly bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α by forming hydrophobic interactions with VAL324, THR279, and LEU321 residues of PPARα. The binding affinity was higher than a well-known PPARα agonist fenofibrate. Consistently, mRNA expression levels of PPARα target genes were increased. Our study indicates while kaempferol inhibits lipogenic transcription factors and lipid accumulation, it may bind to PPARα and stimulate fatty acid oxidation signaling in adipocytes.

  9. What influences heavy metals accumulation in arctic lichen Cetrariella delisei in Svalbard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Węgrzyn, Michał; Wietrzyk, Paulina; Lisowska, Maja; Klimek, Beata; Nicia, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify variations in heavy metal concentrations in Cetrariella delisei along a transect from a High Arctic glacier forehead to the shoreline as well as determine the main environmental factors influencing the deposition of heavy metals in arctic lichens. The macrolichen Cetrariella delisei appears to be an interesting alternative to those lichen species used in the past (e.g. Flavocetraria nivalis, Cladonia sp.) for heavy metal biomonitoring purposes in the Arctic: it is widely distributed, easy to identify and reluctantly grazed by reindeer. Fieldwork was conducted in the summer of 2012 in the Kaffiøyra Plain, Oskar II Land, NW Spitsbergen. C. delisei and soil samples were collected from 5 localities. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd were measured in each sample. A bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated for all the analyzed elements. The BAFs for Cu, Mn, and Ni showed a relatively low accumulation level in lichen thalli. On the other hand, the BAFs for Cr, Pb, and Zn, revealed an increased accumulation level in C. delisei. The Cd content in lichen is almost equal to its level in the soil. The statistical analyses covered three environmental factors: soil pH, substrate type and distance from the shoreline. The data were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test, canonical correspondence analysis and a permutation test. The results show that distance from the shoreline had the greatest influence on the majority of the heavy metal concentrations in the lichen thalli and the soil. However, the level of Mn accumulated in the soil is determined by its source in the glacier. Moreover, the soil pH had the greatest effect on the Cd accumulated in the soil and the Mn accumulated in the lichen thalli.

  10. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a “pulsed beam”; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a “continuous beam.” A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose

  11. Rural livestock asset portfolio in northern Ethiopia: a microeconomic analysis of choice and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegebu, Fredu Nega; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Tollens, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Livestock fulfill different functions. Depending on their livelihood strategies, households differ in their choice of what type of animal to keep and on accumulation of the chosen animal overtime. Using a panel data of 385 rural households in a mixed farming system in northern Ethiopia, this paper investigates the dynamic behavior of rural households' livestock holding to identify determinants of choice and accumulation of livestock overtime. Choice is analyzed for a principal animal, the animal that constituted the largest value of livestock assets a household possessed, using a multinomial logit model. Results indicate that rural households differ in their choice of what type of animal to keep. Agro-climatic conditions, sex and age of household head, presence of an adult male member in a household, and liquidity are the major factors that influence the type of principal animal households keep. Conditional on the principal animal selected, we analyzed the factors that determine the accumulation of the chosen animals by correcting for selection bias. Area of land cultivated is the most significant factor that explains the number of animals households keep. Other factors include sex of household head, diversification into nonfarm self-employment, and shocks.

  12. Organic Carbon Accumulation in Topsoil Following Afforestation with Willow: Emphasis on Leaf Litter Decomposition and Soil Organic Matter Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lafleur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Short-rotation intensive cultures (SRICs of willows can potentially sequester carbon (C in soil. However, there is limited information regarding the factors governing soil organic C (Corg accumulation following afforestation. The objectives of this study were to: (i determine whether willow leads to Corg accumulation in the topsoil (0–10 cm two to six years after establishment in five SRICs located along a large climatic/productivity gradient in southern Quebec, and (ii assess the influence of leaf litter decomposition and soil organic matter (OM quality on Corg accumulation in the topsoil. Topsoil Corg concentrations and pools under SRICs were, on average, 25% greater than reference fields, and alkyls concentrations were higher under SRICs. On an annualized basis, Corg accumulation rates in the topsoil varied between 0.4 and 4.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1. Estimated annual litterfall C fluxes were in the same order of magnitude, suggesting that SRICs can accumulate Corg in the topsoil during early years due to high growth rates. Leaf litter decomposition was also related to Corg accumulation rates in the topsoil. It was positively correlated to growing season length, degree-days, and growing season average air and topsoil temperature (r > 0.70, and negatively correlated to topsoil volumetric water content (r = −0.55. Leaf litter decomposition likely occurred more quickly than that of plants in reference fields, and as it progressed, OM became more decay resistant, more stable and accumulated as Corg in the topsoil.

  13. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child's age. Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed.

  14. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Asbrand

    Full Text Available Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER. As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed.Children (aged 9 to 13 years with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25 and healthy controls (HC, n = 26 as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate.SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child's age.Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed.

  15. Metal accumulation rates in northwest Atlantic pelagic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.; Carpenter, M.S.N.; Colley, S.; Wilson, T.R.S.; Elderfield, H.; Kennedy, H.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of 230 Th, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and twenty-four metals were made on cores from the Nares Abyssal Plain. The sediment is characterized by slowly-accumulating pelagic red clays and rapidly deposited grey clays transported by turbidity currents. Despite their colour differences and the enrichment of certain elements in the red clays, Sr isotope evidence demonstrates that the clays have the same terrigenous origin. The excesses of metals in the red clays have been attributed to metal removal from the water column and a comparison with the grey clays has enabled the authigenic fluxes of metals to be estimated. The results are given for the elements Mn, Fe, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, V, Sr, Ce, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb. Authigenic fluxes of Y, Nb, Cr, Zr, Rb, U and Th were not resolvable. Fluxes appear to be near constant on the Plain but comparison with other areas shows that they are quite variable both between and within ocean basins. The chief factor controlling authigenic fluxes is discussed. (author)

  16. Breast cancer risk accumulation starts early: prevention must also.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S

    2014-06-01

    Nearly one in four breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. This study follows the literature review methods and format. Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman's long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors is related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention.

  17. Breast cancer risk accumulation starts early – Prevention must also

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 1 in 4 breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. Methods Literature review Results Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman’s long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors are related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Conclusion Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention. PMID:24820413

  18. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  19. Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, R; Graaff, R; Links, TP; Jager, JJ; Alderson, NL; Thorpe, [No Value; Baynes, JW; Gans, ROB; Smit, AJ

    Aims/hypothesis. The accumulation of AGE is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and renal failure. All current measurements of AGE accumulation require invasive sampling. We exploited the fact that several AGE exhibit autofluorescence to develop a

  20. Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane injury and sugar contents in salt-sensitive rice ( Oryza sativa L. spp. indica ) roots under isoosmotic conditions. ... The accumulation of sugars in PT1 roots may be a primary salt-defense mechanism and may function as an osmotic control. Key words: ...

  1. Ammonium and hydroxylamine uptake and accumulation in Nitrosomonas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.; Look, C.; Bock, E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Starved cells of Nitrosomonas europaea and further ammonia oxidizers were able to rapidly accumulate ammonium and hydroxylamine to an internal concentration of about 1 and 0.8 M, respectively. In kinetic studies, the uptake/accumulation rates for ammonium [3.1 mmol (g protein)(-1) min(-1)] and

  2. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  3. Characterization of distinct Arctic aerosol accumulation modes and their sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, R.; Dall'Osto, M.; Skov, H.

    2018-01-01

    -August). By association to chemical composition, cloud condensation nuclei properties, and meteorological variables, three typical accumulation mode aerosol clusters were identified: Haze (32% of the time), Bimodal (14%) and Aged (6%). In brief: (1) Haze accumulation mode aerosol shows a single mode at 150 nm, peaking...

  4. Accumulation and management in global historical perspective: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, Lissa L.

    2014-01-01

    This essay introduces a special issue dedicated to the theme ‘accumulation and management in global historical perspective’. The concepts and practices of accumulation and management are explored in ways that work to de-center the history of science and empire. Particular attention is paid to four

  5. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared

  6. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  7. Chronology of p53 protein accumulation in gastric carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craanen, M. E.; Blok, P.; Dekker, W.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    p53 Protein accumulation in early gastric carcinoma was studied in relation to the histological type (Lauren classification) and the type of growth pattern, including the chronology of p53 protein accumulation during carcinogenesis. Forty five, paraffin embedded gastrectomy specimens from early

  8. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503 Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis of...

