WorldWideScience

Sample records for biota assessment methodologies

  1. Application of biota dose assessment tools for Japan environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined applicability of two biota assessment tools RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA assessment tool, to Japanese environment. We considered paddy field as the typical Japan environment and used maximum of global fallout nuclide concentrations. The case studies showed that graded approaches used in RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA assessment tool are effective to apply Japanese environment. In addition, we concluded that it is important to clarify the suitability of some parameter values used in biota dose assessment. Further study is necessary on the recommendation of environmental parameter values for biota dose assessment for Japan environment. (author)

  2. Methodology for Estimating Radiation Dose Rates to Freshwater Biota Exposed to Radionuclides in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h{sup -1} (1 rad d{sup -1}). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h{sup -1} to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE's recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). The literature identifies the developing eggs and young of some species of teleost fish as the most radiosensitive organisms. DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0.1 mGy h{sup -1} will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic

  3. Methodology for estimating radiation dose rates to freshwater biota exposed to radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; O`Neal, B.R.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h{sup {minus}1} (1 rad d{sup {minus}1}). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h{sup {minus}1} to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE`s recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0. 1 mGy h{sup {minus}1} will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic populations should be conducted.

  4. Assessment of doses to non-human biota: Review of developments and demonstration assessment for Olkiluoto repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K. [Carol Robinson Enviros Consulting Ltd, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    This report provides a summary of work commissioned by Posiva Oy and undertaken by Enviros Consulting Ltd to support the development of a strategy for the assessment of environmental impacts from ionising radiation associated with the Olkiluoto waste repository, Finland, as part of the development of the Posiva Safety Case Portfolio. This project included a review of the development of international policies and standards related to protection of biota from the effects of ionizing radiation and of biota assessment methodologies, paying particular attention to those that have been applied to waste repository performance assessments. On the basis of this review, recommendations were developed on the most appropriate methodology to apply in order to assess the impact of radioactive releases from the planned spent fuel repository in Olkiluoto. A test-case was developed, in collaboration with staff from Posiva and Facilia AB, and an assessment was performed. The results and experience of which were analysed and summarised to develop recommendations for a future strategy. The test case highlighted some significant data gaps related to the assessment of impacts to both generic biota types and to interest species. In particular, concentration ratios for generic carnivorous mammals and migratory species such as moose that may consume food from multiple ecosystems and dose conversion factors for large burrowing (i.e. hibernating) mammals. However, in general terms, the dose rates predicted for all organism types were several orders of magnitude below those at which population effects would be expected to be observed and those at which effects on the individual may be anticipated. There would therefore be scope for simplifying the approach applied, although there would be value in performing a sensitivity analysis to ensure that the simplification is applied appropriately. There would also be value in ensuring consistency of the developing approach for non-human biota with

  5. Scoping assessment of groundwater doses to biota at the Sellafield site, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current climate of investigating the impact of discharges from the nuclear industry on non-human biota, much attention has been given to biota in marine and terrestrial environments in receipt of authorised discharges of liquid and gaseous effluent. Relatively little attention to date has been given to the exposure of biota to groundwater containing man-made radio-nuclides. This area of interest is growing especially in the field of nuclear waste repositories. A scoping assessment has been performed here to determine the impacts due to radiological contamination on organisms living within or coming into contact with groundwater at the Sellafield site, UK. The following potential exposure routes to biota were identified: 1) Organisms living within groundwater; 2) Groundwater discharges to the surface at beach springs (i.e. emerging above the low water line; 3) Groundwater discharges to nearby surface water bodies (e.g. rivers); 4) Groundwater discharges directly to the Irish Sea.. In order to evaluate impacts on organisms living within, contacting or ingesting groundwater, it was necessary to determine the activity concentration of radio-nuclides in the groundwater. For time periods up to 2120, modeling of contaminant release from in-ground inventories and transport in groundwater was carried out for this scoping study using a relatively simple assessment methodology with the MONDRIAN modeling suite. Screening assessments of radiological impacts upon wildlife have been performed for liquid discharges to groundwater from the Sellafield Ltd reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria. Impacts have been considered for biota at sites within reach of the groundwater flow network. Most calculated total weighted absorbed doses appear to be of no radiological significance whatsoever in relation to the new Environment Agency freshwater ecosystem trigger level (40 microGy h-1), thereby obviating the need to conduct further investigations. The one exception to this is for

  6. Non-human biota dose assessment. Sensitivity analysis and knowledge quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of a programme of work, commissioned within the BIOPROTA collaborative forum, to assess the quantitative and qualitative elements of uncertainty associated with biota dose assessment of potential impacts of long-term releases from geological disposal facilities (GDF). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of uncertainty were determined through sensitivity and knowledge quality assessments, respectively. Both assessments focused on default assessment parameters within the ERICA assessment approach. The sensitivity analysis was conducted within the EIKOS sensitivity analysis software tool and was run in both generic and test case modes. The knowledge quality assessment involved development of a questionnaire around the ERICA assessment approach, which was distributed to a range of experts in the fields of non-human biota dose assessment and radioactive waste disposal assessments. Combined, these assessments enabled critical model features and parameters that are both sensitive (i.e. have a large influence on model output) and of low knowledge quality to be identified for each of the three test cases. The output of this project is intended to provide information on those parameters that may need to be considered in more detail for prospective site-specific biota dose assessments for GDFs. Such information should help users to enhance the quality of their assessments and build greater confidence in the results. (orig.)

  7. Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.; Gjelsvik, R. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Holm, E. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden)); Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Saxen, R.; Outola, I. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland))

    2009-03-15

    The activities of the GAPRAD project are summarised in this report. The background and rationale to GAPRAD are presented and explained. Most notably this relates to a lack of information on naturally occuring radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems that have direct applicability for use in environmental impact assessments. Results from field activities are presented from the Dovrefjell area in Norway (terrestrial study) and selected lake and brackish water systems in Finland. The data mainly concern activity concentrations of Po-210 in environmental media and selected biota allowing concentration ratios to be derived where appropriate. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental work conducted within the project are presented. (au)

  8. Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the GAPRAD project are summarised in this report. The background and rationale to GAPRAD are presented and explained. Most notably this relates to a lack of information on naturally occuring radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems that have direct applicability for use in environmental impact assessments. Results from field activities are presented from the Dovrefjell area in Norway (terrestrial study) and selected lake and brackish water systems in Finland. The data mainly concern activity concentrations of Po-210 in environmental media and selected biota allowing concentration ratios to be derived where appropriate. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental work conducted within the project are presented. (au)

  9. Geotechnical site assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reports comprising this volume concern the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodology at the Carwynnen test mine in granites in Cornwall, with particular reference to the effect of structures imposed by discontinuities on the engineering behaviour of rock masses. The topics covered are: in-situ stress measurements using (a) the hydraulic fracturing method, or (b) the US Bureau of Mines deformation probe; scanline discontinuity survey - coding form and instructions, and data; applicability of geostatistical estimation methods to scalar rock properties; comments on in-situ stress at the Carwynnen test mine and the state of stress in the British Isles. (U.K.)

  10. Dynamic modelling of radionuclide uptake by Fukushima coastal biota - Dynamic modelling of radionuclide uptake by marine biota: application to Fukushima assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    Radiological assessments to non-human marine biota are usually carried out by assuming that the activity concentration in an organism is proportional to the activity concentration in an adjacent volume of water, via a concentration factor (CF). It is also assumed that radionuclides in the water are in isotopic equilibrium with the sediments via a sediment distribution coefficient (K{sub d}). These assumptions are not valid in accidental situations where the biota and the sediments react with a time delay to large variations of activity concentration in seawater. A simple dynamic model was developed to factorise the dynamics of radionuclide uptake and turnover in biota and sediments, as determined by a balance between the residence time of radionuclides in seawater/sediments and the biological half-life of elimination in the biota. The model calculates activity concentration of {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in seabed sediment, fish, crustaceans, molluscs and macro-algae from surrounding activity concentrations in seawater, with which to derive internal and external dose rates. A central element of this new model is the inclusion of sediment processes in dynamic transfer modelling. The model is adapted to include depletion of radionuclides adsorbed onto suspended particulates (particle scavenging), molecular diffusion, pore water mixing and bioturbation (modelled effectively as a diffusive process) represented by a simple set of differential equations that is coupled with the biological uptake/turnover processes. In this way, the model is capable of reproducing activity concentration in sediment to give a more realistic calculation of the external dose to biota compared with the simpler approach based on CF and K{sub d} values used in previous assessments. The model is applied to the assessment of the radiological impact of the Fukushima accident on marine biota in the early phase of the accident. It is shown that previous assessment of the

  11. Assessment of doses and risk due to natural radionuclides in edible biota of Domiasiat, Meghalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N; Chaturvedi, S S; Jha, S K

    2012-07-01

    A radiation dose assessment exercise was carried out for the edible biota Solanum nigrum, Carica papaya, Raphnus sativum and Phaseolus domesticus due to naturally available radionuclides (40)K, (238)U and (232)Th in the Domiasiat area in Meghalaya, India. The concentration of radionuclides in biota and corresponding soil was measured by the NaI(Tl) detector having a minimum detection limit (efficiency, 32.4%) and machine counting time of 3000 s. The obtained transfer factor for (40)K was 0.3061, 0.7163, 0.1988 and 0.1279, for (232)Th 0.0003, 2.22E-05, 2.71E-05 and 3.45E-05 and for (238)U 1.46E-05, 9.73E-05, 1.46E-05 and 3.11E-05 (ratio) in each biota, respectively. The detailed physiological and morphological study of the biota was carried out. The point source dose distribution (source↔target) hypothesis was applied for the radiation absorbed fraction. The generated data were modelled using FASSET and obtained un-weighted total dose was 1.78E-04, 6.84E-03, 8.46E-03 and 1.73E-04 μGy h(-1), respectively, finally compared with the IAEA and UNSCEAR data set for screening level dose risk assessment. PMID:22155750

  12. The impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on marine biota: Retrospective assessment of the first year and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.vives.i.batlle@sckcen.be [Biosphere Impact Studies Unit, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Aono, Tatsuo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Brown, Justin E.; Hosseini, Ali [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini næringspark 13, 1332 Østerås (Norway); CERAD Centre of Excellence, Grini næringspark 13, 1332 Østerås (Norway); Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Department for research and expertise in environmental risks, PRP-ENV/SERIS, Cadarache, Building 159, 13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Sazykina, Tatiana [State Institution Research and Production Association Typhoon, 4 Pobedy Str., Obninsk, Kaluga Region 249038 (Russian Federation); Steenhuisen, Frits [Arctic Centre, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Strand, Per [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini næringspark 13, 1332 Østerås (Norway); CERAD Centre of Excellence, Grini næringspark 13, 1332 Østerås (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    An international study under the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was performed to assess radiological impact of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) on the marine environment. This work constitutes the first international assessment of this type, drawing upon methodologies that incorporate the most up-to-date radioecological models and knowledge. To quantify the radiological impact on marine wildlife, a suite of state-of-the-art approaches to assess exposures to Fukushima derived radionuclides of marine biota, including predictive dynamic transfer modelling, was applied to a comprehensive dataset consisting of over 500 sediment, 6000 seawater and 5000 biota data points representative of the geographically relevant area during the first year after the accident. The dataset covers the period from May 2011 to August 2012. The method used to evaluate the ecological impact consists of comparing dose (rates) to which living species of interest are exposed during a defined period to critical effects values arising from the literature. The assessed doses follow a highly variable pattern and generally do not seem to indicate the potential for effects. A possible exception of a transient nature is the relatively contaminated area in the vicinity of the discharge point, where effects on sensitive endpoints in individual plants and animals might have occurred in the weeks directly following the accident. However, impacts on population integrity would have been unlikely due to the short duration and the limited space area of the initially high exposures. Our understanding of the biological impact of radiation on chronically exposed plants and animals continues to evolve, and still needs to be improved through future studies in the FDNPS marine environment. - Highlights: • UNSCEAR assessment of the Fukushima accident impact on the marine environment. • The study covers the period from

  13. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments

  14. A Modelling Framework to Assess the Effect of Pressures on River Abiotic Habitat Conditions and Biota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Kail

    Full Text Available River biota are affected by global reach-scale pressures, but most approaches for predicting biota of rivers focus on river reach or segment scale processes and habitats. Moreover, these approaches do not consider long-term morphological changes that affect habitat conditions. In this study, a modelling framework was further developed and tested to assess the effect of pressures at different spatial scales on reach-scale habitat conditions and biota. Ecohydrological and 1D hydrodynamic models were used to predict discharge and water quality at the catchment scale and the resulting water level at the downstream end of a study reach. Long-term reach morphology was modelled using empirical regime equations, meander migration and 2D morphodynamic models. The respective flow and substrate conditions in the study reach were predicted using a 2D hydrodynamic model, and the suitability of these habitats was assessed with novel habitat models. In addition, dispersal models for fish and macroinvertebrates were developed to assess the re-colonization potential and to finally compare habitat suitability and the availability/ability of species to colonize these habitats. Applicability was tested and model performance was assessed by comparing observed and predicted conditions in the lowland Treene River in northern Germany. Technically, it was possible to link the different models, but future applications would benefit from the development of open source software for all modelling steps to enable fully automated model runs. Future research needs concern the physical modelling of long-term morphodynamics, feedback of biota (e.g., macrophytes on abiotic habitat conditions, species interactions, and empirical data on the hydraulic habitat suitability and dispersal abilities of macroinvertebrates. The modelling framework is flexible and allows for including additional models and investigating different research and management questions, e.g., in climate impact

  15. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  16. Biosafety risk assessment methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson; Wagner, Stefan M.; Shigematsu, Mika; Risi, George; Kozlovac, Joe; Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke; Prat, Esmeralda

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  17. Assessment of impact to non-human biota from a generic waste repository in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (NDA RWMD, formerly Nirex UK Ltd), has played a leading role in establishing knowledge on geological disposal of radioactive waste in the UK. In 2001, a study was commissioned of the potential impact of releases of radio-nuclides from a generic repository on plants and animals). More recently, the NDA commissioned Enviros Consulting to report on developments in policy and in approaches for assessing impacts of radioactivity on non-human biota, that have occurred since the previous study. A trial application of the ERICA assessment tool, to reassess the impact of releases from a generic deep repository using similar source data as used previously (Nirex, 2003), formed part of this work. This paper summarizes the results of the reassessment exercise; key differences between the two assessments are identified and explored. The applicability and capabilities of the ERICA tool to assessments of releases from a waste repository are discussed and priorities for future work are identified. Conclusions: The peak activity concentrations predicted to arise from releases from a generic repository would not lead to a significant increase in environmental risk. Indeed, a substantial proportion of the calculated dose rates are due to natural series radio-nuclides at concentrations that are well below typical background levels. In the previous study, the highest (weighted) absorbed dose rate in an aquatic system was predicted to be around 6.5 micoGy h-1, which is of the same order of magnitude as those predicted in the current study; the significance of the contribution of natural series radionuclides is also common to both studies. However, previously, the authors concluded that it was not possible to undertake a detailed assessment for the terrestrial system, due to the paucity of data on concentration ratios. While the derivation of default concentration factors, as part of the ERICA project, has

  18. Energy performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W.J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    The energy performance of buildings are intimately connected to the energy performance of building envelopes. The better we understand the relation between the quality of the envelope and the energy consumption of the building, the better we can improve both. We have to consider not only heating but all service energies related to the human comfort in the building, such as cooling, ventilation, lighting as well. The complexity coming from this embracing approach is not to be underestimated. It is less and less possible to realted simple characteristic performance indicators of building envelopes (such as the U-value) to the overall energy performance. On the one hand much more paramters (e.g. light transmittance) come into the picture we have to assess the product quality in a multidimensional world. Secondly buildings more and more have to work on a narrow optimum: For an old, badly insulated building all solar gains are useful for a high-performance building with very good insulation and heat recovery systems in the ventilation overheating becomes more likely. Thus we have to control the solar gains, and sometimes we need high gains, sometimes low ones. And thirdly we see that the technology within the building and the user patterns and interactions as well influence the performance of a building envelope. The aim of this project within IEA Task27 was to improve our knowledge on the complex situation and also to give a principal approach how to assess the performance of the building envelope. The participants have contributed to this aim not pretending that we have reached the end. (au)

  19. Assessing impacts of ionizing radiation on non-human biota: the ERICA tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been significant developments in the last few years concerning methods to explicitly quantify impacts on the environment arising from exposure by ionising radiation. Central to the ERICA integrated approach is the quantification of environmental risk whereby data on environmental transfer and dosimetry are combined to provide a measure of exposure which is compared to exposure levels at which detrimental effects are known to occur. In view of the large data sets underpinning the assessment approach and the potential to introduce errors when performing numerous calculations manually, a supporting computer-based tool (the ERICA Tool) has been developed. The ERICA Tool is a computerised, flexible software system that has a structure based upon the ERICA Integrated Assessment tiered approach to assessing the radiological risk to biota. The user is guided through the assessment process, recording information and decisions as the assessment progresses. The tool allows the necessary calculations to be performed to estimate risks to selected biota. Tier 1 assessments use pre-calculated environmental media concentration limits to estimate risk quotients and require inputs in the form of media concentrations. At Tier 2 dose-rates are calculated but at this stage, the user is allowed to examine and edit most of the parameters used in the calculation. For Tier 3 assessments, the same flexibility as Tier 2 is allowed but assessments may be run probability if the underling parameter probability distribution functions are defined. Results from the tool can be put into context using incorporated data on dose-effects relationships and background dose-rates. (author)

  20. Polonium-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial, freshwater and brackish environments Results from the NKS project GAPRAD (Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R.; Brown, J.; Holm, E.; Roos, P.; Saxen, R.; Outola, I.

    2012-01-15

    The background and rationale to filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for biota are presented. Concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 are reported for biota sampled in Dovrefjell, Norway and selected lake and brackish ecosystems in Finland. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental studies are recounted. (Author)

  1. Polonium-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial, freshwater and brackish environments Results from the NKS project GAPRAD (Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background and rationale to filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for biota are presented. Concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 are reported for biota sampled in Dovrefjell, Norway and selected lake and brackish ecosystems in Finland. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental studies are recounted. (Author)

  2. Modelling of Biota Dose Effects. Report of Working Group 6 Biota Dose Effects Modelling of EMRAS II Topical Heading Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and in planning the measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes on international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a project entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for addressing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Biota Effects Modelling Working Group

  3. Assessment of radiation impact on biota as a result of hypothetical accidents at small NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Breakthrough in the development of science and technology, caused by the creation of nuclear weapons, allowed expanding the scope of application of the energy of nuclear fission. Nuclear power plants, nuclear power installations for submarines and ships were created. The main factor of the competitiveness of nuclear energy is its success in areas of its industrial, scientific, technical application. Nuclear energy, as well as any other modern sophisticated technology used by people, is associated with a particular risk for the individuals, society and the environment. According to the classification adopted by the IAEA, small reactors are reactors with an equivalent electric power of <300 MW(e) and medium-sized reactors are reactors with an equivalent electric power of 300-700 MW(e). Russia has a unique experience in the creation and operation of reactor systems with lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear-powered submarines. Such is single unit nuclear power station with an experiment industrial power reactor installation with lead-bismuth coolant with an electric capacity of 100 MW (SVBR-100). The launch of the first power unit with the SVBR-100 is going to start up after 2017 in the city of Dimitrovgrad, Russia. After the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, the world community makes high demands to operation safety during running of NPPs. Due to this, the analysis of the consequences of non-routine and accidental events is the essential point of rationale for innovative nuclear technologies. In this regard, the evolution of modern radiation protection system considering the radiation protection of not only the population, but also non-human biota, cannot be disregarded. The aim of the current research was the assessment of radiological impact on biota caused by hypothetical accidents at NPP with lead-bismuth cooled small fast reactor SVBR-100. (authors)

  4. Description of Ethical Bio-Technology Assessment Tools for Agriculture and Food Production. Interim Report Ethical Bio-TA Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, V.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of 'Ethical Bio-TA Tools' project is to develop and improve tools for the ethical assessment of new technologies in agriculture and food production in general and modern biotechnologies in particular. The developed tools need to be designed for various purposes and contexts. They shoul

  5. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  6. Contaminant Assessment of Biota and Sediments in the Albermarle-Pamlico region

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a baseline contaminants study of the aquatic biota and sediments in the Albemarle-Pamlico region in 1987-88. Sites in...

  7. Ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution - Ecological risk assessment for the biota on regional radioactive waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrentyeva, G.V.; Synzynys, B.I.; Shoshina, R.R.; Mirzeabasov, O.A. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, branch of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Department of Ecology, Studgorodok,1, 249040 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Now the methods of ecological regulation of a radiation factor from risk assessment are developed poorly. The paper attempts to assess and forecast the terrestrial ecosystem conditions under chronic ionizing radiation by calculating the critical loads. The paper is aimed at developing a methodology to assess the ecological risk for a terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution in a biotope of a regional radioactive waste storage. Objects and Methods: Biotope monitoring of a radioactive waste storage makes clear that the radioecological situation in this territory is stipulated by technogenic {sup 90}Sr found in soil, ground water and biota. Terrestrial mollusks of a shrubby Snail type (Bradybaena fruticum) were chosen as reference species due to their activity to accumulate {sup 90}Sr in shells and the number of colony-forming soil units (CFU) as reference indices. The number of CFU was determined by inoculation of solid medium. Soil and mollusk samples have been collected at most representative sites identified in the previous studies. To assess {sup 90}Sr content in the samples collected, radiochemical separation was used with further radionuclide activity measurements by a 'BETA-01C' scintillation beta-ray spectrometer according to a standard procedure of {sup 90}Sr content assessment from beta-radiation of its daughter radionuclide {sup 90}Y. Ecological risk was calculated from analyzed critical loads using a 'dose-effect' dependence. Statistical data processing was realized with Excell 2007 and R software programs [R Development Core Team, 2010]. The software R was also used for GIS creation. Results and Discussion: A methodology of ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution of a biotope near a regional radioactive waste storage has been developed in terms of the critical environmental loads analyzed. It consists of five stages: determination of effect indicators and assessment

  8. European risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Cavenne, F.; Ulisse, A.; Bridegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Most risk assessment methodologies aim at the risk at the level of an individual organization or company. The European Union commissioned a study to define the elements for a uniform and scalable risk assessment methodology which takes into account critical infrastructure dependencies across organiz

  9. Assessment of risk to aquatic biota from elevated salinity -- a case study from the Hunter River, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschal, Monika

    2006-05-01

    An ecological risk assessment was performed on salinity levels of the Hunter River and its tributaries to respond to concerns that high salinity may be damaging aquatic ecosystems. Probabilistic techniques were used to assess likelihood and consequence, and hence the risk to aquatic biota from salinity. Continuous electrical conductivity distributions were used to describe the likelihood that high salinity would occur (exposure dataset) and toxicity values were compiled from the limited literature sources available to describe the consequence of high salinity (effects dataset). The assessment was preliminary in the sense that it modelled risk on the basis of existing data and did not undertake site-specific toxicity testing. Some sections of the Hunter River catchment have geologies that are saline because of their marine origins. Catchment development has increased the liberation rates of salts into surface-waters. Such modifying activities include coal-mining, power generation and land clearing. The aquatic biota of tributaries had a greater risk of impairment from high salinity than that of the Hunter River. High salinities in the tributaries were attributed to the combined factors of naturally saline geologies, increased liberation of salts due to modification of the landscape, and reduced dilution by flushing flows. A salinity guideline trigger value of 1100 mg L(-1) was recommended.

  10. Methodology for assessing systems materials requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culver, D.H.; Teeter, R.R.; Jamieson, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    A potential stumbling block to new system planning and design is imprecise, confusing, or contradictory data regarding materials - their availability and costs. A methodology is now available that removes this barrier by minimizing uncertainties regarding materials availability. Using this methodology, a planner can assess materials requirements more quickly, at lower cost, and with much greater confidence in the results. Developed specifically for energy systems, its potential application is much broader. This methodology and examples of its use are discussed.

  11. Methodologies to assess paediatric adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, M

    2014-05-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Appropriate techniques for assessment of childhood adiposity are required to identify children at risk. The aim of this review was to examine core clinical measurements and more technical tools to assess paediatric adiposity.

  12. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site

  13. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  14. USGS Methodology for Assessing Continuous Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new quantitative methodology for assessing resources in continuous (unconventional) petroleum deposits. Continuous petroleum resources include shale gas, coalbed gas, and other oil and gas deposits in low-permeability ("tight") reservoirs. The methodology is based on an approach combining geologic understanding with well productivities. The methodology is probabilistic, with both input and output variables as probability distributions, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the estimates. The new methodology is an improvement of previous USGS methodologies in that it better accommodates the uncertainties in undrilled or minimally drilled deposits that must be assessed using analogs. The publication is a collection of PowerPoint slides with accompanying comments.

  15. Reconciling methodologically different biodiversity assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gemerden, BS; Etienne, RS; Olff, H; Hommel, PWFM; Van Langevelde, F; Gemerden, Barend S. van; Hommel, Patrick W.F.M.; Brown, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing large-scale habitat disturbance requires quick identification of conservation priorities such as targeting sites rich in species and/or endemics. Biodiversity assessments are time consuming and expensive, so surveys often rely on partial sampling. Optimal use should be made of all currently

  16. Radiation Dose Assessment For The Biota Of Terrestrial Ecosystems In The Shoreline Zone Of The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  17. RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  18. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be implemented: - normative and legal regulations (laws and regulations, - appropriate organizational structures in society, and - establishing quality monitoring of environment. The emphasis is placed on the application of assessment methodologies (three-model concept, as the most important aspect of successful management of environmental risk. Risk assessment methodology - European concept: The first concept of ecological risk assessment methodology is based on the so-called European model-concept. In order to better understand this ecological risk assessment methodology, two concepts - hazard and risk - are introduced. The European concept of environmental risk assessment has the following phases in its implementation: identification of hazard (danger, identification of consequences (if there is hazard, estimate of the scale of consequences, estimate of consequence probability and risk assessment (also called risk characterization. The European concept is often used to assess risk in the environment as a model for addressing the distribution of stressors along the source - path - receptor line. Risk assessment methodology - Canadian concept: The second concept of the methodology of environmental risk assessment is based on the so-called Canadian model-concept. The assessment of ecological risk includes risk arising from natural events (floods, extreme weather conditions, etc., technological processes and products, agents (chemical, biological, radiological, etc

  19. High risk process control system assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Venetia [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zamberlan, Maria Cristina [National Institute of Tehnology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Human Reliability and Ergonomics Research Group for the Oil, Gas and Energy Sector

    2009-07-01

    The evolution of ergonomics methodology has become necessary due to the dynamics imposed by the work environment, by the increase of the need of human cooperation and by the high interaction between various sections within a company. In the last 25 years, as of studies made in the high risk process control, we have developed a methodology to evaluate these situations that focus on the assessment of activities and human cooperation, the assessment of context, the assessment of the impact of work of other sectors in the final activity of the operator, as well as the modeling of existing risks. (author)

  20. Assessing radiation impact at a protected coastal sand dune site: an intercomparison of models for estimating the radiological exposure of non-human biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the application of three publicly available biota dose assessment models (the ERICA Tool, R and D128/SP1a and RESRAD-BIOTA) to an assessment of the Drigg coastal sand dunes. Using measured 90Sr, 99Tc, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am activity concentrations in sand dune soil, activity concentration and dose rate predictions are made for a range of organisms including amphibians, birds, invertebrates, mammals, reptiles, plants and fungi. Predicted biota activity concentrations are compared to measured data where available. The main source of variability in the model predictions is the transfer parameters used and it is concluded that developing the available transfer databases should be a focus of future research effort. The value of taking an informed user approach to investigate the way in which models may be expected to be applied in practice is highlighted and a strategy for the future development of intercomparison exercises is presented.

  1. Assessing radiation impact at a protected coastal sand dune site: an intercomparison of models for estimating the radiological exposure of non-human biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael D; Beresford, Nicholas A; Barnett, Catherine L; Copplestone, David; Leah, Richard T

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents the application of three publicly available biota dose assessment models (the ERICA Tool, R&D128/SP1a and RESRAD-BIOTA) to an assessment of the Drigg coastal sand dunes. Using measured (90)Sr, (99)Tc, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am activity concentrations in sand dune soil, activity concentration and dose rate predictions are made for a range of organisms including amphibians, birds, invertebrates, mammals, reptiles, plants and fungi. Predicted biota activity concentrations are compared to measured data where available. The main source of variability in the model predictions is the transfer parameters used and it is concluded that developing the available transfer databases should be a focus of future research effort. The value of taking an informed user approach to investigate the way in which models may be expected to be applied in practice is highlighted and a strategy for the future development of intercomparison exercises is presented. PMID:19447531

  2. Methodologies for Social Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Le Bocq, Agathe; Nazakina, Liudmila;

    2008-01-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. In recent years several different approaches towards Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) have been developed. The purpose of this review is to compare these approaches in order to highlight methodological differences and general shortcomings. SLCA has several...... cases give a reasonable impression of the social impacts that can be expected from the company performing the assessed process. Conclusions. This review gives an overview of the present development of SLCA by presenting the existing approaches to SLCA and discussing how they address the methodological...... aspects in the ISO standardised ELCA framework. The authors found a multitude of different approaches with regards to nearly all steps in the SLCA methodology reflecting that this is a very new and immature field of LCA. Recommendations and Perspectives. SLCA is in an early stage of development where...

  3. A security assessment methodology for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, Marco; Kargl, Frank; Hämmerli, Bernhard M.; Lopez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Interest in security assessment and penetration testing techniques has steadily increased. Likewise, security of industrial control systems (ICS) has become more and more important. Very few methodologies directly target ICS and none of them generalizes the concept of "critical infrastructures pente

  4. A Methodology for Safety Culture Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodology for assessing safety culture impact on nuclear power plants. A new methodology for assessing safety culture impact index has been developed and applied for the reference nuclear power plants. The developed SCII model might contribute to comparing the level of safety culture among nuclear power plants as well as to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety culture is defined to be fundamental attitudes and behaviors of the plant staff which demonstrate that nuclear safety is the most important consideration in all activities conducted in nuclear power operation. Through several accidents of nuclear power plant including the Fukusima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernovyl accidents in 1986, the safety of nuclear power plant is emerging into a matter of interest. From the accident review report, it can be easily found out that safety culture is important and one of dominant contributors to accidents. However, the impact methodology for assessing safety culture has not been established analytically yet. It is difficult to develop the methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively.

  5. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    OpenAIRE

    Saša T. Bakrač; Mladen M. Vuruna; MIŠKO M. MILANOVIĆ

    2012-01-01

    Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be imple...

  6. Creation of a Risk Assessment Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    This report is a presentation of the work realised during an internship at the consultancy division of Thales Security Systems from September 2005 to June 2006. Thales Security Systems is part of Thales, an international group in defence, aeronautics, etc. The work realised consisted in the creation of a new risk assessment methodology for a commercial offer called HELP, standing for Human, Environmental, Logical and Physical security. As a basis for the work, 5 existing risk assessment metho...

  7. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  8. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended. PMID:25772195

  9. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended.

  10. Using Bayesian networks to assess the vulnerability of Hawaiian terrestrial biota to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, L.; Jacobi, J.; Price, J.; Vorsino, A.; Paxton, E.; Amidon, F.; 'Ohukani'ohi'a Gon, S., III; Koob, G.; Brink, K.; Burgett, J.; Miller, S.

    2012-12-01

    As the effects of climate change on individual species become increasingly apparent, there is a clear need for effective adaptation planning to prevent an increase in species extinctions worldwide. Given the limited understanding of species responses to climate change, vulnerability assessments and species distribution models (SDMs) have been two common tools used to jump-start climate change adaptation efforts. However, although these two approaches generally serve the same purpose of understanding species future responses to climate change, they have rarely mixed. In collaboration with research and management partners from federal, state and non-profit organizations, we are conducting a climate change vulnerability assessment for hundreds of plant and forest bird species of the Main Hawaiian Islands. This assessment is the first to comprehensively consider the potential threats of climate change to a significant portion of Hawaii's fauna and flora (over one thousand species considered) and thus fills a critical gap defined by natural resource scientists and managers in the region. We have devised a flexible approach that effectively integrates species distribution models into a vulnerability assessment framework that can be easily updated with improved models and data. This tailors our assessment approach to the Pacific Island reality of often limited and fragmented information on species and large future climate uncertainties, This vulnerability assessment is based on a Bayesian network-based approach that integrates multiple landscape (e.g., topographic diversity, dispersal barriers), species trait (e.g., generation length, fecundity) and expert-knowledge based information (e.g., capacity to colonize restored habitat) relevant to long-term persistence of species under climate change. Our presentation will highlight some of the results from our assessment but will mainly focus on the utility of the flexible approach we have developed and its potential

  11. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data for contamination of different aquatic media and biota due to fallout of radionuclides into the cooling pond of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Input data included characteristics of the cooling pond ecosystem (hydrological, hydrochemical, and hydro biological conditions) and estimates of the amounts of 137 Cs in the cooling pond. Predictions were requested in two stages: (1) Calculations of 137 Cs concentrations for comparison against actual measurements, including activities of 137 Cs in the cooling pond water, in layers of sediment, and in fish; (2) Calculations for which actual measurements are not available, including dose and risk estimates for aquatic biota and for humans following hypothetical consumption of contaminated biota. Calculations were performed with the following models: LAKECO (Netherlands), POSOD (USA), LAKEPOND (Romania), WATER (Russia), GIDRO (Russia), and ECOMOD-W (Russia). The total number of scenario calculations was 18. In general, the models tended to overestimate the total doses to fish (as compared to to independent dose estimates made from measured concentrations by the scenario authors) for internal and external exposure, while a number of predictions with different models for the effective dose and risk to humans from fish consumption were in good agreement with independent test estimates. The differences among model predictions were somewhat smaller for the total doses to fish than for the environmental concentrations used in the model testing. The differences among model predictions were very great for the effective doses and risk to humans from fish consumption. This is related to distinct errors in assessments of 137 Cs concentrations in fish. Very few participants obtained good agreement with respect to all criteria of the model testing, i.e., 137 Cs concentrations in the aquatic ecosystem components and

  12. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.; Sazykina, T. [SPA Typhoon, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K. [SENES, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data for contamination of different aquatic media and biota due to fallout of radionuclides into the cooling pond of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Input data included characteristics of the cooling pond ecosystem (hydrological, hydrochemical, and hydro biological conditions) and estimates of the amounts of 137 Cs in the cooling pond. Predictions were requested in two stages: (1) Calculations of 137 Cs concentrations for comparison against actual measurements, including activities of 137 Cs in the cooling pond water, in layers of sediment, and in fish; (2) Calculations for which actual measurements are not available, including dose and risk estimates for aquatic biota and for humans following hypothetical consumption of contaminated biota. Calculations were performed with the following models: LAKECO (Netherlands), POSOD (USA), LAKEPOND (Romania), WATER (Russia), GIDRO (Russia), and ECOMOD-W (Russia). The total number of scenario calculations was 18. In general, the models tended to overestimate the total doses to fish (as compared to to independent dose estimates made from measured concentrations by the scenario authors) for internal and external exposure, while a number of predictions with different models for the effective dose and risk to humans from fish consumption were in good agreement with independent test estimates. The differences among model predictions were somewhat smaller for the total doses to fish than for the environmental concentrations used in the model testing. The differences among model predictions were very great for the effective doses and risk to humans from fish consumption. This is related to distinct errors in assessments of 137 Cs concentrations in fish. Very few participants obtained good agreement with respect to all criteria of the model testing, i.e., 137 Cs concentrations in the aquatic ecosystem

  13. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  14. Bioaccumulation in aquatic systems: methodological approaches, monitoring and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Buchmeier, Georgia; Claus, Evelyn;

    2015-01-01

    Bioaccumulation, the accumulation of a chemical in an organism relative to its level in the ambient medium, is of major environmental concern. Thus, monitoring chemical concentrations in biota are widely and increasingly used for assessing the chemical status of aquatic ecosystems. In this paper...... temporal and geographical range. Bioaccumulation is also assessed for regulation of chemicals of environmental concern whereby mainly data from laboratory studies on fish bioaccumulation are used. Field data can, however, provide additional important information for regulators. Strategies......, various scientific and regulatory aspects of bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and the relevant critical issues are discussed. Monitoring chemical concentrations in biota can be used for compliance checking with regulatory directives, for identification of chemical sources or event-related environmental...

  15. The plutonium isotopic composition of marine biota on Enewetak Atoll: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Terry F; Martinelli, Roger E; Kehl, Steven R; McAninch, Jeffrey E

    2008-10-01

    We have determined the level and distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides, plutonium activity concentrations, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in tissue samples of giant clam (Tridacna gigas and Hippopus hippopus), a top snail (Trochus nilaticas) and sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) collected from different locations around Enewetak Atoll. The plutonium isotopic measurements were performed using ultra-high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Elevated levels of plutonium were observed in the stomachs (includes the stomach lining) of Tridacna clam (0.62 to 2.98 Bq kg(-1), wet wt.), in the soft parts (edible portion) of top snails (0.25 to 1.7 Bq kg(-1)), wet wt.) and, to a lesser extent, in sea cucumber (0.015 to 0.22 Bq kg(-1), wet wt.) relative to muscle tissue concentrations in clam (0.006 to 0.021 Bq kg(-1), wet wt.) and in comparison with previous measurements of plutonium in fish. These data and information provide a basis for re-evaluating the relative significance of dietary intakes of plutonium from marine foods on Enewetak Atoll and, perhaps most importantly, demonstrate that discrete 240Pu239Pu isotope signatures might well provide a useful investigative tool to monitor source-term attribution and consequences on Enewetak Atoll. One potential application of immediate interest is to monitor and assess the health and ecological impacts of leakage of plutonium (as well as other radionuclides) from a low-level radioactive waste repository on Runit Island relative to background levels of fallout contamination in Enewetak Atoll lagoon.

  16. Assessment of radiation effects on biota in proximity to uranium mining and mill sites in Canada: field observations and model predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garisto, N.C.; Chambers, D.B.; Davis, M.W. [SENES Consultants Limited (Canada); Takala, J.M. [Cameco Corp., Saskatchewan (Canada); Krochak, D. [TAEM, (United States); Barsi, R. [Cogema Resources Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Bartell, S.M. [SENES Oak Ridge, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to identifying and evaluating potential impacts from uranium mining on people and the environment. This includes field and laboratory experiments as well as pathways modelling and ecological risk assessment. Studies to date generally indicate that unless biota reside within a tailings waste management area, there is little incremental ecological impact (observed or calculated). Furthermore, there are no significant population-level or community-level impacts on biota in the vicinity of uranium mining and milling operations. The practical experience gained from these studies shows that it is advantageous to exploit the complementary nature of data and models in designing monitoring plans for potential ecological impacts. In particular, the effectiveness of environmental monitoring can be enhanced by providing a feedback loop from the modelling results to the monitoring plan. (author)

  17. Assessing radiation impact at a protected coastal sand dune site: an intercomparison of models for estimating the radiological exposure of non-human biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Michael D., E-mail: mwood@liv.ac.u [Institute for Sustainable Water Integrated Management and Ecosystem Research (SWIMMER), Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GP (United Kingdom); School of Biological Sciences, Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GP (United Kingdom); Beresford, Nicholas A.; Barnett, Catherine L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Copplestone, David [Environment Agency, PO Box 12, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Latchford, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom); Leah, Richard T. [Institute for Sustainable Water Integrated Management and Ecosystem Research (SWIMMER), Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GP (United Kingdom); School of Biological Sciences, Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GP (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents the application of three publicly available biota dose assessment models (the ERICA Tool, R and D128/SP1a and RESRAD-BIOTA) to an assessment of the Drigg coastal sand dunes. Using measured {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am activity concentrations in sand dune soil, activity concentration and dose rate predictions are made for a range of organisms including amphibians, birds, invertebrates, mammals, reptiles, plants and fungi. Predicted biota activity concentrations are compared to measured data where available. The main source of variability in the model predictions is the transfer parameters used and it is concluded that developing the available transfer databases should be a focus of future research effort. The value of taking an informed user approach to investigate the way in which models may be expected to be applied in practice is highlighted and a strategy for the future development of intercomparison exercises is presented.

  18. Application of bio-indication approach for an assessment of natural radionuclides impact on biota in post-mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraskin, Stanislav; Dikareva, Nina; Dikarev, Vladimir; Oudalova, Alla [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology. RIARAE, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Michalik, Boguslaw; Wysocka, Malgorzata; Chalupnik, Stanislaw [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    , 1978) for environmental monitoring. There are many reasons for using plant systems. Plant bioassays provide meaningful parameters to assess the toxicity of complex mixtures like industrial wastes (Rank, Nielsen, 1998) even without knowledge of its chemical composition. In contrast to the specific nature of assessments on exposure, studies of biological effects integrate the impacts of all the harmful agents, including synergistic and antagonistic effects. This approach is particularly useful for assessing unknown contaminants, complex mixtures, or hazardous wastes. Thus, a correct estimation of the environment pollution risk needs to be derived from biological tests and pollutant chemical control in ecosystem compartments. Both need to be carried out simultaneously. Hence, the simultaneous use of chemical and biological control methods allows an identification of the relationships between the pollutant concentrations and the biological effects that they cause. In turn, such relationships may allow identifying the contribution of each specific pollutant to the overall biological effect observed. The knowledge generated makes it possible to limit the action of unfavorable factors on biota and to predict the further ecological alterations in regions submitted to intensive industrial impact. Interaction of contaminants with biota takes place firstly at the cellular level. It is not only the first manifestation of harmful effects, but also suitable tools for an early and sensitive detection of the risk. Therefore, just genetic test-systems should be used for an early and reliable monitoring of the alterations resulting from the human activity. The present work is focused on: 1) evaluating and comparing the genotoxic potential of two types of samples (water and sediment) by employing root meristem cells of Allium cepa; 2) finding out biological markers that are simple to be scanned and linked to contents of key pollutants in water and sediment samples from post-mining areas

  19. Evaluation and assessment of nuclear power plant seismic methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D.; Tokarz, F.; Wight, L.; Smith, P.; Wells, J.; Barlow, R.

    1977-03-01

    The major emphasis of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to assess the current methods used for assuring the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. The proposed methodology makes use of system-analysis techniques and Monte Carlo schemes. Also, in this study, we evaluate previous assessments of the current seismic-design methodology.

  20. The strainer blockage assessment methodology used

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, G.L.; Rao, D.V. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    On July 28, 1992 a spurious opening of a safety valve at Barseback Unit 2 in Sweden resulted in clogging of the Containment Vessel Spray System strainers in less than one hour. Instances of ECCS strainer clogging have occurred in U.S. BWRs. Given these precursors the USNRC staff initiated analyses to estimate the potential for loss of NPSH of the ECCS pumps in BWRs due to clogging of suction strainers by a combination of fibrous and particulate material. The BLOCKAGE code was developed in support of NUREG/CR-6224, a probabilistic scoping analysis of a BWR/4 with a Mark 1 containment. This paper addresses the key elements of the methodology used in the BLOCKAGE code to assess head loss across ECCS strainers. The debris generation model, the debris drywell transport, and the suppression pool models are discussed briefly. NUREG/CR-6224 provides in-depth discussions of the models used in BLOCKAGE. Additionally, user interface features of BLOCKAGE are discussed.

  1. Immigrants#180; settlement patterns: a methodological assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Emília Malcata Rebelo

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the definition and application of a methodology to support municipal decisions concerning attraction, location and distribution of immigrants in metropolitan areas. This methodology is aimed at identifying settlement patterns of specific groups of immigrants, and respective intensity, according to territorial characteristics and their own ethnic features, in relation to correspondent patterns of the whole population. It is applied, as a case study, to Oporto...

  2. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  3. Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River basin in Washington: major-and minor-element data for sediment, water, and aquatic biota, 1987-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Fluter, Shelley L.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Rinella, Joseph F.; Crawford, J. Kent; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Bridges, Jennifer L.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    Major- and minor-element concentrations are presented for streambed and suspended sediment, filtered- and unfiltered-water, and aquatic-biota samples collected during 1987-91 from the Yakima River Basin in south-central Washington. The samples were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-quality Assessment (NAWQA) program which is designed to provide results that are useful in understanding and managing the Nation's water resources. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of chemical data, statistical summaries, and quality- control data. These data may be used by scientists and resource managers to describe (1) spatial distribution of selected major and minor elements in sediment, water, and aquatic biota of the Yakima River Basin; (2) temporal variation for element concentrations in filtered water and in suspended sediment at selected sites; (3) suita- bility of surface water for preservation of aquatic life and protection of human health; and (4) major natural and anthropogenic sources of major and minor elements in the Yakima River Basin that affect observed water-quality conditions.

  4. Analysis of Alternatives for Risk Assessment Methodologies and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, Noel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). System Analytics; Fruetel, Julia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Gleason, Nathaniel J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Helms, Jovana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Imbro, Dennis Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Sumner, Matthew C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a basic overview and understanding of risk assessment methodologies and tools from the literature and to assess the suitability of these methodologies and tools for cyber risk assessment. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) performed this review in support of risk modeling activities performed for the Stakeholder Engagement and Cyber Infrastructure Resilience (SECIR) division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C). The set of methodologies and tools covered in this document is not intended to be exhaustive; instead, it focuses on those that are commonly used in the risk assessment community. The classification of methodologies and tools was performed by a group of analysts with experience in risk analysis and cybersecurity, and the resulting analysis of alternatives has been tailored to address the needs of a cyber risk assessment.

  5. Methodology of impact assessment of research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the management of research projects development it is necessary to have tools to monitor and evaluate progress and the performance of the projects, as well as their results and the impact on society (international agencies of the United Nations and the States 2002 and 2005 Paris Declaration), with the objective of to ensure their contribution to the social and economic development of countries. Many organizations, agencies and Governments apply different methodologies (IDB, World Bank, UNDP, ECLAC, UNESCO; UNICEF, Canada, Japan, other) for these purposes. In the results-based project management system not only paramount is the process or product itself, but also the result or impact of the project (if the program/project produced the effects desired persons, households and institutions and whether those effects are attributable to the intervention of the program / project). The work shows a methodology that allows for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of impact of research projects and has been result of experience in project management of international collaboration with the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) and the Cuban Nuclear programme. (author)

  6. Methodologic assessment of radiation epidemiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies of the late effects of ionizing radiation have utilized the entire spectrum of situations in which man has been exposed. These studies have provided insights into the dependence of human effects upon not only dose to target tissues but also other dimensions of exposure, host characteristics, and time following exposure. Over the past three decades studies have progressed from the mere identification of effects to their measurement. Because investigators of human effects have no control over the exposure situation, validity must be sought in the consistency of findings among independent studies and with accepted biologic principles. Because exposure may be confounded with factors that are hidden from view, bias may enter into any study of human exposure. Avoidance of bias and attainment of sufficient power to detect relationships that are real are methodologic challenges. Many methodologic issues, e.g., those associated with the definition and measurement of specific end-points, or with the selection of appropriate controls, permeate epidemiologic work in all fields. Others, especially those concerned with the measurement of exposure, the patterning of events in time after exposure, and the prediction of events beyond the scope of existing observations give radiation epidemiology its distinctive character

  7. Methodology for reliability, economic and environmental assessment of wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Preliminary Actions in Wave Energy R and D for DG XII's Joule programme, methodologies were developed to facilitate assessment of the reliability, economics and environmental impact of wave energy. This paper outlines these methodologies, their limitations and areas requiring further R and D. (author)

  8. Update to agency for toxic substances and disease registry 2012 report on assessment of biota exposure to mercury originating from Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-08-10

    The purpose of this report is to 1) update previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessment reports (Kvartek et al. 1994 and Halverson et al. 2008) on the fate of mercury in the Savannah River Site (SRS) environment and 2) address comments and recommendations from the review of SRS by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) concerning the evaluation of exposures to contaminants in biota originating from the SRS. The ATSDR reviewed and evaluated data from SRS, South Carolina Department of Health & Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GDNR) concerning the non-radioactive contaminant mercury. This report will provide a response and update to conclusions and recommendations made by the ATSDR.

  9. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site.

  10. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE ASSESSMENT LEVEL OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Vorona, E.

    2010-01-01

    A study of current approaches to assessing the level of social responsibility. Proposed methodological approach to evaluating the performance of the social responsibility of railway transport. Conceptual Basis of social reporting in rail transport.

  11. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge.'' The... an issue paper entitled ``Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science...' knowledge about drugs' risks; (2) share current FDA experience regarding social science assessments...

  12. An assessment methodology for thermal energy storage evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Spanner, G.E.; Williams, T.A.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents an assessment methodology for evaluating the cost, performance, and overall economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) concepts. The methodology was developed by Thermal Energy Storage Evaluation Program personnel at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for use by PNL and other TES concept evaluators. The methodology is generically applicable to all TES concepts; however, specific analyses may require additional or more detailed definition of the ground rules, assumptions, and analytical approach. The overall objective of the assessment methodology is to assist in preparing equitable and proper evaluations of TES concepts that will allow developers and end-users to make valid decisions about research and development (R and D) and implementation. The methodology meets this objective by establishing standard approaches, ground rules, assumptions, and definitions that are analytically correct and can be consistently applied by concept evaluators. 15 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Selection of methodology to assess food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, G.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Ovesen, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the EFCOSUM project was to develop a method to estimate both acute and usual consumption levels in European countries and for the sake of comparison, a common basic method for dietary assessment was needed. The method should allow a reliable comparison of the intake of relevant

  14. Transfers to freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It remains important to monitor the fate of radionuclides, particularly in environmental compartments that comprise human pathways. Therefore, an extensive literature survey has been conducted to compile available data on the transfer of radionuclides and their analogues to edible freshwater biota. Focus was placed on compilation of steady state transfer parameters for two freshwater pathways, including water-to-biota and sediment-to-biota. In general, although in many cases, extensive data were available for fishes and invertebrates, relatively fewer data were available for freshwater primary producers, amphibians and reptiles. To fill in these gaps, data were also compiled on the internal partitioning of elements in the body with respect to tissue masses, which could be used to estimate radionuclide concentrations between compartments in the body. (author)

  15. Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, P.; Vorobyev, Y.; Sanchez-Perea, M.; Queral, C.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Rebollo, M. J.; Mena, L.; Gomez-Magin, J.