  9. In Vivo Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Purwakusumah, E. P.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    This is a preliminary research report on the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to establish anti-obesity screening assay of the natural plant resources. Nematode C. elegans has been used as experimental animal model for understanding lipid accumulation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of selected plant extracts on lipid accumulation in C. elegans. Currently no report could be found regarding lipid accumulation in C.elegans treated with ethanolic leaf extracts of jabon merah (Anthocephalus macrophyllus), jati belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia), and Mindi (Melia Azedarach) plants. Lipid accumulation was determined qualitatively using lipid staining method and quantitatively by colorimetry using sulpho-phospho-vanillin reagent. Data showed that lipid accumulation was inhibited up to 72% by extract of M. azedarach, about 35% by both of A. macrophyllus and G. ulmifolia extracts, and up to 25% by orlistat (a synthetic slimming drug). Ethanolic extract of A. macrophyllus, G. ulmifolia, and M. azedarach leaves were shown to inhibit lipid accumulation in C. elegans and M. azedarach leaves extracts was the most effective inhibitor. C.elegans were shown to be an effective model for in vivo lipid accumulation mechanism and potential to be used as a rapid screening assay for bioactive compounds with lipid accumulation inhibitory activity.

  10. Influence of land use on phytomass accumulation in Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of indigenous vegetation for production purposes impacts negatively on biodiversity but does this necessarily equate with a decrease in phytomass accumulation, which may influence carbon sequestration? Phytomass accumulation was studied for common land covers of beef ranching or dairy farming ...

  11. Carbon accumulation and sequestration of lakes in China during the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Chen, Huai; Yu, Zicheng; Wu, Jianghua; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Yanfen; Qin, Boqiang

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the responses of lake systems to past climate change and human activity is critical for assessing and predicting the fate of lake carbon (C) in the future. In this study, we synthesized records of the sediment accumulation from 82 lakes and of C sequestration from 58 lakes with direct organic C measurements throughout China. We also identified the controlling factors of the long-term sediment and C accumulation dynamics in these lakes during the past 12 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP). Our results indicated an overall increasing trend of sediment and C accumulation since 12 ka, with an accumulation peak in the last couple of millennia for lakes in China, corresponding to terrestrial organic matter input due to land-use change. The Holocene lake sediment accumulation rate (SAR) and C accumulation rate (CAR) averaged (mean ± SE) 0.47 ± 0.05 mm yr(-1) and 7.7 ± 1.4 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) in China, respectively, comparable to the previous estimates for boreal and temperate regions. The SAR for lakes in the East Plain of subtropical China (1.05 ± 0.28 mm yr(-1) ) was higher than those in other regions (P sequestration for lakes in China. We estimated the total amount of C burial in lakes of China as 8.0 ± 1.0 Pg C. This first estimation of total C storage and dynamics in lakes of China confirms the importance of lakes in land C budget in monsoon-influenced regions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Damage accumulation in ceramics during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; Begun, G.M.; Williams, J.M.; White, C.W.; Appleton, B.R.; Sklad, P.S.; Angelini, P.

    1985-01-01

    The damage structures of α-Al 2 O 3 and α-SiC were examined as functions of ion implantation parameters using Rutherford backscattering-channeling, analytical electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Low temperatures or high fluences of cations favor formation of the amorphous state. At 300 0 K, mass of the bombarding species has only a small effect on residual damage, but certain ion species appear to stabilize the damage microstructure and increase the rate of approach to the amorphous state. The type of chemical bonding present in the host lattice is an important factor in determining the residual damage state

  13. The role of fluid migration system in hydrocarbon accumulation in Maichen Sag, Beibuwan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Yang, Jinxiu; Wu, Feng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Qianqian

    2018-02-01

    Fluid migration system is of great significance for hydrocarbon accumulation, including the primary migration and secondary migration. In this paper, the fluid migration system is analysed in Maichen Sag using seismic, well logging and core data. Results show that many factors control the hydrocarbon migration process, including hydrocarbon generation and expulsion period from source rocks, microfractures developed in the source rocks, the connected permeable sand bodies, the vertical faults cutting into/through the source rocks and related fault activity period. The spatial and temporal combination of these factors formed an effective network for hydrocarbon expulsion and accumulation, leading to the hydrocarbon reservoir distribution at present. Generally, a better understanding of the hydrocarbon migration system can explain the present status of hydrocarbon distribution, and help select future target zones for oil and gas exploration.

  14. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA

  15. Flow field induced particle accumulation inside droplets in rectangular channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Michael; Moskopp, Michael; Seemann, Ralf

    2015-07-07

    Particle concentration is a basic operation needed to perform washing steps or to improve subsequent analysis in many (bio)-chemical assays. In this article we present field free, hydrodynamic accumulation of particles and cells in droplets flowing within rectangular micro-channels. Depending on droplet velocity, particles either accumulate at the rear of the droplet or are dispersed over the entire droplet cross-section. We show that the observed particle accumulation behavior can be understood by a coupling of particle sedimentation to the internal flow field of the droplet. The changing accumulation patterns are explained by a qualitative change of the internal flow field. The topological change of the internal flow field, however, is explained by the evolution of the droplet shape with increasing droplet velocity altering the friction with the channel walls. In addition, we demonstrate that accumulated particles can be concentrated, removing excess dispersed phase by splitting the droplet at a simple channel junction.

  16. Tipping diffusivity in information accumulation systems: more links, less consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J K; Lorenz, J

    2010-01-01

    Assume two different communities each of which maintain their respective opinions mainly because of the weak interaction between them. In such a case, it is an interesting problem to find the necessary strength of inter-community interaction in order for the two communities to reach a consensus. In this paper, the information accumulation system (IAS) model is applied to investigate the problem. With the application of the IAS model, the opinion dynamics of the two-community problem is found to belong to a wider class of two-species problems appearing in population dynamics or in the competition of two languages, for all of which the governing equations can be described in terms of coupled logistic maps. Tipping diffusivity is defined as the maximal inter-community interaction such that the two communities maintain different opinions. For a problem with a simple community structure and homogeneous individuals, the tipping diffusivity is calculated theoretically. As a conclusion of the paper, the convergence of the two communities to the same value is less possible the more overall interaction, intra-community and inter-community, takes place. This implies, for example, that the increase in the interaction between individuals caused by the development of modern communication tools, such as Facebook and Twitter, does not necessarily improve the tendency towards global convergence between different communities. If the number of internal links increases by a factor, the number of inter-community links must be increased by an even higher factor, in order for consensus to be the only stable attractor

  17. Tipping diffusivity in information accumulation systems: more links, less consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J K [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lorenz, J [Chair of Systems Design, ETH Zurich, Kreuzplatz 5, 8032 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2010-06-01

    Assume two different communities each of which maintain their respective opinions mainly because of the weak interaction between them. In such a case, it is an interesting problem to find the necessary strength of inter-community interaction in order for the two communities to reach a consensus. In this paper, the information accumulation system (IAS) model is applied to investigate the problem. With the application of the IAS model, the opinion dynamics of the two-community problem is found to belong to a wider class of two-species problems appearing in population dynamics or in the competition of two languages, for all of which the governing equations can be described in terms of coupled logistic maps. Tipping diffusivity is defined as the maximal inter-community interaction such that the two communities maintain different opinions. For a problem with a simple community structure and homogeneous individuals, the tipping diffusivity is calculated theoretically. As a conclusion of the paper, the convergence of the two communities to the same value is less possible the more overall interaction, intra-community and inter-community, takes place. This implies, for example, that the increase in the interaction between individuals caused by the development of modern communication tools, such as Facebook and Twitter, does not necessarily improve the tendency towards global convergence between different communities. If the number of internal links increases by a factor, the number of inter-community links must be increased by an even higher factor, in order for consensus to be the only stable attractor.

  18. Sucrose accumulation in watermelon fruits: genetic variation and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yativ, Merav; Harary, Idan; Wolf, Shmuel

    2010-05-15

    Sugar accumulation, the key process determining fruit quality, is controlled by both the translocation of sugars and their metabolism in developing fruits. Sugar composition in watermelon, as in all cucurbit fruits, includes sucrose, fructose and glucose. The proportions of these three sugars are determined primarily by three enzyme families: invertases, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs). The goal of the present research was to explore the process of sugar metabolism in watermelon fruits. Crosses between the domestic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and three wild species provided a wide germplasm to explore genetic variability in sugar composition and metabolism. This survey demonstrated great genetic variability in sugar content and in the proportions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in mature fruits. Genotypes accumulating high and low percentage of sucrose provided an experimental system to study sugar metabolism in developing fruits. Insoluble invertase activity was high and constant throughout fruit development in control lines and in genotypes accumulating low levels of sucrose, while in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose, activity declined sharply 4 weeks after pollination. Soluble acid invertase activity was significantly lower in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose than in low-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. Conversely, activities of SuSy and SPS were higher in the high-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. The present results establish that, within the genus Citrullus, there are genotypes that accumulate a high percentage of sucrose in the fruit, while others accumulate high percentages of glucose and fructose. The significant negative correlation between insoluble invertase activity and fruit sucrose level suggests that sucrose accumulation is affected by both phloem unloading and sugar metabolism. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Accumulation of cadmium by halophytic and non-halophytic Juncus species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněk, Tomáš; Moťková, Kateřina; Podlipná, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2016), s. 415-423 ISSN 2197-0025 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10028; GA MPO FR-TI3/778 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : plant-responses * salt-tolerance * heavy-metals * salinity tolerance * abiotic stress * rice seedlings * amino-acids * proline * phytoremediation * detoxification * Halophyte * Cadmium accumulation * Proline * Juncus gerardii * Juncus inflexus Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.045, year: 2016