    2014-02-01

    IDPSA (Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment) is a family of methods which use tightly coupled probabilistic and deterministic approaches to address respective sources of uncertainties, enabling Risk informed decision making in a consistent manner. The starting point of the IDPSA framework is that safety justification must be based on the coupling of deterministic (consequences) and probabilistic (frequency) considerations to address the mutual interactions between stochastic disturbances (e.g. failures of the equipment, human actions, stochastic physical phenomena) and deterministic response of the plant (i.e. transients). This paper gives a general overview of some IDPSA methods as well as some possible applications to PWR safety analyses. (Author)

  16. Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IDPSA (Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment) is a family of methods which use tightly coupled probabilistic and deterministic approaches to address respective sources of uncertainties, enabling Risk informed decision making in a consistent manner. The starting point of the IDPSA framework is that safety justification must be based on the coupling of deterministic (consequences) and probabilistic (frequency) considerations to address the mutual interactions between stochastic disturbances (e.g. failures of the equipment, human actions, stochastic physical phenomena) and deterministic response of the plant (i.e. transients). This paper gives a general overview of some IDPSA methods as well as some possible applications to PWR safety analyses. (Author)

  17. Screening methodology for dose assessment to seawater organisms in baltic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of radionuclides in Baltic Sea environment in the frame of MORS programme gives opportunity to evaluate doses for aquatic organisms from the Southern Baltic Sea. The available environmental data from the last few years included concentrations of 137Cs (bomb-tests-fallout and Chernobyl origin), 226Ra (natural radionuclide) and 239,240Pu (bomb-tests-fallout) in biota, bottom sediment and water. The doses assessment of 137Cs, 226Ra and 239,240Pu for aquatic animals was performed, based on the screening methodology elaborated by U.S. Department of Energy. Baltic Sea fish (cod, sprat, herring, plaice) and crustaceans (Sanduria entomon and Mytilus edulis) were taken in to consideration and the annual doses from 137Cs, 226Ra and 239Pu to organisms were calculated at average concentrations of these radionuclides observed in water, concentration of radionuclides determined in bottom sediments from two sub-areas (Gdansk Basin and Bornholm Basin) and average concentrations of radionuclides in animal tissues. The total maximal annual doses for seawater organisms do not exceed a one percent of recommended dose limits however, the dominate contribution to the total dose depends on analysed radionuclide. For 137Cs a maximum contribution to the total dose gives external dose from bottom sediment (about 0.5 mGy y-1). Only about 1% of the total 137Cs dose is derived from internal dose however animal-water ratio obtained from measurements is much lower (in a range 30-300 L kg-1) comparing with recommended by DOE Standard value (22000 L kg-1). For 226Ra internal doses for fish and Mytilus are similar (0.2 mGy y-1, 0.6 mGy y-1 respectively) and they are comparable with external doses from sediment (0.3 mGy y-1) whereas internal dose for Sanduria is about 10 times higher (7 mGy y-1). A measured animal- water ratios (20 - 500 L kg-1) differs remarkably from default DOE Standard value (3200 L kg-1). For plutonium 239Pu the maximum contribution to the total dose gives

  18. Enhancing the Assessment of Verbal Aggression through Observational Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Mata, Andrea D.; Klipfel, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of verbal aggression in adolescent and young adult dating relationships has largely relied on self-report methodology. We investigated whether information on verbal aggression derived from an observational assessment would enhance the prediction of romantic relationship satisfaction and dissolution in a sample of young adult dating…

  19. Methodology of safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting an extensive R and D program to develop a safety assessment methodology to evaluate environmental consequences associated with geological disposal of a high-level radioactive waste, and also to elucidate a generic feasibility of the geological disposal in Japan. The paper describes the current R and D activities in the JAERI to develop an interim version of the methodology based on a normal evolution scenario, and also to validate models used in the methodology. (author)

  20. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  1. A methodology for self-assessment of nuclear security risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urenco has developed a methodology for assessing the risks involved in running its uranium enrichment business. This methodology has been used to assess risks in a wide range of areas, for example: financial, commercial, logistics and projects. Recently, this methodology has been introduced for categorising and assessing nuclear security risks. The likelihood and magnitude of consequence of each risk is evaluated using a simple scoring system. A colour-coded chart is used to present a summary of the risk assessment to company management. Such a manner of displaying clearly the overall rating of security risks makes for an easy-to-use system, which shows clearly the importance of each nuclear risk as regards the successful operation of the business. This gives a good basis for deciding on the need for and focus of any action plan to improve nuclear security. This methodology could be utilised for a self assessment of nuclear security risks in any branch of the nuclear industry world-wide. (author)

  2. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  3. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment: A Methodological Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Christensen, Frans Møller; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2001-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment are two different tools in environmental management. The paper identifies harmonies, discrepancies and relations between the two tools exemplified by the risk assessment principles of the European Commission (EC) and the LCA method ‘EDIP’ (En......-vironmental Design of Industrial Products) developed in Denmark, respectively. A very important feature of LCA is the relative assessment due to the use of a functional unit. Risk assessment on the other hand is an absolute assessment, which may require very specific and detailed information on e.g. the exposure...... conditions. It is concluded that the conceptual background and the purpose of the tools are different but that there are overlaps where they may benefit from each other and they do complement each other in an overall environmental effort....

  4. Personality Assessment of Global Talent: Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The recruitment of managers who will operate in a culturally heterogeneous context (as expatriate managers, managers in a global company, or managers of a multicultural workforce) is increasingly important in an age of globalization. This article describes conceptual and methodological issues in the assessment of such managers, notably in the…

  5. Methodology of Economic Assessment of Corporate Finance Management Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Juscu Nicolae Cristian

    2011-01-01

    “The methodology of economic assessment of corporate finance management effectiveness” deals with the analysis of the basic issues of economic aspects of corporate finance management effectiveness; the paper presents the essential issues of the existing methods for establishing the economic effectiveness of corporate finance management and control; it also proposes the improvement of the approach regarding the assessment of finance management effectiveness of a company.

  6. Assessing Otter Presence In Dams: A Methodological Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Santos-Reis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Standard otter survey methodology proposed by the IUCN Otter Specialist Group enables comparisons in present/absence data in different countries or in different regions. However, otter presence and distribution assessment in dry areas, such as the Mediterranean region, which are characterized by highly marked seasonal climate with intermittent water flow coupled with different types of habitats or systems such as dams, may gain from adjustment to the methodology. Pressure for dam building still occurs in these regions and the need for studies on ecological communities and species protection is increasing. Dams are very different from usual otter riverine habitat and we need to understand their influence on otter populations. Variation of dam location, reservoir characteristics and season will all influence spraint detectability. Environmental Impact Assessment Studies and ecological studies are frequently limited by both budget and time requiring field researchers to apply more efficient methodologies. Based on experience from studies conducted in Portugal we propose adjustments to the standard survey methodology (using spraints surveying otter presence in dams to be applied specifically to Mediterranean-type ecosystems. We define aspects to be considered regarding survey season, survey length and width, number and location of survey sites, among others. This paper will allow researchers to plan more effective field surveys based on standard otter survey methodology for the purpose of dam surveys, be that to detect otter presence/absence, a more in-depth comparative studies of otter presence, or simply improving the collecting of fresh spraints for molecular spraint analysis.

  7. Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Cancio, D; Simón, I; Moraleda, M; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Trueba, C

    2007-10-01

    The development of radioactive waste disposal facilities requires implementation of measures that will afford protection of human health and the environment over a specific temporal frame that depends on the characteristics of the wastes. The repository design is based on a multi-barrier system: (i) the near-field or engineered barrier, (ii) far-field or geological barrier and (iii) the biosphere system. Here, the focus is on the analysis of this last system, the biosphere. A description is provided of conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools used to develop the Biosphere Assessment Methodology in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal facilities in Spain. This methodology is based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology" and provides a logical and systematic approach with supplementary documentation that helps to support the decisions necessary for model development. It follows a five-stage approach, such that a coherent biosphere system description and the corresponding conceptual, mathematical and numerical models can be built. A discussion on the improvements implemented through application of the methodology to case studies in international and national projects is included. Some facets of this methodological approach still require further consideration, principally an enhanced integration of climatology, geography and ecology into models considering evolution of the environment, some aspects of the interface between the geosphere and biosphere, and an accurate quantification of environmental change processes and rates.

  8. Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radioactive waste disposal facilities requires implementation of measures that will afford protection of human health and the environment over a specific temporal frame that depends on the characteristics of the wastes. The repository design is based on a multi-barrier system: (i) the near-field or engineered barrier, (ii) far-field or geological barrier and (iii) the biosphere system. Here, the focus is on the analysis of this last system, the biosphere. A description is provided of conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools used to develop the Biosphere Assessment Methodology in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal facilities in Spain. This methodology is based on the BIOMASS 'Reference Biospheres Methodology' and provides a logical and systematic approach with supplementary documentation that helps to support the decisions necessary for model development. It follows a five-stage approach, such that a coherent biosphere system description and the corresponding conceptual, mathematical and numerical models can be built. A discussion on the improvements implemented through application of the methodology to case studies in international and national projects is included. Some facets of this methodological approach still require further consideration, principally an enhanced integration of climatology, geography and ecology into models considering evolution of the environment, some aspects of the interface between the geosphere and biosphere, and an accurate quantification of environmental change processes and rates

  9. A review and model assessment of 32P and 33P uptake to biota in freshwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation of key short-lived radionuclides such as 131I and 32,33P may be over-estimated since concentration ratios (CRs) are often based on values for the corresponding stable isotope which do not account for radioactive decay during uptake via the food chain. This study presents estimates for bioaccumulation of radioactive phosphorus which account for both radioactive decay and varying ambient levels of stable P in the environment. Recommended interim CR values for radioactive forms of P as a function of bioavailable stable phosphorus in the water body are presented. Values of CR are presented for three different trophic levels of the aquatic food chain; foodstuffs from all three trophic levels may potentially be consumed by humans. It is concluded that current recommended values of the CR are likely to be significantly over-estimated for radioactive phosphorus in many freshwater systems, particularly lowland rivers. Further research is recommended to field-validate these models and assess their uncertainty. The relative importance of food-chain uptake and direct uptake from water are also assessed from a review of the literature. It can be concluded that food-chain uptake is the dominant accumulation pathway in fish and hence accumulation factors for radioactive phosphorus in farmed fish are likely to be significantly lower than those for wild fish. - Highlights: → A model is developed for radiophosphorus uptake to fish. → Concentration ratios for 32,33P in fish may be over-estimated in freshwater systems. → New recommended values for 32,33P concentration ratios are given. → Farmed fish are likely to have much lower 32,33P uptake than wild fish.

  10. Methodology for rapid assessment of aquifer recharge areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Vieira Vasconcelos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The environmental tools of local appliance, such as surveillance and permits of deforestations and water use, environmentalimpact assessments of local scale, and delimitation of preservation areas, demand customized methodologies to deal withhydrogeological issues. In this study, a structured one for rapid environmental assessment aiming at recharge of aquiferssafety was presented. This comprises qualitative and quantitative evaluations by means of textual and cartographicaldescriptions, complemented by weighted spreadsheets for rapid assessment. Applications in case studies took place in sitesselected in the Paracatu River Basin. The results showed a positive potential for knowledge and protection of aquifers inmicro-watersheds.

  11. Risk assessment methodology for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is presented for applying Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques to quantification of the health risks posed by the high-level waste (HLW) underground tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford reservation. This methodology includes hazard screening development of a list of potential accident initiators, systems fault trees development and quantification, definition of source terms for various release categories, and estimation of health consequences from the releases. Both airborne and liquid pathway releases to the environment, arising from aerosol and spill/leak releases from the tanks, are included in the release categories. The proposed methodology is intended to be applied to a representative subset of the total of 177 tanks, thereby providing a baseline risk profile for the HLW tank farm that can be used for setting clean-up/remediation priorities. Some preliminary results are presented for Tank 101-SY

  12. Professional competence assessment of dispensary pharmacy technician. A methodological strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Núñez Martínez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of professional competences in one of the four principles the support training and improvement of human resources in health system; there are problems in this process that obstruct its correct assessment. Objective: To ratify a methodological strategy to solve gaps in the assessment process of technicians’ professional competences. Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative study. The ratification of this strategy was carried out through an intentional stratified sampling of graduated, experts and evaluators. This was applied with participative and integrative approach in Cienfuegos province between 2001 and 2004. Findings: It was proved that the strategy contributes to increase the quality of professional competences assessment process, and determines technicians´ learning needs on scientific bases and supports methodological and didactic training of professors, pedagogical assistants and directors. The individual satisfaction level express by strategy users is high and consulted experts approve it by major consensus. Conclusions: Proposed methodology has characteristics that allow it being applied and generalized to every working field within Dispensary Pharmacy and other technical specialities.

  13. Development of A Risk Assessment Methodology and An Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, TaeWook; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is consists of three types of analysis, level 1, 2 and 3 PSA. Level 1 PSA estimates core damage frequency and Level 2 PSA estimates large early release frequency. Finally, effect of released radioactive materials to environment is evaluated in level 3 PSA. Level 1 and 2 PSA are performed for domestic nuclear power plants. But level 3 PSA is not conducted yet except constructing plant Shin-Kori Unit 3,4. For this reason, domestic Level 3 PSA is in low level at this time. But domestic Level 3 PSA level is expected to be improved by developing some methodologies. For instance, Shin-Kori Level 3 PSA, which used constant value of evacuation speed for risk assessment, is expected to be improved by applying fluctuation of evacuation speed depending on weather conditions. In this paper, a methodology about how to reflect and apply relationship between evacuation speed and weather condition is introduced. In this paper, a methodology which not using constant evacuation speeds but flexible speeds which depend on weather conditions are suggested. Evacuation speeds for each weather conditions are normally assumed in this paper. It is expected that this methodology can be improved if relationship between weather condition and evacuation are researched more.

  14. Methodology for Assessment of Inertial Response from Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2012-01-01

    High wind power penetration levels result in additional requirements from wind power in order to improve frequency stability. Replacement of conventional power plants with wind power plants reduces the power system inertia due to the wind turbine technology. Consequently, the rate of change...... of frequency and the maximum frequency deviation increase after a disturbance such as generation loss, load increase, etc. Having no inherent inertial response, wind power plants need additional control concepts in order to provide an additional active power following a disturbance. Several control concepts...... have been implemented in the literature, but the assessment of these control concepts with respect to power system requirements has not been specified. In this paper, a methodology to assess the inertial response from wind power plants is proposed. Accordingly, the proposed methodology is applied...

  15. A Methodology for Assessing National Sustainable Development Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Aleg Cherp; Clive George; Colin Kirkpatrick

    2004-01-01

    At the Rio Earth Summit of 1992 governments undertook to develop and adopt national sustainable development strategies as a key component of implementing the goals of Agenda 21. Only partial progress was reported at the 2002 World Summit in Johannesburg, with uncertainty as to the effectiveness of those strategies that had been introduced. This paper describes a methodology for assessing a country's progress in implementing a national sustainable development strategy (NSDS) and for identifyin...

  16. Methodologies aand indicatores to assess sustainability in tourism and agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Castellani

    2009-01-01

    The PhD project is about methodologies and indicators to assess sustainability, especially relating to tourism and agriculture. Spatial planning processes need to be supported by instruments able to evaluate current situation and to measure long term effects of the policies for development that are implemented. The use of indicators for measuring sustainability of tourism addresses some important needs: (1) quantitative evaluation of current state of environmental, social and economic conditi...

  17. Are standard tests sensitive enough to evaluate effects of human pharmaceuticals in aquatic biota? Facing changes in research approaches when performing risk assessment of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Martínez, G V; Owuor, M A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Salamanca, M J; Del Valls, T A; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, the presence of pharmaceutical products in aquatic environments is not only common, but is also of significant concern regarding the adverse effect they may produce to aquatic biota. In order to determine the adverse effects of caffeine (CAF), ibuprofen (IBU), carbamazepine (CBZ) and novobiocin (NOV), at environmental occurring concentrations, standardized endpoints applied in current guidelines were evaluated in four organisms including bioluminescence response in Vibrio fischeri, growth inhibition in Isochrysis galbana (marine water) and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (fresh water) and fertilization and embryo-larval development in Paracentrotus lividus. To reach this aim bioassays were implemented by exposing organisms to water spiked with drugs dissolved in DMSO (0.001% v/v). Risk characterization was performed, calculating the environmental impact of drugs by calculating environmental concentration and predicted no effect concentration ratio (MEC/PNEC). Results indicate that acute toxicity was found above environmental concentrations in the order of mg L(-1) for bacteria bioluminescence, microalgae growth inhibition and sea urchin fertilization. However, teratogenicity was observed on sea urchin after exposure to environmental concentrations of drugs at 0.00001 mg L(-1); at this concentration CBZ and IBU were found to reduce significantly the embryo-larval development compared to controls (p<0.01). The risk calculated for selected drugs suggested they are harmless for aquatic environment except when applying the embryo-larval development endpoint. Endpoints applied in this study showed the necessity of using more sensitive responses, when assessing risk of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments, since endpoints applied in current guidelines may not be suitable.

  18. Methodology for assessing performance of waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the methodology provided in this report is to select the optimal way to manage particular sets of waste streams from generation to disposal in a safe and cost-effective manner. The methodology described is designed to review the entire waste management system, assess its performance, ensure that the performance objectives are met, compare different LLW management alternatives, and select the optimal alternative. The methodology is based on decision analysis approach, in which costs and risk are considered for various LLW management alternatives, a comparison of costs, risks, and benefits is made, and an optimal system is selected which minimizes costs and risks and maximizes benefits. A ''zoom-lens'' approach is suggested, i.e., one begins by looking at gross features and gradually proceeds to more and more detail. Performance assessment requires certain information about the characteristics of the waste streams and about the various components of the waste management system. Waste acceptance criteria must be known for each component of the waste management system. Performance assessment for each component requires data about properties of the waste streams and operational and design characteristics of the processing or disposal components. 34 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary R Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods-belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal and region of study, but was related to the researcher's home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%, their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data.

  20. Methodology to Assess No Touch Audit Software Using Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jie; Braun, James E.; Langner, M. Rois

    2016-10-01

    The research presented in this report builds upon these previous efforts and proposes a set of tests to assess no touch audit tools using real utility bill and on-site data. The proposed assessment methodology explicitly investigates the behaviors of the monthly energy end uses with respect to outdoor temperature, i.e., the building energy signature, to help understand the Tool's disaggregation accuracy. The project team collaborated with Field Diagnosis Services, Inc. (FDSI) to identify appropriate test sites for the evaluation.

  1. Methodological guidelines for geoheritage site assessment: A proposal for Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maran-Stevanović Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various minerals, rocks, soil types, ore and fossiliferous deposits, structural and tectonic elements, surface and subterranean landforms, all those natural phenomena representing geodiversity in a small scale contribute to our understanding the significant events and episodes of the geological history of the Earth. Intended methodology for qualitative and quantitative assessment is presented, including valuing criteria and their numerical indicators, which serve as analytical instruments to identify and select potential geoheritage objects in Serbia. Objective assessing and categorizing the geoheritage objects are the starting points for their rational utilization, adequate conservation, proper interpretation and promotion.

  2. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  3. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs

  4. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous, Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment of physical characteristics and aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas, and measured selected water-quality properties in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the course of the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to environmental flow prescriptions for Big Cypress Bayou, Black Cypress Bayou, and Little Cypress Bayou. Data collection and analysis were done at mesohabitat- and reach-specific scales, where a mesohabitat is defined as a discrete area within a stream that exhibits unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover.

  5. Application of the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment to a generic high-level waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Simón, I; Cancio, D; Moraleda, M; Trueba, C; Pérez-Sánchez, D

    2008-09-15

    A methodological approach which includes conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools have been developed in the Spanish context, based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology". The biosphere assessments have to be undertaken with the aim of demonstrating compliance with principles and regulations established to limit the possible radiological impact of radioactive waste disposals on human health and on the environment, and to ensure that future generations will not be exposed to higher radiation levels than those that would be acceptable today. The biosphere in the context of high-level waste disposal is defined as the collection of various radionuclide transfer pathways that may result in releases into the surface environment, transport within and between the biosphere receptors, exposure of humans and biota, and the doses/risks associated with such exposures. The assessments need to take into account the complexity of the biosphere, the nature of the radionuclides released and the long timescales considered. It is also necessary to make assumptions related to the habits and lifestyle of the exposed population, human activities in the long term and possible modifications of the biosphere. A summary on the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment are presented here as well as its application in a Spanish generic case study. A reference scenario has been developed based on current conditions at a site located in Central-West Spain, to indicate the potential impact to the actual population. In addition, environmental change has been considered qualitatively through the use of interaction matrices and transition diagrams. Unit source terms of (36)Cl, (79)Se, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135)Cs, (226)Ra, (231)Pa, (238)U, (237)Np and (239)Pu have been taken. Two exposure groups of infants and adults have been chosen for dose calculations. Results are presented and their robustness is evaluated through the use of uncertainty and

  6. Application of the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment to a generic high-level waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Simón, I; Cancio, D; Moraleda, M; Trueba, C; Pérez-Sánchez, D

    2008-09-15

    A methodological approach which includes conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools have been developed in the Spanish context, based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology". The biosphere assessments have to be undertaken with the aim of demonstrating compliance with principles and regulations established to limit the possible radiological impact of radioactive waste disposals on human health and on the environment, and to ensure that future generations will not be exposed to higher radiation levels than those that would be acceptable today. The biosphere in the context of high-level waste disposal is defined as the collection of various radionuclide transfer pathways that may result in releases into the surface environment, transport within and between the biosphere receptors, exposure of humans and biota, and the doses/risks associated with such exposures. The assessments need to take into account the complexity of the biosphere, the nature of the radionuclides released and the long timescales considered. It is also necessary to make assumptions related to the habits and lifestyle of the exposed population, human activities in the long term and possible modifications of the biosphere. A summary on the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment are presented here as well as its application in a Spanish generic case study. A reference scenario has been developed based on current conditions at a site located in Central-West Spain, to indicate the potential impact to the actual population. In addition, environmental change has been considered qualitatively through the use of interaction matrices and transition diagrams. Unit source terms of (36)Cl, (79)Se, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135)Cs, (226)Ra, (231)Pa, (238)U, (237)Np and (239)Pu have been taken. Two exposure groups of infants and adults have been chosen for dose calculations. Results are presented and their robustness is evaluated through the use of uncertainty and

  7. Model evaluation methodology applicable to environmental assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaeffer, D.L.

    1979-08-01

    A model evaluation methodology is presented to provide a systematic framework within which the adequacy of environmental assessment models might be examined. The necessity for such a tool is motivated by the widespread use of models for predicting the environmental consequences of various human activities and by the reliance on these model predictions for deciding whether a particular activity requires the deployment of costly control measures. Consequently, the uncertainty associated with prediction must be established for the use of such models. The methodology presented here consists of six major tasks: model examination, algorithm examination, data evaluation, sensitivity analyses, validation studies, and code comparison. This methodology is presented in the form of a flowchart to show the logical interrelatedness of the various tasks. Emphasis has been placed on identifying those parameters which are most important in determining the predictive outputs of a model. Importance has been attached to the process of collecting quality data. A method has been developed for analyzing multiplicative chain models when the input parameters are statistically independent and lognormally distributed. Latin hypercube sampling has been offered as a promising candidate for doing sensitivity analyses. Several different ways of viewing the validity of a model have been presented. Criteria are presented for selecting models for environmental assessment purposes.

  8. Model evaluation methodology applicable to environmental assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model evaluation methodology is presented to provide a systematic framework within which the adequacy of environmental assessment models might be examined. The necessity for such a tool is motivated by the widespread use of models for predicting the environmental consequences of various human activities and by the reliance on these model predictions for deciding whether a particular activity requires the deployment of costly control measures. Consequently, the uncertainty associated with prediction must be established for the use of such models. The methodology presented here consists of six major tasks: model examination, algorithm examination, data evaluation, sensitivity analyses, validation studies, and code comparison. This methodology is presented in the form of a flowchart to show the logical interrelatedness of the various tasks. Emphasis has been placed on identifying those parameters which are most important in determining the predictive outputs of a model. Importance has been attached to the process of collecting quality data. A method has been developed for analyzing multiplicative chain models when the input parameters are statistically independent and lognormally distributed. Latin hypercube sampling has been offered as a promising candidate for doing sensitivity analyses. Several different ways of viewing the validity of a model have been presented. Criteria are presented for selecting models for environmental assessment purposes

  9. Flammability Assessment Methodology Program Phase I: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A. Loehr; S. M. Djordjevic; K. J. Liekhus; M. J. Connolly

    1997-09-01

    The Flammability Assessment Methodology Program (FAMP) was established to investigate the flammability of gas mixtures found in transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The FAMP results provide a basis for increasing the permissible concentrations of flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in TRU waste containers. The FAMP results will be used to modify the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (TRUPACT-II SARP) upon acceptance of the methodology by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Implementation of the methodology would substantially increase the number of drums that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without repackaging or treatment. Central to the program was experimental testing and modeling to predict the gas mixture lower explosive limit (MLEL) of gases observed in TRU waste containers. The experimental data supported selection of an MLEL model that was used in constructing screening limits for flammable VOC and flammable gas concentrations. The MLEL values predicted by the model for individual drums will be utilized to assess flammability for drums that do not meet the screening criteria. Finally, the predicted MLEL values will be used to derive acceptable gas generation rates, decay heat limits, and aspiration time requirements for drums that do not pass the screening limits. The results of the program demonstrate that an increased number of waste containers can be shipped to WIPP within the flammability safety envelope established in the TRUPACT-II SARP.

  10. Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-30

    Since 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been asked by Installation Management Command (IMCOM) to conduct strategic assessments at selected US Army installations of the potential use of renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). IMCOM has the same economic, security, and legal drivers to develop alternative, renewable energy resources overseas as it has for installations located in the US. The approach for continental US (CONUS) studies has been to use known, US-based renewable resource characterizations and information sources coupled with local, site-specific sources and interviews. However, the extent to which this sort of data might be available for outside the continental US (OCONUS) sites was unknown. An assessment at Camp Zama, Japan was completed as a trial to test the applicability of the CONUS methodology at OCONUS installations. It was found that, with some help from Camp Zama personnel in translating and locating a few Japanese sources, there was relatively little difficulty in finding sources that should provide a solid basis for conducting an assessment of comparable depth to those conducted for US installations. Project implementation will likely be more of a challenge, but the feasibility analysis will be able to use the same basic steps, with some adjusted inputs, as PNNL’s established renewable resource assessment methodology.

  11. Improvement of biosphere assessment methodology for performance assessment of geological disposal facility. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains results on study of Geosphere-Biosphere Interface (GBI), development of biosphere assessment model for gaseous and volatile radionuclides, review of biosphere assessment and research on safety indicators. Regarding study of Geosphere-Biosphere Interface (GBI), FEP database for the Geosphere-Biosphere Transitions Zone (GBTZ) were compiled. Furthermore, release scenarios were identified from the FEP database, and review of conservativeness and robustness of the conceptual and mathematical models developed previously by JNC were undertaken. Regarding development of biosphere assessment model for gaseous and volatile radionuclides, the conceptual and mathematical models were developed, and it was confirmed that the impact of the exposure pathway regarding gas release to flux-to-dose conversion factor is small. Regarding review of biosphere assessment data, the parameters which were used on JNC second progress report were reviewed and classified using the biosphere data protocol categories. Furthermore, the data for key parameter (important but poorly characterized parameters) were revised. Regarding research on safety indicator, some kinds of safety indicators, especially for the non-radioactive contaminant and for the non-human biota, are reviewed. (author)

  12. The U.S. Department of Energy's graded approach for evaluating radiation doses to non-human biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been active in developing requirements, methods, and guidance for protection of non-human biota from the effects of ionizing radiation since the late 1980's. Radiation protection of the environment is an emerging issue that will likely require attention in environmental monitoring programs, and in decisions regarding cleanup and long-term stewardship of radioactively-contaminated sites. The DOE currently has a radiation dose limit for protecting aquatic organisms, and has considered dose limits for terrestrial biota. Practical, cost-effective guidance for implementation of these dose rate guidelines are needed. In response, DOE has developed methods, models, and guidance within a graded approach for evaluating radiation doses to non-human biota. The methodology was developed using an interdisciplinary team approach that included both 'developers' and 'users' through DOE's Biota Dose Assessment Committee (BDAC). The first phase of the graded or multi-tiered approach consists of a general screening methodology that provides limiting concentrations of radionuclides, termed Biota Concentration Guides (BCGs), for use in screening water, sediment, and soil to determine if dose guidelines for non-human biota are exceeded. BCGs were derived for twenty-three target radionuclides. Four organism types (aquatic animals, riparian animals, terrestrial animals, and terrestrial plants) were selected as the basis for methods development. Internal doses were calculated as the product of media concentration, bioaccumulation factor(s), and dose conversion factors. External doses were calculated based on the assumption of immersion of the organism in soil, sediment, or water. Kinetic and allometric techniques were used to fill data gaps in predicting radionuclide concentration factors across a large range of terrestrial and riparian species of animals. The assumptions and default parameters result in conservative BCGs for screening

  13. A study on safety assessment methodology for a vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C.; Lee, G. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Kim, G. H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, the technical and regulatory status of radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants is investigated and analyzed, and then significant factors are suggested which must be contained in the final technical guideline or standard for the safety assessment of vitrification plants. Also, the methods to estimate the stability of vitrified waste forms are suggested with property analysis of them. The contents and scope of the study are summarized as follows : survey of the status on radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants, survey of the characterization methodology for radioactive waste form, analysis of stability for vitrified waste forms, survey and analysis of technical standards and regulations concerned with them in foreign and domestic plants, suggestion of significant factors for the safety assessment of vitrification plants, submission of regulated technical standard on radioactive waste vitrification plats.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of electricity generation: overview and methodological issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Electricity production is currently responsible for a large share of global Greenhouse Gas (GHG), NOx and SO2 emissions, and their related environmental impacts. This study provides a critical review of the status of research on life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation. NREL [1...... study focuses on the comparability between different technologies, identifying and quantifying the possible mistakes that can occur when comparing two technologies whose environmental assessments have been performed with conflicting assumptions. Nine different power generation technologies were examined...... of emissions, those were divided among three life cycle phases: fuel provision, operation of the plant and infrastructure. It was possible to estimate typical emission factors for all technologies except for biomass, where methodological and technical aspects result in very variable outcomes. Within...

  15. Nuclear insurance risk assessment using risk-based methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents American Nuclear Insurers' (ANI's) and Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters' (MAELU's) process and experience for conducting nuclear insurance risk assessments using a risk-based methodology. The process is primarily qualitative and uses traditional insurance risk assessment methods and an approach developed under the auspices of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in which ANI/MAELU is an active sponsor. This process assists ANI's technical resources in identifying where to look for insurance risk in an industry in which insurance exposure tends to be dynamic and nonactuarial. The process is an evolving one that also seeks to minimize the impact on insureds while maintaining a mutually agreeable risk tolerance

  16. Development of Risk Assessment Methodology for State's Nuclear Security Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threats of nuclear terrorism are increasing after 9/11 terrorist attack. Treats include nuclear explosive device (NED) made by terrorist groups, radiological damage caused by a sabotage aiming nuclear facilities, and radiological dispersion device (RDD), which is also called 'dirty bomb'. In 9/11, Al Qaeda planed to cause radiological consequences by the crash of a nuclear power plant and the captured airplane. The evidence of a dirty bomb experiment was found in Afganistan by the UK intelligence agency. Thus, the international communities including the IAEA work substantial efforts. The leaders of 47 nations attended the 2010 nuclear security summit hosted by President Obama, while the next global nuclear summit will be held in Seoul, 2012. Most states established and are maintaining state's nuclear security regime because of the increasing threat and the international obligations. However, each state's nuclear security regime is different and depends on the state's environment. The methodology for the assessment of state's nuclear security regime is necessary to design and implement an efficient nuclear security regime, and to figure out weak points. The IAEA's INPRO project suggests a checklist method for State's nuclear security regime. The IAEA is now researching more quantitative methods cooperatively with several countries including Korea. In this abstract, methodologies to evaluate state's nuclear security regime by risk assessment are addressed

  17. Methodology for assessing probability of extreme hydrologic events coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohaska Stevan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented research is improvement of methodology for probability calculation of coinciding occurrence of historic floods and droughts in the same year. The original procedure was developed in order to determine the occurrence probability of such an extreme historic event. There are two phases in calculation procedure for assessment of both extreme drought and flood occurrence probability in the same year. In the first phase outliers are detected as indicators of extreme events, their return periods are calculated and series' statistics adjusted. In the second phase conditional probabilities are calculated: empirical points are plotted, and both extreme drought and flood occurrence probability in the same year is assessed based on the plot. Outlier detection is performed for the territory of Serbia. Results are shown as maps of regions (basins prone to floods, hydrologic drought, or both. Step-by-step numeric example is given for assessing conditional probability of occurrence of flood and drought for GS Raska on the river Raska. Results of assessment of conditional probability in two more cases are given for combination of extreme flood and 30 day minimum flow.

  18. A methodology for physically based rockfall hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Crosta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rockfall hazard assessment is not simple to achieve in practice and sound, physically based assessment methodologies are still missing. The mobility of rockfalls implies a more difficult hazard definition with respect to other slope instabilities with minimal runout. Rockfall hazard assessment involves complex definitions for "occurrence probability" and "intensity". This paper is an attempt to evaluate rockfall hazard using the results of 3-D numerical modelling on a topography described by a DEM. Maps portraying the maximum frequency of passages, velocity and height of blocks at each model cell, are easily combined in a GIS in order to produce physically based rockfall hazard maps. Different methods are suggested and discussed for rockfall hazard mapping at a regional and local scale both along linear features or within exposed areas. An objective approach based on three-dimensional matrixes providing both a positional "Rockfall Hazard Index" and a "Rockfall Hazard Vector" is presented. The opportunity of combining different parameters in the 3-D matrixes has been evaluated to better express the relative increase in hazard. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the hazard index with respect to the included variables and their combinations is preliminarily discussed in order to constrain as objective as possible assessment criteria.

  19. Methodology for qualitative uncertainty assessment of climate impact indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Juliane; Keup-Thiel, Elke; Rechid, Diana; Hänsler, Andreas; Pfeifer, Susanne; Roth, Ellinor; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    The FP7 project "Climate Information Portal for Copernicus" (CLIPC) is developing an integrated platform of climate data services to provide a single point of access for authoritative scientific information on climate change and climate change impacts. In this project, the Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS) has been in charge of the development of a methodology on how to assess the uncertainties related to climate impact indicators. Existing climate data portals mainly treat the uncertainties in two ways: Either they provide generic guidance and/or express with statistical measures the quantifiable fraction of the uncertainty. However, none of the climate data portals give the users a qualitative guidance how confident they can be in the validity of the displayed data. The need for such guidance was identified in CLIPC user consultations. Therefore, we aim to provide an uncertainty assessment that provides the users with climate impact indicator-specific guidance on the degree to which they can trust the outcome. We will present an approach that provides information on the importance of different sources of uncertainties associated with a specific climate impact indicator and how these sources affect the overall 'degree of confidence' of this respective indicator. To meet users requirements in the effective communication of uncertainties, their feedback has been involved during the development process of the methodology. Assessing and visualising the quantitative component of uncertainty is part of the qualitative guidance. As visual analysis method, we apply the Climate Signal Maps (Pfeifer et al. 2015), which highlight only those areas with robust climate change signals. Here, robustness is defined as a combination of model agreement and the significance of the individual model projections. Reference Pfeifer, S., Bülow, K., Gobiet, A., Hänsler, A., Mudelsee, M., Otto, J., Rechid, D., Teichmann, C. and Jacob, D.: Robustness of Ensemble Climate Projections

  20. Development of margin assessment methodology of decay heat removal function against external hazards. (3) Forest fire hazard assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant [NPP] accident, there has been an increased concern in the safety of NPP for external hazards, one of which is a forest fire. Conventional forest fire assessments have been performed with deterministic and conservative manner, using so-called envelope initial and boundary conditions on forest fire analyses. In this study, the forest fire hazard assessment methodology, which is subject to an external-hazard probabilistic risk assessment [PRA], is being developed for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor [SFR] in order to quantitatively evaluate frequency and consequence of a forest fire that has a potential impact on a NPP and to obtain the core damage frequency. The new methodology consists of two parts; the first one is hazard frequency-consequence domain to obtain 'hazard curve' of a forest fire and the second one is 'Level 1 PRA' to obtain the core damage frequency due to challenges by a forest fire. This paper focuses on forest fire propagation simulations in the first part of the methodology. The simulation is utilized to evaluate intensities of the challenges by a forest fire, and sensibility studies were performed on weather conditions. A location nearby a SFR site in Japan was selected for the methodology development. Forest fire propagation simulations were performed using FARSITE code 'with/without wind' and 'high/low of ambient temperature and humidity', and the results show that the key outcome parameters depend much on wind speed and humidity but less on temperature. The fire arrival time to the site is shortened around 1/5 with changing wind speed condition from the recorded-highest to the condition without wind. The time is prolonged around 3.4 times with the most humid to the recorded-lowest conditions, although it is changed little when varying ambient temperature from recorded-highest to the lowest. A loss of offsite power due to fireline passage across through external

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, D. L.; Soldat, J. K.; McNeese, J. A.; Watson, E. C.

    1977-07-01

    This report describes the methodology for determining where environmental control technology is required for the nuclear fuel cycle. The methodology addresses routine emission of chemical and radioactive effluents, and applies to mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactors (LWR and BWR) and fuel reprocessing. Chemical and radioactive effluents are evaluated independently. Radioactive effluents are evaluated on the basis of maximum exposed individual dose and population dose calculations for a 1-year emission period and a 50-year commitment. Sources of radionuclides for each facility are then listed according to their relative contribution to the total calculated dose. Effluent, ambient and toxicology standards are used to evaluate the effect of chemical effluents. First, each chemical and source configuration is determined. Sources are tagged if they exceed existirrg standards. The combined effect of all chemicals is assessed for each facility. If the additive effects are unacceptable, then additional control technology is recommended. Finally, sources and their chemicals at each facility are ranked according to their relative contribution to the ambient pollution level. This ranking identifies those sources most in need of environmental control.

  2. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohreiter, D.W.

    1980-05-01

    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  3. A novel integrated assessment methodology of urban water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listowski, A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Vigneswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater is no longer considered a waste product and water reuse needs to play a stronger part in securing urban water supply. Although treatment technologies for water reclamation have significantly improved the question that deserves further analysis is, how selection of a particular wastewater treatment technology relates to performance and sustainability? The proposed assessment model integrates; (i) technology, characterised by selected quantity and quality performance parameters; (ii) productivity, efficiency and reliability criteria; (iii) quantitative performance indicators; (iv) development of evaluation model. The challenges related to hierarchy and selections of performance indicators have been resolved through the case study analysis. The goal of this study is to validate a new assessment methodology in relation to performance of the microfiltration (MF) technology, a key element of the treatment process. Specific performance data and measurements were obtained at specific Control and Data Acquisition Points (CP) to satisfy the input-output inventory in relation to water resources, products, material flows, energy requirements, chemicals use, etc. Performance assessment process contains analysis and necessary linking across important parametric functions leading to reliable outcomes and results. PMID:22335107

  4. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology applied to energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, P.T.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of the Clean Agile Manufacturing of Propellants, Explosives, and pyrotechnics (CAMPEP) program is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of using modeling, alternate materials and processing technology to reduce PEO life-cycle pollution by up to 90%. Traditional analyses of factory pollution treat the manufacturing facility as the singular pollution source. The life cycle of a product really begins with raw material acquisition and includes all activities through ultimate disposal. The life cycle thus includes other facilities besides the principal manufacturing facility. The pollution generated during the product life cycle is then integrated over the total product lifetime, or represents a ``cradle to grave`` accounting philosophy. This paper addresses a methodology for producing a life-cycle inventory assessment.

  5. Interim report - geotechnical site assessment methodology. Vol.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interim report summarizing the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodology at the Carwynnen test mine in Cornwall. The geological setting of the test site in the Cornubian granite batholith is described. The effect of structure imposed by discontinuities on the engineering behaviour of rock masses is discussed and the scanline survey method of obtaining data on discontinuities in the rock mass is described. The requirement for remote geophysical methods of characterizing the mass is discussed and initial experiments using seismic and ultrasonic velocity measurements are reported. Computer programs to perform statistical analysis of the discontinuity patterns are described. Overcoring and hydraulic fracturing methods of determining the in-situ stress are briefly described and the results of a programme of in-situ stress measurements using the overcoring method are reported. (author)

  6. Assessing patient preferences in heart failure using conjoint methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisa G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Pisa,1 Florian Eichmann,1 Stephan Hupfer21Kantar Health GmbH, Munich, Germany; 2Novartis Pharma GmbH, Nuernberg, GermanyAim: The course of heart failure (HF is characterized by frequent hospitalizations, a high mortality rate, as well as a severely impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL. To optimize disease management, understanding of patient preferences is crucial. We aimed to assess patient preferences using conjoint methodology and HRQoL in patients with HF.Methods: Two modules were applied: an initial qualitative module, consisting of in-depth interviews with 12 HF patients, and the main quantitative module in 300 HF patients from across Germany. Patients were stratified according to the time of their last HF hospitalization. Each patient was presented with ten different scenarios during the conjoint exercise. Additionally, patients completed the generic HRQoL instrument, EuroQol health questionnaire (EQ-5D™.Results: The attribute with the highest relative importance was dyspnea (44%, followed by physical capacity (18%. Of similar importance were exhaustion during mental activities (13%, fear due to HF (13%, and autonomy (12%. The most affected HRQoL dimensions according to the EQ-5D questionnaire were anxiety/depression (23% with severe problems, pain/discomfort (19%, and usual activities (15%. Overall average EQ-5D score was 0.39 with stable, chronic patients (never hospitalized having a significantly better health state vs the rest of the cohort.Conclusion: This paper analyzed patient preference in HF using a conjoint methodology. The preference weights resulting from the conjoint analysis could be used in future to design HRQoL questionnaires which could better assess patient preferences in HF care.Keywords: heart failure, quality of life, conjoint analysis, utility, patient preference

  7. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  8. Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Iuzzolino, H.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

  9. Methodology for Assessment and Optimization of Industrial Eco-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Zondervan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging trend in evaluating industrial activities using principles of industrial ecology because of the emphasis on sustainability initiatives by major process industries. Attention has also been targeted at developing planned industrial ecosystems (IEs across the globe. We point out the current state-of-the art in this exciting discipline and subsequently identify the challenges that have not been encountered by the scientific community yet. Ecological Input Output Analysis (EIOA may be considered as an “all-inclusive model” for the assessment of an IE because of its ability to capture the economic, environmental, and societal behavior of an IE. It could also be utilized to illustrate the detailed inter-relationships among the entities of an IE. Optimization of a fully integrated IE using conventional multi-objective optimization techniques would be too complex. For such multi-objective optimization problems, Hierarchical-Pareto optimization discussed in the literature has shown promise, but there is a need to establish a methodology to assess and/or improve the robustness of an IE using such techniques.

  10. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for municipal supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Andrew; Gharabaghi, Bahram; McBean, Ed; Levison, Jana; Parker, Beth

    2015-12-01

    De-icing agents containing chloride ions used for winter road maintenance have the potential to negatively impact groundwater resources for drinking water supplies. A novel methodology using commonly-available geospatial data (land use, well head protection areas) and public accessible data (salt application rates, hydrometric data) to identify salt vulnerable areas (SVAs) for groundwater wells is developed to prioritize implementation of better management practices for road salt applications. The approach uses simple mass-balance terms to collect chloride input from 3 pathways: surface runoff, shallow interflow and baseflow. A risk score is calculated, which depends on the land use within the respective municipal supply well protection area. Therefore, it is plausible to avoid costly and extensive numerical modeling (which also would bear many assumptions, simplifications and uncertainties). The method is applied to perform a vulnerability assessment on twenty municipal water supply wells in the Grand River watershed, Ontario, Canada. The calculated steady-state groundwater recharge chloride concentration for the supply wells is strongly correlated to the measured transient groundwater chloride concentrations in the case study evaluation, with an R2 = 0.84. The new method provides a simple, robust, and practical method for municipalities to assess the long-term risk of chloride contamination of municipal supply wells due to road salt application.

  11. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  12. Methodological issues in the quantitative assessment of quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Yfantopoulos, John N

    2011-10-01

    The term quality of life can be identified in Aristotle's classical writings of 330 BC. In his Nichomachian ethics he recognises the multiple relationships between happiness, well-being, "eudemonia" and quality of life. Historically the concept of quality of life has undergone various interpretations. It involves personal experience, perceptions and beliefs, attitudes concerning philosophical, cultural, spiritual, psychological, political, and financial aspects of everyday living. Quality of life has been extensively used both as an outcome and an explanatory factor in relation to human health, in various clinical trials, epidemiologic studies and health interview surveys. Because of the variations in the definition of quality of life, both in theory and in practice, there are also a wide range of procedures that are used to assess quality of life. In this paper several methodological issues regarding the tools used to evaluate quality of life is discussed. In summary, the use of components consisted of large number of classes, as well as the use of specific weights for each scale component, and the low-to-moderate inter-correlation level between the components, is evident from simulated and empirical studies.

  13. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Risk assessment methodology development for waste isolation in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report constitutes the third phase of the review of reports prepared by Sandia for the USNRC; the first two phases were reported in Volumes 1 and 2 of NUREG/CR-1672. The reviewers generally agree that the compartment model used in Volume 1 to describe environmental transport is capable of accurately calculating the phenomena if suitable data is available. The sensitivity analysis of the environmental transport model as presented in Volume 2, was judged to be inferior to Volume 1. The reasons for selecting certain input variables for the sensitivity analysis are not clear. The input data and associated uncertainty ranges appear not to have been selected from real geophysical sources. The significance of results is not clear. Tabular and graphical results are not discussed. In Volume 3, the compartment model is used to derive the asymptotic values of Cm245 concentration in sub-zones of ground water, soil, surface water and sediment. Methodology is not discussed; nor how the study can be used in an overall risk assessment of a waste repository

  15. Development of the damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Atsumi; Nishitani, Akira; Wakatabe, Morimasa; Inai, Shinsuke; Ohdomari, Iwao; Tsutsumi, Hiroki

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of a damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements with the aid of smart sensor board and inspection robot. In this proposed system, the distributed smart sensor boards firstly detect the fact of damage occurrence. Next, the robot inspects the damage location and captures the photographic image of damage condition. The smart sensor board for the proposed system mainly consists of microcontroller, strain gage and LAN module. The inspection robot integrated into the proposed system has a wireless camera and wireless LAN device for receiving signal to manipulate itself. At first, the effectiveness of the smart sensor board and inspection robot is tested by experiments of a full-scale suspended ceiling utilizing shaking table facilities. The model ceiling is subjected to several levels of excitations and thus various levels of damages are caused. Next, this robot inspection scheme is applied to the ceiling of a real structure damaged by the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The obtained results indicate that the proposed system can detect the location and condition of the damage.

  16. Theoretical Aspects and Methodological Approaches to Sales Services Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasova EE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article defines trade service quality and proposes an object-oriented approach for its essence interpretation, according to which such components as product offering and goods quality, service forms and goods selling methods, merchandising, services and staff are singled out; a model of managing retail outlets trading service, which covers levels of strategic, tactical and operational management and is aimed at ensuring customers’ perception expectations, achieving sustainable competitive positions and increasing customers’ loyalty is worked out; a methodology of trade services quality estimation that allows to carry out a comparative assessment of cooperative retailing both in terms of general indicators and their individual components, regulate the factors affecting trade services quality and have a positive administrative action is developed and tested; the results of evaluation of the customers’ service quality in the consumer cooperative retailers, dynamics of overall and comprehensive indicators of measurement of trade service quality for selected components are given; the main directions and measures for improving trade services quality basing on quantitative values of individual indicators for each of the five selected components (product offering and goods quality, service forms and sale methods, merchandising, services, staff are stated.

  17. Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  18. Development of radiation risk assessment simulator using system dynamics methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential magnitudes of radionuclide releases under severe accident loadings and offsite consequences as well as the overall risk (the product of accident frequencies and consequences) are analyzed and evaluated quantitatively in this study. The system dynamics methodology has been applied to predict the time-dependent behaviors such as feedback and dependency as well as to model uncertain behavior of complex physical system. It is used to construct the transfer mechanisms of time dependent radioactivity concentration and to evaluate them. Dynamic variations of radio activities are simulated by considering several effects such as deposition, weathering, washout, re-suspension, root uptake, translocation, leaching, senescence, intake, and excretion of soil. The time-dependent radio-ecological model applicable to Korean specific environment has been developed in order to assess the radiological consequences following the short-term deposition of radio-nuclides during severe accidents nuclear power plant. An ingestion food chain model can estimate time dependent radioactivity concentrations in foodstuffs. And it is also shown that the system dynamics approach is useful for analyzing the phenomenon of the complex system as well as the behavior of structure values with respect to time. The output of this model (Bq ingested per Bq m-2 deposited) may be multiplied by the deposition and a dose conversion factor (Gy Bq-1) to yield organ-specific doses. The model may be run deterministically to yield a single estimate or stochastic distributions by 'Monte-Carlo' calculation that reflects uncertainty of parameter and model uncertainties. The results of this study may contribute to identifying the relative importance of various parameters occurred in consequence analysis, as well as to assessing risk reduction effects in accident management. (author)

  19. Application of the Biosphere Assessment Methodology to the ENRESA, 1997 Performance and Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years CIEMAT has been developing for ENRESA knowledge and tools to support the modelling of the migration and accumulation of radionuclides within the biosphere once those radionuclides are released or reach one or more parts of the biosphere (atmosphere, water bodies or soils). The model development also includes evaluation of radiological impacts arising from the resulting distribution of radionuclides in the biosphere. In 1996, a Methodology to analyse the biosphere in this context proposed to ENRESA. The level of development of the different aspects proposed within the Methodology was quite heterogeneous and, while aspects of radionuclide transport modelling were already well developed in theoretical and practical terms, other aspects like the procedure for conceptual model development and the description of biosphere system representatives of the long term needed further developments. At present, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) in collaboration with several national organizations, ENRESA and CIEMAT among them, is working to complete and augment the Reference Biosphere Methodology and to produce some practical descriptions of Reference Systems. The overall purpose of this document is to apply the Methodology, taking account of on-going developments in biosphere modelling, to the last performance assessment (PA) exercise made by ENRESA (ENRESA, 1997), using from it the general and particular information about the assessment context, radionuclide information, geosphere and geobiosphere interface data. There are three particular objectives to this work: (a) to determine the practicability of the Methodology in an application to a realistic assessment situation, (b) To compare and contrast previous biosphere modelling in HLW PA and, (c) to test software development related with data management and modelling. (Author) 42 refs

  20. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment in 2010-11 of physical characteristics and selected aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas for which environmental flows have been prescribed. Mesohabitats are visually distinct units of habitat within the stream with unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Mesohabitats in reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous were evaluated to gain an understanding of how fish communities and mussel populations varied by habitat. Selected water-quality properties were also measured in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of the prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to the prescribed environmental flows.