  20. Philometra ovata (Nematoda: Philometroidea): a potential sentinel species of heavy metal accumulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruš, Vlastimil; Jarkovský, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 5 (2007), s. 929-933 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MZe(CZ) QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * heavy metal accumulation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007

  1. Accumulation of chloroplast DNA sequences on the Y chromosome of Silene latifolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejnovský, Eduard; Kubát, Zdeněk; Hobza, Roman; Lengerová, Martina; Sato, S.; Tabata, S.; Fukui, K.; Matsunaga, S.; Vyskot, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 128, 1-3 (2006), s. 167-175 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/05/2097; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/05/H505; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : accumulation * chloroplast DNA * Y chromosome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.492, year: 2006

  2. Business capital accumulation and the user cost: is there a heterogeneity bias?

    OpenAIRE

    FATICA SERENA

    2016-01-01

    Using data from 23 market economy sectors across 10 OECD countries over the period 1984-2007 we show that the homogeneity assumption underlying empirical models for aggregate capital accumulation may lead to misspecification. Thus, we adopt a fully disaggregated approach – by asset types and sectors – to estimate the responsiveness of investment to the tax-adjusted user cost of capital. In this framework, we are able to link unobserved common factors to the nature of the shocks affecting the ...

  3. A comparative study on capability of different tree species in accumulating heavy metals from soil and ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahabadi, Ahmad; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Miri, Mohammad; Ebrahimi Aval, Hamideh; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Ehsan; Talebi, Parvaneh; Abaszadeh Fathabadi, Zeynab; Babai, Fatemeh; Nikoonahad, Ali; Sharafi, Kiomars; Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals (HMs) in the urban environment can be bio-accumulated by plant tissues. The aim of this study was to compare fourteen different tree species in terms of their capability to accumulate four airborne and soilborne HMs including; zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Samplings were performed during spring, summer, and fall seasons. To compare bioaccumulation ability, bio-concentration factor (BCF), comprehensive bio-concentration index (CBCI), and metal accumulation index (MAI) were applied. Species with the highest accumulation for single metal which shown using BCF did not have the highest CBCI and MAI. Based on CBCI and MAI, Pinus eldarica (7.74), Wistaria sinensis (8.82), Morus alba (8.7), and Nigral morus (27.15) had the highest bioaccumulation capacity of HMs, respectively. Therefore, these species can be used for phytoextraction of HMs pollution and green and buffer zone in the urban. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The natural history of early versus late disability accumulation in primary progressive MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marcus W; Greenfield, Jamie; Javizian, Omid; Deighton, Stephanie; Wall, Winona; Metz, Luanne M

    2015-06-01

    Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) is the least common MS disease course and carries the worst prognosis. In relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) disability accumulation occurs in two distinct phases, but it is unclear whether this is also true for PPMS. Here we investigate factors associated with early and late disability accumulation in PPMS. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox regression to investigate the influence of sex, age at disease onset and onset symptoms on time to, and age at, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 4 and 6, as well as the time from EDSS 4 to 6 in patients with PPMS. We identified 500 patients with PPMS. The analyses on time to EDSS 4 included 358 patients, and those on time to EDSS 6 included 392 patients. The median times to EDSS 4 and EDSS 6 were 5 and 9 years. The analyses on age at EDSS 4 included 360 patients, and those on age at EDSS 6 included 402 patients. The median ages at EDSS 4 and EDSS 6 were 51 and 55 years. Older age at onset and bilateral motor onset symptoms were independently associated with a shorter time to both EDSS 4 and EDSS 6. Sex and other onset symptoms were not associated with time to, or age at, landmark disability. Only age at onset was significantly associated with the time from EDSS 4 to EDSS 6. Age at disease onset is the most important predictor of disability accumulation in PPMS. Bilateral motor onset symptoms were associated with quicker disease progression. In contrast to RRMS, we found no evidence for distinct phases of disability accumulation in PPMS. Disability accumulation in PPMS appears to be affected by the same factors throughout its course. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Imbalance of Hsp70 family variants fosters tau accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinwal, Umesh K; Akoury, Elias; Abisambra, Jose F; O'Leary, John C; Thompson, Andrea D; Blair, Laura J; Jin, Ying; Bacon, Justin; Nordhues, Bryce A; Cockman, Matthew; Zhang, Juan; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Bo; Borysov, Sergiy; Uversky, Vladimir N; Biernat, Jacek; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Gestwicki, Jason E; Zweckstetter, Markus; Dickey, Chad A

    2013-04-01

    Dysfunctional tau accumulation is a major contributing factor in tauopathies, and the heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) seems to play an important role in this accumulation. Several reports suggest that Hsp70 proteins can cause tau degradation to be accelerated or slowed, but how these opposing activities are controlled is unclear. Here we demonstrate that highly homologous variants in the Hsp70 family can have opposing effects on tau clearance kinetics. When overexpressed in a tetracycline (Tet)-based protein chase model, constitutive heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) and inducible Hsp72 slowed or accelerated tau clearance, respectively. Tau synergized with Hsc70, but not Hsp72, to promote microtubule assembly at nearly twice the rate of either Hsp70 homologue in reconstituted, ATP-regenerating Xenopus extracts supplemented with rhodamine-labeled tubulin and human recombinant Hsp72 and Hsc70. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with human recombinant protein revealed that Hsp72 had greater affinity for tau than Hsc70 (I/I0 ratio difference of 0.3), but Hsc70 was 30 times more abundant than Hsp72 in human and mouse brain tissue. This indicates that the predominant Hsp70 variant in the brain is Hsc70, suggesting that the brain environment primarily supports slower tau clearance. Despite its capacity to clear tau, Hsp72 was not induced in the Alzheimer's disease brain, suggesting a mechanism for age-associated onset of the disease. Through the use of chimeras that blended the domains of Hsp72 and Hsc70, we determined that the reason for these differences between Hsc70 and Hsp72 with regard to tau clearance kinetics lies within their C-terminal domains, which are essential for their interactions with substrates and cochaperones. Hsp72 but not Hsc70 in the presence of tau was able to recruit the cochaperone ubiquitin ligase CHIP, which is known to facilitate the ubiquitination of tau, describing a possible mechanism of how the C-termini of these homologous Hsp70 variants

  6. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  7. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcelo C de; Bueno, Paula C P; Morellato, Leonor P C; Habermann, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al) accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA) on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  8. PICALM modulates autophagy activity and tau accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Kevin; Fleming, Angeleen; Imarisio, Sara; Lopez Ramirez, Ana; Mercer, Jacob L.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Maria; Bento, Carla F.; Puri, Claudia; Zavodszky, Eszter; Siddiqi, Farah; Lavau, Catherine P.; Betton, Maureen; O’Kane, Cahir J.; Wechsler, Daniel S.; Rubinsztein, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including proteins involved in endocytic trafficking such as PICALM/CALM (phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein). It is unclear how these loci may contribute to AD pathology. Here we show that CALM modulates autophagy and alters clearance of tau, a protein which is a known autophagy substrate and which is causatively linked to AD, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, altered CALM expression exacerbates tau-mediated toxicity in zebrafish transgenic models. CALM influences autophagy by regulating the endocytosis of SNAREs, such as VAMP2, VAMP3 and VAMP8, which have diverse effects on different stages of the autophagy pathway, from autophagosome formation to autophagosome degradation. This study suggests that the AD genetic risk factor CALM modulates autophagy, and this may affect disease in a number of ways including modulation of tau turnover. PMID:25241929

  9. Mechanisms of thallium-201 myocardial accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackers, F.J.Th.; Samson, G.

    1980-01-01

    The practical advantages of 201 Tl over other suitable myocardial imaging agents such as potassium-43 ( 43 K), rubidium-81 ( 81 Rb), and cesium-129 ( 129 Cs), are its relatively low energy photons which makes it possible to employ high-resolution low-energy collimators and its physical half-life of 73 hr which provides sufficiently long shelf-life for practical clinical imaging. Toxicological considerations do not play a role using 201 Tl as thallous chloride. The concentration of thallous chloride in a dose of 2 mCi of 201 Tl is less than 4μg. The LD 50 of thallous chloride is a factor 10 4 more. The minimal lethal dose in man is reported to be 12 mg/kg. The kinetics of 201 Tl, its tissue distributions and radiation doses are assessed, and the effect of cardiac drugs on thallium-201 uptake are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Metal accumulation in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijver, Martina G.; Vink, Jos P.M.; Miermans, Cornelis J.H.; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2007-01-01

    The main factors contributing to variation in metal concentrations in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils were investigated in three floodplains differing in inundation frequency and vegetation type. Metal concentrations in epigeic earthworms showed larger seasonal variations than endogeic earthworms. Variation in internal levels between sampling intervals were largest in earthworms from floodplain sites frequently inundated. High and low frequency flooding did not result in consistent changes in internal metal concentrations. Vegetation types of the floodplains did not affect metal levels in Lumbricus rubellus, except for internal Cd levels, which were positively related to the presence of organic litter. Internal levels of most essential metals were higher in spring. In general, no clear patterns in metal uptake were found and repetition of the sampling campaign will probably yield different results. - Metal levels in earthworms show large variation among sites, among seasons and among epigeic and endogeic species

  11. Arsenic accumulation by two brake ferns growing on an arsenic mine and their potential in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao-Yang; Chen, Tong-Bin

    2006-05-01

    In an area near an arsenic mine in Hunan Province of south China, soils were often found with elevated arsenic levels. A field survey was conducted to determine arsenic accumulation in 8 Cretan brake ferns (Pteris cretica) and 16 Chinese brake ferns (Pteris vittata) growing on these soils. Three factors were evaluated: arsenic concentration in above ground parts (fronds), arsenic bioaccumulation factor (BF; ratio of arsenic in fronds to soil) and arsenic translocation factor (TF; ratio of arsenic in fronds to roots). Arsenic concentrations in the fronds of Chinese brake fern were 3-704 mg kg-1, the BFs were 0.06-7.43 and the TFs were 0.17-3.98, while those in Cretan brake fern were 149-694 mg kg-1, 1.34-6.62 and 1.00-2.61, respectively. Our survey showed that both ferns were capable of arsenic accumulation under field conditions. With most of the arsenic being accumulated in the fronds, these ferns have potential for use in phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soils.

  12. Lead accumulation by some plant species cultivated in the vicinity of a lead factory in Sfax; Accumulation du plomb par quelques especes vegetales cultivees au voisinage d'une fonderie de plomb a Sfax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elloumi, N.; Ben Abdallah, F.; Mezghani, I.; Boukhris, M. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Lab. d' Ecologie Vegetale, Unite de Recherche Biologie de la Vegetation en Milieu Aride, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, particularly the particles containing high concentrations of heavy metals, have harmful effects on the environment. The aim of this work is to evaluate the accumulation of a lead factory emissions, on the vegetation near the factory in function of time, distance and climatic factors. Analyses results have showed an important lead accumulation by vegetation located in the vicinity of the factory. Plant species studied here (olive trees, palm trees, almond trees, pomegranate trees and vine) have shown high and variable lead accumulation. Highest concentrations (over than 400 {mu}g/g) were recorded in non-washed leaves of olive trees surrounding the factory. Rapid and considerable decrease of lead content was, however, recorded for the same species situated at a distance bigger than 1 km from the source. Interaction effects study of several factors, such as climatic factors and diversity of plant species on lead accumulation by plants, have shown that the degree of lead accumulation was related to wind direction and distance from pollution source. Lead concentrations in species planted in the NW of the factory and exposed to SE wind direction were higher than that of ones exposed to any other direction. High lead concentrations in the vicinity of the factory seem to indicate that particles and gaseous pollutants fallout in the surrounding of the factory are as much important as the chimney height is reduced. (authors)

  13. System-level network analysis of nitrogen starvation and recovery in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveals potential new targets for increased lipid accumulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valledor, Luis; Furuhashi, T.; Recuenco-Muňoz, L.; Wienkoop, S.; Weckwerth, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 171 (2014), s. 1-17 ISSN 1754-6834 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : chlamydomonas reinhardtii * lipid accumulation * nitrogen Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 6.044, year: 2014

  14. Ecotoxicological and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Short-Neck Clam (Paphia undulata) and Contaminated Sediments in Malacca Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Sharifi, Reza

    2017-10-01

    The distribution, sources, and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and the edible tissue of short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from mudflat ecosystem in the west coast of Malaysia were investigated. The concentrations of ∑ 16 PAHs varied from 347.05 to 6207.5 and 179.32 to 1657.5 ng g -1 in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. The calculations of mean PEL quotients (mean-PELQs) showed that the ecological risk of PAHs in the sediment samples was low to moderate-high level, whereas the total health risk through ingestion and dermal contact was considerably high. The PAHs biota sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. The source apportionment of PAHs in sediment using positive matrix factorization model indicated that the highest contribution to the PAHs was from diesel emissions (30.38%) followed by oil and oil derivate and incomplete coal combustion (23.06%), vehicular emissions (16.43%), wood combustion (15.93%), and natural gas combustion (14.2%). A preliminary evaluation of human health risk using chronic daily intake, hazard index, benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaP eq ) concentration, and the incremental lifetime cancer risk indicated that PAHs in short-neck clam would induce potential carcinogenic effects in the consumers.

  15. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the muscle of Clarias gariepinus and sediment from inland rivers of southwestern Nigeria and estimated potential human health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Okoli, Chukwunonso P; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in sediment and muscle of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun and Ona rivers, southwest Nigeria. In addition, the effect of PCB congeners on condition factor (CF) and associated human health risk was assessed using muscle levels for a noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) calculation. Elevated concentrations of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PCB congeners were detected in sediment and fish downstream of discharge points of both rivers. A significant reduction in fish body weight and CF was observed to correlate with high PCB congener concentrations in the Ona River. A principal component (PC) biplot revealed significant site-related PCB congener distribution patterns for HMW PCB in samples from the Ogun River (71.3%), while the Ona River (42.6%) showed significant PCB congener patterns for low-molecular-weight (LMW) congeners. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was higher downstream for both rivers, presenting PCB congener-specific accumulation patterns in the Ona River. Significant decreases in fish body weight, length and CF were observed downstream compared to upstream in the Ona River. The non-carcinogenic HQ of dioxin-like congener 189 downstream in both rivers exceeded the HQ = 1 threshold for children and adults for both the Ogun and Ona rivers. Overall, our results suggest that industrial discharges contribute significantly to PCB inputs into these rivers, with potential for significant health implications for neighboring communities that utilize these rivers for fishing and other domestic purposes.

  16. Optimized inorganic carbon regime for enhanced growth and lipid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Egan J; Gardner, Robert D; Pedersen, Todd; Peyton, Brent M; Cooksey, Keith E; Gerlach, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale algal biofuel production has been limited, among other factors, by the availability of inorganic carbon in the culture medium at concentrations higher than achievable with atmospheric CO2. Life cycle analyses have concluded that costs associated with supplying CO2 to algal cultures are significant contributors to the overall energy consumption. A two-phase optimal growth and lipid accumulation scenario is presented, which (1) enhances the growth rate and (2) the triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation rate in the oleaginous Chlorophyte Chlorella vulgaris strain UTEX 395, by growing the organism in the presence of low concentrations of NaHCO3 (5 mM) and controlling the pH of the system with a periodic gas sparge of 5 % CO2 (v/v). Once cultures reached the desired cell densities, which can be "fine-tuned" based on initial nutrient concentrations, cultures were switched to a lipid accumulation metabolism through the addition of 50 mM NaHCO3. This two-phase approach increased the specific growth rate of C. vulgaris by 69 % compared to cultures sparged continuously with 5 % CO2 (v/v); further, biomass productivity (g L(-1) day(-1)) was increased by 27 %. Total biodiesel potential [assessed as total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) produced] was increased from 53.3 to 61 % (FAME biomass(-1)) under the optimized conditions; biodiesel productivity (g FAME L(-1) day(-1)) was increased by 7.7 %. A bicarbonate salt screen revealed that American Chemical Society (ACS) and industrial grade NaHCO3 induced the highest TAG accumulation (% w/w), whereas Na2CO3 did not induce significant TAG accumulation. NH4HCO3 had a negative effect on cell health presumably due to ammonia toxicity. The raw, unrefined form of trona, NaHCO3∙Na2CO3 (sodium sesquicarbonate) induced TAG accumulation, albeit to a slightly lower extent than the more refined forms of sodium bicarbonate. The strategic addition of sodium bicarbonate was found to enhance growth and lipid accumulation rates in

  17. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  18. Apparently normal accumulation in the patellae on bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Masanori; Yoshida, Kiyo; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influences of gender and ages on accumulation in the patellae on scintigram. The subjects were 828 patients who underwent bone scintigraphy during the past one and half years at the Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Hospital. Patients younger than 20 years old and those with abnormality of the patellae were excluded. The degree of accumulation in the patellae was evaluated using the A-P whole body scintigraphy in comparison with accumulation at the diaphysis of the femur and classified to two categories, ''Positive'' (higher accumulation than that of the diaphysis of the femur) and ''Negative'' (equal or lower than that of the diaphysis of the femur). In general, the degree of accumulation was higher in females than in males. In both males and females, the degree of accumulation increased with age. A difference between the two sides in the degree of accumulation in the patellae was observed in 32% of subjects. The results of this study may serve as basic data for the interpretation of bone scintigrams. (author)