  1. Comparative risk assessment: an international comparison of methodologies and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, R D; Shih, J; Sessions, S L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a systematic procedure for evaluating the environmental problems affecting a geographic area. This paper looks beyond the U.S. border and examines the experience with CRAs conducted in various developing countries and economies in transition, including Bangkok, Thailand, Cairo, Egypt and Quito, Ecuador, as well as other locations in Eastern Europe, Asia and Central and South America. A recent pilot CRA conducted in Taiwan is also considered. Comparisons are made of both the methodologies and the results across the relatively diverse international literature. The most robust finding is that conventional air pollutants (e.g., particulate matter and lead) consistently rank as high health risks across all of the CRAs examined. Given the varied nature of the settings studied in the CRAs, including level of economic development, urban-rural differences, and climate, this finding is particularly significant. Problems involving drinking water are also ranked as a high or medium health risk in almost all the countries studied. This is consistent with the results of analyses conducted by the World Bank suggesting contamination, limited coverage and erratic service by water supply systems. Beyond the major air pollutants and drinking water, the CRA results diverge significantly across countries. A number of problems involving toxic chemicals, e. g., hazardous air pollutants, rank as high health risks in the US but do not appear as consistent areas of concerns in the other countries studied. This likely reflects the so-called "risk transition" - the shift from sanitation and infection disease problems to those involving industry, vehicles and toxic substances - that often occurs with economic development. It may also reflect the greater information about sources of toxic pollutants in the U.S. For other problems, there are important differences across the developing countries and economies in transition. For example, hazardous and

  2. Evaluation methodology based on physical security assessment results: a utility theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an evaluation methodology which aggregates physical security assessment results for nuclear facilities into an overall measure of adequacy. This methodology utilizes utility theory and conforms to a hierarchical structure developed by the NRC. Implementation of the methodology is illustrated by several examples. Recommendations for improvements in the evaluation process are given

  3. Computerizing marine biota: a rational approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Chandramohan, D.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Data on marine biota while being extensive are also patchy and scattered; thus making retrieval and dissemination of information time consuming. This emphasise the need for computerizing information on marine biota with the objective to collate...

  4. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  5. Bridging Minds: A Mixed Methodology to Assess Networked Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Carlo; Chirico, Alice; Brivio, Eleonora; Mazzoni, Elvis; Riva, Giuseppe; Milani, Luca; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this contribution is to present a methodological framework to study Networked Flow, a bio-psycho-social theory of collective creativity applying it on creative processes occurring via a computer network. First, we draw on the definition of Networked Flow to identify the key methodological requirements of this model. Next, we present the rationale of a mixed methodology, which aims at combining qualitative, quantitative and structural analysis of group dynamics to obtain a rich longitudinal dataset. We argue that this integrated strategy holds potential for describing the complex dynamics of creative collaboration, by linking the experiential features of collaborative experience (flow, social presence), with the structural features of collaboration dynamics (network indexes) and the collaboration outcome (the creative product). Finally, we report on our experience with using this methodology in blended collaboration settings (including both face-to-face and virtual meetings), to identify open issues and provide future research directions.

  6. Sustainability assessment of olive grove in Andalusia: A methodological proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Limon, Jose Antonio; Riesgo, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Recently the olive sector has had important changes in Andalusia due to both the enlargement and the intensification of farming. The expansion of the olive grove in Andalusia is causing sustainability problems, not only from the socio-economic dimension (profit reduction) but environmental (erosion, water pollution or biodiversity losses). The main objective of this study is to develop a methodology to analyse the sustainability of the olive grove farms in Andalusia. This methodology will all...

  7. MARC - the NRPB methodology for assessing radiological consequences of accidental releases of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Radiological Protection Board has developed a methodology for the assessment of the public health related consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. The methodology consists of a suite of computer programs which predict the transfer of activity from the point of release to the atmosphere through to the population. The suite of programs is entitled MARC; Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences. This report describes the overall framework and philosophy utilised within MARC. (author)

  8. Functionally and phylogenetically diverse plant communities key to soil biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcu, Alexandru; Allan, Eric; Roscher, Christiane; Jenkins, Tania; Meyer, Sebastian T; Flynn, Dan; Bessler, Holger; Buscot, François; Engels, Christof; Gubsch, Marlén; König, Stephan; Lipowsky, Annett; Loranger, Jessy; Renker, Carsten; Scherber, Christoph; Schmid, Bernhard; Thébault, Elisa; Wubet, Tesfaye; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies assessing the role of biological diversity for ecosystem functioning indicate that the diversity of functional traits and the evolutionary history of species in a community, not the number of taxonomic units, ultimately drives the biodiversity--ecosystem-function relationship. Here, we simultaneously assessed the importance of plant functional trait and phylogenetic diversity as predictors of major trophic groups of soil biota (abundance and diversity), six years from the onset of a grassland biodiversity experiment. Plant functional and phylogenetic diversity were generally better predictors of soil biota than the traditionally used species or functional group richness. Functional diversity was a reliable predictor for most biota, with the exception of soil microorganisms, which were better predicted by phylogenetic diversity. These results provide empirical support for the idea that the diversity of plant functional traits and the diversity of evolutionary lineages in a community are important for maintaining higher abundances and diversity of soil communities.

  9. Towards a Methodology for a Risk Assessment System for Contaminated Sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson-van der Poel MA; LBG

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a procedure to develop a risk assessment methodology for contaminated sites with respect to the risk of dispersal in groundwater. The methodology was originally intended for landfills, but is for example also usable for risk assessment of contaminated industrial sites and sludg

  10. Risk assessment methodologies for Critical Infrastructure Protection. Part I: A state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Giannopoulos, Georgios; FILIPPINI ROBERTO; SCHIMMER Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Effective risk assessment methodologies are the cornerstone of a successful Critical Infrastructure Protection program. The extensive number of risk assessment methodologies for critical infrastructures clearly supports this argument. Risk assessment is indispensable in order to identify threats, assess vulnerabilities and evaluate the impact on assets, infrastructures or systems taking into account the probability of the occurrence of these threats. This is a critical element that differenti...

  11. Development of Proliferation Resistance Assessment Methodology based on International Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proliferation resistance is one of the requirement to be met in GEN IV and INPRO for next generation nuclear energy system. Internationally, the evaluation methodology on PR had been already initiated from 1980, but the systematic development was started at 2000s. In Korea, for the export of nuclear energy system and the increase of international credibility and transparence of domestic nuclear system and fuel cycle development, the independent development of PR evaluation methodology was started in 2007 as a nuclear long term R and D project and the development is being performed for the model of PR evaluation methodology. In 1st year, comparative study of GEN-IV/INPRO, PR indicator development, quantification of indicator and evaluation model development, analysis of technology system and international technology development trend had been performed. In 2nd and 3rd year, feasibility study of indicator, allowable limit of indicator, review of technical requirement of indicator, technical standard, design of evaluation model were done. The results of PR evaluation must be applied in the beginning of conceptual design of nuclear system. Through the technology development of PR evaluation methodology, the methodology will be applied in the regulatory requirement for authorization and permission to be developed

  12. Summary of information on aquatic biota and their habitats in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, through 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Bob; Henson, C.M.; Waite, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    Available information on aquatic biota of the Willamette Basin was reviewed and summarized to describe current and historical conditions as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Biological parameters emphasized include the status, distribution, and trends of aquatic biota, particularly algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish; the condition of aquatic and riparian habitat in which these biota reside; and the response of these biota to natural and human-associated impacts, including the level, type, and effect of contaminants.

  13. Redistribution of soil biota by rainfall erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Craig; Rowan, John; McKenzie, Blair; Neilson, Roy

    2013-04-01

    Soil is central to the provision of multiple ecosystem services that sustain life through a myriad of chemical, physical and biological processes. One of the greatest threats to soil is erosion, a natural process accelerated by human activities. Elevated erosion rates are common in agro-ecosystems causing both direct physical impacts (e.g. soil loss), and indirect biogeochemical consequences, which ultimately leads to impaired ecosystem functioning. The consequences of erosion on soil biota have hitherto been ignored, yet biota have fundamental roles in the provision of soil ecosystem services. To our knowledge few studies have addressed the gap between erosion and impacts on soil biota. Here we use soil nematodes as a model organism for assessing erosion impacts on soil (micro) fauna in temperate agro-ecosystems. Soil nematodes are ubiquitous, abundant, are represented at all levels in soil food webs and can be categorised into a range of trophic or functional groups. To quantify transport of nematodes and gain a better understanding of erosive mechanisms responsible, we measured their export from small erosion plots (0.0625m2) under a fixed-intensity design rainstorm (6mm min-1 duration: 3 min) over six slope angles (4° - 24°) and three soil texture classes (sandy silt, silty sand, silt). Runoff and eroded sediment were collected for each plot (four replicate runs), and a suite of biological and physico-chemical parameters measured. Results confirmed that, similar to soil particles, nematodes were exported at rates influenced by slope angle and soil texture. These experiments, linked with field and catchment-scale equivalents, are designed to elucidate the links between soil erosion and provision of ecosystem services and to inform biodiversity-sensitive soil and water conservation practices.

  14. Assessing L2 Knowledge of Spanish Clitic Placement: Converging Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Nigel; White, Lydia

    1999-01-01

    Reports on an experiment investigating adult second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish object clitic placement by native speakers of English and French. Two experimental methodologies are compared: an on-line sentence matching task and an off-line grammaticality judgment task. (Author/VWL)

  15. Assessing the Impact of Entrepreneurship Education Programmes: A New Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayolle, Alain; Gailly, Benoit; Lassas-Clerc, Narjisse

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Facing the multiplication of entrepreneurship education programmes (EEP) and the increasing resources allocated, there is a need to develop a common framework to evaluate the design of those programmes. The purpose of this article is to propose such a framework, based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Design/methodology/approach:…

  16. Researching Assessment as Social Practice: Implications for Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Suellen

    2008-01-01

    Recent educational journals on both sides of the Atlantic have seen a resurgence of debate about the nature of educational research. As a contribution to these debates, this paper draws on theoretical and methodological "thinking tools" of French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. Specifically, the paper explores what Jenkins [Jenkins, R. (2002).…

  17. Industrial environmental performance assessment: developing a referential methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Marize Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to the development of a methodological framework for the broadly evaluation of environmental performance in industrial companies. The methodological framework developed is composed for nine aspects of evaluation, namely: Organizational Management, Human Resources, Product, Production Process, Physical Facilities, Emissions, Social Development, Economic and Financial Aspect and Media. For each of these aspects were created evaluation indicators, a total of 35 indicators. Each indicator is accompanied by a numeric ID, a description, a generic goal, and its metric unit of measure and a scale to measure the care of each indicator. As an illustration, the proposed framework was applied to the evaluation in an industrial metal-mechanical company, the latter achieved environmental performance of 84.0%.

  18. Quantitative assessments of distributed systems methodologies and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bruneo, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Distributed systems employed in critical infrastructures must fulfill dependability, timeliness, and performance specifications. Since these systems most often operate in an unpredictable environment, their design and maintenance require quantitative evaluation of deterministic and probabilistic timed models. This need gave birth to an abundant literature devoted to formal modeling languages combined with analytical and simulative solution techniques The aim of the book is to provide an overview of techniques and methodologies dealing with such specific issues in the context of distributed

  19. Methodological aspects of environmental assessment of livestock production by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    to include, the stages of the livestock system to comprise and the effects on adjoining systems like energy and fertilizer production to account for. Further, it explains the comparative nature of environmental assessment and how to use reference systems as the basis of comparison of alternative techniques......This paper illustrates the necessity to use a holistic perspective when striving to assess the environmental performance of a livestock production system. It elaborates on the methodological dimension of livestock- related LCAs, i.e. it describes the essential environmental impacts categories....... It illustrates a Danish example of establishing data of such reference systems. Finally, it provides an overview of approaches used to estimate emissions based on knowledge of manure composition throughout the stages of the livestock production system....

  20. Safety assessment of a borehole type disposal facility using the ISAM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improving Long-term of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM), three example cases were developed. The aim was to test the ISAM safety assessment methodology using as realistic as possible data. One of the Test Cases, the Borehole Test Case (BTC), related to a proposed future disposal option for disused sealed radioactive sources. This paper uses the various steps of the ISAM safety assessment methodology to describe the work undertaken by ISAM participants in developing the BTC and provides some general conclusions that can be drawn from the findings of their work. (author)

  1. Unravelling peer assessment: Methodological, functional, and conceptual developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbos, J.W.; Sluijsmans, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Peer assessment is an educational arrangement where students judge a peer's performance quantitatively and/or qualitatively and which stimulates students to reflect, discuss and collaborate. However, empirical evidence for peer assessment effects on learning is scarce, mostly based on student self-r

  2. Unravelling peer assessment : Methodological, functional, and conceptual developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Sluijsmans, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Peer assessment is an educational arrangement where students judge a peer's performance quantitatively and/or qualitatively and which stimulates students to reflect, discuss and collaborate. However, empirical evidence for peer assessment effects on learning is scarce, mostly based on student self-r

  3. Risk assessment by convergence methodology in RDD scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Olga Maria Oliveira de; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Rebello, Wilson Freitas; Silva, Gabriel Fidalgo Queiroz da, E-mail: olgafisica2013@hotmail.com, E-mail: fisica.dna@gmail.com, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: profgabriel.fisica@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    An RDD event occurs by explosion and radioactive material dispersion where particles containing radioactive material can reach great distances from original point of the explosion and generating a plume of contamination. The use of a RDD is regarded as the most likely scenario involving radiological terrorist material. Accurate information on the population and the estimated dose are essential for analysis during the decision process. This work intends to present a proposal for a convergence of methodologies using the computer simulation codes Hotspot Health Physics 3.0 and the statistical model Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) to calculate the approximate dose depending on the distance of the original point of the explosion of an RDD. From those data, the relative risk of developing tumors is estimated, as well as the probability of causation. At a later stage, the proposed combination of actions intended to help the decision-making and employment response personnel in emergency protection measures, such as sheltering and evacuation through the RESRAD-RDD software. The convergence of the proposed methodology can accelerate the process of acquiring information during the first hours of a radiological scenario and provide proper management of medical response and organization of the overall response. (author)

  4. Methodologies for assessment of three phase induction motors; Metodologias para avaliacao de motores de inducao trifasicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Mario Cesar E.S.; Tatizawa, Hedio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Ramos, Mario Cesar Giacco [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes (UMC), SP (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    National and international methodologies are presented existing for determination of the yield of industrial three phase induction motors, viewing the energy consumption reduction and assessment of possible equipment replacement. So, measurement results were analysed, conducted by five enterprises specialized on motor efficiency. Also, it is presented a case study using the described methodologies.

  5. User needs for a standardized CO2 emission assessment methodology for intelligent transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, D.; Rekiel, J.; Wolfermann, A.; Klunder, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Amitran FP7 project will define a reference methodology to assess the impact of intelligent transport systems on CO2 emissions. The methodology is intended to be used as a reference by future projects and covers both passenger and freight transport. The project will lead to a validated methodolo

  6. Validating the Octave Allegro Information Systems Risk Assessment Methodology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Corland G.

    2014-01-01

    An information system (IS) risk assessment is an important part of any successful security management strategy. Risk assessments help organizations to identify mission-critical IS assets and prioritize risk mitigation efforts. Many risk assessment methodologies, however, are complex and can only be completed successfully by highly qualified and…

  7. The Best of Two Worlds? Methodology for the Participatory Assessment of Community Water Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk-Siebesma, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: domestic water supply, community management, gender, poverty, program planning, program evaluation, monitoring, water policy, participatory methods, sustainability, useThe Methodology for Participatory Assessment, or MPA, is a new, multi-level instrument to combine sustainability analysis

  8. Towards a methodology for educational modelling: a case in educational assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Giesbers, Bas; Van Bruggen, Jan; Hermans, Henry; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Burgers, Jan; Koper, Rob; Latour, Ignace

    2005-01-01

    Giesbers, B., van Bruggen, J., Hermans, H., Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Burgers, J., Koper, R., & Latour, I. (2007). Towards a methodology for educational modelling: a case in educational assessment. Educational Technology & Society, 10 (1), 237-247.

  9. Contribution to the power distribution methodology uncertainties assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present methodology of safety margins in NPP Dukovany design power distribution calculations is based on the philosophy of engineering factors with errors defined on the bases of statistical approach of standard (95%) confidence intervals. On the level of FA power distribution the normality (normal density distribution) of this approach is tested and comparison with errors defined on the 95-percent probability at a 95-percent confidence level (shortly in statistics 95%/95%)) is provided. Practical applications are presented for several NPP Dukovany fuel cycles. The paper also deals briefly with difference between confidence interval and tolerance interval, with the problems of density distribution of mechanical engineering factor variables and solution of axial and radial error distribution like bivariate problem. (Author)

  10. Assessing quality in software development: An agile methodology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rodríguez-Hernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel methodology, result of 10 years of in-field testing, which makes possible the convergence of different types of models and quality standards for Engineering and Computer Science Faculties, is presented. Since most software-developing companies are small and medium sized, the projects developed must focuson SCRUM and Extreme Programming (XP, opposed to a RUP, which is quite heavy, as well as on Personal Software Process (PSP and Team Software Process (TSP, which provide students with competences and a structured framework. ISO 90003:2004 norm is employed to define the processes by means of a quality system without new requirements or changing the existing ones. Also, the model is based on ISO/IEC 25000 (ISO (IEC 9126 – ISO/IEC 14598 to allow comparing software built by different metrics.

  11. Pyritization in the Gaojiashan Biota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI YaoPing; HUA Hong

    2007-01-01

    The Late Sinian (Ediacaran) Gaojiashan Biota was a soft-bodied fossil-Lagerst(a)tte dominated by substantial pyritized, three-dimensionally preserved tubular and conotubular fossils. Soft-tissue pyritization is extremely scarce in the fossil records, especially in the Precambrian, therefore it has very important and unique significance for the study of pyritization in the Gaojiashan Biota. Early pyritization played a pivotal role in the fossil preservation and two main factors ensured the successful pyritization of the fossils, namely rapid burial and permineralization. The former was controlled by secular storm deposition, and the latter was achieved by sufficient supply of available iron from sediments. SEM data of Conotubus demonstrate two types of preservation of the tubes (defined as type A and type B, respectively). In type A, pyritization took place relatively earlier and completely preserved both tube wall and coelom, but no detailed structure. While in type B, pyritization took place somewhat later and preserved the integrated tube wall, but partially the coelom. The size frequency distribution of the pyrite framboids suggests that pyritization took place in two different environments with entire different oxygen content.

  12. THE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES PTELR, ADRI AND CAE – THREE METHODOLOGIES FOR COORDINATING THE EFFORTS TO IMPROVE THE ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES TO ACHIEVE EXCELLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Raluca POPESCU; Gheorghe N. Popescu

    2015-01-01

    In the paper “The Assessment Methodologies PTELR, ADRI and CAE – Three Methodologies for Coordinating the Efforts to Improve the Organizational Processes to Achieve Excellence” the authors present the basic features of the assessment methodologies PTELR, ADRI and CAE that are designed to coordinate the efforts to improve the organizational processes in order to achieve excellence. In the first part of the paper (the introduction of the paper), the authors present the general background concer...

  13. A Methodology for assessing Agile Software Development Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Soundararajan, Shvetha

    2011-01-01

    Agile methods provide an organization or a team the flexibility to adopt a selected subset of principles and practices based on their culture, their values, and the types of systems that they develop. More specifically, every organization or team implements a customized agile method, tailored to better accommodate its needs. However, the extent to which a customized method supports the organizational objectives, or rather the 'goodness' of that method is questionable. Existing agile assessment approaches focus on a comparative analysis, or are limited in scope and application. In this research, we propose a structured, systematic and comprehensive approach to assess the 'goodness' of agile methods. We examine an agile method based on (1) its adequacy, (2) the capability of the organization to support the adopted principles and practices specified by the method, and (3) the method's effectiveness. We propose the Objectives, Principles and Practices (OPP) Framework to guide our assessment. The Framework identif...

  14. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and allowed outage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Park, Kang Min [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assesses the optimization of Surveillance Test Internal(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korean nuclear power plant safety. In this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modelings and results performed by domestic and international researches are performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method. The sensitivity analyses about the failure factors of the components are performed in the bases of the and AOT is quantified. And the reliability assessment methodology about the diesel generator is reviewed and applied to the PSA code. The qualitative assessment for the STI/AOR of RPS/ESFAS assured safety the most important system in the nuclear power plant are performed.

  15. Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

  16. Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Castanheira, Erica G; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated. PMID:23178782

  17. A methodology for enhanced flexibility of integrated assessment in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewert, F.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Bezlepkina, I.; Therond, O.; Andersen, E.; Belhouchette, H.; Bockstaller, C.; Brouwer, F.M.; Heckelei, T.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Knapen, R.; Kuiper, M.; Louhichi, K.; Olsson, J.A.; Turpin, N.; Wery, J.; Wien, J.E.; Wolf, J.

    2009-01-01

    Agriculture is interrelated with the socio-economic and natural environment and faces increasingly the problem of managing its multiple functions in a sustainable way. Growing emphasis is on adequate policies that can support both agriculture and sustainable development. Integrated Assessment and Mo

  18. Assessment of soil nutrient balance: approaches and methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, R.N.; Misra, R.V.; Lesschen, J.P.; Smaling, E.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient-balance assessments are valuable tools for delineating the consequences of farming on soil fertility. Various approaches and methods for different situations have been used. This bulletin presents a state-of-the-art overview of nutrient-balance studies. It brings out the evolution of the ap

  19. USEPA SHEDS MODEL: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...

  20. The methodology of multicriterial assessment of Petri nets’ apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashchenko Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the effectiveness and relevance of the using of the apparatus of Petri nets for modeling of complex computing systems. Due to the fact that the methods of analysis existing in this theory do not allow estimating the resources required to build the desired model of the system, there is a problem of shortage of criteria for its evaluation in terms of the complexity of the construction. In the article we consider the method of analysis of a random Petri net based on the complexity of its building and relationships of internal units - subnets. The purpose of this article is a software implementation of such an assessment within the theory of PN structures. Due to the fact, that structural approach allows to perform the operation of decomposition of the original system, this model can be divided into subnets of minimal dimension, that will allow to make its quantitative assessment - ranking. To determine the total assessment of the input and output data of the system we will perform the analysis of head and tail positions of the net taking into account the weights of the input and output arcs of these positions. In order to identify an extent of the cost required to build the system, the number of operations of union of subnet transitions and positions. These subnets have minimal dimension in the original PN. Thus, the article demonstrates the formal implementation of assessment technique modules with using of algebra of sets, and the rules of splitting the PN structure into elementary blocks are formulated. The example of a comparative assessment of the two Petri nets based on the proposed complexity criteria is given; the plots of PN in different coordinate systems are displayed. The article presents the results of the research - a plot of PN structures in three-dimensional space, implemented using described software. It demonstrates the accuracy of PN assessment by structural analysis in comparing with a non

  1. A FORTRAN Program for Assessing Unidimensionality of Binary Data Using Holland and Rosenbaum's Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, R

    1993-01-01

    Unidimensionality is one of the important assumptions the data should satisfy in order to apply unidimensional item response models. There are several methodologies available to date to assess the dimensionality of the latent space underlying binary item responses. Rosenbaum (1984) and Holland and Rosenbaum (1986) have proved theorems concerning conditional associations that can be applied to assess dimensionality. Holland and Rosenbaum's method has been applied to assess dimensionality by Zwick (1987), Ben- Simon and Cohen (1990), and Nandakumar (1991) to various test situations. This article outlines the Holland and Rosenbaum's (1986) methodology to assess unidimensionality, illustrates the procedure through a simulated data set, and describes how to interpret the results.

  2. Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation) and International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf A-2444 (Austria)]. E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.org; Alexakhin, R.M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Sanzharova, N.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spirin, Ye.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spiridonov, S.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Gontarenko, I.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteras (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 10{sup 5}) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well.

  3. Methodology for the Seismic risk assessment in segments of fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study establishes the most adequate methods of Seismic Hazard Assessment for the Iberian Peninsula, in particular for low seismicity areas, through a review of methods used in other countries and its application to a certain area in Spain. In this area the geological context and recent activity of a specific tectonic structure is studied in detail, in order to asses its slip rate, and therefore, its capability of generating earthquakes. In the first stage of this project a review of Seismic Hazard Assessment methods used outside Spain was carried out, as well as, a study of several spanish cases. This stage also comprises a review of the spanish seismic record and a study of the general peninsular neotectonic context, this latter to select a particular fault for the next stage. (Author) 117 refs

  4. Environmental assessment methodologies for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA and the IMO, in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), jointly convened a Technical Committee to provide guidance to national authorities. This document contains the results of the Technical Committee Meeting in Vienna, August - September 1982 and constitutes guidance to the Contracting Parties to the LDC Convention on the nature and content of the environmental assessment required for permit applications for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

  5. Situated learning methodologies and assessment in civil engineering structures education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, Michael Davis

    This thesis describes an overarching study of civil engineering undergraduate structural education through student performance in recalling and applying basic structural engineering knowledge, and the viability of alternative situated learning environments for more effectively supporting the learning of this knowledge. To properly ground this study, a thorough investigation of related work in assessment, cognitive science, educational technology, and design education was completed, with connections and applications to civil engineering education highlighted. The experimental work of the thesis is organized into three parts: an assessment of civil engineering undergraduates' fundamental structural engineering knowledge and abilities; the development and testing of a software support environment for situated learning, the Civil Engineering Learning Library (CELL); and, the implementation and evaluation of the design studio, a pedagogical model for situated learning in the classroom. The results of the assessment study indicate that civil engineering seniors (and also students earlier in the curriculum) have difficulty retaining and applying basic knowledge of structural behavior, especially doing so in a flexible fashion in design situations. The survey also suggests that visualization plays an important role in understanding structural behavior. Tests with the CELL system show that a cognitively-flexible multimedia environment can support structural learning, but were inconclusive about whether the computer-based system helped the students to learn better than conventional classroom lecture. Two trial implementations of the design studio indicate that the studio model can serve as a powerful situated learning environment, and that it can be scaled up to reasonable class sizes. Significant requirements are associated with this model, however, primarily in faculty involvement, but also in physical resources and student time. In addition to these conclusions about the

  6. Methodological approach in assessing sustainable development of regional economy

    OpenAIRE

    Golovanov Egor Borisovich

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the essence of the content of sustainable development of regional economy. Peculiarities of the regional economy as a spatial aspect of human activity. Based on the study of scientific approaches and concepts to the understanding of the category "sustainability" and "sustainable development" is proposed clarification of the concept of sustainable development of regional economy. Disclosed methodical approach to the assessment that takes into account the influence of thr...

  7. Macro Security Methodology for Conducting Facility Security and Sustainability Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a macro security strategy that not only addresses traditional physical protection systems, but also focuses on sustainability as part of the security assessment and management process. This approach is designed to meet the needs of virtually any industry or environment requiring critical asset protection. PNNL has successfully demonstrated the utility of this macro security strategy through its support to the NNSA Office of Global Threat Reduction implementing security upgrades at international facilities possessing high activity radioactive sources that could be used in the assembly of a radiological dispersal device, commonly referred to as a 'dirty bomb'. Traditional vulnerability assessments provide a snap shot in time of the effectiveness of a physical protection system without significant consideration to the sustainability of the component elements that make up the system. This paper describes the approach and tools used to integrate technology, plans and procedures, training, and sustainability into a simple, quick, and easy-to-use security assessment and management tool.

  8. Environmental assessment methodologies for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, which describes the content of an environmental assessment report, will assist national authorities to meet their obligations under the London Dumping Convention (LDC, 1972) by initiating those steps which are to be undertaken to ensure that ''the procedure to be followed and the nature of such reports shall be agreed by the parties in consultation'' (Article VI. 4). In the context of sea disposal of radioactive wastes, environmental assessments are taken to mean those evaluations which are undertaken to assist in the decision-making processes used by national authorities to determine: 1) How the option of sea disposal compares environmentally, technically, socially and economically with other disposal options (this constitutes the comparison with land-based alternatives); and 2) Whether the impact of a proposed sea disposal option is acceptable (this requires a detailed evaluation of the proposed operation including site selection, quantities and types of waste to be dumped, operational requirements and calculation of radiological and other risks). The term ''environmental assessment'' in these respects is deemed to include both the evaluation of the impact of sea dumping and the document that describes this evaluation

  9. Identification of Methodology of Indirect Assessment of Economy Shadowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avhustyn Ruslan R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the essence of the shadow economy as an objective phenomenon of socio-economic relations and its influence upon national economy security through instruments of pricing, fiscal restrictions, tax control, and banking and insurance regulation. It proves the necessity of use of the indirect method of assessment of the level of economy shadowing along with methods of direct control over the growth of shadowed economic relations, since such an approach would allow rational approach to identification of volumes and level of shadow activity. In the result of the study the article marks out varieties of indirect assessment of economy shadowing (methods of document, accounting and economic analysis, their specific features, advantages and shortcomings and results of practical use. The article reveals approaches and indicators of economic analysis that allow identification of reasons of deviations from the normal economic activity of economic subjects. It provides examples of the indirect method of assessment of the volume of shadowed economy that deal with analysis of demand on money and comparison of rates of the growth of the money supply with the volume of sight drafts with GDP.

  10. Combining several thermal indices to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam EL Hachem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The proposed methodology hopes to provide a systematic multi-disciplinary approach to assess the thermal environment while minimizing unneeded efforts. Design/methodology/approach: Different factors affect the perception of the human thermal experience: metabolic rate (biology, surrounding temperatures (heat balance and environmental factors and cognitive treatment (physiology.This paper proposes a combination of different multidisciplinary variables to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology. The variables at stake are physiological, biological, and environmental. Our own heat analysis is thoroughly presented and all relevant equations are described. Findings: Most companies are oblivious about potential dangers of heat stress accidents and thus about methods to monitor and prevent them. This methodology enables the company or the concerned individual to conduct a preliminary assessment with minimal wasted resources and time in unnecessary steps whilst providing a guideline for a detailed study with minimal error rates if needed. More so, thermal comfort is an integral part of sound ergonomics practices, which in turn are decisive for the success of any lean six sigma initiative. Research limitations/implications: This methodology requires several full implementations to finalize its design. Originality/value: Most used heat comfort models are inherently uncertain and tiresome to apply. An extensive literature review confirms the need for a uniform assessment methodology that combines the different thermal comfort models such as the Fanger comfort model (PMV, PPD and WGBT since high error rates coupled with tiresome calculations often hinder the thermal assessment process.

  11. A performance assessment methodology for high-level radioactive waste disposal in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a methodology for performance assessment of deep geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The applicability of this performance assessment methodology has been demonstrated for disposal in bedded salt and basalt; it has since been modified for assessment of repositories in unsaturated, fractured tuff. Changes to the methodology are primarily in the form of new or modified ground water flow and radionuclide transport codes. A new computer code, DCM3D, has been developed to model three-dimensional ground-water flow in unsaturated, fractured rock using a dual-continuum approach. The NEFTRAN 2 code has been developed to efficiently model radionuclide transport in time-dependent velocity fields, has the ability to use externally calculated pore velocities and saturations, and includes the effect of saturation dependent retardation factors. In order to use these codes together in performance-assessment-type analyses, code-coupler programs were developed to translate DCM3D output into NEFTRAN 2 input. Other portions of the performance assessment methodology were evaluated as part of modifying the methodology for tuff. The scenario methodology developed under the bedded salt program has been applied to tuff. An investigation of the applicability of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to non-linear models indicate that Monte Carlo simulation remains the most robust technique for these analyses. No changes have been recommended for the dose and health effects models, nor the biosphere transport models. 52 refs., 1 fig

  12. Functionally and phylogenetically diverse plant communities key to soil biota

    OpenAIRE

    Milcu, Alexandru; Allan, Eric; Roscher, Christiane; Jenkins, Tania; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Flynn, Dan; Bessler, Holger; Buscot, François; Engels, Christof; Gubsch, Marlén; König, Stephan; Lipowsky, Annett; Loranger, Jessy; Renker, Carsten; Scherber, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies assessing the role of biological diversity for ecosystem functioning indicate that the diversity of functional traits and the evolutionary history of species in a community, not the number of taxonomic units, ultimately drives the biodiversity–ecosystem-function relationship. Here, we simultaneously assessed the importance of plant functional trait and phylogenetic diversity as predictors of major trophic groups of soil biota (abundance and diversity), six years from the onset ...

  13. Development of margin assessment methodology of decay heat removal function against external hazards. (2) Tornado PRA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for external events has been recognized as an important safety assessment method after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident. The PRA should be performed not only for earthquake and tsunami which are especially key events in Japan, but also the PRA methodology should be developed for the other external hazards (e.g. tornado). In this study, the methodology was developed for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors paying attention to that the ambient air is their final heat sink for removing decay heat under accident conditions. First, tornado hazard curve was estimated by using data recorded in Japan. Second, important structures and components for decay heat removal were identified and an event tree resulting in core damage was developed in terms of wind load and missiles (i.e. steel pipes, boards and cars) caused by a tornado. Main damage cause for important structures and components is the missiles and the tornado missiles that can reach those components and structures placed on high elevations were identified, and the failure probabilities of the components and structures against the tornado missiles were calculated as a product of two probabilities: i.e., a probability for the missiles to enter the intake or outtake in the decay heat removal system, and a probability of failure caused by the missile impacts. Finally, the event tree was quantified. As a result, the core damage frequency was enough lower than 10-10/ry. (author)

  14. Development of margin assessment methodology of decay heat removal function against external hazards. (1) Project overview and snow PRA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes mainly snow probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology development in addition to the project overview. This project addresses extreme weathers (snow, tornado, wind and rainfall), volcanic phenomena and forest fire as representative external hazards. In this project, the methodologies of both PRA and margin assessment are developed for each external hazard through external hazard and accident sequence evaluations mainly in terms of decay heat removal function of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). Using recent 50 year weather data at a typical Japanese SFR site, snow hazard categories were set the combination of daily snowfall depth (snowfall speed) and snowfall duration which can be calculated by dividing the snow depth by the snowfall speed. For each snow hazard category, the accident sequence was evaluated by producing event trees which consist of several headings representing the loss of decay heat removal. Snow removal action and manual operation of the air cooler dampers were introduced into the event tree as accident managements. In this paper, the snow PRA showed less than 10-6/reactor-year of core damage frequency. The dominant snow hazard category was the combination of 1−2 m/day of snowfall speed and 0.5−0.75 day of snowfall duration. Importance and sensitivity analyses indicated a high risk contribution to secure the access routes. (author)

  15. Methodology for estimating extreme winds for probabilistic risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Elliott, D.L.; Holladay, C.G.; Hubbe, J.M.

    1986-10-01

    The US Nuclear Reguulatory Commission (NRC) assesses the risks associated with nuclear faciliies using techniques that fall under a generic name of Probabilistic Risk Assessment. In these assessments, potential accident sequences are traced from initiating event to final outcome. At each step of the sequence, a probability of occurrence is assigned to each available alternative. Ultimately, the probability of occurrence of each possible outcome is determined from the probabilities assigned to the initiating events and the alternative paths. Extreme winds are considered in these sequences. As a result, it is necessary to estimate extreme wind probabilities as low as 10/sup -7/yr/sup -1/. When the NRC staff is called on to provide extreme wind estimates, the staff is likely to be subjected to external time and funding constraints. These constraints dictate that the estimates be based on readily available wind data. In general, readily available data will be limited to the data provided by the facility applicant or licensee and the data archived at the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina. This report describes readily available data that can be used in estimating extreme wind probabilities, procedures of screening the data to eliminate erroneous values and for adjusting data to compensate for differences in data collection methods, and statistical methods for making extreme wind estimates. Supporting technical details are presented in several appendices. Estimation of extreme wind probabilities at a given location involves many subjective decisions. The procedures described do not eliminate all of the subjectivity, but they do increase the reproducibility of the analysis. They provide consistent methods for determining probabilities given a set of subjective decisions. By following these procedures, subjective decisions can be identified and documented.

  16. Methodologies for Systematic Assessment of Design Simplification. Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants are sophisticated engineered systems. To achieve a commercial nuclear power plant, its functions, systems and components need to be elaborated from design ideas to technical solutions and to the appropriate hardware over a long period of time. On the way, several design alternatives usually compete for implementation in the final plant. Engineering teams perform assessments, comparing different proposed engineering options in order to select an appropriate solution for the specific plant aimed at specific customers. This is a common process in design evolution. During such assessments, the trade-offs associated with different options are not always as simple as seen at very early design stages. Any requirement (e.g. relevant to safety, availability or competitiveness) usually has several dimensions; therefore, a change in the design aimed at producing the targeted effect (e.g. simplification of passive safety systems) as a rule produces other effects not directly related to the original idea. It means that the assessment needs to be carried out in iterations, not to bypass any meaningful feedback. The assessment then becomes a challenge for those designers who are interested in exploring innovative approaches and simplified systems. Unlike in several developed countries, so far, nuclear energy has been only marginally used in small and medium sized developing countries. One of the important reasons for this has been the lack of competitive commercial nuclear options with small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Then, the challenge for SMR designers has been to design simpler plants in order to counterbalance the well known penalties of economy of scale. The lack of experience with SMRs in small and medium sized developing countries could be viewed as practical proof of the lack of commercial success of such reactors. Fossil fuelled gas turbine technologies offer very competitive energy options available from tens to hundreds of MW(e), with

  17. Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-09-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

  18. Methodological issues in the assessment of substance use phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Michael C; Aggen, Steven H; Maes, Hermine H; Kubarych, Thomas S; Schmitt, J Eric

    2006-06-01

    The measurement of behavior is inherently problematic, and this is especially true of substance use and abuse phenotypes. The contingent nature of many assessments, such that symptoms of abuse and dependence cannot be obtained from those who have not initiated substance use, presents special difficulties. Furthermore, it is not clear whether individual differences in liability to use, abuse and dependence are best characterized as dimensions or classes or a combination of both. This article outlines research designs and methods suitable for quantifying liability to substance use. The value of data collected from relatives is emphasized in this context, as they permit identification of models normally compromised because data on, e.g., substance dependence symptoms, are systematically missing in those who have not initiated use of the substance in question. PMID:16723188

  19. A new methodology for flood hazard assessment considering dike breaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorogushyn, S.; Merz, B.; Lindenschmidt, K.-E.; Apel, H.

    2010-08-01

    This study focuses on development and application of a new modeling approach for a comprehensive flood hazard assessment along protected river reaches considering dike failures. The proposed Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM) represents a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model. It comprises three models that are coupled in a dynamic way: (1) 1D unsteady hydrodynamic model for river channel and floodplain between dikes; (2) probabilistic dike breach model which determines possible dike breach locations, breach widths and breach outflow discharges; and (3) 2D raster-based inundation model for the dike-protected floodplain areas. Due to the unsteady nature of the 1D and 2D models and runtime coupling, the interdependence between the hydraulic loads on dikes at various locations along the reach is explicitly considered. This ensures a more realistic representation of the fluvial system dynamics under extreme conditions compared to the steady approaches. The probabilistic dike breach model describes dike failures due to three failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and slope instability caused by seepage flow through the dike core (micro-instability). The 2D storage cell model computes various flood intensity indicators such as water depth, flow velocity, and inundation duration. IHAM is embedded in a Monte Carlo simulation in order to account for the natural variability of the input hydrograph form and the randomness of dike failures. Besides binary (wet/dry) inundation patterns, IHAM generates new probabilistic flood hazard maps for each intensity indicator and the associated uncertainty bounds. Furthermore, the novel probabilistic dike hazard maps indicate the failure probability of dikes for each considered breach mechanism.

  20. Water-quality assessment of the New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island : environmental settings and implications for water quality and aquatic biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sarah M.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Robinson, Keith W.; Coles, James F.

    1999-01-01

    The New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island constitute one of 59 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. England Coastal Basins study unit encompasses the fresh surface waters and ground waters in a 23,000 square-mile area that drains to the Atlantic Ocean. Major basins include those of the Kennebec, Androscoggin, Saco, Merrimack, Charles, Blackstone, Taunton, and Pawcatuck Rivers. Defining the environmental setting of the study unit is the first step in designing and conducting a multi-disciplinary regional water-quality assessment. The report describes the natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basins and includes descriptions of the physiography, climate, geology, soils, surface- and ground-water hydrology, land use, and the aquatic ecosystem. Although surface-water quality has greatly improved over the past 30 years as a result of improved wastewater treatment at municipal and industrial wastewater facilities, a number of water-quality problems remain. Industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, combined sewer overflows, hydrologic modifications from dams and water diversions, and runoff from urban land use are the major causes of water-quality degradation in 1998. The most frequently detected contaminants in ground water in the study area are volatile organic compounds, petroleum-related products, nitrates, and chloride and sodium. Sources of these contaminants include leaking storage tanks, accidental spills, landfills, road salting, and septic systems and lagoons. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in fish tissue from streams and lakes throughout the study area.

  1. Survey of contaminants in soils and biota at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey was conducted in 1987 to assess the presence and degree of contamination in soils and various biota at Seney National Wildlife Refuge, located in the...

  2. Evaluation of clean-up agents for total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis in biota and sediments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijs, B.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (oil) are common environmental contaminants. For risk assessment purposes, their concentrations in environmental matrixes, such as biota and soils/sediments are frequently determined by solvent extraction and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography (GC) equipped with flame

  3. Data Management inside the Library: Assessing Electronic Resources Data Using the Data Asset Framework Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogier, Andi; Hall, Monena; Bailey, Annette; Stovall, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly growing within academic libraries, library data services have often been focused on assessing research trends and building partnerships outside the library. There are distinct benefits, however, to using data audit methodologies created for these external assessments of researcher practices inside the library as well. In this article, we…

  4. Methodological approaches to the assessment of the competitiveness of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarov Nikolai Igorevich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research methodologies for assessing the competitiveness of the region based on the analysis of literary sources. The study stated the author's technique assessing the competitiveness of the region, in accordance with the paradigm of regional development.

  5. Methodological approach to a comprehensive assessment of region’s innovationbased development

    OpenAIRE

    Lyakh, I.

    2014-01-01

    The paper formulates a methodological approach to a comprehensive assessment of region’s innovationbased development that is formed under the influence of the state, regional and socio-economic innovation policy. Author’s definition of region’s innovationbased development is presented. Principles of building techniques to assess the effectiveness of innovation-based development are identified.

  6. Assessing Personality and Mood With Adjective Check List Methodology: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the benefits and problems in using adjective check list methodology to assess personality. Recent developments in this assessment method are reviewed, emphasizing seminal adjective-based personality tests (Gough's Adjective Check List), mood tests (Lubin's Depressive Adjective Test, Multiple Affect Adjective Check List),…

  7. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  8. Problems of method of technology assessment. A methodological analysis; Methodenprobleme des Technology Assessment; Eine methodologische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, V.

    1993-03-01

    The study undertakes to analyse the theoretical and methodological structure of Technology Assessment (TA). It is based on a survey of TA studies which provided an important condition for theoreticall sound statements on methodological aspects of TA. It was established that the main basic theoretical problems of TA are in the field of dealing with complexity. This is also apparent in the constitution of problems, the most elementary and central approach of TA. Scientifically founded constitution of problems and the corresponding construction of models call for interdisciplinary scientific work. Interdisciplinarity in the TA research process is achieved at the level of virtual networks, these networks being composed of individuals suited to teamwork. The emerging network structures have an objective-organizational and an ideational basis. The objective-organizational basis is mainly the result of team composition and the external affiliations of the team members. The ideational basis of the virtual network is represented by the team members` mode of thinking, which is individually located at a multidisciplinary level. The theoretical `skeleton` of the TA knowledge system, which is represented by process knowledge based linkage structures, can be generated and also processed in connection with the knowledge on types of problems, areas of analysis and procedures to deal with complexity. Within this process, disciplinary knowledge is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. Metatheoretical and metadisciplinary knowledge and the correspondingly processes complexity of models are the basis for the necessary methodological awareness, that allows TA to become designable as a research procedure. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Die Studie stellt sich die Aufgabe, die theoretische und methodische Struktur des Technology Assessment (TA) zu analysieren. Sie fusst auf Erhebungen, die bei Technology-Assessment-Studien vorgenommen wurden und die wesentliche Voraussetzungen fuer

  9. Improved cook stove adoption and impact assessment: A proposed methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: Until now, the success of improved cook stoves (ICS) implementation programs has usually been measured by the number of ICS distributed. Some important research has been conducted to try to determine the effects of the use of an ICS in the user′s health, but these studies are expensive and time consuming. Moreover, no evaluations show the impact of the technology in the user′s lives. This study seeks to contribute to fill this gap. Scope: By applying cluster analysis techniques to survey data, the most relevant variables that explain adoption and impact were identified. Using these variables, two qualitative indexes are proposed: The adoption index considers the use of the new technology, the level of satisfaction, and the conditions of the stove. The impact index considers the changes in cooking practices and life quality brought about by the ICS. Both indexes are then applied to two implementation programs. The indexes show the differences between the program results and the user′s perceptions of each technology. Conclusions: The proposed indexes can be used to measure the success of an ICS implementation program in terms of the benefits perceived by the users of these technologies. -- Highlights: •Two qualitative indexes are proposed to measure the benefits perceived by ICS users. •Two implementation programs were assessed. •The approach enables determining the impact of ICS programs at a fraction of the cost. •It enables comparing the results of different implementation programs

  10. Methodological Consequences of Situation Specificity: Biases in Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Patry

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Social research is plagued by many biases. Most of them are due to situation specificity of social behavior and can be explained using a theory of situation specificity. The historical background of situation specificity in personality social psychology research is briefly sketched, then a theory of situation specificity is presented in detail, with as centerpiece the relationship between the behavior and its outcome which can be described as either the more, the better or not too much and not too little. This theory is applied to reliability and validity of assessments in social research. The distinction between maximum performance and typical performance is shown to correspond to the two behavior-outcome relations. For maximum performance, issues of reliability and validity are much easier to be solved, whereas typical performance is sensitive to biases, as predicted by the theory. Finally, it is suggested that biases in social research are not just systematic error, but represent relevant features to be explained just as other behavior, and that the respective theories should be integrated into a theory system.

  11. Environmental assessment of digestate treatment technologies using LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Golkowska, Katarzyna; Lebuf, Viooltje; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Benetto, Enrico; Koster, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The production of biogas from energy crops, organic waste and manure has augmented considerably the amounts of digestate available in Flanders. This has pushed authorities to steadily introduce legislative changes to promote its use as a fertilising agent. There is limited arable land in Flanders, which entails that digestate has to compete with animal manure to be spread. This forces many anaerobic digestion plants to further treat digestate in such a way that it can either be exported or the nitrogen be removed. Nevertheless, the environmental impact of these treatment options is still widely unknown, as well as the influence of these impacts on the sustainability of Flemish anaerobic digestion plants in comparison to other regions where spreading of raw digestate is allowed. Despite important economic aspects that must be considered, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is suggested in this study to identify the environmental impacts of spreading digestate directly as compared to four different treatment technologies. Results suggest relevant environmental gains when the digestate mix is treated using the examined conversion technologies prior to spreading, although important trade-offs between impact categories were observed and discussed. The promising results of digestate conversion technologies suggest that further LCA analyses should be performed to delve into, for instance, the appropriateness to shift to nutrient recovery technologies rather than digestate conversion treatments.

  12. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis methodology in a level-I PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a methodology for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, applicable to a probabilistic safety assessment level I. The work contents are: correct association of distributions to parameters, importance and qualification of expert opinions, generations of samples according to sample sizes, and study of the relationships among system variables and system response. A series of statistical-mathematical techniques are recommended along the development of the analysis methodology, as well different graphical visualization for the control of the study. (author)

  13. Performance Assessment of Feature Detection Algorithms: A Methodology and Case Study on Corner Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Rockett, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe a generic methodology for evaluating the labeling performance of feature detectors. We describe a method for generating a test set and apply the methodology to the performance assessment of three well-known corner detectors: the Kitchen-Rosenfeld, Paler et al. and Harris-Stephens corner detectors. The labeling deficiencies of each of these detectors is related to their discrimination ability between corners and various of the features which comprise the class of nonc...

  14. Probabilistic structural seismic performance assessment methodology and application to an actual bridge-foundation -ground system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuyi

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a probabilistic structural seismic performance assessment methodology. To facilitate, guide, and validate this development, the targeted methodology is applied to an actual bridge- foundation-ground system. First, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) predicts the possible earthquake ground motion intensities (IM) and their probabilities at the structure site based on the seismic environment. The result of PSHA is a seismic hazard curve that rep...

  15. A Bayesian Network Methodology for Infrastructure Seismic Risk Assessment and Decision Support

    OpenAIRE

    Bensi, Michelle Terese

    2010-01-01

    A Bayesian network methodology is developed for performing infrastructure seismic risk assessment and providing decision support with an emphasis on immediate post-earthquake applications. The methodology consists of four major components: (1) a seismic demand model of ground motion intensity as a spatially distributed Gaussian random field accounting for multiple seismic sources with uncertain characteristics and including finite fault rupture and directivity effects; (2) a model of the perf...