  19. Comparison of sup(115m)Cd accumulation from sediments and sea water by polychaete worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taishi; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    1976-01-01

    To know the role played by marine sediments in influencing the fate of discharged metals, (1) the interaction of metals between sediments and deposit-feeder marine worms (Nereis japonica), and (2) uptake and excretion of metals by worms were examined by laboratory experiments using sup(115m)Cd. Worms directly in contact with sup(115m)Cd-sediments accumulated sup(115m)Cd six times more than worms that were not in contact with the sup(115m)Cd sediments during the 8 days of experimentation and 12% of sup(115m)Cd in sediments were noted to be transfered to worms per unit. Comparing the concentration factor of 22 (from sea water) with accumulation from sediments, it was assumed that sup(115m)Cd in sediments would give the effect of 1/200 to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd by worms in sea water to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd. Further, to simulate these results close to that occuring in the natural ecosystem, the distribution of sup(115m)Cd in sea water, sediments and alga were also examined by means of a curve analysis of the distribution pattern by a three compartment model. It proved that the activity ratios of sup(115m)Cd were 9 for sediments and 21 for alga, which was similar to 22 for worms. (auth.)

  20. TRANSPARENT TESTA 16 and 15 act through different mechanisms to control proanthocyanidin accumulation in Arabidopsis testa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Bobet, S; Le Gourrierec, J; Grain, D; De Vos, D; Berger, A; Salsac, F; Kelemen, Z; Boucherez, J; Rolland, A; Mouille, G; Routaboul, J M; Lepiniec, L; Dubos, C

    2017-05-17

    Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that fulfil a multitude of functions during the plant life cycle. In Arabidopsis proanthocyanidins (PAs) are flavonoids that specifically accumulate in the innermost integuments of the seed testa (i.e. endothelium), as well as in the chalaza and micropyle areas, and play a vital role in protecting the embryo against various biotic and abiotic stresses. PAs accumulation in the endothelium requires the activity of the MADS box transcription factor TRANSPARENT TESTA (TT) 16 (ARABIDOPSIS B-SISTER/AGAMOUS-LIKE 32) and the UDP-glycosyltransferase TT15 (UGT80B1). Interestingly tt16 and tt15 mutants display a very similar flavonoid profiles and patterns of PA accumulation. By using a combination of genetic, molecular, biochemical, and histochemical methods, we showed that both TT16 and TT15 act upstream the PA biosynthetic pathway, but through two distinct genetic routes. We also demonstrated that the activity of TT16 in regulating cell fate determination and PA accumulation in the endothelium is required in the chalaza prior to the globular stage of embryo development. Finally this study provides new insight showing that TT16 and TT15 functions extend beyond PA biosynthesis in the inner integuments of the Arabidopsis seed coat. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Transfer and accumulation of 106Ru from phytoplankton (Dunaliella bioculata) to zooplankton (Artemia salina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro; Takase, Akira

    1982-01-01

    106 Ru is one of the most abundant radionuclides to be released from the unclear-spent fuel reprocessing plant to oceans. This paper deals with transfer and accumulation of the radionuclide from phytoplankton (Dunaliella) to zooplankton (Artemia) in the graizing food chain of marine organisms. Each plankton was reared in the radioactive sea water A (filtrated and circulated through sandy mud, and the radioactive concentration decreased and atteined to constant after addition of 106 Ru), B (not filtrated and circulated, and the radioactive concentration decreased and atteined to constant) and C (not filtrated and circulated, the radioactive concentration decreased, but did not attein to constant), respectively, and investigated accumulations of 106 Ru. Then, accumulations of 106 Ru in Artemia by the ingestion of each diet (Dunaliella) contaminated with 106 Ru in each water, were investigated and compared with those from each water. Concentration factors of 106 Ru for the planktons reared in the radioactive sea waters were different among these waters. The difference can be attributable to that of physicochemical states of 106 Ru in the waters. It was found that 106 Ru would be accumulated by Artemia from the water A about 10 times higher than from the contaminated diet (Dunaliella) in this water, however from the contaminated diet (Dunaliella) in the water B about 2.2 times higher than from the last water. (author)

  2. Capability of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus to Accumulate Hg2+ From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is hazardous contaminant that can be accumulated by aquatic organisms such as fishes, mussels etc. Catfish is one of source of animal protein but it also can accumulate Hg2+ from water that used in aquaculture. Due to less information about capability of catfish to accumulate Hg2+, therefore we studied bioaccumulation of Hg2+ that used biokinetic approach (aqueous uptake-rate, and elimination-rate.  Nuclear application technique was applied in this study by using radiotracer of 203Hg.  A simple kinetic model was then constructed to predict the bioaccumulation capability of   by catfish. The result of experiments were shown that the uptake rate of difference Hg2+ concentration were 79.90 to 101.22 ml.g-1.d-1. Strong correlation between uptake rates with increasing Hg2+concentration. In addition, the elimination rates were range 0.080 – 0.081 day-1. The biology half time (t1/2b of Hg2+ in whole body catfish were 8.50 – 8.63 days.  However, no clear correlation  between elimination rate with increasing concentration of Hg2+. The calculation of Bio Concentration Factor (BCF shown catfish have capability to accumulated Hg maximum 1242.69 time than its concentration in water

  3. Heritability of performance deficit accumulation during acute sleep deprivation in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Samuel T; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Frances M; Staley, Bethany; Hachadoorian, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F; Pack, Allan I

    2012-09-01

    To determine if the large and highly reproducible interindividual differences in rates of performance deficit accumulation during sleep deprivation, as determined by the number of lapses on a sustained reaction time test, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), arise from a heritable trait. Prospective, observational cohort study. Academic medical center. There were 59 monozygotic (mean age 29.2 ± 6.8 [SD] yr; 15 male and 44 female pairs) and 41 dizygotic (mean age 26.6 ± 7.6 yr; 15 male and 26 female pairs) same-sex twin pairs with a normal polysomnogram. Thirty-eight hr of monitored, continuous sleep deprivation. Patients performed the 10-min PVT every 2 hr during the sleep deprivation protocol. The primary outcome was change from baseline in square root transformed total lapses (response time ≥ 500 ms) per trial. Patient-specific linear rates of performance deficit accumulation were separated from circadian effects using multiple linear regression. Using the classic approach to assess heritability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for accumulating deficits resulted in a broad sense heritability (h(2)) estimate of 0.834. The mean within-pair and among-pair heritability estimates determined by analysis of variance-based methods was 0.715. When variance components of mixed-effect multilevel models were estimated by maximum likelihood estimation and used to determine the proportions of phenotypic variance explained by genetic and nongenetic factors, 51.1% (standard error = 8.4%, P performance deficit accumulations on PVT during sleep deprivation.

  4. Effect of Transpiration on Plant Accumulation and Translocation of PPCP/EDCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgen, Laurel K; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R; Gan, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common. PMID:25594843

  5. Oxidative stress induced lipid accumulation via SREBP1c activation in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Mika; Hiraishi, Ako; Touyama, Maiko; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2008-01-01

    SREBP1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) is a metabolic-syndrome-associated transcription factor that controls fatty acid biosynthesis under glucose/insulin stimulation. Oxidative stress increases lipid accumulation, which promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, we know little about the role of oxidative stress in fatty acid biosynthesis. To clarify the action of oxidative stress in lipid accumulation via SREBP1c, we examined SREBP1c activity in H 2 O 2 -treated mammalian cells. We introduced a luciferase reporter plasmid carrying the SREBP1c-binding site into HepG2 or COS-7 cells. With increasing H 2 O 2 dose, SREBP1c transcriptional activity increased in HepG2 cells but declined in COS-7 cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of SREBP1c gene or of SREBP1c-regulated genes rose H 2 O 2 dose-dependently in HepG2 cells but dropped in COS-7 cells. Lipid accumulation and levels of the nuclear form of SREBP1c increased in H 2 O 2 -stimulated HepG2 cells. ROS may stimulate lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells via SREBP1c activation