  16. Definition of a shortcut methodology for assessing flood-related Na-Tech risk

    OpenAIRE

    Marzo, E; Busini, V.; Rota, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a qualitative methodology for the initial assessment of flood-related Na-Tech risk was developed as a screening tool to identify which situations require a much more expensive quantitative risk analysis (QRA). Through the definition of some suitable key hazard indicators (KHIs), the proposed methodology allows the identification of the Na-Tech risk level associated with a given situation; the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used as a multi-criteria decision tool for the e...

  17. A Methodology To Incorporate The Safety Culture Into Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghyun; Kim, Namyeong; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to incorporate organizational factors into PSA, a methodology needs to be developed. Using the AHP to weigh organizational factors as well as the SLIM to rate those factors, a methodology is introduced in this study. The safety issues related to nuclear safety culture have occurred increasingly. The quantification tool has to be developed in order to include the organizational factor into Probabilistic Safety Assessments. In this study, the state-of-the-art for the organizational evaluation methodologies has been surveyed. This study includes the research for organizational factors, maintenance process, maintenance process analysis models, a quantitative methodology using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Success Likelihood Index Methodology. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to incorporate the safety culture into PSA for obtaining more objective risk than before. The organizational factor considered in nuclear safety culture might affect the potential risk of human error and hardware-failure. The safety culture impact index to monitor the plant safety culture can be assessed by applying the developed methodology into a nuclear power plant.

  18. A Novel Methodology for the Sustainability Impact Assessment of New Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    de Blok, K; Huijbregts, M; Roes, Lex; van Haaster, Berthe; Patel, M.K. (Martin); Hertwich, E.; Hauschild, M.; Sellke, P.; Antunes, P.; Hellweg, S.; Ciroth, A.; Harmelink, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies can have profound impact on society and nature. Therefore, a need exists for a method that can provide a balanced assessment of new tech-nologies that takes into account all different impacts. Within the EU-funded PROSUITE pro-ject, the aim is to develop a methodology for the sustainability assessment of existing and emerging technologies. Here, existing approaches of sustainability assessment are re-viewed. All of them have their merits, but none of them ...

  19. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  20. A review of environmental flow assessment: methodologies and application in the Qianhe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, C. F.; He, L. M.; Niu, C. W.; Jia, Y. W.

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flow is of great significance for maintenance of ecological services in the riverine ecosystem. The paper reviews present methodologies for environmental flow assessment on the basis of three classifications, including the Hydrological Index Methodologies, the Hydraulic Rating Methodologies and the Habitat Simulation Methodologies. Both advantages and disadvantages of each classification are fully analysed, as well as applicable conditions. Moreover, representative methods of different classifications are applied to prescribe environmental flow in the Qianhe River of north China with consideration of hydrological series, hydraulic characteristics and habitat suitability of targeted species. The results of environment flow by the Montana Method, Wetted Perimeter Method and Physical Habitat Simulation System are 1.23 m3/s, 2.07 m3/s and 0.52 m3/s for the Qianyang section in middle reach of the Qianhe River. In view of seasonal variation of the Qianhe River, the paper recommends 1.23 m3/s as the minimum runoff in the dry season and 2.07 m3/s in the wet season. For further improvement of environmental flow assessment, studies of quantitative correspondence relationship between each component of instream flow and its ecological functions of riverine ecosystem, and the development of Holistic Methodologies by combination of various methodologies and multi-disciplinary information have great potential.

  1. Development of AMSTAR: a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Candyce

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to develop an instrument to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews, building upon previous tools, empirical evidence and expert consensus. Methods A 37-item assessment tool was formed by combining 1 the enhanced Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ, 2 a checklist created by Sacks, and 3 three additional items recently judged to be of methodological importance. This tool was applied to 99 paper-based and 52 electronic systematic reviews. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify underlying components. The results were considered by methodological experts using a nominal group technique aimed at item reduction and design of an assessment tool with face and content validity. Results The factor analysis identified 11 components. From each component, one item was selected by the nominal group. The resulting instrument was judged to have face and content validity. Conclusion A measurement tool for the 'assessment of multiple systematic reviews' (AMSTAR was developed. The tool consists of 11 items and has good face and content validity for measuring the methodological quality of systematic reviews. Additional studies are needed with a focus on the reproducibility and construct validity of AMSTAR, before strong recommendations can be made on its use.

  2. Contextual assessment of organisational culture - methodological development in two case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the acknowledged significance of organisational culture in the nuclear field, previous cultural studies have concentrated on purely safety related matters, or been only descriptive in nature. New kinds of methods, taking into account the overall objectives of the organisation, were needed to assess culture and develop its working practices appropriately. VTT developed the Contextual Assessment of Organisational Culture (CAOC) methodology during the FINNUS programme. The methodology utilises two concepts, organisational culture and core task. The core task can be defined as the core demands and content of work that the organisation has to accomplish in order to be effective. The core task concept is used in assessing the central dimensions of the organisation's culture. Organisational culture is defined as a solution the company has generated in order to fulfil the perceived demands of its core task. The CAOC-methodology was applied in two case studies, in the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland and in the maintenance unit of Loviisa NPP. The aim of the studies was not only to assess the given culture, but also to give the personnel new concepts and new tools for reflecting on their organisation, their jobs and on appropriate working practices. The CAOC-methodology contributes to the design and redesign of work in complex sociotechnical systems. It strives to enhance organisations' capability to assess their current working practices and the meanings attached to them and compare these to the actual demands of their basic mission and so change unadaptive practices. (orig.)

  3. Structured Benefit-risk assessment: a review of key publications and initiatives on frameworks and methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Ouwens, Mario; Robert, Veronique; Gebel, Martin; Schacht, Alexander; Hirsch, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Introduction The conduct of structured benefit-risk assessment (BRA) of pharmaceutical products is a key area of interest for regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. However, the acceptance of a standardized approach and implementation are slow. Statisticians play major roles in these organizations, and have a great opportunity to be involved and drive the shaping of future BRA. Method We performed a literature search of recent reviews and initiatives assessing BRA methodologies, and grouped them to assist those new to BRA in learning, understanding, and choosing methodologies. We summarized the key points and discussed the impact of this emerging field on various stakeholders, particularly statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. Results We provide introductory, essential, special interest, and further information and initiatives materials that direct readers to the most relevant materials, which were published between 2000 and 2013.  Based on recommendations in these materials we supply a toolkit of advocated BRA methodologies. Discussion Despite initiatives promoting these methodologies, there are still barriers, one of which being the lack of a consensus on the most appropriate methodologies among stakeholders. However, this opens up opportunities, for statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry especially, to champion appropriate BRA methodology use throughout the pharmaceutical product lifecycle. Conclusions This article may serve as a starting point for discussions and to reach a mutual consensus for methodology selection in a particular situation. Regulators and pharmaceutical industry should continue to collaborate to develop and take forward BRA methodologies, and by clear communication develop a mutual understanding of the key issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25981683

  4. Determination of methylmercury in marine biota samples: method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Luis; Vassileva, Emilia

    2014-05-01

    Regulatory authorities are expected to measure concentration of contaminants in foodstuffs, but the simple determination of total amount cannot be sufficient for fully judging its impact on the human health. In particular, the methylation of metals generally increases their toxicity; therefore validated analytical methods producing reliable results for the assessment of methylated species are highly needed. Nowadays, there is no legal limit for methylmercury (MeHg) in food matrices. Hence, no standardized method for the determination of MeHg exists within the international jurisdiction. Contemplating the possibility of a future legislative limit, a method for low level determination of MeHg in marine biota matrixes, based on aqueous-phase ethylation followed by purge and trap and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to pyrolysis-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Py-AFS) detection, has been developed and validated. Five different extraction procedures, namely acid and alkaline leaching assisted by microwave and conventional oven heating, as well as enzymatic digestion, were evaluated in terms of their efficiency to extract MeHg from Scallop soft tissue IAEA-452 Certified Reference Material. Alkaline extraction with 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) with 5M HCl and enzymatic digestion with protease XIV yielded the highest extraction recoveries. Standard addition or the introduction of a dilution step were successfully applied to overcome the matrix effects observed when microwave-assisted extraction using 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol or 25% (w/v) aqueous TMAH were used. ISO 17025 and Eurachem guidelines were followed to perform the validation of the methodology. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration curve, linearity (0.9995), working range (1-800pg), recovery (97%), precision, traceability, limit of detection (0.45pg), limit of quantification (0.85pg) and expanded uncertainty (15.86%, k=2) were assessed with Fish protein Dorm-3 Certified

  5. Assessment methodology applicable to safe decommissioning of Romanian VVR-S research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper contains the results of research activity performed by CITON specialists regarding the assessment methodology intended to be applied to safe decommissioning of the research reactors, developed taking into account specific conditions of the Romanian VVR-S Research Reactor. The Romanian VVR-S Research Reactor is an old reactor (1957) and its Decommissioning Plan is under study. The main topics of paper are as follows: Safety approach of nuclear facilities decommissioning. Applicable safety principles; Main steps of the proposed assessment methodology; Generic content of Decommissioning Plan. Main decommissioning activities. Discussion about the proposed Decommissioning Plan for Romanian Research Reactor; Safety risks which may occur during decommissioning activities. Normal decommissioning operations. Fault conditions. Internal and external hazards; Typical development of a scenario. Features, Events and Processes List. Exposure pathways. Calculation methodology. (author)

  6. Development of an Automated Security Risk Assessment Methodology Tool for Critical Infrastructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Calvin Dell; Roehrig, Nathaniel S.; Torres, Teresa M.

    2008-12-01

    This document presents the security automated Risk Assessment Methodology (RAM) prototype tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This work leverages SNL's capabilities and skills in security risk analysis and the development of vulnerability assessment/risk assessment methodologies to develop an automated prototype security RAM tool for critical infrastructures (RAM-CITM). The prototype automated RAM tool provides a user-friendly, systematic, and comprehensive risk-based tool to assist CI sector and security professionals in assessing and managing security risk from malevolent threats. The current tool is structured on the basic RAM framework developed by SNL. It is envisioned that this prototype tool will be adapted to meet the requirements of different CI sectors and thereby provide additional capabilities.

  7. A spatially-evaluated methodology for assessing risk to a population from contaminated land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, J. Rebecca [Environmental Processes and Systems Research Group, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines Building, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jrebeccagay@yahoo.co.uk; Korre, Anna [Environmental Processes and Systems Research Group, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines Building, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.korre@imperial.ac.uk

    2006-07-15

    A methodology is proposed which combines quantitative probabilistic human health risk assessment and spatial statistical methods (geostatistics) to produce an assessment of risks to human health from exposure to contaminated land, in a manner which preserves the spatial distribution of risks and provides a measure of uncertainty in the assessment. Maps of soil contaminant levels, which incorporate uncertainty, are produced from sparse sample data using sequential indicator simulation. A real, age-stratified population is mapped across the contaminated area, and intake of soil contaminants by individuals is calculated probabilistically using an adaptation of the Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment (CLEA) model. An abundance of information is contained in results which can be interrogated at the population and individual level, and mapped to provide a powerful visual tool for risk managers, enabling efficient targeting of risk reduction measures to different locations. - A methodology for calculating and mapping risks to a population from intake of soil contaminants.

  8. Assessment of the physical flood susceptibility of buildings on a large scale - conceptual and methodological frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Vogt, A.; Schanze, J.

    2014-08-01

    There are various approaches available for assessing the flood vulnerability and damage to buildings and critical infrastructure. They cover pre- and post-event methods for different scales. However, there can hardly be found any method that allows for a large-scale pre-event assessment of the built structures with a high resolution. To make advancements in this respect, the paper presents, first, a conceptual framework for understanding the physical flood susceptibility of buildings and, second, a methodological framework for its assessment. The latter ranges from semi-automatic extraction of buildings, mainly from remote sensing with a subsequent classification and systematic characterisation, to the assessment of the physical flood susceptibility on the basis of depth-impact functions. The work shows results of the methodology's implementation and testing in a settlement of the city of Magangué, along the Magdalena River in Colombia.

  9. Ten-year assessment of agricultural management and land-use practices on pesticide loads and risk to aquatic biota of an oxbow lake in the Mississippi Delta, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current chapter examined the combined influence of changing row crop production, implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), and enrollment of 112 ha into Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) on pesticide contamination and potential risk to lake aquatic biota in a 914-ha Beasl...

  10. Quantitative EEG in assessment of anaesthetic depth: comparative study of methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C. E.; Prior, P. F.

    1996-01-01

    Methodology for assessment of depth of anaesthesia based on analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) is controversial. Techniques range from display of single measures, for example median value of the frequency spectrum, to dedicated pattern recognition systems based on measures of several EEG...

  11. Assessment and Accountability in Reference Work. Part I: Requirements and Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell; Walsh, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Includes three articles: the first presents rules and regulations from the "Federal Register" that focus on educational effectiveness in postsecondary institutions; the second discusses the appropriateness of various research methodologies for assessment and accountability of reference services; and the third examines data collection techniques…

  12. Object recognition methodology for the assessment of multi-spectral fusion algorithms : Phase 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkus, A.R.; Toet, A.; Task, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    This effort we acquired and registered a multi-spectral dynamic image test set with the intent of using the imagery to assess the operational effectiveness of static and dynamic image fusion techniques for a range of relevant military tasks. This paper describes the image acquisition methodology, th

  13. Background for spatial differentiation in life cycle impact assessment. The EDIP2003 methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potting, José; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    agreement is limited to main lines and methodology has not yet been fully developed. A major problem to be solved is the poor accordance between impact as calculated in LCA and the expected occurrence of actual impact. Until recently, Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) typically focused on substance...

  14. Assessment of noise in GPS coordinate time series: Methodology and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri-Simkooei, A.R.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.; Teunissen, P.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a methodology to assess the noise characteristics in time series of position estimates for permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Least squares variance component estimation (LS‐VCE) is adopted to cope with any type of noise in the data. LS‐VCE inherently provides the precisi

  15. Developing TheoreticalMethodological Approaches to Assessment of Export Potential of Ukrainian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyushenko Igor Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the existing theoretical-methodological approaches to the analysis and assessment of export potential. The opinions by scientists regarding the disclosure of the categorial content of the concept of «export potential» have been considered, an own definition of the indicated economic category has been suggested. The main types of analytical procedures for assessment have been classified, some authorial methodical approaches to determine the level of export potential have been analyzed. The export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been calculated by the selected methodologies of assessment. The urgency of improving and refining existing methods to implement more detailed and quantitative analysis has been substantiated. It has been suggested to implement a prognosis assessment of export potential of enterprises by combining the results of several methodologies in the aggregate indicator of export potential efficiency. A prognosis model for the dynamics of export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been built, value of the aggregate indicator has been calculated on the basis of three selected valuation methodologies.

  16. Couple Attachment and Relationship Duration in Psychotherapy Patients: Exploring a New Methodology of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochos, Antigonos

    2014-01-01

    The couple relationship is an essential source of support for individuals undergoing psychological treatment and the aim of this study was to apply a new methodology in assessing the quality of such support. A theoretically informed thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted, triangulated by quantitative data. Twenty-one brief…

  17. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Kashapova, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks.

  18. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  19. Using Delphi Methodology to Design Assessments of Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manizade, Agida Gabil; Mason, Marguerite M.

    2011-01-01

    Descriptions of methodologies that can be used to create items for assessing teachers' "professionally situated" knowledge are lacking in mathematics education research literature. In this study, researchers described and used the Delphi method to design an instrument to measure teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. The instrument focused on a…

  20. A New Methodology for Assessing the Military Value of Tactical Intelligence and Surveillance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sternberg, Joseph; Thackeray, Ross; Johnson, Frederick

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop and apply a methodology for assessing the impact of indications and warning (I&W) information, derived from external sources, on the mission success of a naval carrier battle group CVBG). This would provide the basis for assessing the operational importance of the performance characteristics (timeliness, frequency of coverage, quality of information, etc.) of current or proposed information systems and to evaluate the consequences of enemy interfere...

  1. The economic assessment of changes in ecosystem services: and application of the CGE methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Bosello, Francesco; Eboli, Fabio; Parrado, Ramiro; Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Ding, Helen; Rosa, Renato

    2011-01-01

    The present study integrates Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modelling with biodiversity services, proposing a possible methodology for assessing climate-change impacts on ecosystems. The assessment focuses on climate change impacts on carbon sequestration services provided by European forest, cropland and grassland ecosystems and on provisioning services, but provided by forest and cropland ecosystems only. To do this via a CGE model it is necessary to identify first the role that these...

  2. Methodological Considerations concerning the Assessment of Oral Competency in a Second Language (L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José González-Such

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review methodological considerations about the assessment of oral proficiency in a second language. We discuss the characteristics of the construct and its definition, in this case with reference to proficiency, including competence in listening comprehension and oral expression. Also, we review concepts like how to design instruments and/or evaluative techniques for assessing the competencies that are involved, and considerations about reliability, validity and standard setting.

  3. THE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES PTELR, ADRI AND CAE – THREE METHODOLOGIES FOR COORDINATING THE EFFORTS TO IMPROVE THE ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES TO ACHIEVE EXCELLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Raluca POPESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper “The Assessment Methodologies PTELR, ADRI and CAE – Three Methodologies for Coordinating the Efforts to Improve the Organizational Processes to Achieve Excellence” the authors present the basic features of the assessment methodologies PTELR, ADRI and CAE that are designed to coordinate the efforts to improve the organizational processes in order to achieve excellence. In the first part of the paper (the introduction of the paper, the authors present the general background concerning the performance of management business processes and the importance of achieving excellence and furthermore correctly assessing/evaluating it. Aspects such as quality, quality control, quality assurance, performance and excellence are brought into discussion in the context generated by globalization, new technologies and new business models. Moreover, aspects regarding the methods employed to ensure the quality, maintaining it and continuous improvements, as well as total quality management, are also main pillars of this current research. In the content of the paper (the assessment methodologies PTELR, ADRI and CAE – as methodologies for coordinating the efforts to improve the organizational processes to achieve excellence, the authors describe the characteristics of the assessment methodologies PTELR, ADRI and CAE from a theoretical point of view.

  4. Development of a Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, Robert A.; Brennan, Sean T.; Freeman, P.A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Becker, Mark F.; Herkelrath, William N.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Neuzil, Christopher E.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a probabilistic assessment methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluation of the resource potential for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface of the United States as authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140, 2007). The methodology is based on USGS assessment methodologies for oil and gas resources created and refined over the last 30 years. The resource that is evaluated is the volume of pore space in the subsurface in the depth range of 3,000 to 13,000 feet that can be described within a geologically defined storage assessment unit consisting of a storage formation and an enclosing seal formation. Storage assessment units are divided into physical traps (PTs), which in most cases are oil and gas reservoirs, and the surrounding saline formation (SF), which encompasses the remainder of the storage formation. The storage resource is determined separately for these two types of storage. Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to calculate a distribution of the potential storage size for individual PTs and the SF. To estimate the aggregate storage resource of all PTs, a second Monte Carlo simulation step is used to sample the size and number of PTs. The probability of successful storage for individual PTs or the entire SF, defined in this methodology by the likelihood that the amount of CO2 stored will be greater than a prescribed minimum, is based on an estimate of the probability of containment using present-day geologic knowledge. The report concludes with a brief discussion of needed research data that could be used to refine assessment methodologies for CO2 sequestration.

  5. Application of FIVE methodology in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of fire events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reflects the experience acquired during the process of evaluation and updating of the fire analysis within the Cofrentes NPP PRA. It determines which points are the least precise, either because of their greater uncertainty or because of their excessive conservatism, as well as the subtasks which have involved a larger work load and could be simplified. These aspects are compared with the steps followed in methodology FIVE (Fire Vulnerability Evaluation Methodology) to assess whether application of this methodology would optimize the task, by making it more systematic and realistic and reducing uncertainties. On the one hand, the FIVE methodology does not have the scope sufficient to carry out a quantitative risk evaluation, but it can easily be complemented -without detriment to its systematic nature- by quantifying core damage in significant areas. On the other hand, certain issues such as definition of the fire growth software program which has to be used, are still not fully closed. Nevertheless, the conclusions derived from this assessment are satisfactory, since it is considered that this methodology would serve to unify the criteria and data of the analysis of fire-induced risks, providing a progressive screening method which would considerably simplify the task. (author)

  6. Ecology of sea ice biota - 1. Habitat, terminology, and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, R.; Ackley, SF; Dieckmann, GS; Gulliksen, B; Hoshiai, T; L. Legendre; Melnikov, IA; Reeburgh, WS; Spindler, M; Sullivan, CW

    1992-01-01

    Polar regions are covered by extensive sea ice that is inhabited by a variety of plants and animals. The environments where the organisms live vary depending on the structure and age of the ice. Many terms have been used to describe the habitats and the organisms. We here characterize the habitats and communities and suggest some standard terms for them. We also suggest routine sampling methods and reporting units for measurements of biological and chemical variables. © 1992 Springer-Verlag G...

  7. Central Northwest Pacific biota and their radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological and radiological surveys of biota around a proposed dumping site have been carried out by the Japanese Fisheries Agency. Micronekton were collected with a KOC net towed at prescribed depths. Fish nekton were collected with a KMT net towed from 1 to 2 hours either obliquely or horizontally at prescribed depths. This large net enabled the collection of larger organisms not collectable with KOC nets. Benthos were collected via benthos nets. Deep sea rattails and gammarids were collected with trapnets. In 1985, larger gear with mouth diameters of 1.8m were used with older gear having mouth diameters of 0.9m and used previously. New large gear allowed better collecting efficiency. Radioactivity measurements were carried out by gammaspectrometry with GeLi detectors on ashed samples. In almost all samples, Cs-137 was detected. In addition Co-60 was detected in some samples. Data obtained by the Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory were examined and summarized by the Ecology Working Group under the Executive Committee on Environmental Safety Assessment of Sea Dumping of Low level Radioactive Wastes in the Radioactive Waste Management Center

  8. Application of Master Curve Methodology for Structural Integrity Assessments of Nuclear Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattari-Far, Iradj [Det Norske Veritas, Stockholm (Sweden); Wallin, Kim [VTT, Esbo (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    The objective was to perform an in-depth investigation of the Master Curve methodology and also based on this method develop a procedure for fracture assessments of nuclear components. The project has sufficiently illustrated the capabilities of the Master Curve methodology for fracture assessments of nuclear components. Within the scope of this work, the theoretical background of the methodology and its validation on small and large specimens has been studied and presented to a sufficiently large extent, as well as the correlations between the charpy-V data and the Master Curve T{sub 0} reference temperature in the evaluation of fracture toughness. The work gives a comprehensive report of the background theory and the different applications of the Master Curve methodology. The main results of the work have shown that the cleavage fracture toughness is characterized by a large amount of statistical scatter in the transition region, it is specimen size dependent and it should be treated statistically rather than deterministically. The Master Curve methodology is able to make use of statistical data in a consistent way. Furthermore, the Master Curve methodology provides a more precise prediction of the fracture toughness of embrittled materials in comparison with the ASME K{sub IC} reference curve, which often gives over-conservative results. The suggested procedure in this study, concerning the application of the Master Curve method in fracture assessments of ferritic steels in the transition region and the low shelf regions, is valid for the temperatures range T{sub 0}-50{<=}T{<=}T{sub 0}+50 deg C. If only approximate information is required, the Master Curve may well be extrapolated outside this temperature range. The suggested procedure has also been illustrated for some examples.

  9. The IAEA research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Research Coordinated Project on Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities (ISAM) was launched in November 1997 and it has been underway for three years. The ISAM project was developed to provide a critical evaluation of the approaches and tools used in long-term safety assessment of near surface repositories. It resulted in the development of a harmonised approach and illustrated its application by way of three test cases - vault, borehole and Radon (a particular range of repository designs developed within the former Soviet Union) type repositories. As a consequence, the ISAM project had over 70 active participants and attracted considerable interest involving around 700 experts from 72 Member States. The methodology developed, the test cases, the main lessons learnt and the conclusions have been documented and will be published in the form of an IAEA TECDOC. This paper presents the work of the IAEA on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface waste disposal facilities and the application of these methodologies for different purposes in the individual stages of the repository development. The paper introduces the main objectives, activities and outcome of the ISAM project and summarizes the work performed by the six working groups within the ISAM programme, i.e. Scenario Generation and Justification, Modelling, Confidence Building, Vault, Radon Type Facility and Borehole test cases. (author)

  10. Simplified life cycle assessment models: methodological framework and applications to energy pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy transition debate is a key issue for today and the coming years. One of the challenges is to limit the environmental impacts of electricity production. Decision support tools, sufficiently accurate, simple to use, accounting for environmental aspects and favoring future energetic choices, must be implemented. However, the environmental assessment of the energy pathways is complex, and it means considering a two levels characterization. The 'energy pathway' is the first level and corresponds to its environmental distribution, to compare overall pathways. The 'system pathway' is the 2. level and compares environmental impacts of systems within each pathway. We have devised a generic methodology covering both necessary characterization levels by estimating the energy pathways environmental profiles while allowing a simple comparison of its systems environmental impacts. This methodology is based on the definition of a parameterized Life Cycle Assessment model and considers, through a Global Sensitivity Analysis, the environmental impacts of a large sample of systems representative of an energy pathway. As a second step, this methodology defines simplified models based on few key parameters identified as inducing the largest variability in the energy pathway environmental impacts. These models assess in a simple way the systems environmental impacts, avoiding any complex LCAs. This reduction methodology has been applied to the onshore wind power energy pathway in Europe and the photovoltaic energy pathway in France. (author)

  11. A Methodology to Assess and Evaluate Rainwater Harvesting Techniques in (Semi-)Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ammar; Riksen, Michel; Ouessar, Mohamed; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-04-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions around the world are generally facing water scarcity problems due to lack of precipitation and unpredictable rainfall patterns. For thousands of years rainwater harvesting (RWH) techniques have been applied to cope with water scarcity. Many researchers have presented and applied different methodologies for determining suitable sites and techniques for RWH. However, there is still little attention given to evaluation of the performance of RWH structures. The aim of this research was to design a scientifically-based and generally applicable methodology to evaluate and assess the performance of existing RWH techniques in (semi-) arid regions. The methodology takes engineering, biophysical, and socio-economic criteria into account to assess the performance of RWH using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) supported by Geographic Information System (GIS). The Oum Zessar watershed in south-eastern Tunisia is used as a case study site to test this evaluation tool. The performance of 58 RWH locations (14 jessour and 44 tabias) in three main sub-catchments of Oum Zessar watershed were assessed and evaluated. Based on the criteria selected, 60performance, 36received good performance scores. The results very accurately represent the real performance of each site. This integrated methodology, which is highly flexible, saves time and costs, and is easy to adapt in different regions, provides a scientifically based analytical tool to support designers and decision makers aiming to improve the performance of existing and new RWH sites.

  12. Part 7: Monitoring of biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present state of the biota, in respect to the previous state and in respect to the development after the realised technical measures on both sides, was evaluated according to the data included in the Slovak-Hungarian joint monitoring covering the period from 1992 to 1996. The river branch water supply on the Slovak side was introduced in May 1993 through the intake structure at Dobrohost. On the Hungarian side the water supply is accomplished by the underwater weir put into operation in June 1995. The biological monitoring on the Slovak side was performed at six monitoring areas, where all the groups agreed in the joint monitoring were monitored. On the Hungarian side each group were monitored on different monitoring sites. The water supply introduced on the Hungarian side by the underwater weir operation has no impact on the Slovak side. Similar impact as it is now observed on the Hungarian side has been observed on the Slovak side since introduction of water supply in 1993. The increased amount of water discharged to the Danube was reflected by changes of the habitat of aquatic communities. The water supply on the Hungarian side was accomplished by the construction of the underwater weir and therefore a connection of the river branch system with the Danube at two factors have had very significant influence on the bio-tops existing in the river branch system and subsequently to the fauna and flora. Generally large amount of water became available, which was reflected in change of stagnant or slowly flowing water into water flow with higher velocity or in increase of the water surface. In some locations the water level returned to the state before damming, in others new bio-tops were created, and in some locations the previous bio-tops disappeared. To these changed conditions the aquatic fauna reacted the most rapidly.The terrestrial communities prove the necessity of flooding and raising of ground water level on some of the inundation areas, because in spite

  13. Differences in methodologies used for externality assessment. Why are the numbers different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years, externalities related to power production technologies have been calculated making use of different methodologies. The external costs may turn out to be very different for the same fuel cycle depending on the methodology thathas been used to assess the externalities....... The report gives a review of different valuation issues, which are used in different externality studies and focuses on why the numbers often are different for the same fuel cycle, using different methodologiesfor assessment of the externalities. The review of externality valuation focuses in this report...... on the assessment of environmental externalities. Importance has been attached to health effects, as these are the dominating effects in the external costs.Other effects are only mentioned on a superior level. The report points out different parameters, which are important to consider when externalities estimated...

  14. Guidance on assessing the methodological and reporting quality of toxicologically relevant studies: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Gbeminiyi O; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Wright, Robert A; Lalu, Manoj Mathew; Patlewicz, Grace; Becker, Richard A; DeGeorge, George L; Fergusson, Dean; Hartung, Thomas; Lewis, R Jeffrey; Stephens, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of methodological and reporting quality are critical to adequately judging the credibility of a study's conclusions and to gauging its potential reproducibility. To aid those seeking to assess the methodological or reporting quality of studies relevant to toxicology, we conducted a scoping review of the available guidance with respect to four types of studies: in vivo and in vitro, (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs), physico-chemical, and human observational studies. Our aims were to identify the available guidance in this diverse literature, briefly summarize each document, and distill the common elements of these documents for each study type. In general, we found considerable guidance for in vivo and human studies, but only one paper addressed in vitro studies exclusively. The guidance for (Q)SAR studies and physico-chemical studies was scant but authoritative. There was substantial overlap across guidance documents in the proposed criteria for both methodological and reporting quality. Some guidance documents address toxicology research directly, whereas others address preclinical research generally or clinical research and therefore may not be fully applicable to the toxicology context without some translation. Another challenge is the degree to which assessments of methodological quality in toxicology should focus on risk of bias - as in clinical medicine and healthcare - or be broadened to include other quality measures, such as confirming the identity of test substances prior to exposure. Our review is intended primarily for those in toxicology and risk assessment seeking an entry point into the extensive and diverse literature on methodological and reporting quality applicable to their work. PMID:27039952

  15. Guidance on assessing the methodological and reporting quality of toxicologically relevant studies: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Gbeminiyi O; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Wright, Robert A; Lalu, Manoj Mathew; Patlewicz, Grace; Becker, Richard A; DeGeorge, George L; Fergusson, Dean; Hartung, Thomas; Lewis, R Jeffrey; Stephens, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of methodological and reporting quality are critical to adequately judging the credibility of a study's conclusions and to gauging its potential reproducibility. To aid those seeking to assess the methodological or reporting quality of studies relevant to toxicology, we conducted a scoping review of the available guidance with respect to four types of studies: in vivo and in vitro, (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs), physico-chemical, and human observational studies. Our aims were to identify the available guidance in this diverse literature, briefly summarize each document, and distill the common elements of these documents for each study type. In general, we found considerable guidance for in vivo and human studies, but only one paper addressed in vitro studies exclusively. The guidance for (Q)SAR studies and physico-chemical studies was scant but authoritative. There was substantial overlap across guidance documents in the proposed criteria for both methodological and reporting quality. Some guidance documents address toxicology research directly, whereas others address preclinical research generally or clinical research and therefore may not be fully applicable to the toxicology context without some translation. Another challenge is the degree to which assessments of methodological quality in toxicology should focus on risk of bias - as in clinical medicine and healthcare - or be broadened to include other quality measures, such as confirming the identity of test substances prior to exposure. Our review is intended primarily for those in toxicology and risk assessment seeking an entry point into the extensive and diverse literature on methodological and reporting quality applicable to their work.

  16. Assessing the energy efficiency of pumps and pump units background and methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Bernd Stoffel, em Dr-Ing

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the Energy Efficiency of Pumps and Pump Units, developed in cooperation with Europump, is the first book available providing the background, methodology, and assessment tools for understanding and calculating energy efficiency for pumps and extended products (pumps+motors+drives). Responding to new EU requirements for pump efficiency, and US DOE exploratory work in setting pump energy efficiency guidelines, this book provides explanation, derivation, and illustration of PA and EPA methods for assessing energy efficiency. It surveys legislation related to pump energy eff

  17. INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems: Economics. INPRO Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the INPRO methodology this manual provides guidance on assessing a nuclear energy system in the area of economics. This is an independent assessment of the economic competitiveness of nuclear power, compared with available alternatives. The publication starts with a short description of the goals and output of an energy system planning study, followed by general background information on performing an INPRO economic assessment and presents a discussion of the basic principle, the associated user requirements and criteria. In the appendices I–IV, additional background information on economic terms and support tools is provided

  18. Definition of a shortcut methodology for assessing flood-related Na-Tech risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marzo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a qualitative methodology for the initial assessment of flood-related Na-Tech risk was developed as a screening tool to identify which situations require a much more expensive quantitative risk analysis (QRA. Through the definition of some suitable key hazard indicators (KHIs, the proposed methodology allows the identification of the Na-Tech risk level associated with a given situation; the analytical hierarchy process (AHP was used as a multi-criteria decision tool for the evaluation of such qualitative KHIs. The developed methodology was validated through two case studies by comparing the predicted risk levels with the results of much more detailed QRAs previously presented in literature and then applied to the real flood happened at Spolana a.s., Neratovice, Czech Republic in August 2002.

  19. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-12-01

    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology. PMID:24417750

  20. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-12-01

    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology.

  1. Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, B.; Fisher, C.; Zigler, G.; Clark, R.A. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1990-11-09

    FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents the methodologies that were used for those FSARs. Resources available for preparation of those Rocky Flats FSARs were very limited. After addressing the more pressing safety issues, some of which are described below, the present contractor (EG&G) intends to conduct a program of upgrading the FSARs. This report presents the results of a review of the methodologies described in RFRAG85 and 707FSAR and contains suggestions that might be incorporated into the methodology for the FSAR upgrade effort.

  2. Safety assessment driving radioactive waste management solutions (SADRWMS Methodology) implemented in a software tool (SAFRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinker, M., E-mail: M.Kinker@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Avila, R.; Hofman, D., E-mail: rodolfo@facilia.se [FACILIA AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Jova Sed, L., E-mail: jovaluis@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba); Ledroit, F., E-mail: frederic.ledroit@irsn.fr [IRSN PSN-EXP/SSRD/BTE, (France)

    2013-07-01

    In 2004, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) to examine international approaches to safety assessment for predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts which could be used to improve the mechanisms for applying safety assessment methodologies to predisposal management of radioactive waste. These flowcharts have since been incorporated into DS284 (General Safety Guide on the Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste), and were also considered during the early development stages of the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) Tool. In 2009 the IAEA presented DS284 to the IAEA Waste Safety Standards Committee, during which it was proposed that the graded approach to safety case and safety assessment be illustrated through the development of Safety Reports for representative predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and activities. To oversee the development of these reports, it was agreed to establish the International Project on Complementary Safety Reports: Development and Application to Waste Management Facilities (CRAFT). The goal of the CRAFT project is to develop complementary reports by 2014, which the IAEA could then publish as IAEA Safety Reports. The present work describes how the DS284 methodology and SAFRAN Tool can be applied in the development and review of the safety case and safety assessment to a range of predisposal waste management facilities or activities within the Region. (author)

  3. A Study on the Improvement of the INPRO Proliferation Resistance Assessment Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), a methodology for evaluating proliferation resistance (INPRO PR methodology) has been developed. However, User Requirement (UR) 4 regarding multiplicity and robustness of barriers against proliferation ('innovative nuclear energy systems should incorporate multiple proliferation resistance features and measures') remains to be developed. Because the development of a methodology for evaluating User Requirement 4 requires an acquisition/diversion pathway analysis, a systematic approach was developed for the identification and analysis of pathways for the acquisition of weapons-useable nuclear material. This approach was applied to the DUPIC fuel cycle which identified several proliferation target materials and plausible acquisition/diversion pathways. Based on these results, proliferation strategies that a proliferant State could adopt for undeclared removal of nuclear material from the DUPIC fuel cycle have been developed based on the objectives of the proliferation of the State, the quality and quantity of the target material, the time required to acquire the material for the proliferation, and the technical and financial capabilities of the potential proliferant State. The diversion pathway for fresh DUPIC fuel was analyzed using the INPRO User Requirements 1, 2 and 3, and based on these results an assessment procedure and metrics for evaluating the multiplicity and robustness of proliferation barriers has been developed. In conclusion, the multiplicity and robustness of proliferation barriers is not a function of the number of barriers, or of their individual characteristics but is an integrated function of the whole. The robustness of proliferation barriers is measured by determining whether the safeguards goals can be met. The harmonization of INPRO PR methodology with the GIF PR and PP methodology was also considered. It was suggested that, as also confirmed by IAEA

  4. Development and Application of Urban Landslide Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Reflecting Social and Economic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An urban landslide vulnerability assessment methodology is proposed with major focus on considering urban social and economic aspects. The proposed methodology was developed based on the landslide susceptibility maps that Korean Forest Service utilizes to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R (flow path assessment of gravitational hazards at a regional scale, and then urban vulnerability is assessed by two categories: physical and socioeconomic aspect. The physical vulnerability is related to buildings that can be impacted by a landslide event. This study considered two popular building structure types, reinforced-concrete frame and nonreinforced-concrete frame, to assess the physical vulnerability. The socioeconomic vulnerability is considered a function of the resistant levels of the vulnerable people, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illustrate the validity of the proposed methodology, physical and socioeconomic vulnerability levels are analyzed for Seoul, Korea, using the suggested approach. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.

  5. Preliminary methodology to assess the national and regional impact of U.S. wind energy development on birds and bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.; Beston, Julie A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Corum, Margo D.; Loss, Scott R.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Erickson, Richard A.; Heist, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a methodology to assess the impacts of wind energy development on wildlife; it is a probabilistic, quantitative assessment methodology that can communicate to decision makers and the public the magnitude of these effects on species populations. The methodology is currently applicable to birds and bats, focuses primarily on the effects of collisions, and can be applied to any species that breeds in, migrates through, or otherwise uses any part of the United States. The methodology is intended to assess species at the national scale and is fundamentally different from existing methods focusing on impacts at individual facilities.

  6. Differences in methodologies used for externality assessment. Why are the numbers different?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years, externalities related to power production technologies have been calculated making use of different methodologies. The external costs may turn out to be very different for the same fuel cycle depending on the methodology that has been used to assess the externalities. The report gives a review of different valuation issues, which are used in different externality studies and focuses on why the numbers often are different for the same fuel cycle, using different methodologies for assessment of the externalities. The review of externality valuation focuses in this report on the assessment of environmental externalities. Importance has been attached to health effects, as these are the dominating effects in the external costs. Other effects are only mentioned on a superior level. The report points out different parameters, which are important to consider when externalities estimated for the same fuel cycle in different studies are compared. 8 studies have been chosen for further analysis and comparison in order to show the variation in external costs. The comparison shows the importance of possessing knowledge of which kind of methodologies have been used, which impacts are included etc. to explain why the numbers vary so much in different studies for the same fuel cycle. As an example a comparison of the impacts and damage costs related to air emissions has been made for three studies using different methodologies. The external costs are estimated for the same reference plant using the dispersion models, dose-response functions, impacts and monetary values from the three studies. The estimates from the three studies are compared two and two, and a more detailed analysis is performed in relation to human health, which is the dominating impact in all externality studies. (au) EFP-97. 29 tabs., 12 ills., 34 refs

  7. Differences in methodologies used for externality assessment. Why are the numbers different?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte

    1999-06-01

    During the last few years, externalities related to power production technologies have been calculated making use of different methodologies. The external costs may turn out to be very different for the same fuel cycle depending on the methodology that has been used to assess the externalities. The report gives a review of different valuation issues, which are used in different externality studies and focuses on why the numbers often are different for the same fuel cycle, using different methodologies for assessment of the externalities. The review of externality valuation focuses in this report on the assessment of environmental externalities. Importance has been attached to health effects, as these are the dominating effects in the external costs. Other effects are only mentioned on a superior level. The report points out different parameters, which are important to consider when externalities estimated for the same fuel cycle in different studies are compared. 8 studies have been chosen for further analysis and comparison in order to show the variation in external costs. The comparison shows the importance of possessing knowledge of which kind of methodologies have been used, which impacts are included etc. to explain why the numbers vary so much in different studies for the same fuel cycle. As an example a comparison of the impacts and damage costs related to air emissions has been made for three studies using different methodologies. The external costs are estimated for the same reference plant using the dispersion models, dose-response functions, impacts and monetary values from the three studies. The estimates from the three studies are compared two and two, and a more detailed analysis is performed in relation to human health, which is the dominating impact in all externality studies. (au) EFP-97. 29 tabs., 12 ills., 34 refs.

  8. Assessment of mercury and methylmercury in water, sediment, and biota in Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, Colusa County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, Roger L.; Rytuba, James J.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we performed a study during April–July 2010 to characterize mercury (Hg), monomethyl mercury (MMeHg), and other geochemical constituents in sediment, water, and biota at the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, located in neighboring subwatersheds of Sulphur Creek, Colusa County, California. This study was in support of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act - Removal Site Investigation. The investigation was in response to an abatement notification from the California Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board to evaluate the release of Hg from the Clyde and Elgin mines. Samples of water, sediment, and biota (aquatic macroinvertebrates) were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the two mine sites to evaluate the level of Hg contamination contributed by each mine to the aquatic ecosystem. Physical parameters, as well as dissolved organic carbon, total Hg (HgT), and MMeHg were analyzed in water and sediment. Other relevant geochemical constituents were analyzed in sediment, filtered water, and unfiltered water. Samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates from each mine were analyzed for HgT and MMeHg. The presence of low to moderate concentrations of HgT and MMeHg in water, sediment, and biota from the Freshwater Branch of Sulphur Creek, and the lack of significant increases in these concentrations downstream from the Clyde Mine indicated that this mine is not a significant source of Hg to the watershed during low flow conditions. Although concentrations of HgT and MMeHg were generally higher in samples of sediment and water from the Elgin Mine compared to the Clyde Mine, concentrations in comparable biota from the two mine areas were similar. It is likely that highly saline effluent from nearby hot springs contribute more Hg to the West Fork of Sulphur Creek than the mine waste material at the Elgin Mine.

  9. The damage assessment methodology in cooperation with smart sensors and inspection robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Yoshihiro; Ishida, Masami; Onai, Toshio; Watakabe, Morimasa; Nishitani, Akira; Matsui, Chisa

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a damage assessment methodology for the non-structural elements, especially the ceiling, in cooperation with the smart sensors and the inspection blimp robot with the Wi-Fi camera. The developed smart sensors use the infrared LEDs in sending the measured data to the inspection blimp robot. The inspection blimp robot integrated in the proposed system has a Wi-Fi camera and an infrared remote control receiver for receiving the data from the smart sensor. In the proposed methodology, the distributed smart sensors firstly detect the damage occurrence. Next, the inspection blimp robots can gather the data from the smart sensors, which transmit the measured data by using an infrared remote control receiver and LED signals. The inspection blimp robot also can inspect the damage location and captures the photographic image of the damage condition. The inspection blimp robot will be able to estimate the damage condition without any process of engineers' on-site-inspection involved. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the inspection blimp robot, the blimp robot is utilized to estimate the aging ceiling of a real structure. For demonstrating the feasibility or possibility of the proposed damage assessment methodology in cooperation with the smart sensors and the inspection blimp robot, the conceptual laboratory experiment is conducted. The proposed methodology will provide valuable information for the repair and maintenance decision making of a damaged structure.

  10. Spatial vulnerability assessment : methodology for the community and district level applied to floods in Buzi, Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within this thesis a conceptual model is presented which allows for the definition of a vulnerability assessment according to its time and spatial scale and within a multi-dimensional framework, which should help to design and develop appropriate methodologies and adaptation of concepts for the required scale of implementation. Building on past experiences with participatory approaches in community mapping in the District of Buzi in Mozambique, the relevance of such approaches for a community-based disaster risk reduction framework is analysed. Finally, methodologies are introduced which allow the assessment of vulnerability and the prioritisation of vulnerability factors at the community level. At the district level, homogenous vulnerability regions are identified through the application of integrated modelling approaches which build on expert knowledge and weightings. A set of indicators is proposed, which allow the modelling of vulnerability in a data-scarce environment. In developing these different methodologies for the community and district levels, it has been identified that the monitoring of vulnerability and the identification of trends is essential to addressing the objective of a continuous and improved disaster risk management. In addition to the technical and methodological challenges discussed in this thesis, the commitment from different stakeholders and the availability of capacity in different domains is essential for the successful, practical implementation of the developed approaches. (author)

  11. Assessment of bioenergy potential in Sicily: A GIS-based support methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) supported methodology has been developed in order to assess the technical and economic potential of biomass exploitation for energy production in Sicily. The methodology was based on the use of agricultural, economic, climatic, and infrastructural data in a GIS. Data about land use, transportation facilities, urban cartography, regional territorial planning, terrain digital model, lithology, climatic types, and civil and industrial users have been stored in the GIS to define potential areas for gathering the residues coming from the pruning of olive groves, vineyards, and other agricultural crops, and to assess biomass available for energy cultivation. Further, it was possible to assess the potential of biodiesel production, supposing the cultivation of rapeseed in arable crop areas. For the biomass used for direct combustion purposes, the economic availability has been assessed assuming a price of the biomass and comparing it with other fuels. This assessment has shown the strong competitiveness of firewood in comparison with traditional fossil fuels when the collection system is implemented in an efficient way. Moreover, the economic potential of biodiesel was assessed considering the on-going financial regime for fuel. At the same time, the study has shown a significant competitiveness of the finished biomass (pellets), and good potential for a long-term development of this market. An important result was the determination of biofuel production potential in Sicily. An outcome of the study was to show the opportunities stemming from the harmonisation of Energy Policy with the Waste Management System and Rural Development Plan. (author)

  12. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (I) Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    A new procedure for probabilistic seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is proposed. This procedure modifies the current procedures using tools developed recently for performance-based earthquake engineering of buildings. The proposed procedure uses (a) response-based fragility curves to represent the capacity of structural and nonstructural components of NPPs, (b) nonlinear response-history analysis to characterize the demands on those components, and (c) Monte Carlo simulations to determine the damage state of the components. The use of response-rather than ground-motion-based fragility curves enables the curves to be independent of seismic hazard and closely related to component capacity. The use of Monte Carlo procedure enables the correlation in the responses of components to be directly included in the risk assessment. An example of the methodology is presented in a companion paper to demonstrate its use and provide the technical basis for aspects of the methodology. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Based on the EquiMar Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Pecher, Arthur; Friis-Madsen, E.; Sørensen, H. C.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    At the present pre-commercial phase of the wave energy sector, device developers are called to provide reliable estimates on power performance and production at possible deployment locations. The EU EquiMar project has proposed a novel approach, where the performance assessment is based mainly on experimental data deriving from sea trials rather than solely on numerical predictions. The study applies this methodology to evaluate the performance of Wave Dragon at two locations in the North Sea...

  14. Principles of epistemological accountability with methodological implications for measuring, assessing, and profiling human resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Almedom, Astier M; David O'Byrne; Anne Jerneck

    2015-01-01

    We propose two fundamental principles of epistemological accountability with critical methodological implications for studies designed to measure, assess, and/or profile human psychosocial resilience. Firstly, researchers involved in human psychosocial resilience studies owe it to the individuals and communities that they engage to disclose their motives and possible misreadings of the situations they enter, albeit with good intentions. Secondly, researchers and those individuals researched n...

  15. Global Warming Potential of a Smartphone : Using Life Cycle Assessment Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan, Elif Mine

    2013-01-01

    The global development and usage of smartphones are rapidly increasing. Further, the high capacity and functionality of these devices indicate high technological manufacturing processes and complex supply chains. Thus it is of interest to investigate the potential environmental impacts of a smartphone, from a life cycle perspective. This study uses a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology in order to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a smartphone, in particularly the smartphone...

  16. A Methodology for a Comprehensive Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Multiple Sources and Short-Term Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Grezio Anita; Roberto Tonini; Laura Sandri; Simona Pierdominici; Jacopo Selva

    2015-01-01

    We propose a methodological approach for a comprehensive and total probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (TotPTHA), in which many different possible source types concur to the definition of the total tsunami hazard at given target sites. In a multi-hazard and multi-risk perspective, the approach allows us to consider all possible tsunamigenic sources (seismic events, slides, volcanic eruptions, asteroids, etc.). In this respect, we also formally introduce and discuss the treatment of intera...

  17. TTIP - a methodological assessment of simulations concerning growth resulting from a possible adoption of TTIP

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Therese Cederberg

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This project is a methodological assessment of five studies investigating the possible results of adopting a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership – TTIP. Three studies (ECORYS, CEPR and CEPII) are done on the basis pure Computable General Equilibrium models, one study (Bertelsmann Stiftung) is done on the basis of a Computabel General Equilibrium model in combination with a gravity model, and one study (Capaldo) is done on the basis of the neo-keynesian United Nations Glob...

  18. Building methodology, assessing the risks: the case of energy security in the Baltic States

    OpenAIRE

    Arūnas Molis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is not confined to analysis of risks to the Baltic States' energy security. The research aimed to develop methods for risk intensity assessment tools as well empirical examples. It encompasses an effort to tailor a system of damage and probability (i.e. risk intensity) assesment used by other authors to risk analysis. The analysis performed by using this methodology shows the existence of at least two major energy security risks of intolerable intensity for the Bal...