  6. Noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena in nuclear power plant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Aoki, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Teruaki; Shida, Akira; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Nishikawa, Akira; Inagaki, Tetsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    In the case of the boiling water reactor, hydrogen and oxygen slightly exist in the main steam, because these noncondensable gases are generated by the radiolytic decomposition of the reactor water. BWR plants have taken measures to prevent noncondensable gas accumulation. However, in 2001, the detonation of noncondensable gases occurred at Hamaoka-1 and Brunsbuttel, resulting in ruptured piping. The accumulation phenomena of noncondensable gases in BWR closed piping must be investigated and understood in order to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Therefore, an experimental study on noncondensable gas accumulation was carried out. The piping geometries for testing were classified and modeled after the piping of actual BWR plants. The test results showed that 1) noncondensable gases accumulate in vertical piping, 2) it is hard for noncondensable gases to accumulate in horizontal piping, and 3) noncondensable gases accumulate under low-pressure conditions. A simple accumulation analysis method was proposed. To evaluate noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena, the three component gases were treated as a mixture. It was assumed that the condensation amount of the vapor is small, because the piping is certainly wrapped with heat insulation material. Moreover, local thermal equilibrium was assumed. This analysis method was verified using the noncondensable gas accumulation test data on branch piping with a closed top. Moreover, an experimental study on drain trap piping was carried out. The test results showed that the noncondensable gases dissolved in the drain water were discharged from the drain trap, and Henry's law could be applied to evaluate the amount of dissolved noncondensable gases in the drain water. (author)

  7. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  8. Microbial accumulation of uranium from nuclear liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation includes the isolation, identification and the fluctuations of the population densities of microorganisms in the nuclear liquid waste released by some laboratories of Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission. The efficiency of uranium accumulation on isolates (22 bacterial strains, 24 fungal strains and 6 yeast strains) was assessed in aqueous solution using fluorometric techniques. Two of the isolated microoganisms namely Bacillus sp. -15B and Mucor sp.16F showed exceptionally high attitude towards uranium accumulation. Optimal conditions required for efficient accumulation and recovery of uranium was then studied using the two selected isolates. 10 figs.; 162 refs.; 16 tabs

  9. Cesium accumulation in native trees from the Brazilian Cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.D.; Miranda, M.V.F.E.S.; Santos, T.O.; Cantinha, R.S.; Fernandes, E.A.D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Even considered not essential for plants, cesium may cycle within forest ecosystems. Taking into account the lack of knowledge on the distribution of this chemical element in Brazilian ecosystems, this work encompasses the unexpected cesium accumulation in native plant leaves from Cerradao, a Brazilian hotspot of world biodiversity. Some trees were Cs accumulators, achieving mass fractions in leaves 700 times higher (up to 12.7 mg kg -1 ) when compared to other Brazilian native tree leaves from the Atlantic Forest. In fact, such trace element accumulation in leaves was not previously noticed for Brazilian ecosystems despite the intra- and inter-species variability observed in Cerrado tree leaves. (author)

  10. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Steve A. [Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Hazen, Samuel [Scripps Research Inst., San Diego, CA (United States); Mullet, John [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Critical to the development of renewable energy sources from biofuels is the improvement of biomass from energy feedstocks, such as sorghum and maize. The specific goals of this project include 1) characterize the growth and gene expression patterns under diurnal and circadian conditions, 2) select transcription factors associated with growth and build a cis-regulatory network in yeast, and 3) perturb these transcription factors in planta using transgenic Brachypodium and sorghum, and characterize the phenotypic outcomes as they relate to biomass accumulation. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield.

  11. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Dechun; XING Jianping; JIAO Weiping; WONG Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions.The results showed that the maximal influx (Vmax) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties.The value of Vmax for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuangyou II-93.The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with Cd as CdSO4 for both the varieties.Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil.Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  12. Accumulation of different visual feature descriptors in a coherent framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, J.B.; Pilz, F.; Kraft, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We present a temporal accumulation scheme which disambiguates different kinds of visual 3D descriptors within one coherent framework. The accumulation consists of a twofold process: First, by means of a Bayesian filtering outliers become eliminated and second, the precision of the extracted infor...... information becomes enhanced by means of an unscented Kalman filtering process. It is a particular property of our algorithm to be able to deal with different kinds of visual descriptors by the very same mechanism. We show quantitative and qualitative results.......We present a temporal accumulation scheme which disambiguates different kinds of visual 3D descriptors within one coherent framework. The accumulation consists of a twofold process: First, by means of a Bayesian filtering outliers become eliminated and second, the precision of the extracted...

  13. SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY BASIL PLANTS (OCINUM BASILICUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium accumulation level in basil plants is investigated. A direct correlation between selenium concentration and essential oil content is demonstrated for basil and other aroma plants. No correlation is found between selenium and flavonoids.

  14. LIPID ACCUMULATION OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS UNDER DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolina Rokicka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation and utilization of microalgae is now a intensively developing area of research. Some species of microalgae, under appropriate conditions, accumulate large amounts of lipids in the cells. This lipids have a suitable profile of fatty acids for biodiesel production. The culture of microalgae for lipids accumulation should be performed in certain physicochemical conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of variable ortophophates concentrations in the culture medium for lipids accumulation of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and to determine of parameters of the phosphoric shock in the medium. The study confirmed the possibility of the use of the phosphoric shock in the medium to maximize lipids accumulation by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. In the study, 45.23% of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the culture with phosphoric shock in the medium and 18% less of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the standard culture.

  15. Effects of zinc exposure on the accumulation, haematology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of zinc exposure on the accumulation, haematology and immunology of Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Ekrem Şanver Çelik, Hasan Kaya, Sevdan Yilmaz, Mehmet Akbulut, Arınç Tulgar ...

  16. 17 CFR 256.190 - Accumulated deferred income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... proprietary capital ... (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 4. Deferred Debits § 256.190 Accumulated deferred income taxes. (a...

  17. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...... been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds....... The results also show that the accumulation rates for the heavy metals depend significantly on the relative pond area (pond area divided by catchment area). The conclusion is that the mass balances of heavy metals and PAHs in highway ponds can be estimated with acceptable accuracy from a combination of short...

  18. A Transformational Approach to Parametric Accumulated-Cost Static Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haemmerlé, Rémy; López García, Pedro; Liqat, Umer

    2016-01-01

    Traditional static resource analyses estimate the total resource usage of a program, without executing it. In this paper we present a novel resource analysis whose aim is instead the static profiling of accumulated cost, i.e., to discover, for selected parts of the program, an estimate or bound...... of the resource usage accumulated in each of those parts. Traditional resource analyses are parametric in the sense that the results can be functions on input data sizes. Our static profiling is also parametric, i.e., our accumulated cost estimates are also parameterized by input data sizes. Our proposal is based...... on the concept of cost centers and a program transformation that allows the static inference of functions that return bounds on these accumulated costs depending on input data sizes, for each cost center of interest. Such information is much more useful to the software developer than the traditional resource...

  19. Simulation and experiemntal study on damper by accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaobin; Zhou Yong; Chen Wuxing; Hu Junhua

    2010-01-01

    In order to prevent stressing penstocks broken by earthquake or other shock waves, dampers are used widely in nuclear power plant or pipelines transporting radioactive material. A new-style damper by accumulator is introduced. Inside the damper an accumulator is installed, the outward corrugated tubes are added outside the piston rod. So it has advantages of small volume, no oil leakage. The simulation and experimental research show that if the clearance between the piston and cylinder, the spring stiffness of accumulator or the throttle valve size is varied, the dynamic performance of the impact displacement, resistance in low velocity and lock-up velocity of dampe would be influenced. The support of nuclear classified pipelines can be satisfied by using this new-style accumulator damper. (authors)

  20. PIXE study on arsenic accumulation by a fern. Pteris vittata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.

    2010-01-01

    Pteris vittata is a fern reported to be an arsenic hyper-accumulator. To develop the practical application of the fern to a phytoremediation technique, it is necessary to explicate the effective accumulation mechanism. In this study, the arsenic distribution and the elemental correlation in the cellular level were examined in the fronds supplied with arsenate and arsenite separately via xylem vessel using an in-air micro-PIXE system at Tohoku University. The difference in transportation rate between arsenate and arsenite as well as the translocation of elements necessary for plant metabolism was revealed in different tissues of the fronds accumulating arsenic in high concentration. Hence, the in-air micro-PIXE analysis is an effective measure for undertaking phytoremediation research of hyper-accumulator plants. (author)

  1. Accumulation of Proline under Salinity and Heavy metal stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Seed germination and growth parameters of seedlings of cauliflower were observed after 5, 10 and 15 ... Keywords: Abiotic stress, salinity, proline and heavy metals. The responses of ..... induced accumulation of free proline in a metal-tolerant.

  2. Dynamical spin accumulation in large-spin magnetic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płomińska, Anna; Weymann, Ireneusz; Misiorny, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    The frequency-dependent transport through a nanodevice containing a large-spin magnetic molecule is studied theoretically in the Kondo regime. Specifically, the effect of magnetic anisotropy on dynamical spin accumulation is of primary interest. Such accumulation arises due to finite components of frequency-dependent conductance that are off diagonal in spin. Here, employing the Kubo formalism and the numerical renormalization group method, we demonstrate that the dynamical transport properties strongly depend on the relative orientation of spin moments in electrodes of the device, as well as on intrinsic parameters of the molecule. In particular, the effect of dynamical spin accumulation is found to be greatly affected by the type of magnetic anisotropy exhibited by the molecule, and it develops for frequencies corresponding to the Kondo temperature. For the parallel magnetic configuration of the device, the presence of dynamical spin accumulation is conditioned by the interplay of ferromagnetic-lead-induced exchange field and the Kondo correlations.