  19. Mortality attributable to excess body mass Index in Iran: Implementation of the comparative risk assessment methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Djalalinia; Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam; Niloofar Peykari; Amir Kasaeian; Ali Sheidaei; Anita Mansouri; Younes Mohammadi; Mahboubeh Parsaeian; Parinaz Mehdipour; Bagher Larijani; Farshad Farzadfar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise worldwide with alarming rates in most of the world countries. Our aim was to compare the mortality of fatal disease attributable to excess body mass index (BMI) in Iran in 2005 and 2011. Methods: Using standards implementation comparative risk assessment methodology, we estimated mortality attributable to excess BMI in Iranian adults of 25-65 years old, at the national and sub-national levels for 9 attributable outcomes including; is...

  20. Methodology for assessing system performance loss within a proactive maintenance framework

    OpenAIRE

    Cocheteux, Pierre; Voisin, Alexandre; Levrat, Eric; Iung, Benoît

    2009-01-01

    International audience Maintenance plays now a critical role in manufacturing for achieving important cost savings and competitive advantage while preserving product conditions. It suggests moving from conventional maintenance practices to predictive strategy. Indeed the maintenance action has to be done at the right time based on the system performance and component Remaining Useful Life (RUL) assessed by a prognostic process. In that way, this paper proposes a methodology in order to eva...

  1. Inventory and Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Environmental Regulations in the Agricultural Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Nolet, Jean; Sauve, Claude; Geoffroy, Amelie; Sanchez, Richard

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the impact and effectiveness of environmental regulations, specifically impact on the competitiveness of primary agriculture. The objective of this report is to discuss different methodologies and assessment criteria for the evaluation of the impacts of environmental regulations in the agricultural sector; to identify the relevant environmental regulations administered at the federal, provincial and local levels; and an analytical framework to evaluate the fut...

  2. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  3. UVCB substances: methodology for structural description and application to fate and hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Sabcho D; Georgieva, Denitsa G; Pavlov, Todor S; Karakolev, Yordan H; Karamertzanis, Panagiotis G; Rasenberg, Mike; Mekenyan, Ovanes G

    2015-11-01

    Substances of unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products, or biological materials (UVCBs) have been conventionally described in generic terms. Commonly used substance identifiers are generic names of chemical classes, generic structural formulas, reaction steps, physical-chemical properties, or spectral data. Lack of well-defined structural information has significantly restricted in silico fate and hazard assessment of UVCB substances. A methodology for the structural description of UVCB substances has been developed that allows use of known identifiers for coding, generation, and selection of representative constituents. The developed formats, Generic Simplified Molecular-Input Line-Entry System (G SMILES) and Generic Graph (G Graph), address the need to code, generate, and select representative UVCB constituents; G SMILES is a SMILES-based single line notation coding fixed and variable structural features of UVCBs, whereas G Graph is based on a workflow paradigm that allows generation of constituents coded in G SMILES and end point-specific or nonspecific selection of representative constituents. Structural description of UVCB substances as afforded by the developed methodology is essential for in silico fate and hazard assessment. Data gap filling approaches such as read-across, trend analysis, or quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling can be applied to the generated constituents, and the results can be used to assess the substance as a whole. The methodology also advances the application of category-based data gap filling approaches to UVCB substances.

  4. Methodology for the assessment of possible damages in low voltage equipment due to lightning surges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Nelson M.; Kagan, Nelson [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: matsuonm@usp.br, nelsonk@pea.usp.br; Domingues, Ivo T. [AES Eletropaulo, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Nelson C. de [AES Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marcelo H.I. da [Grupo Rede, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takauti, Edson H. [Bandeirante, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a methodology to assess the possibility of equipment damages in low voltage customers due to lightning surges. The main objective is to incorporate this methodology in a computation system that supports distribution companies to determine the possible causes of equipment damages claimed by customers and to decide whether the claims are to be reimbursed or not. The proposed methodology determines whether a specific customer could be affected by a lightning strike according to his/her location and to the lightning main parameters, by using data from a lightning detection system and from the specific equipment surge withstand capability. A specific study using ATP (Alternative Transients Program) was carried out to assess the propagation of lightning surges in electric power distribution systems and their impact over low voltage customers. On the other hand, the withstand capability of the main household appliances was determined by a series of tests carried out in the University's power quality laboratory. The paper details the modeling used for simulation, such as network configuration, grounding points, and modelling of insulator flashover, distribution transformer, low voltage loads. It also presents some results regarding the evaluation of over voltages in low voltage customers installations. A practical method is proposed for assessing the possibility of equipment damage and describes how the existing uncertainties were handled. Also, some issues regarding the withstand capability of electric household appliances to lightning surges are discussed and some results of the laboratory tests are presented. (author)

  5. A Methodological Approach for Assessing Amplified Reflection Distributed Denial of Service on the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José Costa Gondim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about security on Internet of Things (IoT cover data privacy and integrity, access control, and availability. IoT abuse in distributed denial of service attacks is a major issue, as typical IoT devices’ limited computing, communications, and power resources are prioritized in implementing functionality rather than security features. Incidents involving attacks have been reported, but without clear characterization and evaluation of threats and impacts. The main purpose of this work is to methodically assess the possible impacts of a specific class–amplified reflection distributed denial of service attacks (AR-DDoS–against IoT. The novel approach used to empirically examine the threat represented by running the attack over a controlled environment, with IoT devices, considered the perspective of an attacker. The methodology used in tests includes that perspective, and actively prospects vulnerabilities in computer systems. This methodology defines standardized procedures for tool-independent vulnerability assessment based on strategy, and the decision flows during execution of penetration tests (pentests. After validation in different scenarios, the methodology was applied in amplified reflection distributed denial of service (AR-DDoS attack threat assessment. Results show that, according to attack intensity, AR-DDoS saturates reflector infrastructure. Therefore, concerns about AR-DDoS are founded, but expected impact on abused IoT infrastructure and devices will be possibly as hard as on final victims.

  6. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty;

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last...... decades, there is ongoing debate on the current approaches for human health risk assessment in scenarios involving acute chemical releases.A survey was conducted to identify: (1) the most important present and potential future chemical incident scenarios and anticipated changes in chemical incidents...

  7. A Methodological Approach to User Evaluation and Assessment of a Virtual Environment Hangout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pasin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in virtual reality and motion sensing devices is pushing the development of virtual communication platforms towards completely immersive scenarios, which require full user interaction and create complex sensory experiences. This evolution influences user experiences and creates new paradigms for interaction, leading to an increased importance of user evaluation and assessment on new systems interfaces and usability, to validate platform design and development from the users’ point of view. The REVERIE research project aims to develop a virtual environment service for realistic inter-personal interaction. This paper describes the design challenges faced during the development process of user interfaces and the adopted methodological approach to user evaluation and assessment.

  8. New Methodology in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael

    EU research project "NEPTUNE" focusing on nutrient recycling, micro-pollutants and ecotoxicity removal, energy production, and reuse of sludge and of its resources, this paper will present the first results of the development of a new methodology for assessing advances in wastewater treatment...... chose among different waste water treatments? Which ones are most beneficial in a holistic perspective? Here, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach as a decision supporting tool may help because its goal is to allow quantification and direct comparison of characteristics as diverse as energy...

  9. Development of Management Quality Assessment Methodology in the Public Sector: Problems and Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Kozhevina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development management quality assessment methodology in the public sector is relevant scientific and practical problem of economic research. The utilization of the results of the assessment on the basis of the authors’ methodology allows us to rate the public sector organizations, to justify decisions on the reorganization and privatization, and to monitor changes in the level of the management quality of the public sector organizations. The study determined the place of the quality of the control processes of the public sector organization in the system of “Quality of public administration — the effective operation of the public sector organization,” the contradictions associated with the assessment of management quality are revealed, the conditions for effective functioning of the public sector organizations are proved, a mechanism of comprehensive assessment and algorithm for constructing and evaluating the control models of management quality are developed, the criteria for assessing the management quality in the public sector organizations, including economic, budgetary, social and public, informational, innovation and institutional criteria are empirically grounded. By utilizing the proposed algorithm, the assessment model of quality management in the public sector organizations, including the financial, economic, social, innovation, informational and institutional indicators is developed. For each indicator of quality management, the coefficients of importance in the management quality assessment model, as well as comprehensive and partial evaluation indicators are determined on the basis of the expert evaluations. The main conclusion of the article is that management quality assessment for the public sector organizations should be based not only on the indicators achieved in the dynamics and utilized for analyzing the effectiveness of management, but also should take into account the reference levels for the values of these

  10. Methodology for full comparative assessment of direct gross glycerin combustion in a flame tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, Aymer Yeferson; Pagliuso, Josmar D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Sao Carlos School of Engineering. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: aymermat@sc.usp.br, josmar@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study is to develop a methodology to identify and evaluate the emissions and heat transfer associated to combustion of gross glycerin a by-product of the Brazilian biodiesel manufacture process as alternative energy source. It aims to increase the present knowledge on the matter and to contribute to the improvement of the economic and environmental perspective of biodiesel industry. This methodology was considered to be used for assessment of gross glycerin combustion from three different types of biodiesel (bovine tallow, palm and soy). The procedures for evaluation and quantification of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acrolein were analyzed, described and standardized. Experimental techniques for mutagenic and toxic effects assessment of gases similarly were analyzed and standardized, as well as the calorific power, the associate heat transfer and fundamentals operational parameters. The methodology was developed, using a full-instrumented flame tube furnace, continuous gas analyzers, a chromatograph, automatic data acquisition systems and other auxiliary equipment. The mutagenic and toxic effects of the study was based on Tradescantia clone KU-20, using chambers of intoxication and biological analytical techniques previously developed and others were specially adapted. The benchmark for the initial set up was based on the performance evaluation of the previous equipment tested with diesel considering its behavior during direct combustion. Finally, the following factors were defined for the combustion of crude glycerin, configurations of equipment types, operational parameters such as air fuel ratio adiabatic temperature and other necessary aspect for successful application of the methodology. The developed and integrated methodology was made available to the concern industry, environmental authorities and researchers as procedures to access the viability of gross glycerin or similar fuels as

  11. Methodology, status and plans for development and assessment of Cathare code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestion, D.; Barre, F.; Faydide, B. [CEA - Grenoble (France)

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology, status and plans for the development, assessment and uncertainty evaluation of the Cathare code. Cathare is a thermalhydraulic code developed by CEA (DRN), IPSN, EDF and FRAMATOME for PWR safety analysis. First, the status of the code development and assessment is presented. The general strategy used for the development and the assessment of the code is presented. Analytical experiments with separate effect tests, and component tests are used for the development and the validation of closure laws. Successive Revisions of constitutive laws are implemented in successive Versions of the code and assessed. System tests or integral tests are used to validate the general consistency of the Revision. Each delivery of a code Version + Revision is fully assessed and documented. A methodology is being developed to determine the uncertainty on all constitutive laws of the code using calculations of many analytical tests and applying the Discrete Adjoint Sensitivity Method (DASM). At last, the plans for the future developments of the code are presented. They concern the optimization of the code performance through parallel computing - the code will be used for real time full scope plant simulators - the coupling with many other codes (neutronic codes, severe accident codes), the application of the code for containment thermalhydraulics. Also, physical improvements are required in the field of low pressure transients and in the modeling for the 3-D model.

  12. Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

  13. A Study on Methodologies for Assessing Safety Critical Network's Risk Impact on Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T. J.; Park, S. K.; Seo, S. J. [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The objectives of this project is to establish methodologies for assessing safety-critical network's risk impact on nuclear power plant by developing reliability analysis models for the safety-critical network. It is essential to develop reliability analysis models for safety-critical network, and it is very important to adapt the model to the current methodologies for assessing risk impact on nuclear power plants. Major outputs of the first year study are preliminary models for assessing reliability of safety-critical communication networks and those of the second year study are methodologies for assessing safety-critical network's risk impact on nuclear power plant.

  14. Development of performance assessment methodology for establishment of quantitative acceptance criteria of near-surface radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. R.; Lee, E. Y.; Park, J. W.; Chang, G. M.; Park, H. Y.; Yeom, Y. S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : review of state-of-the-art on the establishment of waste acceptance criteria in foreign near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities, investigation of radiological assessment methodologies and scenarios, investigation of existing models and computer codes used in performance/safety assessment, development of a performance assessment methodology(draft) to derive quantitatively radionuclide acceptance criteria of domestic near-surface disposal facility, preliminary performance/safety assessment in accordance with the developed methodology.

  15. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous, Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment of physical characteristics and aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas, and measured selected water-quality properties in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the course of the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to environmental flow prescriptions for Big Cypress Bayou, Black Cypress Bayou, and Little Cypress Bayou. Data collection and analysis were done at mesohabitat- and reach-specific scales, where a mesohabitat is defined as a discrete area within a stream that exhibits unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Biological and physical characteristic data were collected from two sites on Big Cypress Bayou, and one site on both Black Cypress Bayou and Little Cypress Bayou. The upstream reach of Big Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346015 Big Cypress Bayou at confluence of French Creek, Jefferson, Texas) is hereinafter referred to as the Big Cypress 02 site. The downstream site on Big Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346017 Big Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) is hereinafter referred to as the Big Cypress 01 site and was sampled exclusively for mussels. The sites on Black Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346044 Black Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) and Little Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346071 Little Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) are hereinafter referred to as the Black Cypress and Little Cypress sites, respectively. A small range of streamflows was targeted for data collection, including a

  16. A Methodology for Assessing Skill-Based Educational Outcomes in a Pharmacy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Gregory L; Griffiths, Carrie L

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To develop a methodology for assessing skill development in a course while providing objective evidence of success and actionable data to improve instructional effectiveness. Design. Course objectives were recast as skills to be demonstrated. Confidence in these skills was surveyed before and after the course. Student skills were demonstrated using 4 work products and a multiple-choice examination. Assessment. The change from precourse survey to postcourse survey was analyzed with a paired t test. Quality of the student work product was assessed using scoring guides. All students demonstrated skill mastery by scoring 70% or above on the work product, and 87/88 demonstrated individual progress on the surveyed skills during the 15-week course. Conclusion. This assessment strategy is based on sound design principles and provides robust multi-modal evidence of student achievement in skill development, which is not currently available using traditional student course evaluation surveys. PMID:27168618

  17. A spatially-evaluated methodology for assessing risk to a population from contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, J Rebecca; Korre, Anna

    2006-07-01

    A methodology is proposed which combines quantitative probabilistic human health risk assessment and spatial statistical methods (geostatistics) to produce an assessment of risks to human health from exposure to contaminated land, in a manner which preserves the spatial distribution of risks and provides a measure of uncertainty in the assessment. Maps of soil contaminant levels, which incorporate uncertainty, are produced from sparse sample data using sequential indicator simulation. A real, age-stratified population is mapped across the contaminated area, and intake of soil contaminants by individuals is calculated probabilistically using an adaptation of the Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment (CLEA) model. An abundance of information is contained in results which can be interrogated at the population and individual level, and mapped to provide a powerful visual tool for risk managers, enabling efficient targeting of risk reduction measures to different locations.

  18. Developing a methodology to assess the impact of research grant funding: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work.

  19. The estimation of absorbed dose rates for non-human biota : an extended inter-comparison.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batlle, J. V. I.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Beresford, N. A.; Copplestone, D.; Horyna, J.; Hosseini, A.; Johansen, M.; Kamboj, S.; Keum, D.-K.; Kurosawa, N.; Newsome, L.; Olyslaegers, G.; Vandenhove, H.; Ryufuku, S.; Lynch, S. V.; Wood, M. D.; Yu, C. (Environmental Science Division); (Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd.); (Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire); (Centre for Ecology & Hydrology); (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority); (State Office for Nuclear Safety); (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute); (Visible Information Centre Inc.); (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre); (University of Liverpool)

    2011-05-01

    An exercise to compare 10 approaches for the calculation of unweighted whole-body absorbed dose rates was conducted for 74 radionuclides and five of the ICRP's Reference Animals and Plants, or RAPs (duck, frog, flatfish egg, rat and elongated earthworm), selected for this exercise to cover a range of body sizes, dimensions and exposure scenarios. Results were analysed using a non-parametric method requiring no specific hypotheses about the statistical distribution of data. The obtained unweighted absorbed dose rates for internal exposure compare well between the different approaches, with 70% of the results falling within a range of variation of {+-}20%. The variation is greater for external exposure, although 90% of the estimates are within an order of magnitude of one another. There are some discernible patterns where specific models over- or under-predicted. These are explained based on the methodological differences including number of daughter products included in the calculation of dose rate for a parent nuclide; source-target geometry; databases for discrete energy and yield of radionuclides; rounding errors in integration algorithms; and intrinsic differences in calculation methods. For certain radionuclides, these factors combine to generate systematic variations between approaches. Overall, the technique chosen to interpret the data enabled methodological differences in dosimetry calculations to be quantified and compared, allowing the identification of common issues between different approaches and providing greater assurance on the fundamental dose conversion coefficient approaches used in available models for assessing radiological effects to biota.

  20. The estimation of absorbed dose rates for non-human biota: an extended intercomparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives i Batlle, J; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Beresford, N A; Copplestone, D; Horyna, J; Hosseini, A; Johansen, M; Kamboj, S; Keum, D-K; Kurosawa, N; Newsome, L; Olyslaegers, G; Vandenhove, H; Ryufuku, S; Vives Lynch, S; Wood, M D; Yu, C

    2011-05-01

    An exercise to compare 10 approaches for the calculation of unweighted whole-body absorbed dose rates was conducted for 74 radionuclides and five of the ICRP's Reference Animals and Plants, or RAPs (duck, frog, flatfish egg, rat and elongated earthworm), selected for this exercise to cover a range of body sizes, dimensions and exposure scenarios. Results were analysed using a non-parametric method requiring no specific hypotheses about the statistical distribution of data. The obtained unweighted absorbed dose rates for internal exposure compare well between the different approaches, with 70% of the results falling within a range of variation of ±20%. The variation is greater for external exposure, although 90% of the estimates are within an order of magnitude of one another. There are some discernible patterns where specific models over- or under-predicted. These are explained based on the methodological differences including number of daughter products included in the calculation of dose rate for a parent nuclide; source-target geometry; databases for discrete energy and yield of radionuclides; rounding errors in integration algorithms; and intrinsic differences in calculation methods. For certain radionuclides, these factors combine to generate systematic variations between approaches. Overall, the technique chosen to interpret the data enabled methodological differences in dosimetry calculations to be quantified and compared, allowing the identification of common issues between different approaches and providing greater assurance on the fundamental dose conversion coefficient approaches used in available models for assessing radiological effects to biota. PMID:21113609

  1. Application of the integrated safety assessment methodology to sequences with loss of component cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Safety Assessment (ISA) methodology, developed by the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body, has been applied to a thermo-hydraulic analysis of Zion NPP for sequences with loss of the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS) in the context of the NEA application exercise SM2A (Safety Margin Application and Assessment). The ISA methodology allows among others to obtain the damage domain (the region where the PCT limit is exceeded) for each sequence of the dynamic event tree as a function of the uncertain times of operator actuations (secondary side cooling and recovery of CCWS). Sequences with available and unavailable accumulators (ACC) have been analyzed in order to distinguish all the possibilities (ACC demanded and successful, ACC demanded and failed and ACC not demanded). In this work, this damage domain and some parameters of every sequence have been obtained from the results of the simulations performed with TRACE code, these data as well as the time-density probability distributions of the considered uncertain parameters (manual actions) are used to obtain the exceedance frequency of the particular safety limit or damage limit. . The results show the feasibility of ISA methodology in order to obtain accurate enough regions of uncertain parameters (time delays or physical parameters) where the particular safety limit of interest is exceeded, as well as the frequency of exceeding this limit. (author)

  2. Development of a methodology for automated assessment of the quality of digitized images in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of evaluating the quality of radiographic images in general, and mammography in particular, can be much more accurate, practical and fast with the help of computer analysis tools. The purpose of this study is to develop a computational methodology to automate the process of assessing the quality of mammography images through techniques of digital imaging processing (PDI), using an existing image processing environment (ImageJ). With the application of PDI techniques was possible to extract geometric and radiometric characteristics of the images evaluated. The evaluated parameters include spatial resolution, high-contrast detail, low contrast threshold, linear detail of low contrast, tumor masses, contrast ratio and background optical density. The results obtained by this method were compared with the results presented in the visual evaluations performed by the Health Surveillance of Minas Gerais. Through this comparison was possible to demonstrate that the automated methodology is presented as a promising alternative for the reduction or elimination of existing subjectivity in the visual assessment methodology currently in use. (author)

  3. Economic assessment of the IRIS reactor for deployment in Brazil using INPRO methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the main results of the evaluation of the economic competitiveness of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) for deployment in Brazil using the assessment methodology developed under the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). INPRO was initiated in 2001 and has the main objective of helping to ensure that nuclear energy will be available to contribute in a sustainable manner to the energy needs of the 21st century. Among its missions are the development of a methodology to assess innovative nuclear energy systems (INS) on a global, regional and national basis, and to facilitate the co-operation among IAEA Member States for planning the development and deployment of INS. Brazil joined INPRO since its beginning and in 2005 submitted a proposal for the screening assessment of two small-sized integral-type PWR reactors as alternative components of an INS completed with a conventional open nuclear fuel cycle based on enriched uranium. This paper outlines the rationale and the main results of the economic assessment of the IRIS-based INS completed in August 2008. The study concluded that IRIS reference design satisfies most of INPRO criteria in the area of economics. (author)

  4. Basic professional skills of the General Comprehensive Doctor: A methodological assessment approach in Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aurelia San Juan Bosch

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment process of medical competences of General Comprehensive Doctors is a core element to determine their needs and their competence level. It is an important constituent for the continue improvement of this kind of professional. The development of Human Resources of the Health Sector is one of the main premises to achieve a better quality of sanitary assistance. The subject of continuous preparation of human resources in Primary Health Care is presently a high priority challenge of National Health Sector. The scientific and human quality of our workers is the foundation of our achievements in this sector. This work highlights the necessity for a methodology to assess the basic professional competences of General Comprehensive Doctors and its field is limited to the assessment of professional competences of these doctors to guarantee quality in our services. The newness of this proposal lies on the option of a theoretical systematic treatment of a methodology for the assessment of professional competences of these doctors, with a holistic approach linking theory to practice and thus, contrasting expected and achieved goals.

  5. Eco-efficiency of agricultural water systems: Methodological approach and assessment at meso-level scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Mladen; Mehmeti, Andi; Scardigno, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a methodological framework for the meso-level eco-efficiency assessment of agricultural water systems using a life-cycle system-based approach. The methodology was applied to the Sinistra Ofanto irrigation scheme, located in Southern Italy, where about 28,165 ha are under irrigation. The environmental performance of the system was evaluated through a set of selected mid-point environmental impact categories while the economic performance was measured using the total value added to the system's final products due to water use and the adopted management practices. Both economic performance and environmental performance were measured at different stages and for each stakeholder in the value chain. A distinction was made between foreground and background systems referring, respectively, to the processes that occurred inside the water system boundaries and those used for the production of supplementary resources. The analysis revealed that the major environmental burdens are: i) the freshwater resource depletion (i.e. excessive groundwater pumping), ii) climate change (i.e. direct emissions due to fertilizer use and diesel combustion), and iii) eutrophication (as a result of excessive application of N and P fertilizers). A considerable impact was observed on the background system where energy, fuel and agrochemicals were produced thereby confirming the prominent role of background processes in the comprehensive eco-efficiency assessment. The presented methodology aimed at the quantitative assessment of the eco-efficiency level rather than at the identification of the most affected environmental category. Hence, the results can be used to compare the performance of the system from one year to the next, among different stakeholders (water users) and/or to assess the impact of adopting innovative technologies and management practices. Moreover, the presented approach is useful for comparing the performance among different agricultural water systems and

  6. Eco-efficiency of agricultural water systems: Methodological approach and assessment at meso-level scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Mladen; Mehmeti, Andi; Scardigno, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a methodological framework for the meso-level eco-efficiency assessment of agricultural water systems using a life-cycle system-based approach. The methodology was applied to the Sinistra Ofanto irrigation scheme, located in Southern Italy, where about 28,165 ha are under irrigation. The environmental performance of the system was evaluated through a set of selected mid-point environmental impact categories while the economic performance was measured using the total value added to the system's final products due to water use and the adopted management practices. Both economic performance and environmental performance were measured at different stages and for each stakeholder in the value chain. A distinction was made between foreground and background systems referring, respectively, to the processes that occurred inside the water system boundaries and those used for the production of supplementary resources. The analysis revealed that the major environmental burdens are: i) the freshwater resource depletion (i.e. excessive groundwater pumping), ii) climate change (i.e. direct emissions due to fertilizer use and diesel combustion), and iii) eutrophication (as a result of excessive application of N and P fertilizers). A considerable impact was observed on the background system where energy, fuel and agrochemicals were produced thereby confirming the prominent role of background processes in the comprehensive eco-efficiency assessment. The presented methodology aimed at the quantitative assessment of the eco-efficiency level rather than at the identification of the most affected environmental category. Hence, the results can be used to compare the performance of the system from one year to the next, among different stakeholders (water users) and/or to assess the impact of adopting innovative technologies and management practices. Moreover, the presented approach is useful for comparing the performance among different agricultural water systems and

  7. Methodology for assessment of low level laser therapy (LLLT) irradiation parameters in muscle inflammation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Several studies in human and animals show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing some types of pain, treating inflammation and wound healing. However, more scientific evidence is required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT since many aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation of injured tissue with laser remain unknown. Here, we present a methodology that can be used to evaluate the effect of different LLLT irradiation parameters on the treatment of muscle inflammation on animals, through the quantification of four cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6) in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. We have used this methodology to assess the effect of LLLT parameters (wavelength, dose, power and type of illumination) in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats. Results obtained for laser dose evaluation with continuous illumination are presented.

  8. Life cycle assessment in green chemistry: overview of key parameters and methodological concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Linda M.; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John;

    2013-01-01

    assessment (LCA) is a valuable methodology. However, on the planning stage, a full-scale LCA is considered to be too time consuming and complicated. Two reasons for this have been recognised, the method is too comprehensive and it is hard to find inventory data. In this review, key parameters are presented...... with the purpose to reduce the time-consuming steps in LCA.In this review, several LCAs of so-called ‘green chemicals’ are analysed and key parameters and methodological concerns are identified. Further, some conclusions on the environmental performance of chemicals were drawn.For fossil-based platform chemicals...... chemicals was identified. The environmental performance of bulk chemicals are closely connected to the production of the raw material and thereby different land use aspects. Here, a lot can be learnt from biofuel LCAs. In many of the reviewed articles focusing on bulk chemicals a comparison regarding fossil...

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Methodology Development for Ecological Carbon Assessment and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Stackpoole, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ecological carbon sequestration refers to transfer and storage of atmospheric carbon in vegetation, soils, and aquatic environments to help offset the net increase from carbon emissions. Understanding capacities, associated opportunities, and risks of vegetated ecosystems to sequester carbon provides science information to support formulation of policies governing climate change mitigation, adaptation, and land-management strategies. Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 mandates the Department of the Interior to develop a methodology and assess the capacity of our nation's ecosystems for ecological carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) flux mitigation. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) LandCarbon Project is responding to the Department of Interior's request to develop a methodology that meets specific EISA requirements.

  10. A proposed approach to backfit decision-making using risk assessment and benefit-cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines a proposed approach to backfit decision-making which utilizes quantitative risk assessment techniques, benefit-cost methodology and decision criteria. In general terms, it is structured to provide an objective framework for decision-making aimed at ensuring a positive return on backfit investment while allowing for inclusion of subjective value judgments by the decision-maker. The distributions of the independent variables are combined to arrive at an overall probability distribution for the benefit-cost ratio. In this way, the decision-maker can explicitly establish the probability or level of confidence that a particular backfit will yield benefits in excess of cost. An example is presented demonstrating the application of methodology to a specific plant backfit. (orig.)

  11. Development of a methodology for assessing the safety of embedded software systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C. J.; Guarro, S. B.; Apostolakis, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    A Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) based on an integrated approach to modeling and analyzing the behavior of software-driven embedded systems for assessing and verifying reliability and safety is discussed. DFM is based on an extension of the Logic Flowgraph Methodology to incorporate state transition models. System models which express the logic of the system in terms of causal relationships between physical variables and temporal characteristics of software modules are analyzed to determine how a certain state can be reached. This is done by developing timed fault trees which take the form of logical combinations of static trees relating the system parameters at different point in time. The resulting information concerning the hardware and software states can be used to eliminate unsafe execution paths and identify testing criteria for safety critical software functions.

  12. A methodology for the probabilistic assessment of system effectiveness as applied to aircraft survivability and susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soban, Danielle Suzanne

    2001-07-01

    Significant advances have been made recently in applying probabilistic methods to aerospace vehicle concepts. Given the explosive changes in today's political, social, and technological climate, it makes practical sense to try and extrapolate these methods to the campaign analysis level. This would allow the assessment of rapidly changing threat environments as well as technological advancements, aiding today's decision makers. These decision makers use this information in three primary ways: resource allocation, requirements definition, and trade studies between system components. In effect, these decision makers are looking for a way to quantify system effectiveness. Using traditional definitions, one can categorize an aerospace concept, such as an aircraft, as the system. Design and analysis conducted on the aircraft will result in system level Measures of Effectiveness. System effectiveness, therefore, becomes a function of only that aircraft's design variables and parameters. While this method of analysis can result in the design of a vehicle that is optimized to its own mission and performance requirements, the vehicle remains independent of its role for which it was created: the warfighting environment. It is therefore proposed that the system be redefined as the warfighting environment (campaign analysis) and the problem be considered to have a system of systems formulation. A methodology for the assessment of military system effectiveness is proposed. Called POSSEM (PrObabilisitic System of System Effectiveness Methodology), the methodology describes the creation of an analysis pathway that links engineering level changes to campaign level measures of effectiveness. The methodology includes probabilistic analysis techniques in order to manage the inherent uncertainties in the problem, which are functions of human decision making, rapidly changing threats, and the incorporation of new technologies. An example problem is presented, in which aircraft

  13. A new methodology for deterministic landslide risk assessment at the local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotecchia, F.; Santaloia, F.; Lollino, P.; Vitone, C.; Mitaritonna, G.; Parise, M.

    2009-04-01

    The present paper discusses the formulation of a methodology that is being developed for regional landslide risk assessment within geologically complex areas and some preliminary results of its application at the intermediate scale (i.e. between the regional and the slope scale). In particular, the methodology is the subject of an on-going multidisciplinary research project, which aims at the assessment of the landslide hazard, of the corresponding vulnerability of structures and of their exposition, involving different expertises. As such, both the landslide hazard and the structure vulnerability assessments are meant to be based upon the knowledge of the failure mechanisms and to benefit from scientific knowledge in the fields of both geotechnical engineering and structural mechanics. At the same time, the exposure of the elements at risk is to be investigated according to analyses of the socio-economical context where the risk is being evaluated. In the present paper only the work relating to landslide hazard is presented. This work aims at the further development of Quantitative Landslide Hazard Assessment, QHA, following a deterministic approach. As such, it is aimed at exporting the geo-mechanical interpretation of slope stability and landslide mechanisms from the slope scale (site-specific) to the regional scale. The results of such a methodology will be implemented in a GIS system and reported in guidelines. As concerns the landslide hazard assessment, the proposed methodology involves two interconnected working phases, the first one at regional scale and the second one at town scale. During the first phase, an analytical database of all the factors affecting the slope equilibrium is created and a geo-hydro-mechanical classification of the soil masses is defined together with the definition of the main landslide typologies present in the region. Thereafter, the connections existing among the sets of internal factors of landslides, which characterise the geo

  14. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible.

  15. Risk assessment of cryogenic installations – implementation, applicability of methodologies and challenges at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    For the safe design of a cryogenic installation, it is essential to carry out a comprehensive hazard identification and risk estimate in order to put in place the necessary control measures for an adequate risk mitigation. According to CERN Safety Rules, it is mandatory that the organic unit owning a cryogenic facility conducts and documents a risk assessment. This requirement is also given by the European Directive 2014/68/EU to manufacturers of pressure equipment. During the talk, some of the challenges CERN faces in the development of risk assessments across the broad array of activities involving cryogenic equipment in the organization will be discussed. Challenges such as the choice of the best-suited risk assessment methodology based on the features and complexity of the installation/activities, the efforts to develop tools to facilitate hazard identification, risk analysis and definition of related measures to protect the health and safety of workers, such as streamlined guidelines, forms and check...

  16. Chapter 43: Assessment of NE Greenland: Prototype for development of Circum-ArcticResource Appraisal methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, D.L.; Stemmerik, L.; Christiansen, F.G.; Sorensen, K.; Bidstrup, T.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Geological features of NE Greenland suggest large petroleum potential, as well as high uncertainty and risk. The area was the prototype for development of methodology used in the US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), and was the first area evaluated. In collaboration with the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), eight "assessment units" (AU) were defined, six of which were probabilistically assessed. The most prospective areas are offshore in the Danmarkshavn Basin. This study supersedes a previous USGS assessment, from which it differs in several important respects: oil estimates are reduced and natural gas estimates are increased to reflect revised understanding of offshore geology. Despite the reduced estimates, the CARA indicates that NE Greenland may be an important future petroleum province. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  17. Living with uncertainty: from the precautionary principle to the methodology of ongoing normative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of our epistemic situation regarding singular events, such as abrupt climate change, shows essential limitations in the traditional modes of dealing with uncertainty. Typical cognitive barriers lead to the paralysis of action. What is needed is taking seriously the reality of the future. We argue for the application of the methodology of ongoing normative assessment. We show that it is, paradoxically, a matter of forming a project on the basis of a fixed future which one does not want, and this in a coordinated way at the level of social institutions. Ongoing assessment may be viewed as a prescription to live with uncertainty, in a particular sense of the term, in order for a future catastrophe not to occur. The assessment is necessarily normative in that it must include the anticipation of a retrospective ethical judgment on present choices (notion of moral luck). (authors)

  18. Challenges in implementing a Planetary Boundaries based Life-Cycle Impact Assessment methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Richardson, Katherine;

    2016-01-01

    Impacts on the environment from human activities are now threatening to exceed thresholds for central Earth System processes, potentially moving the Earth System out of the Holocene state. To avoid such consequences, the concept of Planetary Boundaries was defined in 2009, and updated in 2015...... of resolving the challenges and developing such methodology is discussed. The challenges are related to technical issues, i.e., modelling and including the Earth System processes and their control variables as impact categories in Life-Cycle Impact Assessment and to theoretical considerations with respect......, for a number of processes which are essential for maintaining the Earth System in its present state. Life-Cycle Assessment was identified as a suitable tool for linking human activities to the Planetary Boundaries. However, to facilitate proper use of Life-Cycle Assessment for non-global environmental...

  19. A study on the methodology of probabilistic safety assessment for KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Jeong, Hae Yong; Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Kyu Suk; Hahn, Do Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Existing Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) is a method for Light Water Reactor or Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. Because KALIMER is different from these reactor, the new methodology of PSA need to be developed. In this paper, the PSA of Power Reactor Inherently Safety Module(PRISM) is analyzed, and Initiating Event such as Experiential Assessment, Logical Assessment and Failure Mode Effect Analysis(FMEA) is reviewed. Also, Pipe Damage Frequency Method is suggested for KALIMER. And the Reliability Physical method of Passive System, which is a chief safety system of KALIMER, is reviewed and its applicability is investigated. Finally, for the Preliminary PSA of KALIMER, Intermediate Heat Transfer System is analyzed. 23 refs., 10 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  20. Chemical footprint: a methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

    2013-10-01

    The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In

  1. AN ASSESSMENT OF SIMPLIFIED VS. DETAILED METHODOLOGIES FOR SSI ANALYSES OF DEEPLY EMBEDDED STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a research program to develop a technical basis to support the safety evaluation of deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) structures as proposed for advanced reactor designs. In this program, the methods and computer programs established for the assessment of soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects for the current generation of light water reactors are evaluated to determine their applicability and adequacy in capturing the seismic behavior of DEB structures. This paper presents an assessment of the simplified vs. detailed methodologies for seismic analyses of DEB structures. In this assessment, a lump-mass beam model is used for the simplified approach and a finite element representation is employed for the detailed method. A typical containment structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized, considering various embedment depths from shallow to full burial. BNL used the CARES program for the simplified model and the SASSI2000 program for the detailed analyses. The calculated response spectra at the key locations of the DEB structure are used for the performance assessment of the applied methods for different depths of burial. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of both the simplified and detailed models for the SSI analyses of the DEB structure, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different depths of burial between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of DEB structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice

  2. Environmental integrated impact assessment for waste treatment activity: methodology and case-study application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature method for the environmental integrated impact assessment, according to the IPPC Directive, has been critically analysed and adjusted in order to be used for the environmental performance assessment of waste treatment activities. The assessment parameters, sorted in eight treatment and combined pollution categories, have been partly redefined and re balanced. The adjusted methodology has been applied to a real case-study, a chemical- physical waste treatment plant, in order to calculate the current performance (Actual Integrated Index) and the ideal performance (Actual Integrated Index) achievable by technical and operational improvements. The adjusted methodology has also been used as a decision support system, in order to estimate the value of the expected environmental performances improvement after the execution achievable from the introduction of a single one or a set of improvement actions. The valuation of the Integrated Index percentage reduction, along with the action achievable, made the best actions able to be identified, both in comparative way and in the cost-effective one. The results, 50 as Effective Integrated Index and 42 as Ideal Integrated Index, in a 10-100 scale, show a medium impact level and point out an appreciable improvement margin on all the environmental performances, especially in air emission control and water consumption

  3. A Methodology for Assessing the Sustainability of Hydrogen Production from Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal V. Gnanapragasam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for assessing the sustainability of hydrogen production using solid fuels is introduced, in which three sustainability dimensions (ecological, sociological and technological are considered along with ten indicators for each dimension. Values for each indicator are assigned on a 10-point scale based on a high of 1 and a low of 0, depending on the characteristic of the criteria associated with each element or process, utilizing data reported in the literature. An illustrative example is presented to compare two solid fuels for hydrogen production: coal and biomass. The results suggest that qualitative sustainability indicators can be reasonably defined based on evaluations of system feasibility, and that adequate flexibility and comprehensiveness is provided through the use of ten indicators for each of the dimensions for every process or element involved in hydrogen production using solid fuels. Also, the assessment index values suggest that biomasses have better sustainability than coals, and that it may be advantageous to use coals in combination with biomass to increase their ecological and social sustainability. The sustainability assessment methodology can be made increasingly quantitative, and is likely extendable to other energy systems, but additional research and development is needed to lead to a more fully developed approach.

  4. Risk assessment methodologies applied to the handling of radioactive and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous waste may contain toxic, flammable or explosive chemicals, radioactive substances, infectious agents or sharps, which can be involved in accidents. In this paper it is proposed the use of currently available risk assessment methodologies to evaluate practices in the handling of hazardous wastes. There are several qualitative and quantitative available techniques for identification of the risks of accidents involving hazardous materials as well as for the evaluation of their consequences on persons or to the environment. Among the techniques for analyzing probabilities or frequencies of accidents there are: Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Fault Tree Analysis, Event Tree Analysis, Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP), and historical analysis of accidents. It is suggested the use of such techniques for studying and selecting alternative handling practices for hazardous waste. The results obtained in this type of study can be used during the implementation of the hazardous waste management steps, suggesting alternative practices and procedures, as well as parameters to be optimized, in order to reduce costs and minimize the risks to operators, public and environment. It was verified that for high-level waste repository safety studies, very sophisticated risk assessment methodologies are currently employed, while for low-level waste facilities the risk assessment tools should be amended in order to get the desired outcomes. (author)

  5. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment and management on the state of Karnataka, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a new Methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard...

  6. An efficient methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van H.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack is presented. The methodology is based on an integration of the visual search paradigm, the choice paradigm and eye-tracking measures, and moves beyond reliance on self-report measures for attention

  7. Methodology to Assess No Touch Audit Software Using Simulated Building Utility Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Howard [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Braun, James E. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Langner, M. Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report describes a methodology developed for assessing the performance of no touch building audit tools and presents results for an available tool. Building audits are conducted in many commercial buildings to reduce building energy costs and improve building operation. Because the audits typically require significant input obtained by building engineers, they are usually only affordable for larger commercial building owners. In an effort to help small building and business owners gain the benefits of an audit at a lower cost, no touch building audit tools have been developed to remotely analyze a building's energy consumption.

  8. Review of Methodologies for Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in European Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The wind resource offshore is generally larger than at geographically nearby onshore sites, which can offset the higher installation, operation and maintenance costs associated with offshore wind parks. Successful offshore wind energy development relies to some extent on accurate prediction of wind......) of the project often still requires in situ observations (which may or may not be supplemented with ground-based remote sensing technologies) and application of tools to provide a climatological context for the resulting measurements. Current methodologies for undertaking these aspects of the resource assessment...

  9. Methodology for assessing suitable systems for management of reactor decommissioning wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report demonstrates a methodology for comparing quantitatively the options open to decision-makers at various stages of the decommissioning process, taking into account radiological protection and other factors considered to be relevant. In order to compare different decommissioning options, various impacts associated with decommissioning operations and waste disposal were assessed, namely, costs and radiological, environmental and socio-political impact. The post-disposal radiological impact was calculated for four generic concepts (near surface, deep geological, coastal tunnel and deep ocean bed)

  10. Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Based on the EquiMar Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Pecher, Arthur;

    2011-01-01

    on experimental data deriving from sea trials rather than solely on numerical predictions. The study applies this methodology to evaluate the performance of Wave Dragon at two locations in the North Sea, based on the data acquired during the sea trials of a 1:4.5 scale prototype. Indications about power......At the present pre-commercial phase of the wave energy sector, device developers are called to provide reliable estimates on power performance and production at possible deployment locations. The EU EquiMar project has proposed a novel approach, where the performance assessment is based mainly...

  11. Methodologies to assess the fate of polar organic compounds in aquatic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Magnér, Jörgen

    2010-01-01

    Polar organic compounds (POCs) are chemicals with polar functional groups in their structure. The functional groups make the compounds hydrophilic and less prone to partition with biota. However, the knowledge of their fate is limited due to difficulties associated with their measurements. Although, the persistence of POCs in the environment is generally low, they are considered to be semi-persistent compounds due to their continuous introduction to the environment via wastewater. Studies hav...

  12. Application of Direct Assessment Approaches and Methodologies to Cathodically Protected Nuclear Waste Transfer Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 54 million gallons (204 million liters) of radioactive waste generated since the site's inception in 1943. Today, the major structures involved in waste management at Hanford include 149 carbon steel single-shell tanks, 28 carbon-steel double-shell tanks, plus a network of buried metallic transfer lines and ancillary systems (pits, vaults, catch tanks, etc.) required to store, retrieve, and transfer waste within the tank farm system. Many of the waste management systems at Hanford are still in use today. In response to uncertainties regarding the structural integrity of these systems,' an independent, comprehensive integrity assessment of the Hanford Site piping system was performed. It was found that regulators do not require the cathodically protected pipelines located within the Hanford Site to be assessed by External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) or any other method used to ensure integrity. However, a case study is presented discussing the application of the direct assessment process on pipelines in such a nuclear environment. Assessment methodology and assessment results are contained herein. An approach is described for the monitoring, integration of outside data, and analysis of this information in order to identify whether coating deterioration accompanied by external corrosion is a threat for these waste transfer lines

  13. Application of Direct Assessment Approaches and Methodologies to Cathodically Protected Nuclear Waste Transfer Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Megan M. [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States); Pikas, Joseph [Schiff Associates, Sugar Land TX (United States); Edgemon, Glenn L. [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States); Philo, Sarah [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 54 million gallons (204 million liters) of radioactive waste generated since the site's inception in 1943. Today, the major structures involved in waste management at Hanford include 149 carbon steel single-shell tanks, 28 carbon-steel double-shell tanks, plus a network of buried metallic transfer lines and ancillary systems (pits, vaults, catch tanks, etc.) required to store, retrieve, and transfer waste within the tank farm system. Many of the waste management systems at Hanford are still in use today. In response to uncertainties regarding the structural integrity of these systems,' an independent, comprehensive integrity assessment of the Hanford Site piping system was performed. It was found that regulators do not require the cathodically protected pipelines located within the Hanford Site to be assessed by External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) or any other method used to ensure integrity. However, a case study is presented discussing the application of the direct assessment process on pipelines in such a nuclear environment. Assessment methodology and assessment results are contained herein. An approach is described for the monitoring, integration of outside data, and analysis of this information in order to identify whether coating deterioration accompanied by external corrosion is a threat for these waste transfer lines.

  14. Developing the P2/6 methodology [to assess the security capability of modern distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Ron; Strbac, Goran; Djapic, Predrag; Jarrett, Keith [Manchester Univ. Inst. of Science and Technology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-29

    The main objective of the project was to use the methodology developed in the previous Methodology project (ETSU/FES Project K/EL/00287) to assess the security capability of modern distributed generation in order to review Table 2 and related text of Engineering Recommendation P2/5, and to propose information and results that could be used to create a new P2/6 that takes into account modern types of generating units; unit numbers; unit availabilities; and capacities. Technical issues raised in the previous study but held over until this project include: Treatment of single unit generation systems; Effect of shape of load duration curves; Persistence of intermittent generation, T{sub m}; Time resolution of intermittent generation output profiles; Ride-through capability; Risk to loss of supply. Three main ways of implementing the methodology were recommended: Look-up table(s), Graphical, and Computer program. The specification for the computer program was to produce a simple spreadsheet application package that an engineer with a reasonably knowledge of the approach could use. This prototype package has been developed in conjunction with Workstream 3. Its objective is to calculate the capability contribution to security of supply from distributed generation connected to a particular demand group. The application has been developed using Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic for Applications. New Tables for inclusion in P2/6 are included. (UK)

  15. Impact limiters for radioactive materials transport packagings: a methodology for assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at establishing a methodology for design assessment of a cellular material-filled impact limiter to be used as part of a radioactive material transport packaging. This methodology comprises the selection of the cellular material, its structural characterization by mechanical tests, the development of a case study in the nuclear field, preliminary determination of the best cellular material density for the case study, performance of the case and its numerical simulation using the finite element method. Among the several materials used as shock absorbers in packagings, the polyurethane foam was chosen, particularly the foam obtained from the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), a non-polluting and renewable source. The case study carried out was the 9 m drop test of a package prototype containing radioactive wastes incorporated in a cement matrix, considered one of the most severe tests prescribed by the Brazilian and international transport standards. Prototypes with foam density pre-determined as ideal as well as prototypes using lighter and heavier foams were tested for comparison. The results obtained validate the methodology in that expectations regarding the ideal foam density were confirmed by the drop tests and the numerical simulation. (author)

  16. Assessing the Capability of Code Smells to Support Software Maintainability Assessments : Empirical Inquiry and Methodological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Code smells are indicators of software design shortcomings that can decrease software maintainability. An advantage of code smells over traditional software measures is that the former are associated with an explicit set of refactoring strategies to improve the existing design. As such, code smell analysis is a promising approach to address both the assessment and the improvement of maintainability. An important challenge in code smell analysis is understanding the interplay between code smel...