  3. Skeletal muscle apolipoprotein B expression reduces muscular triglyceride accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Emil D; Ploug, Thorkil; Størling, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background. Lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. In cardiac myocytes, lipoprotein secretion controlled by apolipoproteinB (apoB) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) affects lipid homeostasis. Design. In t...... accumulation and attenuates peripheral insulin resistance in obese mice........ In this study, we investigated whether expression of a human apoB transgene affects triglyceride accumulation and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in fat fed obese mice. Results. Expression of apoB and MTP mRNA and the human apoB transgene was seen in skeletal muscle of the transgene mice. Human apo......Abstract Background. Lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. In cardiac myocytes, lipoprotein secretion controlled by apolipoproteinB (apoB) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) affects lipid homeostasis. Design...

  4. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  5. Peat-accumulating depositional systems of Sarawak, East Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, James R.; Esterle, Joan S.

    1994-02-01

    Many coal deposits originate in deltaic, estuarine, and coastal plain settings and a knowledge of interrelationships between the tectonic and depositional elements active at the time of sediment deposition is necessary to formulate basin scale models. The prograding coastal depositional systems of Sarawak all contain domed peat-accumulating environments in which low-ash, low-sulfur peats are being deposited in areas of active clastic siliciclastic sedimentation. These depositional systems are as large as 11,400 km 2 and individual peat deposits within systems are in excess of 20 m thick and 1000 km 2 in area. The geographic positions and drainage basin areas of each depositional system are controlled by fault and fold systems. Although prograding into the same receiving basin, individual system geomorphology is variable and ranges from a wave-dominated microtidal delta, to a wave-dominated meso- to macro-tidal delta/coastal plain system, to a tide-dominated macrotidal estuarine embayment along a 450 km stretch of coastline. System variation is a function of sediment supply, shelf and embayment geometry, wave climate, and tidal range. These factors, which control depositional system geomorphology, also control the resulting long axis orientation of the thick, domed peat deposits. The surface vegetation and internal characteristics of most domed peat deposits, however, are similar. Internal characteristics consist of basal high-ash, high-sulfur, degraded peats overlain by low-ash, low-sulfur, well preserved peats in vertical profile. These systems demonstrate variable responses to late Pleistocene/Holocene sea-level rise and, in these instances, the variation is most attributable to local differences in siliciclastic sediment supply, which is a function of the drainage basin area.

  6. Investigation of heavy metal accumulation in Polygonum thunbergii for phytoextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Sung; Kang, Kyung Hong; Johnson-Green, Perry; Lee, Eun Ju

    2003-01-01

    Polygonum thunbergii is useful to remove heavy metal from soil and water. - In this study, cadmium (II), lead (II), copper (II) and zinc (II) were determined in Polygonum thunbergii and soil from the Mankyung River watershed, Korea. Soil samples contained detectable lead ( -1 ), copper ( -1 ) and zinc ( -1 ), whereas cadmium was undetectable. Whole plants of P. thunbergii contained detectable lead ( -1 ), copper ( -1 ) and zinc ( -1 ), whereas cadmium was detectable only in the stem ( -1 ) and root ( -1 ). Whole plant concentrations were very different for each metal, particularly in the case of zinc. The mean content of heavy metal in the whole plants increased in the order of cadmium (8.5 μg g -1 ) -1 ) -1 ) -1 ). Soil lead, copper and zinc were correlated with each metal's accumulation in the plants (lead, r=0.841, P<0.005; copper, r=0.874, P<0.001; zinc, r=0.770, P<0.005). Lead content in roots and leaves was highly correlated (r=0.5529, P<0.001), as was lead content in roots and stems (r=0.5425, P<0.001). Mean bioconcentration factors for the aboveground tissues were 4.2 (lead), 14.8 (copper) and 27.7 (zinc), and for the underground tissues, were 22.2 (lead), 92.9 (copper) and 62.7 (zinc). After hydroponic growth, bioaccumulation coefficients were 2.0 (cadmium), 3.2 (lead), 17.2 (copper) and 13.1 (zinc) for whole plants. We considered these results as indicative of the ability of P. thunbergii plants to take up metal ions from a soil matrix contaminated with heavy metals

  7. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  8. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  9. MODELING OF TEMPERATURE FIELDS IN A SOLID HEAT ACCUMULLATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Belimenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently, one of the priorities of energy conservation is a cost savings for heating in commercial and residential buildings by the stored thermal energy during the night and its return in the daytime. Economic effect is achieved due to the difference in tariffs for the cost of electricity in the daytime and at night. One of the most common types of devices that allow accumulating and giving the resulting heat are solid heat accumulators. The main purpose of the work: 1 software development for the calculation of the temperature field of a flat solid heat accumulator, working due to the heat energy accumulation in the volume of thermal storage material without phase transition; 2 determination the temperature distribution in its volumes at convective heat transfer. Methodology. To achieve the study objectives a heat transfer theory and Laplace integral transform were used. On its base the problems of determining the temperature fields in the channels of heat accumulators, having different cross-sectional shapes were solved. Findings. Authors have developed the method of calculation and obtained solutions for the determination of temperature fields in channels of the solid heat accumulator in conditions of convective heat transfer. Temperature fields over length and thickness of channels were investigated. Experimental studies on physical models and industrial equipment were conducted. Originality. For the first time the technique of calculating the temperature field in the channels of different cross-section for the solid heat accumulator in the charging and discharging modes was proposed. The calculation results are confirmed by experimental research. Practical value. The proposed technique is used in the design of solid heat accumulators of different power as well as full-scale production of them was organized.

  10. [Lorenz was right, or does aggressive energy accumulate?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudriavtseva, N N

    2004-06-01

    Evidence supporting the fact that inherited mechanisms of regulation of aggressive behavior as a result of a repeated experience of aggression ending in victories are transformed into pathological mechanisms based on accumulation of neurochemical shifts in the brain, enhancing aggressiveness, and forming aggressive motivation in aggressive winners. This confirms the concept by Lorenz on the existence of a mechanism (but not instinct) of a spontaneous accumulation of aggressive energy that needs a discharge and formation of permanent attraction to manifestation of aggression.

  11. Perlite as a carrier of phosphate-accumulating bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivankovic, T.; Hrenovic, J.; Sekovanic, L.; Tofant, A.

    2009-01-01

    The phosphate (P)-accumulating bacteria are important for biological P removal from wastewater. Currently, attention is being drawn to the immobilisation of desired bacteria on different carriers in order to achieve a better efficiency of the wastewater treatment. In this study, two size fractions (0.1-1 and 0.1-2 mm) of different forms of expanded perlite (original, autoclaved and magnesium-exchanged) were investigates as possible carriers of P accumulating bacterium. (Author)

  12. Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Toshihiro

    1987-01-01

    In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital γ camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na + , K + -ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na + , K + -ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na + , K + -ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na + , K + -ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Maize Germplasm for Resistance to Aflatoxin Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Blanco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination of maize grain threatens human food and animal feed safety. Breeding for reduced grain aflatoxin accumulation is one of the best strategies presently available to lower grain aflatoxin accumulation. Previously identified sources of germplasm with reduced grain aflatoxin accumulation are excessively tall and late maturing. The objective of this research was to screen germplasm and identify potential sources of aflatoxin resistance. KO679Y and CUBA117:S15-101-001-B-B-B-B inbreds were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation alongside resistant and susceptible checks with both performing well. These two lines were also evaluated in various crosses. KO679Y performed especially well in crosses with Mp494 and Mp717, resulting in low ear rot and very low aflatoxin levels, but not well in other crosses. A breeding cross including CUBA117:S15-101-001-B-B-B-B as a parent accumulated low levels of aflatoxin both years it was evaluated. Lines resulting from these crosses are being advanced for further evaluation and improvement. KO679Y and CUBA117:S15-101-001-B-B-B-B may prove useful for breeders seeking germplasm sources for ear rot and mycotoxin reduction, especially KO679Y which matures a week earlier and is approximately 25% shorter than current lines resistant to grain aflatoxin accumulation.