  17. Assessing Confidence in Performance Assessments Using an Evidence Support Logic Methodology: An Application of Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of uncertainties and their implications is a key requirement when undertaking performance assessment (PA) of radioactive waste facilities. Decisions based on the outcome of such assessments become translated into judgments about confidence in the information they provide. This confidence, in turn, depends on uncertainties in the underlying evidence. Even if there is a large amount of information supporting an assessment, it may be only partially relevant, incomplete or less than completely reliable. In order to develop a measure of confidence in the outcome, sources of uncertainty need to be identified and adequately addressed in the development of the PA, or in any overarching strategic decision-making processes. This paper describes a trial application of the technique of Evidence Support Logic (ESL), which has been designed for application in support of 'high stakes' decisions, where important aspects of system performance are subject to uncertainty. The aims of ESL are to identify the amount of uncertainty or conflict associated with evidence relating to a particular decision, and to guide understanding of how evidence combines to support confidence in judgments. Elicitation techniques are used to enable participants in the process to develop a logical hypothesis model that best represents the relationships between different sources of evidence to the proposition under examination. The aim is to identify key areas of subjectivity and other sources of potential bias in the use of evidence (whether for or against the proposition) to support judgments of confidence. Propagation algorithms are used to investigate the overall implications of the logic according to the strength of the underlying evidence and associated uncertainties. (authors)

  18. Development of analytical methodologies to assess recalcitrant pesticide bioremediation in biobeds at laboratory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Anisleidy; Niell, Silvina; Cerdeiras, M Pía; Heinzen, Horacio; Cesio, María Verónica

    2016-06-01

    To assess recalcitrant pesticide bioremediation it is necessary to gradually increase the complexity of the biological system used in order to design an effective biobed assembly. Each step towards this effective biobed design needs a suitable, validated analytical methodology that allows a correct evaluation of the dissipation and bioconvertion. Low recovery yielding methods could give a false idea of a successful biodegradation process. To address this situation, different methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of endosulfan, its main three metabolites, and chlorpyrifos in increasingly complex matrices where the bioconvertor basidiomycete Abortiporus biennis could grow. The matrices were culture media, bran, and finally a laboratory biomix composed of bran, peat and soil. The methodology for the analysis of the first evaluated matrix has already been reported. The methodologies developed for the other two systems are presented in this work. The targeted analytes were extracted from fungi growing over bran in semisolid media YNB (Yeast Nitrogen Based) with acetonitrile using shaker assisted extraction, The salting-out step was performed with MgSO4 and NaCl, and the extracts analyzed by GC-ECD. The best methodology was fully validated for all the evaluated analytes at 1 and 25mgkg(-1) yielding recoveries between 72% and 109% and RSDs methodology proved that A. biennis is able to dissipate 94% of endosulfan and 87% of chlorpyrifos after 90 days. Having assessed that A. biennis growing over bran can metabolize the studied pesticides, the next step faced was the development and validation of an analytical procedure to evaluate the analytes in a laboratory scale biobed composed of 50% of bran, 25% of peat and 25% of soil together with fungal micelium. From the different procedures assayed, only ultrasound assisted extraction with ethyl acetate allowed recoveries between 80% and 110% with RSDs <18%. Linearity, recovery, precision, matrix

  19. The Issues and Methodologies in Sustainability Assessment Tools for Higher Education Institutions: A Review of Recent Trends and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarime, Masaru; Tanaka, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    Assessment tools influence incentives to higher education institutions by encouraging them to move towards sustainability. A review of 16 sustainability assessment tools was conducted to examine the recent trends in the issues and methodologies addressed in assessment tools quantitatively and qualitatively. The characteristics of the current…

  20. A methodology for the assessment of flood hazards at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the frequency of water-related disasters has increased and recent flood events in Europe (e.g. 2002 in Central Europe, 2007 in UK, 2010 in Italy) caused physical-environmental and socio-economic damages. Specifically, floods are the most threatening water-related disaster that affects humans, their lives and properties. Within the KULTURisk project (FP7) a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology is proposed to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The method is based on the KULTURisk framework and allows the identification and prioritization of targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) and areas at risk from floods in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario (i.e. current state) with alternative scenarios (i.e. where different structural and/or non-structural measures are planned). The RRA methodology is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The final aim of RRA is to help decision-makers in examining the possible environmental risks associated with uncertain future flood hazards and in identifying which prevention scenario could be the most suitable one. The RRA methodology employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA functions) in order to integrate stakeholder preferences and experts judgments into the analysis. Moreover, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are used to manage, process, analyze, and map data to facilitate the analysis and the information sharing with different experts and stakeholders. In order to characterize flood risks, the proposed methodology integrates the output of hydrodynamic models with the analysis of site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope of the territory, land cover

  1. Implementation of HAZOP methodology to safety assessment of Baita Bihor Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present In Romania, a low and intermediate radioactive waste repository is operating, located in a disused uranium mine in the Bihor mountains, in the western part of the Carpathian Mountains, the closest populated settlement being the small mining village of Baita Plai. The Baita Bihor repository has been designed to accommodate about 5000 m3 of conditioned wastes. The first waste disposals were made in 1985 and the current estimate is that disposals might continue for around yet 20 to 35 years. The final disposal of radioactive waste exhibits some specific aspects from the point of view of radiological safety, these being related, mainly, to the safety during repository operating and post closure, during a long period. The objective of the safe waste management is both the ensuring the proper operation conditions, safety and security of people and the environment protection as well. The analysis of the operational and post-closure safety of the Baita Bihor repository has been undertaken first by using a method based on the ISAM Safety Assessment Approach developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, considered as the best international practice for installations of this type The output of the methodology application is a set of scenarios encompassing most of the possibilities in terms of potential impacts. It is important that any approach used should allow the development of the scenarios in a systematic, transparent and audit able manner. A recent review of the safety evaluation for Baita Bihor repository approached, in addition to ISAM methodology, is the HAZOP methodology able of screening the whole spectrum of possible deviations from the normal operation. The implemented improvements, both technical and procedural, of the repository design were taken into account. As a result of this screening, new alternative scenarios, which filled up the list of alternative scenarios analyzed in previous safety analyses were evidenced. The paper describes the

  2. A knowledge management methodology for the integrated assessment of WWTP configurations during conceptual design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Baserba, M; Reif, R; Rodriguez-Roda, I; Poch, M

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity involved in wastewater management projects is arising as the XXI century sets new challenges leading towards a more integrated plant design. In this context, the growing number of innovative technologies, stricter legislation and the development of new methodological approaches make it difficult to design appropriate flow schemes for new wastewater projects. Thus, new tools are needed for the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) conceptual design using integrated assessment methods in order to include different types of objectives at the same time i.e. environmental, economical, technical, and legal. Previous experiences used the decision support system (DSS) methodology to handle the specific issues related to wastewater management, for example, the design of treatment facilities for small communities. However, tools developed for addressing the whole treatment process independently of the plant size, capable of integrating knowledge from many different areas, including both conventional and innovative technologies are not available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present and describe an innovative knowledge-based methodology that handles the conceptual design of WWTP process flow-diagrams (PFDs), satisfying a vast number of different criteria. This global approach is based on a hierarchy of decisions that uses the information contained in knowledge bases (KBs) with the aim of automating the generation of suitable WWTP configurations for a specific scenario. Expert interviews, legislation, specialized literature and engineering experience have been integrated within the different KBs, which indeed constitute one of the main highlights of this work. Therefore, the methodology is presented as a valuable tool which provides customized PFD for each specific case, taking into account process unit interactions and the user specified requirements and objectives.

  3. A knowledge management methodology for the integrated assessment of WWTP configurations during conceptual design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Baserba, M; Reif, R; Rodriguez-Roda, I; Poch, M

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity involved in wastewater management projects is arising as the XXI century sets new challenges leading towards a more integrated plant design. In this context, the growing number of innovative technologies, stricter legislation and the development of new methodological approaches make it difficult to design appropriate flow schemes for new wastewater projects. Thus, new tools are needed for the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) conceptual design using integrated assessment methods in order to include different types of objectives at the same time i.e. environmental, economical, technical, and legal. Previous experiences used the decision support system (DSS) methodology to handle the specific issues related to wastewater management, for example, the design of treatment facilities for small communities. However, tools developed for addressing the whole treatment process independently of the plant size, capable of integrating knowledge from many different areas, including both conventional and innovative technologies are not available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present and describe an innovative knowledge-based methodology that handles the conceptual design of WWTP process flow-diagrams (PFDs), satisfying a vast number of different criteria. This global approach is based on a hierarchy of decisions that uses the information contained in knowledge bases (KBs) with the aim of automating the generation of suitable WWTP configurations for a specific scenario. Expert interviews, legislation, specialized literature and engineering experience have been integrated within the different KBs, which indeed constitute one of the main highlights of this work. Therefore, the methodology is presented as a valuable tool which provides customized PFD for each specific case, taking into account process unit interactions and the user specified requirements and objectives. PMID:22678214

  4. Development of analytical methodologies to assess recalcitrant pesticide bioremediation in biobeds at laboratory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Anisleidy; Niell, Silvina; Cerdeiras, M Pía; Heinzen, Horacio; Cesio, María Verónica

    2016-06-01

    To assess recalcitrant pesticide bioremediation it is necessary to gradually increase the complexity of the biological system used in order to design an effective biobed assembly. Each step towards this effective biobed design needs a suitable, validated analytical methodology that allows a correct evaluation of the dissipation and bioconvertion. Low recovery yielding methods could give a false idea of a successful biodegradation process. To address this situation, different methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of endosulfan, its main three metabolites, and chlorpyrifos in increasingly complex matrices where the bioconvertor basidiomycete Abortiporus biennis could grow. The matrices were culture media, bran, and finally a laboratory biomix composed of bran, peat and soil. The methodology for the analysis of the first evaluated matrix has already been reported. The methodologies developed for the other two systems are presented in this work. The targeted analytes were extracted from fungi growing over bran in semisolid media YNB (Yeast Nitrogen Based) with acetonitrile using shaker assisted extraction, The salting-out step was performed with MgSO4 and NaCl, and the extracts analyzed by GC-ECD. The best methodology was fully validated for all the evaluated analytes at 1 and 25mgkg(-1) yielding recoveries between 72% and 109% and RSDs pesticides, the next step faced was the development and validation of an analytical procedure to evaluate the analytes in a laboratory scale biobed composed of 50% of bran, 25% of peat and 25% of soil together with fungal micelium. From the different procedures assayed, only ultrasound assisted extraction with ethyl acetate allowed recoveries between 80% and 110% with RSDs <18%. Linearity, recovery, precision, matrix effect and LODs/LOQs of each method were studied for all the analytes: endosulfan isomers (α & β) and its metabolites (endosulfan sulfate, ether and diol) as well as for chlorpyrifos. In

  5. Assessment of a stochastic downscaling methodology in generating an ensemble of hourly future climate time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, S.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Caporali, E.

    2013-04-01

    This study extends a stochastic downscaling methodology to generation of an ensemble of hourly time series of meteorological variables that express possible future climate conditions at a point-scale. The stochastic downscaling uses general circulation model (GCM) realizations and an hourly weather generator, the Advanced WEather GENerator (AWE-GEN). Marginal distributions of factors of change are computed for several climate statistics using a Bayesian methodology that can weight GCM realizations based on the model relative performance with respect to a historical climate and a degree of disagreement in projecting future conditions. A Monte Carlo technique is used to sample the factors of change from their respective marginal distributions. As a comparison with traditional approaches, factors of change are also estimated by averaging GCM realizations. With either approach, the derived factors of change are applied to the climate statistics inferred from historical observations to re-evaluate parameters of the weather generator. The re-parameterized generator yields hourly time series of meteorological variables that can be considered to be representative of future climate conditions. In this study, the time series are generated in an ensemble mode to fully reflect the uncertainty of GCM projections, climate stochasticity, as well as uncertainties of the downscaling procedure. Applications of the methodology in reproducing future climate conditions for the periods of 2000-2009, 2046-2065 and 2081-2100, using the period of 1962-1992 as the historical baseline are discussed for the location of Firenze (Italy). The inferences of the methodology for the period of 2000-2009 are tested against observations to assess reliability of the stochastic downscaling procedure in reproducing statistics of meteorological variables at different time scales.

  6. Assessment of Potential Productivity of Tree Species in China, Mongolia and the Former Soviet Union: Methodology and Results

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G.; H.T. van Velthuizen; Prieler, S.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, the term agro-ecological zones methodology (AEZ) has become widely used for global regional and national assessments of agricultural potentials. The AEZ methodologies and procedures have recently been extended and newly implemented to make use of the latest digital geographical databases, and to cope with the specific characteristics of seasonal temperate and boreal climates. This report presents details of a companion model of AEZ that enables assessments of ...

  7. Safety studies on Korean fusion DEMO plant using integrated safety assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung-chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant. •The concepts of integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) that can be applied in addressing regulatory requirements and recognizing safety issues for K-DEMO were emphasized. •Phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) was proposed. It can recognize vulnerabilities of systems and identify the gaps in technical areas requiring additional researches. •This work is expected to contribute on the conceptual design of safety features for K-DEMO to design engineers and the guidance for regulatory requirements to licensers. -- Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant (K-DEMO) as a part of R and D program through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea. Even though nuclear regulation and licensing framework is well setup due to the operating and design experience of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) since 1970s, the regulatory authority of South Korea has concerns on the challenge of facing new nuclear facilities including K-DEMO due to the differences in systems, materials, and inherent safety feature from conventional PWRs. Even though the follow-up of the ITER license process facilitates to deal with significant safety issues of fusion facilities, a licensee as well as a licenser should identify the gaps between ITER and DEMO in terms of safety issues. First we reviewed the methods of conducting safety analysis for unprecedented nuclear facilities such as Generation IV reactors, particularly very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is called as integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM). Second, the analysis for the conceptual design of K-DEMO on the basis of ISAM was conducted. The ISAM consists of five analytical tools to develop the safety requirements from licensee

  8. Assessment of women's perspectives and experiences of childbirth and postnatal care using Q-methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabila, N P; Ahmed, H M; Yasin, M Y

    2015-09-01

    To complement standard measures of maternity care outcomes, an assessment of women's satisfaction with care is needed. The aim of this study was to elicit the perspectives and experiences of Iraqi women about childbirth and postnatal care services. The study participants were a sample of 37 women of different educational and socioeconomic status who had given birth during the previous 6 months. Q-methodology was used for data collection and analysis. Three distinct viewpoints and experiences of childbirth and postnatal care services were identified: a general perception of poor childbirth and postnatal care with lack of appropriate interpersonal care and support; a high satisfaction and positive experience with childbirth and postnatal care services among the confident and well-supported women; and poor satisfaction with the childbirth and postnatal care services in terms of meeting traditional cultural practices. Needs assessment around providers' skills and attitudes and the wider sociocultural environment of childbirth and postnatal care is necessary in Iraq.

  9. Social Life Cycle Assessment as a Management Tool: Methodology for Application in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Merli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As is widely known, sustainability is an important factor in competition, increasing the added value of a company in terms of image and credibility. However, it is important that sustainability assessments are effectively addressed in a global perspective. Therefore, life cycle tools are adopted to evaluate environmental and social impacts. Among these, and of particular significance, appears the Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA, which, although in its early stage of development, seems to have extremely promising methodological features. For this reason, it seemed interesting to propose a first application to the tourism sector, which could be better than other methods, studied in terms of social sustainability data. The particular characteristics of service delivery lend themselves more to the development of data related to social sustainability than other sectors. In this paper the results of a case study carried out using social accounting and business management tools are shown.

  10. Wildlife strike risk assessment in several Italian airports: lessons from BRI and a new methodology implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Lovato, Tomas; Andreon, Adriano; Torricelli, Patrizia; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Corsa, Cosimo; Georgalas, Vyron

    2011-01-01

    The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes) cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2) is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B.

  11. Review of Project SAFE: Comments on biosphere conceptual model description and risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, Richard; Wilmot, Roger [Galson Sciences Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (SKB's) most recent assessment of the safety of the Forsmark repository for low-level and intermediate-level waste (Project SAFE) is currently undergoing review by the Swedish regulators. As part of its review, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) identified that two components of SAFE require more detailed review: (i) the conceptual model description of the biosphere system, and (ii) SKB's risk assessment methodology. We have reviewed the biosphere system interaction matrix and how this has been used in the identification, justification and description of biosphere models for radiological assessment purposes. The risk assessment methodology has been reviewed considering in particular issues associated with scenario selection, assessment timescale, and the probability and risk associated with the well scenario. There is an extensive range of supporting information on which biosphere modelling in Project SAFE is based. However, the link between this material and the biosphere models themselves is not clearly set out. This leads to some contradictions and mis-matches between description and implementation. One example concerns the representation of the geosphere-biosphere interface. The supporting description of lakes indicates that interaction between groundwaters entering the biosphere through lake bed sediments could lead to accumulations of radionuclides in sediments. These sediments may become agricultural areas at some time in the future. In the numerical modelling of the biosphere carried out in Project SAFE, the direct accumulation of contaminants in bed sediments is not represented. Application of a more rigorous procedure to ensure numerical models are fit for purpose is recommended, paying more attention to issues associated with the geosphere-biosphere interface. A more structured approach to risk assessment would be beneficial, with a better explanation of the difference

  12. Review of Project SAFE: Comments on biosphere conceptual model description and risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (SKB's) most recent assessment of the safety of the Forsmark repository for low-level and intermediate-level waste (Project SAFE) is currently undergoing review by the Swedish regulators. As part of its review, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) identified that two components of SAFE require more detailed review: (i) the conceptual model description of the biosphere system, and (ii) SKB's risk assessment methodology. We have reviewed the biosphere system interaction matrix and how this has been used in the identification, justification and description of biosphere models for radiological assessment purposes. The risk assessment methodology has been reviewed considering in particular issues associated with scenario selection, assessment timescale, and the probability and risk associated with the well scenario. There is an extensive range of supporting information on which biosphere modelling in Project SAFE is based. However, the link between this material and the biosphere models themselves is not clearly set out. This leads to some contradictions and mis-matches between description and implementation. One example concerns the representation of the geosphere-biosphere interface. The supporting description of lakes indicates that interaction between groundwaters entering the biosphere through lake bed sediments could lead to accumulations of radionuclides in sediments. These sediments may become agricultural areas at some time in the future. In the numerical modelling of the biosphere carried out in Project SAFE, the direct accumulation of contaminants in bed sediments is not represented. Application of a more rigorous procedure to ensure numerical models are fit for purpose is recommended, paying more attention to issues associated with the geosphere-biosphere interface. A more structured approach to risk assessment would be beneficial, with a better explanation of the difference between

  13. Improving marine biodiversity offsetting: A proposed methodology for better assessing losses and gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Adeline; Jacob, Céline; Hay, Julien; Pioch, Sylvain; Thorin, Sébastien

    2016-06-15

    Although the limitations of implementing the mitigation hierarchy have been widely discussed in scientific literature, these studies have drawn mainly on feedback concerning terrestrial ecosystems. In the case of development projects in marine and coastal environments, certain issues must be tackled to improve existing practice. This article focuses on the methodologies used to assess both the ecological losses resulting from a development project and the ecological gains generated by an offset measure. The originality of this article is to propose a standardized, operational approach regardless of the development project and the ecosystem impacted that (i) enhances avoidance and reduction efforts and (ii) assesses biodiversity offset needs based on data available in Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). The proposed hybrid method combines a multi-criteria analysis of the state of the environment, inspired by the Unified Mitigation Assessment Method (UMAM), and a more accurate assessment at indicator level inspired by Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA). The steps of the method, from the selection of biophysical indicators to offset sizing, are described and are then applied to two EIA case studies: one related to a port extension and the other to an offshore wind farm. PMID:27019359

  14. Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the 239Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant 239Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total 239Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the 239Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the 239Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the 239Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the 239Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables

  15. Development of Risk Assessment Methodology for State's Nuclear Security Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Seo, Hyung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Kwak, Sung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Threats of nuclear terrorism are increasing after 9/11 terrorist attack. Treats include nuclear explosive device (NED) made by terrorist groups, radiological damage caused by a sabotage aiming nuclear facilities, and radiological dispersion device (RDD), which is also called 'dirty bomb'. In 9/11, Al Qaeda planed to cause radiological consequences by the crash of a nuclear power plant and the captured airplane. The evidence of a dirty bomb experiment was found in Afganistan by the UK intelligence agency. Thus, the international communities including the IAEA work substantial efforts. The leaders of 47 nations attended the 2010 nuclear security summit hosted by President Obama, while the next global nuclear summit will be held in Seoul, 2012. Most states established and are maintaining state's nuclear security regime because of the increasing threat and the international obligations. However, each state's nuclear security regime is different and depends on the state's environment. The methodology for the assessment of state's nuclear security regime is necessary to design and implement an efficient nuclear security regime, and to figure out weak points. The IAEA's INPRO project suggests a checklist method for State's nuclear security regime. The IAEA is now researching more quantitative methods cooperatively with several countries including Korea. In this abstract, methodologies to evaluate state's nuclear security regime by risk assessment are addressed

  16. Application of REPAS Methodology to Assess the Reliability of Passive Safety Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pierro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the presentation of the Reliability Evaluation of Passive Safety System (REPAS methodology developed by University of Pisa. The general objective of the REPAS is to characterize in an analytical way the performance of a passive system in order to increase the confidence toward its operation and to compare the performances of active and passive systems and the performances of different passive systems. The REPAS can be used in the design of the passive safety systems to assess their goodness and to optimize their costs. It may also provide numerical values that can be used in more complex safety assessment studies and it can be seen as a support to Probabilistic Safety Analysis studies. With regard to this, some examples in the application of the methodology are reported in the paper. A best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP5, has been used to support the analyses and to model the selected systems. Probability distributions have been assigned to the uncertain input parameters through engineering judgment. Monte Carlo method has been used to propagate uncertainties and Wilks' formula has been taken into account to select sample size. Failure criterions are defined in terms of nonfulfillment of the defined design targets.

  17. Conceptualizing sustainable development. An assessment methodology connecting values, knowledge, worldviews and scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability science poses severe challenges to classical disciplinary science. To bring the perspectives of diverse disciplines together in a meaningful way, we describe a novel methodology for sustainability assessment of a particular social-ecological system, or country. Starting point is that a sustainability assessment should investigate the ability to continue and develop a desirable way of living vis-a-vis later generations and life elsewhere on the planet. Evidently, people hold different values and beliefs about the way societies sustain quality of life for their members. The first step, therefore, is to analyze people's value orientations and the way in which they interpret sustainability problems i.e. their beliefs. The next step is to translate the resulting worldviews into model-based narratives, i.e. scenarios. The qualitative and quantitative outcomes are then investigated in terms of associated risks and opportunities and robustness of policy options. The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) has followed this methodology, using extensive surveys among the Dutch population. In its First Sustainability Outlook (2004), the resulting archetypical worldviews became the basis for four different scenarios for policy analysis, with emphases on the domains of transport, energy and food. The goal of the agency's Sustainability Outlooks is to show that choices are inevitable in policy making for sustainable development, to indicate which positive and negative impacts one can expect of these choices (trade-offs), and to identify options that may be robust under several worldviews. The conceptualization proposed here is both clear and applicable in practical sustainability assessments for policy making. (author)

  18. Remaining strength assessment methodology of cylindrical tubing containing local wall thinning defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The wear type defect is very common volumetric flaw in steam generator tube, which is most important aspect to affect strength of steam generator tube. Thus, a specific assessment method shall be formulated aiming to this thin-wall tube. Purpose: The aim is to establish a formula of remaining strength factor based on burst pressure experiment results of steam generator tube specimens, which is applicable to safety assessment of cylindrical tubing containing local wall thinning defect. Methods: Therefore, the burst pressure test was performed in order to calculate the remaining strength of steam generator tube containing local thinning wall. Concerning assessment methodology of local wall thinning of cylindrical tubing, several assessment methodologies of the structural integrity were recommended within the codes, such as China code of NB20013, BS7910, API579 and Janelle's dissertation. In the recent year, the burst pressure experiment was carried out on cylindrical tubing with local wall thinning defect, and the methods mentioned above were used to calculate the burst pressure and compared with the experiment result. Results: However, the calculated burst pressure result does not always match well the experiments. In the case that defect depth by wall thickness is over than or equal 70%, the calculated burst pressure is far more than the experiment's, thus this case is not conservative as far as safety concerned. Conclusions: Finally the modified RSF formula is developed on the basis of the experiment's burst pressure, and which is most accurately applicable to the result of burst pressure experiment. (authors)

  19. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for flood risk: the case of Sihl river in Zurich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Paolo; Bullo, Martina; Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Buchecker, Matthias; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazard has increased and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing as a consequence of many factors both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in floodplains area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural, and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the strong effect of climate change is projected to radically modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events both at local, regional and global scale. Within this context, it is necessary to develop effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow to assess and (possibly) to reduce the risk of floods. In light of the recent European Flood Directive (FD), the KULTURisk-FP7 Project developed a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology for assessing the risk imposed by floods events. The KULTURisk RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It is a flexible that can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale) that integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamics models (hazard) with sito-specific geophysical and socio-economic indicators (exposure and vulnerability factors such as land cover, slope, soil permeability, population density, economic activities, etc.). The main outputs of the methodology are GIS-based risk maps that identify and prioritize relative hot

  20. A methodological framework for hydromorphological assessment, analysis and monitoring (IDRAIM) aimed at promoting integrated river management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, M.; Surian, N.; Comiti, F.; Bussettini, M.

    2015-12-01

    A methodological framework for hydromorphological assessment, analysis and monitoring (named IDRAIM) has been developed with the specific aim of supporting the management of river processes by integrating the objectives of ecological quality and flood risk mitigation. The framework builds on existing and up-to-date geomorphological concepts and approaches and has been tested on several Italian streams. The framework includes the following four phases: (1) catchment-wide characterization of the fluvial system; (2) evolutionary trajectory reconstruction and assessment of current river conditions; (3) description of future trends of channel evolution; and (4) identification of management options. The framework provides specific consideration of the temporal context, in terms of reconstructing the trajectory of past channel evolution as a basis for interpreting present river conditions and future trends. A series of specific tools has been developed for the assessment of river conditions, in terms of morphological quality and channel dynamics. These include: the Morphological Quality Index (MQI), the Morphological Dynamics Index (MDI), the Event Dynamics Classification (EDC), and the river morphodynamic corridors (MC and EMC). The monitoring of morphological parameters and indicators, alongside the assessment of future scenarios of channel evolution provides knowledge for the identification, planning and prioritization of actions for enhancing morphological quality and risk mitigation.

  1. Designing reasonable accommodation of the workplace: a new methodology based on risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigini, L; Andrich, R; Liverani, G; Bucciarelli, P; Occhipinti, E

    2010-05-01

    If working tasks are carried out in inadequate conditions, workers with functional limitations may, over time, risk developing further disabilities. While several validated risk assessment methods exist for able-bodied workers, few studies have been carried out for workers with disabilities. This article, which reports the findings of a Study funded by the Italian Ministry of Labour, proposes a general methodology for the technical and organisational re-design of a worksite, based on risk assessment and irrespective of any worker disability. To this end, a sample of 16 disabled workers, composed of people with either mild or severe motor disabilities, was recruited. Their jobs include business administration (5), computer programmer (1), housewife (1), mechanical worker (2), textile worker (1), bus driver (1), nurse (2), electrical worker (1), teacher (1), warehouseman (1). By using a mix of risk assessment methods and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) taxonomy, their worksites were re-designed in view of a reasonable accommodation, and prospective evaluation was carried out to check whether the new design would eliminate the risks. In one case - a man with congenital malformations who works as a help-desk operator for technical assistance in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) department of a big organisation - the accommodation was actually carried out within the time span of the study, thus making it possible to confirm the hypotheses raised in the prospective assessment. PMID:20131973

  2. Search by photo methodology for signature properties assessment by human observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selj, Gorm K.; Heinrich, Daniela H.

    2015-05-01

    Reliable, low-cost and simple methods for assessment of signature properties for military purposes are very important. In this paper we present such an approach that uses human observers in a search by photo assessment of signature properties of generic test targets. The method was carried out by logging a large number of detection times of targets recorded in relevant terrain backgrounds. The detection times were harvested by using human observers searching for targets in scene images shown by a high definition pc screen. All targets were identically located in each "search image", allowing relative comparisons (and not just rank by order) of targets. To avoid biased detections, each observer only searched for one target per scene. Statistical analyses were carried out for the detection times data. Analysis of variance was chosen if detection times distribution associated with all targets satisfied normality, and non-parametric tests, such as Wilcoxon's rank test, if otherwise. The new methodology allows assessment of signature properties in a reproducible, rapid and reliable setting. Such assessments are very complex as they must sort out what is of relevance in a signature test, but not loose information of value. We believe that choosing detection times as the primary variable for a comparison of signature properties, allows a careful and necessary inspection of observer data as the variable is continuous rather than discrete. Our method thus stands in opposition to approaches based on detections by subsequent, stepwise reductions in distance to target, or based on probability of detection.

  3. Designing reasonable accommodation of the workplace: a new methodology based on risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigini, L; Andrich, R; Liverani, G; Bucciarelli, P; Occhipinti, E

    2010-05-01

    If working tasks are carried out in inadequate conditions, workers with functional limitations may, over time, risk developing further disabilities. While several validated risk assessment methods exist for able-bodied workers, few studies have been carried out for workers with disabilities. This article, which reports the findings of a Study funded by the Italian Ministry of Labour, proposes a general methodology for the technical and organisational re-design of a worksite, based on risk assessment and irrespective of any worker disability. To this end, a sample of 16 disabled workers, composed of people with either mild or severe motor disabilities, was recruited. Their jobs include business administration (5), computer programmer (1), housewife (1), mechanical worker (2), textile worker (1), bus driver (1), nurse (2), electrical worker (1), teacher (1), warehouseman (1). By using a mix of risk assessment methods and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) taxonomy, their worksites were re-designed in view of a reasonable accommodation, and prospective evaluation was carried out to check whether the new design would eliminate the risks. In one case - a man with congenital malformations who works as a help-desk operator for technical assistance in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) department of a big organisation - the accommodation was actually carried out within the time span of the study, thus making it possible to confirm the hypotheses raised in the prospective assessment.

  4. An assessment methodology of environmental risks associated with radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major environmental concerns associated with the projected increase in nuclear power generation is the treatment and storage or disposal of radioactive wastes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in collaboration with the University of New Mexico has been developing a detailed assessment methodology of both the short-term as well as long-term quantitative risks on the environment resulting from the release of radionuclides during all phases of radioactive waste management operations. This past year a comprehensive model has been developed for the public health and environmental impacts from the disposal of high-level and transuranic waste in geological formations. Parametric studies have been performed with this model for various geological disposal media and for waste in different forms. EPA has planned to utilize these parametric risk calculations to translate probabilities and consequences of risk occurrences into a cost-effectiveness perspective for decision-making purposes. This comprehensive model has consisted of a release or fault tree model, an environmental model, and an economic model. Fault trees have been constructed to provide the relationships between various geophysical, meteorological, and man-caused events which are potential mechanisms for release of radioactive material to the environment from waste repositories. The environmental model includes the transport to and accumulations at various receptors in the biosphere, including a determination of pathways from environmental input concentrations to radiation dose to man. Finally, the economic results are used to compare and assess the various disposal concepts as a basis for formulating policy decisions. Implementation of this assessment methodology is possible for a whole range of both radioactive as well as non-radioactive hazardous materials which require perpetual care. Further, the output will be used by EPA in the short-term to develop general environmental standards

  5. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and 'best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and 'best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the 'response assemblage', for the study of 'responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio-ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and 'problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders 'best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  6. Factor Analysis in Assessing the Research Methodology Quality of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrada Elena URDA-CÎMPEAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many high quality systematic reviews available from medical journals, data bases and other electronic sources differ in quality and provide different answers to the same question. The literature recommended the use of a checklist type approach, which exceeds many of the problems associated with measurements. Aim: This study proposes to identify in a checklist type approach the most commonly used factors (from a methodological point of view in assessing the quality of systematic reviews, and then mirror the actual stage of medical writing. We want to analyze the factors’ occurrence and / or their development in the text and in the abstract of systematic reviews published in 2011. Methods: The present study randomly selected only free full text systematic reviews published in 2011, systematic reviews found in Pubmed and in Cochrane Database. The most commonly used factors were identified in PRISMA statement and quality measurement tools. Results: The evaluated systematic reviews mentioned or developed several of the factors studied. Only 78% of the papers surveyed have used the correct IMRAD format and 59% of them have mentioned the sample size used. The correspondence between the content of the paper and its abstract is summarized in the proportion of 54.63% and 51.85% for the two sets of factors, and it can lead to scarce appreciation of the article provided that only abstracts are read. Conclusions: Researchers do not properly take into consideration scientific articles and assessment tools used for quality evaluation. They should place more value over methodological factors which help assess systematic review quality, while journals form the only party who can enforce quality standards in medical writing.

  7. Methodology for risk assessment and reliability applied for pipeline engineering design and industrial valves operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Dierci [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgia. Lab. de Sistemas de Producao e Petroleo e Gas], e-mail: dsilveira@metal.eeimvr.uff.br; Batista, Fabiano [CICERO, Rio das Ostras, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Two kinds of situations may be distinguished for estimating the operating reliability when maneuvering industrial valves and the probability of undesired events in pipelines and industrial plants: situations in which the risk is identified in repetitive cycles of operations and situations in which there is a permanent hazard due to project configurations introduced by decisions during the engineering design definition stage. The estimation of reliability based on the influence of design options requires the choice of a numerical index, which may include a composite of human operating parameters based on biomechanics and ergonomics data. We first consider the design conditions under which the plant or pipeline operator reliability concepts can be applied when operating industrial valves, and then describe in details the ergonomics and biomechanics risks that would lend itself to engineering design database development and human reliability modeling and assessment. This engineering design database development and reliability modeling is based on a group of engineering design and biomechanics parameters likely to lead to over-exertion forces and working postures, which are themselves associated with the functioning of a particular plant or pipeline. This approach to construct based on ergonomics and biomechanics for a more common industrial valve positioning in the plant layout is proposed through the development of a methodology to assess physical efforts and operator reach, combining various elementary operations situations. These procedures can be combined with the genetic algorithm modeling and four elements of the man-machine systems: the individual, the task, the machinery and the environment. The proposed methodology should be viewed not as competing to traditional reliability and risk assessment bur rather as complementary, since it provides parameters related to physical efforts values for valves operation and workspace design and usability. (author)

  8. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and `best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and `best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the `response assemblage', for the study of `responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio- ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and `problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders `best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  9. Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34

  10. Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesia Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  11. Evaluation of organizational self-assessment tools and methodologies to measure continuous process improvement for the Naval Aviation Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Kaehler. Theodore J.

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Aviation Enterprise (NAE) has created a program called AIRSpeed to deliver the efficiency gains of continuous process improvement (CPI). NAE leadership seeks a self-assessment tool to measure how well AIRSpeed has been implemented, including possible areas for improvement. This thesis studies the origins of continuous process improvement, the value of assessment, and current assessment methodologies. Key concepts are cited for the use of organizational assessment tools. The objectiv...

  12. 'Rosatom' sites vulnerability analysis and assessment of their physical protection effectiveness. Methodology and 'tools'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Enhancement of physical protection (PP) efficiency at nuclear sites (NS) of State Corporation (SC) 'Rosatom' is one of priorities. This issue is reflected in a series of international and Russian documents. PP enhancement at the sites can be achieved through upgrades of both administrative procedures and technical security system. However, in any case it is requisite to initially identify the so called 'objects of physical protection', that is, answer the question of what we need to protect and identify design basis threats (DBT) and adversary models. Answers to these questions constitute the contents of papers on vulnerability analysis (VA) for nuclear sites. Further, it is necessary to answer the question, to what extent we protect these 'objects of physical protection' and site as a whole; and this is the essence of assessment of physical protection effectiveness. In the process of effectiveness assessment at specific Rosatom sites we assess the effectiveness of the existing physical protection system (PPS) and the proposed options of its upgrades. Besides, there comes a possibility to select the optimal option based on 'cost-efficiency' criterion. Implementation of this work is a mandatory requirement as defined in federal level documents. In State Corporation 'Rosatom' there are methodologies in place for vulnerability analysis and effectiveness assessment as well as 'tools' (methods, regulations, computer software), that make it possible to put the above work into practice. There are corresponding regulations developed and approved by the Rosatom senior management. Special software for PPS effectiveness assessment called 'Vega-2' developed by a Rosatom specialized subsidiary - State Enterprise 'Eleron', is designed to assess PPS effectiveness at fixed nuclear sites. It was implemented practically at all the major Rosatom nuclear sites. As of now, this 'Vega-2' software has been certified and prepared for forwarding to corporation's nuclear sites so

  13. A Methodology for a Comprehensive Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Multiple Sources and Short-Term Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grezio Anita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodological approach for a comprehensive and total probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (TotPTHA, in which many different possible source types concur to the definition of the total tsunami hazard at given target sites. In a multi-hazard and multi-risk perspective, the approach allows us to consider all possible tsunamigenic sources (seismic events, slides, volcanic eruptions, asteroids, etc.. In this respect, we also formally introduce and discuss the treatment of interaction/cascade effects in the TotPTHA analysis and we demonstrate how the triggering events may induce significant temporary variations in short-term analysis of the tsunami hazard. In two target sites (the city of Naples and the island of Ischia in Italy we prove the feasibility of the TotPTHA methodology in the multi—source case considering near submarine seismic sources and submarine mass failures in the study area. The TotPTHA indicated that the tsunami hazard increases significantly by considering both the potential submarine mass failures and the submarine seismic events. Finally, the importance of the source interactions is evaluated by applying a triggering seismic event that causes relevant changes in the short-term TotPTHA.

  14. A New Collaborative Methodology for Assessment and Management of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Segura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative management is a new framework to help implement programmes in protected areas. Within this context, the aim of this work is twofold. First, to propose a robust methodology to implement collaborative management focused on ecosystem services. Second, to develop indicators for the main functions of ecosystem services. Decision makers, technical staff and other stakeholders are included in the process from the beginning, by identifying ecosystem services and eliciting preferences using the AHP method. Qualitative and quantitative data are then integrated into a PROMETHEE based method in order to obtain indicators for provisioning, maintenance and direct to citizens services. This methodology, which has been applied in a forest area, provides a tool for exploiting available technical and social data in a continuous process, as well as providing easy to understand graphical results. This approach also overcomes the difficulties found in prioritizing management objectives in a multiple criteria context with limited resources and facilitates consensus between all of the people involved. The new indicators define an innovative approach to assessing the ecosystem services from the supply perspective and provide basic information to help establish payment systems for environmental services and compensation for natural disasters.

  15. Comparative assessment of CFD Tools and the Eurocode Methodology in describing Externally Venting Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asimakopoulou Eleni K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of currently available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD tools to adequately describe Externally Venting Flames (EVF is assessed, aiming to demonstrate compliance with performance-based fire safety regulations. The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS CFD tool is used to simulate the EVF characteristics in a corridor-compartment-façade configuration exposed to natural fire conditions. Numerical results of the temporal evolution of gas velocity, gas temperatures and flame shape are obtained for both the interior and the exterior of the compartment. Predictions are compared to respective experimental data, as well as to correlations suggested by the Eurocode methodology. The effects of ventilation conditions are investigated by simulating both Forced Draught (FD and No Forced Draught (NoFD test cases. The obtained results suggest that currently available CFD tools are capable of achieving good qualitative agreement with experimental data and, in certain cases (e.g. FD conditions, adequate quantitative agreement, that generally outperforms the Eurocode prescriptive methodology.

  16. Assessing childhood maltreatment on the population level in Germany: findings and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaesmer, Heide

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is both prevalent and consequential. Unfortunately little is known about the true prevalence of CM in the general population in Germany. The differences between findings from top down vs. bottom up approaches and the problem of the dark field of CM is discussed. Different assessment methods like trauma lists, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Childhood Trauma Screener (CTS) are described and the respective findings about the prevalence of CM in the adult German general population are discussed. With the example of childhood sexual abuse (SA) the challenges of quantification of CM is shown up. For instance, even if all the prevalence findings were based on methodologically sound large-scale studies, it could only be assumed that the retrospectively investigated prevalence of SA in the German general population ranges between 1.0 and 12.6 % in different studies. These findings provide an insight into the complexity of the quantification of the true prevalence of CM on the population level. Hopefully it reminds the readers of handling prevalence rates of CM carefully and to dip into the methodology of the studies before citing the respective prevalence of CM. PMID:27303440

  17. Assessment of Cost Management Functions of Quantity Surveyors with Lean Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroof Opeyemi Anifowose

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Construction industry in Nigeria is made up of a wide variety of activities which include the provision of professional and technical services to clients in the built environment. Despite the provision of these services to a large number of clients worldwide, the construction industry is still awash by the chronic problems of low productivity, insufficient quality, time over-runs, and poor safety, which hinder customer delivered value. The Just-In-Time phenomenon is a characteristic of lean production systems which operate with very little “fat” (e.g. excess inventory extra workers, wasted space.This study aimed at assessing the construction management function of the quantity surveyor in line with the principle of lean methodology (Just-In-Time. This was achieved by exploring the cost management function of the quantity surveyor, to investigate the current practice of cost management by quantity surveying firms. Data for the study were sourced primarily with the use of questionnaire and the subsequent data analysis, which employed the use of descriptive analysis of presenting the data as obtained on tables during the field survey and attempts a rudimentary establishment of patterns using percentages. The study concluded amongst others, that: all activities involved in the cost management function of the quantity surveyor are important, and value adding, corresponding to conversion activities in line with the Just-In-time/lean methodology

  18. Measurement-based auralization methodology for the assessment of noise mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pieter; Wei, Weigang; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick

    2016-09-01

    The effect of noise mitigation measures is generally expressed by noise levels only, neglecting the listener's perception. In this study, an auralization methodology is proposed that enables an auditive preview of noise abatement measures for road traffic noise, based on the direction dependent attenuation of a priori recordings made with a dedicated 32-channel spherical microphone array. This measurement-based auralization has the advantage that all non-road traffic sounds that create the listening context are present. The potential of this auralization methodology is evaluated through the assessment of the effect of an L-shaped mound. The angular insertion loss of the mound is estimated by using the ISO 9613-2 propagation model, the Pierce barrier diffraction model and the Harmonoise point-to-point model. The realism of the auralization technique is evaluated by listening tests, indicating that listeners had great difficulty in differentiating between a posteriori recordings and auralized samples, which shows the validity of the followed approaches.

  19. Clinical practice guidelines and consensus statements in oncology--an assessment of their methodological quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines are widely available for enhancing the care of cancer patients. Despite subtle differences in their definition and purpose, these terms are often used interchangeably. We systematically assessed the methodological quality of consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published in three commonly read, geographically diverse, cancer-specific journals. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. METHODS: Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. FINDINGS: Thirty-four consensus statements and 67 clinical practice guidelines were evaluated. The rigour of development score for consensus statements over the three journals was 32% lower than that of clinical practice guidelines. The editorial independence score was 15% lower for consensus statements than clinical practice

  20. Development of an assessment methodology for hydrocarbon recovery potential using carbon dioxide and associated carbon sequestration-Workshop findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested that the USGS estimate the "potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations" (121 Stat. 1711). The USGS developed a noneconomic, probability-based methodology to assess the Nation's technically assessable geologic storage resources available for sequestration of CO2 (Brennan and others, 2010) and is currently using the methodology to assess the Nation's CO2 geologic storage resources. Because the USGS has not developed a methodology to assess the potential volumes of technically recoverable hydrocarbons that could be produced by injection and sequestration of CO2, the Geologic Carbon Sequestration project initiated an effort in 2010 to develop a methodology for the assessment of the technically recoverable hydrocarbon potential in the sedimentary basins of the United States using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques with CO2 (CO2-EOR). In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS hosted a 2-day CO2-EOR workshop in May 2011, attended by 28 experts from academia, natural resource agencies and laboratories of the Federal Government, State and international geologic surveys, and representatives from the oil and gas industry. The geologic and the reservoir engineering and operations working groups formed during the workshop discussed various aspects of geology, reservoir engineering, and operations to make recommendations for the methodology.

  1. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Assessment of the Adaptation Potential of Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesina Iryna M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to development of theoretical and methodological recommendations with respect to assessment of the adaptation potential of employees as an important prerequisite of development of employees and ensuring competitiveness of an enterprise. It contains the author’s interpretation of the adaptation potential as a possibility of adjusting to the environment with the aim of achieving socio-economic goals of an enterprise. Adaptation potential is a property of a person as a performer of labour functions and ability to master new methods of work, adjustment to new labour conditions, processing of information and also a communicative property. At the same time adaptation potential is an aggregate of motivational, professional, information and integration components of a person. For assessing the adaptation potential it is proposed to combine 360 degrees method and method of paired comparison, which facilitates increase of trustworthiness of results. The author marks out some criteria of assessment of the adaptation potential: ratio of professional experience, ratio of official experience, ratio of efficiency of work, independence in mastering new methods of work, fast adjustment to new labour conditions, ability to quickly process big volumes of information, mobility, high level of productivity under different labour conditions, sharpness of wit in different production situations, ability to form interpersonal relations in a collective and psychological features.

  2. Methodological guide for the follow-up and elaboration of performance assessments of a methanization plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide aims at giving indications required for a good implementation of an exploitation follow-up of a methanization plant. More precisely, it aims at foreseeing equipment necessary to the follow-up of installation construction, at preparing the operator to the follow-up and command of his installation, at elaborating operation assessments and performance interpretations, at proposing solutions and/or improvements. The described follow-up process can be applied to all the process stages (from receipt to by-product valorization), and addresses technical as well as economic aspects. Thus, four types of assessments are made: technical, energetic, environmental, and social-economic. This guide comprises five parts: a presentation of follow-up objectives (information to be looked for, benefits and drawbacks, follow-up level to be implemented), the follow-up methodology, follow-up assessments (what they are and how to elaborate them), practical sheets (practical presentation of techniques, typical Excel spreadsheets), and a glossary which explains the main technical terms

  3. Developing a robust methodology for assessing the value of weather/climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijnen, Justin; Golding, Nicola; Buontempo, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Increasingly, scientists involved in providing weather and climate services are expected to demonstrate the value of their work for end users in order to justify the costs of developing and delivering these services. This talk will outline different approaches that can be used to assess the socio-economic benefits of weather and climate services, including, among others, willingness to pay and avoided costs. The advantages and limitations of these methods will be discussed and relevant case-studies will be used to illustrate each approach. The choice of valuation method may be influenced by different factors, such as resource and time constraints and the end purposes of the study. In addition, there are important methodological differences which will affect the value assessed. For instance the ultimate value of a weather/climate forecast to a decision-maker will not only depend on forecast accuracy but also on other factors, such as how the forecast is communicated to and consequently interpreted by the end-user. Thus, excluding these additional factors may result in inaccurate socio-economic value estimates. In order to reduce the inaccuracies in this valuation process we propose an approach that assesses how the initial weather/climate forecast information can be incorporated within the value chain of a given sector, taking into account value gains and losses at each stage of the delivery process. By this we aim to more accurately depict the socio-economic benefits of a weather/climate forecast to decision-makers.

  4. A Methodology for Production and Cost Assessment of a Farm of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beels, C.; Troch, P.; Kofoed, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    the power production and cost of a farm of WECs is applied to the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter (WD–WEC). The WD–WEC is a floating offshore converter of the overtopping type, which captures the water volume of overtopped waves in a basin above mean sea level and produces power when the water drains back......To generate a substantial amount of power, Wave Energy Converters (WECs) are arranged in several rows or in a ‘farm’. Both the power production and cost of a farm are lay-out dependent. In this paper, the wave power redistribution in and around three farm lay-outs in a near shore North Sea wave...... climate, is assessed numerically using a time-dependent mild-slope equation model. The modelling of the wave power redistribution is an efficient tool to assess the power production of a farm. Further, for each lay-out an optimal (low cost) submarine cable network is designed. The methodology to assess...

  5. Classification System for Desertification and Its Quantitative Assessment Methodology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junhou; Zhang Zhiqiang; Jia Baoquan; Meng Fanrong

    2003-01-01

    Based on the desertification definition of United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and features of desertification in China, three-level hierarchical classification system for desertification and quantitative assessment methodology of desertification degree were developed and used to evaluate desertification danger degree across the country. The system is composed of three components: type of desertification, type of land utilization and degree of desertification. The type of desertification monitored in China was divided into 4 major categories, 15 sub-categories and 52 types. Vegetation coverage, soil characteristics, and topography are considered as three major indicators for quantitative assessment of desertified land. A simple, yet practically sound mathematical assessment model was built using these indicators. Furthurmore, a regional land desertification warning model was also constructed on the basis of the ratios of non-desertified land area to desertified land area in different degrees. The warning result of wind-erosion desertification at county scale for 12 provinces in northern China was also calculated by this model.

  6. A new methodology for the assessment of hand protection from ultraviolet exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of industrial applications and public services involve occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from a variety of lamps and lasers. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves. Glove UV protection factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. Our study showed that for all tested gloves a change in UVR attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of UVR protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on UVR protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. Examples of assessment of the 'worst case scenario' are compared with the protection level against a number of sources, together with the guidance on a simplified evaluation protocol. An application-specific assessment, illustrated for 'SmartWater' forensic examinations and biological trans-illuminators, demonstrates that some gloves provide inadequate protection against occupational UV exposure. (authors)

  7. Noise impact assessment methodology for a crude oil pipeline's facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everton, Pascal [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. (Canada)], email: pascal.everton@hfpacoustical.com

    2011-07-01

    The paper focuses on the construction of a crude oil pipeline from Alberta, Canada, to Illinois, USA, and reviews the methodology used to quickly and easily assess the noise emission of each of the 47 pump stations relative to topography, weather, and local regulations, and to predict mitigation costs for each pump. Instead of creating a time-consuming and non-versatile computer noise model for each pump, a spreadsheet tool with graphic user interface was designed, incorporating source noise levels and sound propagation calculations. An order-ranked list of noise sources for each station and noise mitigation corrections were applied, resulting in an easy-to-use, versatile tool, capable of predicting rapidly what noise control corrections are needed for each site. The spreadsheet results were validated by comparing the results with noise model predictions for specific locations. Use of this tool increased flexibility and cost-efficiency and it can be easily reconfigured for similar projects.

  8. Educational innovation in formative assessment and participatory methodology: following the introduction of new degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Luisa Santos Pastor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at presenting and analysing the innovation processes implemented during three academic years by a group of teachers from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in the Science Degree in Physical Activity and Sport. The main objective is to provide response to the questions raised on the new ways of teaching, by means of participatory methodologies and formative assessment systems. The stages of the process followed, the actions undertaken for each of them, their outcomes, advantages and drawbacks encountered during their development, as well as the solutions provided for them are presented herein. The focus is on its impact on the improvement of teaching and the usefulness of the results for other similar contexts.

  9. An accelerometry-based methodology for assessment of real-world bilateral upper extremity activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Bailey

    Full Text Available The use of both upper extremities (UE is necessary for the completion of many everyday tasks. Few clinical assessments measure the abilities of the UEs to work together; rather, they assess unilateral function and compare it between affected and unaffected UEs. Furthermore, clinical assessments are unable to measure function that occurs in the real-world, outside the clinic. This study examines the validity of an innovative approach to assess real-world bilateral UE activity using accelerometry.Seventy-four neurologically intact adults completed ten tasks (donning/doffing shoes, grooming, stacking boxes, cutting playdough, folding towels, writing, unilateral sorting, bilateral sorting, unilateral typing, and bilateral typing while wearing accelerometers on both wrists. Two variables, the Bilateral Magnitude and Magnitude Ratio, were derived from accelerometry data to distinguish between high- and low-intensity tasks, and between bilateral and unilateral tasks. Estimated energy expenditure and time spent in simultaneous UE activity for each task were also calculated.The Bilateral Magnitude distinguished between high- and low-intensity tasks, and the Magnitude Ratio distinguished between unilateral and bilateral UE tasks. The Bilateral Magnitude was strongly correlated with estimated energy expenditure (ρ = 0.74, p<0.02, and the Magnitude Ratio was strongly correlated with time spent in simultaneous UE activity (ρ = 0.93, p<0.01 across tasks.These results demonstrate face validity and construct validity of this methodology to quantify bilateral UE activity during the performance of everyday tasks performed in a laboratory setting, and can now be used to assess bilateral UE activity in real-world environments.

  10. Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the “dose rate – effects” relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d−1 for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d−1 for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d−1 for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale “dose rate – effects” and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. - Highlights: ► Comparative analysis of dose rates to biota in different water bodies was performed. ► A numerical scale on the dose rates – effects relationships for fish was formulated. ► Results of assessment of exposure to biota were compared with the dose rates – effects scale. ► In the most contaminated water bodies the doses were high enough to cause radiobiological effects in fish. ► Current dose rates to biota in all considered water bodies are below the safety level of 1 mGy/day.

  11. Safety case methodology for decommissioning of research reactors. Assessment of the long term impact of a flooding scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper contains the assessment methodology of a Safety Case fuel decommissioning of research reactors, taking into account the international approach principles. The paper also includes the assessment of a flooding scenario for a decommissioned research reactor (stage 1 of decommissioning). The scenario presents the flooding of reactor basement, radionuclide migration through environment and long term radiological impact for public. (authors)

  12. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Zabeo, A.; Semenzin, E.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazards has increased, and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade, causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing in frequency as a consequence of many factors, both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in flood-prone area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the undeniable effect of climate change is projected to strongly modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events at the local, regional and global scale. Within this context, the need for developing effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow one to assess and (possibly) to reduce the flood risks that threatens different relevant receptors becomes urgent. Several methodologies to assess the risk posed by water-related natural hazards have been proposed so far, but very few of them can be adopted to implement the last European Flood Directive (FD). This paper is intended to introduce and present a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology to appraise the risk posed by floods from a physical-environmental perspective. The methodology, developed within the recently completed FP7-KULTURisk Project (Knowledge-based approach to develop a cULTUre of Risk prevention - KR) is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. plain rivers, mountain torrents, urban and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from catchment to the urban scale). The FD compliant KR-RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard

  13. Sexual and reproductive health needs assessment with deaf people in Ghana: Methodological challenges and ethical concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisdom K. Mprah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deafness is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. The different ways of perceiving and understanding deafness have practical implications for research with deaf people. Whilst the deaf community is not homogenous, it is generally distinct from the hearing population. Consequently, the appropriateness of applying research methods and informed concern processes designed for the hearing population in research with deaf people has been questioned.Objectives: This article reflected on some methodological challenges and ethical concerns arising from conducting a sexual and reproductive health needs assessment with deaf people in Ghana. The aim was to provide some perspectives on some of the challenges associated with doing research with deaf people.Method: The study was a two phase, sequential, mixed methods design, consisting of three focus groups to assist in the development of a survey and then the implementation of the survey for needs assessment data collection. The number of participants in the study was 179, consisting of 26 focus group participants: 7 executives of the Ghana National Association of the Deaf (GNAD, 10 male adults, and 9 female adults. There were 152 survey respondents (students, women and men and one key informant. All participants, except the key informant, were deaf people.Results: The application of traditional research methods to studies involving deaf participants presents numerous methodological and ethical dilemmas associated mainly with deaf people’s unique cultural and linguistic characteristics.Conclusion: Research methods should not be taken as universal guidelines for conducting research in all settings because of differences in settings.

  14. Methodological Development of the Probabilistic Model of the Safety Assessment of Hontomin P.D.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of CO2 Capture and Geological Storage, Risk Analysis plays an important role, because it is an essential requirement of knowledge to make up local, national and supranational definition and planning of carbon injection strategies. This is because each project is at risk of failure. Even from the early stages, it should take into account the possible causes of this risk and propose corrective methods along the process, i.e., managing risk. Proper risk management reduces the negative consequences arising from the project. The main method of reduction or neutralizing of risk is mainly the identification, measurement and evaluation of it, together with the development of decision rules. This report presents the developed methodology for risk analysis and the results of its application. The risk assessment requires determination of the random variables that will influence the functioning of the system. It is very difficult to set up probability distribution of a random variable in the classical sense (objective probability) when a particular event rarely occurred or even it has a incomplete development. In this situation, we have to determine the subjective probability, especially at an early stage of projects, when we have not enough information about the system. This subjective probability is constructed from assessment of experts judgement to estimate the possibility of certain random events could happen depending on geological features of the area of application. The proposed methodology is based on the application of Bayesian Probabilistic Networks for estimating the probability of risk of leakage. These probabilistic networks can define graphically relations of dependence between the variables and joint probability function through a local factorization of probability functions. (Author) 98 refs.

  15. Assessing Freshwater Ecosystem Service Risk over Ecological, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Gradients: Problem Space Characterization and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, T. C.; Villamizar, S. R.; Conde, D.; Rusak, J.; Reid, B.; Astorga, A.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; London, S.; Velez, M.; Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide are under increasing anthropogenic pressure at local (e.g., irrigation diversions, wastewater discharge) and global scales (e.g., climate change, global trading). The impact depends on an ecosystem's sensitivity, which is determined by its geophysical and ecological settings, and the population and activities in its surrounding watershed. Given the importance of ecosystem services, it is critical that we improve our ability to identify and understand changes in aquatic ecosystems, and translate them to risk of service loss. Furthermore, to inspire changes in human behavior, it is equally critical that we learn to communicate risk, and pose risk mitigation strategies, in a manner acceptable to a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Quantifying the nature and timing of the risk is difficult because (1) we often fail to understand the connection between anthropogenic pressures and the timing and extent of ecosystem changes; and (2) the concept of risk is inherently coupled to human perception, which generally differs with cultural and socio-economic conditions. In this study, we endeavor to assess aquatic ecosystem risks across an international array of six study sites. The challenge is to construct a methodology capable of capturing the marked biogeographical, socioeconomic, and cultural differences among the sites, which include: (1) Muskoka River watershed in humid continental Ontario, Canada; (2) Lower San Joaquin River, an impounded snow-fed river in semi-arid Central California; (3) Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a tropical coastal lagoon in Colombia; (4) Senguer River basin in the semi-arid part of Argentina; (5) Laguna de Rocha watershed in humid subtropical Uruguay; and (6) Palomas Lake complex in oceanic Chilean Patagonia. Results will include a characterization of the experimental gradient over the six sites, an overview of the risk assessment methodology, and preliminary findings for several of the sites.

  16. Using the simulated patient methodology to assess paracetamol-related counselling for headache.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Horvat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Firstly, to assess paracetamol-related counselling. Secondly, to evaluate the patient's approach as a determinant of counselling and to test the acceptability of the simulated patient method in Slovenian pharmacies. METHODS: The simulated patient methodology was used in 17 community pharmacies. Three scenarios related to self-medication for headaches were developed and used in all participating pharmacies. Two scenarios were direct product requests: scenario 1: a patient with an uncomplicated short-term headache; scenario 2: a patient with a severe, long-duration headache who takes paracetamol for too long and concurrently drinks alcohol. Scenario 3 was a symptom-based request: a patient asking for medicine for a headache. Pharmacy visits were audio recorded and scored according to predetermined criteria arranged in two categories: counselling content and manner of counselling. The acceptability of the methodology used was evaluated by surveying the participating pharmacists. RESULTS: The symptom-based request was scored significantly better (a mean 2.17 out of a possible 4 points than the direct product requests (means of 1.64 and 0.67 out of a possible 4 points for scenario 1 and 2, respectively. The most common information provided was dosage and adverse effects. Only the symptom-based request stimulated spontaneous counselling. No statistically significant differences in the duration of the consultation between the scenarios were found. There were also no significant differences in the quality of counselling between the Masters of Pharmacy and Pharmacy Technicians. The acceptability of the SP method was not as high as in other countries. CONCLUSION: The assessment of paracetamol-related counselling demonstrates room for practice improvement.

  17. Application of the Coastal Hazard Wheel methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in the state of Djibouti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrøm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in a changing global climate on the state of Djibouti. The methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is developed for worldwide application and is based on a specially designed...... coastal classification system that incorporates the main static and dynamic parameters determining the characteristics of a coastal environment. The methodology provides information on the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding and can be used...

  18. 78 FR 47677 - DOE Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... parties should consult the full text of the methodology report, however, for convenience the key points of... different sampling plans and research methodologies? Are there ways to encourage owners and developers...

  19. Towards a robust methodology to assess coastal impacts and adaptation policies for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution aims to present preliminary results from efforts towards (i) the development of the integrated risk assessment tool LISCoAsT for Europe (Large scale Integrated Sea-level and Coastal Assessment Tool); (ii) the assessment of coastal risk along the European coastline in view of climate change; and (iii) the development and application of a robust methodology to evaluate adaptation options for the European coastline under climate change scenarios. The overall approach builds on the disaster risk methodology proposed by the IPCC SREX (2012) report, defining risk as the combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Substantial effort has been put in all the individual components of the risk assessment chain, including: (1) the development of dynamic scenarios of catastrophic coastal hazards (e.g., storm surges, sea-level rise) in view of climate change; (2) quantification, mapping and forecasting exposure and vulnerability in coastal areas; (3) carrying out a bottom-up, highly disaggregated assessment of climate impacts on coastal areas in Europe in view of global warming; (4) estimating the costs and assessing the effectiveness of different adaptation options. Projections indicate that, by the end of this century, sea levels in Europe will rise on average between 45 and 70 cm; while projections of coastal hazard showed that for some European regions, the increased storminess can be an additional significant driver of further risk. Projections of increasing extreme storm surge levels (SSL) were even more pronounced under the business-as-usual RCP8.5 concentration pathway, in particular along the Northern Europe coastline. The above are also reflected in the coastal impact projections, which show a significant increase in the expected annual damage (EAD) from coastal flooding. The present EAD for Europe of 800 million €/year is projected to increase up to 2.4 and 3.2 billion €/year by 2040 under RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively, and to 11

  20. Methodology of risk assessment of loss of water resources due to climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israfilov, Yusif; Israfilov, Rauf; Guliyev, Hatam; Afandiyev, Galib

    2016-04-01

    optimization the use of water resources. In this regard, we have developed the methodology of risk assessment including statistical fuzzy analysis of the relationship "probability-consequences", classification of probabilities, the consequences on degree of severity and risk. The current methodology allow providing the possibility of practical use of the obtained results and giving effectual help in the sustainable development and reduction of risk degree of optimal use of water resources of the republic and, as a consequence, the national strategy of economic development.

  1. Methodology for Assessing Daylighting Design Strategies in Classroom with a Climate-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beatriz Piderit Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of daylight in the performance and well-being of the students, an investigation has been carried out in daylit classrooms. The objective was applying a methodology that integrates the daylight variations to know the annual lighting performance in typologies that resulted from passive design strategies in order to compare their performance. The context of the study was three zones of Chile: north, center and south. The study was done through a climate-based daylight modelling method using Radiance software. The interior illuminance was evaluated in relation to a target illuminance value (goal-oriented assessment, for which five intervals are defined: low, too low, in range, high and too high. The aim of the goal-oriented approach is to set a target range of values and assess the percentage of time over the year where each range is reached and the percentage of spaces in a temporal map within in range during the year. To see a compliance or non-compliance indicator, a category is proposed that considers the average annual illuminance “in range” over the year identifying which one is the most efficient. Finally, it is concluded that the information obtained is based on target ranges, which allows guiding the design decisions, effectively recognizing the annual performance.

  2. Neuroimaging assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in concussion: current concepts, methodological considerations and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Ellis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concussion is a form of traumatic brain injury (TBI that presents with a wide spectrum of subjective symptoms and few objective clinical findings. Emerging research suggests that one of the processes that may contribute to concussion pathophysiology is dysregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF leading to a mismatch between CBF delivery and the metabolic needs of the injured brain. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR is defined as the change in CBF in response to a measured vasoactive stimulus. Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques can be used as a surrogate measure of CBF in clinical and laboratory studies. In order to provide an accurate assessment of CVR, these sequences must be combined with a reliable, reproducible vasoactive stimulus that can manipulate CBF. Although CVR imaging currently plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of many cerebrovascular diseases, only recently have studies begun to apply this assessment tool in patients with concussion. In order to evaluate the quality, reliability and relevance of CVR studies in concussion, it is important that clinicians and researchers have a strong foundational understanding of the role of cerebral blood flow regulation in health, concussion and more severe forms of TBI, and an awareness of the advantages and limitations of currently available CVR measurement techniques. Accordingly, in this review we 1 discuss the role of CVR in TBI and concussion; 2 examine methodological considerations for MRI-based measurement of CVR; and 3 provide an overview of published CVR studies in concussion patients.

  3. A methodology to assess water availability for food production under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Zeas, D.; Garrote, L.; Iglesias, A.

    2012-04-01

    In many countries around the world, water demand for agricultural production already exceeds water availability. Such situation imposes a challenge for food production under future climate change conditions and indicates the need for a policy assessment in order to identify adaptation strategies in the water sector. This contribution provides a methodology to compute water availability for irrigation using a GIS-based model, called "Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Assessment" (WAAPA). The model computes the net water availability for consumptive use for a river basin taking into account the regulation capacity of its water supply system and a set of management standards defined through water policy. The model was applied in 567 basins that cover the entire continental territory of Spain to estimate water availability under different climate change projections. The outputs of the PRUDENCE European project provide the information of the climate change scenarios. Two alternatives of management are proposed based on: reducing water allocation for agriculture, in order to obtain satisfactory water supply reliability or maintaining current water allocation for agriculture, but with the probability of reducing supply reliability. The results show equilibrium between water availability and agricultural demand in current conditions in the great majority of the River Basin Districts of Spain, nonetheless under climate change scenarios, the capability to satisfy the water requirements for agricultural production is significantly reduced, so as the management needs are necessary to mitigate the expected impacts to long term.

  4. Problems in Different Measuring and Assessment the Modulus of Deformation Using the Czech and German Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lidmila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative laboratory and in-situ measurements were used to establish the relationships between the static moduli of deformation calculated under the ED methodology and the DB methodology. The measurements proved that the moduli of deformation determined in accordance with the two methodologies cannot be substituted for each other. 

  5. Biota-sediment accumulation factors for radionuclides and sediment associated biota of the Ottawa River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, D.; Silke, R.; Carr, J., E-mail: rowand@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    As Ottawa River contamination is historical and resides in sediment, ecological risk and trophic transfer depend on linkages between sediment and biota. One of the ways in which this linkage is quantified is through the use of the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF). In this study, we present the first field estimates of BSAF for a number of radionuclides. The strongest and most consistent BSAFs were those for {sup 137}Cs in deposit feeding taxa, suggesting that sediment concentrations rather than dissolved concentrations drive uptake. For crayfish and unionid bivalves that do not feed on sediment, biota radionuclide concentrations were not related to sediment concentrations, but rather reflected concentrations in water. BSAFs would not be appropriate for these non-deposit feeding biota. BSAFs for {sup 137}Cs were not significantly different among deposit feeding taxa, suggesting similar processes for ingestion, assimilation and elimination. These data also show that the concentration factor approach used for guidance would have led to spurious results in this study for deposit feeding benthic invertebrates. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in Hexagenia downstream of the CRL process outfall range by about 2-orders of magnitude, in comparison to relatively uniform water concentrations. The concentration factor approach would have predicted a single value downstream of CRL, underestimating exposure to Hexagenia by almost 2-orders of magnitude at sites close to the CRL process outfall. (author)

  6. Scenario Methodology for Modelling of Future Landscape Developments as Basis for Assessing Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rosenberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of our intensively used European landscapes produce a variety of natural goods and services for the benefit of humankind, and secure the basics and quality of life. Because these ecosystems are still undergoing fundamental changes, the interest of the society is to know more about future developments and their ecological impacts. To describe and analyze these changes, scenarios can be developed and an assessment of the ecological changes can be carried out subsequently. In the project „Landscape Saxony 2050“; a methodology for the construction of exploratory scenarios was worked out. The presented methodology provides a possibility to identify the driving forces (socio-cultural, economic and ecological conditions of the landscape development. It allows to indicate possible future paths which lead to a change of structures and processes in the landscape and can influence the capability to provide ecosystem services. One essential component of the applied technique is that an approach for the assessment of the effects of the landscape changes on ecosystem services is integrated into the developed scenario methodology. Another is, that the methodology is strong designed as participatory, i.e. stakeholders are integrated actively. The method is a seven phase model which provides the option for the integration of the stakeholders‘ participation at all levels of scenario development. The scenario framework was applied to the district of Görlitz, an area of 2100 sq km located at the eastern border of Germany. The region is affected by strong demographic as well as economic changes. The core issue focused on the examination of landscape change in terms of biodiversity. Together with stakeholders, a trend scenario and two alternative scenarios were developed. The changes of the landscape structure are represented in story lines, maps and tables. On basis of the driving forces of the issue areas „cultural / social values“ and

  7. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  8. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  9. Environmental impact assessment methodological framework for liquefied natural gas terminal and transport network planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent discovery of significant offshore natural gas reserves in the Aphrodite field, south of the island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea, changes the energy landscape in the greater Mediterranean-Middle East-Caucasian Region. In this paper, different alternative locations for the construction and operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal station in Cyprus were evaluated, explicitly considering also their connection to the power generation station of Mari and the country's gateway. The problem of determining the optimal location for an LNG terminal in Cyprus has been approached using multiple methodological components, which consider environmental and transportation issues, both technocratic in nature, as well as more subjective and based on expert opinion. The first step was a REGIME multi-criteria decision analysis used to prioritize alternative LNG terminal locations. Then, multiple modes (railroad and pipeline) of transportation connections were evaluated and geometric alignments were proposed, considering a multitude of restrictions. Finally an environmental impact assessment based on a structured questionnaire and an expert panel was conducted to validate and assess the impact of the alternative options (combination of location and transportation mode and route). During the evaluation process parameters such as safety, existing infrastructure, and access were also considered. - Highlights: • Determined the optimal location for an LNG terminal in Cyprus. • REGIME multi-criteria analysis used to prioritize alternative LNG terminal locations. • Multiple modes of transportation connections were evaluated and geometric alignments were proposed. • Environmental impact assessment and validation was undertaken based on a structured questionnaire and an expert panel. • Parameters such as safety, existing infrastructure, and access were also considered

  10. Social impact assessment and management methodology using social indicators and planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, M. E.; Curry, M. G.; Greene, M. R.; Melber, B. D.; Merwin, D. J.

    1978-08-01

    The scope of environmental impact statements prepared during the past few years has steadily expanded to incorporate all aspects of the social as well as the natural environment, including demographic, economic, social, political, and cultural conditions. Broadly conceived, social impacts are alterations in people's living conditions that occur in conjunction with a new policy, program, or project, and that (1) are in addition to all other concurrent changes produced by other factors, and (2) are seen by those affected as significant social events. Since any social environment is constantly changing, the crucial problems in analyzing social impacts are to identify those social alterations that are a direct or indirect result of the specific action under examination, apart from all other events and changes, and to determine which of these alterations are having significant social effects on the people involved. Three features of this conception of social impacts are especially noteworthy. First, although impacts are often thought of as undesirable or detrimental in nature, they may also be desirable or beneficial. Second, although impacts are often described as caused by prior intervening innovations, in reality they always interact with their original causes in a reciprocal process, either immediately or after some time lag. Third, the purpose of social impact assessment is to enable policy makers to anticipate and plan for potential impacts before they occur, and then act to prevent or mitigate undesired impacts. A new methodology for performing social impact assessment and management studies that meet current needs by emphasizing standardized social indicators and social planning techniques is proposed. We refer to our approach as the Social Impact and Planning (SIP) method of social impact assessment. (ERB)

  11. Community-wide assessment of protein-interface modeling suggests improvements to design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Sarel J; Whitehead, Timothy A; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Corn, Jacob E; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Mitchell, Julie C; Demerdash, Omar N A; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko; Terashi, Genki; Moal, Iain H; Li, Xiaofan; Bates, Paul A; Zacharias, Martin; Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Jun-su; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok; Bourquard, Thomas; Bernauer, Julie; Poupon, Anne; Azé, Jérôme; Soner, Seren; Ovali, Sefik Kerem; Ozbek, Pemra; Tal, Nir Ben; Haliloglu, Türkan; Hwang, Howook; Vreven, Thom; Pierce, Brian G; Weng, Zhiping; Pérez-Cano, Laura; Pons, Carles; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Jiang, Fan; Yang, Feng; Gong, Xinqi; Cao, Libin; Xu, Xianjin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Panwen; Li, Chunhua; Wang, Cunxin; Robert, Charles H; Guharoy, Mainak; Liu, Shiyong; Huang, Yangyu; Li, Lin; Guo, Dachuan; Chen, Ying; Xiao, Yi; London, Nir; Itzhaki, Zohar; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Inbar, Yuval; Potapov, Vladimir; Cohen, Mati; Schreiber, Gideon; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Kanamori, Eiji; Standley, Daron M; Nakamura, Haruki; Kinoshita, Kengo; Driggers, Camden M; Hall, Robert G; Morgan, Jessica L; Hsu, Victor L; Zhan, Jian; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi; Kastritis, Panagiotis L; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Zhang, Weiyi; Camacho, Carlos J; Kilambi, Krishna P; Sircar, Aroop; Gray, Jeffrey J; Ohue, Masahito; Uchikoga, Nobuyuki; Matsuzaki, Yuri; Ishida, Takashi; Akiyama, Yutaka; Khashan, Raed; Bush, Stephen; Fouches, Denis; Tropsha, Alexander; Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Kihara, Daisuke; Stranges, P Benjamin; Jacak, Ron; Kuhlman, Brian; Huang, Sheng-You; Zou, Xiaoqin; Wodak, Shoshana J; Janin, Joel; Baker, David

    2011-11-25

    The CAPRI (Critical Assessment of Predicted Interactions) and CASP (Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction) experiments have demonstrated the power of community-wide tests of methodology in assessing the current state of the art and spurring progress in the very challenging areas of protein docking and structure prediction. We sought to bring the power of community-wide experiments to bear on a very challenging protein design problem that provides a complementary but equally fundamental test of current understanding of protein-binding thermodynamics. We have generated a number of designed protein-protein interfaces with very favorable computed binding energies but which do not appear to be formed in experiments, suggesting that there may be important physical chemistry missing in the energy calculations. A total of 28 research groups took up the challenge of determining what is missing: we provided structures of 87 designed complexes and 120 naturally occurring complexes and asked participants to identify energetic contributions and/or structural features that distinguish between the two sets. The community found that electrostatics and solvation terms partially distinguish the designs from the natural complexes, largely due to the nonpolar character of the designed interactions. Beyond this polarity difference, the community found that the designed binding surfaces were, on average, structurally less embedded in the designed monomers, suggesting that backbone conformational rigidity at the designed surface is important for realization of the designed function. These results can be used to improve computational design strategies, but there is still much to be learned; for example, one designed complex, which does form in experiments, was classified by all metrics as a nonbinder.

  12. Social impact assessment and management methodology using social indicators and planning strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of environmental impact statements prepared during the past few years has steadily expanded to incorporate all aspects of the social as well as the natural environment, including demographic, economic, social, political, and cultural conditions. Broadly conceived, social impacts are alterations in people's living conditions that occur in conjunction with a new policy, program, or project, and that (1) are in addition to all other concurrent changes produced by other factors, and (2) are seen by those affected as significant social events. Since any social environment is constantly changing, the crucial problems in analyzing social impacts are to identify those social alterations that are a direct or indirect result of the specific action under examination, apart from all other events and changes, and to determine which of these alterations are having significant social effects on the people involved. Three features of this conception of social impacts are especially noteworthy. First, although impacts are often thought of as undesirable or detrimental in nature, they may also be desirable or beneficial. Second, although impacts are often described as caused by prior intervening innovations, in reality they always interact with their original causes in a reciprocal process, either immediately or after some time lag. Third, the purpose of social impact assessment is to enable policy makers to anticipate and plan for potential impacts before they occur, and then act to prevent or mitigate undesired impacts. A new methodology for performing social impact assessment and management studies that meet current needs by emphasizing standardized social indicators and social planning techniques is proposed. We refer to our approach as the Social Impact and Planning (SIP) method of social impact assessment

  13. Environmental risk assessment for transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level wastes: Methodology and database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses a methodology and database for the assessment of environmental risks resulting from transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Discussion covers two situations: normal transportation operations and accident conditions. The methodology described includes the identification of the environmental pathways leading to radioactive exposure of humans and the health risks incurred. Databases include those for the radioactivity inventory, traffic accidents, population distribution, agricultural productivity, and meteorological data. Special situations are discussed for which regional considerations are needed for the risk assessment. 11 refs

  14. [Venous thromboembolism's risk assessment: rationale, objectives, and methodology--the ARTE study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Ana; De Sousa, Joaquim Abreu; Felicíssimo, Paulo; Ferreira, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    ), haemorrhagic events (major and minor haemorrhages) and death at 6 months after discharge. Each patient will be contacted by telephone at 3 and 6 months after discharge, in order to assess the occurrence of thromboembolic and haemorrhagic events, as well as any readmission. This article describes the ARTE study's rationale, objectives, and methodology. PMID:22849949

  15. A status of methodology developments in France for assessing proliferation resistance of nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation will provide an update of methodological developments carried in France to assess proliferation resistance of nuclear systems. In a first part we will give an outlook on the SAPRA approach (SAPRA stands for 'Simplified Approach for Proliferation Resistance Assessment'), developed by AREVA in collaboration with EDF. SAPRA is aiming at providing a simple approach which may be easily implemented to assess and make use of provisions for enhancing Proliferation Resistance (PR) of nuclear systems (that is nuclear reactors and their associated fuel cycles). In the initiatives to develop innovative nuclear energy system (Generation-IV, INPRO), PR is one of the key elements, along with economics, safety, sustainability and environment which has to be addressed. Assessment of proliferation resistance is therefore of timely importance. This method uses the classical concept of barriers. Four categories of barriers are distinguished: material, technical, institutional and specific barriers for the weapon making phase. In the proliferation process (or route), four steps are considered: diversion of materials, transformation, transport and making of the nuclear weapon using either high enriched uranium or plutonium. All steps of the fuel cycle from uranium mining to final disposals of spent fuels or nuclear waste are examined. A scale of value is then defined in order to quantify each of these elementary steps and figures are aggregated to obtain global performance indices for PR and to identify weak points. Various nuclear systems have been analyzed and general conclusions drawn from these results will be presented. This approach offers a first developed framework to derive a practical and effective use of a proven tool to the needs and specificities of proliferation resistance assessment. In a second part, we will describe the current developments undertaken at the CEA to implement the 'multi-attribute' method proposed by the Texas A and M university (W

  16. Performance assessment methodology and preliminary results for low-level radioactive waste disposal in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    disposal system. Final performance assessment analyses will be used in the regulatory process of licensing a site. The SNL/INER team has developed a performance assessment methodology that is used to simulate processes associated with the potential release of radionuclides to evaluate these sites. The following software codes are utilized in the performance assessment methodology: GoldSim (to implement a probabilistic analysis that will explicitly address uncertainties); the NRC's Breach, Leach, and Transport - Multiple Species (BLT-MS) code (to simulate waste-container degradation, waste-form leaching, and transport through the host rock); the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer code (FEHM) (to simulate groundwater flow and estimate flow velocities); the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill performance Model (HELP) code (to evaluate infiltration through the disposal cover); the AMBER code (to evaluate human health exposures); and the NRC's Disposal Unit Source Term -- Multiple Species (DUST-MS) code (to screen applicable radionuclides). Preliminary results of the evaluations of the two disposal concept sites are presented

  17. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-07-13

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  18. Safety Assessment Methodologies and Their Application in Development of Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities--ASAM Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batandjieva, B.; Metcalf, P.

    2003-02-25

    Safety of near surface disposal facilities is a primary focus and objective of stakeholders involved in radioactive waste management of low and intermediate level waste and safety assessment is an important tool contributing to the evaluation and demonstration of the overall safety of these facilities. It plays significant role in different stages of development of these facilities (site characterization, design, operation, closure) and especially for those facilities for which safety assessment has not been performed or safety has not been demonstrated yet and the future has not been decided. Safety assessments also create the basis for the safety arguments presented to nuclear regulators, public and other interested parties in respect of the safety of existing facilities, the measures to upgrade existing facilities and development of new facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a number of research coordinated projects in the field of development and improvement of approaches to safety assessment and methodologies for safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities, such as NSARS (Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) and ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) projects. These projects were very successful and showed that there is a need to promote the consistent application of the safety assessment methodologies and to explore approaches to regulatory review of safety assessments and safety cases in order to make safety related decisions. These objectives have been the basis of the IAEA follow up coordinated research project--ASAM (Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities), which will commence in November 2002 and continue for a period of three years.

  19. Source-water susceptibility assessment in Texas—Approach and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Randy L.; Meyer, John E.; Andren, Robert W.; Newson, Jeremy K.

    2011-01-01

    Public water systems provide potable water for the public's use. The Safe Drinking Water Act amendments of 1996 required States to prepare a source-water susceptibility assessment (SWSA) for each public water system (PWS). States were required to determine the source of water for each PWS, the origin of any contaminant of concern (COC) monitored or to be monitored, and the susceptibility of the public water system to COC exposure, to protect public water supplies from contamination. In Texas, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) was responsible for preparing SWSAs for the more than 6,000 public water systems, representing more than 18,000 surface-water intakes or groundwater wells. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) worked in cooperation with TCEQ to develop the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) approach and methodology. Texas' SWAP meets all requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and ultimately provides the TCEQ with a comprehensive tool for protection of public water systems from contamination by up to 247 individual COCs. TCEQ staff identified both the list of contaminants to be assessed and contaminant threshold values (THR) to be applied. COCs were chosen because they were regulated contaminants, were expected to become regulated contaminants in the near future, or were unregulated but thought to represent long-term health concerns. THRs were based on maximum contaminant levels from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. For reporting purposes, COCs were grouped into seven contaminant groups: inorganic compounds, volatile organic compounds, synthetic organic compounds, radiochemicals, disinfection byproducts, microbial organisms, and physical properties. Expanding on the TCEQ's definition of susceptibility, subject-matter expert working groups formulated the SWSA approach based on assumptions that natural processes and human activities contribute COCs in quantities that vary in space

  20. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, MOSTI, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew [Atomic Energy Licensing Board, MOSTI, 43800 Dengkil, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, Faizal [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  1. Assessing Antioxidant Capacity in Brain Tissue: Methodologies and Limitations in Neuroprotective Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemmer, Jennifer E; Weber, John T

    2014-01-01

    The number of putative neuroprotective compounds with antioxidant activity described in the literature continues to grow. Although these compounds are validated using a variety of in vivo and in vitro techniques, they are often evaluated initially using in vitro cell culture techniques in order to establish toxicity and effective concentrations. Both in vivo and in vitro methodologies have their respective advantages and disadvantages, including, but not limited to, cost, time, use of resources and technical limitations. This review expands on the inherent benefits and drawbacks of in vitro and in vivo methods for assessing neuroprotection, especially in light of proper evaluation of compound efficacy and neural bioavailability. For example, in vivo studies can better evaluate the effects of protective compounds and/or its metabolites on various tissues, including the brain, in the whole animal, whereas in vitro studies can better discern the cellular and/or mechanistic effects of compounds. In particular, we aim to address the question of appropriate and accurate extrapolation of findings from in vitro experiment-where compounds are often directly applied to cellular extracts, potentially at higher concentrations than would ever cross the blood-brain barrier-to the more complex scenario of neuroprotection due to pharmacodynamics in vivo. PMID:26785231

  2. Assessing Antioxidant Capacity in Brain Tissue: Methodologies and Limitations in Neuroprotective Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Slemmer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of putative neuroprotective compounds with antioxidant activity described in the literature continues to grow. Although these compounds are validated using a variety of in vivo and in vitro techniques, they are often evaluated initially using in vitro cell culture techniques in order to establish toxicity and effective concentrations. Both in vivo and in vitro methodologies have their respective advantages and disadvantages, including, but not limited to, cost, time, use of resources and technical limitations. This review expands on the inherent benefits and drawbacks of in vitro and in vivo methods for assessing neuroprotection, especially in light of proper evaluation of compound efficacy and neural bioavailability. For example, in vivo studies can better evaluate the effects of protective compounds and/or its metabolites on various tissues, including the brain, in the whole animal, whereas in vitro studies can better discern the cellular and/or mechanistic effects of compounds. In particular, we aim to address the question of appropriate and accurate extrapolation of findings from in vitro experiment-where compounds are often directly applied to cellular extracts, potentially at higher concentrations than would ever cross the blood-brain barrier—to the more complex scenario of neuroprotection due to pharmacodynamics in vivo.

  3. Methodology and results of the seismic probabilistic safety assessment of Krsko nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seismic IPEEE (individual plant examination for external events) was performed for the Krsko plant. The methodology adopted is the seismic PSA (probabilistic safety assessment). The Krsko NPP is located on a medium to high seismicity site. The PSA study described here includes all the steps in the PSA sequence, i.e. reassessment of site hazard, calculation of plant structures response including soil-structure interaction, seismic plant walkdowns, probabilistic seismic fragility analysis of plant structures and components, and quantification of seismic core damage frequency (CDF). Relay chatter analysis and soil stability studies were also performed. The seismic PSA described here is limited to the analysis of CDF (level 1 PSA). The subsequent determination and quantification of plant damage states, containment behaviour and radioactive releases to the outside (level 2 PSA) have been performed for the Krsko NPP but are not further described in this paper. The results of the seismic PSA study indicates that, with some upgrades suggested by the PSA team, the seismic induced CDF is comparable with most US and Western Europe NPPs located in high seismic areas. (orig.)

  4. A simple methodology to assess the energy and electricity utilization of a country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Giraldi–Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple methodology was developed to assess the efficiency of resource utilization in the energy sector. This was made possible by grouping several variables related to the same general concept into one parameter. Similar at tempts have been made in the case of the Human Development Index created by the United Nations, and in a more elaborate concept related to the Sustainable Development Index developed by the University of Yale and the University of Columbia. A comparison is done, and possible correlations are analyzed between these indexes and that developed in this work. Results show that when one variable has a very favorable value in the energy context of the country, the index is greatly influenced. This can be observed by the fact that the proposed index improves in the case of countries with a surplus of energy resources. Despite the general approach of the developed method, the obtained index can be a first hand tool to evaluate the energy and electricity utilization of a country. This index can be properly integrated with similar indexes to achieve a more precise diagnosis of the situation of the country in question.

  5. Thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparins: an assessment of the methodological quality of studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnelli, Giancarlo; Prandoni, Paolo; Di Minno, Giovanni; Cimminiello, Claudio; Scaglione, Francesco; Boracchi, Patrizia; Molteni, Mauro; Polo Friz, Hernan; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Marano, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) represents the standard of care for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We conducted a review of the evidence supporting the use of the different LMWHs employed in VTE prophylaxis, in different clinical settings, and analyzed its progression over time. To evaluate the standards of methodological quality of studies, we elaborated a quality assessment tool. By electronic databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus databases, 249 articles deemed eligible for the analysis were selected. Several LMWHs did not have publications in all clinical settings. Extended duration of prophylaxis was documented only for a few LMWH. The quality score yielded statistically significant differences between the medians of the four settings (p = 0.0021) with a higher score in major orthopedic surgery (median, 16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15-16) when compared with general surgery (median, 14; 95% CI, 13-14; p < 0.001). Median score for studies published after the year 1990 was higher than for those published earlier (p < 0.001). We conclude that the quality of the studies supporting LMWH for VTE prophylaxis in the different clinical settings is not homogeneous and inferior for studies performed before the year 1990. Clinical interchangeability of LMWHs in clinical practice remains a critical issue, and the selection of a product should be based on evidence available for each agent, and for each clinical indication derived from clinical trials. PMID:25703242

  6. Mortality Attributable to Excess Body Mass Index in Iran: Implementation of the Comparative Risk Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Peykari, Niloofar; Kasaeian, Amir; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita; Mohammadi, Younes; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise worldwide with alarming rates in most of the world countries. Our aim was to compare the mortality of fatal disease attributable to excess body mass index (BMI) in Iran in 2005 and 2011. Methods: Using standards implementation comparative risk assessment methodology, we estimated mortality attributable to excess BMI in Iranian adults of 25–65 years old, at the national and sub-national levels for 9 attributable outcomes including; ischemic heart diseases (IHDs), stroke, hypertensive heart diseases, diabetes mellitus (DM), colon cancer, cancer of the body of the uterus, breast cancer, kidney cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Results: In 2011, in adults of 25–65 years old, at the national level, excess BMI was responsible for 39.5% of total deaths that were attributed to 9 BMI paired outcomes. From them, 55.0% were males. The highest mortality was attributed to IHD (55.7%) which was followed by stroke (19.3%), and DM (12.0%). Based on the population attributed fractions estimations of 2011, except for colon cancer, the remaining 6 common outcomes were higher for women than men. Conclusions: Despite the priority of the problem, there is currently no comprehensive program to prevention or control obesity in Iran. The present results show a growing need to comprehensive implications for national and sub-national health policies and interventional programs in Iran. PMID:26644906

  7. On the major ductile fracture methodologies for failure assessment of nuclear reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In structures like nuclear reactor components there is a special concern with the loads that may occur under postulated accident conditions. These loads can cause the stresses to go well beyond the linear elastic limits, requiring the use of ductile fracture mechanics methods to the prediction of the structure behavior. Since the use of numerical methods to apply EPFM concepts is expensive and time consuming, the existence of analytical engineering procedures are of great relevance. The lack of precision in detail, as compared with numerical nonlinear analyses, is compensated by the possibility of quick failure assessments. This is a determinant factor in situations where a systematic evaluation of a large range of geometries and loading conditions is necessary, like in thr application of the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept on nuclear piping. This paper outlines four ductile fracture analytical methods, pointing out positive and negative aspects of each one. The objective is to take advantage of this critical review to conceive a new methodology, one that would gather strong points of the major existent methods and would try to eliminate some of their drawbacks. (author)

  8. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji

    2014-02-01

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  9. An assessment of some methodological criticisms of studies of RNA efflux from isolated nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S

    1983-09-15

    RNA efflux from isolated nuclei can be studied either as a means of elucidating the general mechanism of nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA transport, or as part of an investigation of the processing and utilization of particular gene transcripts. The present paper describes an assessment of three methodological criticisms of RNA-efflux measurements that are made for the former reason: for such measurements, it is sufficient to show that the post-incubation supernatant RNA is similar overall to homologous cytoplasmic mRNA, rather than to nuclear RNA, that is nevertheless of intranuclear origin, and that alterations to the medium during experiments do not markedly perturb this general nuclear restriction. The results seem to justify the following conclusions. (1) Although degradation of the nuclear RNA occurs during incubation in vitro, this process does not account for the appearance of RNA in the postnuclear supernatant. The degradation can be largely prevented by the addition of serine-proteinase inhibitors without altering the RNA efflux rate. (2) Some adsorption of labelled cytoplasmic RNA to the nuclear surface occurs during both isolation and incubation of the nuclei, and some desorption occurs during incubation. However, these effects introduce errors of less than 10% into the measurements of efflux rates. (3) Exogenous acidic polymers, including polyribonucleotides, disrupt nuclei and increase the apparent RNA efflux rate by causing leakage of nuclear contents. However, this effect can largely be overcome by including the nuclear stabilizers spermidine, Ca2+ and Mn2+ in the medium. In terms of this assessment, it appears that RNA efflux from isolated nuclei in media containing nuclear stabilizers serves as a reasonable model for transport in vivo.

  10. Methodological approaches to assessing the innovativeness level of investment and construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolzhenko Yuliya Aleksandrovna

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the existing approaches to innovations evaluation in international and Russian practice. The authors examine the nature of the concept of “innovation”, especially innovation projects, methodological tools to measure various objects’ innovativeness level as well as innovative project economic efficiency assessing methods. It should be noted that at the legislative level up to date in the process of formation and implementation of capital construction projects there are no eligible requirements and assistance from public authorities to the developer for creating innovative products, providing the appropriate level of services. And if the financial indicators of the project are more or less clear, the level of innovativeness of them is much more complicated, although the requirements on the innovativeness of the projects are included in the Strategy of innovative development of Russia. The analysis shows that in Russian and international practice there are many approaches to assessing innovations, but they cannot be considered universal and they are applied differentially depending on the goals and tasks of applying the results of scientific achievements in the form of intellectual property to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of industries, products, services. In this case individual, specific evaluation method is selected and implemented basing on taking into account all the legal, economic, technical and other aspects. As a result, the author concluded that the innovativeness level rating requires development, which is in its analytical capabilities to provide flexible management tool, which can be applied at all the stages of the investment and construction project life cycle.

  11. Environmental and climate security: improving scenario methodologies for science and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C. M.; Carlsen, H.

    2010-12-01

    Governments and popular discussions have increasingly referred to concepts of ‘climate security’, often with reference to IPCC data. Development of effective methodologies to translate complex, scientific data into risk assessments has lagged, resulting in overly simplistic political assumptions of potential impacts. Climate security scenarios have been developed for use by security and military agencies, but effective engagement by scientific communities requires an improved framework. Effective use of data requires improvement both of climate projections, and the mapping of cascading impacts across interlinked, complex systems. In this research we propose a process for systematic generation of subsets of scenarios (of arbitrary size) from a given set of variables with possible interlinkages. The variables could include climatic changes as well as other global changes of concerns in a security context. In coping with possible challenges associated with the nexus of climate change and security - where deep structural uncertainty and possible irreversible changes are of primary interest - it is important to explore the outer limits of the relevant uncertainties. Therefore the proposed process includes a novel method that will help scenario developers in generating scenario sets where the scenarios are in a quantifiable sense maximally different and therefore best ‘span’ the whole set of scenarios. When downscaled onto a regional level, this process can provide guidance to potentially significant and abrupt geophysical changes, where high uncertainty has often prevented communication of risks. Potential physical changes can then be used as starting points for mapping cascading effects across networks, including topological analysis to identify critically vulnerable nodes and fragile systems, the existence of positive or negative feedback loops, and possible intervention points. Advanced knowledge of both potential geo-physical shifts and related non

  12. Decline of radionuclides in Columbia River biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1971, the last of nine plutonium production reactors using direct discharge of once-through cooling waters into the Columbia River was closed. Sampling was initiated at three stations on the Columbia River to document the decline of the radionuclide body burdens in the biota of the Columbia River ecosystem. The data show that in a river-reservoir complex, the measurable body burden of fission-produced radionuclides decreased to essentially undetectable levels within 18 to 24 mo after cessation of discharge of once-through cooling water into the river. On the basis of data from the free-flowing station, we believe that this decrease would be even more rapid in an unimpounded river

  13. Application of the Coastal Hazard Wheel methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in the state of Djibouti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rosendahl Appelquist

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in a changing global climate on the state of Djibouti. The methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW is developed for worldwide application and is based on a specially designed coastal classification system that incorporates the main static and dynamic parameters determining the characteristics of a coastal environment. The methodology provides information on the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding and can be used to support management decisions at local, regional and national level, in areas with limited access to geophysical data. The assessment for Djibouti applies a geographic information system (GIS to develop a range of national hazard maps along with relevant hazard statistics and is showcasing the procedure for applying the CHW methodology for national hazard assessments. The assessment shows that the coastline of Djibouti is characterized by extensive stretches with high or very high hazards of ecosystem disruption, mainly related to coral reefs and mangrove forests, while large sections along the coastlines of especially northern and southern Djibouti have high hazard levels for gradual inundation. The hazard of salt water intrusion is moderate along most of Djibouti’s coastline, although groundwater availability is considered to be very sensitive to human ground water extraction. High or very high erosion hazards are associated with Djibouti’s sedimentary plains, estuaries and river mouths, while very high flooding hazards are associated with the dry river mouths.

  14. Assessing the economic burden of injuries due to accidents: methodological problems illustrated with some examples from the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); L.M. Bouter (Lex)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides a survey of methodological problems encountered In an assessment of the economic consequences of accidents In The Netherlands. A sound epidemiological basis for such calculations appears to be lacking due to inadequate data-registration systems. We also discuss some s

  15. What Constitutes Adoption of the Web: A Methodological Problem in Assessing Adoption of the World Wide Web for Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas; Abels, Eileen G.; Gordon-Murnane, Laura

    1998-01-01

    Reports on methodological developments in a project to assess the adoption of the Web by publishers of business information for electronic commerce. Describes the approach used on a sample of 20 business publishers to identify five clusters of publishers ranging from traditionalist to innovator. Distinguishes between adopters and nonadopters of…

  16. [The methodological basis of expert assessment of unfavourable outcomes of the stomatological treatment in the framework of civil law proceedings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Murzova, T V; Mirzoev, Kh M

    2011-01-01

    The authors discuss peculiarities of the performance of forensic medical expertise in the cases of unfavourable outcomes of the stomatological treatment. The methodological basis of expert assessment has been created to be applied in situations related to the unfavourable outcomes of dental care.

  17. Development of a quantitative methodology to assess the impacts of urban transport interventions and related noise on well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braubach, M.; Tobollik, M.; Mudu, P.; Hiscock, R.; Chapizanis, D.; Sarigiannis, D.A.; Keuken, M.; Perez, L.; Martuzzi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Well-being impact assessments of urban interventions are a difficult challenge, as there is no agreed methodology and scarce evidence on the relationship between environmental conditions and well-being. The European Union (EU) project “Urban Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China and Europe”

  18. Application of Bayesian network methodology to the probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scenario in a risk analysis can be defined as the propagating feature of specific initiating event which can go to a wide range of undesirable consequences. If one takes various scenarios into consideration, the risk analysis becomes more complex than do without them. A lot of risk analyses have been performed to actually estimate a risk profile under both uncertain future states of hazard sources and undesirable scenarios. Unfortunately, in case of considering some stochastic passive systems such as a radioactive waste disposal facility, since the behaviour of future scenarios is hardly predicted without special reasoning process, we cannot estimate their risk only with a traditional risk analysis methodology. Moreover, it is believed that the sources of uncertainty at future states can be reduced pertinently by setting up dependency relationships interrelating geological, hydrological, and ecological aspects of the site with all the scenarios. It is then required current methodology of uncertainty analysis of the waste disposal facility be revisited under this belief. In order to consider the effects predicting from an evolution of environmental conditions of waste disposal facilities, this study proposes a quantitative assessment framework integrating the inference process of Bayesian network to the traditional probabilistic risk analysis. In this study an approximate probabilistic inference program for the specific Bayesian network developed and verified using a bounded-variance likelihood weighting algorithm. Ultimately, specific models, including a Monte-Carlo model for uncertainty propagation of relevant parameters, were developed with a comparison of variable-specific effects due to the occurrence of diverse altered evolution scenarios (AESs). After providing supporting information to get a variety of quantitative expectations about the dependency relationship between domain variables and AESs, this study could connect the results of probabilistic

  19. ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN BIOTA OF VYRLYTSA LAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Bilyk, Tetiana; Tsurkan, Katerina; Koren, Lyudmila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. The main task was to investigate the pollution by heavy metals of biota of Vyrlytsa Lake. Thecontents of movable forms of heavy metals in aquatic plants, fish and snails was determined by atomicabsorbtion method and were made the conclusions about general state of the water object.Keywords: heavy metals, accumulation, biota, pollution, atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  20. A Miocene perspective on the evolution of the Amazonian biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Salo, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Between c. 23 and 8 Ma, western Amazonia was occupied by the vast Pebas long-lived lake/wetland system. The Pebas system had a variety of influences over the evolution of Miocene and modern Amazonian biota; it formed a barrier for the exchange of terrestrial biota, a pathway for the transition of ma

  1. A Methodology for Equitable Performance Assessment and Presentation of Wave Energy Converters Based on Sea Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Pecher, Arthur; Margheritini, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a methodology for the analysis and presentation of data obtained from sea trials of wave energy converters (WEC). The equitable aspect of this methodology lies in its wide application, as any WEC at any scale or stage of development can be considered as long as the tests are p...

  2. Assessing Campus Climates for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Students: Methodological and Political Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert D.; Gortmaker, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    Methodological and political issues arise during the designing, conducting, and reporting of campus-climate studies for LGBT students. These issues interact; making a decision about a methodological issue (e.g., sample size) has an impact on a political issue (e.g., how well the findings will be received). Ten key questions that must be addressed…

  3. The Health Technology Assessment-disease management instrument reliably measured methodologic quality of health technology assessments of disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, L.M.G.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.; Merode, van G.G.; Severens, J.L.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Systematic reviews aim to summarize the evidence in a particular topic area, giving attention to the identified methodologic quality of published research. Because research in a specific area may be susceptible to specific biases, it is assumed that the methodologic quality of Health Tech

  4. Ecosystem services of soil biota: In what context is a focus on soil biota meaningful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveye, Philippe C.

    2016-04-01

    Over the last few years, the topic of the ecosystem services of soils has attracted considerable attention, in particular among researchers working on soil biota. A direct link is established explicitly in numerous articles between soil biota and specific ecosystem services, or between soil biodiversity and ecosystem services. A careful review of the literature indicates however that these links are, more often than not, strictly axiomatic, rather than based on actual observations. In fact, there are still at the moment virtually no measurements of ecosystem services of soils at any scale, measurements that would be required to establish such links. Furthermore, at a conceptual level, it is not clear to what extent the effect of soil biota in the delivery of ecosystem services can be separated from the contribution of other components of soil systems. Soil microorganisms, in particular, proliferate and are metabolically active in a pore space whose characteristics and dynamics could in principle have a profound effect on their activity. So also could the composition and spatial distribution of soil organic matter, or the spatial pattern of plant root propagation. By emphasizing the role of soil biota, at the exclusion of other aspects of soil systems, there is a risk that important features of the provision of ecosystem services by soils will be missed. In this talk (based in part on a workshop organized recently in France, and of a follow-up review article), an analysis of this general problem will be presented, as well as suggestions of how to avoid it by promoting truly interdisciplinary research involving not only soil ecologists but also physicists, hydrologists, and chemists.

  5. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  6. A Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment Methodology and Its Application to Crescent City, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F. I.; Leveque, R. J.; Waagan, K.; Adams, L.; Lin, G.