  14. Association of postfire peat accumulation and microtopography in boreal bogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benscoter, B.W.; Vitt, D.H. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology; Wieder, R.K. [Villanova Univ., Villanova, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2005-09-01

    Fire impacts peatland species composition by differentially removing vegetation and resetting succession, which results in peat accumulation changes. A study of peat accumulation and microtopography in 2 burned bogs in Alberta was presented in this paper. Measurements of current and historic microtopography were made, and cores were collected along the gradient to identify the depth of peat accumulated since fires, as well as to assess its properties. It was observed that current microtopography was significant and correlated with the immediate post-fire surface relief. Differences in the magnitude of variability between sites suggested that differential rates of growth between features were exacerbated between sites and reflected in bog microtopography. Rates of organic matter accumulation ranged from 156 to 257 g/m{sup 2} per year, and were elevated but comparable to recent published rates. It was noted that organic matter content and accumulation rates were greater for hummocks than hollows at the Athabasca bog, but the difference between features diminished at Sinkhole Lake. It was concluded that the pattern and properties of peat accumulation and microtopography post-fire is topographical, and hence species dependent. Rates of change are dependent on fire severity and its effect on vegetation composition and succession. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Selenium accumulation in plants--phytotechnological applications and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Barillas, José Rodolfo; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for many organisms including humans, yet toxic at higher levels. Both Se deficiency and toxicity are problems worldwide. Since plants readily accumulate and volatilize Se, they may be used both as a source of dietary Se and for removing excess Se from the environment. Plant species differ in their capacity to metabolize and accumulate Se, from non-Se accumulators ( 1,000 mg Se/kg DW). Here we review plant mechanisms of Se metabolism in these various plant types. We also summarize results from genetic engineering that have led to enhanced plant Se accumulation, volatilization, and/or tolerance, including field studies. Before using Se-accumulating plants at a large scale we need to evaluate the ecological implications. Research so far indicates that plant Se accumulation significantly affects the plant's ecological interactions below and above ground. Selenium canprotect plants from fungal pathogens and from a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores, due to both deterrence and toxicity. However, specialist (Se-tolerant herbivores), detritivores and endophytes appear to utilize Se hyperaccumulator plants as a resource. These findings are relevant for managing phytoremediation of Se and similar elements.

  16. Phytomass production and nutrient accumulation by green manure species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Soares Mangaravite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is recognized as a viable alternative to improve nutrient cycling in soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation in shoots of the summer green manures jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC.], dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajanvar var. Flavus DC., dwarf mucuna [Mucuna deeringiana (Bort Merr] and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., under nitrogen fertilization and/or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria. A split plot design was arranged with the four Fabaceae species as main plots and nitrogen fertilization (with and without and inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria (with and without as the subplots, in a 2² factorial. The experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design with four replications. In the conditions of this trial, the sunn hemp had the highest production of shoot phytomass (12.4 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation, while the dwarf mucuna had the lowest production of shoot phytomass (3.9 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation. The results showed no effect of nitrogen fertilization or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria on the production of shoot phytomass and nutrient accumulation, except for inoculation without nitrogen fertilization, resulting in greater P accumulation (p <0.05 in the sunn hemp and greater Zn and Mn accumulation in the dwarf mucuna. These findings indicate that N fertilization or inoculation with N2-fixing bacteria for Fabaceae are low efficiency practices in the edaphoclimatic conditions of this study.

  17. Discriminating evidence accumulation from urgency signals in speeded decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Guy E; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Ratcliff, Roger; Brown, Scott D

    2015-07-01

    The dominant theoretical paradigm in explaining decision making throughout both neuroscience and cognitive science is known as “evidence accumulation”--The core idea being that decisions are reached by a gradual accumulation of noisy information. Although this notion has been supported by hundreds of experiments over decades of study, a recent theory proposes that the fundamental assumption of evidence accumulation requires revision. The "urgency gating" model assumes decisions are made without accumulating evidence, using only moment-by-moment information. Under this assumption, the successful history of evidence accumulation models is explained by asserting that the two models are mathematically identical in standard experimental procedures. We demonstrate that this proof of equivalence is incorrect, and that the models are not identical, even when both models are augmented with realistic extra assumptions. We also demonstrate that the two models can be perfectly distinguished in realistic simulated experimental designs, and in two real data sets; the evidence accumulation model provided the best account for one data set, and the urgency gating model for the other. A positive outcome is that the opposing modeling approaches can be fruitfully investigated without wholesale change to the standard experimental paradigms. We conclude that future research must establish whether the urgency gating model enjoys the same empirical support in the standard experimental paradigms that evidence accumulation models have gathered over decades of study. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ENERGY ACCUMULATING MECHANISM FOR TRACTOR WITH ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. I. Zhdanovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence of tractor wheel torque on theoretical tractor motion speed has been used for comparison of tractor operation with electromechanical transmission with installation of energy accumulating mechanism and without its installation. In this case a traction asynchronous electric motor is operating under nominal and limit conditions. The paper also considers dependence diagrams of actual input power for the traction asynchronous electric motor and its losses due to theoretical tractor motion speed. Tractor wheel torque is limited during the operation of the traction asynchronous electric motor with energy accumulating mechanisms by the following factors: maximum electric motor torque at the given frequency of supply voltage; maximum value of internal combustion motor output which can be transferred to the traction asynchronous electric motor; grip of the wheels. During the operation of the traction asynchronous electric motor with energy accumulating mechanisms there is a possibility for short power consumption without regard to the second limitation because it is possible to use power not only of internal combustion motor but also the power which is stored in the energy accumulating mechanisms. Comparison of characteristics has been made when a tractor is operating at high gear and when it is operating at all gears (that is two gears. Operation of the 5th class tractors has been analyzed for all possible cases (operation with energy accumulating mechanisms and without the mechanisms while being operated at all gears and various types of work: tilling, sowing, cultivation, bulldozing work, transport mode. In this case equipment has been used which is aggregated with the 5th class tractor. 

  19. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in wetlands and their importance in radioecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, K; Nylen, T; Wallberg, P [Stockholm University, Dept. of Systems Ecology, SE (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Wetlands function as nurseries and feeding areas for both terrestrial and aquatic species and are habitats for many endangered species such as frogs, salamanders and snakes. Wetlands alter the hydrology of streams and rivers, enhance sediment deposition and work as a filter to coastal waters retaining nutrients as well as contaminants. Due to the lack of easily identifiable direct pathways to humans wetland ecosystems have generally been neglected within radioecological research. There is a large diversity of wetlands and some of them can accumulate and function as sinks for radionuclides. In Sweden wetlands are among the ecosystems where the highest activity concentrations have accumulated after the Chernobyl accident. This paper summarizes factors that are important to the accumulation of radionuclides in wetlands. As an example, one wetland ecosystem in Sweden contaminated by {sup 137}Cs due to the Chernobyl accident will be described in more detail. The average activity concentration in this wetland is 1.1 MBq/m{sup 2}, i.e. 10 times higher than in the surrounding areas. Soil and sediment samples were collected and the {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations were measured. A budget calculation of {sup 137}Cs in the wetland area was conducted, indicating that the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs is still ongoing seventeen years after the accident. High activity concentrations are likely to remain in this ecosystem for a long time, resulting in long-term exposure for organisms living there. The maximum external {sup 137}Cs dose rate to frogs was estimated to 96 mGy/year. Hence, identification and consideration of wetlands that accumulate radionuclides to a high extent are important in radioecological risk assessments for the protection of plants and animals from ionizing radiation. (author)

  20. Adipocyte differentiation-related protein promotes lipid accumulation in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H B; Yu, K; Luo, J; Li, J; Tian, H B; Zhu, J J; Sun, Y T; Yao, D W; Xu, H F; Shi, H P; Loor, J J

    2015-10-01

    Milk fat originates from the secretion of cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) synthesized within mammary epithelial cells. Adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP; gene symbol PLIN2) is a CLD-binding protein that is crucial for synthesis of mature CLD. Our hypothesis was that ADRP regulates CLD production and metabolism in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) and thus plays a role in determining milk fat content. To understand the role of ADRP in ruminant milk fat metabolism, ADRP (PLIN2) was overexpressed or knocked down in GMEC using an adenovirus system. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that ADRP localized to the surface of CLD. Supplementation with oleic acid (OA) enhanced its colocalization with CLD surface and enhanced lipid accumulation. Overexpression of ADRP increased lipid accumulation and the concentration of triacylglycerol in GMEC. In contrast, morphological examination revealed that knockdown of ADRP decreased lipid accumulation even when OA was supplemented. This response was confirmed by the reduction in mass of cellular TG when ADRP was knocked down. The fact that knockdown of ADRP did not completely eliminate lipid accumulation at a morphological level in GMEC without OA suggests that some other compensatory factors may also aid in the process of CLD formation. The ADRP reversed the decrease of CLD accumulation induced by adipose triglyceride lipase. This is highly suggestive of ADRP promoting triacylglycerol stability within CLD by preventing access to adipose triglyceride lipase. Collectively, these data provide direct in vitro evidence that ADRP plays a key role in CLD formation and stability in GMEC. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.