    2012-12-01

    A PTHA methodology, based in large part on Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment methods (e.g., Cornell, 1968; SSHAC, 1997; Geist and Parsons, 2005), was previously applied to Seaside, OR (Gonzalez, et al., 2009). This initial version of the method has been updated to include: a revised method to estimate tidal uncertainty; an improved method for generating stochastic realizations to estimate slip distribution uncertainty (Mai and Beroza, 2002; Blair, et al., 2011); additional near-field sources in the Cascadia Subduction Zone, based on the work of Goldfinger, et al. (2012); far-field sources in Japan, based on information updated since the 3 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami (Japan Earthquake Research Committee, 2011). The GeoClaw tsunami model (Berger, et. al, 2011) is used to simulate generation, propagation and inundation. We will discuss this revised PTHA methodology and the results of its application to Crescent City, CA. Berger, M.J., D. L. George, R. J. LeVeque, and K. T. Mandli, The GeoClaw software for depth-averaged flows with adaptive refinement, Adv. Water Res. 34 (2011), pp. 1195-1206. Blair, J.L., McCrory, P.A., Oppenheimer, D.H., and Waldhauser, F. (2011): A Geo-referenced 3D model of the Juan de Fuca Slab and associated seismicity: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 633, v.1.0, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/633/. Cornell, C. A. (1968): Engineering seismic risk analysis, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 58, 1583-1606. Geist, E. L., and T. Parsons (2005): Probabilistic Analysis of Tsunami Hazards, Nat. Hazards, 37 (3), 277-314. Goldfinger, C., Nelson, C.H., Morey, A.E., Johnson, J.E., Patton, J.R., Karabanov, E., Gutiérrez-Pastor, J., Eriksson, A.T., Gràcia, E., Dunhill, G., Enkin, R.J., Dallimore, A., and Vallier, T. (2012): Turbidite event history—Methods and implications for Holocene paleoseismicity of the Cascadia subduction zone: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1661-F, 170 p. (Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1661f/). González, F

  7. Methodology to assess response to stereotactic irradiation in lesions of the brain stem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Magnetic resonance image changes were measured at various time points after patients were treated with stereotactic irradiation to brain lesions in and around the brain stem. Results were correlated with the dose of ionizing radiation given to the same anatomical region. The methodology was developed to assess its utility in predicting brain stem injury and lesion response to high-dose, single-fraction radiation treatments. Materials and Methods: We developed a computerized system for spatially correlating and analyzing changes in T1 weighted, gadolinium enhanced, 3-D magnetic resonance (MR) image sets at multiple time points after treatment with stereotactic brain irradiation. Using this system, we were able to compare post-treatment with pre-treatment images used for computerized treatment planning. The treatment planning image sets contained the dose-volume information for each treatment. The measured quantities included pixel value, size of enhanced region, and dose point value. Twelve patients, having a minimum follow-up after radiosurgery of 6 months and brain lesions of various types, were selected for review: 1 glioma, 4 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, 1 cavernous hemangioma, 1 ependymoma, 1 primitive neuroectodermal tumor, 1 meningioma, and 3 metastases. Patient ages ranged from 3 to 59 years at time of treatment. The prescription doses to the lesions ranged from 12 to 20 Gy. The severity and duration of complications were noted for each. Results: Image intensity changes were measured and correlated with dose on a pixel-by-pixel basis in order to plot the time course of the changes. The estimate of spatial accuracy for locating the dose and voxel of tissue was within 2 mm. The sequelae of radiologic changes to irradiation were mixed. We observed increases as well as decreases in the density of the irradiated region with time after treatment which depended on the patient. One patient had nearly complete disappearance of the enhancing

  8. A Globally Consistent Methodology for an Exposure Model for Natural Catastrophe Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Rashmin; Ishizawa, Oscar; Pandey, Bishwa; Saito, Keiko

    2013-04-01

    There is a high demand for the development of a globally consistent and robust exposure data model employing a top down approach, to be used in national level catastrophic risk profiling for the public sector liability. To this effect, there are currently several initiatives such as UN-ISDR Global Assessment Report (GAR) and Global Exposure Database for Global Earthquake Model (GED4GEM). However, the consistency and granularity differs from region to region, a problem that is overcome in this proposed approach using national datasets for example in Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LCR). The methodology proposed in this paper aim to produce a global open exposure dataset based upon population, country specific building type distribution and other global/economic indicators such as World Bank indices that are suitable for natural catastrophe risk modelling purposes. The output would be a GIS raster grid at approximately 1 km spatial resolution which would highlight urbaness (building typology distribution, occupancy and use) for each cell at sub national level and compatible with other global initiatives and datasets. It would make use of datasets on population, census, demographic, building data and land use/land cover which are largely available in the public domain. The resultant exposure dataset could be used in conjunction with hazard and vulnerability components to create views of risk for multiple hazards that include earthquake, flood and windstorms. The model we hope would also assist in steps towards future initiatives for open, interchangeable and compatible databases for catastrophe risk modelling. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent.

  9. An assessment of The Capacity Drops at The Bottleneck Segments: A review on the existing methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarto Sugiarto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The term of capacity is very useful to quantify the ability of transport facilities in terms of carrying traffic. The capacity of the road is an essential ingredient in the planning, design, and operation of roadways. It is desirable for traffic analyst to be able to predict the time and places where congestion will occur and the volumes to be expected. Most of urbanized areas have been experiencing of traffic congestion problems particularly at urban arterial systems. High traffic demand and limited supply of roadways are always the main factors produced traffic congestion. However, there are other sources of local and temporal congestion, such as uncontrolled access point, median opening and on-street parking activities, which are caused a reduction of roadway capacity during peak operations. Those locations could result in reduction of travel speed and road, as known as hidden bottlenecks. This is bottleneck which is without any changes in geometric of the segments. The Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual (IHCM, 1997 is used to assess urban arterial systems till current days. IHCM provides a static method for examining the capacityand does not systematically take into account of bottleneck activities. However, bottleneck activities create interruption smooth traffic flow along arterial streets, which in turns stimulate related problems, such as, excessive air pollution, additional energy consumption and driver’s frustration due to traffic jammed. This condition could happen simultaneously; mostly repetitive and predictable in same peak hour demands. Therefore, this paper carefully summarize on the existing methodologies considering required data, handled data processing and expected output of each proposed of analysis. We further notice that dynamic approach could be more appropriated for analyzing temporal congestion segments (median opening, on street parking, etc.. Method of oblique cumulative plot seems to be more applicable in terms of

  10. Assessing ecological responses of wolves to wind power plants in Portugal: methodological constrains and conservation implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaras, Francisco; Rio-Maior, Helena; Roque, Sara; Nakamura, Monia; Cadete, Duarte; Pinto, Sara; Petrucci-Fonseca, Francisco

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Wind-power development has substantially increased in the last decade in Portugal and associated structures mostly overlap with wolf range, which raises major conservation concerns as a potential source of disturbance to this endangered carnivore. However, a comprehensive evaluation is greatly hampered by difficulties in studying wolf ecology and current lack of knowledge on the impacts of wind energy development on non-flying animals, especially large mammals. A research program was initiated in 2006, to: i) establish a methodological protocol for assessing impacts and monitoring wolf ecological responses to wind farms; ii) evaluate potential effects of wind farms on wolf space use and reproduction; iii) apply efficient mitigation and compensation measures. Field methods are based on howling and sign surveys, scat quantification through abundance indices and GPS telemetry. Preliminary results demonstrate that: i) road network built for wind-power development lead to a considerable increase in traffic, especially during construction of wind farms; ii) wolves continue to use areas with wind farms; iii) wolf presence tends to decrease with the cumulative number of turbines; iv) spatial responses of wolves to wind farms appear to depend on the number and proximity of turbines to important pack home sites and prey availability; v) wolves abandon or do not regularly use breeding sites located in the proximity of wind turbines; vi) wolves select breeding places at a lower altitude after wind farm construction, as a response to related disturbance in mountain ridges. Wind farms induce important changes in wolf space use, selection of and fidelity to reproduction sites and reproductive success. These behavioural and spatial responses may constrain connectivity within and between pack territories and increase reproductive instability, especially in already highly humanized landscapes as Portugal. Based on these findings, several preventive mitigation measures

  11. An assessment methodology for determining pesticides adsorption on granulated activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélemy J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, water suppliers add granular activated carbon reactor in the drinking water treatment notably in order to remove pesticides residues. In Europe, their concentrations must lie below the values imposed by the EU directives (98/83/EC. Acouple of years ago, some mini-column tests were developed to improve the use of the activated carbon reactor in relation with lab experiments. Modelling, which was elaborated to predict the lifetime of reactors, did not bring validated results. Nevertheless, this kind of experiment allows us to assess the adsorption performances of an activated carbon for different pesticides. Because of the lack of comparable available results, we have eveloped a standardized methodology based on the experiment in mini-column of granular activated carbon. The main experimental conditions are activated carbon: Filtrasorb 400 (Chemviron Carbon; water: mineral and organic reconstituted water (humic acid concentration: 0,5 mg/l; influent concentration 500 g . l -1 ; activated carbon weight: 200 mg; EBCT (Empty Bed Contact Time: 0.16 min.; linear speed: 0.15 m . s -1 . In these conditions, it appears that diuron is highly adsorbed in comparison with other active substances like chloridazon, atrazine or MCPA. From the ratio of effluent volume for the breakthrough point with respect to diuron, it is suggested that products of which the difference factor ratio is – (a below 0.40: may be reckoned as weakly adsorbed (MCPA; (b from 0.41 to 0.80: may be reckoned as moderately adsorbed (chloridazon and atrazine; (c above 0.80: as highly adsorbed on granular activated carbon. Active substances that are weakly adsorbed and have to be removed from drinking water, may highly reduce the lifetime of an activated carbon bed. This kind of information is particularly useful for water suppliers and for regulatory authorities.

  12. Social impacts and life cycle assessment: proposals for methodological development for SMEs in the European food and drink sector

    OpenAIRE

    Barling, D.; J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) account for 99 % of companies operating in the European food and drink industry and, often, are part of highly fragmented and complex food chains. The article focuses on the development of a social impact assessment methodology for SMEs in selected food and drink products as part of the EU-FP7 SENSE research project. The proposed methodology employs a top-down and bottom-up approach and focuses on labour rights/working conditions along the product ...

  13. A comprehensive NMR methodology to assess the composition of biobased and biodegradable polymers in contact with food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, Audrey [Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d' Essais (LNE), Département Chimie et Physico-Chimie des Matériaux, 78197 Trappes Cedex (France); INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 91300 Massy (France); Merlet, Denis [Université Paris-Sud Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d' Orsay, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, Equipe de RMN en Milieu Orienté, Bat. 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Ducruet, Violette [INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 91300 Massy (France); Lyathaud, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.lyathaud@lne.fr [Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d' Essais (LNE), Département Chimie et Physico-Chimie des Matériaux, 78197 Trappes Cedex (France)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodological approach by NMR was developed to assess the safety of food contact materials. • Additives from PLA were rapidly identified by an automatic NMR methodology coupled with dedicated database. • Quantitative NMR (qNMR) allowed to quantify 12 additives in three types of polylactide. • qNMR is as sensitive as chromatographic methods to quantify additives in PLA. - Abstract: A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methodology was assessed regarding the identification and quantification of additives in three types of polylactide (PLA) intended as food contact materials. Additives were identified using the LNE/NMR database which clusters NMR datasets on more than 130 substances authorized by European Regulation No. 10/2011. Of the 12 additives spiked in the three types of PLA pellets, 10 were rapidly identified by the database and correlated with spectral comparison. The levels of the 12 additives were estimated using quantitative NMR combined with graphical computation. A comparison with chromatographic methods tended to prove the sensitivity of NMR by demonstrating an analytical difference of less than 15%. Our results therefore demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed NMR methodology for rapid assessment of the composition of PLA.

  14. Towards an Assessment Methodology to Support Decision Making for Sustainable Electronic Waste Management Systems: Automatic Sorting Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Barletta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of structured methodologies to support stakeholders in accessing the sustainability aspects for e-waste management. Moreover, the increasing volume of electronic waste (e-waste and the availability of automated e-waste treatment solutions demand frequent reconfigurations of facilities for efficient e-waste management. To fill this gap and guide such ongoing developments, this paper proposes a novel methodological framework to enable the assessing, visualizing and comparing of sustainability impacts (economic, environmental and social resulting from changes applied to a facility for e-waste treatment. The methodology encompasses several methods, such as discrete event simulation, life cycle assessment and stakeholder mapping. A newly-developed demonstrator for sorting e-waste is presented to illustrate the application of the framework. Not only did the methodology generate useful information for decision making, but it has also helped identify requirements for further assessing the broader impacts on the social landscape in which e-waste management systems operate. These results differ from those of previous studies, which have lacked a holistic approach to addressing sustainability. Such an approach is important to truly measure the efficacy of sustainable e-waste management. Potential future applications of the framework are envisioned in production systems handling other waste streams, besides electronics.

  15. A Conceptual Methodology for Assessing Acquisition Requirements Robustness against Technology Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shuo-Ju

    2011-12-01

    -makers with the ability to assess or measure the robustness of program requirements against such uncertainties. A literature review of techniques for forecasting technology performance and development uncertainties and subsequent impacts on capability, budget, and schedule requirements resulted in the conclusion that an analysis process that coupled a probabilistic analysis technique such as Monte Carlo Simulations with quantitative and parametric models of technology performance impact and technology development time and cost requirements would allow the probabilities of meeting specific constraints of these requirements to be established. These probabilities of requirements success metrics can then be used as a quantitative and probabilistic measure of program requirements robustness against technology uncertainties. Combined with a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm optimization process and computer-based Decision Support System, critical information regarding requirements robustness against technology uncertainties can be captured and quantified for acquisition decision-makers. This results in a more informed and justifiable selection of program technologies during initial program definition as well as formulation of program development and risk management strategies. To meet the stated research objective, the ENhanced TEchnology Robustness Prediction and RISk Evaluation (ENTERPRISE) methodology was formulated to provide a structured and transparent process for integrating these enabling techniques to provide a probabilistic and quantitative assessment of acquisition program requirements robustness against technology performance and development uncertainties. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the ENTERPRISE method and test the research Hypotheses, an demonstration application of this method was performed on a notional program for acquiring the Carrier-based Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) using Unmanned Combat Aircraft Systems (UCAS) and their enabling

  16. Genesis methodology quantitative risk assessment of innovative technologies in hydraulic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Bekker Aleksandr T.; Zolotov Boris A.; Ljubimov Valeriy S.; Nosovsky Valeriy S.

    2015-01-01

    The historical development of studies to determine the risk of innovative technologies in hydraulic engineering. The proposed methodology for quantitative risk calculation can be used in hydraulic engineering, and serve as a basis for calculating the risk of industrial techniques.

  17. Assessment of ISLOCA risk-methodology and application to a combustion engineering plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISOLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed of description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Combustion Engineering plant.

  18. Assessment of ISLOCA risk-methodology and application to a combustion engineering plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISOLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed of description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Combustion Engineering plant

  19. Definition of a short-cut methodology for assessing the vulnerability of a territory in natural–technological risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural disasters may be powerful and prominent mechanisms of direct or indirect release of hazardous material. The main aim of this work was to develop a short-cut methodology for assessing the vulnerability of a territory around an industrial plant in order to evaluate the Natural–Technological (NaTech) risk. In particular the combined use of a global key hazard indicator with the key vulnerability indicator proposed in this work allows the measurement of the NaTech risk arising from the presence of a plant in a territory with given characteristics. The proposed methodology was validated by comparing its results with quantitative risk analysis (QRA) results, involving earthquake-related NaTech events. The agreement of the results obtained with the proposed methodology with those arising from a much more detailed QRA carried out with the ARIPAR-GIS software in several case study supports the reliability of the proposed approach

  20. Assessment of two small-sized innovative nuclear reactors for electricity generation in Brazil using INPRO methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves Filho, Orlando Joao Agostinho [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: orlando@ien.gov.br; Sefidvash, Farhang [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). DENUC], e-mail: farhang@sefidvash.net

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the main results of the assessment study of two small-sized innovative reactors for electricity generation in Brazil using the methodology developed under the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). INPRO was initiated in 2001 and has the main objective of helping to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in a sustainable manner to the energy needs of the 21st century. Brazil joined the INPRO project since its beginning and in 2005 submitted a proposal for the assessment using INPRO methodology of two small-sized reactors (IRIS - International Reactor Innovative and Secure, and FBNR - Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor) as potential components of an innovative nuclear energy system (INS) completed by a conventional open nuclear fuel cycle based on enriched uranium. The scope of this assessment study was restricted to the reactor component of the INS and to the methodology areas of economics and safety for IRIS, and proliferation resistance and safety for FBNR. The results indicate that both IRIS and FBNR innovative designs comply mostly with the basic principles of the areas assessed and have potential to comply with the remaining ones. (author)

  1. Methods for calculating dose conversion coefficients for terrestrial and aquatic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants and animals may be exposed to ionizing radiation from radionuclides in the environment. This paper describes the underlying data and assumptions to assess doses to biota due to internal and external exposure for a wide range of masses and shapes living in various habitats. A dosimetric module is implemented which is a user-friendly and flexible possibility to assess dose conversion coefficients for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The dose conversion coefficients have been derived for internal and various external exposure scenarios. The dosimetric model is linked to radionuclide decay and emission database, compatible with the ICRP Publication 38, thus providing a capability to compute dose conversion coefficients for any nuclide from the database and its daughter nuclides. The dosimetric module has been integrated into the ERICA Tool, but it can also be used as a stand-alone version

  2. Landslide hazard assessment : LIFE+IMAGINE project methodology and Liguria region use case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Campo, Valentina; Congi, Maria Pia; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Luca; Iadanza, Carla; Leoni, Gabriele; Trigila, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Scope of the work is to present a methodology developed for analysis of potential impacts in areas prone to landslide hazard in the framework of the EC project LIFE+IMAGINE. The project aims to implement a web services-based infrastructure addressed to environmental analysis, that integrates, in its own architecture, specifications and results from INSPIRE, SEIS and GMES. Existing web services has been customized to provide functionalities for supporting environmental integrated management. The implemented infrastructure has been applied to landslide risk scenarios, developed in selected pilot areas, aiming at: i) application of standard procedures to implement a landslide risk analysis; ii) definition of a procedure for assessment of potential environmental impacts, based on a set of indicators to estimate the different exposed elements with their specific vulnerability in the pilot area. The landslide pilot and related scenario are focused at providing a simplified Landslide Risk Assessment (LRA) through: 1) a landslide inventory derived from available historical and recent databases and maps; 2) landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; 3) assessment of exposure and vulnerability on selected typologies of elements at risk; 4) implementation of a landslide risk scenario for different sets of exposed elements 5) development of a use case; 6) definition of guidelines, best practices and production of thematic maps. The LRA has been implemented in Liguria region, Italy, in two different catchment areas located in the Cinque Terre National Park, characterized by a high landslide susceptibility and low resilience. The landslide risk impact analysis has been calibrated taking into account the socio-economic damage caused by landslides triggered by the October 2011 meteorological event. During this event, over 600 landslides were triggered in the selected pilot area. Most of landslides affected the diffuse system of anthropogenic terraces and caused the direct

  3. U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

  4. A novel methodology of internal assessment of uncertainty for three-dimensional neutronics/thermal-hydraulics system codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruzzi, A.; Auria, F. [Pisa Universita, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione, Pisa (Italy); Ivanov, K. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, PA (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The paper stresses how the internal assessment of uncertainty is a desirable capability for thermal-hydraulic system codes. This consists of the possibility of obtaining proper uncertainty bands each time a nuclear plant transient scenario is calculated. A methodology suitable for introducing such a capability into a system code is discussed. At the basis of the derivation of the code with (the capability of) internal assessment of uncertainty (CIAU), there is the uncertainty methodology based on the accuracy extrapolation (UMAE), previously proposed by the University of Pisa, although other uncertainty methodologies can be used for the same purpose. The idea of the CIAU is the identification and the characterization of standard plant statuses and the association of uncertainty to each status. One hypercube and one time interval identify the plant status. Quantity and time uncertainties are combined for each plant status. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 system code has been used inside the CIAU to show the applicability of the proposed method. The derivation of the methodology is discussed, and reference results of pressurized water reactor plant transients are shown bounded by the CIAU calculated uncertainty bands. Recently, a new activity has been started with the aim to extend the CIAU to the 3D neutronics/thermal-hydraulics coupled codes. (authors)

  5. SEQUOIA: a methodology for the socio-economic impact assessment of software-as-a-service and internet of services research projects

    OpenAIRE

    Passani, Antonella; Monacciani, Fabiana; Graaf, Shenja van der; Spagnoli, Francesca; Bellini, Francesco; Debicki, Marie; Dini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    A methodology for the self-assessment of the socio-economic impact of Software-as-a-Service and Internet of Services research projects is presented in the context of EU-funded research. The SEQUOIA methodology was developed by assessing thirty existing projects with their close collaboration. This process was documented to provide a basis for future research projects to apply the methodology on their own. The model and the empirical findings are discussed in detail, focussing on five projects...

  6. Pan-Canadian assessment of pandemic immunization data collection: study methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Christopher A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The collection of individual-level pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza immunization data was considered important to facilitate optimal vaccine delivery and accurate assessment of vaccine coverage. These data are also critical for research aimed at evaluating the new vaccine's safety and effectiveness. Systems used to collect immunization data include manual approaches in which data are collected and retained on paper, electronic systems in which data are captured on computer at the point of vaccination and hybrid systems which are comprised of both computerized and manual data collection components. This study's objective was to compare the efficiencies and perceptions of data collection methods employed during Canada's pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza vaccination campaign. Methods/Design A pan-Canadian observational study was conducted in a convenience sample of public health clinics and healthcare institutions during the H1N1 vaccination campaign in the fall of 2009. The study design consisted of three stages: Stage 1 involved passive observation of the site's layout, processes and client flow; Stage 2 entailed timing site staff on 20 clients through five core immunization tasks: i client registration, ii medical history collection, iii medical history review, iv vaccine administration record keeping and v preparation of proof of vaccine administration for the client; in Stage 3, site staff completed a questionnaire regarding perceived usability of the site's data collection approach. Before the national study began, a pilot study was conducted in three seasonal influenza vaccination sites in Ontario, to both test that the proposed methodology was logistically feasible and to determine inter-rater reliability in the measurements of the research staff. Comparative analyses will be conducted across the range of data collection methods with respect to time required to collect immunization data, number and type of individual-level data

  7. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria eMarbà

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea ranks among the ocean regions warming fastest. There is evidence for impacts of climate change on marine Mediterranean organisms but a quantitative assessment is lacking. We compiled the impacts of warming reported in the literature to provide a quantitative assessment for the Mediterranean Sea. During the last three decades the summer surface temperature has increased 1.15 oC. Strong heat wave events have occurred in years 1994, 2003 and 2009. Impacts of warming are evident on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50 % of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature anomaly ≤ 4.5 ºC and at summer surface temperature of 27.5 ºC. The activation energy (geometric mean 1.58 ± 0.48 eV, the slope of the Arrhenius equation describing the temperature-dependence of biological processes, for the response of Mediterranean marine biota to warming reveals that these responses in the Mediterranean are far steepest than possibly explained by the direct effect of warming alone. The observations are biased toward the northern and western sectors of the basin, likely underestimating the impacts of warming in areas where warming is particularly intense.

  8. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    KAUST Repository

    Marbà, Núria

    2015-08-13

    The Mediterranean Sea ranks among the ocean regions warming fastest. There is evidence for impacts of climate change on marine Mediterranean organisms but a quantitative assessment is lacking. We compiled the impacts of warming reported in the literature to provide a quantitative assessment for the Mediterranean Sea. During the last three decades the summer surface temperature has increased 1.15°C. Strong heat wave events have occurred in years 1994, 2003, and 2009. Impacts of warming are evident on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50% of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature anomaly ≤ 4.5°C and at summer surface temperature of 27.5°C. The activation energy (geometric mean 1.58 ± 0.48 eV), the slope of the Arrhenius equation describing the temperature-dependence of biological processes, for the response of Mediterranean marine biota to warming reveals that these responses in the Mediterranean are far steepest than possibly explained by the direct effect of warming alone. The observations are biased toward the northern and western sectors of the basin, likely underestimating the impacts of warming in areas where warming is particularly intense.

  9. Analysis of methodologies for assessing the employability of Sport graduates in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Miragaia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the methodologies used to monitor and evaluate employability of Portuguese graduated sport students. The consultation of national and international literature was carried to understand the significance of employability concept and its implications for the methodological design used in evaluation reports of employability. Questionnaires applied by official organizations were consulted and the coherence between the dimensions/variables uncovered and the concept of employability was examined. Problems of validity, reliability, discrimination and comparability between studies were identified, which suggests that it is required find new ways to evaluate employability. One possible way consists in the use of the methodology of triangulation (data, researchers that integrates inter-institutional research.

  10. Plant diversity surpasses plant functional groups and plant productivity as driver of soil biota in the long term.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Eisenhauer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the most significant consequences of contemporary global change is the rapid decline of biodiversity in many ecosystems. Knowledge of the consequences of biodiversity loss in terrestrial ecosystems is largely restricted to single ecosystem functions. Impacts of key plant functional groups on soil biota are considered to be more important than those of plant diversity; however, current knowledge mainly relies on short-term experiments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied changes in the impacts of plant diversity and presence of key functional groups on soil biota by investigating the performance of soil microorganisms and soil fauna two, four and six years after the establishment of model grasslands. The results indicate that temporal changes of plant community effects depend on the trophic affiliation of soil animals: plant diversity effects on decomposers only occurred after six years, changed little in herbivores, but occurred in predators after two years. The results suggest that plant diversity, in terms of species and functional group richness, is the most important plant community property affecting soil biota, exceeding the relevance of plant above- and belowground productivity and the presence of key plant functional groups, i.e. grasses and legumes, with the relevance of the latter decreasing in time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Plant diversity effects on biota are not only due to the presence of key plant functional groups or plant productivity highlighting the importance of diverse and high-quality plant derived resources, and supporting the validity of the singular hypothesis for soil biota. Our results demonstrate that in the long term plant diversity essentially drives the performance of soil biota questioning the paradigm that belowground communities are not affected by plant diversity and reinforcing the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem functioning.

  11. The Water Footprint of the Wine Industry: Implementation of an Assessment Methodology and Application to a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Bonamente

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An original methodology for the Water Footprint Assessment (WFA of a Product for the wine-making industry sector is presented, with a particular focus on the evaluation procedure of the grey water. Results obtained with the proposed methodology are also presented for an Italian case study. The product was analyzed using a life-cycle approach, with the aim of studying the water volumes of each phase according to the newly-released ISO 14046 international standard. The functional unit chosen in this study is the common 0.75 liter wine bottle. An in-house software (V.I.V.A. was implemented with the goal of accounting for all the contributions in a cradle-to-grave approach. At this stage, however, minor water volumes associated with some foreground and background processes are not assessed. The evaluation procedure was applied to a case study and green, blue, and grey water volumes were computed. Primary data were collected for a red wine produced by an Umbrian wine-making company. Results are in accordance with global average water footprint values from literature, showing a total WF of 632.2 L/bottle, with the major contribution (98.3% given by green water, and minor contributions (1.2% and 0.5% given by grey and blue water, respectively. A particular effort was dedicated to the definition of an improved methodology for the assessment of the virtual water volume required to dilute the load of pollutants on the environment below some reference level (Grey WF. The improved methodology was elaborated to assure the completeness of the water footprint assessment and to overcome some limitations of the reference approach. As a result, the overall WF can increase up to 3% in the most conservative hypotheses.

  12. Toward assessing subjective quality of service of conversational mobile multimedia applications delivered over the internet: a methodology study

    OpenAIRE

    Dugénie, P; Munro, ATD; Barton, MH

    2002-01-01

    Some recent publications have proposed methodologies to assess the performance of multimedia services in introducing subjective estimate of the end-to-end quality of various applications. As a general statement, in order to obtain meaningful subjective results, the experiments must be repeatable and the elements of the whole chain of transmission between users must be restricted to a minimum number of objective quality metrics. This paper presents the approach to specifying the minimum qualit...

  13. Development of a quantitative methodology to assess the impacts of urban transport interventions and related noise on well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braubach, Matthias; Tobollik, Myriam; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Hiscock, Rosemary; Chapizanis, Dimitris; Sarigiannis, Denis A; Keuken, Menno; Perez, Laura; Martuzzi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Well-being impact assessments of urban interventions are a difficult challenge, as there is no agreed methodology and scarce evidence on the relationship between environmental conditions and well-being. The European Union (EU) project "Urban Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China and Europe" (URGENCHE) explored a methodological approach to assess traffic noise-related well-being impacts of transport interventions in three European cities (Basel, Rotterdam and Thessaloniki) linking modeled traffic noise reduction effects with survey data indicating noise-well-being associations. Local noise models showed a reduction of high traffic noise levels in all cities as a result of different urban interventions. Survey data indicated that perception of high noise levels was associated with lower probability of well-being. Connecting the local noise exposure profiles with the noise-well-being associations suggests that the urban transport interventions may have a marginal but positive effect on population well-being. This paper also provides insight into the methodological challenges of well-being assessments and highlights the range of limitations arising from the current lack of reliable evidence on environmental conditions and well-being. Due to these limitations, the results should be interpreted with caution.

  14. Dinomischus from the Middle Cambrian Kaili Biota, Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jin; ZHAO Yuanlong; LIN Jih-Pai

    2006-01-01

    Dinomischus is a rare solitary epifaunal suspension feeder. The over-all morphology of Dinomischus consists of a conical calyx surrounded with elongate bracts and an elongate stem. Visceral mass and stomach sac are evident in the body cavity. Dinomischus is interpreted as a primative ancestor of living entoprocts based on similarities in morphology and mode of life. Previously,Dinomischus is only known in two localities: the mid-Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale Biota and the Early Cambrian Chengjiang Biota. A single specimen of Dinomischus cf. D. isolatus Cowry Morris,1977 from the Kaili Biota, Guizhou, China is reported here. The discovery of Dinomischus in the Kaili Biota extends its geographical range and indicated that the rare Dinomischus could tolerate deeper water settings during the Middle Cambrian.

  15. An integrated science-based methodology to assess potential risks and implications of engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an urgent need for broad and integrated studies that address the risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) along the different endpoints of the society, environment, and economy (SEE) complex adaptive system. This article presents an integrated science-based methodology ...

  16. Assessment of Preschool Classroom Practices: Application of Q-Sort Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of Q-sort methodology to the development of the Preschool Classroom Practices (PCP) Q-sort. The PCP Q-sort was tested in a sample of 66 preschool teachers and assistants. Results demonstrated the existence of a 2-cluster structure within the Q-sort, comprised of Cognitive Development Activities and…

  17. Methane emission estimation from landfills in Delhi: A comparative assessment of different methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Monojit; Sharma, Chhemendra; Pandey, Jitendra; Singh, Nahar; Gupta, Prabhat K.

    2011-12-01

    Landfills are important anthropogenic sources of methane (CH 4) emission especially in fast urbanizing countries. This paper presents the CH 4 emission estimations carried out using the in-situ CH 4 measurements, IPCC 1996 Default methodology (DM), Modified Triangular Method (MTM) and First Order Decay (FOD) method for the three landfills currently operational in the capital city Delhi of India. The in-situ methodology has yielded the landfills specific methane emission factors (EFs). The annual average methane emission rates from three landfills namely, Ghazipur (GL), Bhalswa (BL) and Okhla (OL) are 14.6, 23.6 & 7.5 Gg y -1 by DM; 13.3, 10.6 & 7.2 Gg y -1 by the FOD; 17.0, 13.7 and 10.7 Gg y -1 by the MTM; and 4.6, 4.2 and 1.4 Gg y -1 by the in-situ measurement method respectively. The CH 4 EFs have been found to be 9.7 ± 2.6, 5.5 ± 1.6 and 5.5 ± 1.7 g kg -1 of waste respectively for the GL, BL and OL landfills in Delhi. The study reveals that in-situ methodology seems to provide better representative emission estimation compared to other methods. The FOD method also yields comparable results with that of in-situ methodology in cases where good waste composition data is available.

  18. A Common Methodology for Risk Assessment and Mapping of Climate Change Related Hazards—Implications for Climate Change Adaptation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papathoma-Köhle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2014, suggests that an important increase in frequency and magnitude of hazardous processes related to climate change is to be expected at the global scale. Consequently, it is necessary to improve the level of preparedness and the level of public awareness, to fill institutional gaps, and to improve territorial planning in order to reduce the potentially disastrous impact of natural hazards related to climate change. This paper mainly presents a new framework for risk assessment and mapping which enables countries with limited data sources to assess their risk to climate change related hazards at the local level, in order to reduce potential costs, to develop risk reduction strategies, to harmonize their preparedness efforts with neighboring countries and to deal with trans-boundary risk. The methodology is based on the European Commission’s “Risk Assessment and Mapping Guidelines for Disaster Management” (2010 and considers local restrictions, such as a lack of documentation of historic disastrous events, spatial and other relevant data, offering alternative options for risk assessment, and the production of risk maps. The methodology is based on event tree analysis. It was developed within the European project SEERISK and adapted for a number of climate change-related hazards including floods, heat waves, wildfires, and storms. Additionally, the framework offers the possibility for risk assessment under different future scenarios. The implications for climate change adaptation policy are discussed.

  19. Adolescent substance-use assessment: methodological issues in the use of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinet, Léonie; Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique; Holzer, Laurent; Halfon, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    During the past twenty years, various instruments have been developed for the assessment of substance use in adolescents, mainly in the United States. However, few of them have been adapted to, and validated in, French-speaking populations. Consequently, although increasing alcohol and drug use among teenagers has become a major concern, the various health and social programs developed in response to this specific problem have received little attention with regard to follow-up and outcome assessment. A standardized multidimensional assessment instrument adapted for adolescents is needed to assess the individual needs of adolescents and assign them to the most appropriate treatment setting, to provide a single measurement within and across health and social systems, and to conduct treatment outcome evaluations. Moreover, having an available instrument makes it possible to develop longitudinal and transcultural research studies. For this reason, a French version of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) was developed and validated at the University Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic in Lausanne, Switzerland. This article aims to discuss the methodological issues that we faced when using the ADAD instrument in a 4-year longitudinal study including adolescent substance users. Methodological aspects relating to the content and format of the instrument, the assessment administration and the statistical analyses are discussed.

  20. An integrated impact assessment and weighting methodology: evaluation of the environmental consequences of computer display technology substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Schoenung, Julie M

    2007-04-01

    Computer display technology is currently in a state of transition, as the traditional technology of cathode ray tubes is being replaced by liquid crystal display flat-panel technology. Technology substitution and process innovation require the evaluation of the trade-offs among environmental impact, cost, and engineering performance attributes. General impact assessment methodologies, decision analysis and management tools, and optimization methods commonly used in engineering cannot efficiently address the issues needed for such evaluation. The conventional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) process often generates results that can be subject to multiple interpretations, although the advantages of the LCA concept and framework obtain wide recognition. In the present work, the LCA concept is integrated with Quality Function Deployment (QFD), a popular industrial quality management tool, which is used as the framework for the development of our integrated model. The problem of weighting is addressed by using pairwise comparison of stakeholder preferences. Thus, this paper presents a new integrated analytical approach, Integrated Industrial Ecology Function Deployment (I2-EFD), to assess the environmental behavior of alternative technologies in correlation with their performance and economic characteristics. Computer display technology is used as the case study to further develop our methodology through the modification and integration of various quality management tools (e.g., process mapping, prioritization matrix) and statistical methods (e.g., multi-attribute analysis, cluster analysis). Life cycle thinking provides the foundation for our methodology, as we utilize a published LCA report, which stopped at the characterization step, as our starting point. Further, we evaluate the validity and feasibility of our methodology by considering uncertainty and conducting sensitivity analysis. PMID:16714079

  1. Value-Based Assessment of New Medical Technologies: Towards a Robust Methodological Framework for the Application of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis in the Context of Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Aris; Kanavos, Panos

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has emerged as a likely alternative to address shortcomings in health technology assessment (HTA) by offering a more holistic perspective to value assessment and acting as an alternative priority setting tool. In this paper, we argue that MCDA needs to subscribe to robust methodological processes related to the selection of objectives, criteria and attributes in order to be meaningful in the context of healthcare decision making and fulfil its role in value-based assessment (VBA). We propose a methodological process, based on multi-attribute value theory (MAVT) methods comprising five distinct phases, outline the stages involved in each phase and discuss their relevance in the HTA process. Importantly, criteria and attributes need to satisfy a set of desired properties, otherwise the outcome of the analysis can produce spurious results and misleading recommendations. Assuming the methodological process we propose is adhered to, the application of MCDA presents three very distinct advantages to decision makers in the context of HTA and VBA: first, it acts as an instrument for eliciting preferences on the performance of alternative options across a wider set of explicit criteria, leading to a more complete assessment of value; second, it allows the elicitation of preferences across the criteria themselves to reflect differences in their relative importance; and, third, the entire process of preference elicitation can be informed by direct stakeholder engagement, and can therefore reflect their own preferences. All features are fully transparent and facilitate decision making.

  2. Value-Based Assessment of New Medical Technologies: Towards a Robust Methodological Framework for the Application of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis in the Context of Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Aris; Kanavos, Panos

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has emerged as a likely alternative to address shortcomings in health technology assessment (HTA) by offering a more holistic perspective to value assessment and acting as an alternative priority setting tool. In this paper, we argue that MCDA needs to subscribe to robust methodological processes related to the selection of objectives, criteria and attributes in order to be meaningful in the context of healthcare decision making and fulfil its role in value-based assessment (VBA). We propose a methodological process, based on multi-attribute value theory (MAVT) methods comprising five distinct phases, outline the stages involved in each phase and discuss their relevance in the HTA process. Importantly, criteria and attributes need to satisfy a set of desired properties, otherwise the outcome of the analysis can produce spurious results and misleading recommendations. Assuming the methodological process we propose is adhered to, the application of MCDA presents three very distinct advantages to decision makers in the context of HTA and VBA: first, it acts as an instrument for eliciting preferences on the performance of alternative options across a wider set of explicit criteria, leading to a more complete assessment of value; second, it allows the elicitation of preferences across the criteria themselves to reflect differences in their relative importance; and, third, the entire process of preference elicitation can be informed by direct stakeholder engagement, and can therefore reflect their own preferences. All features are fully transparent and facilitate decision making. PMID:26739955

  3. Methodology assessment and recommendations for the Mars science laboratory launch safety analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Metzinger, Kurt Evan; Powers, Dana Auburn; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Robinson, David B; Hewson, John C.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Dodson, Brian W.; Potter, Donald L.; Kelly, John E.; MacLean, Heather J.; Bergeron, Kenneth Donald (Sala & Associates); Bessette, Gregory Carl; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2006-09-01

    thousands of possible event sequences and to build up a statistical representation of the releases for each accident case. A code to carry out this process will have to be developed or adapted from previous MMRTG missions. Finally, Level C translates the release (or ''source term'') information from Level B into public risk by applying models for atmospheric transport and the health consequences of exposure to the released plutonium dioxide. A number of candidate codes for this level of analysis are available. This report surveys the range of available codes and tools for each of these levels and makes recommendations for which choices are best for the MSL mission. It also identities areas where improvements to the codes are needed. In some cases a second tier of codes may be identified to provide supporting or clarifying insight about particular issues. The main focus of the methodology assessment is to identify a suite of computational tools that can produce a high quality SAR that can be successfully reviewed by external bodies (such as the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel) on the schedule established by NASA and DOE.

  4. New approaches for the mass spectrometric determination of trace concentrations and congener group patterns of chlorinated paraffins in biota

    OpenAIRE

    Reth, Margot

    2006-01-01

    The determination of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in the environment is important, since CPs are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. However, the analysis of these complex mixtures containing thousands of isomers is also a demanding task. CP analysis and especially the quantification of CPs are far from being well established. In this work, new methodologies were developed for the determination of CPs in biota by low-resolution mass spectrometry (LRMS). The use of expensiv...

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on 'effect of radiation on non-human biota'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety assessment and protection for the radiation exposure were so far mainly based on the radiation effects on human health, because it has been generally recognized that, when human beings are protected, other environmental life, at least in the level of species or groups, will be protected from the radiation hazards, even if individuals may be affected. Recently, with increasing concern on environmental protection, a new framework of radiation protection has been proposed, where non-human biota as well as human beings is included. Researches on the environmental radiation protection need a contribution of multi-disciplinary researchers as similar to the other environmental sciences. Especially, a research field on the biological effect of radiation on non-human biota is fundamental and essential. Therefore, we planned the Workshop entitled Effect of Radiation on the Non-human Biota this time. All the 13 papers presented at the entitled meeting are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Data Assimilation and Dismantling Waste: A Methodology Customised for Radioactive Inventory Assessment Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data assimilation is a versatile methodology which is widely used nowadays for estimating complex system variables. The estimation of a given quantity by data assimilation involves taking into account both the observational data and the underlying physical principles governing the system under observation. Let us consider two assumptions, (1) the observational information consists of radioactivity measurements of numerous samples of graphite (or other material) from known points and (2) the physical principles are those of activation under neutron flux during nuclear power plant operation. With these two assumptions, a data-assimilation-like methodology is ready to be applied to radioactive inventory computation for dismantling graphite (or other material). The paper is written for a planned graphite disposal project in France, for the purposes of its inventory forecasting. It introduces specific concepts for activation laws, presents the beginning of the application to Bugey 1 plant pile and proposes an original method for overall error quantification. (authors)

  7. A correlative imaging based methodology for accurate quantitative assessment of bone formation in additive manufactured implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hua; Todd, Naomi M; Devlin-Mullin, Aine; Poologasundarampillai, Gowsihan; Kim, Taek Bo; Madi, Kamel; Cartmell, Sarah; Mitchell, Christopher A; Jones, Julian R; Lee, Peter D

    2016-06-01

    A correlative imaging methodology was developed to accurately quantify bone formation in the complex lattice structure of additive manufactured implants. Micro computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometry were combined, integrating the best features from both, while demonstrating the limitations of each imaging modality. This semi-automatic methodology registered each modality using a coarse graining technique to speed the registration of 2D histology sections to high resolution 3D μCT datasets. Once registered, histomorphometric qualitative and quantitative bone descriptors were directly correlated to 3D quantitative bone descriptors, such as bone ingrowth and bone contact. The correlative imaging allowed the significant volumetric shrinkage of histology sections to be quantified for the first time (~15 %). This technique demonstrated the importance of location of the histological section, demonstrating that up to a 30 % offset can be introduced. The results were used to quantitatively demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D printed titanium lattice implants.

  8. Assessment of ISLOCA risk: Methodology and application to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant. This document also includes appendices A through I which provide: System descriptions; ISLOCA event trees; human reliability analysis; thermal hydraulic analysis; core uncovery timing calculations; calculation of system rupture probability; ISLOCA consequences analysis; uncertainty analysis; and component failure analysis.

  9. A modelling methodology for assessing the impact of climate variability and climatic change on hydroelectric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new methodology relating basic climatic variables to hydroelectric generation was developed. The methodology can be implemented in large or small basins with any number of hydro plants. The method was applied to the Sacramento, Eel and Russian river basins in northern California where more than 100 hydroelectric plants are located. The final model predicts the availability of hydroelectric generation for the entire basin provided present and near past climate conditions, with about 90% accuracy. The results can be used for water management purposes or for analyzing the effect of climate variability on hydrogeneration availability in the basin. A wide range of results can be obtained depending on the climate change scenario used. (Author)

  10. Onsite disposal of radioactive waste: Methodology for the radiological assessment of disposal by subsurface burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume describes the criteria and technical methodology used by NRC staff to evaluate requests by licensees for approval of onsite disposal by burial in soil. The technical methodology includes the ONSITE/MAXI1 code for calculating radiological exposure from various pathways, the MOCMOD84 code, and analytical methods for calculating contaminant transport and concentration of radionuclides in flowing groundwater. Radiological exposure analyses include the following pathways: (1) exposure to direct gamma from any surface contamination or buried waste; (2) drinking water from a well contaminated by migration of radionuclides; (3) ingesting agricultural products derived from radionuclide-contaminated soil; and (4) inhaling radionuclides resuspended at the burial site. Licensee-proposed disposal activities are evaluated in terms of radiological impact on public health and safety and the environment. The estimated committed effective dose equivalent resulting from the technical evaluation will usually be the determining factor in the authorization of the proposed disposal

  11. Assessment of ISLOCA risk: Methodology and application to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant. This document also includes appendices A through I which provide: System descriptions; ISLOCA event trees; human reliability analysis; thermal hydraulic analysis; core uncovery timing calculations; calculation of system rupture probability; ISLOCA consequences analysis; uncertainty analysis; and component failure analysis

  12. A Methodology to Assess and Evaluate Rainwater Harvesting Techniques in (Semi-) Arid Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Adham; Michel Riksen; Mohamed Ouessar; Coen J Ritsema

    2016-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions around the world face water scarcity problems due to lack of precipitation and unpredictable rainfall patterns. For thousands of years, rainwater harvesting (RWH) techniques have been applied to cope with water scarcity. Researchers have used many different methodologies for determining suitable sites and techniques for RWH. However, limited attention has been given to the evaluation of RWH structure performance. The aim of this research was to design a scientifical...

  13. Assessing Antioxidant Capacity in Brain Tissue: Methodologies and Limitations in Neuroprotective Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Slemmer, Jennifer E.; Weber, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The number of putative neuroprotective compounds with antioxidant activity described in the literature continues to grow. Although these compounds are validated using a variety of in vivo and in vitro techniques, they are often evaluated initially using in vitro cell culture techniques in order to establish toxicity and effective concentrations. Both in vivo and in vitro methodologies have their respective advantages and disadvantages, including, but not limited to, cost, time, use of resour...

  14. On the effect of assessed returnable documents as active methodology in Power Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo Aguilera, Francisco David; Pozo Ruz, Ana; Sotorrío Ruiz, Pedro Juan; Martí Campoy, Antonio; Blázquez Parra, Elidia Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The methodological change caused by the implementation of the new degrees provides a clear opportunity to improve educational practices. This paper describes a teaching tool, named returnable document, to increase student work outside the classroom, motivate the students while raising their awareness about the importance and impact of their work. By using returnable documents teachers manage to strengthen the results of homework and the learning process in a flexible, motivating and ...

  15. Landsvirkjun cost estimating and assessment for small hydropower plants : methodology and basis for estimating cost

    OpenAIRE

    Viðar Helgason

    2011-01-01

    This research is in the field of Project Management and it examines the process leading to the development of a Cost Estimate. The focus of the research is on the application of the tools and techniques that are part of the cost definition process. Consideration is given to what methodology is applied for the development of a Cost Estimate. Purpose – This research aims to document the current status of Project Cost Estimation within Landsvirkjun. The research also documents best practice ...

  16. A Methodological Assessment of Immigrants#180; Settlement Patterns and Housing Typologies in Metropolitan Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Emília Malcata Rebelo

    2013-01-01

    The research reported in this chapter fits into recent international researches on therelevance of immigrants for urban and regional sustainability, and on the relationshipbetween immigrants#180; settlements and socio-economic, territorial and dwellingscharacteristics.An innovative methodology is proposed in order to describe settlement and housingtypologies of different groups of immigrants that live in a certain metropolitan area,according to respective demographic, economic, professional a...

  17. Definition of 1992 Technology Aircraft Noise Levels and the Methodology for Assessing Airplane Noise Impact of Component Noise Reduction Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumasaka, Henry A.; Martinez, Michael M.; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for assessing the impact of component noise reduction on total airplane system noise. The methodology is intended to be applied to the results of individual study elements of the NASA-Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program, which will address the development of noise reduction concepts for specific components. Program progress will be assessed in terms of noise reduction achieved, relative to baseline levels representative of 1992 technology airplane/engine design and performance. In this report, the 1992 technology reference levels are defined for assessment models based on four airplane sizes - an average business jet and three commercial transports: a small twin, a medium sized twin, and a large quad. Study results indicate that component changes defined as program final goals for nacelle treatment and engine/airframe source noise reduction would achieve from 6-7 EPNdB reduction of total airplane noise at FAR 36 Stage 3 noise certification conditions for all of the airplane noise assessment models.

  18. Methodologies of health impact assessment as part of an integrated approach to reduce effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K.; Seip, H.M.

    1995-12-01

    Quantification of average frequencies of health effects on a population level is an essential part of an integrated assessment of pollution effects. Epidemiological studies seem to provide the best basis for such estimates. This paper gives an introduction to a methodology for health impact assessment and also the results from selected parts of a case study in Hungary. This case study is aimed at testing and improving the methodology for integrated assessment and focuses on energy production and consumption and implications for air pollution. Using monitoring data from Budapest, the paper gives estimates of excess frequencies of respiratory illness, mortality and other health end-points. For a number of health end-points, particles probably may serve as a good indicator component. Stochastic simulation is used to illustrate the uncertainties imbedded in the exposure-response function applied. The paper uses the ``bottom up approach`` to find cost-effective abatement strategies against pollution damages, where specific abatement measures such as emission standards for vehicles are explored in detail. It is concluded that in spite of large uncertainties in every step of the analysis, an integrated assessment of costs and benefits of different abatement measures is valuable as it clarifies the main objectives of an abatement policy and explicitly describes the adverse impacts of different activities and their relative importance. 46 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Methodology for Calculating a Complex Index for Assessing the Pressure of Regional Indicators on Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe SĂVOIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the correlations between regional employment in public administration and several major phenomena, starting from the case of Romania’s regions trying to find a territorial statistical solution for measuring the process itself. In this article, especially in its own methodology and methods, the territorial index is estimated as a result of the pressure of other major regional factors, synthesized by specific indicators and indices. The first section describes some conceptual and legal aspects of the regional employment level in public administration and contemporary statistical delimitation of regions in Romania. The second section underlines the originality of the methods and methodology, and the third section defines the three characteristics of the new solutions: the relative temporal, spatial and structural proportionality, the relative trends of an adequate econometric model, and the limits of regional concentration and diversification using the Gini-Struck coefficient in an ABC curve. The analysis of the complexity and impact of the new statistical instruments on regional employment in public administration, its characteristic Romanian limits and the final conclusion show that only an original methodology, some innovative methods and new statistical instruments lead to a better and adequate solution for an optimum level of employment.

  20. Development of a methodology for doss assessment viewing the use of NORM on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for estimating the radiological impact on man of the residues of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) that potentially can be used for the construction of homes and roads. Residues of this type, which are being produced in great quantities by the Brazilian mining industry, are typically deposited in non-appropriated conditions such that they may have a long-time adverse impact on the environment, and hence on man. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the doses resulting from the use of NORM residues, thus allowing a preliminary analysis of the possibility to recycle the residues. The model was used to evaluate the external dose due gamma radiation, the dose to skin caused by beta radiation, and the internal dose due to inhalation of radon and its decay products. The model was verified by comparisons with results of other studies about doses due to gamma and beta radiation from finite and infinite radioactive sources, with relatively good agreement. In order to validate the proposed methodology, a comparison was made against experimental results for a house constructed in accordance with CNEN regulations using building materials containing NORM residues. Comparisons were made of the dose due to gamma radiation and the radon concentration in the internal environment. Finally, the methodology was used also to estimate the dose caused by gamma radiation from a road constructed in the state of Rondonia, Brazil, which made use of another NORM residue. (author)